Science.gov

Sample records for road transportation sector

  1. [EU policy orientations on road accidents prevention and workplace health promotion in the transport sector].

    PubMed

    Isolani, L

    2012-01-01

    In the European Union (EU) transport industry directly employs more than 10 million people, accounting for 4.5% of total employment. Road traffic accidents and road safety are a major public health issue. The Commission of the EU has published policy orientations on road safety to provide a general framework, under which concrete action can be taken at European, national, regional and local levels. Some strategic objectives were identified in order to 1) improve education and training of road users and the quality of the licensing and training system of drivers; 2) make both road infrastructure and vehicles safer. These orientations will translate for the workers of the transport sector in an important initial and periodic training with the aim to improve their health and well-being and to reduce road risk and road accidents, representing a very good example of health promotion.

  2. Continuous Vocational Training in the Road Freight and Passenger Transport Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    Continuous vocational training (CVT) in the road freight and passenger transport sectors in the member states of the European Community (EC) was examined to identify exemplary and significant practices across the EC and determine the extent of the transferability of the identified exemplary training between and among the member states. In all,…

  3. Air pollution and climate change co-benefit opportunities in the road transportation sector in Durban, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thambiran, Tirusha; Diab, Roseanne D.

    2011-05-01

    The contribution of the road transportation sector to emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases is a growing concern in developing countries. Emission control measures implemented within this sector can have varying counteracting influences. In the city of Durban, South Africa, the growing dependence on privately-owned motor vehicles and increasing usage of roads for freight transport have all resulted in significant air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, an emissions inventory was developed for the road transport sector and was used as a basis to explore intervention opportunities that are likely to reduce simultaneously, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in this sector. It was found that reducing the vehicle kilometres travelled by privately-owned motor vehicles and improving the efficiency of road freight transport offered the greatest potential for achieving co-benefits.

  4. Estimating emissions from the Indian transport sector with on-road fleet composition and traffic volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization and rising household incomes in India have led to growing transport demand, particularly during 1990-2010. Emissions from transportation have been implicated in air quality and climate effects. In this work, emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5 or mass concentration of particles smaller than 2.5 um diameter), black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), were estimated from the transport sector in India, using detailed technology divisions and regionally measured emission factors. Modes of transport addressed in this work include road transport, railways, shipping and aviation, but exclude off-road equipment like diesel machinery and tractors. For road transport, a vehicle fleet model was used, with parameters derived from vehicle sales, registration data, and surveyed age-profile. The fraction of extremely high emitting vehicles, or superemitters, which is highly uncertain, was assumed as 20%. Annual vehicle utilization estimates were based on regional surveys and user population. For railways, shipping and aviation, a top-down approach was applied, using nationally reported fuel consumption. Fuel use and emissions from on-road vehicles were disaggregated at the state level, with separate estimates for 30 cities in India. The on-road fleet was dominated by two-wheelers, followed by four-and three-wheelers, with new vehicles comprising the majority of the fleet for each vehicle type. A total of 276 (-156, 270) Gg/y PM2.5, 144 (-99, 207) Gg/y BC, and 95 (-64, 130) Gg/y OC emissions were estimated, with over 97% contribution from on-road transport. Largest emitters were identified as heavy duty diesel vehicles for PM2.5 and BC, but two-stroke vehicles and superemitters for OC. Old vehicles (pre-2005) contributed significantly more (∼70%) emissions, while their share in the vehicle fleet was smaller (∼45%). Emission estimates were sensitive to assumed superemitter fraction. Improvement of emission estimates requires on-road emission factor measurements

  5. High resolution inventory of GHG emissions of the road transport sector in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliafito, Salvador Enrique; Allende, David; Pinto, Sebastián; Castesana, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Air quality models require the use of extensive background information, such as land use and topography maps, meteorological data and emission inventories of pollutant sources. This challenge increases when considering the vehicular sources. The available international databases have uneven resolution for all countries including some areas with low spatial resolution associated with large districts (several hundred km). A simple procedure is proposed in order to develop an inventory of emissions with high resolution (9 km) for the transport sector based on a geographic information system using readily available information applied to Argentina. The basic variable used is the vehicle activity (vehicle - km transported) estimated from fuel consumption and fuel efficiency. This information is distributed to a spatial grid according to a road hierarchy and segment length assigned to each street within the cell. Information on fuel is obtained from district consumption, but weighted using the DMSP-OLS satellite "Earth at night" image. The uncertainty of vehicle estimation and emission calculations was tested using sensitivity Montecarlo analysis. The resulting inventory is calibrated using annual average daily traffic counts in around 850 measuring points all over the country leading to an uncertainty of 20%. Uncertainties in the emissions calculation at pixel level can be estimated to be less than 12%. Comparison with international databases showed a better spatial distribution of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the transport sector, but similar total national values.

  6. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  7. Climate forcing by the on-road transportation and power generation sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Nadine; Shindell, Drew T.; Wang, James S.

    The on-road transportation (ORT) and power generation (PG) sectors are major contributors to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions and a host of short-lived radiatively-active air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone and fine aerosol particles, that exert complex influences on global climate. Effective mitigation of global climate change necessitates action in these sectors for which technology change options exist or are being developed. Most assessments of possible energy change options to date have neglected non-CO 2 air pollutant impacts on radiative forcing (RF). In a multi-pollutant approach, we apply a global atmospheric composition-climate model to quantify the total RF from the global and United States (U.S.) ORT and PG sectors. We assess the RF for 2 time horizons: 20- and 100-year that are relevant for understanding near-term and longer-term impacts of climate change, respectively. ORT is a key target sector to mitigate global climate change because the net non-CO 2 RF is positive and acts to enhance considerably the CO 2 warming impacts. We perform further sensitivity studies to assess the RF impacts of a potential major technology shift that would reduce ORT emissions by 50% with the replacement energy supplied either by a clean zero-emissions source (S1) or by the PG sector, which results in an estimated 20% penalty increase in emissions from this sector (S2). We examine cases where the technology shift is applied globally and in the U.S. only. The resultant RF relative to the present day control is negative (cooling) in all cases for both S1 and S2 scenarios, global and U.S. emissions, and 20- and 100-year time horizons. The net non-CO 2 RF is always important relative to the CO 2 RF and outweighs the CO 2 RF response in the S2 scenario for both time horizons. Assessment of the full impacts of technology and policy strategies designed to mitigate global climate change must consider the climate effects of ozone and fine aerosol particles.

  8. Assessment of the Electrification of the Road Transport Sector on Net System Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James

    As worldwide environmental consciousness grows, electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming more common and despite the incredible potential for emissions reduction, the net emissions of the power system supply side plus the transportation system are dependent on the generation matrix. Current EV charging patterns tend to correspond directly with the peak consumption hours and have the potential to increase demand sharply allowing for only a small penetration of Electric Vehicles. Using the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data a model is created for vehicle travel patterns using trip chaining. Charging schemes are modeled to include uncontrolled residential, uncontrolled residential/industrial charging, optimized charging and optimized charging with vehicle to grid discharging. A charging profile is then determined based upon the assumption that electric vehicles would directly replace a percentage of standard petroleum-fueled vehicles in a known system. Using the generation profile for the specified region, a unit commitment model is created to establish not only the generation dispatch, but also the net CO2 profile for variable EV penetrations and charging profiles. This model is then used to assess the impact of the electrification of the road transport sector on the system net emissions.

  9. The impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    The prospective future adoption of hydrogen to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question whether the adoption would have adverse effects on stratospheric ozone. The possibility of these undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART chemical transport model. Since future growth is highly uncertain we evaluate the impact for two world evolution scenarios, one based on a high emitting scenario (IPCC A1FI) and the other on a low emitting scenario (IPCC B1), as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario the world evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the same world evolution scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall between the above two bounding scenarios. However, the magnitude of these changes is

  10. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    The prospective future adoption of molecular hydrogen (H2) to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question of whether the adoption would have adverse effects on the stratospheric ozone. The possibility of undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on the stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers) model. Since future growth is highly uncertain, we evaluate the impact of two world evolution scenarios, one based on an IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) high-emitting scenario (A1FI) and the other on an IPCC low-emitting scenario (B1), as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the evolution growth scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall

  11. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 1: Tropospheric composition and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    Vehicles burning fossil fuel emit a number of substances that change the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere, and contribute to global air and water pollution and climate change. For example, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion are key precursors to ground-level ozone and aerosol formation. In addition, on-road vehicles are major CO2 emitters. In order to tackle these problems, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been proposed as an energy carrier to substitute for fossil fuels in the future. However, before implementing any such strategy it is crucial to evaluate its potential impacts on air quality and climate. Here, we evaluate the impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on tropospheric chemistry and air quality for several possible growth and technology adoption scenarios. The growth scenarios are based on the high and low emissions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, A1FI and B1, respectively. The technological adoption scenarios include H2 fuel cell and H2 internal combustion engine options. The impacts are evaluated with the Community Atmospheric Model Chemistry global chemistry transport model (CAM-Chem). Higher resolution simulations focusing on the contiguous United States are also carried out with the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) regional chemistry transport model. For all scenarios future air quality improves with the adoption of a H2-based road transportation sector; however, the magnitude and type of improvement depend on the scenario. Model results show that the adoption of H2 fuel cells would decrease tropospheric burdens of ozone (7%), CO (14%), NOx (16%), soot (17%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (12%) in the A1FI scenario, and would decrease those of ozone (5%), CO (4%), NOx (11%), soot (7%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (9%) in the B1 scenario

  12. The impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 1: Tropospheric composition and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    Vehicles burning fossil fuel emit a number of substances that change the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere, and contribute to global air and water pollution and climate change. For example, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion are key precursors to ground-level ozone and aerosol formation. In addition, on-road vehicles are major CO2 emitters. In order to tackle these problems, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been proposed as an energy carrier to substitute for fossil fuel in the future. However, before implementing any such strategy it is crucial to evaluate its potential impacts on air quality and climate. Here we evaluate the impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on tropospheric chemistry and air quality for several possible growth and technology adoption scenarios. The growth scenarios are based on the high and low emissions Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, A1FI and B1, respectively. The technological adoption scenarios include H2 fuel cell and H2 internal combustion engine options. The impacts are evaluated with the Community Atmospheric Model Chemistry global chemistry transport model (CAM-Chem). Higher resolution simulations focusing on the contiguous United States are also carried out with the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) regional chemistry transport model. For all scenarios future air quality improves with the adoption of a H2-based road transportation sector, however, the magnitude and type of improvement depend on the scenario. Model results show that with the adoption of H2 fuel cells decreases tropospheric burdens of ozone (7%), CO (14%), NOx (16%), soot (17%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (12%) in the A1FI scenario, and decreases those of ozone (5%), CO (4%), NOx (11%), soot (7%), sulfate aerosol (4%), and ammonium nitrate aerosol (9 %) in the B1 scenario. The

  13. Emissions of air pollutants from the road transport sector in Greece: year to year variation and present situation.

    PubMed

    Symeonidis, P; Ziomas, I; Proyou, A

    2003-06-01

    It is common knowledge that atmospheric emissions of various pollutants, from mobile and stationary sources, affect quality of life and public health. The impact of these emissions can be of a small (urban smog) or regional scale (acid deposition, troposheric ozone), as a result of the transportation of pollutants in the atmosphere. In terms of a local scale, road traffic is considered to be the most important pollutants source. In the present work, air pollutants emissions from road transport in Greece will be presented. The reference date for the calculations is the year 2000, but additionally, a year-to-year variation (from 1992 to 2000) of the emissions will be examined in order to clarify the impact of the vehicle fleet and the engine technology changes. To calculate emissions, a methodology developed for the European Commission in the framework of the CORINAIR project has been applied. This methodology was further improved and adjusted to the greek fleet characteristics taking into account the vehicle age, the level of the vehicle maintenance etc. Calculations have shown that, despite during the last years the amount of the emitted pollutants per vehicle has significantly decreased, the total pollutants emitted have increased as a result of the increase the number of circulating vehicles. More specifically, in heavy duty vehicles and passenger cars have the most important role for emitting NOx, whilst motorcycles are the most important polluters for non-methene article organic compounds.

  14. Training Guide: Road Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan Page, Ltd., London (England).

    The third in a series of guides to British industrial training, this publication begins with a survey of training issues and tasks confronting the Road Transport Industry Training Board (RTITB). This is followed by information on RTITB policies and provisions; RTITB members, officers, and committees; apprenticeships and other training schemes;…

  15. Drivers' and conductors' views on the causes and ways of preventing workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace violence (WPV) is an occupational health hazard in both low and high income countries. To design WPV prevention programs, prior knowledge and understanding of conditions in the targeted population are essential. This study explores and describes the views of drivers and conductors on the causes of WPV and ways of preventing it in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique. Methods The design was qualitative. Participants were purposefully selected from among transport workers identified as victims of WPV in an earlier quantitative study, and with six or more years of experience in the transport sector. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews. Seven open questions covered individual views on causes of WPV and its prevention, based on the interviewees' experiences of violence while on duty. Thirty-two transport professionals were interviewed. The data were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. Results The triggers and causes of violence included fare evasion, disputes over revenue owing to owners, alcohol abuse, overcrowded vehicles, and unfair competition for passengers. Failures to meet passenger expectations, e.g. by-passing parts of a bus route or missing stops, were also important. There was disrespect on the part of transport workers, e.g. being rude to passengers and jumping of queues at taxi ranks, and there were also robberies. Proposals for prevention included: training for workers on conflict resolution, and for employers on passenger-transport administration; and, promoting learning among passengers and workers on how to behave when traveling collectively. Regarding control and supervision, there were expressed needs for the recording of mileage, and for the sanctioning of workers who transgress queuing rules at taxi ranks. The police or supervisors should prevent drunken passengers from getting into vehicles, and drivers should refuse to go to dangerous, secluded neighborhoods. Finally

  16. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  17. Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

    A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

  18. Climate forcing from the transport sectors

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje; Myhre, Gunnar; Rypdal, Kristin; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt

    2008-01-01

    Although the transport sector is responsible for a large and growing share of global emissions affecting climate, its overall contribution has not been quantified. We provide a comprehensive analysis of radiative forcing from the road transport, shipping, aviation, and rail subsectors, using both past- and forward-looking perspectives. We find that, since preindustrial times, transport has contributed ≈15% and 31% of the total man-made CO2 and O3 forcing, respectively. A forward-looking perspective shows that the current emissions from transport are responsible for ≈16% of the integrated net forcing over 100 years from all current man-made emissions. The dominating contributor to positive forcing (warming) is CO2, followed by tropospheric O3. By subsector, road transport is the largest contributor to warming. The transport sector also exerts cooling through reduced methane lifetime and atmospheric aerosol effects. Shipping causes net cooling, except on future time scales of several centuries. Much of the forcing from transport comes from emissions not covered by the Kyoto Protocol. PMID:18180450

  19. Road Transport Industry Training Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Training International, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Road Transport Industry Training Board has recognized that manpower planning was the key to estimating the industry's training needs. The effective training methods discussed are: management training, Group Training Associations, apprentice training, direct training, and mobile-training service. (Author/BP)

  20. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  1. The road to sustainable transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Jo

    2017-07-01

    Since most modes of transportation rely on liquid energy carriers like gasoline or diesel, the approaching end of the fossil fuel era poses a special challenge. One should bear in mind that nothing matches the energy density of liquid fuels. It is, therefore, important to consider the efficiency of various modes of transportation and explore alternative options for energy carriers. This includes a feasibility study of the use of solar energy in transportation. In this perspective various modes of transportation are briefly reviewed and the possible alternative energy carriers assessed.

  2. Risk management model in road transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  3. Transportation Sector Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model.

  4. Transportation Sector Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model.

  5. On the Road to Transportation Efficiency (Video)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    Reducing emissions and oil consumption are crucial worldwide goals. Reducing transportation emissions, in particular, is key to reducing overall emissions. Electric vehicles driving on electrified roadways could be a significant part of the solution. E-roadways offer a variety of benefits: reduce petroleum consumption (electricity is used instead of gasoline), decrease vehicular operating costs (from about 12 cents per mile to 4 cents per mile), and extend the operational range of electric vehicles. Plus, e-roadway power can come from renewable sources. This animation was sponsored by the Clean Transportation Sector Initiative, and interagency effort between the U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Vapor absorption refrigeration in road transport vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Horuz, I.

    1999-08-01

    This study includes an experimental investigation into the use of vapor absorption refrigeration (VAR) systems in road transport vehicles using the waste heat in the exhaust gases of the main propulsion unit as the energy source. This would provide an alternative to the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system and its associated internal combustion engine. The performance of a VAR system fired by natural gas is compared with that of the same system driven by engine exhaust gases. This showed that the exhaust-gas-driven system produced the same performance characteristics as the gas-fired system. It also suggested that, with careful design, inserting the VAR system generator into the main engine exhaust system need not impair the performance of the vehicle propulsion unit. A comparison of the capital and running costs of the conventional and proposed alternative system is made. Suggestions are also made regarding operation of the VAR system during off-road/slow running conditions.

  7. Global temperature responses to current emissions from the transport sectors

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Terje; Fuglestvedt, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Transport affects climate directly and indirectly through mechanisms that cause both warming and cooling of climate, and the effects operate on very different timescales. We calculate climate responses in terms of global mean temperature and find large differences between the transport sectors with respect to the size and mix of short- and long-lived effects, and even the sign of the temperature response. For year 2000 emissions, road transport has the largest effect on global mean temperature. After 20 and 100 years the response in net temperature is 7 and 6 times higher, respectively, than for aviation. Aviation and shipping have strong but quite uncertain short-lived warming and cooling effects, respectively, that dominate during the first decades after the emissions. For shipping the net cooling during the first 4 decades is due to emissions of SO2 and NOx. On a longer timescale, the current emissions from shipping cause net warming due to the persistence of the CO2 perturbation. If emissions stay constant at 2000 levels, the warming effect from road transport will continue to increase and will be almost 4 times larger than that of aviation by the end of the century. PMID:19047640

  8. Global temperature responses to current emissions from the transport sectors.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Terje; Fuglestvedt, Jan

    2008-12-09

    Transport affects climate directly and indirectly through mechanisms that cause both warming and cooling of climate, and the effects operate on very different timescales. We calculate climate responses in terms of global mean temperature and find large differences between the transport sectors with respect to the size and mix of short- and long-lived effects, and even the sign of the temperature response. For year 2000 emissions, road transport has the largest effect on global mean temperature. After 20 and 100 years the response in net temperature is 7 and 6 times higher, respectively, than for aviation. Aviation and shipping have strong but quite uncertain short-lived warming and cooling effects, respectively, that dominate during the first decades after the emissions. For shipping the net cooling during the first 4 decades is due to emissions of SO(2) and NOx. On a longer timescale, the current emissions from shipping cause net warming due to the persistence of the CO(2) perturbation. If emissions stay constant at 2000 levels, the warming effect from road transport will continue to increase and will be almost 4 times larger than that of aviation by the end of the century.

  9. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  10. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soils, ground water and surface waters. This document describes the requirements for such a laboratory.

  11. How the transport sector drives HIV / AIDS and how HIV/ AIDS drives transport. Economic impact: Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, A

    1998-04-01

    A close connection exists between mobility and the spread of HIV infection. Being away from home and traditional social networks and constraints makes people more likely to have sex partners other than their spouses or regular partners. The transport sector has an important role in facilitating the movement of people. Indeed, improving transport is a developmental goal worldwide, with an efficient transport system seen to be a necessary precondition to economic growth. The role of the transport sector in facilitating the spread of HIV needs to be considered. South Africa has the greatest length of roads, railways, and the most registered vehicles in southern Africa. In 1997, Johannesburg International Airport became Africa's most busy airport. South Africa also has a considerable maritime transport sector. In 1994, an estimated more than 500,000 people were employed in the country's transport sector. The following risk groups must be targeted in order to control the spread of HIV in South Africa: people working in building and maintaining infrastructure; people who work in the railways, roads, airlines, and shipping services; transport sector managers; and passengers.

  12. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  13. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. Remediation of these sites requires extensive sampling to determine the extent of the contamination, to monitor clean-up and remediation progress, and for post-closure monitoring of facilities. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. Such systems would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of clean-up and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping and manpower associated with sample shipments. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  14. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; Malhotra, J.L.; Herman, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes disposed of underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. Remediation of these sites requires extensive sampling to determine the extent of the contamination, to monitor clean-up and remediation progress, and for post-closure monitoring of facilities. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site a full range of analyses meeting high levels of quality assurance and control. Such systems would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of clean-up and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping and manpower associated with sample shipments. The goals of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project are the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system is designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  15. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Delgass, W Nicholas

    2007-03-20

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H(2)CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H(2) and CO(2) recycled from the H(2)-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H(2)CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. (ii) Whereas the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce approximately 30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H(2)CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H(2) storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H(2)CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H(2) in the H(2)CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H(2)CAR is that there is no additional CO(2) release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO(2).

  16. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Delgass, W. Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H2CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H2 and CO2 recycled from the H2-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H2CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. (ii) Whereas the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce ≈30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H2CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H2 storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H2CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H2 in the H2CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H2CAR is that there is no additional CO2 release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO2. PMID:17360377

  17. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, N.R.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Delgass, W.N.

    2007-03-20

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H{sub 2}CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} recycled from the H{sub 2}-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H{sub 2}CAR process. The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. Whereras the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce {approx}30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H{sub 2}CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. The synthesized liquid provides H{sub 2} storage in an open loop system. Reduction to practice of the H{sub 2}CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H{sub 2} in the H{sub 2}CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H{sub 2}CAR is that there is no additional CO{sub 2} release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO{sub 2}.

  18. Global temperature change from the transport sectors: Historical development and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje; Lund, Marianne Tronstad; Myhre, Gunnar; Rypdal, Kristin

    2009-12-01

    Transport affects climate directly and indirectly through mechanisms that operate on very different timescales and cause both warming and cooling. We calculate contributions to the historical development in global mean temperature for the main transport sectors (road transport, aviation, shipping and rail) based on estimates of historical emissions and by applying knowledge about the various forcing mechanisms from detailed studies. We also calculate the development in future global mean temperature for four transport scenarios consistent with the IPCC SRES scenarios, one mitigation scenario and one sensitivity test scenario. There are large differences between the transport sectors in terms of sign and magnitude of temperature effects and with respect to the contributions from the long- and short-lived components. Since pre-industrial times, we calculate that transport in total has contributed 9% of total net man-made warming in the year 2000. The dominating contributor to warming is CO 2, followed by tropospheric O 3. By sector, road transport is the largest contributor; 11% of the warming in 2000 is due to this sector. Likewise, aviation has contributed 4% and rail ˜1%. Shipping, on the other hand, has caused a net cooling up to year 2000, with a contribution of -7%, due to the effects of SO 2 and NO x emissions. The total net contribution from the transport sectors to total man-made warming is ˜15% in 2050, and reaches 20% in 2100 in the A1 and B1 scenarios. For all scenarios and throughout the century, road transport is the dominating contributor to warming. Due to the anticipated reduction in sulphur content of fuels, the net effect of shipping changes from cooling to warming by the end of the century. Significant uncertainties are related to the estimates of historical and future net warming mainly due to cirrus, contrails and aerosol effects, as well as uncertainty in climate sensitivity.

  19. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector Hampton Roads Marine... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads...

  20. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  1. Road transportable analytical laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Remediation of DOE contaminated areas requires extensive sampling and analysis. Reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site a full range of analyses meeting high levels of quality assurance and control, would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of cleanup and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping, and manpower associated with sample shipments. Goals of RTAL are to meet the needs of DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. The system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or together, to meet specific site needs: radioanalytical lab, organic chemical analysis lab, inorganic chemical analysis lab, aquatic biomonitoring lab, field analytical lab, robotics base station, decontamination/sample screening module, and operations control center. Goal of this integrated system is a sample throughput of 20 samples/day, providing a full range of accurate analyses on each sample within 16 h (after sample preparation), compared with the 45- day turnaround time in commercial laboratories. A prototype RTAL consisting of 5 modules was built and demonstrated at Fernald(FEMP)`s OU-1 Waste Pits, during the 1st-3rd quarters of FY96 (including the `96 Blizzard). All performance and operational goals were met or exceeded: as many as 50 sample analyses/day were achieved, depending on the procedure, sample turnaround times were 50-67% less than FEMP`s best times, and RTAL costs were projected to be 30% less than FEMP costs for large volume analyses in fixed laboratories.

  2. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-07-16

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network.

  3. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  4. GHG emissions inventory for on-road transportation in the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) accounts an increase of the total annual anthropogenic GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 that directly came from the transport sector. In 2010, 14% of GHG emissions were released by transport and fossil-fuel-related CO2 emissions reached about 32 GtCO2 per year. The report also considers adaptation and mitigation as complementary strategies for reducing the risks of climate change for sustainable development of urban areas. This paper describes the on-road traffic emission estimated in the framework of a Sardinian regional project [1] for the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy), one of the Sardinian areas where the fuel consumption for on-road transportation purposes is higher [2]. The GHG emissions have been accounted (a) by a calculation-based methodology founded on a linear relationship between source activity and emission, and (b) by the COPERT IV methodology through the EMITRA (EMIssions from road TRAnsport) software tool [3]. Inventory data for annual fossil fuel consumption associated with on-road transportation (diesel, gasoline, gas) have been collected through the Dogane service, the ATP and ARST public transport services and vehicle fleet data are available from the Public Vehicle Database (PRA), using 2010 as baseline year. During this period, the estimated CO2 emissions accounts for more than 180,000 tCO2. The calculation of emissions due to on-road transport quantitatively estimates CO2 and other GHG emissions and represents a useful baseline to identify possible adaptation and mitigation strategies to face the climate change risks at municipal level. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the Sardinian Regional Project "Development, functional checking and setup of an integrated system for the quantification of CO2 net exchange and for the evaluation of mitigation strategies at urban and territorial scale", (Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, No. 7). References [1] Sanna L., Ferrara R., Zara P. & Duce P. (2014

  5. Problems associated with the emissions limitations from road transport in the Lubuskie Province (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzikuć, Maciej; Adamczyk, Janusz; Piwowar, Arkadiusz

    2017-07-01

    According to the report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on the list of 50 cities with the most polluted air in Europe as many as 33 are located in Poland. All the cities that are on the list exceed the maximum concentration of dust recommended by WHO at least three times. In the Lubuskie Province there is a very serious problem of maintaining good air quality. The air in Poland is among the most polluted in the European Union and this also applies to less-industrialized areas, such as Lubuskie, where the concentration levels of substances hazardous to human health and the environment are recorded as exceeded. One of the main factors affecting the poor air quality in the region is road transport. It is not just a problem near roads with heavy traffic, but also applies to the cities, where there is a large movement of cars, which are often old and do not meet current environmental standards. This article aims to identify the main sources of low emission from road transport and identify potential solutions to help reduce emission from this sector. The actions aimed at limiting low emission from road transport can bring a significant positive ecological effect. The aim of this article is to review one of the main sources of low emission in the province of Lubuskie, which is transportation. Moreover, the authors of the paper indicate the main problems associated with the emission coming from road transport and describe the possibilities for opportunities to reduce pollution from this sector. In addition, the article presents the three-scenario simulation of annual emissions from passenger cars that could take place in 2020.

  6. Transportation and utilization of aggregates for road construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fladvad, Marit; Wigum, Børge Johannes; Aurstad, Joralf

    2017-04-01

    Road construction relies on non-renewable aggregate resources as the main construction material. Sources for high-quality aggregate resources are scattered, and requirements for aggregate quality can cause long transport distances between quarry and road construction site. In European countries, the average aggregate consumption per capita is 5 tonnes per year (European Aggregates Association, 2016), while the corresponding figure for Norway is 11 tonnes (Neeb, 2015). Half the Norwegian aggregate production (sand, gravel and crushed rock) is used for road construction. In Norway, aggregate resources have been considered abundant. However, stricter requirement for aggregate quality, and increased concern for sustainability and environmental issues have spurred focus on reduction of transport lengths through better utilization of local aggregate materials. In this research project, information about pavement design and aggregate quality requirements were gathered from a questionnaire sent to selected experts from the World Road Organization (PIARC), European Committee for Standardization (CEN), and Nordic Road Association (NVF). The gathered data was compared to identify differences and similarities for aggregate use in the participating countries. Further, the data was compared to known data from Norway regarding: - amount of aggregates required for a road structure - aggregate transport lengths and related costs A total of 18 countries participated in the survey, represented by either road authorities, research institutions, or contractors. There are large variations in practice for aggregate use among the represented countries, and the selection of countries is sufficient to illustrate a variety in pavement designs, aggregate sizes, and quality requirements for road construction. There are considerable differences in both pavement thickness and aggregate sizes used in the studied countries. Total thicknesses for pavement structures varies from 220 mm to 2400 mm

  7. A REVIEW ON TRAVEL TIME RELIAB ILITY OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Sho-Ichiro

    These days, providing reliable road transportation services is required. The reliability of road transportation can be classified into connectivity reliability, travel time reliability and safety/comfort reliability according to required functions. The trav el time reliability is concerned in this study. The variability of traffic flow and travel time is review ed, and travel time reliability indices proposed in previous studies and their properties are organized. Trav el behavior models with travel time reliability are classified, and the value of travel time reliability is examined based on the estimation results of the models. Then, a method for travel time reliability benefit is proposed. This would be helpful for cost-benefit analysis with reliability or road tr affic management which increases the reliability.

  8. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system: Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; De Avila, J.C.; Keith, V.F.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a portable laboratory system for the analysis of soils, ground water, and surface waters for the detection and quantification of hazardous materials, organics, and radioactive contaminants. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) is a sample throughput of 20 samples per day, providing a full range of analysis on each sample within 16 hours of preparation with high accuracy.

  9. Global scenarios of air pollutant emissions from road transport through to 2050.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Takayuki

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents global scenarios of sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from road transport through to 2050, taking into account the potential impacts of: (1) the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries; (2) global CO(2) mitigation policy implementation; and (3) vehicle cost assumptions, on study results. This is done by using a global energy system model treating the transport sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, as long as non-developed countries adopt the same vehicle emission standards as in developed countries within a 30-year lag, global emissions of SO(2), NO(x), and PM from road vehicles decrease substantially over time. Second, light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty trucks make a large and increasing contribution to future global emissions of SO(2), NO(x), and PM from road vehicles. Third, the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries has a large impact on future global emissions of SO(2), NO(x), and PM from road vehicles, whereas there is a possibility that global CO(2) mitigation policy implementation has a comparatively small impact on them.

  10. Global Scenarios of Air Pollutant Emissions from Road Transport through to 2050

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents global scenarios of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from road transport through to 2050, taking into account the potential impacts of: (1) the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries; (2) global CO2 mitigation policy implementation; and (3) vehicle cost assumptions, on study results. This is done by using a global energy system model treating the transport sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, as long as non-developed countries adopt the same vehicle emission standards as in developed countries within a 30-year lag, global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles decrease substantially over time. Second, light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty trucks make a large and increasing contribution to future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles. Third, the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries has a large impact on future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles, whereas there is a possibility that global CO2 mitigation policy implementation has a comparatively small impact on them. PMID:21845172

  11. Mathematical models of functioning and allocation indicators of road-transport complex resources in the fuel and raw materials region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyvis, V. A.; Novichikhin, A. V.; Temlyantsev, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    A number of features of coal industry functioning was determined for the conditions of Kemerovo region, and the specifics of planning and organization of coal transportation were revealed. The analysis of indicators of motor and railway types of transport in the process of coal transportation was executed. The necessity of improving the tools of coal products transportation in the modern conditions is substantiated. Specific features of functioning of a road-transport complex in the fuel and raw material region (on the example of Kemerovo region) are determined. The modern scientific and applied problems of functioning and allocation of the road-transport complex resources are identified. To justify the management decisions on the development and improvement of road-transport complex a set of indicators are proposed: infrastructural, transportation performance, operating, social and economic. Mathematical models of indicators are recommended for formulation and justification of decisions made during operational and strategic planning of development, evaluation and development of algorithms of functioning and allocation of road-transport sector in Kemerovo region in the future.

  12. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  13. The transport sector as a source of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvile, R. N.; Hutchinson, E. J.; Mindell, J. S.; Warren, R. F.

    Transport first became a significant source of air pollution after the problems of sooty smog from coal combustion had largely been solved in western European and North American cities. Since then, emissions from road, air, rail and water transport have been partly responsible for acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. Most recently, road traffic exhaust emissions have been the cause of much concern about the effects of urban air quality on human health and tropospheric ozone production. This article considers the variety of transport impacts on the atmospheric environment by reviewing three examples: urban road traffic and human health, aircraft emissions and global atmospheric change, and the contribution of sulphur emissions from ships to acid deposition. Each example has associated with it a different level of uncertainty, such that a variety of policy responses to the problems are appropriate, from adaptation through precautionary emissions abatement to cost-benefit analysis and optimised abatement. There is some evidence that the current concern for road transport contribution to urban air pollution is justified, but aircraft emissions should also give cause for concern given that air traffic is projected to continue to increase. Emissions from road traffic are being reduced substantially by the introduction of technology especially three-way catalysts and also, most recently, by local traffic reduction measures especially in western European cities. In developing countries and Eastern Europe, however, there remains the possibility of great increase in car ownership and use, and it remains to be seen whether these countries will adopt measures now to prevent transport-related air pollution problems becoming severe later in the 21st Century.

  14. On the Road to Transportation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-21

    Reducing emissions and oil consumption are crucial worldwide goals. Reducing transportation emissions, in particular, is key to reducing overall emissions. Electric vehicles driving on electrified roadways could be a significant part of the solution. E-roadways offer a variety of benefits: reduce petroleum consumption (electricity is used instead of gasoline), decrease vehicular operating costs (from about 12 cents per mile to 4 cents per mile), and extend the operational range of electric vehicles. Plus, e-roadway power can come from renewable sources.

  15. Global and regional climate impacts of black carbon and co-emitted species from the on-road diesel sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Marianne T.; Berntsen, Terje K.; Heyes, Chris; Klimont, Zbigniew; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel vehicles are a significant source of black carbon (BC) and ozone precursors, which are important contributors to climate warming, degrade air quality and harm human health. Reducing diesel emissions could mitigate near-term climate change with significant co-benefits. This study quantifies the global and regional climate impacts of BC and co-emitted short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) from present-day on-road diesel vehicles, as well as future impacts following a current legislation emission scenario. Atmospheric concentrations are calculated by the chemical transport model OsloCTM2. The following radiative forcing (RF) and equilibrium surface temperature responses are estimated. For year 2010 on-road diesel emissions we estimate a global-mean direct RF from BC of 44 m W/m2 and an equilibrium surface temperature response of 59 mK, including the impact of BC deposition on snow. Accounting for cooling and warming impacts of co-emitted SLCFs results in a net global-mean RF and warming of 28 mW/m2 and 48 mK, respectively. Using the concept of Regional Temperature change Potential (RTP), we find significant geographical differences in the responses to regional emissions. Accounting for the vertical sensitivities of the forcing/response relation amplifies these differences. In terms of individual source regions, emissions in Europe give the largest regional contribution to equilibrium warming caused by year 2010 on-road diesel BC, while Russia is most important for Arctic warming per unit emission. The largest contribution to warming caused by the year 2050 on-road diesel sector is from emissions in South Asia, followed by East Asia and the Middle East. Hence, in regions where current legislation is not sufficient to outweigh the expected growth in activity, accelerated policy implementation is important for further future mitigation.

  16. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  17. Meeting the challenges in the transport sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Jan; Dasinger, Andrew

    This paper provides an industry leader's perspectives on the potential for transportation fuel cells, reviewing their development progress, describing their advantages and barriers, and identifying paths to successful commercial deployment. UTC Power has developed proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for transportation since 1998, building upon applicable innovations from the company's space fuel cell and stationary fuel cell programs. PEM fuel cell durability improvements are discussed, highlighting achievements in the understanding of decay mechanisms and the design of effective mitigations. The potential for high-volume production to make automotive fuel cells cost competitive with internal combustion engines is explained. The paper underscores the important role that initial deployment of PEM technology for transit buses can play, although development of automotive fuel cells must continue in parallel as the hydrogen infrastructure develops. Suggestions are offered on how policies and regulations, communication and education, and improved codes and standards can all help to promote the widespread use of fuel cells in transportation.

  18. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable detail on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). With global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector in the range of 128-171 EJ across the four scenarios, global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of non-methane total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM) in the year 2030. At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two

  19. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable details on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). We project that global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector will be in the range of 3.0-4.0 Gt across the four scenarios in the year 2030. Corresponding global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM). At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two largest contributors to

  20. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable details on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). We project that global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector will be in the range of 3.0-4.0 Gt across the four scenarios in the year 2030. Corresponding global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM). At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two largest contributors to

  1. Energy consumption in road transport: data-collection requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, M.; Bernard, M.J.

    1983-06-03

    Despite recent softening in world oil prices, oil imports continue to represent a serious drain on the foreign-exchange reserves of many countries. As a result, governments throughout the world are pursuing a variety of policies - from increased exploitation of indigenous resources to conservation and other improvements in energy-conversion efficiency - in an effort to reduce their reliance on imported oil. Road transport, representing upwards of 30% of petroleum-product consumption in many countries, represents a logical target for such efforts. However, beyond the gross statistics available from oil company records on fuel sales, oftimes little is known about precisely how this sizeable quantity of fuel is consumed. Without more specific data on the modal composition of road-transport demand, the energy-conversion characteristics of the vehicles serving that demand, the operational features of those vehicles, etc., governments cannot hope to develop the conservation programs so urgently needed. Data on road freight are particularly sparse and, given the developing supply/demand imbalance for middle-distillate fuels, current data gaps may well develop into future supply shortages or cross-subsidization issues. Since the mid-1970s, most of the nations of North and South America have mounted programs to collect data on the energy-consumption characteristics of road transport. This paper reports on one such effort now underway in Jamaica. While certain of the transportation and data-collection issues which influenced methodology selection may be unique to that country, others are common to many countries at similar levels of urbanization, motorization, and income. With appropriate modification to account for distinctive local conditions, the Jamaican data-collection procedure has broad applicability, in whole or in part, to a variety of national and regional contexts.

  2. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Transported Via Road at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In this view looking northwest over the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is seen heading South on Rideout Road near the Redstone Arsenal Fire Station as it is being transported to MSFC's building 4755 for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at MSFC's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  3. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The problem of groundwater contamination at a large number of industrial facilities is well known. Many US Army and Department of Energy (DOE) facilities share this problem of potentially contaminated water as a result of past disposal practices associated with military and energy source development activities. A wide range of contaminants are found at certain installations encompassing industrial pollutants and military-unique materials. The US Army Biomedical Research and Development Laboratory has been conducting research for a number of years on developing better means to determine the hazards associated with exposure to these types of complex mixtures. The methods involve the use of aquatic organisms together with in vitro mutagenicity assays and analytical chemistry in an integrated biological assessment of a specific site. Integrated Biological Assessment is an important development in the Army`s continuing efforts to locate, clean and monitor sites contaminated as a result of military operations. This method provides meaningful hazard data regarding whether a test medium contains low levels of industrial or military-unique contaminants. This is an important advance in determining which sites are clean and which require remediation. It provides continuing monitoring of the effectiveness of remediation operations. Engineering Computer Opteconomics (ECO), Inc. was tasked, in a collaborative Army and DOE effort, to develop a transportable Integrated Biological Assessment Laboratory Complex. This multimodular Complex is designed to be taken into remote areas to provide the necessary long-term on-site research for determining hazards from low levels of contamination in the environment. Each module of the Complex is designed to be self-sufficient, to provide a safe environment for the operators, and a controlled environment for the test organisms and related critical chemical and biological analyses.

  4. Energy conservation and the transportation sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The present status of the energy implications of the transportation systems in the United States was illustrated, with primary emphasis on the technologies and methods for achieving a substantial reduction in the associated energy price (approximately 25% of the nation's energy is consumed directly in the operation of these systems). These technologies may be classified as follows: (1) improvement of system efficiency (system operations or technological), (2) substitution for scarce energy resources (electrification, alternate fuels, use of man power, recycling), (3) curtailment of end use (managed population growth rate, education of citizenry, alternatives to personal transportation, improved urban planning, reduced travel incentives). Examples and illustrations were given. Thirty-four actions were chosen on the basis of a preliminary filtering process with the objective of: (1) demonstrating a methodological approach to arrive at logical and consistent conservation action packages, (2) recommending a viable and supportable specific set of actions.

  5. Energy conservation and the transportation sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The present status of the energy implications of the transportation systems in the United States was illustrated, with primary emphasis on the technologies and methods for achieving a substantial reduction in the associated energy price (approximately 25% of the nation's energy is consumed directly in the operation of these systems). These technologies may be classified as follows: (1) improvement of system efficiency (system operations or technological), (2) substitution for scarce energy resources (electrification, alternate fuels, use of man power, recycling), (3) curtailment of end use (managed population growth rate, education of citizenry, alternatives to personal transportation, improved urban planning, reduced travel incentives). Examples and illustrations were given. Thirty-four actions were chosen on the basis of a preliminary filtering process with the objective of: (1) demonstrating a methodological approach to arrive at logical and consistent conservation action packages, (2) recommending a viable and supportable specific set of actions.

  6. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question.

  7. 76 FR 35273 - CSX Transportation, Inc.; Trackage Rights Exemption; The Indiana Rail Road Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.; Trackage Rights Exemption; The Indiana Rail Road... Indiana Rail Road Company (INRD) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to CSX Transportation, Inc...

  8. The unavoidable challenge: US transportation sector's addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-26

    Driven by two powerful forces, the quest for energy security and the need for cleaner air, the U.S. Department of Energy, various state and local agencies, and business and industry are seeking ways to significantly reduce the dependence on oil as a transportation fuel. This issue of ED features the latest research findings on methanol, compressed natural gas, and electricity, focusing on a just-completed DOE study and report. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of September 7, 1990; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, September 1990 edition. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  10. Impacts of Increased Diesel Penetration in the Transportation Sector, The

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Requested by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Analyzes the impacts on petroleum prices, demand, and refinery operations of a projected increase in demand for diesel fuel stemming from greater penetration of diesel-fueled engines in the light-duty vehicle fleet of the U.S. transportation sector.

  11. [Stress in auto-transportation sector between prejudice and reality].

    PubMed

    Ferranti, A; Spada, S; Mosconi, G

    2009-01-01

    Every year in the EU about 800 drivers die in road accidents. In Italy the average is around 200 deaths per year. Based on this context the Occupational Medicine Department (OMD) of Bergamo Hospital has sponsored a new project dedicated to the healthcare and safety of all employees of road haulage in the province of Bergamo. Furthermore the collaboration between UMD and the Clinical Psychology Department of the hospital has allowed the fulfillment of another project aiming to evaluate the personality profile of around 80 drivers employed in the road haulage sector". The aims of the projects is to identify and to point out dangerous situations of significant psychological vulnerability; to know the current situation and to discriminate stress factors from protective ones; to make companies more aware of prevention activities; to inform the drivers about their companies' policy in order to grant safety in their job. The psychological tools used were: half open interview and Personality Inventory MMPI2. The population was selected randomly from volunteers. Now we know the results in 33 tested drivers. So far seven cases have been classified as psychological vulnerable and stress and protective factors have been identified. Results underline the relevance of an integrated approach able to take care of the employees and involving the companies in the prevention programs.

  12. Modeling the climate impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation over the period 1860-2100 with an AOGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivié, D. J. L.; Cariolle, D.; Teyssèdre, H.; Salas, D.; Voldoire, A.; Clark, H.; Saint-Martin, D.; Michou, M.; Karcher, F.; Balkanski, Y.; Gauss, M.; Dessens, O.; Koffi, B.; Sausen, R.

    2012-02-01

    For the period 1860-2100 (SRES scenario A1B for 2000-2100), the impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation on climate is studied using an Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM). In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from these transport sectors, most of their non-CO2 emissions are also taken into account, i.e. the forcing from ozone, methane, black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, CFC-12 and HFC-134a from air conditioning systems in cars, and contrails. For the year 2000, the CO2 emissions from all sectors together induce a global annual-mean surface air temperature increase of around 0.1 K. In 2100, the CO2 emissions from road transport induce a global mean warming of 0.3 K, while shipping and aviation each contribute 0.1 K. For road transport, the non-CO2 impact is largest between 2000 and 2050 (of the order of 0.1 K) becoming smaller at the end of the 21st century. The non-CO2 impact from shipping is negative, reaching -0.1 K between 2050 and 2100, while for aviation it is positive and its estimate varies between 0 and 0.15 K in 2100. The largest changes in sea-level from thermal expansion in 2000 are 1.6 mm for the CO2 emissions from road transport, and around -3 mm from the non-CO2 effects of shipping. In 2100, sea-level rises by 18 mm due to the CO2 emissions from road transport and by 4.6 mm due to shipping or aviation CO2 emissions. Non-CO2 changes are of the order of 1 mm for road transport, -6.6 mm for shipping, and the estimate for aviation varies between -1.2 and 4.3 mm. When focusing on the geographical distribution, the non-CO2 impact from road transport and shipping on the surface air temperature is only slightly stronger in northern than in southern mid-latitudes, while the impact from aviation can be a factor of 5 stronger in the northern than in the southern hemisphere. Further it is observed that most of the impacts are more pronounced at high latitudes, and that the non-CO2 emissions from aviation strongly

  13. Modeling the climate impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation over the period 1860-2100 with an AOGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivié, D. J. L.; Cariolle, D.; Teyssèdre, H.; Salas, D.; Voldoire, A.; Clark, H.; Saint-Martin, D.; Michou, M.; Karcher, F.; Balkanski, Y.; Gauss, M.; Dessens, O.; Koffi, B.; Sausen, R.

    2011-07-01

    For the period 1860-2100 (SRES scenario A1B for 2000-2100), the impact of road transport, maritime shipping and aviation on climate is studied using an Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM). In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from these transport sectors, most of their non-CO2 emissions are also taken into account, i.e., the forcing from ozone, methane, black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, CFC-12 and HFC-134a from air conditioning systems in cars, and contrails. For the year 2000, the CO2 emissions from all sectors together induce a global annual-mean surface air temperature increase of around 0.1 K. In 2100, the CO2 emissions from road transport induce a global mean warming of 0.3 K, while shipping and aviation each contribute 0.1 K. For road transport, the non-CO2 impact is largest between 2000 and 2050 (of the order of 0.1 K) becoming smaller at the end of the 21st century. The non-CO2 impact from shipping is negative, reaching -0.1 K between 2050 and 2100, while for aviation it is positive and its estimate varies between 0 and 0.15 K in 2100. The largest changes in sea-level from thermal expansion in 2000 are 1.6 mm for the CO2 emissions from road transport, and around -3 mm from the non-CO2 effects of shipping. In 2100, sea-level rises by 18 mm due to the CO2 emissions from road transport and by 4.6 mm due to shipping or aviation CO2 emissions. Non-CO2 changes are of the order of 1 mm for road transport, -6.6 mm for shipping, and the estimate for aviation varies between -1.2 and 4.3 mm. When focusing on the geographical distribution, the non-CO2 impact from road transport and shipping on the surface air temperature is only slightly stronger in northern than in southern mid-latitudes, while the impact from aviation can be a factor of 5 stronger in the northern than in the Southern Hemisphere. Further it is observed that most of the impacts are more pronounced at high latitudes, and that the non-CO2 emissions from aviation strongly

  14. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  15. Optimum design of detector structure for road transport inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Jun, In Sub; Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik

    2008-06-01

    A Nuclear Material Detection System (hereafter "NMDS") is needed to search and detect neutron and/or gamma-ray emitting nuclides such as a dirty bomb during their road transport. However, since it is expected that this material is shielded with high-density material, high detection ability of the detection system is required. In this paper, in order to enhance detection ability of the detection system, we have employed a 3He detector, a NaI detector, and four GM tubes with four different energy cut-off filters. Using Monte Carlo simulation, optimal arrangement of detectors has been determined.

  16. Emerging Climate-data Needs in the Air Transport Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the nature of climate information needed within the air-transport sector. Air transport is not a single economic sector with uniform needs for climate data: airport, airline, and air-navigation services are the principal sub-sectors, each with their own particular climate-related decision contexts. For example, airports function as fixed infrastructure that is primarily affected by probabilities of extreme events that could hamper runway/taxiway operations, interfere with worker availability, or impede travel to and from the airport by passengers. Airlines, in contrast, are more concerned with changes in atmospheric conditions (upper-air turbulence, convective weather events, etc.) that might require consideration in long-term decisions related to flight-planning processes and aircraft equipage. Air-navigation service providers have needs that are primarily concerned with assurance of safe spatial separation of aircraft via sensor data and communications links. In addition to present-day commercial air transport, we discuss what climate data may be needed for new types of air transport that may emerge in the next couple of decades. These include, for example, small aircraft provided on-demand to non-pilot travelers, high-altitude supersonic business and commercial jets, and very large numbers of un-manned aircraft. Finally, we give examples relating to key technical challenges in providing decision-relevant climate data to the air-transport sector. These include: (1) identifying what types of climate data are most relevant the different decisions facing the several segments of this industry; (2) determining decision-appropriate time horizons for forecasts of this data; and (3) coupling the uncertainties inherent in these forecasts to the decision process.

  17. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the transportation sector. However, there are more obstacles to existing estimations of diesel-truck emissions compared with those of cars. The obstacles include both inappropriate methodology and missing basic data in China. According to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance intercity or interprovincial transportation. Thus, the method used by most existing inventories, based on local registration number, is inappropriate. A road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research instead of registration-population-based approach. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected in China. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million tonnes and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million tonnes, respectively, in 2011. The province-based emission inventory is also established using the REIB approach. It was found that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. The largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. A region with more intercity freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with the inventory of the Ministry of Environment Protection, which allocates emissions according to local truck registration number and neglects interregional long-distance transport trips, the differences for NOx and PM2.5 are +28 and -57%, respectively. The REIB approach matches better with traffic statistical data on a provincial level. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the

  18. Road and Roadside Feature Extraction Using Imagery and LIDAR Data for Transportation Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ural, S.; Shan, J.; Romero, M. A.; Tarko, A.

    2015-03-01

    Transportation agencies require up-to-date, reliable, and feasibly acquired information on road geometry and features within proximity to the roads as input for evaluating and prioritizing new or improvement road projects. The information needed for a robust evaluation of road projects includes road centerline, width, and extent together with the average grade, cross-sections, and obstructions near the travelled way. Remote sensing is equipped with a large collection of data and well-established tools for acquiring the information and extracting aforementioned various road features at various levels and scopes. Even with many remote sensing data and methods available for road extraction, transportation operation requires more than the centerlines. Acquiring information that is spatially coherent at the operational level for the entire road system is challenging and needs multiple data sources to be integrated. In the presented study, we established a framework that used data from multiple sources, including one-foot resolution color infrared orthophotos, airborne LiDAR point clouds, and existing spatially non-accurate ancillary road networks. We were able to extract 90.25% of a total of 23.6 miles of road networks together with estimated road width, average grade along the road, and cross sections at specified intervals. Also, we have extracted buildings and vegetation within a predetermined proximity to the extracted road extent. 90.6% of 107 existing buildings were correctly identified with 31% false detection rate.

  19. Molecular road ecology: exploring the potential of genetics for investigating transportation impacts on wildlife.

    PubMed

    Balkenhol, Niko; Waits, Lisette P

    2009-10-01

    Transportation infrastructures such as roads, railroads and canals can have major environmental impacts. Ecological road effects include the destruction and fragmentation of habitat, the interruption of ecological processes and increased erosion and pollution. Growing concern about these ecological road effects has led to the emergence of a new scientific discipline called road ecology. The goal of road ecology is to provide planners with scientific advice on how to avoid, minimize or mitigate negative environmental impacts of transportation. In this review, we explore the potential of molecular genetics to contribute to road ecology. First, we summarize general findings from road ecology and review studies that investigate road effects using genetic data. These studies generally focus only on barrier effects of roads on local genetic diversity and structure and only use a fraction of available molecular approaches. Thus, we propose additional molecular applications that can be used to evaluate road effects across multiple scales and dimensions of the biodiversity hierarchy. Finally, we make recommendations for future research questions and study designs that would advance molecular road ecology. Our review demonstrates that molecular approaches can substantially contribute to road ecology research and that interdisciplinary, long-term collaborations will be particularly important for realizing the full potential of molecular road ecology.

  20. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve... THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.808 Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA Road...

  1. Recent developments of certified reference materials for road transportation.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sippy K; Gupta, Prabhat K; Shukla, Anuradha; Gangopadhyay, S

    2009-09-01

    Chemical measurements often constitute the basis for informed decision-making at different levels in society; sound decision-making is possible only if the quality of the data used is uncompromised. To guarantee the reliability and comparability of analytical data an intricate system of quality-assurance measures has to be put into effect in a laboratory. Reference materials and, in particular, certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential for achieving traceability and comparability of measurement results between laboratories and over time. As in any other domain of analytical chemistry, techniques used to monitor the levels and fate of contaminants in the environment must be calibrated using appropriate calibration materials, and the methods must be properly validated using fit-for purpose matrix-matched CRMs, to ensure confidence in the data produced. A sufficiently large number of matrix CRMs are available for analysis of most elements, and the group of chemicals known as persistent organic pollutants, in environmental compartments and biota. The wide variety of analyte/level/matrix/matrix property combinations available from several suppliers enables analysts to select CRMs which sufficiently match the properties of the samples they analyse routinely. Certified reference materials are playing an increasing role in the monitoring of environmental pollution. This paper is an attempt for describing the recent development of certified reference materials for road transportation, which mainly covers the combustion of fossil fuel, road side dust etc.

  2. Understanding and Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health and Transportation Goals.

    PubMed

    McAndrews, Carolyn; Pollack, Keshia M; Berrigan, David; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Christopher, Ed J

    2017-08-01

    Arterials are types of roads designed to carry high volumes of motorized traffic. They are an integral part of transportation systems worldwide and exposure to them is ubiquitous, especially in urban areas. Arterials provide access to diverse commercial and cultural resources, which can positively influence community health by supporting social cohesion as well as economic and cultural opportunities. They can negatively influence health via safety issues, noise, air pollution, and lack of economic development. The aims of public health and transportation partially overlap; efforts to improve arterials can meet goals of both professions. Two trends in arterial design show promise. First, transportation professionals increasingly define the performance of arterials via metrics accounting for pedestrians, cyclists, transit riders, and nearby residents in addition to motor vehicle users. Second, applying traffic engineering and design can generate safety, air quality, and livability benefits, but we need evidence to support these interventions. We describe the importance of arterials (including exposures, health behaviors, effects on equity, and resulting health outcomes) and make the case for public health collaborations with the transportation sector.

  3. Climate impacts of short-lived climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.

    PubMed

    Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2014-12-16

    Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel.

  4. Case study; Roller compacted concrete road for large off-road combustion waste transport

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.E. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Gibbons creek Steam Electric Station (GCSES)-which generates combustion wastes, consisting of ash and scrubber sludge, at a rate of approximately 1.5 million cubic yards per year. Recognizing that the existing landfill would be filled to capacity in the near future, the Texas Municipal Power Agency (TMPA) retained Black and Veatch (B and V) to develop a combustion waste disposal plan and to design a landfill for the remaining 35-year life of the station. Several potential sites were evaluated on the basis of functional requirements, regulatory requirements, physical considerations, public sensitivity, and economic criteria. The evaluation of potential sites resulted in the selection of a site approximately 1-1/2 miles north of the GCSES main plant complex, across the cooling lake for the station. Several methods of transport were evaluated, including truck, conveyor, and rail. Hauling by large off-road trucks was determined to be the most reliable and cost-effective method of combustion waste transport.

  5. Pump-to-Wheels Methane Emissions from the Heavy-Duty Transportation Sector.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L; Johnson, Derek R; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Akkerman, Vyacheslav; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Mongold, Ronald A; Hailer, John T; Ugarte, Orlando J

    2017-01-17

    Pump-to-wheels (PTW) methane emissions from the heavy-duty (HD) transportation sector, which have climate change implications, are poorly documented. In this study, methane emissions from HD natural gas fueled vehicles and the compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueling stations that serve them were characterized. A novel measurement system was developed to quantify methane leaks and losses. Engine related emissions were characterized from twenty-two natural gas fueled transit buses, refuse trucks, and over-the-road (OTR) tractors. Losses from six LNG and eight CNG stations were characterized during compression, fuel delivery, storage, and from leaks. Cryogenic boil-off pressure rise and pressure control venting from LNG storage tanks were characterized using theoretical and empirical modeling. Field and laboratory observations of LNG storage tanks were used for model development and evaluation. PTW emissions were combined with a specific scenario to view emissions as a percent of throughput. Vehicle tailpipe and crankcase emissions were the highest sources of methane. Data from this research are being applied by the authors to develop models to forecast methane emissions from the future HD transportation sector.

  6. Use of fatal real-life crashes to analyze a safe road transport system model, including the road user, the vehicle, and the road.

    PubMed

    Stigson, Helena; Krafft, Maria; Tingvall, Claes

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate if the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) model for a safe road transport system, which includes the interaction between the road user, the vehicle, and the road, could be used to classify fatal car crashes according to some safety indicators. Also, to present a development of the model to better identify system weakness. Real-life crashes with a fatal outcome were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European Road Assessment Programme) and fitment of ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol. Each crash was compared with the model criteria, to identify components that might have contributed to fatal outcome. All fatal crashes where a car occupant was killed that occurred in Sweden during 2004 were included: in all, 215 crashes with 248 fatalities. The data were collected from the in-depth fatal crash data of the Swedish Road Administration (SRA). It was possible to classify 93% of the fatal car crashes according to the SRA model. A number of shortcomings in the criteria were identified since the model did not address rear-end or animal collisions or collisions with stationary/parked vehicles or trailers (18 out of 248 cases). Using the further developed model, it was possible to identify that most of the crashes occurred when two or all three components interacted (in 85 of the total 230 cases). Noncompliance with safety criteria for the road user, the vehicle, and the road led to fatal outcome in 43, 27, and 75 cases, respectively. The SRA model was found to be useful for classifying fatal crashes but needs to be further developed to identify how the components interact and thereby identify weaknesses in the road traffic system. This developed model might be a tool to systematically identify which of the components are

  7. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IRR transportation facilities? 170.808 Section 170.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA Road Maintenance Program funds cannot be used to improve roads or other IRR transportation facilities to a...

  8. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road... Reservation Roads Program Facilities Transportation Planning § 170.405 Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects? Yes, any tribe can request to have its...

  9. Sediment Transport through Road Culverts Retrofit for Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, M.; Cashman, E.; Siegfried, L.; Smith, W. J.; Dillon, A.

    2007-12-01

    A critical component of watershed restoration includes improved mobility within the watershed for fish and other aquatic organisms. At the large scale, this effort includes installation of fish ladders around dams and at smaller scales replacement or retrofit of road culverts or installation of roughened channels to mitigate steep channel slopes. A project to quantify changes in culvert hydraulic performance and hydraulic capacity for three culvert shapes and six fish passage retrofit designs was initiated in June 2005. In 2007, laboratory physical model experiments were conducted to evaluate sediment transport and trapping characteristics of these designs over a range of flows. Generally, experimental results indicate trapped sediment in culverts retrofit to improve fish passage decreases the effectiveness of the retrofit due to sediment deposition in areas with lower velocities (where fish can rest). Other observations include: 1. Trapped sediment reduced the effective culvert barrel roughness and, thus, decreased water depths and increased velocities through the culvert, compared to clear water experiments with the retrofit baffles. 2. High flows (culvert barrel water depth/culvert height greater than 0.5) successfully cleared trapped sediment under conditions of minimal transport from upstream 3. Preliminary results indicate moderate flows (culvert barrel water depth/culvert height between 0.25 to 0.5) in combination with moderate sediment feed rates caused the greatest accumulation of trapped sediment These experiments highlight the importance of including sediment accumulation in design and analysis, and potentially impact design recommendations for culverts retrofit for fish passage and other similar fish passage improvement structures.

  10. Integrating air pollution modelling with scenario testing in road transport planning: the TRAEMS approach.

    PubMed

    Affum, J K; Brown, A L; Chan, Y C

    2003-08-01

    Transport add-on environmental modelling system (TRAEMS) is a GIS-based environmental modelling system designed to evaluate the environmental consequences of road traffic in urban areas. Its development has been underpinned by the premises that the evaluation of road traffic impacts is best undertaken during the early planning stages of road networks, and that this can utilise much of the data generated by the transport planners themselves as they apply their travel demand models as to planning of road networks. The system integrates information about traffic-usually from travel-forecasting models-with information about land use, to provide the input data to a range of commonly used models that estimate pollution from a road traffic system, and the energy consumption of that system. TRAEMS facilitates this integration and allows land use, transport and environmental planners to have rapid feedback on the environmental effects of road transport network scenarios that are being developed and tested. Its purpose is to aid in the selection of environmentally-preferred road networks and to highlight where management of pollution levels on future road networks will be required. TRAEMS has a modular structure. This paper describes the main features of the air pollution and fuel consumption modules of the system and illustrates the system's utility through case studies at both metropolitan-wide- and local-area scales.

  11. Emissions of air pollutants from road transport in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, Antoine; Afif, Charbel

    2012-12-01

    Road transport is a major contributor to pollutant emissions in the Middle East region (MEA). Emissions originating from this sector have a significant impact on the atmosphere, health and the climate change. Identification and quantification of these emissions in this region is of great importance in order to develop emissions reductions strategies. For this purpose and because a detailed emission inventory for road transport is nonexistent for Lebanon (a small developing country in the MEA region) and for its capital city Beirut, a spatially-resolved and temporally-allocated emission inventory for road transport was developed for Lebanon and for the city of Beirut using a bottom-up approach where possible. In order to compare emissions between developed and non-developed cities on the Mediterranean basin, road transport emissions originating in normal (February-June and September-November) and touristic periods (July-August and December-January) were compared between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens, respectively. The comparison obtained between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens showed that emissions per capita for CO and SO2 are highest in Beirut while emissions of particulate matter were highest in Barcelona. The different patterns between these cities showed that emissions increases in winter in Beirut and Barcelona (11 and 9% respectively) and decreases in the city of Athens by 9%. In summer, an increase of 15% in traffic intensities is observed in Athens while in Beirut and Barcelona, traffic intensities decrease by 10 and 40% respectively. At a national level, emissions were calculated for 14 countries in the MEA in order to inter compare them with those of Lebanon. The results show that in the MEA, the highest contributors to total carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (78 and 79% respectively), are countries having a population that exceeds 20 million inhabitants such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. For Lebanon, emissions per

  12. Technology limits for reducing EU transport sector CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Dray, Lynnette M; Schäfer, Andreas; Ben-Akiva, Moshe E

    2012-05-01

    Using a new data set describing the techno-economic characteristics of current and projected future transport technologies and a synthesis of existing transport demand models, lifecycle CO(2) emissions from 27 EU countries (EU27) were estimated in the absence and presence of new policy interventions to 2050. Future CO(2) emissions are strongly dependent on geographical scope and economic growth assumptions, and to a lesser extent on uncertainties in technology characteristics, but in the absence of new policy intervention they continue to rise from present-day values in all three scenarios examined. Consequently, EU27 emissions goals, which may require a 60% decrease in transport sector greenhouse gas emissions from year-1990 values by 2050, will be difficult to meet. This is even the case under widespread adoption of the most promising technologies for all modes, due primarily to limitations in biofuel production capacity and a lack of technologies that would drastically reduce CO(2) emissions from heavy trucks and intercontinental aviation.

  13. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    SciTech Connect

    Sossoe, K.S.; Lebacque, J-P.

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  14. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indati, M. S.; Ghate, A. T.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  15. Reforming the road freight transportation system using systems thinking: An investigation of Coronial inquests in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Road freight transport is considered to be one of the most dangerous industries in Australia, accounting for over 30% of all work fatalities. Whilst system reform (i.e., change to policy and practice) is needed, it is not clear what this reform should be, or what approaches should be used to drive it. This article argues that road freight transportation reform should be underpinned by a systems thinking approach. Efforts to understand crash causation should be focused beyond the driver and identify contributing factors at other levels with the road freight system. Accordingly, we present the findings from a study that examined whether Australian Coronial investigations into road freight crashes reflect support appropriate system reform. Content analysis was used to identify the contributing factors and interrelations implicated in the road freight crashes described in publicly available Australian Coroner's inquest reports from the last 10 years (2004-2014; n=21). The results found evidence to suggest that the Coronial inquests provide some understanding of the complex system of factors influencing road freight transportation crashes in Australia. However, there was a lack of evidence to suggest an understanding of system-based reform based on the identification of reductionist-focused recommendations. It is concluded that researchers and practitioners (ie., government and industry) need to work together to develop prevention efforts focused on system reforms. Systems thinking based data collection and analysis frameworks are urgently required to help develop this understanding in road freight transportation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic performances of cattle transporting vehicle on Scandinavian roads and behavioural response of animals.

    PubMed

    Wikner, I; Gebresenbet, G; Tolo, E

    2003-03-01

    Driving performance, air quality in the vehicle, and handling during loading and unloading are the main factors, which could affect animal welfare. During transport of animals from farms to abattoirs, animals on the vehicle are subjected to vibrations in all directions. Performances of a typical vehicle for cattle transport have been studied under field commercial conditions. During the experiment, tri-axial vibrations on the vehicle, as well as velocity, slope and position were measured. The animals were video recorded for behavioral analyses. Geographical positions, speed and slope of roads were recorded using, GPS. Measurements were made with and without animals on the vehicle. The roads in the region are narrow almost everywhere, but rather plane and of good quality. Three road types were identified: straight and plain, curvy and graveled roads. Events such as sudden stops and curves were observed and noted. Vibration levels in tri-axial directions have been measured and analysed for different speeds and road types both when the vehicle was fully loaded and unloaded. There is a significant difference between the performances of the vehicle when loaded and unloaded. Very high vibrations values have been noted during the empty driving and these values were reduced by up to 9 times when the vehicle was loaded. Less vibrations amplitudes were observed and animals were calmer on ferry transport than on road transport. It has also been noted that animals prefer to stand perpendicular to the direction of vehicle's motion during transport.

  17. Ergonomic analyses within the French transport and logistics sector: first steps towards a new "act elsewhere" prevention approach.

    PubMed

    Wioland, Liên

    2013-10-01

    Statistics from the French Employee National Health Insurance Fund indicate high accident levels in the transport sector. This study represents initial thinking on a new approach to transport sector prevention based on the assumption that a work situation could be improved by acting on another interconnected work situation. Ergonomic analysis of two connected work situations, involving the road haulage drivers and cross-docking platform employees, was performed to test this assumption. Our results show that drivers are exposed to a number of identified risks, but their multiple tasks raise the question of activity intensification. The conditions, under which the drivers will perform their work and take to the road, are partly determined by the quality and organisation of the platform with which they interact. We make a number of recommendations (e.g. changing handling equipment, re-appraising certain jobs) to improve platform organisation and employee working conditions with the aim of also improving driver conditions. These initial steps in this prevention approach appear promising, but more detailed investigation is required.

  18. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  19. Characterization of acute phase proteins and oxidative stress response to road transportation in the dog.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Francesco; Casella, Stefania; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cells (WBC), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), the antioxidant barrier (Oxy-adsorbent) and thiol groups of plasma compounds (SHp) were measured in ten dogs that had been transported a distance of about 230 km within 2 h (experimental group) and in ten dogs that had not been subjected to road transportation (control group). Blood was collected via cephalic venipuncture before road transportation (T0), after road transportation (T1), and more than 6 (T6) and 24 (T24) hours after road transportation in the experimental group (Group A) and at the same time points in the control group (Group B). The GLM (general linear model) Repeated Measures procedure showed a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.0001) and a significant rise (P<0.0001) in the concentrations of Hp, SAA, CRP, WBC, ROMs, Oxy-adsorbent and SHp after road transportation in Group A, underlining that physiological and homeostatic mechanisms are modified differently at various sampling times.

  20. Assessment of heavy metal releases from the use phase of road transport in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummer, Ulrike; Pacyna, Jozef; Pacyna, Elisabeth; Friedrich, Rainer

    An emission inventory was compiled for heavy metal air emissions from road transport in Europe (EU-40). For the database, country-specific data was taken such as the diesel and gasoline fuel consumption per country, the content of Pb in gasoline and diesel fuel and the share of different vehicle types. For tyre and brake wear emissions, average wear rates and heavy metal contents of different materials were used to develop emission factors for tyre and brake wear. It covers exhaust emissions (Pb from gasoline and diesel) as well as non-exhaust emissions (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb from the wear of brake linings and vehicle tyres). The base year is 2000, and two scenarios were developed for 2010, a business as usual (BAU) scenario and a maximum feasible technical reduction (MFTR) scenario. Both result in a remarkable decrease in Pb exhaust emissions and a rising share of non-exhaust emissions. To assess the results, the inventory is (a) compared to an inventory compiled with a top-down approach that covers the same area and years but only emissions from combustion processes and (b) added to an inventory covering all sectors for heavy metal air emissions.

  1. Identifying the Critical Links in Road Transportation Networks: Centrality-based approach utilizing structural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Supriya

    2016-04-01

    Surface transportation road networks share structural properties similar to other complex networks (e.g., social networks, information networks, biological networks, and so on). This research investigates the structural properties of road networks for any possible correlation with the traffic characteristics such as link flows those determined independently. Additionally, we define a criticality index for the links of the road network that identifies the relative importance in the network. We tested our hypotheses with two sample road networks. Results show that, correlation exists between the link flows and centrality measures of a link of the road (dual graph approach is followed) and the criticality index is found to be effective for one test network to identify the vulnerable nodes.

  2. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal...

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing and Transportation Lifelines: Safety and Risk Analysis Along Rural Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, R.

    the application of satellite Earth Observation (EO) methods to the analysis of transportation networks. Other geospatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), sharply enhance the utility of EO data in identifying potential road hazards and providing an objective basis for allocating resources to reduce their risks. In combination, these powerful information technologies provide substantial public benefits and increased business opportunities to remote sensing value-added firms. departments in rural jurisdictions improve the trafficability of the roads under their management during severe weather. We are developing and testing these methods in the U.S. Southwest, where thousands of kilometers of unimproved and graded dirt roads cross Native American reservations. This generally arid region is nevertheless subject to periodic summer rainstorms and winter snow and ice, creating hazardous conditions for the region's transportation lifelines. Arizona and Southeast Utah, as well as digital terrain models from the U.S. Geological Survey. We have analyzed several risk factors, such as slope, road curvature, and intersections, by means of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) on both unimproved and improved roads. In partnership with the Hopi Indian Nation in Arizona, we have acquired and analyzed GPS road centerline data and accident data that validate our methodology. hazards along paved and unpaved roads of the American Southwest. They are also transferable to the international settings, particularly in similarly arid climates.

  4. Effects of road type during transport on lamb welfare and meat quality in dry hot climates.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Monge, Paula; Villarroel, Morris; Olleta, Jose Luis; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; María, Gustavo A

    2011-06-01

    This study determined whether transporting lambs on paved (PR) or unpaved roads (UR) for 3 h had an effect on plasma stress indicators (cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase [CK], red blood cells, white blood cells, hematocrit, and neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L] ratio) and instrumental meat quality (pH24, bruising score, water holding capacity [WHC], color, and texture). A total of 48 Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were used that were approximately 100 days old (12.5 kg ± 1.64, carcass weight). The results suggest that transport on unpaved roads had a significant influence on physiological and hematological stress parameters. Road type had a significant effect on all variables, except for white and red blood cells, and hematocrit levels. The UR lambs had significantly higher (at least p ≤ 0.01) cortisol, lactate, glucose, and CK levels and a higher N/L ratio than PR lambs. Meat from UR lambs had some dark-cutting characteristics, with a darker color, higher ultimate pH, and higher tenderness values than PR. In conclusion, lambs transported on unpaved roads had a more intense stress response and poorer meat quality than lambs transported on paved roads. An effort to improve the logistics associated with route planning is necessary to prevent welfare problems during transport to slaughter.

  5. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  6. Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit; Andress, David A; Nguyen, Tien

    2011-01-01

    Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

  7. Effect of road transportation on the serum biochemical parameters of cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Takehiro; Yamada, Azusa; Naganuma, Yuki; Nishina, Noriko; Koyama, Hironari

    2016-06-01

    To determine the effect of long-distance (approximately 600 km) road transportation on the blood biochemistry of laboratory animals, we investigated the changes in serum biochemical parameters in healthy cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs transported by truck from Osaka to Tsukuba, Japan. The concentrations of serum cortisol, total bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase in monkeys increased during transportation. Serum cortisol and total bilirubin levels in dogs also increased during transportation, but serum triglyceride decreased. Serum parameter values in truck-transported monkeys and dogs returned to baseline levels within two weeks following arrival. Taken together, these results suggest that a two-week acclimation period is the minimum duration required for adaptation following road transportation.

  8. Development of a road transport emission inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area: effects of important parameters.

    PubMed

    Fameli, K M; Assimakopoulos, V D

    2015-02-01

    Traffic is considered one of the major polluting sectors and as a consequence a significant cause for the measured exceedances of ambient air quality limit values mainly in urban areas. The Greater Athens Area (located in Attica), the most populated area in Greece, faces severe air pollution problems due to the combination of high road traffic emissions, complex topography and local meteorological conditions. Even though several efforts were made to construct traffic emission inventories for Greece and Attica, still there is not a spatially and temporally resolved one, based on data from relevant authorities and organisations. The present work aims to estimate road emissions in Greece and Attica based on the top down approach. The programme COPERT 4 was used to calculate the annual total emissions from the road transport sector for the period 2006-2010 and an emission inventory for Greece and Attica was developed with high spatial (6 × 6 km(2) for Greece and 2 × 2 km(2) for Attica) and temporal (1-hour) resolutions. The results revealed that about 40% of national CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC values and 30% of NOx and particles are emitted in Attica. The fuel consumption and the subsequent reduction of annual mileage driven in combination with the import of new engine anti-pollution technologies affected CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC emissions. The major part of CO (56.53%) and CO₂ (66.15%) emissions was due to passenger cars (2010), while heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) were connected with NOx, PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ emissions with 51.27%, 43.97% and 38.13% respectively (2010). The fleet composition, the penetration of diesel fuelled cars, the increase of urban average speed and the fleet renewal are among the most effective parameters towards the emission reduction strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Key technologies and implementation of the medical equipment road transportation simulation platform based on 6-DOF parallel robots].

    PubMed

    Pei, Yidong; Pei, Baoqing; Li, Hui; Fan, Yubo

    2013-01-01

    In view of the shortage of medical equipment road transportation simulation platform, we put forward a road transportation simulation method based on 6-DOF parallel robots. A 3D road spectrum model was built by the improvement of the harmonic superposition method. The simulation model was then compared with the standard model to verify its performance. Taking the road spectrum as the excitation, we could get the robot motion data to control the parallel robot through the S-shaped linear interpolation of the absolute position. It can simulate the movement of vehicles with different speed under various road conditions efficiently and accurately.

  10. Transport Mode Selection for Toxic Gases: Rail or Road?

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Morteza; Verma, Manish; Verter, Vedat

    2014-01-01

    A significant majority of hazardous materials (hazmat) shipments are moved via the highway and railroad networks, wherein the latter mode is generally preferred for long distances. Although the characteristics of highway transportation make trucks the most dominant surface transportation mode, should it be preferred for hazmat whose accidental release can cause catastrophic consequences? We answer this question by first developing a novel and comprehensive assessment methodology-which incorporates the sequence of events leading to hazmat release from the derailed railcars and the resulting consequence-to measure rail transport risk, and second making use of the proposed assessment methodology to analyze hazmat transport risk resulting from meeting the demand for chlorine and ammonia in six distinct corridors in North America. We demonstrate that rail transport will reduce risk, irrespective of the risk measure and the transport corridor, and that every attempt must be made to use railroads to transport these shipments.

  11. Virginia's Smart Road: an intelligent transportation systems research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanna, Ashwin; Crawford, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The smart road is an experimental highway currently under construction in Virginia. It is being built from the ground up with ITS testing and evaluation in mind. Embedded research support infrastructure will include underground conduits, underground junction bunkers, power, a fiber optic data network, embedded pavement sensors, snow making capability, and experimental lighting. The facility will be utilized for a number of research areas including safety and human factors, snow and ice control, pavement research, bridge and structures research, ITS sensor development and evaluation, and roadside to vehicle communications.

  12. Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar

  13. The Road Less Traveled: Sustainable Transportation for Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toor, Will

    2003-01-01

    Provides a survey of innovative approaches to campus transportation in the United States. Explains that the high costs of parking expansion have propelled many institutions toward a transportation demand management strategy, using parking pricing, transit passes for students and employees, and investment in bicycle infrastructure to shift many…

  14. The Road Less Traveled: Sustainable Transportation for Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toor, Will

    2003-01-01

    Provides a survey of innovative approaches to campus transportation in the United States. Explains that the high costs of parking expansion have propelled many institutions toward a transportation demand management strategy, using parking pricing, transit passes for students and employees, and investment in bicycle infrastructure to shift many…

  15. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  16. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system: Volume III, Appendices C through J. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; De Avila, J.C.; Keith, V.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) provides a portabler laboratory for the analysis of soils, ground water, and surface water. This report presents data from a soils sample TCLP VOA and SVOA report, aqueous sample RCRA metals report, soils sample total and isotopic uranium report, SVOA sample analytical performance report, and and RCRA metal sample analytical performance report.

  17. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system: Volume II, Appendices A and B. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.; De Avila, J.C.; Keith, V.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) provides a portable analytical system for the analysis of soils, ground water, and surface water for the detection of hazardous materials, metals, organics, and radioactive material. This report presents the data results for an aqueous sample VOA report and an aqueous sample SVOA report.

  18. The Indonesian's Road Transportations as the Contexts to Support Primary School Students Learning Number Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kairuddin; Darmawijoyo

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the Indonesian's road transportation contexts, namely, angkot, that used in learning and teaching of addition and subtraction in first grade and second grade MIN-2 Palembang. PMRI approach that adopt from RME [Realistic Mathematics Education] was used in this design research. From teaching experiment was founded that the…

  19. The Road to Redemption: Ten Policy Recommendations for Ohio's Charter School Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Juliet; Robson, Kelly; Smarick, Andy

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, the Buckeye State embraced a new approach to public-education delivery, launching a pilot program of community (charter) schools. Since then, the state's community schools sector has grown tremendously. During the 2013-14 school year, 390 schools served approximately 124,000 students--seven percent of students statewide. Despite its…

  20. Off-road transport of pinyon/juniper

    Treesearch

    J. Klepac; B. Rummer

    2012-01-01

    A 8-wheel forwarder was observed while transporting pinyon pine (P. edulis) and Utah juniper (J. osteosperma) from woods to landing in southern Utah. The forwarder was part of a 2-machine system used to treat pinyon-juniper stands. Trees were felled using a rubber tracked skid steer with a shear head, then transported to a collection point with a Ponsse Buffalo King 20...

  1. Extending natural hazard impacts: an assessment of landslide disruptions on a national road transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Disruptions to transportation networks by natural hazard events cause direct losses (e.g. by physical damage) and indirect socio-economic losses via travel delays and decreased transportation efficiency. The severity and spatial distribution of these losses varies according to user travel demands and which links, nodes or infrastructure assets are physically disrupted. Increasing transport network resilience, for example by targeted mitigation strategies, requires the identification of the critical network segments which if disrupted would incur undesirable or unacceptable socio-economic impacts. Here, these impacts are assessed on a national road transportation network by coupling hazard data with a transport network model. This process is illustrated using a case study of landslide hazards on the road network of Scotland. A set of possible landslide-prone road segments is generated using landslide susceptibility data. The results indicate that at least 152 road segments are susceptible to landslides, which could cause indirect economic losses exceeding £35 k for each day of closure. In addition, previous estimates for historic landslide events might be significant underestimates. For example, the estimated losses for the 2007 A83 ‘Rest and Be Thankful’ landslide are £80 k day-1, totalling £1.2 million over a 15 day closure, and are ˜60% greater than previous estimates. The spatial distribution of impact to road users is communicated in terms of ‘extended hazard impact footprints’. These footprints reveal previously unknown exposed communities and unanticipated spatial patterns of severe disruption. Beyond cost-benefit analyses for landslide mitigation efforts, the approach implemented is applicable to other natural hazards (e.g. flooding), combinations of hazards, or even other network disruption events.

  2. Transportation noise and annoyance related to road traffic in the French RECORD study.

    PubMed

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Chaix, Basile

    2013-10-02

    Road traffic and related noise is a major source of annoyance and impairment to health in urban areas. Many areas exposed to road traffic noise are also exposed to rail and air traffic noise. The resulting annoyance may depend on individual/neighborhood socio-demographic factors. Nevertheless, few studies have taken into account the confounding or modifying factors in the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance due to road traffic. In this study, we address these issues by combining Geographic Information Systems and epidemiologic methods. Street network buffers with a radius of 500 m were defined around the place of residence of the 7290 participants of the RECORD Cohort in Ile-de-France. Estimated outdoor traffic noise levels (road, rail, and air separately) were assessed at each place of residence and in each of these buffers. Higher levels of exposure to noise were documented in low educated neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression models documented positive associations between road traffic noise and annoyance due to road traffic, after adjusting for individual/neighborhood socioeconomic conditions. There was no evidence that the association was of different magnitude when noise was measured at the place of residence or in the residential neighborhood. However, the strength of the association between neighborhood noise exposure and annoyance increased when considering a higher percentile in the distribution of noise in each neighborhood. Road traffic noise estimated at the place of residence and road traffic noise in the residential neighborhood (75th percentile) were independently associated with annoyance, when adjusted for each other. Interactions of effects indicated that the relationship between road traffic noise exposure in the residential neighborhood and annoyance was stronger in affluent and high educated neighborhoods. Overall, our findings suggest that it is useful to take into account (i) the exposure to transportation noise

  3. Transportation noise and annoyance related to road traffic in the French RECORD study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic and related noise is a major source of annoyance and impairment to health in urban areas. Many areas exposed to road traffic noise are also exposed to rail and air traffic noise. The resulting annoyance may depend on individual/neighborhood socio-demographic factors. Nevertheless, few studies have taken into account the confounding or modifying factors in the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance due to road traffic. In this study, we address these issues by combining Geographic Information Systems and epidemiologic methods. Street network buffers with a radius of 500 m were defined around the place of residence of the 7290 participants of the RECORD Cohort in Ile-de-France. Estimated outdoor traffic noise levels (road, rail, and air separately) were assessed at each place of residence and in each of these buffers. Higher levels of exposure to noise were documented in low educated neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression models documented positive associations between road traffic noise and annoyance due to road traffic, after adjusting for individual/neighborhood socioeconomic conditions. There was no evidence that the association was of different magnitude when noise was measured at the place of residence or in the residential neighborhood. However, the strength of the association between neighborhood noise exposure and annoyance increased when considering a higher percentile in the distribution of noise in each neighborhood. Road traffic noise estimated at the place of residence and road traffic noise in the residential neighborhood (75th percentile) were independently associated with annoyance, when adjusted for each other. Interactions of effects indicated that the relationship between road traffic noise exposure in the residential neighborhood and annoyance was stronger in affluent and high educated neighborhoods. Overall, our findings suggest that it is useful to take into account (i) the exposure to transportation noise

  4. Transportation and Warehousing Sector (NAICS 48-49)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA regulatory information for the transportation and warehousing, including NESHAPs for RICE and gasoline dispensing facilities, effluent guidelines, power wash discharges, and border and port compliance

  5. Using Massive Vehicle Positioning Data to Improve Control and Planning of Public Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    Padrón, Gabino; García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, A.; Alayón, Francisco; Pérez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a system for the automatic recording of positioning data for public transport vehicles used on roads. With the data provided by this system, transportation-regulatory authorities can control, verify and improve the routes that vehicles use, while also providing new data to improve the representation of the transportation network and providing new services in the context of intelligent metropolitan areas. The system is executed autonomously in the vehicles, by recording their massive positioning data and transferring them to remote data banks for subsequent processing. To illustrate the utility of the system, we present a case of application that consists of identifying the points at which vehicles stop systematically, which may be points of scheduled stops or points at which traffic signals or road topology force the vehicle to stop. This identification is performed using pattern recognition techniques. The system has been applied under real operating conditions, providing the results discussed in the present study. PMID:24763212

  6. Using massive vehicle positioning data to improve control and planning of public road transport.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Gabino; García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, A; Alayón, Francisco; Pérez, Ricardo

    2014-04-23

    This study describes a system for the automatic recording of positioning data for public transport vehicles used on roads. With the data provided by this system, transportation-regulatory authorities can control, verify and improve the routes that vehicles use, while also providing new data to improve the representation of the transportation network and providing new services in the context of intelligent metropolitan areas. The system is executed autonomously in the vehicles, by recording their massive positioning data and transferring them to remote data banks for subsequent processing. To illustrate the utility of the system, we present a case of application that consists of identifying the points at which vehicles stop systematically, which may be points of scheduled stops or points at which traffic signals or road topology force the vehicle to stop. This identification is performed using pattern recognition techniques. The system has been applied under real operating conditions, providing the results discussed in the present study.

  7. Water and electrolyte intake and output in conditioned Thoroughbred horses transported by road.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, J S; Guthrie, A J; Meintjes, R A; Nurton, J P; Adamson, D A; Travers, C W; Lund, R J; Mostert, H J

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of this trial were to measure the water and electrolyte intake and loss, of horses during road transportation in relatively hot environmental conditions. Six mature, Thoroughbred horses in full training were used in a balanced crossover design. The horses were conditioned on a treadmill for 6 weeks before the start of the trial in order to simulate the type of horse that is transported most often over long distances in South Africa. The horses were assigned randomly to one of 2 treatment groups. On a particular day 3 horses were transported, while the other horses served as controls. One month was allowed before the crossover. Horses in the 'transport group' were transported by tarred road in a circular route over 600 km. This allowed the standardisation of measurements and use of the same instruments in both groups. Data were collected in each treatment group during transportation that lasted for 8 h (transport phase) and for 6 h after travelling (recovery phase). The following data were collected or calculated: Water and electrolyte (sodium, potassium and chloride) intake and output, changes in bodyweight and feed consumption. Although water was always available, the transport group failed to drink during transit. Based on bodyweight, the transported horses were 3% dehydrated at the end of transit. This bodyweight loss was corrected within one hour after their return due to a significantly higher water intake compared to control horses. The feed intake in the transported horses was unaffected during travelling, but was decreased for 6 h following transportation. Urinary water loss was similar in the 2 treatment groups during and following transportation. The faecal water loss decreased in the transported horses and remained lower than the control group for 6 h following transit. Total sodium and chloride intake were unaffected, while the potassium intake was decreased during transportation. Sodium and potassium loss via the faeces and urine during

  8. Disentangling the impacts of geography and Aboriginality on serious road transport injuries in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Falster, Michael O; Randall, Deborah A; Lujic, Sanja; Ivers, Rebecca; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa R

    2013-05-01

    Aboriginal people in Australia have higher rates of transport injury than non-Aboriginal people, but a greater proportion of Aboriginal people live in rural or remote areas where risk of these injuries is higher. This paper investigated the contributing effect of geography on the relationship between Aboriginality and road transport injury rates in the state of New South Wales. Linked hospital admission and mortality records for individuals for the years 2001-2007 were grouped into distinct injury events. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to examine disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people clustered within geographic areas of residence. Overall, Aboriginal people had higher rates of road transport injuries (IRR: 1.18, 95% CIs: 1.09-1.28). However, there was no significant difference when geographic clustering was taken into account (IRR: 1.00, 95% CIs: 0.96-1.04). This effect was further influenced by mode of transport for the injury, with Aboriginal people having higher rates of pedestrian (IRR: 1.96, 95% CIs: 1.75-2.19) and lower rates of motorcycle (IRR: 0.64, 95% CIs: 0.59-0.70) injuries in all almost all local areas, while there was no systematic pattern across geographic areas for small vehicle injuries (IRR: 1.01, 95% CIs: 0.94-1.08). Geography plays an important role in the population disparity of road transport injuries between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and has a differential impact for different types of road transport injury. Exploring how individual and geographic factors influence patterns of disparity allows for clearer targeting of future intervention strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tradable credits system design and cost savings for a national low carbon fuel standard for road transport

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Jonathan; Leiby, Paul N.

    2012-06-11

    This research examines the economic implications of different designs for a national low carbon fuel standard (NLCFS) for the road transportation sector. A NLCFS based on the average Carbon Intensity (CI) of all fuels sold in the gasoline and diesel markets will generate an incentive for fuel suppliers to reduce the measured CI of their petroleum fuels. The economic impacts of a NLCFS are fundamentally determined by: the availability of low carbon fuels; the compliance path; the reference level CI of the fuel baseline; and the degree of flexibility in the credit system. To quantitatively examine the implications of a NLCFS, we created the Transportation Regulation and Credit Trading (TRACT) Model. With TRACT, we model a NLCFS credit trading system among profit maximizing fuel suppliers for light- and heavy-duty vehicle fuel use for the United States from 2012 - 2030. Given the wide range of cost and availability of biofuels, we find that credit trading across gasoline and diesel fuel markets combined with credit banking can significantly reduce compliance costs and stabilize credit prices. We make policy recommendations on how to combine a NLCFS with other existing regulations for transportation fuels.

  10. Global Climate Change and the Transportation Sector: An Update on Issues and Mitigation Options

    SciTech Connect

    Geffen, CA; Dooley, JJ; Kim, SH

    2003-08-24

    It is clear from numerous energy/economic modeling exercises that addressing the challenges posed by global climate change will eventually require the active participation of all industrial sectors and all consumers on the planet. Yet, these and similar modeling exercises indicate that large stationary CO2 point sources (e.g., refineries and fossil-fired electric power plants) are often the first targets considered for serious CO2 emissions mitigation. Without participation of all sectors of the global economy, however, the challenges of climate change mitigation will not be met. Because of its operating characteristics, price structure, dependence on virtually one energy source (oil), enormous installed infrastructure, and limited technology alternatives, at least in the near-term, the transportation sector will likely represent a particularly difficult challenge for CO2 emissions mitigation. Our research shows that climate change induced price signals (i.e., putting a price on carbon that is emitted to the atmosphere) are in the near term insufficient to drive fundamental shifts in demand for energy services or to transform the way these services are provided in the transportation sector. We believe that a technological revolution will be necessary to accomplish the significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. This paper presents an update of ongoing research into a variety of technological options that exist for decarbonizing the transportation sector and the various tradeoffs among them.

  11. Global Climate Change and the Unique Challenges Posed by the Transportation Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, J.J.; Geffen, C.A.; Edmonds, J.A.

    2002-08-26

    Addressing the challenges posed by global climate change will eventually require the active participation of all industrial sectors and consumers on the planet. To date, however, most efforts to address climate change have focused on only a few sectors of the economy (e.g., refineries and fossil-fired electric power plants) and a handful of large industrialized nations. While useful as a starting point, these efforts must be expanded to include other sectors of the economy and other nations. The transportation sector presents some unique challenges, with its nearly exclusive dependence on petroleum based products as a fuel source coupled with internal combustion engines as the prime mover. Reducing carbon emissions from transportation systems is unlikely to be solely accomplished by traditional climate mitigation policies that place a price on carbon. Our research shows that price signals alone are unlikely to fundamentally alter the demand for energy services or to transform the way energy services are provided in the transportation sector. We believe that a technological revolution will be necessary to accomplish the significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector.

  12. Global Climate Change and the Transportation Sector: An Update on Issues and Mitigation Options

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Geffen, Charlette A.; Kim, S. H.

    2003-08-24

    It is clear from numerous energy/economic modeling exercises that addressing the challenges posed by global climate change will eventually require the active participation of all industrial sectors and all consumers on the planet. Yet, these and similar modeling exercises indicate that large stationary CO2 point sources (e.g., refineries and fossil- fired electric power plants) are often the first targets considered for serious CO2 emissions mitigation. Without participation of all sectors of the global economy, however, the challenges of climate change mitigation will not be met. Because of its operating characteristics, price structure, dependence on virtually one energy source (oil), enormous installed infrastructure, and limited technology alternatives, at least in the near-term, the transportation sector will likely represent a particularly difficult challenge for CO2 emissions mitigation. Our research shows that climate change induced price signals (i.e., putting a price on carbon that is emitted to the atmosphere) are in the near term insufficient to drive fundamental shifts in demand for energy services or to transform the way these services are provided in the transportation sector. We believe that a technological revolution will be necessary to accomplish the significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. This paper presents an update of ongoing research into a variety of technological options that exist for decarbonizing the transportation sector and the various tradeoffs among them.

  13. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  14. Prehospital transportation decisions for patients sustaining major trauma in road traffic crashes in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Candefjord, Stefan; Buendia, Ruben; Caragounis, Eva-Corina; Sjöqvist, Bengt Arne; Fagerlind, Helen

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the proportion and characteristics of patients sustaining major trauma in road traffic crashes (RTCs) who could benefit from direct transportation to a trauma center (TC). Currently, there is no national classification of TC in Sweden. In this study, 7 university hospitals (UHs) in Sweden were selected to represent a TC level I or level II. These UHs have similar capabilities as the definition for level I and level II TC in the United States. Major trauma was defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 15. A total of 117,730 patients who were transported by road or air ambulance were selected from the Swedish TRaffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA) database between 2007 to 2014. An analysis of the patient characteristics sustaining major trauma in comparison with patients sustaining minor trauma (ISS < 15) was conducted. Major trauma patients transported to a TC versus non-TC were further analysed with respect to injured body region and road user type. Approximately 3% (n = 3, 411) of patients sustained major trauma. Thirty-eight percent of major trauma patients were transported to a TC, and 62% were transported to a non-TC. This results in large proportions of patients with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3+ injuries being transported to a non-TC.  The number of AIS 3+ head injuries for major trauma patients transported to a TC versus non-TC were similar, whereas a larger number of AIS 3+ thorax injuries were present in the non-TC group. The non-TC major trauma patients had a higher probability of traveling in a car, truck, or bus and to be involved in a crash in a rural location. Our results show that the majority of RTC major trauma patients are transported to a non-TC. This may cause unnecessary morbidity and mortality. These findings can guide the development of improved prehospital treatment guidelines, protocols and decision support systems.

  15. Road transportation stress promptly increases bovine peripheral blood absolute NK cell counts and cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Kariya, Yoshihiro

    2010-06-01

    Livestock transportation effects on the number of circulating leukocytes have been reported. However, data related specifically to the relation between acute stress levels during transport and leukocyte differentiation, including lymphocyte subsets, are lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution of peripheral blood leukocyte differential counts, CD25+ lymphocytes and NK cells in calves subjected to truck transportation on different road types. Healthy Japanese Black calves were divided into three treatments: 1) those moved around in a mountainous area (Group M); 2) those moved around on flatland (Group F); and 3) those that were not transported (control). The plasma cortisol levels in Group M increased during transport. The increase was significantly higher at the end of transport than in the controls (P<0.05); a slight increase was noted in Group F. Total leukocytes and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in Group M were elevated with neutrophilia at 2 hr post-transport (P<0.05); the former levels remained higher than those in the controls for 4 hr. The numbers of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and CD25+ lymphocytes remained unchanged throughout the observations. The number of circulating NK cells in Group M increased during transport and peaked shortly after transport (P<0.05). Subsequent to these time points, the counts in Group F showed a trend toward elevation. The circulating NK cell counts were positively correlated with the plasma cortisol level during transport (M, r=0.755, P<0.0005; F, r=0.653; P<0.005). These results suggest that circulating NK cells might be more rapidly mobilized than other leukocytes. Therefore, they might reflect acute stress levels in calves during road transportation.

  16. Minimum space allowance for transportation of swine by road.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Terry L; Brandt, Steve

    2002-03-01

    Space allowance for animals in transit is a consistent concern in many countries that are developing codes of practice and regulations to assure humane treatment of food producing animals. The minimum space allowance requirements for a broad size range of swine in transit has not been well described or scientifically substantiated. A maximal loading pressure recommendation for pigs weighing from 5 to 250 kg was derived by a consultative process involving the swine transportation industry, animal welfare groups, and a literature review. The recommended maximal loading pressure under ideal conditions for swine loaded in groups can be described as a hoerl model y = (37.53)(0.9969)w(W0.5008), where y = loading pressure in kg body weight/m2 and W = average animal body weight in kilograms.

  17. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects? 170.405 Section 170.405 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian...

  18. 25 CFR 170.405 - Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... funds be used for road construction and other projects? Yes, any tribe can request to have its planning... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can tribal transportation planning funds be used for road construction and other projects? 170.405 Section 170.405 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: I. Industry and transport sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadavarte, Pankaj; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Emissions estimation, for research and regulatory applications including reporting to international conventions, needs treatment of detailed technology divisions and high-emitting technologies. Here we estimate Indian emissions, for 1996-2015, of aerosol constituents (PM2.5, BC and OC) and precursor gas SO2, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, NMVOC and CH4) and greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O), using a common fuel consumption database and consistent assumptions. Six source categories and 45 technologies/activities in the industry and transport sectors were used for estimating emissions for 2010. Mean emission factors, developed at the source-category level, were used with corresponding fuel consumption data, available for 1996-2011, projected to 2015. New activities were included to account for fugitive emissions of NMVOC from chemical and petrochemical industries. Dynamic emission factors, reflecting changes in technology-mix and emission regulations, were developed for thermal power plants and on-road transport vehicles. Modeled emission factors were used for gaseous pollutants for on-road vehicles. Emissions of 2.4 (0.6-7.5) Tg y-1 PM2.5, 0.23 (0.1-0.7) Tg y-1 BC, 0.15 (0.04-0.5) Tg y-1 OC, 7.3 (6-10) Tg y-1 SO2, 19 (7.5-33) Tg y-1 CO, 1.5 (0.1-9) Tg y-1 CH4, 4.3 (2-9) Tg y-1 NMVOC, 5.6 (1.7-15.9) Tg y-1 NOx, 1750 (1397-2231) Tg y-1 CO2 and 0.13 (0.05-0.3) Tg y-1 N2O were estimated for 2015. Significant emissions of aerosols and their precursors were from coal use in thermal power and industry (PM2.5 and SO2), and on-road diesel vehicles (BC), especially superemitters. Emissions of ozone precursors were largely from thermal power plants (NOx), on-road gasoline vehicles (CO and NMVOC) and fugitive emissions from mining (CH4). Highly uncertain default emission factors were the principal contributors to uncertainties in emission estimates, indicating the need for region specific measurements.

  20. Energy utilization and greenhouse-gas emissions: Transportation sector, topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.G.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of the report is to compare the emissions of greenhouse gases for alternative end-use technologies in the transportation sector. Scientists assert that global warming is occurring and will continue to occur as a result of increasing concentrations of certain gases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the focus of this analysis because they are believed to cause three-fourths of the global warming effect and because energy production and use are a significant source of these emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector occur during energy production, conversion, transportation and end-use. This analysis compares alternative transportation sector fuel/technology choices in terms of their total fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases. The emphasis of this report is on the end use comparison. The fuel-cycle emissions comparison was developed in a companion report.

  1. Barriers to private-sector participation in public transportation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.A.

    1986-09-01

    Chapter One considers the full range of public-transportation services the private sector could provide looking at current U.S. examples. Chapter Two describes the Federal, state, and local barriers currently limiting private-sector provision of these services. Chapter Three summarizes the unique contribution of this study: an analysis of three New York counties utilizing private operators to provide varying percentages of public transportation under different institutional structures. The full case studies of the three New York counties - Onondaga (Syracuse), Suffolk (eastern Long Island), and Westchester (New York City suburb) - are presented in Appendices A-C. Appendices D and E exemplify purchase of service contracts currently in New York.

  2. Engineering and design of vehicles for long distance road transport of livestock: the example of cattle transport in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lapworth, John W

    2008-01-01

    The author outlines the design of road vehicles for the long distance transport of livestock, mainly cattle, which are used in the tropical and sub-Mediterranean climatic regions of Australia and which have been engineered to meet animal welfare principles. Over 50% of journeys exceed 500 km. Journeys of 2 000 to 3 000 km do occur and involve the resting of animals once or twice during the journey. Specialised vehicles, known as 'road trains', are employed and these consist of multiple trailers with multi-deck containers or stock crates for animals, which are hauled by a prime mover or tractor. The starting point for design is safety for both people and animals and the need to preserve transport infrastructure such as roads and bridges. The move to volume livestock loading, where livestock are loaded according to the volume they occupy rather than their weight, was a major early breakthrough. Details are given of the design of vehicles and loading facilities. Vehicle design includes suspensions and the floors, interior walls, doors, partitions and penning, deck supports and arrangements for through loading of stock crates. Loading and unloading ramps can be a major source of stress and standardised heights have been adopted in Australia.

  3. Identification of biased sectors in emission data using a combination of chemical transport model and receptor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uranishi, Katsushige; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Nakatsubo, Ryohei; Shimadera, Hikari; Kondo, Akira; Kikutani, Yuki; Asano, Katsuyoshi; Sugata, Seiji

    2017-10-01

    This study presented a comparison approach with multiple source apportionment methods to identify which sectors of emission data have large biases. The source apportionment methods for the comparison approach included both receptor and chemical transport models, which are widely used to quantify the impacts of emission sources on fine particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5). We used daily chemical component concentration data in the year 2013, including data for water-soluble ions, elements, and carbonaceous species of PM2.5 at 11 sites in the Kinki-Tokai district in Japan in order to apply the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model for the source apportionment. Seven PMF factors of PM2.5 were identified with the temporal and spatial variation patterns and also retained features of the sites. These factors comprised two types of secondary sulfate, road transportation, heavy oil combustion by ships, biomass burning, secondary nitrate, and soil and industrial dust, accounting for 46%, 17%, 7%, 14%, 13%, and 3% of the PM2.5, respectively. The multiple-site data enabled a comprehensive identification of the PM2.5 sources. For the same period, source contributions were estimated by air quality simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) with the brute-force method (BFM) for four source categories. Both models provided consistent results for the following three of the four source categories: secondary sulfates, road transportation, and heavy oil combustion sources. For these three target categories, the models' agreement was supported by the small differences and high correlations between the CMAQ/BFM- and PMF-estimated source contributions to the concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and EC. In contrast, contributions of the biomass burning sources apportioned by CMAQ/BFM were much lower than and little correlated with those captured by the PMF model, indicating large uncertainties in the biomass burning emissions used in the

  4. Influence of Modern Stormwater Management Practices on Transport of Road Salt to Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Joel W; Moore, Joel; Lev, Steven M; Casey, Ryan E; Ownby, David R; Flora, Robert F; Izzo, Grant

    2017-03-29

    Application of road salts in regions with colder climates is leading to ground and surface water contamination. However, we know little about how modern stormwater management practices affect the movement of road salt through urban watersheds. We investigated groundwater contamination and transport of road salts at two stormwater ponds in Baltimore County, Maryland. In association with the ponds, we documented a plume of contaminated groundwater that resulted in Cl(-) loadings to the adjacent stream of 6574 to 40 008 kg Cl(-) per winter, depending on winter snowfall. We also monitored Na(+) and Cl(-) ion concentrations and the temporal dynamics of conductivity at a range of stream sites in watersheds with and without stormwater management ponds. Streams draining watersheds with stormwater ponds had consistently higher conductivities and Cl(-) concentrations during base flow conditions and often exhibited greater peaks in Cl(-) and conductivity associated with winter storms and subsequent melting events, despite the degree of watershed development. Our results indicate that modern stormwater management practices are not protecting surface waters from road salt contamination and suggest they create contaminated plumes of groundwater that deliver Cl(-) and Na(+) to streams throughout the year.

  5. High Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector: Scenarios, Barriers, and Enablers; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Brown, A.; Heath, G.; Mai, T.; Ruth, M.; Melaina, M.; Simpkins, T.; Steward, D.; Warner, E.; Bertram, K.; Plotkin, S.; Patel, D.; Stephens, T.; Vyas, A.

    2012-06-01

    Transportation accounts for 71% of U.S. petroleum use and 33% of its greenhouse gases emissions. Pathways toward reduced greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum dependence in the transportation sector have been analyzed in considerable detail, but with some limitations. To add to this knowledge, the U.S. Department of Energy has launched a study focused on underexplored greenhouse-gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities related to transportation. This Transportation Energy Futures study analyzes specific issues and associated key questions to strengthen the existing knowledge base and help cultivate partnerships among federal agencies, state and local governments, and industry.

  6. The difference of level CO2 emissions from the transportation sector between weekdays and weekend days on the City Centre of Pemalang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawitri, E.; Hardiman, G.; Buchori, I.

    2017-06-01

    The high growth of human activity potentially increases the number of vehicles and the use of fossil fuels that contribute the increase of CO2 emissions in atmosphere. Controlling CO2 emission that causes greenhouse effect becomes the main agenda of Indonesian Government. The first step control CO2 emissions is by measuring the level of CO2 emissions, especially CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption in the transport sector. This research aims to assess the level of CO2 emissions from transportation sector on the main roads in the city centre of Pemalang both in weekdays and weekend days. The methods applied to calculate CO2 emissions using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 method. For this, a survey on the number of vehicles passing through the main roads using hand tally counter is firstly done. The results, CO2 emissions in working day, i.e. 49,006.95 tons/year compared to weekend i.e. 38,865.50 tons/year.

  7. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP. PMID:26356373

  8. Climate Change Impacts on Transportation; Groundwater Elevation, Road Performance, and Robust Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirshen, P. H.; Knott, J. F.; Ray, P.; Elshaer, M.; Daniel, J.; Jacobs, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Transportation climate change vulnerability and adaptation studies have primarily focused on surface-water flooding from sea-level rise (SLR); little attention has been given to the effects of climate change and SLR on groundwater and subsequent impacts on the unbound foundation layers of coastal-road infrastructure. The magnitude of service-life reduction depends on the height of the groundwater in the unbound pavement materials, the pavement structure itself, and the loading. Using a steady-state groundwater model, and a multi-layer elastic pavement evaluation model, the strain changes in the layers can be determined as a function of parameter values and the strain changes translated into failure as measured by number of loading cycles to failure. For a section of a major coastal road in New Hampshire, future changes in sea-level, precipitation, temperature, land use, and groundwater pumping are characterized by deep uncertainty. Parameters that describe the groundwater system such as hydraulic conductivity can be probabilistically described while road characteristics are assumed to be deterministic. To understand the vulnerability of this road section, a bottom-up planning approach was employed over time where the combinations of parameter values that cause failure were determined and their plausibility of their occurring was analyzed. To design a robust adaptation strategy that will function reasonably well in the present and the future given the large number of uncertain parameter values, performance of adaptation options were investigated. Adaptation strategies that were considered include raising the road, load restrictions, increasing pavement layer thicknesses, replacing moisture-sensitive materials with materials that are not moisture sensitive, improving drainage systems, and treatment of the underlying materials.

  9. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study).

    PubMed

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP.

  10. Effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeok-Joong; Lee, In Kyu; Piao, Min-Yu; Kwak, Chae-Won; Gu, Min Jeong; Yun, Cheol Heui; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ahn, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hee-Bal; Kim, Gyeom-Heon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Ko, Jong-Youl; Ha, Jong K; Baik, Myunggi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in dairy heifers. Twenty Holstein heifers in early pregnancy were divided into non-transported (NT; n = 7) and transported (T; n = 13) groups. Blood was collected before transportation (BT), immediately after transportation for 100 km (T1) and 200 km (T2), and 24 h after transportation (AT). The T heifers had higher (P < 0.05) blood cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations after T1 and T2 than did NT heifers. By contrast, the T heifers had lower (P < 0.05) serum triglyceride concentrations after T1 and T2 than had the NT heifers. The serum cortisol and triglyceride concentrations returned (P > 0.05) to the BT concentrations at 24 h AT in the T heifers. The granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio and the percentage of monocytes were higher (P < 0.05) after T2 in the T heifers than in the NT heifers, suggesting that transportation stress increased the numbers of innate immune cells. T heifers had higher (P < 0.01) plasma haptoglobin concentrations than NT heifers 24 h AT. In conclusion, transportation increased cortisol secretion and was correlated with increased metabolic responses and up-regulation of peripheral innate immune cells in dairy heifers. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. The impact of European Registers of Road Transport Undertakings on security and enforcement of the system of digital tachograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychter, M.; Rychter, R.

    2016-09-01

    Secure digital tachograph system is indisputably a means having the great influence on road safety, enforcement of the social conditions for drivers in road transport as well as supporting the fair competition between road transport undertakings. In order to better monitor the compliance of road transport with the rules in force, inter alia the provisions on usage the digital tachographs, the European Union regulation introduces the European Registers of Road Transport Undertakings (ERRU), a system that allows a better exchange of information between Member States. The main purpose of this analysis is to present the measures for enforcement the execution of the provisions on obligation of installation and usage of digital tachographs in road transport and for improving the security of data recorded within digital tachograph system especially through exchange of the information on the most serious infringements committed by hauliers in any Member State, which may lead to the loss of good repute and the e-document engineering method used by the ERRU system.

  12. Transport of road salt contamination in karst aquifers and soils over multiple timescales.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Heather K; Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-15

    Road deicing has caused widespread environmental Na(+) and Cl(-) release for decades, yet the transport and retention of these contaminants in karst aquifers and soils are poorly understood. We examined the transport dynamics of Na(+) and Cl(-) from road salt in shallow groundwater during flooding and over seasonal timescales by intensively monitoring an urban and a rural karst spring over approximately 2 years. Furthermore, we used a 20-year dataset for the rural spring to determine how salt retention affected long-term geochemical trends in the shallow groundwater. Salt transport was governed by hydrologic pathways through karst aquifers: during winter and early spring floods, flow through preferential pathways rapidly transported salty meltwater or stormwater over hours to days, while the remaining salt-contaminated water moved diffusely through the rock matrix on timescales of months to years. Flood hydrograph separations revealed that event water constituted 61.2% of stormflow on average at the urban spring, leading to more extreme variability in salt concentrations during flooding and throughout the year. This variability indicates that baseflow contributions to urban streams overlying karst aquifers with preferential flowpaths are likely less effective at buffering salt concentrations. In contrast, salt concentrations were less variable in the baseflow-dominated rural spring (28.7% event water). Furthermore, salt was episodically released from soils to shallow groundwater throughout the year during first flush events. A Cl(-) mass balance indicates that Cl(-) applied during previous winters persists within the springs' recharge basins for more than a year, raising baseline concentrations as road salt is introduced faster than it can be flushed from the basin. Inter-annual salt retention by soils or slow groundwater movement likely caused significant Cl(-) and specific conductivity (SpC) increases at the rural spring from 1996 to 2016. Accumulation of salt in

  13. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Crashes and Transported by Emergency Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chuang, Jung-Fang; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-02-19

    To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in a Level I trauma center. Of 16,548 registered patients, 3978 and 1440 patients injured in road traffic crashes were transported to the emergency department by EMS and non-EMS, respectively. Patients transported by EMS had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and worse hemodynamic measures. Compared to patients transported by non-EMS, more patients transported by EMS required procedures (intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion) at the emergency department. They also sustained a higher injury severity, as measured by the injury severity score (ISS) and the new injury severity score (NISS). Lastly, in-hospital mortality was higher among the EMS than the non-EMS group (1.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). However, we found no statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for mortality among patients transported by EMS after adjustment for ISS (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 0.33-2.26), indicating that the higher incidence of mortality was likely attributed to the patients' higher injury severity. In addition, after propensity score matching, logistic regression of 58 well-matched pairs did not show a significant influence of transportation by EMS on mortality (OR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.132-2.541 p = 0.468).

  14. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Crashes and Transported by Emergency Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chuang, Jung-Fang; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in a Level I trauma center. Of 16,548 registered patients, 3978 and 1440 patients injured in road traffic crashes were transported to the emergency department by EMS and non-EMS, respectively. Patients transported by EMS had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and worse hemodynamic measures. Compared to patients transported by non-EMS, more patients transported by EMS required procedures (intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion) at the emergency department. They also sustained a higher injury severity, as measured by the injury severity score (ISS) and the new injury severity score (NISS). Lastly, in-hospital mortality was higher among the EMS than the non-EMS group (1.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). However, we found no statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for mortality among patients transported by EMS after adjustment for ISS (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 0.33–2.26), indicating that the higher incidence of mortality was likely attributed to the patients’ higher injury severity. In addition, after propensity score matching, logistic regression of 58 well-matched pairs did not show a significant influence of transportation by EMS on mortality (OR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.132–2.541 p = 0.468). PMID:26907318

  15. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol: simulations for year 2000 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2013-05-01

    We use the EMAC-MADE global aerosol model to quantify the impact of transport emissions (land transport, shipping and aviation) on global aerosol. We consider a present-day (2000) scenario and the CMIP5 emission dataset developed in support of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. The model takes also into account particle number emissions, which are derived from mass emissions under different assumptions on the size distribution of particles emitted by the three transport sectors. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed to quantify the effects of the uncertainties behind such assumptions. The model simulations show that the impact of the transport sectors closely matches the emission patterns. Land transport is the most important source of black carbon pollution in USA, Europe and Arabian Peninsula. Shipping strongly contributes to aerosol sulfate concentrations along the most-traveled routes of the northern Atlantic and northern Pacific oceans, with a significant impact along the coastlines. The effect of aviation is mostly confined to the upper-troposphere (7-12 km), in the northern mid-latitudes, although significant effects are also simulated at the ground, due to the emissions from landing and take-off cycles. The transport-induced perturbations to particle number concentrations are very sensitive to the assumptions on the size distribution of emitted particles, with the largest uncertainties obtained for the land transport sector. The simulated climate impacts, due to aerosol direct and indirect effects, are strongest for the shipping sector, as a consequence of the large impact of sulfate aerosol on low marine clouds and their optical properties.

  16. The effects of road transportation on physiological responses and meat quality in sheep differing in age.

    PubMed

    Zhong, R Z; Liu, H W; Zhou, D W; Sun, H X; Zhao, C S

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 8 h of road transportation on physiological responses and meat quality traits of sheep at 6, 12, and 24 mo of age. Seventy-two male sheep were equally divided into transported (TRANS) and nontransported (CON) treatments (n = 36), and each treatment was subdivided into 3 groups by age (n = 12). Sheep in CON groups were weighed, blood sampled, and slaughtered, whereas sheep in TRANS groups were weighed, transported, blood sampled, and slaughtered to collect meat samples. The BW of sheep in TRANS groups was reduced significantly (P < 0.001) compared with CON sheep, and older sheep lost more BW than younger animals. However, dressing percentages of TRANS sheep were significantly (P < 0.001) greater than those of CON sheep. Some meat quality variables were affected by transportation, and responses of different ages of sheep varied. Total pigment content and lipid oxidation of LM and gluteus medius of TRANS sheep increased significantly (P < 0.001) compared with CON sheep. Cooking loss of LM and gluteus medius was influenced significantly (P < 0.01) by interaction effect between transportation and age, and the values for 6-mo-old TRANS sheep were less than those of CON sheep. Serum total protein (P = 0.036), globulin (P = 0.026), triglyceride (P < 0.001), and total cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.028) of TRANS sheep decreased compared with CON sheep. Serum NEFA concentration of TRANS sheep increased in relation to CON sheep with a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between transportation and age effect. Numbers of white blood cells were influenced (P = 0.002) by an interaction effect between transportation and age, and values for 6-mo-old sheep were not influenced by transportation. Numbers of platelets were influenced (P = 0.014) by age; they decreased more in 6-mo-old sheep than in older sheep. Transportation and age had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on packed cell volume and lymphocyte number. Serum creatine

  17. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile source emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models, which are used to simulate air quality and understand the role of mobile source emissions. The significance of mobile sources is even more important in China because the country has the largest vehicle population in the world, and that population continues to grow rapidly. Estimating emissions from diesel trucks is a critical work in mobile source emission inventories due to the importance and difficulties associated with estimating emissions from diesel trucks. Although diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), there are still more obstacles on the existing estimation of diesel truck emissions compared with that of cars; long-range freight transportation activities are complicated, and much of the basic data remain unclear. Most of existing inventories were based on local registration number. However, according to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance inter-city or inter province transportation. Instead of the local registration number based approach, a road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected. Both the questionnaire answers and GPS monitoring results indicated that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. We present estimated emissions of NOx and primary PM2.5 from diesel freight trucks for China in 2011. Using the REIB approach, the activity level and distribution data are obtained from the questionnaire answers. Emission factors are calculated with the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model that interpolated local on-board measurement results in China according to the GPS

  18. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  19. Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: the effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties.

    PubMed

    Apul, Defne S; Gardner, Kevin H; Eighmy, T Taylor

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research was to provide a tool for regulators to evaluate the groundwater contamination from the use of virgin and secondary materials in road construction. A finite element model, HYDRUS2D, was used to evaluate generic scenarios for secondary material use in base layers. Use of generic model results for particular applications was demonstrated through a steel slag example. The hydrology and reactive transport of contaminants were modeled in a two-dimensional cross section of a road. Model simulations showed that in an intact pavement, lateral velocities from the edge towards the centerline may transport contaminants in the base layer. The dominant transport mechanisms are advection closer to the edge and diffusion closer to the centerline. A shoulder joint in the pavement allows 0.03 to 0.45 m(3)/day of infiltration per meter of joint length as a function of the base and subgrade hydrology and the rain intensity. Scenario simulations showed that salts in the base layer of pavements are depleted by 99% in the first 20 years, whereas the metals may not reach the groundwater in 20 years at any significant concentrations if the pavement is built on adsorbing soils.

  20. Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: The effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties

    SciTech Connect

    Apul, Defne S. Gardner, Kevin H. Eighmy, T. Taylor

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this research was to provide a tool for regulators to evaluate the groundwater contamination from the use of virgin and secondary materials in road construction. A finite element model, HYDRUS2D, was used to evaluate generic scenarios for secondary material use in base layers. Use of generic model results for particular applications was demonstrated through a steel slag example. The hydrology and reactive transport of contaminants were modeled in a two-dimensional cross section of a road. Model simulations showed that in an intact pavement, lateral velocities from the edge towards the centerline may transport contaminants in the base layer. The dominant transport mechanisms are advection closer to the edge and diffusion closer to the centerline. A shoulder joint in the pavement allows 0.03 to 0.45 m{sup 3}/day of infiltration per meter of joint length as a function of the base and subgrade hydrology and the rain intensity. Scenario simulations showed that salts in the base layer of pavements are depleted by 99% in the first 20 years, whereas the metals may not reach the groundwater in 20 years at any significant concentrations if the pavement is built on adsorbing soils.

  1. Private-sector involvement in urban transportation. Final report, 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The report documents ways to involve the private sector in the planning and implementation of highway and transit systems, and recommends procedures for improving public/private partnerships in urban transportation at the State, regional, and local levels. The report provides a broad overview of the opportunities available and briefly reviews a wide variety of techniques followed by successful applications in 20 cities across the Nation. These case studies cover the highway and transit modes and represent all major groups of private-sector participants, including local businesses and community groups, major developers and transit service providers. Six of those cases were studied in greater detail.

  2. Indirect economic impact of landslide hazards by disruption to national road transportation networks; Scotland, United Kingdom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The failure of engineered or natural slopes which support or are adjacent to transportation systems often inflicts costly direct physical damage and indirect system disruption. The consequences and severity of indirect impacts vary according to which links, nodes or network facilities are physically disrupted. Moreover, it is often the case that multiple slope failure disruptions are triggered simultaneously following prolonged or intense precipitation events due to a degree of local homogeneity of slope characteristics and materials. This study investigates the application of national commuter statistics and network agent simulation to evaluate indirect impacts of landslide events disrupting the Scottish trunk road transportation network (UK). Previous studies often employ shortest pathway analysis whereas agent simulation has received relatively little attention. British Geological Survey GeoSure landslide susceptibility data is used to select 35 susceptible trunk road segments by means of neighbouring total area at risk. For each of the candidate 35 segments the network and zonal variation in travel time is calculated for a single day of disruption, economic impact is approximated using established governmental and industry transport planning and appraisal values. The results highlight that a number of trunk road segments incur indirect economic losses in the order of tens of thousands of pounds for each day of closure. Calculated losses at the A83 Rest and Be Thankful are 50% greater than previous estimates at £75 thousand per day of closure. Also highlighted are events in which economic impact is relatively minor, yet concentrating on particular communities that can become substantially isolated as a consequence of a single event. The findings of this study are of interest and support wider investigations exploring cost considerations for decision makers and mitigation strategies, in addition to identifying network topological and demand indicators conducive

  3. Active transport and obesity prevention - A transportation sector obesity impact scoping review and assessment for Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, V; Moodie, M; Mantilla Herrera, A M; Veerman, J L; Carter, R

    2017-03-01

    Given the alarming prevalence of obesity worldwide and the need for interventions to halt the growing epidemic, more evidence on the role and impact of transport interventions for obesity prevention is required. This study conducts a scoping review of the current evidence of association between modes of transport (motor vehicle, walking, cycling and public transport) and obesity-related outcomes. Eleven reviews and thirty-three primary studies exploring associations between transport behaviours and obesity were identified. Cohort simulation Markov modelling was used to estimate the effects of body mass index (BMI) change on health outcomes and health care costs of diseases causally related to obesity in the Melbourne, Australia population. Results suggest that evidence for an obesity effect of transport behaviours is inconclusive (29% of published studies reported expected associations, 33% mixed associations), and any potential BMI effect is likely to be relatively small. Hypothetical scenario analyses suggest that active transport interventions may contribute small but significant obesity-related health benefits across populations (approximately 65 health adjusted life years gained per year). Therefore active transport interventions that are low cost and targeted to those most amenable to modal switch are the most likely to be effective and cost-effective from an obesity prevention perspective. The uncertain but potentially significant opportunity for health benefits warrants the collection of more and better quality evidence to fully understand the potential relationships between transport behaviours and obesity. Such evidence would contribute to the obesity prevention dialogue and inform policy across the transportation, health and environmental sectors.

  4. The Physics of Traffic Congestion and Road Pricing in Transportation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, David

    2010-03-01

    This presentation develops congestion theory and congestion pricing theory from its micro- foundations, the interaction of two or more vehicles. Using game theory, with a two- player game it is shown that the emergence of congestion depends on the players' relative valuations of early arrival, late arrival, and journey delay. Congestion pricing can be used as a cooperation mechanism to minimize total costs (if returned to the players). The analysis is then extended to the case of the three- player game, which illustrates congestion as a negative externality imposed on players who do not themselves contribute to it. A multi-agent model of travelers competing to utilize a roadway in time and space is presented. To realize the spillover effect among travelers, N-player games are constructed in which the strategy set includes N+1 strategies. We solve the N-player game (for N = 7) and find Nash equilibria if they exist. This model is compared to the bottleneck model. The results of numerical simulation show that the two models yield identical results in terms of lowest total costs and marginal costs when a social optimum exists. Moving from temporal dynamics to spatial complexity, using consistent agent- based techniques, we model the decision-making processes of users and infrastructure owner/operators to explore the welfare consequence of price competition, capacity choice, and product differentiation on congested transportation networks. Component models include: (1) An agent-based travel demand model wherein each traveler has learning capabilities and unique characteristics (e.g. value of time); (2) Econometric facility provision cost models; and (3) Representations of road authorities making pricing and capacity decisions. Different from small-network equilibrium models in prior literature, this agent- based model is applicable to pricing and investment analyses on large complex networks. The subsequent economic analysis focuses on the source, evolution

  5. Challenges for Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from the Transport Sector in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    The transport sector is a large contributor of harmful gaseous and particulate emissions in many urban areas. Black carbon is a component of short-lived particulate matter emitted predominantly by freight, public transport, and heavy- duty trucks. Controlling the emissions of black carbon from the transport sector is important for mitigating its impacts on climate, ecosystems, and human health. However, reducing the emissions of black carbon from mobile sources may be a challenging task in many developing urban areas due to economic, social, and technical constrains. Several emissions control technologies offer a proven approach for reducing emissions of black carbon from diesel-powered mobile sources, but the accurate quantification of associated emissions benefits in developing urban areas is not well documented. We describe recent advances for the estimation of black carbon emissions from the transport sector in real world driving conditions and present examples of the potential benefits of implementing various emission control technologies in Mexico. The results can help in the identification of key factors that hinder the implementation of control emissions for reducing emissions of black carbon elsewhere.

  6. Global model simulations of the impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, Mattia; Hendricks, Johannes; Sausen, Robert

    2013-04-01

    The transport sector, including land transport, shipping and aviation, is one of the major sources of tropospheric aerosol. Land transport, in particular, is a relevant source of pollution in highly populated areas (e.g. megacities), with significant impacts on climate and health. Transport emissions are expected to grow in the near future, especially in the developing countries. In this work we use the EMAC-MADE global aerosol model to quantify the impact of transport emissions on global aerosol, for both present-day (2000) and future (2030) scenarios. Number emissions are also included in the model and derived from mass emissions under different assumptions on the size distribution of particles emitted by the three transport modes. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed to quantify the effects of the uncertainties behind such assumptions. The model simulations reveal that land transport is the most important source of black carbon pollution in the densely populated regions of Eastern U.S. and Europe. High particle concentrations are simulated for Southeast Asian areas, although pollution in this region is mostly due to non-transport sources. Shipping strongly contributes to aerosol sulphate concentrations along the most-traveled routes of the Northern Atlantic and Northern Pacific oceans, with significant impact along the coastlines and nearby major harbors and with large effects on cloud properties. The impacts on particle number concentrations are very sensitive to the assumptions on size distribution of emitted particles, with the largest uncertainties simulated for the land transport sector. The model results further reveal significant climate impacts of transport-induced particles.

  7. Comparison of minimum space allowance standards for transportation of cattle by road from 8 authorities.

    PubMed

    Whiting, T L

    2000-11-01

    Space allowance for animals in transit is a consistent concern in many countries developing codes of practice and regulations to assure humane treatment of food producing animals. Describing minimum space allowance requirements for cattle in transit has proven to be difficult, as the space required increases as the animal grows. Loading pressure, defined as weight of live animal per unit area, has proven to be a clear method of communicating with transporters and inspection staff what the maximum safe stocking limit is based on individual animal weight. The loading density recommendations in the Canadian code of practice for beef cattle are compared with other standards by using loading pressure charts as a visual aid. Loading pressure charts are recommended in preference to a tabular format to describe the minimal space allowed per animal for cattle transported by road.

  8. A survey on hazardous materials accidents during road transport in China from 2000 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Li, Fengying; Zhou, Jingbo; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun

    2010-12-15

    A study of 322 accidents that occurred during the road transport of hazardous materials (hazmat) in China from 2000 to 2008 was carried out. The results showed an increase in the frequency of accidents from 2000 to 2007 and a decline in 2008. More than 63% of the accidents occurred in the eastern coastal areas, 25.5% in the central inland areas, and only 10.9% in the western remote areas. The most frequent types of accident were releases (84.5%), followed by gas clouds (13.0%), fires (10.2%), no substance released due to timely measures (9.9%), and explosions (5.9%). The spatial distribution, the causes and consequences of the accidents related to the population (e.g., number of people killed, injured, evacuated, or poisoned), and environment elements were analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve certain safety measures in the road transport of hazmat in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Landucci, Gabriele; Molag, Menso; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2009-08-15

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements model. The results of mathematical simulations of real scale fire engulfment scenarios that may follow accidents involving LPG tankers proved the effectiveness of the thermal protections in preventing the "fired" BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) scenario. The presence of a thermal coating greatly increases the "time to failure", providing a time lapse that in the European experience may be considered sufficient to allow the start of effective mitigation actions by fire brigades. The results obtained were used to calculate the expected reduction of individual and societal risk due to LPG transportation in real case scenarios. The analysis confirmed that the introduction of passive fire protections turns out in a significant reduction of risk, up to an order of magnitude in the case of individual risk and of about 50% if the expectation value is considered. Thus, the adoption of passive fire protections, not compulsory in European regulations, may be an effective technical measure for risk reduction, and may contribute to achieve the control of "major accidents hazards" cited by the European legislation.

  10. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting.

  11. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  12. Implications of sustainability for the United States light-duty transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Chris

    2016-08-08

    This article reviews existing literature to assess the consensus of the scientific and engineering communities concerning the potential for the United States’ light-duty transportation sector to meet a goal of 80% reduction in vehicle emissions and examine what it will take to meet this target. Climate change is a problem that must be solved. The primary cause of this problem is burning of fossil fuels to generate energy. A dramatic reduction in carbon emissions must happen soon, and a significant fraction of this reduction must come from the transportation sector. This paper reviews existing literature to assess the consensus of the scientific and engineering communities concerning the potential for the United States' light-duty transportation sector to meet a goal of 80% reduction in vehicle emissions and examine what it will take to meet this target. It is unlikely that reducing energy consumption in just vehicles with gasoline-based internal combustion drivetrains will be sufficient to meet GHG emission-reduction targets. This paper explores what additional benefits are possible through the adoption of alternative energy sources, looking at three possible on-vehicle energy carriers: carbon-based fuels, hydrogen, and batteries.

  13. Implications of sustainability for the United States light-duty transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Chris

    2016-08-08

    This article reviews existing literature to assess the consensus of the scientific and engineering communities concerning the potential for the United States’ light-duty transportation sector to meet a goal of 80% reduction in vehicle emissions and examine what it will take to meet this target. Climate change is a problem that must be solved. The primary cause of this problem is burning of fossil fuels to generate energy. A dramatic reduction in carbon emissions must happen soon, and a significant fraction of this reduction must come from the transportation sector. This paper reviews existing literature to assess the consensus of the scientific and engineering communities concerning the potential for the United States' light-duty transportation sector to meet a goal of 80% reduction in vehicle emissions and examine what it will take to meet this target. It is unlikely that reducing energy consumption in just vehicles with gasoline-based internal combustion drivetrains will be sufficient to meet GHG emission-reduction targets. This paper explores what additional benefits are possible through the adoption of alternative energy sources, looking at three possible on-vehicle energy carriers: carbon-based fuels, hydrogen, and batteries.

  14. Implications of sustainability for the United States light-duty transportation sector

    DOE PAGES

    Gearhart, Chris

    2016-08-08

    This article reviews existing literature to assess the consensus of the scientific and engineering communities concerning the potential for the United States’ light-duty transportation sector to meet a goal of 80% reduction in vehicle emissions and examine what it will take to meet this target. Climate change is a problem that must be solved. The primary cause of this problem is burning of fossil fuels to generate energy. A dramatic reduction in carbon emissions must happen soon, and a significant fraction of this reduction must come from the transportation sector. This paper reviews existing literature to assess the consensus ofmore » the scientific and engineering communities concerning the potential for the United States' light-duty transportation sector to meet a goal of 80% reduction in vehicle emissions and examine what it will take to meet this target. It is unlikely that reducing energy consumption in just vehicles with gasoline-based internal combustion drivetrains will be sufficient to meet GHG emission-reduction targets. This paper explores what additional benefits are possible through the adoption of alternative energy sources, looking at three possible on-vehicle energy carriers: carbon-based fuels, hydrogen, and batteries.« less

  15. Health co-benefits of climate change mitigation policies in the transport sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Caroline; Hales, Simon; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Edwards, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Theory, common sense and modelling studies suggest that some interventions to mitigate carbon emissions in the transport sector can also have substantial short-term benefits for population health. Policies that encourage active modes of transportation such as cycling may, for example, increase population physical activity and decrease air pollution, thus reducing the burden of conditions such as some cancers, diabetes, heart disease and dementia. In this Perspective we systematically review the evidence from 'real life' transport policies and their impacts on health and CO2 emissions. We identified a few studies that mostly involved personalized travel planning and showed modest increases in active transport such as walking, and reductions in vehicle use and CO2 emissions. Given the poor quality of the studies identified, urgent action is needed to provide more robust evidence for policies.

  16. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2015-12-22

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development.

  17. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2015-01-01

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development. PMID:26703699

  18. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol: simulations for year 2000 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2013-10-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global model with the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to quantify the impact of transport emissions (land transport, shipping and aviation) on the global aerosol. We consider a present-day (2000) scenario according to the CMIP5 (Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) emission data set developed in support of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Fifth Assessment Report. The model takes into account particle mass and number emissions: The latter are derived from mass emissions under different assumptions on the size distribution of particles emitted by the three transport sectors. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed to quantify the effects of the uncertainties behind such assumptions. The model simulations show that the impact of the transport sectors closely matches the emission patterns. Land transport is the most important source of black carbon (BC) pollution in the USA, Europe and the Arabian Peninsula, contributing up to 60-70% of the total surface-level BC concentration in these regions. Shipping contributes about 40-60% of the total aerosol sulfate surface-level concentration along the most-traveled routes of the northern Atlantic and northern Pacific oceans, with a significant impact (~ 10-20%) along the coastlines. Aviation mostly affects aerosol number, contributing about 30-40% of the particle number concentration in the northern midlatitudes' upper troposphere (7-12 km), although significant effects are also simulated at the ground, due to the emissions from landing and take-off cycles. The transport-induced perturbations to the particle number concentrations are very sensitive to the assumptions on the size distribution of emitted particles, with the largest uncertainties (about one order of magnitude) obtained for the land transport sector. The simulated climate impacts, due to aerosol direct and

  19. Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG`S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG`S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria.

  20. Plasma total antioxidant status in horses after 8-hours of road transportation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-hour road transport on plasma total antioxidant status (PTAS) and general clinical appearance in horses. Findings The study was conducted on a group of 60 horses of different breeds aged from 4 to 10 years. Venous blood was collected and a clinical examination was performed immediately before loading horses onto trailers for an 8 hour transport (I), immediately after unloading them from the trailer (II), and after a subsequent 24 hour stall rest (III). The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was used to determine PTAS. The transportation significantly increased respiratory and heart rates. The average PTAS increased during the three subsequent samplings: I: 170 ± 77 (μmol/l) II: 204 ± 70 (μmol/l) III: 221 ± 74 (μmol/l). Conclusion Long-distance transport increased the PTAS horses, as well as respiratory and heart rates. PMID:23945316

  1. Engineering and design of vehicles for long distance road transport of livestock (ruminants, pigs and poultry).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Malcolm A; Kettlewell, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    During road transportation, livestock are subjected to a number of concurrent potential stressors that can increase mortality and morbidity and compromise welfare status and production efficiency. A major concern is the thermal micro-environment within the vehicle with both heat stress and cold stress constituting major problems. It is possible to mitigate the effects of external climatic conditions by improving vehicle design and operation using engineering solutions that match 'on-board' environmental conditions with the biological requirements of the animals. This review describes an investigative approach that targets four elements. These are the thermal conditions on commercial transport vehicles under a range of climatic conditions, the 'thermal comfort zones' or target conditions for different livestock species, the heat and moisture loads upon vehicles that must be dissipated and the thermodynamic characteristics of animal transport vehicles that affect the design of mechanical or active ventilation systems able to function at maximum efficiency under everyday commercial conditions. Results of research around these four elements can provide the sound scientific basis for improved vehicle design and operation and for legislation and codes of practice aimed at optimising animal welfare and productivity in relation to transportation of livestock on journeys of both long and short duration.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of passive fire protections in road LPG transportation.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-02-01

    The cost-benefit evaluation of passive fire protection adoption in the road transport of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was investigated. In a previous study, mathematical simulations of real scale fire scenarios proved the effectiveness of passive fire protections in preventing the "fired" boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), thus providing a significant risk reduction. In the present study the economical aspects of the adoption of fire protections are analyzed and an approach to cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is proposed. The CBA model is based on the comparison of the risk reduction due to fire protections (expressed in monetary terms by the value of a statistical life) and the cost of the application of fire protections to a fleet of tankers. Different types of fire protections were considered, as well as the possibility to apply protections to the entire fleet or only to a part of it. The application of the proposed model to a real-life case study is presented and discussed. Results demonstrate that the adoption of passive fire protections on road tankers, though not compulsory in Europe, can be economically feasible, thus representing a concrete measure to achieve control of the "major hazard accidents" cited by the European legislation.

  6. Rules of the road: A qualitative and quantitative synthesis of large wood transport through drainage networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Natalie; Wohl, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To effectively manage wood in rivers, we need a better understanding of wood mobility within river networks. Here, we review primarily field-based (and some numerical) studies of wood transport. We distinguish small, medium, large, and great rivers based on wood piece dimensions relative to channel and flow dimensions and dominant controls on wood transport. We suggest further identification and designation of wood transport regimes as a useful way to characterize spatial-temporal network heterogeneity and to conceptualize the primary controls on wood mobility in diverse river segments. We draw analogies between wood and bedload transport, including distinguishing Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, exploring transport capacity, and quantifying thresholds of wood mobility. We identify mobility envelopes for remobilization of wood with relation to increasing peak discharges, stream size, and dimensionless log lengths. Wood transport in natural channels exhibits high spatial and temporal variability, with discontinuities along the channel network at bankfull flow and when log lengths equal channel widths. Although median mobilization rates increase with increasing channel size, maximum mobilization rates are greatest in medium-sized channels. Most wood is transported during relatively infrequent high flows, but flows under bankfull can transport up to 30% of stored wood. We use conceptual models of dynamic equilibrium of wood in storage and of spiralling wood transport paths through drainage networks, as well as a metaphor of traffic on a road, to explore discontinuous wood movement through a river network. The primary limitations to describing wood transport are inappropriate time scales of observation and lack of sufficient data on mobility from diverse rivers. Improving models of wood flux requires better characterization of average step lengths within the lifetime travel path of a piece of wood. We suggest that future studies focus on: (i) continuous or high

  7. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 1: Land transport and shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Using the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications), we simulate the impact of land transport and shipping emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Future emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare the resulting 2030 land-transport- and shipping-induced aerosol concentrations to the ones obtained for the year 2000 in a previous study with the same model configuration. The simulations suggest that black carbon and aerosol nitrate are the most relevant pollutants from land transport in 2000 and 2030 and their impacts are characterized by very strong regional variations during this time period. Europe and North America experience a decrease in the land-transport-induced particle pollution, although in these regions this sector remains a major source of surface-level pollution in 2030 under all RCPs. In Southeast Asia, however, a significant increase is simulated, but in this region the surface-level pollution is still controlled by other sources than land transport. Shipping-induced air pollution is mostly due to aerosol sulfate and nitrate, which show opposite trends towards 2030. Sulfate is strongly reduced as a consequence of sulfur reduction policies in ship fuels in force since 2010, while nitrate tends to increase due to the excess of ammonia following the reduction in ammonium sulfate. The aerosol-induced climate impact of both sectors is dominated by aerosol-cloud effects and is projected to decrease between 2000 and 2030, nevertheless still contributing a significant radiative forcing to Earth's radiation budget.

  8. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 1: Land transport and shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2014-09-01

    Using the EMAC global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE, we simulate the impact of land transport and shipping emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Future emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare the resulting 2030 land-transport- and shipping-induced aerosol concentrations to the ones obtained for the year 2000 in a previous study with the same model configuration. The simulations suggest that black carbon and aerosol nitrate are the most relevant pollutants from land transport in 2000 and 2030, but their impacts are characterized by very strong regional variations during this time period. Europe and North America experience a decrease in the land-transport-induced particle pollution, although in these regions this sector remains the dominant source of surface-level pollution in 2030 under all RCPs. In Southeast Asia, on the other hand, a significant increase is simulated, but in this region the surface-level pollution is still controlled by other sources than land transport. Shipping-induced air pollution is mostly due to aerosol sulfate and nitrate, which show opposite trends towards 2030. Sulfate is strongly reduced as a consequence of sulfur reduction policies in ship-fuels in force since 2010, while nitrate tends to increase due to the excess of ammonia following the reduction in ammonium-sulfate. The aerosol-induced climate impact of both sectors is dominated by aerosol-cloud effects and is projected to decrease between 2000 and 2030, nevertheless still contributing a significant radiative forcing to the Earth's radiation budget.

  9. Evaluating bioaerosol exposure among bus drivers in the public transport sector.

    PubMed

    Nowakowicz-Dębek, Bożena; Pawlak, Halina; Wlazło, Łukasz; Maksym, Piotr; Kapica, Jacek; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Trawińska, Beata

    2017-06-26

    Occupational hazards and consequent health problems suffered by drivers in the public transport sector require preventive measures. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of drivers to microbiological air contamination (airborne bacteria and fungi) in buses. The air in public transport vehicles was examined in autumn, winter and spring. To evaluate the exposure of drivers to bioaerosols, air samples were collected and examined for the total number of bacteria and fungi in the air, the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria specified by the number of colony forming units (CFU) per 1 m3 of air. The results of the research show that public transport as a workplace can be considered to be a significant risk to health.

  10. Economic and Social Aspects of Applying Biodiesel Fuel in Road Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukljaš Skočibušić, Mihaela; Jolić, Natalija; Bukljaš, Zdravko

    The world trend in automotive industry represents the improvement of the existing vehicle power plants and their further development as well as the use of various alternative fuels. Such tendencies should not be considered only from an entirely technical aspect, but also from the economic, social and strategic aspects of the modern society. In this sense it is necessary to give priority to biodiesel fuel. The production of biodiesel fuel has to be developed in compliance with the increasingly severe exhaust emission standards in designing and realization of road transport means. From the economic aspect at macro-economic level, the development of biodiesel will reflect on the condition of industrial production, employment, additional inflow of financial means into agriculture and the economic development of rural areas, as well as the foreign currency reserves of a country along with the reduction in the dependence of macroeconomic parameters on the external factors.

  11. The effect of road transport in comparison to a novel environment on the physiological, metabolic and behavioural responses of bulls.

    PubMed

    Earley, Bernadette; Drennan, Michael; O'Riordan, Edward G

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of 18 h road transport with a 12h mid-journey rest period in comparison to the exposure of bulls to a novel environment on physiological, metabolic and behavioural responses of beef bulls. Thirty Charolais sired crossbred beef bulls (mean 486.0, s.d. 57.0 kg) were assigned by live weight to one of the two treatments, transport (T) (9h+9h) (n=15) and not-transported (NT) (n=15) on day 0. The bulls were transported at a spatial allowance of 1.3m(2)/animal by road for 9h, unloaded and rested for a 12h rest period, re-loaded and transported for a further 9h journey by road followed by a 2h rest period on the transporter, then unloaded and rested in a lairage for 24h with access to hay and water. Plasma albumin and urea concentrations increased (P<0.05) after the first 9h journey with values returning to baseline at the end of the 24h recovery period. There was a transient increase in haematocrit% in T and NT at sampling time points corresponding to the completion of the first 9h journey. Bulls spent longer time lying (P<0.05) during the first 9h journey compared with the percentage time spent lying during the second 9h journey. Differences in live weight, behaviour, and some blood variables show that transport is more stressful for bulls than being subjected to a novel environment and management, and while some biological variables returned to baseline values, others require a longer time (plasma haptoglobin, total protein, glucose and NEFA concentrations). Thus, the effective recovery of bulls exposed to an 18 h transport journey by road would suggest that a rest period of at least 24h with access to feed and water is required before further transport.

  12. Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

  13. Implications of climate change for economic development in northern Canada: energy, resource, and transportation sectors.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Chouinard, Rebecca; Melling, Humfrey; Milburn, David; Smith, Sharon L

    2009-07-01

    Northern Canada is projected to experience major changes to its climate, which will have major implications for northern economic development. Some of these, such as mining and oil and gas development, have experienced rapid expansion in recent years and are likely to expand further, partly as the result of indirect effects of changing climate. This article reviews how a changing climate will affect several economic sectors including the hydroelectric, oil and gas, and mining industries as well as infrastructure and transportation, both marine and freshwater. Of particular importance to all sectors are projected changes in the cryosphere, which will create both problems and opportunities. Potential adaptation strategies that could be used to minimize the negative impacts created by a climate change are also reviewed.

  14. Transport of hydraulic fracturing waste from Pennsylvania wells: A county-level analysis of road use and associated road repair costs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Lauren A.; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2016-01-01

    Pennsylvania’s rapid unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development—from a single well in 2004 to more than 6700 wells in 2013—has dramatically increased UOG waste transport by heavy trucks. This study quantified the amount of UOG waste and the distance it traveled between wells and disposal facilities on each type of road in each county between July 2010 and December 2013. In addition, the study estimated the associated financial costs to each county’s road infrastructure over that period. We found that UOG wells produced a median wastewater volume of 1294 m3 and a median of 89,267 kg of solid waste. The median number of waste-transport truck trips per well was 122. UOG wells existed in 38 Pennsylvania counties, but we estimated trucks transporting well waste traveled through 132 counties, including counties in West Virginia, Ohio, and New York. Median travel distance varied by disposal type, from 106 km to centralized treatment facilities up to 237 km to injection wells. Local roads experienced the greatest amount of truck traffic and associated costs ($1.1–6.5 M) and interstates, the least ($0.3–1.6 M). Counties with oil and gas development experienced the most truck traffic and incurred the highest associated roadway costs. However, many counties outside the active development area also incurred roadway repair costs, highlighting the extension of UOG development’s spatial footprint beyond the active development area. An online data visualization tool is available here: www.nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/transportation-of-hydraulic-fracturing-waste.

  15. Transport of hydraulic fracturing waste from Pennsylvania wells: A county-level analysis of road use and associated road repair costs.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Lauren A; Maloney, Kelly O

    2016-10-01

    Pennsylvania's rapid unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development-from a single well in 2004 to more than 6700 wells in 2013-has dramatically increased UOG waste transport by heavy trucks. This study quantified the amount of UOG waste and the distance it traveled between wells and disposal facilities on each type of road in each county between July 2010 and December 2013. In addition, the study estimated the associated financial costs to each county's road infrastructure over that period. We found that UOG wells produced a median wastewater volume of 1294 m(3) and a median of 89,267 kg of solid waste. The median number of waste-transport truck trips per well was 122. UOG wells existed in 38 Pennsylvania counties, but we estimated trucks transporting well waste traveled through 132 counties, including counties in West Virginia, Ohio, and New York. Median travel distance varied by disposal type, from 106 km to centralized treatment facilities up to 237 km to injection wells. Local roads experienced the greatest amount of truck traffic and associated costs ($1.1-6.5 M) and interstates, the least ($0.3-1.6 M). Counties with oil and gas development experienced the most truck traffic and incurred the highest associated roadway costs. However, many counties outside the active development area also incurred roadway repair costs, highlighting the extension of UOG development's spatial footprint beyond the active development area. An online data visualization tool is available here: www.nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/transportation-of-hydraulic-fracturing-waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geospatial analysis of naturally occurring boundaries in road-transport emissions and children's respiratory health across a demographically diverse cityscape.

    PubMed

    Jephcote, Calvin; Chen, Haibo

    2013-04-01

    The motor-vehicle is accountable for emitting a substantial concoction of air quality objective pollutants and carcinogenic hydrocarbons within close proximity to urbanised residential districts. The spatial extent of health impacts associated with road-transport pollutants have traditionally been explored through the examination of artificially created buffers, defined by subjective distances from specified major road links. Within this paper an alternative approach is presented using boundary statistics, which describe naturally occurring shifts of magnitude in socio-environmental and health outcomes across the wider urban area. In contrast, previous distance-threshold investigations have used arbitrarily sized buffers placed upon predetermined locations in response to environmental attributes, without considering the combined influence of additional social burdens. The demographically diverse City of Leicester, situated within the heart of the United Kingdom's major road-transport network, was selected to showcase such methods. Descriptive multilevel modelling strategies accommodating for generalised spatial structures across Leicester, globally associated issues of deprivation, road-transport emissions and ethnic minorities with increased respiratory risks. Getis-Ord Gi* spatial pattern recognition statistics identified the existence of localised variations, with inner city neighbourhoods tending to house children of ethnic minority groups whom experience disproportionately large environmental and respiratory health burdens. Crisp polygon wombling boundary detection across Leicester appeared to broadly complement the Gi* statistics, identifying naturally occurring boundaries in road-transport emissions to result in elevated children's respiratory admissions within a distance of 283 m (P < 0.05). The designated threshold was identified to reduce in relation to certain ethnic groups, thus suggesting environmental injustices likely prevail within the model

  17. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  18. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  19. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  20. 19 CFR 18.4a - Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under customs seal; requirements. 18.4a Section 18.4a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... General Provisions § 18.4a Containers or road vehicles accepted for transport under customs seal... under Customs seal (see § 18.4) if (i) durably marked with the name and address of the...

  1. Analysis on tank truck accidents involved in road hazardous materials transportation in china.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ying; Li, Xiaonan; Xie, Chenjiang; Wang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the sheer size and capacity of the tanker and the properties of cargo transported in the tank, hazmat tanker accidents are more disastrous than other types of vehicle accidents. The aim of this study was to provide a current survey on the situation of accidents involving tankers transporting hazardous materials in China. Detailed descriptions of 708 tanker accidents associated with hazmat transportation in China from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed to identify causes, location, types, time of occurrence, hazard class for materials involved, consequences, and the corresponding probability. Hazmat tanker accidents mainly occurred in eastern (38.1%) and southwest China (12.3%). The most frequent hazmat tanker accidents involved classes 2, 3, and 8. The predominant accident types were rollover (29.10%), run-off-the-road (16.67%), and rear-end collisions (13.28%), with a high likelihood of a large spill occurring. About 55.93% of the accidents occurred on freeways and class 1 roads, with the spill percentage reaching 75.00% and the proportion of spills that occurred in the total accidents amounting to 77.82%, of which 61.72% are considered large spills. The month with the highest accident probability was July (12.29%), and most crashes occurred during the early morning (4:00-6:00 a.m.) and midday (10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) hours, 19.63% versus 16.10%. Human-related errors (73.8%) and vehicle-related defects (19.6%) were the primary reasons for hazmat tanker crashes. The most common outcomes of a hazmat tanker accident was a spill without further events (55.51%), followed by a release with fire (7.77%), and release with an explosion (2.54%). The safety situation of China's hazmat tanker transportation is grim. Such accidents not only have high spill percentages and consistently large spills but they can also cause serious consequences, such as fires and explosions. Improving the training of drivers and the quality of vehicles, deploying roll stability aids, enhancing

  2. Road tanker design: its influence on the risk and economic aspects of transporting gasoline in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Mallikarjunarao, C.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of vehicle design on both the hazards and costs of transporting gasoline within the State of Michigan is evaluated. The study addresses only vehicle configurations which would be compatible with Michigan's road-use laws. Since rollovers are the principal cause of gasoline spills and fires, attention is focused primarily on the static and dynamic roll response properties of tank vehicles and the influence of these properties on the frequency of a rollover event. Mathematical models used for evaluating the static and dynamic roll behavior of articulated vehicles are developed. The study shows that the rollover thresholds of the alternative designs in steady turning can be significantly improved by: using tank profiles which lower the c.g. height of the tank; increasing the width of the trailer from 96 to 102 inches; limiting lash in the suspension springs; and replacing dual tires with widebase singles. Further, the dynamic roll behavior of the various designs is found to be superior to that exhibited by the conventional MC306 tanker, as used nationwide. An analysis of transportation costs showed that, despite the higher initial cost of the alternative designs, all but two of the smallest capacity vehicles are more economical to operate than the MC306 tanker. In addition, truck accident data were used to estimate the number of rollovers per year that could be expected to occur if each of the alternative designs were used exclusively to transport gasoline in Michigan. The fire and explosion hazards associated with each of the alternative designs have been defined in terms of a single risk numeric. By plotting this numeric as a function of operating cost, one finds that it is possible to design tank vehicles which not only reduce the fire and explosion hazards associated with the transportation of gasoline, but are also more economical to operate than the conventional MC306 tanker.

  3. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    In 1988 the Department of Energy (DOE) undertook a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States. During the next two decades, alternative fuels such as alcohol (methanol or ethanol), compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity could become practical alternatives to oil-based fuels in the US transportation sector. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability. To keep interested parties informed about the progress of the DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment, the Department periodically publishes reports dealing with particular aspects of this complex study. This report provides an analysis of the expected costs to produce methanol from biomass feedstock.

  4. Quantitative Risk Analysis on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Through a Bi-Directional Road Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Ciro; De Guglielmo, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative risk analysis (QRA) regarding dangerous goods vehicles (DGVs) running through road tunnels was set up. Peak hourly traffic volumes (VHP), percentage of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs), and failure of the emergency ventilation system were investigated in order to assess their impact on the risk level. The risk associated with an alternative route running completely in the open air and passing through a highly populated urban area was also evaluated. The results in terms of social risk, as F/N curves, show an increased risk level with an increase the VHP, the percentage of HGVs, and a failure of the emergency ventilation system. The risk curves of the tunnel investigated were found to lie both above and below those of the alternative route running in the open air depending on the type of dangerous goods transported. In particular, risk was found to be greater in the tunnel for two fire scenarios (no explosion). In contrast, the risk level for the exposed population was found to be greater for the alternative route in three possible accident scenarios associated with explosions and toxic releases. Therefore, one should be wary before stating that for the transport of dangerous products an itinerary running completely in the open air might be used if the latter passes through a populated area. The QRA may help decisionmakers both to implement additional safety measures and to understand whether to allow, forbid, or limit circulation of DGVs.

  5. On-road PM2.5 pollution exposure in multiple transport microenvironments in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Rahul; Gani, Shahzad; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Wilson, Daniel; Tiwari, Geetam

    2015-12-01

    PM2.5 pollution in Delhi averaged 150 μg/m3 from 2012 through 2014, which is 15 times higher than the World Health Organization's annual-average guideline. For this setting, we present on-road exposure of PM2.5 concentrations for 11 transport microenvironments along a fixed 8.3-km arterial route, during morning rush hour. The data collection was carried out using a portable TSI DustTrak DRX 8433 aerosol monitor, between January and May (2014). The monthly-average measured ambient concentrations varied from 130 μg/m3 to 250 μg/m3. The on-road PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the ambient measurements by an average of 40% for walking, 10% for cycle, 30% for motorised two wheeler (2W), 30% for open-windowed (OW) car, 30% for auto rickshaw, 20% for air-conditioned as well as for OW bus, 20% for bus stop, and 30% for underground metro station. On the other hand, concentrations were lower by 50% inside air-conditioned (AC) car and 20% inside the metro rail carriage. We find that the percent exceedance for open modes (cycle, auto rickshaw, 2W, OW car, and OW bus) reduces non-linearly with increasing ambient concentration. The reduction is steeper at concentrations lower than 150 μg/m3 than at higher concentrations. After accounting for air inhalation rate and speed of travel, PM2.5 mass uptake per kilometer during cycling is 9 times of AC car, the mode with the lowest exposure. At current level of concentrations, an hour of cycling in Delhi during morning rush-hour period results in PM2.5 dose which is 40% higher than an entire-day dose in cities like Tokyo, London, and New York, where ambient concentrations range from 10 to 20 μg/m3.

  6. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P.; Curran, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Proven reserves and production of natural gas (NG) in the United States have increased dramatically in the last decade, due largely to the commercialization of hydraulic fracturing. This has led to a plentiful supply of NG, resulting in a significantly lower cost on a gallon of gasoline-equivalent (GGE) basis. Additionally, NG is a domestic, non-petroleum source of energy that is less carbon-intensive than coal or petroleum products, and thus can lead to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Because of these factors, there is a desire to increase the use of NG in the transportation sector in the United States (U.S.). However, using NG directly in the transportation sector requires that several non-trivial challenges be overcome. One of these issues is the fueling infrastructure. There are currently only 1,375 NG fueling stations in the U.S. compared to 152,995 fueling stations for gasoline in 2014. Additionally, there are very few light-duty vehicles that can consume this fuel directly as dedicated or bi-fuel options. For example, in model year 2013Honda was the only OEM to offer a dedicated CNG sedan while a number of others offered CNG options as a preparation package for LD trucks and vans. In total, there were a total of 11 vehicle models in 2013 that could be purchased that could use natural gas directly. There are additional potential issues associated with NG vehicles as well. Compared to commercial refueling stations, the at-home refueling time for NG vehicles is substantial – a result of the small compressors used for home refilling. Additionally, the methane emissions from both refueling (leakage) and from tailpipe emissions (slip) from these vehicles can add to their GHG footprint, and while these emissions are not currently regulated it could be a barrier in the future, especially in scenarios with broad scale adoption of CNG vehicles. However, NG consumption already plays a large role in other sectors of the economy, including some that are important to

  7. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. The NEMS Transportation Model comprises a series of semi-independent models which address different aspects of the transportation sector. The primary purpose of this model is to provide mid-term forecasts of transportation energy demand by fuel type including, but not limited to, motor gasoline, distillate, jet fuel, and alternative fuels (such as CNG) not commonly associated with transportation. The current NEMS forecast horizon extends to the year 2010 and uses 1990 as the base year. Forecasts are generated through the separate consideration of energy consumption within the various modes of transport, including: private and fleet light-duty vehicles; aircraft; marine, rail, and truck freight; and various modes with minor overall impacts, such as mass transit and recreational boating. This approach is useful in assessing the impacts of policy initiatives, legislative mandates which affect individual modes of travel, and technological developments. The model also provides forecasts of selected intermediate values which are generated in order to determine energy consumption. These elements include estimates of passenger travel demand by automobile, air, or mass transit; estimates of the efficiency with which that demand is met; projections of vehicle stocks and the penetration of new technologies; and estimates of the demand for freight transport which are linked to forecasts of industrial output. Following the estimation of energy demand, TRAN produces forecasts of vehicular emissions of the following pollutants by source: oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, total carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds.

  8. General view of Sector One Substation with Sector One transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector One Substation with Sector One transmitter array to right - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Moscow Radar Site Transmit Sector One Substation, At the end of Steam Road, Moscow, Somerset County, ME

  9. Characterization of chloride transport in the unsaturated zone near salted road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lax, Samanta; Peterson, Eric W.

    2009-09-01

    The application of road salts as deicing agents contributes to the anthropogenic loading of chloride (Cl-) on the environment. Using a 2D solute model, the potential of the unsaturated zone to serve as a reservoir and the mechanisms controlling the movement of Cl- were examined. Physical properties and initial pore-water Cl- concentrations were derived from an array of soil borings. Initial pore-water concentrations show the presence of a Cl- “slug” approximately 0.75 m below the surface. Simulations show that within the unsaturated zone, Cl- transport is predominantly vertical, driven by molecular diffusion. After a 1-year simulation, a Cl- slug similar to the background observation was noted. While Cl- is retained in the unsaturated zone, a net loss of Cl- from the unsaturated zone was simulated for the first 10 years. In year 11, an equilibrium between the Cl- input and output is achieved. The presence of Cl- in the unsaturated zone becomes a long-term source of chloride to the groundwater, which eventually discharges into the surface water. Historically, surface water chemistry data support the continual discharge of chloride to the surface water in the area, further supporting the hypothesis that the unsaturated zone serves as a Cl- reservoir.

  10. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system. Quarterly report, November 1995--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganics. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs. After evaluating the needs of the DOE field activities and investigating alternative system designs, the modules included in the RTAL are: radioanalytical laboratory; organic chemical analysis laboratory; inorganic chemical analysis laboratory; aquatic biomonitoring laboratory; field analytical laboratory; robotics base station; decontamination/sample screening module; operations control center; and protected living quarters. The goal of the integrated laboratory system is a sample throughput of 20 samples per day, providing a full range of analyses on each sample within 16 hours (after sample preparation) with high accuracy and high quality assurance. The RTAL will provide the DOE with very significant savings in terms of both cost and time. This will accelerate and improve the efficiency of clean-up and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex. At the same time, the system will provide full protection for operating personnel and sensitive analytical equipment against the environmental extremes and hazards encountered at DOE sites.

  11. Assessment of Historic Trend in Mobility and Energy Use in India Transportation Sector Using Bottom-up Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-05-01

    Transportation mobility in India has increased significantly in the past decades. From 1970 to 2000, motorized mobility (passenger-km) has risen by 888%, compared with an 88% population growth (Singh,2006). This contributed to many energy and environmental issues, and an energy strategy incorporates efficiency improvement and other measures needs to be designed. Unfortunately, existing energy data do not provide information on driving forces behind energy use and sometime show large inconsistencies. Many previous studies address only a single transportation mode such as passenger road travel; did not include comprehensive data collection or analysis has yet been done, or lack detail on energy demand by each mode and fuel mix. The current study will fill a considerable gap in current efforts, develop a data base on all transport modes including passenger air and water, and freight in order to facilitate the development of energy scenarios and assess significance of technology potential in a global climate change model. An extensive literature review and data collection has been done to establish the database with breakdown of mobility, intensity, distance, and fuel mix of all transportation modes. Energy consumption was estimated and compared with aggregated transport consumption reported in IEA India transportation energy data. Different scenarios were estimated based on different assumptions on freight road mobility. Based on the bottom-up analysis, we estimated that the energy consumption from 1990 to 2000 increased at an annual growth rate of 7% for the mid-range road freight growth case and 12% for the high road freight growth case corresponding to the scenarios in mobility, while the IEA data only shows a 1.7% growth rate in those years.

  12. Regional intensive care transports: a prospective analysis of distance, time and cost for road, helicopter and fixed-wing ambulances

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are three different types of ambulance systems, all of which can manage the same secondary intensive care patient transport mission: road ambulance, rotor-wing ambulance, and fixed-wing ambulance. We hypothesized that costs for specific transport distances would differ between systems. We aimed to analyze distances and observed times for ambulance intensive care secondary transport missions together with system costs to assess this. Methods We prospectively collected data for consecutive urgent intensive care transports into the regional tertiary care hospital in the northern region of Sweden. Distances and transport times were gathered, and a cost model was generated based on these together with fixed and operating costs from the three different ambulance systems. Distance-cost and time–cost estimations were then generated for each transport system. Results Road ambulance cost relatively less for shorter distances (within 250 kilometers/155 miles) but were relatively time ineffective. The rotor-wing systems were most expensive regardless of distance; but were most time-effective up to 400–500 km (248–310 miles). Fixed-wing systems were more cost-effective for longer distance (300 km/186 miles), and time effective for transports over 500 km (310 miles). Conclusions In summary, based on an economic model developed from observed regional ICU patient transports, and cost estimations, different ambulance system cost-distances could be compared. Distance-cost and time results show that helicopters can be effective up to moderate ICU transport distances (400–500), though are expensive to operate. For longer ICU patient transports, fixed-wing transport systems are both cost and time effective compared to helicopter-based systems. PMID:24902480

  13. The Road to Success in Africa is Paved in Asphalt: Transportation Infrastructure Development in Emerging Economies as a Way to Achieve National Strategic Policy Objectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    6 History and Cultural Impact of Roadway Construction ................................................. 7 Roads, Cities, Governments and Economies...influenced the spread of ideas and trade. They impacted the conduct of warfare and success of nation building. In the Twentieth Century, roads built...solutions. History and Cultural Impact of Roadway Construction Wilfred Owen’s Transportation for Cities, the Role of Federal Policy is a cost

  14. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 2: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, M.; Hendricks, J.; Sausen, R.

    2015-12-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to simulate the impact of aviation emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare our findings with the results of a previous study with the same model configuration focusing on year 2000 emissions. We also characterize the aviation results in the context of the other transport sectors presented in a companion paper. In spite of a relevant increase in aviation traffic volume and resulting emissions of aerosol (black carbon) and aerosol precursor species (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), the aviation effect on particle mass concentration in 2030 remains quite negligible (on the order of a few ng m-3), about one order of magnitude less than the increase in concentration due to other emission sources. Due to the relatively small size of the aviation-induced aerosol, however, the increase in particle number concentration is significant in all scenarios (about 1000 cm-3), mostly affecting the northern mid-latitudes at typical flight altitudes (7-12 km). This largely contributes to the overall change in particle number concentration between 2000 and 2030, which results also in significant climate effects due to aerosol-cloud interactions. Aviation is the only transport sector for which a larger impact on the Earth's radiation budget is simulated in the future: The aviation-induced RF in 2030 is more than doubled with respect to the year 2000 value of -15 mW m-2, with a maximum value of -63 mW m-2 simulated for RCP2.6.

  15. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 - Part 2: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, Mattia; Hendricks, Johannes; Sausen, Robert

    2016-04-01

    We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to simulate the impact of aviation emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare our findings with the results of a previous study with the same model configuration focusing on year 2000 emissions. We also characterize the aviation results in the context of the other transport sectors presented in a companion paper. In spite of a relevant increase in aviation traffic volume and resulting emissions of aerosol (black carbon) and aerosol precursor species (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), the aviation effect on particle mass concentration in 2030 remains quite negligible (on the order of a few ng m-3), about 1 order of magnitude less than the increase in concentration due to other emission sources. Due to the relatively small size of the aviation-induced aerosol, however, the increase in particle number concentration is significant in all scenarios (about 1000 cm-3), mostly affecting the northern mid-latitudes at typical flight altitudes (7-12 km). This largely contributes to the overall change in particle number concentration between 2000 and 2030, which also results in significant climate effects due to aerosol-cloud interactions. Aviation is the only transport sector for which a larger impact on the Earth's radiation budget is simulated in the future: the aviation-induced radiative forcing in 2030 is more than doubled with respect to the year 2000 value of -15 mW m-2 in all scenarios, with a maximum value of -63 mW m-2 simulated for RCP2.6.

  16. [Sediment transport characteristics at different erosion stages for non-hardened roads of the Shenfu Coalfield, west China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-ming; Wang, Wen-long; Li, Jian-ming; Huang, Peng-fei; Zhu, Bao-cai; Wang, Zhen; Luo, Ting

    2015-02-01

    Non-hardened roads formed in the production of the Shenfu Coalfield have a unique condition of underlying surface. The road surface is composed of a regolith layer with a certain thickness resulted from long-term rolling and thus, is characterized by weakened anti-scourabilty and anti-erodibility. In contrast, soil layer below the regolith has a higher bulk density and anti-erodibility. The processes of soil erosion on the non-hardened roads exhibit some differences under rainfall condition. The process of sediment transport and the relationship between sediment transport rate and erosion factors at different erosion stages were studied on non-hardened roads with slope degrees ranging from 3° to 12° (3°, 6°, 9°, 12°) by a field experiment under artificial rainfall. Results showed that the first peak of sediment transport on the regolith surface was observed at the sheet erosion stage. Sheet erosion occurred only at 3° slope degree, with an average variation coefficient of 0.07 for sediment transport rate. Rills in every testing began to develop at slope degrees of 6° to 12° about 15 min after runoff initiation. At the sheet erosion stage, the process of sediment transport fluctuated considerably at rainfall intensities of > 1.5 mm · min(-1), but the differences in its variation were little at the three slope degrees, with average variation coefficients of 0.20, 0.19 and 0.16, respectively. Rainfall intensity had a more significant impact on sediment transport rate than slope degree. The process of sediment transport at the rill erosion stage fluctuated, but the fluctuation was obviously smaller than that at the sheet erosion stage, with average variation coefficients of 0.05, 0.09 and 0.10 at the three slope degrees. Many wide and shallow rills evolved at the rill erosion stage. The sediment transport rate could be well predicted by a power function of rainfall intensity and slope degree at the sheet and rill erosion stages. The stable sediment transport

  17. Influence of forest road buffer zones on sediment transport in the Southern Appalachian Region

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2013-01-01

    A gap exists in the understanding of the effectiveness of forest road best management practices (BMP) in controlling sediment movement and minimizing risks of sediment delivery to forest streams. The objective of this paper is to report the findings of investigations to assess sediment travel distances downslope of forest roads in the Appalachian region, relate...

  18. Use of car crashes resulting in fatal and serious injuries to analyze a safe road transport system model and to identify system weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Stigson, Helena; Hill, Julian

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for a safe road transport system, based on some safety performance indicators regarding the road user, the vehicle, and the road, by using crashes with fatally and seriously injured car occupants. The study also aimed to evaluate whether the model could be used to identify system weaknesses and components (road user, vehicles, and road) where improvements would yield the highest potential for further reductions in serious injuries. Real-life car crashes with serious injury outcomes (Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale 2+) were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European New Car Assessment Programme) and whether the vehicle was fitted with ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol/drugs. Each crash was compared and classified according to the model criteria. Crashes where the safety criteria were not met in more than one of the 3 components were reclassified to identify whether all the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In-depth crash injury data collected by the UK On The Spot (OTS) accident investigation project was used in this study. All crashes in the OTS database occurring between 2000 and 2005 with a car occupant with injury rated MAIS2+ were included, for a total of 101 crashes with 120 occupants. It was possible to classify 90 percent of the crashes according to the model. Eighty-six percent of the occupants were injured when more than one of the 3 components were noncompliant with the safety criteria. These cases were reclassified to identify whether all of the components were correlated to the injury outcome. In 39 of the total 108 cases, at least two components were still seen to interact. The remaining cases were only related to one of the safety criteria

  19. Effect of ascorbic acid administration on erythrocyte osmotic fragility of pigs transported by road during the hot-dry season.

    PubMed

    Asala, Olayinka O; Ayo, Joseph O; Rekwot, Peter I; Minka, Ndazo S; Omoniwa, David O; Adenkola, Adeshina Y

    2011-04-01

    The experiments were performed in order to determine the effect of 8-h road transportation of pigs on erythrocytes osmotic fragility during the hot-dry season, and the ameliorative role of ascorbic acid. Twenty-three adult pigs comprising of both sexes served as subjects for the study. Thirteen pigs administered ascorbic acid (AA) per os 30 min before transportation, at a dose rate of 100 mg/kg served as experimental animals, while ten pigs administered with distilled water per os served as control, and were transported for 8 h during the hot-dry season. EDTA blood samples collected a day before (pre-transportation), immediately after 8-h transportation and 7 days post-transportation were used to determine erythrocyte osmotic fragility. The ambient temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) measured within the vehicle ranged between 30.5-39.0 °C and 40.0-71.0% respectively. These values were outside the thermoneutral zone for the pig, indicating that the season was thermally stressful. Results obtained showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in percent haemolysis recorded at NaCl concentrations of 0.4% and 0.6% immediately after transportation in experimental pigs and at 0.5, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.9% NaCl concentrations in experimental pigs 7 days post-transportation. In conclusion, result from the present study indicated that 8-h road transportation during the hot-dry season could induce stress resulting in haemolysis of erythrocytes and AA administration ameliorated the stress. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  20. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  1. Tweets on the Road

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J.

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  2. The effects of stock crate design and stocking density on environmental conditions for lambs on road transport vehicles.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A D; Stewart, M; Tacon, J; Matthews, L R

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of variations in stock crate design (especially ventilation) and stocking density on road transport vehicles for reducing the risk of environmental stress for lambs during long-haul transport in hot weather. In Experiment 1, lambs were transported on vehicles fitted with either a newer-design aluminium crate comprising a three-deck truck and four-deck trailer, or an older-design, more open, steel crate of a three-deck truck and three-deck trailer. In Experiment 2, lambs were transported on newer-design vehicles at either standard stocking density (0.20 m2 per 35 kg lamb) or at a 20% lower density (0.26 m2 per 35 kg lamb). In each experiment, each journey was replicated twice and consisted of travel periods and stationary periods designed to emulate conditions associated with an inter-island ferry crossing. Air ammonia concentrations and temperature and humidity were monitored within six pens on each vehicle, and the temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated. Ammonia concentrations were variable and generally 50 ppm, and did not vary significantly with treatment. The THI increased when the vehicles were stationary, especially under conditions designed to emulate an enclosed ferry deck. The ambient temperature during Experiment 1 was moderate (up to 21 degrees C), and THI was slightly lower in the older-design crate. High ambient temperatures (up to 33 degrees C) were present during Experiment 2, and THI was significantly lower at the lower stock density. During a 3-h stationary period, the peak THI at standard stocking density was 91.0, compared with 84.9 for the low density treatment (p<0.001). For standard road transport vehicles used for long-haul transport of lambs, lowered loading density may be of considerable benefit in alleviating conditions that increase the risk of lamb deaths during inter-island transport on hot days.

  3. Effect of 12-hour road transportation on physiological, immunological and haematological parameters in bulls housed at different space allowances.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Earley, B; Crowe, M A

    2007-05-01

    The effects of transporting Holstein Friesian bulls (n=72; bodyweight 403+/-3.5 kg) for 12h by road were examined. Adrenal, haematological and immune responses, body temperature and performance were recorded. The animals had been previously housed for 96 days at three space allowances (1.2, 2.7 or 4.2m(2) per bull). The bulls were allocated to one of two treatments: T (transport for 12h; n=16 per space allowance) and C (control; n=8 per space allowance). Basal cortisol plasma concentrations and interferon (IFN)-gamma production from cultured lymphocytes did not show any statistically significant difference (P>0.05) following the housing period. Removing bulls from their home pens and walking them to the pre-loading crush facility, loading onto the transporter, and unloading following the 12h road journey, significantly (P<0.001) increased plasma cortisol concentration. The bulls housed at 4.2m(2) had greater (P<0.05) plasma cortisol concentrations than bulls housed at 1.2m(2) at loading, unloading, or on return to the crush holding facility; those housed at 1.2m(2) had greater (P<0.05) plasma cortisol concentrations than bulls housed at 2.7 and 4.2m(2) in their home pens after transport. There was an increased (P<0.05) plasma cortisol response in the T than in the C bulls following adrenocorticotrophic hormone administration. Transport significantly reduced (P<0.05) IFN-gamma production, lymphocyte % and body weight and significantly increased (P<0.05) neutrophils, eosinophils, packed cell volume, red blood cell numbers and haemoglobin. In conclusion, housing bulls for 96 days in a range of space allowances did not affect basal cortisol response or immune function parameters. Whereas transport increased plasma cortisol and reduced the immune response in the short-term, the changes were transient and within normal physiological ranges, suggesting that 12h road transport had no adverse effect on welfare status over the longer term. Furthermore, transport of bulls

  4. Alternative actions for achieving energy savings in the transportation sector. Summary. Final report Aug 79-Nov 80

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, P.G.; Glenn, C.W.; Chu, H.C.; Hoffman, S.; Presutti, E.

    1980-11-01

    This study identified and analyzed actions and policy instruments aimed at reducing fuel consumption in the transportation sector. The study area for the investigation was Houston and Harris County, Texas, which is a low density metropolitan area exhibiting a high dependence on the use of private automobiles as a means of transportation. Actions examined included direct restrictions on fuel purchasing; transportation pricing strategies; efforts to encourage transit ridership, ride-sharing, and paratransit alternatives; and improvement of vehicular operating efficiencies. Both short-term contingency plans and longer-term plans for conservation were considered, as well as the institutional framework within which such plans could be carried out.

  5. Alternative actions for achieving energy savings in the transportation sector. Technical report (final) Aug 79-Nov 80

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, P.G.; Glenn, C.W.; Blackburn, J.B. Jr.; Chu, H.C.; Hoffman, S.

    1980-11-01

    This study identified and analyzed actions and policy instruments aimed at reducing fuel consumption in the transportation sector. The study area for the investigation was Houston and Harris County, Texas, which is a low density metropolitan area exhibiting a high dependence on the use of private automobiles as a means of transportation. Actions examined included direct restrictions on fuel purchasing; transportation pricing strategies; efforts to encourage transit ridership, ride-sharing, and paratransit alternatives; and improvement of vehicular operating efficiencies. Both short-term contingency plans and longer-term plans for conservation were considered, as well as the institutional framework within which such plans could be carried out.

  6. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    surface, the amount of water was the best predictor for friction. The models were tested with an independent sample from winter 2008/09. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has been running an operational road weather prediction model for about ten years. The model predicts e.g. the road surface temperature and the layers of snow, ice and water on the road. With the addition of the statistical friction model, road surface friction will be a new forecast parameter. There are, however, some challenges to be solved before operational applicability. A major issue is how to take road maintenance activities, and especially the salting, into account. This study is carried out within the EU/FP7 Project ROADIDEA, where the major frame of reference is to develop new and innovative products for traffic and transport sectors.

  7. Comparison of transportation related injury mechanisms and outcome of young road users and adult road users, a retrospective analysis on 24,373 patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU(®).

    PubMed

    Brockamp, Thomas; Schmucker, Uli; Lefering, Rolf; Mutschler, Manuel; Driessen, Arne; Probst, Christian; Bouillon, Bertil; Koenen, Paola

    2017-06-14

    Most young people killed in road crashes are known as vulnerable road users. A combination of physical and developmental immaturity as well as inexperience increases the risk of road traffic accidents with a high injury severity rate. Understanding injury mechanism and pattern in a group of young road users may reduce morbidity and mortality. This study analyzes injury patterns and outcomes of young road users compared to adult road users. The comparison takes into account different transportation related injury mechanisms. A retrospective analysis using data collected between 2002 and 2012 from the TraumaRegister DGU® was performed. Only patients with a transportation related injury mechanism (motor vehicle collision (MVC), motorbike, cyclist, and pedestrian) and an ISS ≥ 9 were included in our analysis. Four different groups of young road users were compared to adult trauma data depending on the transportation related injury mechanism. Twenty four thousand three hundred seventy three, datasets were retrieved to compare all subgroups. The mean ISS was 23.3 ± 13.1. The overall mortality rate was 8.61%. In the MVC, the motorbike and the cyclist group, we found young road users having more complex injury patterns with a higher AIS pelvis, AIS head, AIS abdomen and AIS of the extremities and also a lower GCS. Whereas in these three sub-groups the adult trauma group only had a higher AIS thorax. Only in the group of the adult pedestrians we found a higher AIS pelvis, AIS abdomen, AIS thorax, a higher AIS of the extremities and a lower GCS. This study reports on the most common injuries and injury patterns in young trauma patients in comparison to an adult trauma sample. Our analysis show that in contrast to more experienced road users our young collective refers to be a vulnerable trauma group with an increased risk of a high injury severity and high mortality rate. We indicate a striking difference in terms of the region of injury and the mechanism of

  8. Electrification of the transportation sector offers limited country-wide greenhouse gas reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2014-03-01

    Compared with conventional propulsion, plugin and hybrid vehicles may offer reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, regional air/noise pollution, petroleum dependence, and ownership cost. Comparing only plugins and hybrids amongst themselves, and focusing on GHG, relative merits of different options have been shown to be more nuanced, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus battery manufacturing and weight, and trip patterns. We present a life-cycle framework to compare GHG emissions for three drivetrains (plugin-electricity-only, gasoline-only-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid) across driving ranges and grid-carbon-intensities, for passenger cars, vans, buses, or trucks (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing). Parameter and model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity analyses. We find that owing to the interplay of range, GHG/km, and portions of country-wide kms accessible to electrification, GHG reductions achievable from plugins (whether electricity-only or hybrids) are limited even when assuming low-carbon future grids. Furthermore, for policy makers considering GHG from electricity and transportation sectors combined, plugin technology may in fact increase GHG compared to gasoline-only-hybrids, regardless of grid-carbon-intensity.

  9. Electrification of the transportation sector: Is there a need for restructuring the automotive parts suppliers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaslan, A. Ebru

    The future of the transportation sector has significant implications for the mitigation of climate change through reduced GHG emissions as well as achieving energy efficiency and energy independence. Battery-powered, plug-in, and hybrid electric vehicles are widely seen as the greatest source of a solution. This thesis analyzes the historical development and growth of the automotive industry as well as the restructuring toward the next generation technologies in comparison with the U.S. and China to shed light on the question of how a developing country can structure its strategies to be able to upgrade and be competitive over time. Conventional business models can become obsolete. Companies will find it difficult to maintain their market position unless they gain new perspectives on the outlook of the industry as a whole, and take into account the successful business models of tomorrow. The potential for further growth of the Turkish automotive supplier base particularly in the next generation of automotive technologies is therefore highly dependent on policies and strategies at the national level as much as its dependence on the global strategies of the automotive industry's major players. In this sense, the key questions that motivate this study are whether there are foreseeable technological changes and product-segmentation strategies that could significantly enhance the competitiveness of local Turkish suppliers of automotive components. The thesis builds on the theory of innovative enterprise and evolutionary agglomeration to examine the competitive potential of the Konya Auto Part Suppliers' Cluster in Turkey.

  10. Control of transportation death rates by varying road microstructure using segmental pavers

    SciTech Connect

    Halperin, K.

    1995-06-01

    It is known that redesign of older roads to limit the mean and top speeds along them can prevent crashes and save lives. In many parts of the world, a standard part of this redesign for lower speeds consists of repaving with segmental pavers, particularly concrete pavers. Yet no controlled experimentation has been done to establish the relationship between paver texture, speed and crash, injury and mortality rates. Two possible experiments are proposed. It is further proposed that governments in English-speaking North America cannot await the results of such experiments to begin redesigning older roads to lower their death rates.

  11. Modeling sediment transport from an off-road vehicle trail stream crossing using WEPP model

    Treesearch

    Renee' D. Ayala; Puneet Srivastava; Christian J. Brodbeck; Emily A. Carter; Timothy P. McDonald

    2005-01-01

    There is a limited information available pertaining to the adverse effects of Off-Road-Vehicle (ORV) use and trail impacts. As a result, this study was initiated in 2003 to (a) quantify water quality impacts of an ORV trail stream crossing through monitoring of total suspended solids, and (b) conduct WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) simulations to determine long...

  12. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  13. Transportation Systems: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Nation’s way of life and economic vitality. Ensuring its security is the mission charged to all sector partners, including government (Federal, State...have a debilitating effect on security or economic well-being. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the SSA for the Transportation Systems...functions that provide the vital services essential for the Nation’s security, economic vitality, and way of life. The national effort to improve CI/KR

  14. The effect of road and sea transport on inflammatory, adrenocortical, metabolic and behavioural responses of weanling heifers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of transport on inflammatory, adrenocortical, metabolic and behavioural responses of weanling heifers transported from Ireland to Spain. Background At the end of the grazing season, 60 Charolais × beef heifers (mean live weight 245, s.e. 4.3 kg and mean weaning age 219, s.e. 4.9 days) were abruptly weaned from their dams on day 0. The animals were assigned by live weight to two treatments, transport (T) (n = 40) (mean 246, s.e. 5.4 kg) and control (C) (n = 20) (mean 247, s.e. 7.2 kg) on day 0. The T animals were transported from Ireland to France on a roll-on roll-off ferry at a stocking density of 0.93 m2/animal and then by road for 9 h to a French lairage while C animals remained in Ireland and were not transported. On arrival at the French lairage (d 2), 20 T animals were unloaded (ULT) and rested for 12 h in the French lairage and 20 animals rested (RT) on the transporter. All animals had access to hay and water. After the rest period, the ULT animals were re-loaded. The subsequent journey by road from France to Spain was 9 h travel, 7 h rest (on the transporter) and a further 7 h travel by road. All T animals were blood sampled prior to transport (day (d) 0; baseline), on arrival in the French lairage (d 2), after 12 h rest in the French lairage (d 2), on arrival at the feedlot in Spain (d 4) and on d 6, d 8, d 10 and d 34. Control animals were blood sampled at the same times as T animals. Results ULT and RT animals had lower (P < 0.05) live weight than C animals on d 6. WBC number was lower (P < 0.05) in control animals on d 10 and greater on d 34 compared with baseline values. RT and ULT animals had greater (P < 0.05) WBC number than baseline on d 2 (arrival in France) to d 34. Neutrophil % was unchanged in RT, ULT and control animals compared with baseline. Control, RT and ULT animals had lower haematocrit % (P < 0.05) throughout the study compared with d 0. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in plasma protein

  15. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector.

  16. The Pomona-Rincon Road and Its Place in the Regional Transportation Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-19

    earliest rancho days and the prosperity of various economic endeavors. Rather than merely connecting existing settlements or industries, the road and trail...Transcontinental Railroad, and encouraged grouth at nodes (e.g., fords and bridges) or transfer points (e.g., railroad stations). The projected cost of...influenced the locations of settlement from the very earliest rancho days and the prosperity of various economic endeavors. Rather than merely connecting

  17. Development of an urban inventory for road transport emissions of NO 2 and comparison with estimates derived from ambient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carslaw, David C.; Beevers, Sean D.

    A primary nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) emissions inventory has been developed for road transport sources in London based on recent exhaust emissions measurements of nitrogen oxides (NO X=NO+NO 2) and NO 2 from a range of vehicle types and technologies. The emissions inventory estimate of the mean primary volumetric NO 2:NO X ratio (NO 2 fraction) on road links in London was 10.2%. The emissions inventory highlights important spatial gradients in primary NO 2 emissions across London. On major roads such as motorways, where the vehicle speed is high (>80 km h -1), the primary NO 2 fraction is estimated to be less than 5.0% by volume. By contrast, on the congested roads of Central London, where emissions from diesel vehicles such as taxis and buses are high because of their high flows in this area of London, the primary NO 2 fraction is typically 12.0% by volume. These differences have important implications for the estimation of ambient NO 2 concentrations close to roads in London, and highlight why it is likely to be more difficult to meet international limits for ambient NO 2 concentrations in Central London compared with other areas of the capital. The emissions inventory estimates of primary NO 2 fraction have been compared with estimates derived from 41 roadside measurement sites in London, the latter being based upon an analysis of hourly mean NO X and NO 2 concentrations. The results show that the mean primary NO 2 fraction of 11.3% derived from ambient measurements agrees well with the mean estimate of 10.2% derived from the emissions inventory. The range of primary NO 2 emission fractions derived from the ambient measurements is, however, much wider than that derived from the emissions estimates. Some of the possible reasons for the disagreement are discussed. It is concluded that a larger database of emissions measurements from a range of vehicle types and pollution control technologies is required to develop a more robust emissions inventory for primary NO 2 in

  18. Ozone attributed to Madrid and Barcelona on-road transport emissions: Characterization of plume dynamics over the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Víctor; Pay, María T; Baldasano, José M

    2016-02-01

    Despite the ~30% emission decrease of the main tropospheric ozone (O3) precursors in Spain in the 2001-2012 period, the O3 concentration in summer still exceeds the target value for the protection of the human health of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC). On-road transport is the main anthropogenic contributor to O3 precursor's emissions in Madrid and Barcelona metropolitan areas (65%/59% of NOx, 40%/33% of NMVOC, and 67%/85% of CO emissions) but this contribution to O3 formation is not well understood. The present work aims at increasing the understanding on the role of on-road transport emissions from main Spanish urban areas in O3 dynamics over Spain under typical circulation types. For that purpose, the Integrated Source Apportionment Method is used within the CALIOPE modelling system (WRF/CMAQ/HERMES/BSC-DREAM8b). The results indicate that the daily maximum O3 concentration attributed to the on-road transport emissions from Madrid (O3T-MAD) and Barcelona metropolitan areas (O3T-BCN) contribute up to 24% and 8% to total O3 concentration, respectively, within an area of influence of 200 km. The contribution of O3T-MAD and O3T-BCN is particularly significant (up to 80-100 μg m(-3) in an hour) to the O3 concentration peak during the central hours of the day in the high O3 concentration season (April-September). The maximum O3T-MAD concentration is calculated within the metropolitan area of Madrid but the plume, channelled by the Tajo and the Henares valleys, affects large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The O3T-BCN plume is more driven by sea-land and mountain-valley breezes than by the synoptic advection and its maximum concentration is usually registered over the Mediterranean Sea. The O3 concentration transported long-range to the Iberian Peninsula is significant in the area of influence of Madrid and Barcelona, being maxima under cold (70-96%) and minima in warm circulation types (35-70%).

  19. Conception of "4 Goals and 3 Levels" in Risk Management in Road Transport Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    "Four goals and three levels" conception of risk management in transport comes out from triple interpretation the notion of system and from process approach to transport system interpretation. The title of the lecture suggests hierarchical risk management, but it is not so obvious and that is why is better saying about risk management at three levels of transport system: 1. level of system structure elements; 2. level of processes which realize system purposes; 3. level of system "attitude". In presented conception risk is a "multidimensional" constructor and relates all negative effects of transport (NET-s). It is, among the others, about risks: life loss (safety aspect), natural environment degradation, transport congestion arising.

  20. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  1. International regulations on labour health and safety applied to fishing and maritime transport sectors. Are maritime workers under-protected.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Pardo, Guadalupe Martín

    2012-01-01

    The work activity developed on board is of great importance in our nearby environment, and it has a series of peculiarities that determine the service rendering of sea workers. On the other hand, work at sea is developed on an international basis. Nowadays such work becomes a completely globalised industrial sector in relation to the elements that make up the ship's operation, including manpower. For that reason several relevant international organisations have paid attention to this industrial sector and have adopted a broad regulation on this matter. In the case of the European Union, the Community procedure emphasises enormous interest in providing specific and comprehensive training to seafarers, as well as in regulating working time on board with the aim of minimising the safety problems caused by fatigue. In the present article a schematic presentation of regulations on workers' health and occupational safety protection derived from the European Union, the International Maritime Organisation, and the International Labour Organisation has been done. Also it shows what parts of these regulations are not applicable to the work on board, and it reveals how the workers of fishing and maritime transport sectors are under-protected with regard to the guarantee of their health and occupational safety compared to workers in other sectors.

  2. Road transport of farm animals: effects of journey duration on animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B L; Dybkjær, L; Herskin, M S

    2011-03-01

    Transport of farm animals gives rise to concern about their welfare. Specific attention has been given to the duration of animal transport, and maximum journey durations are used in legislation that seek to minimise any negative impact of transport on animal welfare. This paper reviews the relatively few scientific investigations into effects of transport duration on animal welfare in cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and poultry. From the available literature, we attempt to distinguish between aspects, which will impair welfare on journeys of any duration, such as those associated with loading, and those aspects that may be exacerbated by journey time. We identify four aspects of animal transport, which have increasing impact on welfare as transport duration increases. These relate to (i) the physiological and clinical state of the animal before transport; and - during transport - to (ii) feeding and watering; (iii) rest and (iv) thermal environment. It is thus not journey duration per se but these associated negative aspects that are the cause of compromised welfare. We suggest that with a few exceptions, transport of long duration is possible in terms of animal welfare provided that these four issues can be dealt with for the species and the age group of the animals that are transported.

  3. The application of gas ejector for road transport air conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumeru, Nasution, Henry; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-06-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel supply requires fuel and energy saving in energy utilization system. Therefore, these required the development of new and efficient technologies as to reduce fuel consumption especially in air conditioning of road vehicles. Currently, the air conditioning for road vehicles uses vapor compression system. Although the vapor compression system has high COP, the compressor is driven by vehicle engines, which take additional fuel consumption when the air conditioning system is in operation. In this study, the waste heat of radiator drives the ejector refrigeration for air conditioning. Although the ejector refrigeration system has low COP, the use of heat driven air conditioning will reduce the fuel consumption as compared with conventional system. This is because the systems do not use the mechanical engine load. The analysis of this study is based on the ejector refrigeration system using natural refrigerant (isobutene). The evaporation temperature is 10°C, condensation temperature is 35°C, generator temperature is 90°C with ejector isentropic efficiency of 0.7, and the COP system is 0.25. The heat released by the radiator of typical small road vehicles is between 60 to 100 kW and if the generator absorbs 20% of the heat, the heat contained in the generator is 12 to 20 kW. When the ejector air conditioning system has a COP 0.25, it will generate cooling capacity between 3 to 5 kW, compared with the conventional air conditioning of similar vehicles, which is approximately 2 to 4.4 kW.

  4. A vibroacoustic diagnostic system as an element improving road transport safety.

    PubMed

    Komorska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical defects of a vehicle driving system can be dangerous on the road. Diagnostic systems, which monitor operations of electric and electronic elements and devices of vehicles, are continuously developed and improved, while defects of mechanical systems are still not managed properly. This article proposes supplementing existing on-board diagnostics with a system of diagnosing selected defects to minimize their impact. It presents a method of diagnosing mechanical defects of the engine, gearbox and other elements of the driving system on the basis of a model of the vibration signal obtained adaptively. This method is suitable for engine valves, engine head gasket, main gearbox, joints, etc.

  5. Environmental injustices of children's exposure to air pollution from road-transport within the model British multicultural city of Leicester: 2000-09.

    PubMed

    Jephcote, Calvin; Chen, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    The significant contribution of road-transport to air pollution within the urban arena is widely acknowledged, and traditionally explored in relation to health outcomes across a temporal scale. However, the structure of the urban environment is also of importance in dictating the existence of extremely variable traffic pollutant levels, which often tend to be linked with social disparities. Nevertheless 'Environmental Justice' studies have rarely tackled the adverse health implications of exposures from mobile sources (Chakraborty, 2009), or have applied statistical techniques that are appropriate for such spatial data (Gilbert and Chakraborty, 2011). This article addresses these gaps by spatially examining the distribution of respiratory hospitalisation incidents of children aged 0-15 years in relation to social circumstances and residential exposures of annual PM(10) road-transport emissions within Leicester during 2000-09. Continuing upon the theme of 'Environmental Justice', the research explores the intra-urban spatial distribution of those who produce and residentially experience the majority of road-transport emissions. The findings indicate significant global relationships to exist between children's hospitalisation rates and social-economic-status, ethnic minorities, and PM(10) road-transport emissions within Leicester. Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) identified important localised variations within the dataset, specifically relating to a double-burden of residentially experienced road-transport emissions and deprivation effecting inner city children's respiratory health. Furthermore, affluent intra-urban communities tended to contribute the highest levels of emission from private transport, while residentially experiencing relatively low exposure of transport emissions. This would suggest that environmental injustices prevail across the model British multicultural city of Leicester.

  6. Implementing evidence-based policy in a network setting: road safety policy in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bax, Charlotte; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, in order to improve road safety in The Netherlands, the Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV) developed an evidence-based "Sustainable Safety" concept. Based on this concept, Dutch road safety policy, was seen as successful and as a best practice in Europe. In The Netherlands, the policy context has now changed from a sectoral policy setting towards a fragmented network in which safety is a facet of other transport-related policies. In this contribution, it is argued that the implementation strategy underlying Sustainable Safety should be aligned with the changed context. In order to explore the adjustments needed, two perspectives of policy implementation are discussed: (1) national evidence-based policies with sectoral implementation; and (2) decentralized negotiation on transport policy in which road safety is but one aspect. We argue that the latter approach matches the characteristics of the newly evolved policy context best, and conclude with recommendations for reformulating the implementation strategy.

  7. Transport of lipopolysaccharide across the cell envelope: the long road of discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Natividad; Kahne, Daniel; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular lipid transport is poorly understood. Genetic studies to identify lipid-transport factors are complicated by the essentiality of many lipids, while biochemical and cell biology approaches aiming to determine localization and mechanisms of lipid transport are often challenged by the lack of adequate technology. Here we review the epic history of how different approaches, technological advances, and ingenuity contributed to the recent discovery of a multi-protein pathway that transports lipopolysaccharide across the envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:19633680

  8. Legal gaps relating to labour safety and health in the maritime transport sector in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Carrera, Paula Vazquez

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the labour sector is experiencing an important increase in the application of risk prevention policies. Although these policies are very significant due to their repercussions in the health of workers, we noticed important legal gaps in maritime sector regulations. Frequently sea workers are legally abandoned, by exclusion or omission, at the moment of claiming for the improvement of their working environment and the reduction of the negative consequences derived from this negligence over their safety and health. In the present paper we try to shed some light on this topic by analysing and examining minutely the Spanish applicable risk prevention legislation for this sector. Moreover, the recommendations of the International Maritime Organization are compared with the current application of the law. At the same time, we present some possible solutions to such problems from an objective point of view.

  9. Effects of road transportation or droving on the weight and metabolism of young bulls.

    PubMed

    D'Oliveira, Marcella Cândia; Souza, Maria Inês Lenz; Corrêa Filho, Ruy Alberto Caetano; Morais, Maria da Graça; Itavo, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira; Franco, Gumercindo Loriano

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the mode of transportation on weight and metabolism of young bulls, which are generally transported by two systems: droving and truck. This experiment consisted of two phases: transportation and refeeding and involved transportation by droving and truck. Fifty young Nellore bulls were separated in equal numbers in both groups, droving group and truck group. In the transportation phase, animals were moved, in a 640-km journey. The refeeding phase consisted of 84 days and commenced after the animals arrived at the fattening farm. The effect of the transportation system on animals' weight, metabolic hormones, and serum biochemistry was assessed after 28, 56, and 84 days. During the transportation phase, animals in the droving group lost 10.11 kg and animals in the truck group gained 13.1 kg. The truck group showed 20.5 kg of weight gain at the end of the refeeding phase. The highest triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were observed on days 0 and 60 in the transportation phase in both droving and truck groups. The serum cortisol concentration was higher in the droving group than in the truck group on day 56 of the refeeding phase. The IGF-I concentrations were higher during the refeeding phase in the droving group than in the truck group. Our results showed that transportation by droving leads to increased weight loss and reduced further weight gain compared to transportation by truck and that serum concentrations of T4, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) hormones are altered by the transportation system.

  10. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them.

  11. The policy relevance of wear emissions from road transport, now and in the future--an international workshop report and consensus statement.

    PubMed

    van der Gon, Hugo A C Denier; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Gehrig, Robert; Gustafsson, Mats; Janssen, Nicole; Harrison, Roy M; Hulskotte, Jan; Johansson, Christer; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Keuken, Menno; Krijgsheld, Klaas; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Riediker, Michael; Cassee, Flemming R

    2013-02-01

    Road transport emissions are a major contributor to ambient particulate matter concentrations and have been associated with adverse health effects. Therefore, these emissions are targeted through increasingly stringent European emission standards. These policies succeed in reducing exhaust emissions, but do not address "nonexhaust" emissions from brake wear, tire wear, road wear and suspension in air of road dust. Is this a problem? To what extent do nonexhaust emissions contribute to ambient concentrations of PM10 or PM2.5? In the near future, wear emissions may dominate the remaining traffic-related PM10 emissions in Europe, mostly due to the steep decrease in PM exhaust emissions. This underlines the need to determine the relevance of the wear emissions as a contribution to the existing ambient PM concentrations, and the need to assess the health risks related to wear particles, which has not yet received much attention. During a workshop in 2011, available knowledge was reported and evaluated so as to draw conclusions on the relevance of traffic-related wear emissions for air quality policy development. On the basis of available evidence, which is briefly presented in this paper it was concluded that nonexhaust emissions and in particular suspension in air of road dust are major contributors to exceedances at street locations of the PM10 air quality standards in various European cities. Furthermore, wear-related PM emissions that contain high concentrations of metals may (despite their limited contribution to the mass of nonexhaust emissions) cause significant health risks for the population, especially those living near intensely trafficked locations. To quantify the existing health risks, targeted research is required on wear emissions, their dispersion in urban areas, population exposure, and its effects on health. Such information will be crucial for environmental policymakers as an input for discussions on the need to develop control strategies. Road

  12. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  13. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  14. Re-energizing energy supply: Electrolytically-produced hydrogen as a flexible energy storage medium and fuel for road transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonts, Bernd; Schiebahn, Sebastian; Görner, Klaus; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Markewitz, Peter; Merten, Frank; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    "Energiewende", which roughly translates as the transformation of the German energy sector in accordance with the imperatives of climate change, may soon become a byword for the corresponding processes most other developed countries are at various stages of undergoing. Germany's notable progress in this area offers valuable insights that other states can draw on in implementing their own transitions. The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is making its own contribution to achieving the Energiewende's ambitious objectives: in addition to funding an array of 'clean and green' projects, the Virtual Institute Power to Gas and Heat was established as a consortium of seven scientific and technical organizations whose aim is to inscribe a future, renewable-based German energy system with adequate flexibility. Thus, it is tasked with conceiving of and evaluating suitable energy path options. This paper outlines one of the most promising of these pathways, which is predicated on the use of electrolytically-produced hydrogen as an energy storage medium, as well as the replacement of hydrocarbon-based fuel for most road vehicles. We describe and evaluate this path and place it in a systemic context, outlining a case study from which other countries and federated jurisdictions therein may draw inspiration.

  15. [An injuries prevention programme in the transport and cargo handling sector, implemented by the ASL 10 Local Health Unit, Florence].

    PubMed

    Ariani, F; Tomassini, A

    2009-01-01

    There are doubts about the ability of public health services to significantly reduce occupational injuries through non-targeted investigations and surveillance programmes. For this reason an intervention was designed specifically for the transport and cargo handling sector, in which inspections are concentrated on the minority of higher risk companies, followed by ex-post assessment of the outcomes. The goal of identifying the most hazardous companies through injury data appears to be successful in companies with more than 3 employees. Some problems remain for smaller companies and for the large porterage cooperatives, where the official data on the number of employees is unreliable.

  16. Assessing the unintended health impacts of road transport policies and interventions: translating research evidence for use in policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Hilary; Jepson, Ruth; Hurley, Fintan; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Background Transport and its links to health and health inequalities suggest that it is important to assess both the direct and unintended indirect health and related impacts of transport initiatives and policies. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a framework to assess the possible health impacts of interventions such as transport. Policymakers and practitioners need access to well conducted research syntheses if research evidence is to be used to inform these assessments. The predictive validity of HIA depends heavily on the use and careful interpretation of supporting empirical evidence. Reviewing and digesting the vast volume and diversity of evidence in a field such as transport is likely to be beyond the scope of most HIAs. Collaborations between HIA practitioners and specialist reviewers to develop syntheses of best available evidence applied specifically to HIA could promote the use of evidence in practice. Methods Best available research evidence was synthesised using the principles of systematic review. The synthesis was developed to reflect the needs of HIA practitioners and policymakers. Results Aside from injury reduction measures, there is very little empirical data on the impact of road transport interventions. The possibility of impacts on a diverse range of outcomes and differential impacts across groups, make it difficult to assess overall benefit and harm. In addition, multiple mediating factors in the pathways between transport and hypothesised health impacts further complicate prospective assessment of impacts. Informed by the synthesis, a framework of questions was developed to help HIA practitioners identify the key questions which need to be considered in transport HIA. Conclusion Principles of systematic review are valuable in producing syntheses of best available evidence for use in HIA practice. Assessment of the health impacts of transport interventions is characterised by much uncertainty, competing values, and differential or

  17. Effects of forest road amelioration techniques on soil bulk density, surface runoff, sediment transport, soil moisture and seedling growth

    Treesearch

    Randy K. Kolka; Mathew F. Smidt

    2004-01-01

    Although numerous methods have been used to retire roads, new technologies have evolved that can potentially ameliorate soil damage, lessen ,the generation of nonpoint source pollution and increase tree productivity on forest roads. In this study we investigated the effects of three forest road amelioration techniques, subsoiling, recontouring and traditional...

  18. Ancient road transport devices: Developments from the Bronze Age to the Roman Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Cesare; Chondros, Thomas G.; Milidonis, Kypros F.; Savino, Sergio; Russo, Flavio

    2016-03-01

    The development of transportation systems has significantly enhanced the welfare and modernization of society. Wooden vehicles pulled by animals have been used for land transportation since the early Bronze Age. Whole-body gharries with rigid wheels pulled by oxen appeared in Crete by 2000 BC or earlier. Horses originating from the East were depicted in early Cretan seal-rings of the same period. The two-wheeled horsedrawn chariot was one of the most important inventions in history. This vehicle provided humanity its first concept of personal transport and was the key technology of war for 2000 years. Chariots of Mycenaean and Archaic Greece with light and flexible four-spoked wheels acting as spring suspensions were depicted in vase paintings. The development of this vehicle incorporated the seeds of a primitive design activity and was important for engineering. The Trojan horse since 1194 BC and the helepolis since 700 BC were the first known machines on a wheeled base transported by horses or self-powered. Ancient engineers invented bearings lubricated with fat, and Romans introduced the ancestors of ball bearings for their wagons and carts. The historic evolution of wheeled transportation systems, along with early traction, suspension, and braking systems, is presented in this paper. Analytical and numerical methods are incorporated to analyze the most conceivable loading situations of typically reconstructed wheeled transportation systems in ancient times. Traction requirements both for horse-driven machines and the power for internal motors are also analyzed. This study can serve as a basis for further development of detailed reconstruction of transportation systems in antiquity.

  19. Transporting integrated primary care to the private sector: addressing the business challenges.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Ronald B; Pollard, C Alec; Niemiec, Ryan

    2013-09-01

    The primary care literature provides some useful information and several project examples for clinicians attempting to develop an integrated care practice, but prior discussion has been based largely on projects developed in government-funded or HMO systems. The current paper focuses on the business challenges of establishing an integrated care practice in a private, fee-for-service setting. Despite increasing commitment to the concept of the medical home, which embraces behavioral health care, physicians in the private sector remain cautious about proposed practice changes such as integrated care. There are additional obstacles that can impede successful implementation of integrated primary care in the private sector. The authors identify five major challenges and suggest potential strategies to address these challenges, drawing, in part, on their experience with a 4-year integrated primary care demonstration project.

  20. Guidelines for public transportation contracting with the private sector in California: Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-30

    The manual provides practical assistance to public transit agencies in California in contracting for goods and services with the private sector. It also assists private firms seeking to provide goods and services to public transit agencies. The manual provides an overview of each of the processes involved in procurement from preparation of procurement documents to contract management and evaluation. It also provides detailed, practical guidance on each of these processes.

  1. Fate and Transport of Road Salt During Snowmelt Through a Calcareous Fen: Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.; Pufall, A.

    2007-12-01

    Kampoosa Bog is the largest and most ecologically diverse calcareous lake-basin fen in Massachusetts. Situated within a 4.7 km2 drainage basin, the open fen (approx. 20 acres) consists of a floating mat of sedges (incl. Carex aquatilis and Cladium mariscoides) that overlie peat and lake clay deposits. Mineral weathering of marble bedrock within the drainage basin supplies highly alkaline ground and surface waters to the fen basin. The natural chemistry has been greatly altered by road salt runoff from the Massaschusetts Turnpike, and in question is whether disturbance from the Turnpike and a gas pipline has facilitated aggressive growth by the invasive species Phragmites australis. Considered to be one of the most significant rare species habitats in the state, Massachusetts has designated Kampoosa Bog an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, and a committee representing several local, regional, and state agencies, organizations, and citizens manages the wetland. The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrologic and chemical response of the wetland during snowmelt events to understand the fate and movement of road salt (NaCl). Concentrations of Na and Cl in the fen groundwater are greatest close to the Turnpike. Concentrations decrease with distance downstream but are still greatly elevated relative to sites upstream of the Turnpike. During snowmelt events, the fen's outlet shows a sharp rise in Na and Cl concentrations at the onset of melting that is soon diluted by the added meltwater. The Na and Cl flux, however, is greatest at peak discharge, suggesting that high-flow events are significant periods of export of dissolved salts from the fen. Pure dissolution of rock salt produces an equal molar ratio between Na and Cl, and sodium and chloride imbalances in stream and ground waters suggest that ~20% of the Na is stored on cation exchange sites within the peat. The largest imbalances between Na and Cl occur deeper within the peat, where the peat is

  2. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles in the US Transportation Sector Following Optimistic Cost and Efficiency Projections.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzmohammadian, Azadeh; Henze, Daven K; Milford, Jana B

    2017-06-20

    This study investigates emission impacts of introducing inexpensive and efficient electric vehicles into the US light duty vehicle (LDV) sector. Scenarios are explored using the ANSWER-MARKAL model with a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 9-region database. Modified cost and performance projections for LDV technologies are adapted from the National Research Council (2013) optimistic case. Under our optimistic scenario (OPT) we find 15% and 47% adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in 2030 and 2050, respectively. In contrast, gasoline vehicles (ICEVs) remain dominant through 2050 in the EPA reference case (BAU). Compared to BAU, OPT gives 16% and 36% reductions in LDV greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 2030 and 2050, respectively, corresponding to 5% and 9% reductions in economy-wide emissions. Total nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and SO2 emissions are similar in the two scenarios due to intersectoral shifts. Moderate, economy-wide GHG fees have little effect on GHG emissions from the LDV sector but are more effective in the electricity sector. In the OPT scenario, estimated well-to-wheels GHG emissions from full-size BEVs with 100-mile range are 62 gCO2-e mi(-1) in 2050, while those from full-size ICEVs are 121 gCO2-e mi(-1).

  3. The road to obesity or the path to prevention: motorized transportation and obesity in China.

    PubMed

    Bell, A Colin; Ge, Keyou; Popkin, Barry M

    2002-04-01

    Dependence on motorized forms of transportation may contribute to the worldwide obesity epidemic. Shifts in transportation patterns occurring in China provide an ideal opportunity to study the association between vehicle ownership and obesity. Our objective was to determine whether motorized forms of transportation promote obesity. A multistage random-cluster sampling process was used to select households from eight provinces in China. Data were included on household vehicle ownership and individual anthropometric and sociodemographic status. Cross-sectional data (1997) from 4741 Chinese adults aged 20 to 55 years were used to explore the association between vehicle ownership and obesity. Cohort data (1989 to 1997) from 2485 adults aged 20 to 45 years in 1989 (59% follow-up) were used to measure the impact of vehicle acquisition on the odds of becoming obese. Our main outcome measure was current obesity status and the odds of becoming obese over an 8-year period. In 1997, 84% of adults did not own motorized transportation. However, the odds of being obese were 80% higher (p < 0.05) for men and women in households who owned a motorized vehicle compared with those who did not own a vehicle. Fourteen percent of households acquired a motorized vehicle between 1989 and 1997. Compared with those whose vehicle ownership did not change, men who acquired a vehicle experienced a 1.8-kg greater weight gain (p < 0.05) and had 2 to 1 odds of becoming obese. Encouraging active forms of transportation may be one way to protect against obesity.

  4. Innovative neuro-fuzzy system of smart transport infrastructure for road traffic safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beinarovica, Anna; Gorobetz, Mikhail; Levchenkov, Anatoly

    2017-09-01

    The proposed study describes applying of neural network and fuzzy logic in transport control for safety improvement by evaluation of accidents’ risk by intelligent infrastructure devices. Risk evaluation is made by following multiple-criteria: danger, changeability and influence of changes for risk increasing. Neuro-fuzzy algorithms are described and proposed for task solution. The novelty of the proposed system is proved by deep analysis of known studies in the field. The structure of neuro-fuzzy system for risk evaluation and mathematical model is described in the paper. The simulation model of the intelligent devices for transport infrastructure is proposed to simulate different situations, assess the risks and propose the possible actions for infrastructure or vehicles to minimize the risk of possible accidents.

  5. The U. S. transportation sector in the year 2030: results of a two-part Delphi survey.

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.; Stephens, T.S.

    2011-10-11

    A two-part Delphi Survey was given to transportation experts attending the Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy in August, 2011. The survey asked respondents about trends in the US transportation sector in 2030. Topics included: alternative vehicles, high speed rail construction, rail freight transportation, average vehicle miles traveled, truck versus passenger car shares, vehicle fuel economy, and biofuels in different modes. The survey consisted of two rounds -- both asked the same set of seven questions. In the first round, respondents were given a short introductory paragraph about the topic and asked to use their own judgment in their responses. In the second round, the respondents were asked the same questions, but were also given results from the first round as guidance. The survey was sponsored by Argonne National Lab (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), and implemented by University of California at Davis, Institute of Transportation Studies. The survey was part of the larger Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project run by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Of the 206 invitation letters sent, 94 answered all questions in the first round (105 answered at least one question), and 23 of those answered all questions in the second round. 10 of the 23 second round responses were at a discussion section at Asilomar, while the remaining were online. Means and standard deviations of responses from Round One and Two are given in Table 1 below. One main purpose of Delphi surveys is to reduce the variance in opinions through successive rounds of questioning. As shown in Table 1, the standard deviations of 25 of the 30 individual sub-questions decreased between Round One and Round Two, but the decrease was slight in most cases.

  6. Temporary road transport route optimization based on ArcGIS platform conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoliang, Zhang; Dahua, Li; Xianfeng, Shao

    2017-04-01

    Based on the ArcGIS software platform, the method of digital elevation model (DEM) is established by using the irregular triangulation (TIN) of the “three links and one leveling” project of the Guquan converter station. The calculation principle and the realization steps are discussed. In the clear fill area, site formation and earth temporary transport route design applications. Research shows that the simulation of ground simulation through ArcGIS can be more rapid and efficient land leveling, design optimization route.

  7. Road transport of cattle, swine and poultry in North America and its impact on animal welfare, carcass and meat quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Faucitano, L; Dadgar, S; Shand, P; González, L A; Crowe, T G

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the effects of road transport on the welfare, carcass and meat quality of cattle, swine and poultry in North America (NA). The main effects of loading density, trailer microclimate, transport duration, animal size and condition, management factors including bedding, ventilation, handling, facilities, and vehicle design are summarized by species. The main effects listed above all have impacts on welfare (stress, health, injury, fatigue, dehydration, core body temperature, mortality and morbidity) and carcass and meat quality (shrink, bruising, pH, color defects and water losses) to varying degrees. It is clear that the effect of road transport is a multi-factorial problem where a combination of stressors rather than a single factor is responsible for the animal's well-being and meat quality post transport. Animals least fit for transport suffer the greatest losses in terms of welfare and meat quality while market ready animals (in particular cattle and pigs) in good condition appear to have fewer issues. More research is needed to identify the factors or combination of factors with the greatest negative impacts on welfare and meat quality relative to the species, and their size, age and condition under extreme environmental conditions. Future research needs to focus on controlled scientific assessments, under NA conditions, of varying loading densities, trailer design, microclimate, and handling quality during the transport process. Achieving optimal animal well-being, carcass and meat quality will entirely depend on the quality of the animal transport process. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial Modeling of Vesicle Transport and the Cytoskeleton: The Challenge of Hitting the Right Road

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Michael; Koeppl, Heinz; Reuss, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The membrane trafficking machinery provides a transport and sorting system for many cellular proteins. We propose a mechanistic agent-based computer simulation to integrate and test the hypothesis of vesicle transport embedded into a detailed model cell. The method tracks both the number and location of the vesicles. Thus both the stochastic properties due to the low numbers and the spatial aspects are preserved. The underlying molecular interactions that control the vesicle actions are included in a multi-scale manner based on the model of Heinrich and Rapoport (2005). By adding motor proteins we can improve the recycling process of SNAREs and model cell polarization. Our model also predicts that coat molecules should have a high turnover at the compartment membranes, while the turnover of motor proteins has to be slow. The modular structure of the underlying model keeps it tractable despite the overall complexity of the vesicle system. We apply our model to receptor-mediated endocytosis and show how a polarized cytoskeleton structure leads to polarized distributions in the plasma membrane both of SNAREs and the Ste2p receptor in yeast. In addition, we can couple signal transduction and membrane trafficking steps in one simulation, which enables analyzing the effect of receptor-mediated endocytosis on signaling. PMID:22253752

  9. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    PubMed

    Sagástegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  10. Transport and Storage. Industry Training Monograph No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's transport and storage industry is a large, diverse sector covering all forms of transport operation, including road, rail, air, and sea, and related services: stevedoring, port operations, customs agencies, and travel agencies. Employment in this industry has not grown as quickly over the last decade as employment in general. Under…

  11. Transport and Storage. Industry Training Monograph No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's transport and storage industry is a large, diverse sector covering all forms of transport operation, including road, rail, air, and sea, and related services: stevedoring, port operations, customs agencies, and travel agencies. Employment in this industry has not grown as quickly over the last decade as employment in general. Under…

  12. Local impact of air pollution: lessons from recent practices in economics and in public policies in the transport sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; Duprez, Fabien; Durand, Sandrine; Poisson, Fabrice; Aubert, Pierre-Louis; Chiron, Mireille; Crozet, Yves; Lambert, Jacques

    This paper focuses on the economic valuation of the impact of local air pollution. Two main issues are considered: 1. The scientific issue: what is estimated, how and why? The main studies from the nineties are presented here. Two strong issues are stressed, with the diversity of valuation methods, on the one hand, and the debates on how to take the long term into account and the discount technique, on the other. 2. The political issue: how the results from the economic field are analysed and used to establish official values for public policies? The methods used in the transport sector in three different European countries (France, Sweden and Switzerland) are studied here. To conclude, we highlight the discrepancy between these two processes and, wherever possible, offer solutions to reach better synergy.

  13. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  14. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  15. Hydration state of goats transported by road for 12 hours during the hot-dry conditions and the modulating role of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Minka, Salka Ndazo; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 12 hr of road transportation during the hot-dry conditions and the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA) on the hydration state of goats. Twenty goats who served as treatment goats received oral administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of AA, whereas another 20 control goats received sterile water; thereafter, the goats were loaded and transported. The study determined changes in skin thickness; albumin (Alb); total protein (TP); elimination of the gut content; fecal water; urine specific gravity (SG); and pH before, during, and after the transportation. The result obtained in the control goats showed significant (p < .05) increases in the values of TP, Alb, urine SG, and pH; elimination; and drinking behavior, whereas skin thickness decreased over transportation. In the treatment goats who were administered AA, the changes observed in the values were insignificant (p > .05). In conclusion, 12-hr road transportation of goats induced dehydration, which may affect the welfare and health status of the goats. The administration of AA ameliorated the risk of adverse effects of handling, loading, transportation, and hot-dry conditions on hydration state of goats.

  16. A modular localization system as a positioning service for road transport.

    PubMed

    Brida, Peter; Machaj, Juraj; Benikovsky, Jozef

    2014-10-28

    In recent times smart devices have attracted a large number of users. Since many of these devices allow position estimation using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals, a large number of location-based applications and services have emerged, especially in transport systems. However GNSS signals are affected by the environment and are not always present, especially in dense urban environment or indoors. In this work firstly a Modular Localization Algorithm is proposed to allow seamless switching between different positioning modules. This helps us develop a positioning system that is able to provide position estimates in both indoor and outdoor environments without any user interaction. Since the proposed system can run as a service on any smart device, it could allow users to navigate not only in outdoor environments, but also indoors, e.g., underground garages, tunnels etc. Secondly we present the proposal of a 2-phase map reduction algorithm which allows one to significantly reduce the complexity of position estimation processes in case that positioning is performed using a fingerprinting framework. The proposed 2-phase map reduction algorithm can also improve the accuracy of the position estimates by filtering out reference points that are far from the mobile device. Both algorithms were implemented into a positioning system and tested in real world conditions in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  17. A Modular Localization System as a Positioning Service for Road Transport

    PubMed Central

    Brida, Peter; Machaj, Juraj; Benikovsky, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    In recent times smart devices have attracted a large number of users. Since many of these devices allow position estimation using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals, a large number of location-based applications and services have emerged, especially in transport systems. However GNSS signals are affected by the environment and are not always present, especially in dense urban environment or indoors. In this work firstly a Modular Localization Algorithm is proposed to allow seamless switching between different positioning modules. This helps us develop a positioning system that is able to provide position estimates in both indoor and outdoor environments without any user interaction. Since the proposed system can run as a service on any smart device, it could allow users to navigate not only in outdoor environments, but also indoors, e.g., underground garages, tunnels etc. Secondly we present the proposal of a 2-phase map reduction algorithm which allows one to significantly reduce the complexity of position estimation processes in case that positioning is performed using a fingerprinting framework. The proposed 2-phase map reduction algorithm can also improve the accuracy of the position estimates by filtering out reference points that are far from the mobile device. Both algorithms were implemented into a positioning system and tested in real world conditions in both indoor and outdoor environments. PMID:25353979

  18. Crocins transport in Crocus sativus: the long road from a senescent stigma to a newborn corm.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Trapero, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2010-09-01

    Saffron, the desiccated stigmas of Crocus sativus, is highly appreciated by its peculiar colour, flavour and aroma. The main compounds that accumulated throughout stigma development in C. sativus are crocetin, its glucoside derivatives, crocins, and picrocrocin, all of which increased as stigmas reached a fully developed stage. After anthesis, and in the absence of fertilization, the flower enters in a senescence programme, which represents the ultimate stage of floral development and results in wilting of whole flower. The programmed senescence of flowers allows the removal of a metabolically active tissue. We studied the composition of saffron apocarotenoids during the senescence of C. sativus flowers, and observed that changes in crocins were due to their transport from the senescent stigma to the ovaries and the developing corm. Afterwards, deglucosylation of crocins in these tissues results in crocetin accumulation. This mobilization mimics the export to storage cells (resorbed) of different compounds during leaf senescence avoiding loss of nutrients in leaves that would otherwise be cycled back into the soil system through leaf litter decomposition. In C. sativus, the resorbed apocarotenoids are stored within the developing corm, where they are not further detected in the advanced stages of development, suggesting that they are metabolized during the early and active phases of corm development, where the glucose molecules from crocins might contribute to cell initiation and elongation.

  19. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010.

    PubMed

    Int Panis, L; De Nocker, L; Cornelis, E; Torfs, R

    2004-12-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO(2). To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic.

  20. Removing Traffic Emissions from CO2 Time Series Measured at a Tall Tower Using on-Road Measurements and WRF-Stilt Transport Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Rella, C.; Goeckede, M.; Hanson, C. V.; Yang, Z.; Law, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with high precision and accuracy have become increasingly important for climate change research, in particular to inform terrestrial biosphere models. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning have long been recognized to contribute a significant portion of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Here, we present an approach to remove the traffic related carbon dioxide emissions from mole fractions measured at a tall tower by using the corresponding carbon monoxide measurements in combination with footprint analyses and transport modeling. This technique improves the suitability of the CO2 data to be used in inverse modeling approaches of atmosphere-biosphere exchange that do not account for non-biotic portions of CO2. In our study region in Oregon, road traffic emissions are the biggest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. A three-day mobile campaign covering 1700 km of roads in northwestern Oregon was performed during summer of 2012 using a laser-based Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer. The mobile measurements incorporated different roads including main highways, urban streets, and back-roads, largely within the typical footprint of a tall CO2 observation tower in Oregon's Willamette Valley. For the first time, traffic related CO:CO2 emission ratios were measured directly at the sources during an on-road campaign under a variety of different driving conditions. An average emission ratio of 7.43 (±1.80) ppb CO per ppm CO2 was obtained for the study region and applied to separate the traffic related portion of CO2 from the mole fraction time series. The road traffic related portion of the CO2 mole fractions measured at the tower site reached maximum values from 9.8 to 12 ppm, depending on the height above the surface, during summer 2012.

  1. Qing-Qi Rickshaw : A Boon Or Bane For Public Transportation? A Study Of Road Traffic Injury Patterns Involving Qing-Qi Rickshaws In Karachi Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Muzzammil, Muhammad; Minhas, Muhammad Saeed; Effendi, Jahanzeb; Jahanzeb, Syed; Mughal, Ayesha; Qadir, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    The three-wheeler Qing-qi and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) auto-rickshaws were introduced in Karachi to meet the transportation demand of the growing population. These vehicles have directly or indirectly been implicated in a number of road traffic violations as well as road accidents. This study aims to describe the crash characteristics and injury patterns for Qing-qi rickshaw occupants and other road users hit by Qing-qi rickshaw in Karachi, Pakistan. An Observational/ Descriptive study was conducted at Accident & Emergency and Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi Pakistan from July 2014 to June 2015.All patients who came with Qing-qi rickshaw accident in Accident & Emergency (A&E) of JPMC were included. Crash characteristics, details of injuries, injury severity parameters and outcome were documented in detailed interviews. Four hundred and eighty-six rickshaw related injuries were noted in road traffic accidents by Qing-gi rickshaw. Age range was 2-85 (43.5±58.68). 350 injured victims were males and 136 were females. By occupation most victims were laborers and daily wage workers (45%) and students (21%). Overloading of vehicle with more than two passengers was found in (28.5%). The most common cause of injury was collision with a moving vehicle (56%), followed by fall from rickshaw. The most common contributing factor was the overloading of rickshaw and roll over on turning (61%). Injury severity on arrival were mild (49%), moderate were (32%), and severe were (19%). Injuries related to head and neck (26%), face (14%), thorax and abdomen (5%), lower extremity and pelvic girdle (31%) and upper extremity (23%) were observed. Qing-qi rickshaw injuries are common and these vehicles are vulnerable to road traffic accidents. Occupants and road users are both at risk of injuries.

  2. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  3. Towards a more sustainable transport infrastructure: how spatial geological data can be utilized to improve early stage Life cycle assessment of road infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Miliutenko, Sofiia; Björklund, Anna; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Toller, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impacts during the life cycle stages of transport infrastructure are substantial, including among other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as resource and energy use. For transport infrastructure to be sustainable, such issues need to be integrated in the planning process. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required by the European Union (EU) in order to ensure that all environmental aspects are considered during planning of road infrastructure projects. As a part of this process, the European Commission has suggested the use of the tool life cycle assessment (LCA) for assessing life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. When analyzing life cycle impacts of the road infrastructure itself, it was shown that earthworks and materials used for the road construction have a big share in the total energy use and GHG emissions. Those aspects are largely determined by the geological conditions at the site of construction: parameters such as soil thickness, slope, bedrock quality and soil type. The geological parameters determine the amounts of earthworks (i.e. volumes of soil and rock that will be excavated and blasted), transportation need for excavated materials as well as the availability of building materials. The study presents a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilizing spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) in order to improve estimates on earthworks during the early stages of road infrastructure planning. Three main methodological steps were undertaken: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The proposed GIS-based approach was later evaluated by comparing with the actual values of extracted material of a real road construction project. The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate, while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock had a wide variation from

  4. Meso-scale on-road vehicle emission inventory approach: a study on Dhaka City of Bangladesh supporting the 'cause-effect' analysis of the transport system.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif; Allan, Andrew; Zito, Rocco

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to develop an emission inventory (EI) approach and conduct an inventory for vehicular sources in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. A meso-scale modelling approach was adopted for the inventory; the factors that influence the emissions and the magnitude of emission variation were identified and reported on, which was an innovative approach to account emissions unlike the conventional inventory approaches. Two techniques for the emission inventory were applied, viz. (i) a combined top-down and bottom-up approach that considered the total vehicle population and the average diurnal on-road vehicle speed profile in the city and (ii) a bottom-up approach that accounted for road link-specific emissions of the city considering diurnal traffic volume and speed profiles of the respective roads. For the bottom-up approach, road link-specific detailed data were obtained through field survey in 2012, where mid-block traffic count of the day, vehicle speed profile, road network and congestion data were collected principally. The emission variances for the change in transport system characteristics (like change in fuel type, AC usage pattern, increased speed and reduced congestion/stopping) were predicted and analysed in this study; congestion influenced average speed of the vehicles, and fuel types in the vehicles were identified as the major stressors. The study performance was considered reasonable when comparing with the limited number of similar studies conducted earlier. Given the increasing trend of private vehicles each year coupled with increasing traffic congestion, the city is under threat of increased vehicular emissions unless a good management strategy is implemented. Although the inventory is conducted for Dhaka and the result may be important locally, the approach adopted in this research is innovative in nature to be followed for conducting research on other urban transport systems.

  5. Economical Space Transportation: a Road not yet Traveled or Gleanings of a Lifelong Rocketman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truax, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-two years have past since I criticized the design of the shuttle in my article in Aeronautics and Astronautics, entitled Shuttles--What Price Elegance? At that time I predicted that the shuttle would not reduce the cost of space transportation, as its proponents almost pleadingly averred. I called it a money sponge of unparalleled capacity. I have since labeled it as the worst combination of primary features that could possibly be assembled into one vehicle. While I called the concept puerile, I lauded its makers for their execution - for their ability to make such a ludicrous concept work at all. It has been nearly sixty years since I pointed the way to low cost space transportation with my Sea Dragon concept. Simple, reusable, two stages to orbit, pressure-fed propulsion and recovery in the ocean by parachute. Since that date, billions have been spent on even more elegant approaches to reusable vehicles, and substantially nothing on the big, dumb reusable booster concept. As of now, all of the more elegant approaches have been cancelled, but the urge to elegance above common sense is still with us. I am sure that a single stage to orbit, reusable vehicle is possible, or will be within the next fifty years. I am equally sure, however, that it will not be economical. It will very probably be worse than the shuttle. We want two stages rather than one because it allows the upper stage to use very low pressures. We want parachute recovery in the ocean because it offers 70% of the Earth's surface to land in, and easy tow-back from anywhere. Perhaps it is necessary for the older generation to die out for the realities of over- sophistication to sink into the heads of our space engineers. All technologies mature, and ultimately reach a point where further sophistication is uneconomical. Launch vehicles reached this point long before they were invented. The big liquid ICBMs were useless as ballistic missiles and more sophisticated than necessary as space launch

  6. Seerley Road Fire Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  7. Climate Projection Data base for Roads - CliPDaR: Design a guideline for a transnational database of downscaled climate projection data for road impact models - within the Conference's of European Directors of Roads (CEDR) TRANSNATIONAL ROAD RESEARCH PROG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulla, Christoph; Namyslo, Joachim; Fuchs, Tobias; Türk, Konrad

    2013-04-01

    The European road sector is vulnerable to extreme weather phenomena, which can cause large socio-economic losses. Almost every year there occur several weather triggered events (like heavy precipitation, floods, landslides, high winds, snow and ice, heat or cold waves, etc.), that disrupt transportation, knock out power lines, cut off populated regions from the outside and so on. So, in order to avoid imbalances in the supply of vital goods to people as well as to prevent negative impacts on health and life of people travelling by car it is essential to know present and future threats to roads. Climate change might increase future threats to roads. CliPDaR focuses on parts of the European road network and contributes, based on the current body of knowledge, to the establishment of guidelines helping to decide which methods and scenarios to apply for the estimation of future climate change based challenges in the field of road maintenance. Based on regional scale climate change projections specific road-impact models are applied in order to support protection measures. In recent years, it has been recognised that it is essential to assess the uncertainty and reliability of given climate projections by using ensemble approaches and downscaling methods. A huge amount of scientific work has been done to evaluate these approaches with regard to reliability and usefulness for investigations on possible impacts of climate changes. CliPDaR is going to collect the existing approaches and methodologies in European countries, discuss their differences and - in close cooperation with the road owners - develops a common line on future applications of climate projection data to road impact models. As such, the project will focus on reviewing and assessing existing regional climate change projections regarding transnational highway transport needs. The final project report will include recommendations how the findings of CliPDaR may support the decision processes of European

  8. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  9. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  10. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of TRAN for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, 57(b)(1)). Third, it permits continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  11. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The attachments contained within this appendix provide additional details about the model development and estimation process which do not easily lend themselves to incorporation in the main body of the model documentation report. The information provided in these attachments is not integral to the understanding of the model`s operation, but provides the reader with opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of some of the model`s underlying assumptions. There will be a slight degree of replication of materials found elsewhere in the documentation, made unavoidable by the dictates of internal consistency. Each attachment is associated with a specific component of the transportation model; the presentation follows the same sequence of modules employed in Volume 1. The following attachments are contained in Appendix F: Fuel Economy Model (FEM)--provides a discussion of the FEM vehicle demand and performance by size class models; Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Model--describes data input sources and extrapolation methodologies; Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) Stock Model--discusses the fuel economy gap estimation methodology; Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Model--presents the data development for business, utility, and government fleet vehicles; Light Commercial Truck Model--describes the stratification methodology and data sources employed in estimating the stock and performance of LCT`s; Air Travel Demand Model--presents the derivation of the demographic index, used to modify estimates of personal travel demand; and Airborne Emissions Model--describes the derivation of emissions factors used to associate transportation measures to levels of airborne emissions of several pollutants.

  12. Quantifying the sectoral contribution of pollution transport from South Asia during summer and winter monsoon seasons in support of HTAP-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surendran, Divya E.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, G.; Jena, Chinmay; Chate, D. M.

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the contribution of 20% reduction in anthropogenic emissions from the energy, industry and transport sectors in South Asia to global distribution of ozone (O3) during summer and winter monsoon seasons. We used Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory to simulate global O3 for five different sensitivity simulations. Contribution from different emission sectors is identified on the basis of the differences between model calculations with unperturbed emissions (Base-case) and the emissions reduced by 20% by different sectors over South Asia. During the summer season, 20% reduction in emissions from transportation sector contributes maximum decrease in O3 of the order of 0.8 ppb in the center of Asian Summer Monsoons (ASM) anticyclone at 200 hPa. Response to Extra Regional Emission Reduction (RERER) is found to vary between 0.4 and 0.7 inside the ASM, indicating that 40-70% of O3 trapped inside the anticyclone is influenced by the emission from non-Asian emissions, and the remaining O3 is influenced by South-Asian emissions. During winter, 20% reduction in emissions from transport sector contributes decrease in O3 at surface up to 0.5 ppb over South Asia and outflow region (the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal). RERER values vary between 0 and 0.2 over South Asia indicating the predominant impact of local emissions reduction on surface O3 concentration than reduction in foreign emissions. We have also examined the health benefits of reduction in regional, global and sectoral emissions in terms of decrease in excess number of COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) cases due to O3 exposure. We find that more health benefits can be achieved if global emissions are decreased by 20%.

  13. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-494), Section 400EE, states that the Secretary of Energy ...shall study methanol plants, including the costs and practicability of such plants that are (A) capable of utilizing current domestic supplies of unutilized natural gas; (B) relocatable; or (C) suitable for natural gas to methanol conversion by natural gas distribution companies...'' The purpose of this report is to characterize unutilized gas within the lower 48 states and to perform an economic analysis of methanol plants required by the act. The approach with regard to unutilized lower 48 gas is to (1) compare the costs of converting such gas to methanol against the expected price of gasoline over the next 20 years, and (2) compare the economics of converting such gas to methanol against the economics of using the gas as a pipeline-transported fuel. This study concludes that remote gas and low-Btu gas generally cannot be converted to methanol at costs near the expected competitive value of gasoline because of the poor economies of scale of small methanol plants.

  14. Making the transition to large scale ethanol use in the US Transportation Sector

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, B.; Bergeron, P.; Singh, M.; Stork, K.

    1996-04-01

    A recent US Department of Energy study indicates that under current conditions (e.g., taxes) cellulosic ethanol could be one of the key fuels used to achieve the 30% replacement fuel goals of the US Energy Policy Act, as well as significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. However, the study also concludes that transition costs and issues could be significant and need to be evaluated. This paper examines (a) the costs and issues associated with ethanol use in various submarkets and how these costs will affect market penetration and (b) the costs and issues resulting from ethanol production from alternative feedstocks and their effect on the likely penetration of various feedstocks. The paper concludes that: technical opportunities exist to make major transitions in ethanol end-use and production; the end use transition has few and relatively small hurdles; the transition in feedstocks and production faces more significant technological and investment hurdles; but continued low gasoline prices are such that policy stimuli will be needed to start the transition to large scale ethanol use and may be required to maintain a growing market.

  15. A multi-methodological approach to study the temporal and spatial distribution of air quality related to road transport emissions in Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Pedro; Miranda, Regina

    2013-04-01

    The traffic-related atmospheric emissions, composition and transport of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air toxic pollutants (ATPs), are an important environmental problem that affect climate change and air pollution in Madrid, Spain. Carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the regional weather and particularly fine particle matter (PM) translocate to the people resulting in local health problems. As the main source of emissions comes from road transport, and subsequent combustion of fossil fuels, air quality deterioration may be elevated during weekdays and peak hours. We postulate that traffic-related air quality (CO2, methane CH4, PM, volatile organic compounds VOCs, nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon monoxide CO contents) impairs epidemiology in part via effects on health and disease development, likely increasing the external costs of transport in terms of climate change and air pollution. First, the paper intends to estimate the local air quality related to the road transport emissions of weeks over a domain covering Madrid (used as a case study). The local air quality model (LAQM) is based on gridded and shaped emission fields. The European Environmental Agency (EEA) COPERT modeling system will provide GHGs and ATPs gridded and shaped emission data and mobile source parameters, available for Madrid from preliminary emission inventory records of the Municipality of Madrid and from disaggregated traffic counts of the Traffic Engineering Company and the Metropolitan Company of Metro (METRO-Madrid). The paper intends to obtain estimates of GHGs and ATPs concentrations commensurate with available ground measurements, 24-hour average values, from the Municipality of Madrid. The comparison between estimated concentrations and measurements must show small errors (e.g. fractional error, fractional bias and coefficient of determination). The paper's expected results must determine spatial and temporal patterns in Madrid. The estimates will be used to cross check the primary local

  16. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Over the past year, several modifications have been made to the NEMS Transportation Model, incorporating greater levels of detail and analysis in modules previously represented in the aggregate or under a profusion of simplifying assumptions. This document is intended to amend those sections of the Model Documentation Report (MDR) which describe these superseded modules. Significant changes have been implemented in the LDV Fuel Economy Model, the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the LDV Fleet Module, and the Highway Freight Model. The relevant sections of the MDR have been extracted from the original document, amended, and are presented in the following pages. A brief summary of the modifications follows: In the Fuel Economy Model, modifications have been made which permit the user to employ more optimistic assumptions about the commercial viability and impact of selected technological improvements. This model also explicitly calculates the fuel economy of an array of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) which are subsequently used in the estimation of vehicle sales. In the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the results of the Fuel Economy Model have been incorporated, and the program flows have been modified to reflect that fact. In the Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Module, the sales of vehicles to fleets of various size are endogenously calculated in order to provide a more detailed estimate of the impacts of EPACT legislation on the sales of AFV`s to fleets. In the Highway Freight Model, the previous aggregate estimation has been replaced by a detailed Freight Truck Stock Model, where travel patterns, efficiencies, and energy intensities are estimated by industrial grouping. Several appendices are provided at the end of this document, containing data tables and supplementary descriptions of the model development process which are not integral to an understanding of the overall model structure.

  17. Long-term transportation, by road and air, of Devil-ray (Mobula mobular), Meagre (Argyrosomus regius), and Ocean Sunfish (Mola mola).

    PubMed

    Correia, João P S; Graça, José T C; Hirofumi, Morikawa

    2008-05-01

    Between September 2006 and April 2007 the authors transported one 0.9 m wingspan Mobula mobular from Olhão (South of Portugal) to Valencia (East of Spain), 12 approximately 1.0 m long Argyrosomus regius to Tarragona (Northeast of Spain) and four approximately 0.4 m long Mola mola to Atlanta (GA, USA). These journeys had a total "water to water" duration of 17, 22 and 33 hr, respectively. The first two transports were conducted by road whereas the third involved a combination of road and air travel. Water quality parameters-specifically dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and ammonia-were monitored continuously throughout the duration of the trips and were maintained at optimum levels through the use of battery-powered filtration and chemical supplements. All animals arrived alive and well at their destinations. This paper reports on the specific transport regime adopted in each case and provides some insight for potential improvements in future similar transports. Zoo Biol 27:234-250, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Assessment of the political acceptability of an ecological tax reform in the transport sector - the Willingness to Accept (WTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Schlor, H.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental economists recommend the use of taxes and fiscal changes as market economy instruments for environmental policy. The purpose of such measures is to reduce or to avoid market failure due to negative external effects. Normally, taxes are fiscal income sources whereas environmental taxes serve as an incentive to change consumer behavior. In this paper, the effects of an ecological tax reform in the traffic sector on a selected German household will be illustrated on the basis of a theoretical welfare approach. The basic idea used for an ecological tax reform is first to reduce those household activities which produce greenhouse gas emissions, then to use the earned tax revenue to compensate the household, so that the household budget is unchanged to a large degree. In this work, direct monetary compensation models are compared to the idea of the indirect utility compensation. Direct monetary compensation gives every household a flat amount of money (lump-sum transfer) so the individual has the choice to decide which sort of transportation he prefers.

  19. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  20. Impact of road traffic emissions on tropospheric ozone in Europe for present day and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Mariano; Kerkweg, Astrid; Grewe, Volker; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Road traffic is an important anthropogenic source of NOx, CO and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) which act as precursors for the formation of tropospheric ozone. The formation of ozone is highly non-linear. This means that the contribution of the road traffic sector cannot directly be derived from the amount of emitted species, because they are also determined by local emissions of other anthropogenic and natural sources. In addition, long range transport of precursors and ozone can play an important role in determining the local ozone budget. For a complete assessment of the impact of road traffic emissions it is therefore important to resolve both, local emissions and long range transport. This can be achieved by the use of the newly developed MECO(n) model system, which on-line couples the global chemistry-climate-model EMAC with the regional chemistry-climate-model COSMO-CLM/MESSy. Both models use the same chemical speciation. This allows a highly consistent model chain from the global to the local scale. To quantify the contribution of the road traffic emissions to tropospheric ozone we use an accounting system of the relevant reaction pathways of the different species from different sources (called tagging method). This tagging scheme is implemented consistently on all scales, allowing a direct comparison of the contributions. With this model configuration we investigate the impact of road traffic emissions to the tropospheric ozone budget in Europe. For the year 2008 we compare different emission scenarios and investigate the influence of both model and emission resolution. In addition, results of a mitigation scenario for the year 2030 are presented. They indicate that the contribution of the road traffic sector can be reduced by local reductions of emissions during summer. During winter the importance of long range transport increases. This can lead to increased contributions of the road traffic sector (e.g. by increased emissions in the US) even if local

  1. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Masek, Pavel; Masek, Jan; Frantik, Petr; Fujdiak, Radek; Ometov, Aleksandr; Hosek, Jiri; Andreev, Sergey; Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented growth of today’s cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS) for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city. PMID:27834796

  2. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Masek, Pavel; Masek, Jan; Frantik, Petr; Fujdiak, Radek; Ometov, Aleksandr; Hosek, Jiri; Andreev, Sergey; Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri

    2016-11-08

    The unprecedented growth of today's cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS) for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city.

  3. The influence of future non-mitigated road transport emissions on regional ozone exceedences at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. E.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Berntsen, T. K.; Dessens, O.; Gauss, M.; Grewe, V.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Olivié, D.; Prather, M. J.; Tang, Q.

    2014-06-01

    Road Transport emissions (RTE) are a significant anthropogenic global NOx source responsible for enhancing the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) in the lower troposphere. Here we analyse a multi-model ensemble which adopts the realistic SRES A1B emission scenario and a “policy-failure” scenario for RTE (A1B_HIGH) for the years 2000, 2025 and 2050. Analysing the regional trends in RTE NOx estimates shows by 2025 that differences of 0.2-0.3 Tg N yr-1 occur for most of the world regions between the A1B and A1B_HIGH estimates, except for Asia where there is a larger difference of ˜1.4 Tg N yr-1. For 2050 these differences fall to ˜0.1 Tg N yr-1, with shipping emissions becoming as important as RTE. Analysing the seasonality in near-surface O3 from the multi-model ensemble monthly mean values shows a large variability in the projected changes between different regions. For Western Europe and the Eastern US although the peak O3 mixing ratios decrease by ˜10% in 2050, there is an associated degradation during wintertime due to less direct titration from nitric oxide. For regions such as Eastern China, although total anthropogenic NOx emissions are reduced from 2025 to 2050, there is no real improvement in peak O3 levels. By normalizing the seasonal ensemble means of near-surface O3 (0-500 m) with the recommended European Commission (EC) exposure limit to derive an exceedence ratio (ER), we show that ER values greater than 1.0 occur across a wide area in the Northern Hemisphere for boreal summer using the year 2000 emissions. When adopting the future A1B_HIGH estimates, the Middle East exhibits the worst regional air quality, closely followed by Asia. For these regions the area of exceedence (ER > 1.0) for 2025 is ˜40% and ˜25% of the total area of each region, respectively. Comparing simulations employing the various scenarios shows that unmitigated RTE increases the area of exceedence in the Middle East by ˜6% and, for Asia, by ˜2% of the total

  4. Road safety development in Europe: a decade of changes (2001-2010).

    PubMed

    Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Bao, Qiong; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the road safety development of a country over time, the percentage change in the number of road fatalities is traditionally the main indicator. However, simply considering the reduction in the road fatalities may not correctly reflect the real improvement in road safety because the transport circumstances of a country underlying the road fatalities also change every year. In this study, we present a new way for measuring the road safety performance change over time, which is to use the technique of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and the Malmquist productivity index. In doing so, we can not only focus on the evolution of road safety final outcomes within a given period, but also take the changes of different measures of exposure in the same period into account. In the application, the DEA-based Malmquist productivity index (DEA-MI) is used to measure the extent to which the EU countries have improved their road safety performance over the period 2001-2010. More objective and insightful results are obtained compared to the ones based on the traditional indicator. The results show considerable road safety progress in most of the Member States during these ten years, and the fatality risk rather than the fatality number on Europe's roads has actually been reduced by approximately half. However, the situation differed considerably from country to country. The decomposition of the DEA-MI into 'efficiency change' and 'technical change' further reveals that the bulk of the improvement during the last decade was attained through the adoption of productivity-enhancing new technologies throughout the road transport sector in Europe, rather than through the relatively underperforming countries catching up with those best-performing ones.

  5. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a... test and has been issued a certificate of driver's road test in accordance with this section. (b)...

  6. Energy efficiency of engines and appliances for transport on land, water, and in air.

    PubMed

    Furfari, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    The transport sector is fundamental for the economy but also for personal life. With a growing population and the globalization process, it is not surprising that the demand of transport is set to grow in the near future and certainly until 2050. This paper focuses on the huge potential of progress in the sector of technology for transport. As the principal sector for transport will remain on roads, the paper emphasizes the progress in the automotive sector. Since car manufacturers are investing massively into research and technology development to offer ever more efficient cars--not only energy efficient but also efficient in terms of safety and comfort--the car of tomorrow will be very different from the present one. The increasing role of electronics in cars will synergistically cooperate with that of so-called smart cities. The potential development of methane in the transport sector, mainly used for heavy transportation is discussed.

  7. Responses of serum electrolytes of goats to twelve hours of road transportation during the hot-dry season in Nigeria, and the effect of pretreatment with ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Ayo, J O; Minka, N S; Sackey, A K B; Adelaiye, A B

    2009-12-01

    Twenty goats which served as the experimental group were administered ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100 mg/kg body mass, while 20 others served as controls and were given 10 ml each of sterile water. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12 h. Handling and loading of the experimental and control groups of goats decreased (P < 0.05) the potassium and sodium serum concentrations. The concentration of serum chloride, sodium and calcium increased significantly (P < 0.05) immediately post-transportation, while potassium and magnesium decreased (P < 0.05) in the control goats. In AA-treated goats sodium and magnesium concentrations decreased abruptly (P < 0.05), while calcium increased significantly (P < 0.05) after transportation. Handling, loading and transportation adversely affected the electrolyte balance of the goats which suggested respiratory alkalosis, dehydration and muscular damage in the transported goats, and the administration of AA alleviated the adverse effects of road transportation stress on serum electrolytes.

  8. New evidence of dayside plasma transportation over the polar cap to the prevailing dawn sector in the polar upper atmosphere for solar-maximum winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sheng-Gao; Zhang, Bei-Chen; Fang, Han-Xian; Kamide, Y.; Li, Chong-Yin; Liu, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Shun-Rong; Liu, Rui-Yuan; Zhang, Qing-He; Hu, Hong-Qiao

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that owing to the transport of high-density sunlit plasma from dayside to nightside primarily by convection, polar cap tongue of ionization (TOI), polar cap patches, and blobs are common features in the polar ionosphere. The steep density gradients at the edges of these structures lead to severe problems in applications involving radio waves traversing the ionosphere. To better understand the evolution of TOI/patches/blobs, it is essential to examine how the transported sunlit plasma is distributed. Through averaging the hourly total electron content in solar-maximum winter, we present complete distribution of polar ionospheric plasma and find that the dayside plasma can be transported through cusp, over polar cap, and eventually to the prevailing dawnside, showing asymmetric distribution around magnetic midnight. The negative interplanetary magnetic field By or Bz component is favored for the plasma transportation from dayside to the prevailing dawn sector. This provides direct evidence for the plasma source of the dawnside high-density plasma structure. The same corotating convection direction as convection at auroral dawnside is responsible for the prevailing dawn sector transportation. This finding is significant for forecasting TOI/patches/blobs in conducting space weather in the polar ionosphere.

  9. Optimizing U.S. mitigation strategies for the light-duty transportation sector: what we learn from a bottom-up model.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Farrell, Alex; Plevin, Richard; Sanstad, Alan; Weyant, John

    2008-11-15

    Few integrated analysis models examine significant U.S. transportation greenhouse gas emission reductions within an integrated energy system. Our analysis, using a bottom-up MARKet ALocation (MARKAL) model, found that stringent system-wide CO2 reduction targets will be required to achieve significant CO2 reductions from the transportation sector. Mitigating transportation emission reductions can result in significant changes in personal vehicle technologies, increases in vehicle fuel efficiency, and decreases in overall transportation fuel use. We analyze policy-oriented mitigation strategies and suggest that mitigation policies should be informed by the transitional nature of technology adoptions and the interactions between the mitigation strategies, and the robustness of mitigation strategies to long-term reduction goals, input assumptions, and policy and social factors. More research is needed to help identify robust policies that will achieve the best outcome in the face of uncertainties.

  10. The properties of Safety Performance Indicators in target setting, projections and safety design of the road transport system.

    PubMed

    Tingvall, C; Stigson, H; Eriksson, L; Johansson, R; Krafft, M; Lie, A

    2010-03-01

    Road traffic Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) are becoming increasingly used as an instrument for the planning and monitoring of safety progress. SPIs form an intermediate step between actions and final outcome in terms of casualties in road crashes. It is understood that SPIs are closely related to outcome; and that it is also possible to use them in calculations and predictions of both actions and final outcome. In the present study, it was found that some of the properties assigned to SPIs could be questioned. An assumption of linearity between SPIs and final outcome was partly rejected. It was also found that 100% fulfillment of a set of SPIs could lead to very low mortality, demonstrating the importance of handling SPIs simultaneously. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Can we prevent road rage?

    PubMed

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2006-04-01

    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  12. Transport and emplacement mechanisms of large volcanic debris avalanches: evidence from the northwest sector of Cantal Volcano (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jean-Luc; Fisher, Richard V.

    1998-07-01

    Large volcanic debris avalanche (VDA) deposits of Miocene age occur within the stratigraphic sequence of Cantal stratovolcano (central France). The VDA of Cantal volcano were initiated by sector collapse of a cone of high elevation (up to 4500 m. a.s.l.). Two distinct superimposed VDA deposit units (Breccias I and II) resulted from at least two successive large-scale collapse events during the evolution of the volcanic complex. Breccia I, the oldest one, is very thick (up to 200 m) and heterolithologic. It is overlain by Breccia II, which is thinner (up to 50 m) and contains more heterometric clasts ranging from hectometer- to millimeter-size. The VDA deposits are poorly sorted. Clasts are angular and highly fractured at different scales, often with jigsaw fit. In Breccia II, jigsaw megaclasts have usually subspheric shapes with size decreasing distally. Basal deposits commonly display thin inversely graded layers, reorientated clasts along ramp structures, and cataclasis of the substratum. Some units have a distal fabric in the form of a poorly developed clast imbrication. The clasts are commonly sub-rounded thereby indicating abrasion during viscous flow. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (A.M.S.) measurements indicate absence of a preferentially oriented matrix fabric. Magnetic foliation parallel to the bedding suggests that the depositional process is dominated by particle settling. The magnetic fabric is better organized in distal deposits where magnetic carriers are imbricated. Moreover, the fragmented clasts and megaclasts are not abraded, rather inflation led to isotropic spherical dispersion of clastic material (=Isotropic Dispersive Inflation) which fed the interclast matrix. This is also confirmed by the lack of rotation at the individual crystal level. All these data strongly suggest transport of VDA by liquified non-turbulent granular flows. Distally, imbricated deposits suggest more turbulent flow. Emplacement of the VDA results from progressive

  13. A model for investigating the influence of road surface texture and tyre tread pattern on rolling resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoever, Carsten; Kropp, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    The reduction of rolling resistance is essential for a more environmentally friendly road transportation sector. Both tyre and road design can be utilised to reduce rolling resistance. In both cases a reliable simulation tool is needed which is able to quantify the influence of design parameters on the rolling resistance of a tyre rolling on a specific road surface. In this work a previously developed tyre/road interaction model is extended to account for different tread patterns and for losses due to small-scale tread deformation. Calculated contact forces and tyre vibrations for tyre/road interaction under steady-state rolling are used to predict rolling losses in the tyre. Rolling resistance is calculated for a series of different tyre/road combinations. Results are compared with rolling resistance measurements. The agreement between simulations and measurements is generally very good. It is found that both the tyre structure and small-scale tread deformations contribute to the rolling losses. The small-scale contribution depends mainly on the road roughness profile. The mean profile depth of the road surface is identified to correlate very well with the rolling resistance. Additional calculations are performed for non-traditional rubberised road surfaces, however, with mixed results. This possibly indicates the existence of additional loss mechanisms for these surfaces.

  14. The effects of different environmental conditions on thermoregulation and clinical and hematological variables in long-distance road-transported calves.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, D; Gerardi, G; Peli, A; Nanni Costa, L; Amadori, M; Segato, S

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-distance road transport (19 h, from Poland to Italy) during 2 seasons (summer vs. winter) on clinical and hematological variables in calves. The environmental temperature range that could compromise the thermoregulation system (thermal stress) of the calves was tested. For the 7 Holstein calves in each transport, the BW and rectal temperature (RT) were measured, and blood samples were collected at the farm of origin, before loading at the transit center (T2), after unloading at the farm of destination (T3), and 1, 2, 3, and 4 d after arrival. The body temperature (BT) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored from T2 to T3. The data were statistically analyzed according to a mixed model that considered the fixed effects of transport (repeated measurements), season of journey, and their interaction. Within the observed temperature-humidity index (THI) range (30 to 80), effective thermoregulation allowed the calves to maintain their BT with small physiologic changes to prevent thermal stress, particularly in the summer. With no seasonal differences, the HR was greater at loading than unloading (120 vs. 115 beats per min; P = 0.012). As for the transport effect, the BW was less (P < 0.001) after unloading, and the RT was greater (P = 0.004). This effect was more marked in summer. The hematological variables indicated a moderate effect of transport on the hydration condition, reactive and muscular systems, and metabolism, although hematocrit (P = 0.004), erythrocytes, cortisol, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity (P < 0.001), and total protein (P = 0.007) were greater after unloading. This was confirmed by a moderate decrease in total leukocytes (P = 0.031) and glucose concentration (P = 0.002). The changes in the clinical variables were similar for both seasons even though in the summer, hematocrit (P < 0.001), urea (P = 0

  15. The effects of direct and indirect road transport consignment in combination with feed withdrawal in young dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Stevens, Bronwyn H; Conley, Melanie J; Jongman, Ellen C; Lauber, Mariko C; Hides, Susan J; Anderson, Garry A; Duganzich, David M; Mansell, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Male dairy calves may be transported from their farm of origin at a young age. This process may involve an extended period off feed and indirect consignment through an intermediate facility, prompting potential welfare concerns. To assess the impact of transport, 59 male Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (5-9 d old) were either (1) held in situ on farm (control); (2) transported for 6 h; (3) transported for 12 h; or (4) transported for 1 h to a holding facility where they were kept for 6 h and then transported for 5 h. All treatments included a 30-h period of feed (milk) withdrawal, and calf responses were measured over time from before their last feed until the completion of the study after the transport and feed withdrawal periods. Apart from increases in serum creatine kinase in calves transported for 12 h, transported calves generally did not differ in blood concentrations of glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, total protein or in packed cell volume, compared with controls (P>0.05). Calf responses to the indirect consignment treatment did not differ from those of other transported calves. Withdrawal of feed for 30 h caused calves to lose 6% of body weight; blood glucose varied from 3.96 mmol/l immediately before daily feeding to 5.46 mmol/l at 3 h post feeding, and then declined to 3.43 mmol/l at 30 h. Calves lay down for 22-32% of the time during transport, and did not show a rebound effect in lying behaviour post arrival in comparison with controls. Best practice transport of 6-12 h duration, including indirect consignment via a holding facility, did not significantly affect calf blood biochemistry and metabolism in comparison with untransported animals. However, extending the time off feed beyond the daily feeding interval resulted in reduced blood glucose concentrations, suggesting that time off feed needs to be carefully managed in young transported dairy calves.

  16. Design and development of a MgB{sub 2}-based sector dipole and beam transport channel for a strong-focusing cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Melconian, K.; Damborsky, K.; Glasser, N.; Holik, E.; Kellams, J.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Sattarov, A.

    2014-01-29

    A superconducting strong focusing cyclotron is being developed for high current applications. The ∼1 T sector dipoles incorporate superconducting main windings, and alternating-gradient focusing is provided by ∼6 Tm{sup –1} superconducting beam transport channels along the arced beam trajectory of each orbit of the cyclotron. All windings utilize MgB{sub 2} superconductor operating in the temperature window 15–20K. The main dipole windings are fabricated using the react-and-wind method; the beam transport channel windings are fabricated using the wind-and-react method. Previous reports have indicated that even wind and react MgB{sub 2} conductors can be irreversibly damaged by bending strain in the unreacted state. To determine the feasibility of MgB{sub 2} conductors for the beam transport channel windings, the dependence of critical current on bending radius of commercial wires was measured.

  17. Multi-sectoral action for child safety-a European study exploring implicated sectors.

    PubMed

    Scholtes, Beatrice; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Förster, Katharina; MacKay, Morag; Vincenten, Joanne; Brand, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    Injury to children in Europe, resulting in both death and disability, constitutes a significant burden on individuals, families and society. Inequalities between high and low-income countries are growing. The World Health Organisation Health 2020 strategy calls for inter-sectoral collaboration to address injury in Europe and advocates the whole of government and whole of society approaches to wicked problems. In this study we explore which sectors (e.g. health, transport, education) are relevant for four domains of child safety (intentional injury, water, road and home safety). We used the organigraph methodology, originally developed to demonstrate how organizations work, to describe the governance of child safety interventions. Members of the European Child Safety Alliance, working in the field of child safety in 24 European countries, drew organigraphs of evidence-based interventions. They included the different actors involved and the processes between them. We analyzed the organigraphs by counting the actors presented and categorizing them into sectors using a pre-defined analysis framework. We received 44 organigraphs from participants in 24 countries. Twenty-seven sectors were identified across the four domains. Nine of the 27 identified sectors were classified as 'core sectors' (education, health, home affairs, justice, media, recreation, research, social/welfare services and consumers). This study reveals the multi-sectoral nature of child safety in practice. It provides information for stakeholders working in child safety to help them implement inter-sectoral child safety interventions taking a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach to health governance.

  18. Blood pressure of urban school children in relation to road-traffic noise, traffic density and presence of public transport.

    PubMed

    Paunovic, Katarina; Belojevic, Goran; Jakovljevic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between noise levels, traffic density and the presence of public transport and children's blood pressure. Another aim was to assess the applicability of public transport as a proxy indicator of noise exposure. A cross-sectional study involved 1113 children aged 7-11 years from a central municipality in Belgrade. Equivalent noise levels were measured in front of all schools and in the middle of all streets. Traffic density was defined as number of light and heavy vehicles per hour. The number of public transport vehicles was calculated from official timetables. Children's addresses were matched with noise levels and transport maps. A physician measured blood pressure with the sphygmomanometer. Children attending schools with public transport running nearby had by 1.3 mmHg higher systolic pressure than did children from schools without public transport. This relationship was independent from children's age, gender, and body mass index, family history of hypertension, some dwelling characteristics, and lifestyle habits. The association between diastolic pressure and public transport was statistically insignificant. The study indicated a possible positive association between the presence of public transport in the vicinity of schools with systolic blood pressure in 7-11 year-old schoolchildren. The presence of public transport may serve as an auxiliary indicator of noise exposure in undeveloped countries with limited capacities for noise measurement or modeling.

  19. Risk Factors, Health Behaviors, and Injury Among Adults Employed in the Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities Super Sector

    PubMed Central

    Helmkamp, James C.; Lincoln, Jennifer E.; Sestito, John; Wood, Eric; Birdsey, Jan; Kiefer, Max

    2015-01-01

    Background The TWU super sector is engaged in the movement of passengers and cargo, warehousing of goods, and the delivery of services. The purpose of this study is to describe employee self-reported personal risk factors, health behaviors and habits, disease and chronic conditions, and employer-reported nonfatal injury experiences of workers in the TWU super sector. Methods National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 1997–2007, grouped into six morbidity and disability categories and three age groups, were reviewed. Demographic characteristics and prevalence estimates are reported for workers in the TWU super sector and the entire U.S. workforce, and compared with national adult population data from the NHIS. Bureau of Labor Statistics employer-reported TWU injury data from 2003 to 2007 was also reviewed. Results An average of 8.3 million workers were employed annually in the TWU super sector. TWU workers 65 or older reported the highest prevalence of hypertension (49%) across all industry sectors, but the 20% prevalence is notable among middle age workers (25–64). TWU workers had the highest prevalence of obesity (28%), compared to workers in all other industry sectors. Female TWU workers experienced the highest number of lost workdays (6.5) in the past year across all TWU demographic groups. Conclusions Self-reported high proportions of chronic conditions including hypertension and heart disease combined with elevated levels of being overweight and obese, and lack of physical activity—particularly among TWUs oldest workers—can meaningfully inform wellness strategies and interventions focused on this demographic group. PMID:23255331

  20. Sharing the responsibility for driver distraction across road transport systems: a systems approach to the management of distracted driving.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is acknowledged universally as a large and growing road safety problem. Compounding the problem is that distracted driving is a complex, multifaceted issue influenced by a multitude of factors, organisations and individuals. As such, management of the problem is not straightforward. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and implemented across the globe. The vast majority of these measures have derived from the traditional reductionist, driver-centric approach to distraction and have failed to fully reflect the complex mix of actors and components that give rise to drivers becoming distracted. An alternative approach that is gaining momentum in road safety is the systems approach, which considers all components of the system and their interactions as an integrated whole. In this paper, we review the current knowledge base on driver distraction and argue that the systems approach is not currently being realised in practice. Adopting a more holistic, systems approach to distracted driving will not only improve existing knowledge and interventions from the traditional approach, but will enhance our understanding and management of distraction by considering the complex relationships and interactions of the multiple actors and the myriad sources, enablers and interventions that make up the distracted driving system. It is only by recognising and understanding how all of the system components work together to enable distraction to occur, that we can start to work on solutions to help mitigate the occurrence and consequences of distracted driving.

  1. Scaled precedence activity network (SPAN) approach to design of transportation systems: A methodology developed to introduce road facilities for lean vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of transition from some existing transportation system to an alternative system without large initial investment is addressed by identifying transition pathways. A graphical technique used combines engineering benefit/cost analysis and precedence diagrams from project management. The approach defines and evaluates potential adjustments to existing system and relationships between the adjustments. Logical strategies for introduction, which combine several different technologies, are identified from the SPAN diagrams. Strategies are selected by matching the level of deployment of technologies with the market level. Design of a system of parking and road facilities for single-passenger commuter vehicles is used as a case study. Various adjustments to existing facilities are identified, classified, and evaluated using the activity network approach. The concepts range from low-cost modifications appropriate for introduction of commuter vehicles into the market, to more expensive modifications suitable for larger numbers of such vehicles.

  2. Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-08-30

    Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NO{sub x} emissions from transportation may increase.

  3. Amino Acid Transport Associated to Cluster of Differentiation 98 Heavy Chain (CD98hc) Is at the Cross-road of Oxidative Stress and Amino Acid Availability.

    PubMed

    de la Ballina, Laura R; Cano-Crespo, Sara; González-Muñoz, Elena; Bial, Susanna; Estrach, Soline; Cailleteau, Laurence; Tissot, Floriane; Daniel, Hannelore; Zorzano, Antonio; Ginsberg, Mark H; Palacín, Manuel; Féral, Chloé C

    2016-04-29

    CD98hc functions as an amino acid (AA) transporter (together with another subunit) and integrin signaling enhancer. It is overexpressed in highly proliferative cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. CD98hc deletion induces strong impairment of cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro Here, we investigate CD98hc-associated AA transport in cell survival and proliferation. By using chimeric versions of CD98hc, the two functions of the protein can be uncoupled. Although recovering the CD98hc AA transport capacity restores the in vivo and in vitro proliferation of CD98hc-null cells, reconstitution of the integrin signaling function of CD98hc is unable to restore in vitro proliferation of those cells. CD98hc-associated transporters (i.e. xCT, LAT1, and y(+)LAT2 in wild-type cells) are crucial to control reactive oxygen species and intracellular AA levels, thus sustaining cell survival and proliferation. Moreover, in CD98hc-null cells the deficiency of CD98hc/xCT cannot be compensated, leading to cell death by ferroptosis. Supplementation of culture media with β-mercaptoethanol rescues CD98hc-deficient cell survival. Under such conditions null cells show oxidative stress and intracellular AA imbalance and, consequently, limited proliferation. CD98hc-null cells also present reduced intracellular levels of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and ARO AAs, respectively) and induced expression of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Interestingly, external supply of dipeptides containing BCAAs and ARO AAs rescues cell proliferation and compensates for impaired uptake of CD98hc/LAT1 and CD98hc/y(+)LAT2. Our data establish CD98hc as a master protective gene at the cross-road of redox control and AA availability, making it a relevant therapeutic target in cancer. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Amino Acid Transport Associated to Cluster of Differentiation 98 Heavy Chain (CD98hc) Is at the Cross-road of Oxidative Stress and Amino Acid Availability*

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Crespo, Sara; González-Muñoz, Elena; Bial, Susanna; Estrach, Soline; Cailleteau, Laurence; Tissot, Floriane; Daniel, Hannelore; Zorzano, Antonio; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Palacín, Manuel; Féral, Chloé C.

    2016-01-01

    CD98hc functions as an amino acid (AA) transporter (together with another subunit) and integrin signaling enhancer. It is overexpressed in highly proliferative cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. CD98hc deletion induces strong impairment of cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Here, we investigate CD98hc-associated AA transport in cell survival and proliferation. By using chimeric versions of CD98hc, the two functions of the protein can be uncoupled. Although recovering the CD98hc AA transport capacity restores the in vivo and in vitro proliferation of CD98hc-null cells, reconstitution of the integrin signaling function of CD98hc is unable to restore in vitro proliferation of those cells. CD98hc-associated transporters (i.e. xCT, LAT1, and y+LAT2 in wild-type cells) are crucial to control reactive oxygen species and intracellular AA levels, thus sustaining cell survival and proliferation. Moreover, in CD98hc-null cells the deficiency of CD98hc/xCT cannot be compensated, leading to cell death by ferroptosis. Supplementation of culture media with β-mercaptoethanol rescues CD98hc-deficient cell survival. Under such conditions null cells show oxidative stress and intracellular AA imbalance and, consequently, limited proliferation. CD98hc-null cells also present reduced intracellular levels of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and ARO AAs, respectively) and induced expression of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Interestingly, external supply of dipeptides containing BCAAs and ARO AAs rescues cell proliferation and compensates for impaired uptake of CD98hc/LAT1 and CD98hc/y+LAT2. Our data establish CD98hc as a master protective gene at the cross-road of redox control and AA availability, making it a relevant therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:26945935

  5. EDGARv4 Gridded Anthropogenic Emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) from Power Generation, Residential and Transport Sectors: Regional Trends Analysis in East Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Guizzardi, D.; Crippa, M.; Schaaf, E.; Olivier, J. G.; Dentener, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances and so harmful for human health. Mitigation of these emissions are internationally addressed by the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the Stockholm Convention. A global insight on POPs emissions evolution is essential since they can be transported long distances, they bio-accumulate and damage the environment. The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4) is currently updated with POPs. We have estimated the global emissions of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP)) and Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from fuel combustion in the power generation, residential and transport sectors. This emissions inventory has been developed by using as input to the EDGAR technology-based emissions calculation algorithm the fossil fuel consumption data from International Energy Agency (2014) and the emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2013). We provide a complete emission time series for the period 1970-2010 and discuss the trends. A comprehensive analysis of the contribution of East Asia region to the total global will be provided for each substance of the POPs group. An example is presented in Figure 1 for BaP emissions from residential sector; with emissions mainly from China, the East Asia region has a great share (32%) in the total global. We distributed the POPs emissions on gridmaps of 0.1°x0.1° resolution. Areas with high emissions in East Asia will be presented and discussed; Figure 2 shows the hot-spots in East Asia for BaP emissions from the residential sector. These emission gridmaps, used as input for the chemical transport models, contribute to the improvement of impact evaluation, which is a key element in measuring the effectiveness of mitigation

  6. Revisiting forest road retirement

    Treesearch

    Randy Kolka; Mathew Smidt

    2001-01-01

    Determining the sources of nonpoint source pollution in a watershed is difficult, although the largest source of sediment in forested systems is from skld trails, haul roads, and landings associated with forest harvest- ing (Ketcheson et al., 1999; Swft, 1988) The transport of sediment to streams and subsequent sedimentation leads to the loss of...

  7. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  8. Reconstruction of millennial changes in dust emission, transport and regional sea ice coverage using the deep EPICA ice cores from the Atlantic and Indian Ocean sector of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Hubertus; Fundel, Felix; Ruth, Urs; Twarloh, Birthe; Wegner, Anna; Udisti, Roberto; Becagli, Silvia; Castellano, Emiliano; Morganti, Andrea; Severi, Mirko; Wolff, Eric; Littot, Genevieve; Röthlisberger, Regine; Mulvaney, Rob; Hutterli, Manuel A.; Kaufmann, Patrik; Federer, Urs; Lambert, Fabrice; Bigler, Matthias; Hansson, Margareta; Jonsell, Ulf; de Angelis, Martine; Boutron, Claude; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise; Steffensen, Jorgen Peder; Barbante, Carlo; Gaspari, Vania; Gabrielli, Paolo; Wagenbach, Dietmar

    2007-08-01

    Continuous sea salt and mineral dust aerosol records have been studied on the two EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) deep ice cores. The joint use of these records from opposite sides of the East Antarctic plateau allows for an estimate of changes in dust transport and emission intensity as well as for the identification of regional differences in the sea salt aerosol source. The mineral dust flux records at both sites show a strong coherency over the last 150 kyr related to dust emission changes in the glacial Patagonian dust source with three times higher dust fluxes in the Atlantic compared to the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean (SO). Using a simple conceptual transport model this indicates that transport can explain only 40% of the atmospheric dust concentration changes in Antarctica, while factor 5-10 changes occurred. Accordingly, the main cause for the strong glacial dust flux changes in Antarctica must lie in environmental changes in Patagonia. Dust emissions, hence environmental conditions in Patagonia, were very similar during the last two glacials and interglacials, respectively, despite 2-4 °C warmer temperatures recorded in Antarctica during the penultimate interglacial than today. 2-3 times higher sea salt fluxes found in both ice cores in the glacial compared to the Holocene are difficult to reconcile with a largely unchanged transport intensity and the distant open ocean source. The substantial glacial enhancements in sea salt aerosol fluxes can be readily explained assuming sea ice formation as the main sea salt aerosol source with a significantly larger expansion of (summer) sea ice in the Weddell Sea than in the Indian Ocean sector. During the penultimate interglacial, our sea salt records point to a 50% reduction of winter sea ice coverage compared to the Holocene both in the Indian and Atlantic Ocean sector of the SO. However, from 20 to 80 ka before present sea salt fluxes show only very subdued millennial changes

  9. The sectoral trends of multigas emissions inventory of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amit; Shukla, P. R.; Kapshe, Manmohan

    This paper provides the trends of greenhouse gas (GHG) and local air pollutant emissions of India for 1985-2005. The GHGs covered are six Kyoto gases, namely carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N 2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6). The local air pollutants are sulfur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen oxides (NO X), carbon monoxide (CO) and total suspended particulates (TSP). These estimates incorporate some of the most recent scientific assessments for India. The multigas emissions have varied sectoral and fuel-based dominance, as well as regional distribution patterns. Coal consumption in power sector dominates CO 2 and SO 2 emissions, while power and road transport equally contribute to NO X emissions. Rice cultivation and livestock-related emissions from the agriculture sector dominate CH 4 emissions, while synthetic fertilizer use in the same sector is the major source of N 2O emissions. PFC emissions are dominated by C 2F 6 and CF 4 emissions from aluminum production. The majority of HFC emissions are contributed by HFC-23, a by-product during the production of HCFC-22 that is widely used in refrigeration industry. CO emissions have dominance from biomass burning. Particulate emissions are dominated by biomass burning (residential sector), road transport and coal combustion in large plants. These varied emission patterns provide interesting policy links and disjoints, such as—which and where mitigation flexibility for the Kyoto gases, exploring co-benefits of CO 2 and SO 2 mitigation, and technology and development pathway dependence of emissions. The present inventory assessment is a pointer to the future emission pathways for India wherein local air pollutant and GHG emissions, although connected, may not move in synchronization and therefore would require alignment through well crafted development and environment strategies.

  10. General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage Tank is at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Water Storage Plant, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  11. Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank to right, Receiver Building to left, antenna array in background - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Five Water Storage Tank, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  12. Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage Tank in center behind fence, in front of Receiver Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  13. General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage Tank is at right, Receiver Building in center, and Communications Antennas at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  14. General view of Sector Four Compound, looking north. Antenna Array ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound, looking north. Antenna Array is in background, behind Communications Antennas, Receiver Building, and Water Storage Tank - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  15. Elements in Mud and Snow in the Vicinity of the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William J.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    A small number of mud, road bed soil, and snow samples were collected in 2005 and 2006 to assess metal concentrations and loadings to areas adjacent to the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) road in northwest Alaska. The DMTS road is used by large trucks to transport lead and zinc concentrates from Red Dog Mine to the shipping facility at Red Dog Port; it traverses 32 kilometers of land in Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR). Mud collected in the summer of 2005 from wheel-wells of two passenger vehicles used for transport between Red Dog Mine and the port facility were enriched in cadmium, lead, and zinc by factors of about 200 to 800 as compared with mud collected from a vehicle stationed in Kotzebue, Alaska, whereas DMTS road bed soil samples were enriched by factors of 6 to 12. Thus, as of 2005, dispersal of mine ore wastes or concentrates by vehicles appeared to remain a potential source of metals along the DMTS road. Compared to snow samples obtained near a gravel road located near Kotzebue, Alaska, metal loadings estimated from individual snow samples collected in CAKR in April 2006 near three creeks, 13 to 50 meters from the road, were greater by factors of 13 to 316 for cadmium, 28 to 589 for lead, and 8 to 195 for zinc. When averaged for all three creek locations, mean loadings of cadmium, lead, and zinc calculated from snow samples collected at a nominal distance of 15 meters to the north of the road were 0.63, 34, and 89 milligrams of metal per square meter, respectively. Variability of particulate and metal loadings between individual samples and the three creek locations probably was affected by localized meteorological conditions and micro-topography on the snow drift and scour patterns, but road orientation on attainable truck speeds also might have been a factor. Results indicated that the ?port effect?, previously attributed to fugitive metal-enriched dusts stemming from concentrate transfer operations at the port facility

  16. The earliest long-distance obsidian transport: Evidence from the ∼200 ka Middle Stone Age Sibilo School Road Site, Baringo, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Blegen, Nick

    2017-02-01

    This study presents the earliest evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the ∼200 ka Sibilo School Road Site (SSRS), an early Middle Stone Age site in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The later Middle Pleistocene of East Africa (130-400 ka) spans significant and interrelated behavioral and biological changes in human evolution including the first appearance of Homo sapiens. Despite the importance of the later Middle Pleistocene, there are relatively few archaeological sites in well-dated contexts (n < 10) that document hominin behavior from this time period. In particular, geochemically informed evidence of long-distance obsidian transport, important for investigating expansion of intergroup interactions in hominin evolution, is rare from the Middle Pleistocene record of Africa. The SSRS offers a unique contribution to this small but growing dataset. Tephrostratigraphic analysis of tuffs encasing the SSRS provides a minimum age of ∼200 ka for the site. Levallois points and methods of core preparation demonstrate characteristic Middle Stone Age lithic technologies present at the SSRS. A significant portion (43%) of the lithic assemblage is obsidian. The SSRS obsidian comes from three different sources located at distances of 25 km, 140 km and 166 km from the site. The majority of obsidian derives from the farthest source, 166 km to the south of the site. The SSRS thus provides important new evidence that long-distance raw material transport, and the expansion of hominin intergroup interactions that this entails, was a significant feature of hominin behavior ∼200 ka, the time of the first appearance of H. sapiens, and ∼150,000 years before similar behaviors were previously documented in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxysterol generation and liver X receptor-dependent reverse cholesterol transport: not all roads lead to Rome.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Parveer S; Allahverdian, Sima; Francis, Gordon A

    2013-04-10

    Cell cholesterol metabolism is a tightly regulated process, dependent in part on activation of nuclear liver X receptors (LXRs) to increase expression of genes mediating removal of excess cholesterol from cells in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. LXRs are thought to be activated predominantly by oxysterols generated enzymatically from cholesterol in different cell organelles. Defects resulting in slowed release of cholesterol from late endosomes and lysosomes or reduction in sterol-27-hydroxylase activity lead to specific blocks in oxysterol production and impaired LXR-dependent gene activation. This block does not appear to be compensated by oxysterol production in other cell compartments. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about oxysterol-dependent activation by LXR of genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, and what these defects of cell cholesterol homeostasis can teach us about the critical pathways of oxysterol generation for expression of LXR-dependent genes.

  18. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority.

  19. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... construction or establishment of any routes passable to motor transportation, including in this restriction highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible the passage of motor vehicles either for transportation of people or for the hauling of supplies and...

  20. On the road: workable solutions to the problems of roads and highways

    Treesearch

    Mary M. Rowland

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen authors, ranging from transportation specialists to ecologists, have collaborated to write this very useful compendium describing the newly minted discipline of "road ecology." The authors state that road ecology "uses the science of ecology and landscape ecology to explore, understand, and address the interactions of roads and vehicles with...

  1. A new transport phenomenon in nanostructures: a mesoscopic analog of the Braess paradox encountered in road networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Braess paradox, known for traffic and other classical networks, lies in the fact that adding a new route to a congested network in an attempt to relieve congestion can degrade counterintuitively the overall network performance. Recently, we have extended the concept of the Braess paradox to semiconductor mesoscopic networks, whose transport properties are governed by quantum physics. In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that, alike in classical systems, congestion plays a key role in the occurrence of a Braess paradox in mesoscopic networks. PMID:22913510

  2. Potential of land use activities to offset road traffic greenhouse gas emissions in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro; Martín-Aranda, Rosa M; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén

    2017-07-15

    The transport sector is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases, adding in Spain near a quarter of the total national emissions, the majority in road transport. Therefore, road contribution to climate change should be mitigated to achieve the proposed goals in the fight against climate change. Policies and strategies suggest several preventive mitigation options, but have paid little attention to compensatory mitigation. We have conducted a theoretical case study in a Spanish province, Segovia, estimating the carbon dioxide emissions in the road network between 2015 and 2050, and analysing different compensation possibilities through conservation agriculture, agroforestry, afforestation and hedgerow plantation. We have calculated carbon sequestration in the reference period and costs per tonne for each option, estimating the budget range of offsetting road carbon emission, and funding possibilities, especially through fuel taxes. The paper demonstrates that offsetting carbon emissions produced by roads in this area is technically possible and highly desirable, unifying carbon sequestration, biodiversity improvement and rural development. The main challenge is funding, which depends largely on the political will and the awareness of the citizens.

  3. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  4. Distributed road assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  5. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must be...

  6. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must be...

  7. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must be...

  8. 49 CFR 231.29 - Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road locomotives with corner stairways. 231.29... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways. After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway openings must be...

  9. Toward the Multilevel Older Person's Transportation and Road Safety Model: A New Perspective on the Role of Demographic, Functional, and Psychosocial Factors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ides Y; Smith, Simon S; Sullivan, Karen A; Allan, Alicia C

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation refers to the practice of using self-imposed restrictions to protect oneself from situations that are, or are perceived to be, unsafe. Within the driving context, self-regulation refers the compensatory practices that some older adults adopt to restrict their driving to situations in which they feel safe. However, the way in which demographic, functional, and psychosocial factors, and the interactions between these factors, influence older adults' driving self-regulation is not well understood. Improving this understanding could lead to new ways of considering the mobility concerns faced by older drivers. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted to explore this issue. Twenty-nine empirical studies investigating the factors associated with older adults' self-regulatory driving behaviors were examined. The review findings were used to construct the Multilevel Older Persons Transportation and Road Safety (MOTRS) model. The MOTRS model proposes that individual and environmental factors such as age, gender, and the availability of alternative transportation predict older adults' practice of driving-related self-regulation. However, these variables influence self-regulation through psychosocial variables such as driving confidence, affective attitude, and instrumental attitude toward driving. The MOTRS model extends previous attempts to model older adults' driving by focusing on a novel target, driving self-regulation, and by including a wider range of predictors identified on the basis of the systematic literature review. This focus enables consideration of broader mobility issues and may inform new strategies to support the mobility of older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Exploring safety impacts of pedestrian-crossing configurations at signalized junctions on urban roads with public transport routes.

    PubMed

    Gitelman, Victoria; Carmel, Roby; Doveh, Etti; Hakkert, Shalom

    2017-04-07

    This study explored the impacts of pedestrian-crossing configurations and other design features, on accident occurrences at signalized junctions situated on central public transport routes (PTRs) of urban arterials. Statistical tests and negative-binomial regression models were applied to identify factors affecting accidents and to examine accident numbers of the PTR junctions as opposed to comparison-sites. At the PTR junctions, a consistent impact of pedestrian-crossing configurations on accidents was found, where a gradated-crossing with mixed-shifting is the least safe. Four-legged junctions tend to higher accident numbers relative to the three-legged junctions. PTR junctions are characterized by higher accident numbers, related to comparison-sites, when controlling for other design characteristics. The study findings may assist in selecting preferable design solutions while planning PTR.

  11. Combined effects of compact cevelopment, transportation investments, and road user pricing on vehicle miles traveled in urbanized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is the primary determinant of traffic congestion, vehicle crashes, greenhouse gas emissions, and other effects of transportation. Two previous studies have sought to explain VMT levels in urbanized areas. This study updates and expands on previous work with more recent data, additional metrics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain VMT levels in 315 urbanized areas. According to SEM, population, income, and gasoline prices are primary exogenous drivers of VMT. Development density is a primary endogenous driver. Urbanized areas with more freeway capacity are significantly less dense and have significantly higher VMT per capita. Areas with more transit service coverage and service frequency have higher development densities and per capita transit use, which leads to lower VMT per capita. The indirect effect of transit on VMT through land use, the so-called land use multiplier, is more than three times greater than the direct effect through transit ridership.

  12. Private sector's role in public transportation in New York City: regulation and contracting. Technical report, September 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, R.; Eichenthal, D.

    1987-06-01

    This report examines the role of the privately owned and operated component of New York City's public-transportation system, including buses, vans, and taxis. Particular attention is given to the nature, rationale, and impact of governmental regulation of private carriers. Additionally, the report explores the potential for increased contracting by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority with private providers. The study found serious inadequacies in New York City's regulation of private transit companies, including harmful fragmentation of regulatory authority and unwarranted delays in the processing of applications. Tied to the regulatory framework is a bus-subsidization system which contains significant disincentives for good management, marketing, and financial practices. These failings have contributed to rider dissatisfaction with transit service as well as the development of extensive illegal and extralegal transit services such as unregulated buses, vans, and cabs.

  13. A long and winding road: Skeletonema sp transport by Northern Adriatic Dense Waters to the Southern Adriatic Pit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Bernardy Aubry, Fabrizio; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Boldrin, Alfredo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Finotto, Stefania; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The semi enclosed Adriatic Sea is a sub basin of the Mediterranean Sea located in its northeastern part; it has a shallow northern part (average depth of 40 m) and a deep Southern Adriatic Pit (SAP) that reaches 1200m. The presence of a wide continental shelf exposed to strong heat and momentum fluxes during winter months makes the Northern Adriatic a formation site of dense waters, generally referred to as Northern Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW). Once produced, it moves south as a quasi-geostrophically adjusted vein , flowing along the Italian coast and enters the SAP giving origin to descent and cascading dense shelf water bringing into the deep layers oxygen, nutrients and organic compound. In February 2012 a long and intense cold air outbreak, with strong Bora winds, interested the northern part of the Adriatic sea causing a drop in water temperature to less than 6 °C and an increase in density to values as high as 1030.2 kg/m3 (likely the maximum values since 1929). This resulted in a massive production of NAdDW. In order to study the behavior of the NAdDW vein, a rapid response 2 legs cruise (ODW2012) was organized in the southern Adriatic. During the cruise, along with physical and chemical measurements, water and phytoplankton samples were collected at different depths. Usual abundance and distribution with a general decrease in phytoplankton abundance from the surface to the bottom were found in all stations with one exception. The bottom sample of a station located roughly 40 km at 120 m depth in front of Gargano showed a significantly high dominance (40%) of the small diatom Skeletonema sp whose flowering is typical in the surface waters of the northern Adriatic in late winter. The physical parameters of the water column showed signs of the passage of the dense water vein (lower temperature and higher dissolved oxygen concentrations) hence it was hypothesized that those diatoms were actively transported by the NAdDW near-bottom stream. A further

  14. Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part II: Attribution of PM2.5 exposure to emissions species, time, location and sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedoussi, Irene C.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Combustion emissions constitute the largest source of anthropogenic emissions in the US, and lead to the degradation of air quality and human health. In Part I we computed the population fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and number of early deaths caused by emissions from six major sectors: electric power generation, industry, commercial and residential activities, road transportation, marine transportation and rail transportation. In Part II we attribute exposure and early deaths to sectors, emissions species, time of emission, and location of emission. We apply a long-term adjoint sensitivity analysis and calculate the four dimensional sensitivities (time and space) of PM2.5 exposure with respect to each emissions species. Epidemiological evidence is used to relate increased population exposure to premature mortalities. This is the first regional application of the adjoint sensitivity analysis method to characterize long-term air pollution exposure. (A global scale application has been undertaken related to intercontinental pollution.) We find that for the electric power generation sector 75% of the attributable PM2.5 exposure is due to SO2 emissions, and 80% of the annual impacts are attributed to emissions from April to September. In the road transportation sector, 29% of PM2.5 exposure is due to NOx emissions and 33% is from ammonia (NH3), which is a result of emissions after-treatment technologies. We estimate that the benefit of reducing NH3 emissions from road transportation is ∼20 times that of NOx per unit mass. 75% of the road transportation ammonia impacts occur during the months October to March. We publicly release the sensitivity matrices computed, noting their potential use as a rapid air quality policy assessment tool.

  15. Simulation of hypothetical Asian carp egg and larvae development and transport in the Lockport, Brandon Road, Dresden Island, and Marseilles Pools of the Illinois Waterway by use of the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Duncker, James J.

    2016-04-05

    As part of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting an assessment of the vulnerability of the Chicago Area Waterway System and Des Plaines River to Asian carp (specifically, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp) and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)) spawning and recruitment. As part of this assessment, the USACE requested the help of the U.S. Geological Survey in predicting the fate and transport of Asian carp eggs hypothetically spawned at the electric dispersal barrier on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and downstream of the Brandon Road Lock and Dam on the Des Plaines River under dry weather flow and high water temperature conditions. The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model predicted that approximately 80 percent of silver carp eggs spawned near the electric dispersal barrier would hatch within the Lockport and Brandon Road pools (as close as 3.6 miles downstream of the barrier) and approximately 82 percent of the silver carp eggs spawned near the Brandon Road Dam would hatch in the Des Plaines River (as close as 1.6 miles downstream from the gates of Brandon Road Lock). Extension of the FluEgg model to include the fate and transport of larvae until gas bladder inflation—the point at which the larvae begin to leave the drift—suggests that eggs spawned at the electric dispersal barrier would reach the gas bladder inflation stage primarily within the Dresden Island Pool, and those spawned at the Brandon Road Dam would reach this stage primarily within the Marseilles and Starved Rock Pools.

  16. 5. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW TO WHITE OAK SHADE ROAD BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW TO WHITE OAK SHADE ROAD BRIDGE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, White Oak Shade Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, New Canaan, Fairfield County, CT

  17. 3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. 1935. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Wire Mill Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW TO WEST ROCKS ROAD BRIDGE, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW TO WEST ROCKS ROAD BRIDGE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, West Rocks Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  19. Design of Dual-Road Transportable Portal Monitoring System for Visible Light and Gamma-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Cunningham, Mark F; Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Hornback, Donald Eric; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Bradley, Eric Craig; Chesser, Joel B; Marchant, William

    2010-01-01

    The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Transportable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest, especially if they can be rapidly deployed to different locations. To serve this application, we have constructed a rapid-deployment portal monitor that uses visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to allow simultaneous monitoring of multiple lanes of traffic from the side of a roadway. The system operation uses machine vision methods on the visible-light images to detect vehicles as they enter and exit the field of view and to measure their position in each frame. The visible-light and gamma-ray cameras are synchronized which allows the gamma-ray imager to harvest gamma-ray data specific to each vehicle, integrating its radiation signature for the entire time that it is in the field of view. Thus our system creates vehicle-specific radiation signatures and avoids source confusion problems that plague non-imaging approaches to the same problem. Our current prototype instrument was designed for measurement of upto five lanes of freeway traffic with a pair of instruments, one on either side of the roadway. Stereoscopic cameras are used with a third alignment camera for motion compensation and are mounted on a 50 deployable mast. In this paper we discuss the design considerations for the machine-vision system, the algorithms used for vehicle detection and position estimates, and the overall architecture of the system. We also discuss system calibration for rapid deployment. We conclude with notes on preliminary performance and deployment.

  20. Design of dual-road transportable portal monitoring system for visible light and gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnowski, Thomas P.; Cunningham, Mark F.; Goddard, James S.; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Hornback, Donald E.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Bradley, E. Craig; Chesser, J.; Marchant, W.

    2010-04-01

    The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Transportable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest, especially if they can be rapidly deployed to different locations. To serve this application, we have constructed a rapid-deployment portal monitor that uses visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to allow simultaneous monitoring of multiple lanes of traffic from the side of a roadway. The system operation uses machine vision methods on the visible-light images to detect vehicles as they enter and exit the field of view and to measure their position in each frame. The visible-light and gamma-ray cameras are synchronized which allows the gamma-ray imager to harvest gamma-ray data specific to each vehicle, integrating its radiation signature for the entire time that it is in the field of view. Thus our system creates vehicle-specific radiation signatures and avoids source confusion problems that plague non-imaging approaches to the same problem. Our current prototype instrument was designed for measurement of upto five lanes of freeway traffic with a pair of instruments, one on either side of the roadway. Stereoscopic cameras are used with a third "alignment" camera for motion compensation and are mounted on a 50' deployable mast. In this paper we discuss the design considerations for the machine-vision system, the algorithms used for vehicle detection and position estimates, and the overall architecture of the system. We also discuss system calibration for rapid deployment. We conclude with notes on preliminary performance and deployment.

  1. Members of the human body prone to musculoskeletal damages: a comparison between the sector of transportation and footwears production.

    PubMed

    Gomes de Lima, Jeane F; Colaço, Geraldo; da Silva, Ricardo; Masculo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This study present areas of the body more prone to develop diseases by musculoskeletal efforts, ie, RTD, in two companies of Paraiba, Brazil. To this end, was made a comparative analysis with respect to the type of work performed (standing, sitting) and the parts that suffer most discomfort after a day's work in a footwear industry and a bus transportation company. The quanti-qualitative research was conducted through semi-structured interviews with 227 employees in the period 2008 to 2009, having as methodological the tool diagram of painful areas of Corlett and Manenica. It was concluded that the areas most affected by musculoskeletal disorders are located in the neck (9,2%), backs (23,6%), shoulders (14,5%) and legs (11,3%), being usually caused by inappropriate postures, repetitive movements and work station no adequate the anthropometry of the users. Thus, we recommend the adoption of ergonomic measures that enable a healthy and safe environment for workers.

  2. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Land transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherek, Elmar; Halenka, Tomas; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Balkanski, Yves; Berntsen, Terje; Borrego, Carlos; Gauss, Michael; Hoor, Peter; Juda-Rezler, Katarzyna; Lelieveld, Jos; Melas, Dimitrios; Rypdal, Kristin; Schmid, Stephan

    2010-12-01

    Emissions from land transport, and from road transport in particular, have significant impacts on the atmosphere and on climate change. This assessment gives an overview of past, present and future emissions from land transport, of their impacts on the atmospheric composition and air quality, on human health and climate change and on options for mitigation. In the past vehicle exhaust emission control has successfully reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter. This contributed to improved air quality and reduced health impacts in industrialised countries. In developing countries however, pollutant emissions have been growing strongly, adversely affecting many populations. In addition, ozone and particulate matter change the radiative balance and hence contribute to global warming on shorter time scales. Latest knowledge on the magnitude of land transport's impact on global warming is reviewed here. In the future, road transport's emissions of these pollutants are expected to stagnate and then decrease globally. This will then help to improve the air quality notably in developing countries. On the contrary, emissions of carbon dioxide and of halocarbons from mobile air conditioners have been globally increasing and are further expected to grow. Consequently, road transport's impact on climate is gaining in importance. The expected efficiency improvements of vehicles and the introduction of biofuels will not be sufficient to offset the expected strong growth in both, passenger and freight transportation. Technical measures could offer a significant reduction potential, but strong interventions would be needed as markets do not initiate the necessary changes. Further reductions would need a resolute expansion of low-carbon fuels, a tripling of vehicle fuel efficiency and a stagnation in absolute transport volumes. Land transport will remain a key sector in climate change mitigation during the next decades.

  3. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER...

  4. Inventory and substance flow analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Nigerian transport sector-end-of-life vehicles policy and management.

    PubMed

    Babayemi, J O; Osibanjo, O; Sindiku, O; Weber, R

    2016-04-11

    Recently, certain polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. In this study, a preliminary material and substance flow analysis of commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether (c-PentaBDE) was conducted for motor vehicles-a major use sector for POP-PBDE in polyurethane (PUR) foam-for Nigeria. The methodology of the Stockholm Convention PBDE inventory guidance was used for the calculation of c-PentaBDE. Material/substance flow analysis was conducted applying the STAN software. The time frame for this analysis was 1980-2010, considering that this was the period when POP-PBDE-containing vehicles were largely imported into Nigeria.It is estimated that the approximately 19 million passenger cars imported from 1980 to 2010 contained ca. 270 t of POP-PBDEs in ca. 401,000 t of PUR foam. A major share of cars from the USA and only a small share of cars from Europe and Asia were impacted. This simplified material and substance flow of PUR foams and POP-PBDEs in motor vehicles demonstrated the potential for environmental/human contamination and pollution of recycling/reuse for Nigeria and other developing countries.The study developed the first preliminary inventory of end-of-life vehicles for Nigeria, following which the environment ministry has taken up the important issue of end-of-life vehicles management. Considering that a range of other pollutants are contained in vehicles (e.g. heavy metals, flame retardants, PCBs, chlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons and waste oil), this initiated activity should finally lead to an integrated management of pollutants and resources from the transport sector.

  5. Measuring Road Network Vulnerability with Sensitivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jun-qiang, Leng; Long-hai, Yang; Liu, Wei-yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a method for road network vulnerability analysis, from the perspective of capacity degradation, which seeks to identify the critical infrastructures in the road network and the operational performance of the whole traffic system. This research involves defining the traffic utility index and modeling vulnerability of road segment, route, OD (Origin Destination) pair and road network. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis method is utilized to calculate the change of traffic utility index due to capacity degradation. This method, compared to traditional traffic assignment, can improve calculation efficiency and make the application of vulnerability analysis to large actual road network possible. Finally, all the above models and calculation method is applied to actual road network evaluation to verify its efficiency and utility. This approach can be used as a decision-supporting tool for evaluating the performance of road network and identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management, especially in the resource allocation for mitigation and recovery. PMID:28125706

  6. Celtic Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  7. Future methane emissions from the heavy-duty natural gas transportation sector for stasis, high, medium, and low scenarios in 2035.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nigel N; Johnson, Derek R; McKain, David L; Wayne, W Scott; Li, Hailin; Rudek, Joseph; Mongold, Ronald A; Sandoval, Cesar; Covington, April N; Hailer, John T

    2017-08-22

    Today's heavy-duty natural gas fueled fleet is estimated to represent less than two percent of the total fleet. However, over the next couple of decades, predictions are that the percentage could grow to represent as much as 50 percent. While fueling switching to natural gas could provide a climate benefit relative to diesel fuel, the potential for emissions of methane (a potent greenhouse gas) from natural gas fueled vehicles has been identified as a concern. Since today's heavy-duty natural gas fueled fleet penetration is low, today's total fleet wide emissions will be also be low regardless of per vehicle emissions. However, predicted growth could result in a significant quantity of methane emissions. To evaluate this potential and identify effective options for minimizing emissions, future growth scenarios of heavy-duty natural gas fueled vehicles and compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas fueling stations that serve them, have been developed for 2035, when the populations could be significant. The scenarios rely on the most recent measurement campaign of the latest manufactured technology, equipment, and vehicles reported in a companion paper as well as projections of technology and practice advances. These "Pump-to-Wheels"(PTW) projections do not include methane emissions outside of the bounds of the vehicles and fuel stations themselves and should not be confused with a complete Wells-to-Wheels analysis. Stasis, high, medium, and low scenario PTW emission projections for 2035 were 1.32%, 0.67%, 0.33%, and 0.15% of the fuel used. The scenarios highlight that a large emissions reductions could be realized with closed crankcase operation, improved best practices, and implementation of vent mitigation technologies. Recognition of the potential pathways for emission reductions could further enhance the heavy-duty transportation sectors ability to reduce carbon emissions. Implications Newly collected Pump to Wheels methane emissions data for current

  8. Simulator of Road Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danišovič, Peter; Schlosser, František; Šrámek, Juraj; Rázga, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A Tunnel Traffic & Operation Simulator is a device of the Centre of Transport Research at the University of Žilina. The Simulator allows managing technological equipment of virtual two-tube highway tunnel, which is interconnected with simulation of vehicle traffic in tunnel. Changes of the traffic-operation states and other equipment are reflecting at the simulated traffic, as well as simulations of various emergency events in traffic initiate changes in tunnel detecting and measuring devices. It is thus possible to simulate emergency states, which can be affected by various faults of technology as well as by climatic conditions. The solutions can be found in irreplaceable experiences of Slovak road tunnel operators, changes of trafficoperation states, visualizations of operator technological display screens, technological devices labelling in order to increase operational safety of road tunnels.

  9. Risk analysis for truck transportation of high consequence cargo.

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Robert David

    2010-09-01

    The fixed facilities control everything they can to drive down risk. They control the environment, work processes, work pace and workers. The transportation sector drive the State and US highways with high kinetic energy and less-controllable risks such as: (1) other drivers (beginners, impaired, distracted, etc.); (2) other vehicles (tankers, hazmat, super-heavies); (3) road environments (bridges/tunnels/abutments/construction); and (4) degraded weather.

  10. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds...

  11. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds...

  12. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds...

  13. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program funds...

  14. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  15. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions.

  16. [Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field].

    PubMed

    Rosso, G L; Zanelli, R; Corino, P; Bruno, S

    2007-01-01

    Every year many traffic accidents with fatal outcomes occur in our Country. According to the recent indications of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, the Piedmont region has financed the plan: Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field. The aims of the plan are to stimulate transport companies to the target of road safety and to improve and enforce sanitary surveillance, in order to improve the safety on road haulage and to prevent traffic injuries. the plan foresees, over a period of two years, a few encounters with all the interested parties (companies, police forces, labour unions etc). During those encounters we have to give a questionnaire for evaluating the companies' knowledge about the problem and we have to choose a common plan with the aim of improving road safety. The Piedmont regional plan recalls the need to increase the attention to numerous and diversified hazards for safety on road haulage. It also imposes the choice of measures that include: risk assessment, health education, technical and environmental prevention, sanitary surveillance and clinical interventions (diagnosis and rehabilitation of occupational accidents).

  17. Metals Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information about the metals sector (NAICS 331 & 332), including NESHAPs for metal coatings, effluent guidelines for metal products, combustion compliance assistance, and information about foundry sand recycling.

  18. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive a...

  19. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive a...

  20. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive a...

  1. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive a...

  2. Private sector participation in domestic waste management in informal settlements in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opoko, Akunnaya P; Oluwatayo, Adedapo A

    2016-12-01

    Lagos is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa, which is grappling with the challenges of poorly managed urbanisation. With an estimated population of about 17.5 million, solid waste management is one of the most pressing environmental challenges currently faced in the city. It is estimated that more than 9071847.4kg of urban waste is generated every day in the city. The city lacks the capacity to deal with such magnitude of waste. Consequently, the city has involved the private sector (private sector participation) in its waste management drive. This article examines the effectiveness of this public-private sector collaboration model in waste management in informal settlements in Lagos using empirical data. Major findings of the article include the irregularity of waste collection owing to a poor road network, an inadequate transport infrastructure and the desire to maximise profit, as well as poor waste handling and disposal methods by the private sector participation operators who are not chosen based on competence and capacity to perform. Another major finding is the lack of cooperation from residents evidenced in non-payment of bills and poor packaging of wastes, resulting in wastes being littered. The article concludes on the need to restructure the scheme through proper sensitisation of residents, selection of operators with demonstrable delivery capacity and provision of a well-maintained road network to facilitate access of operators to settlements.

  3. 77 FR 21577 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Road Vehicle Certification for Transport Under Customs Seal AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... collection requirement concerning the Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. This...: Title: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle for Transport under Customs Seal. OMB Number: 1651-0124. Form...

  4. A suite of tools for monitoring and assessing impacts of road networks and off-road vehicle activity on rangelands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite increasing amounts of transportation related activities on rangelands globally, few tools exist for assessing and monitoring impacts of roads, road networks and off-road vehicle traffic. This is in part due to an historical emphasis on grazing issues in rangelands and the complexity of monit...

  5. Assessment of metals exposure and sub-lethal effects in voles and small birds captured near the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Mora, Miguel A.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Voles (n=6) and small ground-nesting birds (n=12) were live-captured near the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska in 2006 to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, blood analysis, and analysis for aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about 3 times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site. Barium and zinc tissue concentrations of animals collected from different sites were not remarkably different, and aluminum concentrations were below the reporting limits in most samples. There was no clear evidence of serious sub-lethal biological effects such as lesions in internal organs or DNA damage in blood in any of the animals. Accordingly, blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road generally were less than tissue concentration thresholds associated with serious biological effects reported from other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for those animals nearest the haul road. Notably, liver lead concentrations of voles and small birds at the reference location were considerably less than those previously reported for similar animals at reference sites in other parts of the United States, Canada, and Europe. Results from this reconnaissance-level study indicate that voles and small birds inhabiting this area are not suffering serious biological effects as a result of metals exposure; however, continued monitoring of lead and other metals is

  6. Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part I: Quantifying the impact of major sectors in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Ashok, Akshay; Waitz, Ian A.; Yim, Steve H. L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-11-01

    Combustion emissions adversely impact air quality and human health. A multiscale air quality model is applied to assess the health impacts of major emissions sectors in United States. Emissions are classified according to six different sources: electric power generation, industry, commercial and residential sources, road transportation, marine transportation and rail transportation. Epidemiological evidence is used to relate long-term population exposure to sector-induced changes in the concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone to incidences of premature death. Total combustion emissions in the U.S. account for about 200,000 (90% CI: 90,000-362,000) premature deaths per year in the U.S. due to changes in PM2.5 concentrations, and about 10,000 (90% CI: -1000 to 21,000) deaths due to changes in ozone concentrations. The largest contributors for both pollutant-related mortalities are road transportation, causing ∼53,000 (90% CI: 24,000-95,000) PM2.5-related deaths and ∼5000 (90% CI: -900 to 11,000) ozone-related early deaths per year, and power generation, causing ∼52,000 (90% CI: 23,000-94,000) PM2.5-related and ∼2000 (90% CI: -300 to 4000) ozone-related premature mortalities per year. Industrial emissions contribute to ∼41,000 (90% CI: 18,000-74,000) early deaths from PM2.5 and ∼2000 (90% CI: 0-4000) early deaths from ozone. The results are indicative of the extent to which policy measures could be undertaken in order to mitigate the impact of specific emissions from different sectors - in particular black carbon emissions from road transportation and sulfur dioxide emissions from power generation.

  7. Improving health sector travel.

    PubMed

    Hurdle, David; Davis, Adrian

    2004-10-01

    Preventing ill health and obesity and building more physical activity into our daily lives have never been so high on the agenda, and the way we travel can help. Many workplaces and schools are drawing up travel plans, with the aims usually to minimise car use and encourage healthier and more environmentally friendly travel. The Transport White Paper of 1998 advocated travel plans and singled out hospitals for action. Travel plans continue to be a focus within the latest Transport White Paper, launched in July 2004. This article covers various prompts to the health sector to implement travel plans. It addresses issues and concerns facing NHS Trusts, the practical things Trusts can do, and the increasing amount of good practice available. Finally, it demonstrates that travel plans can work, and are working, in the health sector.

  8. The Public Debate about Roads on the National Forest: An Analysis of the News Media

    Treesearch

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan

    1999-01-01

    Roads and road building on the US national forests have become the focus of intense public debate in recent years. Timber companies and others argued that forest roads are an essential transportation system for the production of commodities that society needs. Environmentalists and others reply that national forest roads constitute ecologically destructive "...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48... Structures § 1242.16 Road property damaged—other (account XX-19-48). Separate common expenses in proportion... accounts: Road Property Damaged—Running (XX-17-48) Road Property Damaged—Switching (XX-18-48) ...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48... Structures § 1242.16 Road property damaged—other (account XX-19-48). Separate common expenses in proportion... accounts: Road Property Damaged—Running (XX-17-48) Road Property Damaged—Switching (XX-18-48) ...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48... Structures § 1242.16 Road property damaged—other (account XX-19-48). Separate common expenses in proportion... accounts: Road Property Damaged—Running (XX-17-48) Road Property Damaged—Switching (XX-18-48) ...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48... Structures § 1242.16 Road property damaged—other (account XX-19-48). Separate common expenses in proportion... accounts: Road Property Damaged—Running (XX-17-48) Road Property Damaged—Switching (XX-18-48) ...

  13. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are eligible...

  14. 49 CFR 1242.16 - Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road property damaged-other (account XX-19-48... Structures § 1242.16 Road property damaged—other (account XX-19-48). Separate common expenses in proportion... accounts: Road Property Damaged—Running (XX-17-48) Road Property Damaged—Switching (XX-18-48) ...

  15. Source-sector contributions to European ozone and fine PM in 2010 using AQMEII modeling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamchandani, Prakash; Long, Yoann; Pirovano, Guido; Balzarini, Alessandra; Yarwood, Greg

    2017-05-01

    Source apportionment modeling provides valuable information on the contributions of different source sectors and/or source regions to ozone (O3) or fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. This information can be useful in designing air quality management strategies and in understanding the potential benefits of reducing emissions from a particular source category. The Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) offers unique source attribution tools, called the Ozone and Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (OSAT/PSAT), which track source contributions. We present results from a CAMx source attribution modeling study for a summer month and a winter month using a recently evaluated European CAMx modeling database developed for Phase 3 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). The contributions of several source sectors (including model boundary conditions of chemical species representing transport of emissions from outside the modeling domain as well as initial conditions of these species) to O3 or PM2.5 concentrations in Europe were calculated using OSAT and PSAT, respectively. A 1-week spin-up period was used to reduce the influence of initial conditions. Evaluation focused on 16 major cities and on identifying source sectors that contributed above 5 %. Boundary conditions have a large impact on summer and winter ozone in Europe and on summer PM2.5, but they are only a minor contributor to winter PM2.5. Biogenic emissions are important for summer ozone and PM2.5. The important anthropogenic sectors for summer ozone are transportation (both on-road and non-road), energy production and conversion, and industry. In two of the 16 cities, solvent and product also contributed above 5 % to summertime ozone. For summertime PM2.5, the important anthropogenic source sectors are energy, transportation, industry, and agriculture. Residential wood combustion is an important anthropogenic sector in winter for PM2.5 over

  16. Defense Infrastructure: High-Level Federal Interagency Coordination Is Warranted to Address Transportation Needs beyond the Scope of the Defense Access Roads Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, it is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of Defense should seek to ensure that the permanent facilities... common type of DAR project at the growth installations involves intersection improvements (8 of the 20), which can accommodate an increase in...funds to build Mulligan Road, as shown in figure 4 below, which will be the new public access connection through the installation between Richmond

  17. Road manslaughter—or just the cost of progress?

    PubMed Central

    Mooren, L; Grzebieta, R

    2009-01-01

    Much to the frustration of road safety researchers, practitioners, and advocates, road deaths and injuries have not been widely accepted as a major public health threat. Currently, road trauma is one of the biggest killers and causes of serious and disabling injuries in the world. Although there has been considerable research on the causes of road injury and ways of mitigating the problem, there is still reluctance to systematically and sufficiently do what can be done to reduce this problem globally. This paper takes a historical review of the road trauma problem and responses to it. In examining developments in road transport and road injury, it is clear that the main impediment to reducing road deaths and injury has been a misguided preference of economic advancement over public health risk management. It is misguided because road trauma has impeded and does still impede the capacity of economies to develop. The challenge for societies now is to look at this false dichotomy—that of road development and motorisation versus road safety—and begin to make the right choices in favour of human society advancement through the development and management of safe road-traffic systems. A new ‘Safe Systems’ approach is emerging in Australia and spreading globally as a guiding principle for road safety. The evolution of this approach is traced and illustrated in this article. The need for finding ways to engender a stronger global political commitment to road safety is demonstrated. PMID:22460394

  18. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  19. Transportation and energy efficiency: Promised potentials, serious roadblocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft-Oliver, T.V.

    1995-12-31

    Transportation is both a critical element of achieving national economic development goals and a major consumer of scarce and expensive energy resources. Improvements in access and mobility from reduced congestion, higher speeds, additional non motorized and pedestrian options, and better mass transit will result in reductions in energy use in most cases. Additional improvements in vehicle efficiency are possible but will not meet the needs of the region for transportation and energy efficiency improvements in the absence of these other improvements. The barriers to success in the transport sector are obvious on a superficial level. They include lack of road space, inadequate or incomplete road networks, insufficient mass transit capacity, predation of pedestrian and nonmotorized vehicle space by motor vehicles, and financing. The lack of progress in solving many of these problems over the past ten to twenty years indicates that there are underlying issues not yet addressed. Perceptions of these problems have changed since the middle 1970s and early 1980s as international lending and technical assistance began to focus on transportation. In those early years the problems were described as financial, and `meeting demand` challenges. The World Bank is now conducting a review of their Transport Sector Policy. While the review has not progressed to a final document and certainly not to articulation or transformation of Bank policy, early drafts reflect a view that past failures to improve transportation circumstances are human resource and institutional problems.

  20. Risky Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, David

    2008-01-01

    A business that depends on a fleet of vehicles to deliver its products or services to customers usually recognizes the risk that comes with driving from one place to another. To an organization that does not see movement as part of its main mission, however, the need to consider transportation liability may be less obvious. In today's litigious…

  1. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  2. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  3. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i

  4. Comparison of Two Methods for Improving the Resolution of On-Road CO2 Emissions at a Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brondfield, M. N.; Hutyra, L.; Raciti, S. M.; McKain, K.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of our anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nationally, transportation is estimated to account for roughly 30% of all emissions, but spatial variations in on-road sources are difficult to accurately estimate on scales finer than the state or county at best. Patterns in commuting require analyses with spatial extents well beyond the urban core and temporal resolution that accounts for diurnal traffic flows, shifting the focus to a metropolitan region. Regional carbon models rely on accurate a priori transportation emissions fields, making high resolution estimates from this sector crucial. Currently, emissions have been estimated at national and regional scales using aggregate vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and at local scales using traffic counts for individual roads. However, local observations are limited in extent and regional inventories are typically too coarse to effectively capture urban and commuter influences. In this analysis, we employ a hybrid approach, using both top-down and bottom-up methods to disaggregate a national estimate of on-road CO2 emissions for the Boston, MA metropolitan area. We contrast top-down calculations based on road density and distances from major roads with bottom-up, fine-scale estimates based on local traffic data and mode-split traffic flow models. We find that in Boston, the national inventory systematically underestimates emissions within the urban core and over estimates suburban contributions. This approach is easily reproducible and has the potential to improve modeling of on-road CO2 emissions for urban regions. Further, developing a fine-grained emissions map can assist in exposure estimates for vehicle particulates and other criteria pollutants.

  5. Grey Relational Evaluation on Road Project Delivery Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Chao, Yu; Lee, Gin-Yuan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, four road delivery project models are analyzed by grey relational evaluation. The four models are design-bid-build (DBB), design-build (DB), construction management (CM) and design-build-maintenance (DBM). Evaluating road project delivery models is difficult because the projects differ from road to road, state to state and country to country. Thus, the evaluation data of project delivery systems are poor and lacking. Grey theory is an effective mathematical method, which is a multidisciplinary and generic theory dealing with systems characterized by poor information and/or for which information is lacking. Therefore, grey relational analysis and grey model are employed to compare the efficiency of the four road project delivery models. According to the result, DBM is the best model. DBB is the worst one and DB is better than CM. The results may provide public sectors to employ an adequate model so as to proceed with road construction project.

  6. Note on evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure to motivate safety competition.

    PubMed

    Han, Sangjin

    2016-01-01

    Road infrastructures are usually developed and maintained by governments or public sectors. There is no competitor in the market of their jurisdiction. This monopolic feature discourages road authorities from improving the level of safety with proactive motivation. This study suggests how to apply a principle of competition for roads, in particular by means of performance evaluation. It first discusses why road infrastructure has been slow in safety oriented development and management in respect of its business model. Then it suggests some practical ways of how to promote road safety between road authorities, particularly by evaluating safety performance of road infrastructure. These are summarized as decision of safety performance indicators, classification of spatial boundaries, data collection, evaluation, and reporting. Some consideration points are also discussed to make safety performance evaluation on road infrastructure lead to better road safety management.

  7. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. Road network safety evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical joint model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Huang, Helai

    2016-05-01

    Safety and efficiency are commonly regarded as two significant performance indicators of transportation systems. In practice, road network planning has focused on road capacity and transport efficiency whereas the safety level of a road network has received little attention in the planning stage. This study develops a Bayesian hierarchical joint model for road network safety evaluation to help planners take traffic safety into account when planning a road network. The proposed model establishes relationships between road network risk and micro-level variables related to road entities and traffic volume, as well as socioeconomic, trip generation and network density variables at macro level which are generally used for long term transportation plans. In addition, network spatial correlation between intersections and their connected road segments is also considered in the model. A road network is elaborately selected in order to compare the proposed hierarchical joint model with a previous joint model and a negative binomial model. According to the results of the model comparison, the hierarchical joint model outperforms the joint model and negative binomial model in terms of the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance, which indicates the reasonableness of considering the hierarchical data structure in crash prediction and analysis. Moreover, both random effects at the TAZ level and the spatial correlation between intersections and their adjacent segments are found to be significant, supporting the employment of the hierarchical joint model as an alternative in road-network-level safety modeling as well.

  11. Network Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions From On-road Sources in the Portland OR, (USA) Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, governments at multiple levels are developing policies to decrease anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The City of Portland (Oregon) and Multnomah County have adopted a Climate Action Plan with a stated goal of reducing emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. The transportation sector alone accounts for about 40% of total emissions in the Portland metropolitan area. Here we show a new street-level model of on-road mobile CO2 emissions for the Portland, OR metropolitan region. The model uses hourly traffic counter recordings made by the Portland Bureau of Transportation at 9,352 sites over 21 years (1986-2006), augmented with freeway loop detector data from the Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL) transportation data archive. We constructed a land use regression model to fill in traffic network gaps with traffic counts as the dependent variable using GIS data such as road class (32 categories) and population density. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model was used to estimate transportation CO2 emissions. The street-level emissions can be aggregated and gridded and used as input to atmospheric transport models for comparison with atmospheric measurements. This model also provides an independent assessment of top-down inventories that determine emissions from fuel sales, while being an important component of our ongoing effort to assess the effectiveness of emission mitigation strategies at the urban scale.

  12. How Long Do the Dead Survive on the Road? Carcass Persistence Probability and Implications for Road-Kill Monitoring Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sara M.; Carvalho, Filipe; Mira, António

    2011-01-01

    transportation agencies with accurate numbers of road-kills, realistic mitigation measures, and detailed designs for road monitoring programs. PMID:21980437

  13. Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation Program Using Functional and Structural Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setianingsih, A. I.; Sangaji, S.; Setyawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Road sector development policy in Bangka Belitung emphasis on equitable development, which is opening up new areas for industrial development zones of potential marine and coastal tourism, so that having an impact on the budget priority to build a new road. This led to a minimal budget provided for the maintenance of the existing road. This study aimed to evaluate the condition of the pavement both functionally and structurally, the growth of traffic density and the availability of existing road maintenance costs. Then, to analyze the influence of existing road conditions, traffic density and road maintenance costs to the type of road maintenance management. The results are compared with the results of the existing maintenance conducted by the Public Works Department of Bangka Belitung province. Evaluation of pavement conditions consists of visual assessment of pavement condition using IRI, pavement condition assessment functionally with deflection method using test data tool Benkelman Beam (BB) and the actual traffic load. IRI value, deflections and traffic growth gained from years 2011-2015 subsequently created regression models to obtain the relationship and the correlation coefficient. The analysis showed that using the same relative magnitude of the budget from 2011 to 2015, giving priority to the maintenance of the road with good conditions capable of providing the road with a steady state of 100%. Recommendations can be given that maintain the road with good conditions reflecting that preservation provide maximum results with the more efficient maintenance cost.

  14. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV)...

  15. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation

  16. The public debate about roads on the National Forests : an analysis of the new media : 1994-98

    Treesearch

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan

    1999-01-01

    Roads and road building on the US national forests have become the focus of intense public debate in recent years. Timber companies and others argue that forest roads are an essential transportation system for the production of commodities that society needs. Environmentalists and others reply that national forest roads constitute ecologically destructive "...

  17. Ukrain’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Technology Sector 2 new materials, and biotechnologies; high-tech development of agriculture and the food- processing industry ; building and...main industries are chemicals, coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, food processing (especially sugar), and machinery and transport...Ukraine’s researchers were in Dnepropetrovsk, where the main industries are mining, machinebuilding, metallurgy, and food processing ; and more than

  18. Bearing Capacity Assessment on low Volume Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zariņš, A.

    2015-11-01

    A large part of Latvian road network consists of low traffic volume roads and in particular of roads without hard pavement. Unbounded pavements shows serious problems in the form of rutting and other deformations, which finally lead to weak serviceability and damage of the road structure after intensive exploitation periods. Traditionally, these problems have been associated with heavy goods transport, overloaded vehicles and their impact. To find the specific damaging factors causing road pavement deformations and evaluate their prevention possibilities, and establish conditions that will allow doing it, the study was carried out. The tire pressure has been set as the main factor of load. Two different tire pressures have been used in tests and their impacts were compared. The comparison was done using deflection measurements with LWD together with dielectric constant measurements in a road structure using percometer. Measurements were taken in the upper pavement structure layers at different depths during full-scale loading and in different moisture/temperature conditions. Advisable load intensity and load factors for heavy traffic according to road conditions were set based on the study results.

  19. Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of tether transportation is given. Four steps were used over a period of time. First, theoretical engineering feasibility and technology requirements were determined. Then the survivors of that effort went into step two in the analysis of promising candidates. Those survivors went into the third phase which is engineering design and cost benefits. Survivors entered into the demonstration mission definition phase. Transportation studies have covered two kinds of deployments. First, steady state deployment was studied. Like the TSS, it's nearly vertical. It takes a long time to deploy and involves relatively high tether tension. Secondly, dynamic deployment was studied. Deployment started in an almost horizontal direction under a very shallow angle which allows a high deployment rate under very low tension. Momentum transfer here occurs by libration. Specific payloads were used to study tethered transportation benefits. Four transportation concepts were studied with regard to cost benefits. A tethered orbiter deboost from the space station, an OTV boost up from the Space Station, a science platform on a tether with a possible micro-g lab moving in between platform and station, and a tethered boost of payloads fromthe orbiter are the four concepts. These benefits are examined in detail.

  20. Maritime Intelligent Transport Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew

    The concept of intelligent transport systems, developed since 1980s, includes all modes of transport. Relevant developments in road transport are the most advanced. Recently water transport, particularly maritime transport, has gained more attention in this respect, in connection with building and further developments of maritime intelligent transport systems. The present state and directions of development of telematic systems in maritime transport will be discussed, with a focus on marine navigation.

  1. Developing a 3D Road Cadastral System: Comparing Legal Requirements and User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gristina, S.; Ellul, C.; Scianna, A.

    2016-10-01

    Road transport has always played an important role in a country's growth and, in order to manage road networks and ensure a high standard of road performance (e.g. durability, efficiency and safety), both public and private road inventories have been implemented using databases and Geographical Information Systems. They enable registering and managing significant amounts of different road information, but to date do not focus on 3D road information, data integration and interoperability. In an increasingly complex 3D urban environment, and in the age of smart cities, however, applications including intelligent transport systems, mobility and traffic management, road maintenance and safety require digital data infrastructures to manage road data: thus new inventories based on integrated 3D road models (queryable, updateable and shareable on line) are required. This paper outlines the first step towards the implementation of 3D GIS-based road inventories. Focusing on the case study of the "Road Cadastre" (the Italian road inventory as established by law), it investigates current limitations and required improvements, and also compares the required data structure imposed by cadastral legislation with real road users' needs. The study aims to: a) determine whether 3D GIS would improve road cadastre (for better management of data through the complete life-cycle infrastructure projects); b) define a conceptual model for a 3D road cadastre for Italy (whose general principles may be extended also to other countries).

  2. Fuel-mix, fuel efficiency, and transport demand affect prospects for biofuels in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2010-04-01

    Rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the road transport sector represents a difficult mitigation challenge due to a multitude of intricate factors, namely the dependency on liquid energy carriers and infrastructure lock-in. For this reason, low-carbon renewable energy carriers, particularly second generation biofuels, are often seen as a prominent candidate for realizing reduced emissions and lowered oil dependency over the medium- and long-term horizons. However, the overarching question is whether advanced biofuels can be an environmentally effective mitigation strategy in the face of increasing consumption and resource constraints. Here we develop both biofuel production and road transport consumption scenarios for northern Europe-a region with a vast surplus of forest bioenergy resources-to assess the potential role that forest-based biofuels may play over the medium- and long-term time horizons using an environmentally extended, multiregion input-output model. Through scenarios, we explore how evolving vehicle technologies and consumption patterns will affect the mitigation opportunities afforded by any future supply of forest biofuels. We find that in a scenario involving ambitious biofuel targets, the size of the GHG mitigation wedge attributed to the market supply of biofuels is severely reduced under business-as-usual growth in consumption in the road transport sector. Our results indicate that climate policies targeting the road transport sector which give high emphases to reducing demand (volume), accelerating the deployment of more fuel-efficient vehicles, and promoting altered consumption patterns (structure) can be significantly more effective than those with single emphasis on expanded biofuel supply.

  3. Automotive Sectors (NAICS 336, 4231, 8111)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find regulatory, compliance, and enforcement information for environmental laws and regulations for the automotive sectors, which includes transportation equipment manufacturing, and establishments involved in repair and maintenance services for vehicles

  4. Multi-Sector Sustainability Browser (MSSB)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A browser which lets the user navigate through text and graphics and understand the interrelationship among four key sectors of a community crucial to sustainability: Land Use, Buildings and Infrastructure, Transportation, and Materials Management.

  5. TA-59 North Parking Lot and Pajarito Road Corridor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide traffic engineering services for the TA-59 North Parking Lot/Pajarito Road corridor Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following tasks were accomplished to assess the development of the north parking lot and Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59: conducted turning-movement counts from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM at the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection; conducted a parking supply and demand survey for all the parking lots within TA-59 on half-hour intervals between 0600--1800 (6 AM to 6 PM); conducted mid-day directional speed study along Pajarito Road, just east or south of the TA-59/Pajarito Road intersection; conducted peak hour gap study on Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59; reviewed the TA-59 Parking Lot North of Pajarito Road, FY-94 Weapons GPP Short List Candidate {number_sign}9 report and other documents pertaining to past transportation studies; reassigned current turning-movement volumes with a 100 space parking lot being built on the north side of Pajarito Road; prepared traffic projections for the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection according to the proposed development on the north side of Pajarito Road that would employee 246 people; and assigned pedestrian crossing volumes between the northern lot/future development site and areas south of Pajarito Road.

  6. 36 CFR 212.5 - Road system management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... expectations, to ensure that the identified system minimizes adverse environmental impacts associated with road... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.5 Road system management. (a) Traffic... passenger cars, buses, trucks, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, 4-wheel drive vehicles, off-highway...

  7. Transportability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-25

    psi). (g) Maximum axle load (pneumatic tires) - 2,268 kg (5,000 lb). (h) Maximum wheel load (pneumatic tires) - 1,134 kg (2,500 lb). (i...survivability following the shock or vibration environment induced. Vehicles not typically transported with payload such as wreckers, truck tractors ...combination weight rating (GCWR) means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of the combination vehicle. (d) Gross axle weight

  8. Transportation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    International (cont.) European Commission – Directorate General for Energy and Transport, Brussels, Belgium Headquarters Netherlands Customs ...100,000 by 2014. As a result of these challenges and due to the increase in intermodal freight traffic, a customer /client relationship has...increase by 50% domestically and 110% internationally by 2016 (CRS, 2007). United Parcel Service (UPS), FedEx, and DHL currently control the package

  9. High-Resolution Atmospheric Emission Inventory of the Argentine Enery Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliafito, Salvador Enrique; Castesana, Paula; Allende, David; Ruggeri, Florencia; Pinto, Sebastián; Pascual, Romina; Bolaño Ortiz, Tomás; Fernandez, Rafael Pedro

    2017-04-01

    This study presents a high-resolution spatially disaggregated inventory (2.5 km x 2.5 km), updated to 2014, of the main emissions from energy activities in Argentina. This inventory was created with the purpose of improving air quality regional models. The sub-sectors considered are public electricity and heat production, cement production, domestic aviation, road and rail transportation, inland navigation, residential and commercial, and fugitive emissions from refineries and fuel expenditure. The pollutants considered include greenhouse gases and ozone precursors: CO2, CH4, NOx, N2O VOC; and other gases specifically related to air quality including PM10, PM2.5, SOx, Pb and POPs. The uncertainty analysis of the inventories resulted in a variability of 3% for public electricity generation, 3-6% in the residential, commercial sector, 6-12% terrestrial transportation sector, 10-20% in oil refining and cement production according to the considered pollutant. Aviation and maritime navigation resulted in a higher variability reaching more than 60%. A comparison with the international emission inventory EDGAR shows disagreements in the spatial distribution of emissions, probably due to the finer resolution of the map presented here, particularly as a result of the use of new spatially disaggregated data of higher resolution that is currently available.

  10. 76 FR 29290 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Corridor, Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge... Transportation for potential transportation improvements along the Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel... Bridge Tunnel (HRBT) corridor in Virginia. The approximate limits of the study are from the I-64...

  11. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  12. 12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, Copy of photograph ca. 1940. Collection Connecticut Department of Transportation. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 72. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF THE BOSTON POST ROAD, WESTPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF THE BOSTON POST ROAD, WESTPORT, 1928. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  14. Future Roads Near Streams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a stream. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  15. Road traffic injuries and data systems in Egypt: addressing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Puvanachandra, P; Hoe, C; El-Sayed, H F; Saad, R; Al-Gasseer, N; Bakr, M; Hyder, A A

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major cause of global mortality and morbidity, killing approximately 1.3 million people and injuring 20 to 50 million each year. The significance of this public health threat is most pronounced in low- and middle-income countries where 90 percent of the world's road traffic-related fatalities take place. Current estimates for Egypt show a road traffic fatality rate of 42 deaths per 100,000 population-one of the highest in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. RTIs are also responsible for 1.8 percent of all deaths and 2.4 percent of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the country. Despite this, studies surrounding this topic are scarce, and reliable data are limited. The overall goal of this article is to define the health impact of RTIs in Egypt and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each data source for the purpose of improving the current RTI data systems. A 2-pronged approach was undertaken to assess the burden of RTIs in Egypt. First, a thorough literature review was performed using PubMed, Embase, ISIS Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Articles pertaining to Egypt and road traffic injuries were selected for screening. With assistance from Egyptian colleagues, a comprehensive exploration of data sources pertaining to RTIs in Egypt was undertaken and secondary data from these sources were procured for analysis. The literature review yielded a total of 20 studies, of which 6 were multi-country and 5 were hospital-based studies. None examined risk factors such as speeding, alcohol, or seat belt use. Secondary data sources were acquired from national hospital-based injury surveillance; a community-based health survey; pre-hospital injury surveillance; the Ministry of Transport; the General Authority for Roads, Bridges and Land Transport; death certificates; and the central agency for public motorization and statistics. Risk factor data are also limited from these sources. The results of this article

  16. [Accidents on Iceland's most dangerous roads].

    PubMed

    Bjarnason, Thóroddur; Arnarsson, Sveinn

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify the most dangerous segments of the Icelandic road system in terms of the number of accidents pr km and the rate of accidents pr million km travelled. First to identify the segments where the number of accidents is highest and where the risk of the individual traveller is the greatest. Second to evaluate if the association between the number and the rate of accidents is positive or negative. Third to identify the road segments that are the most dangerous in the sense of many accidents and great risk to individual travellers. Main roads outside urban centers were divided into 45 segments that were on average 78 km in length. Infrequently travelled roads and roads within urban centers were omitted. Information on the length of roads, traffic density and number of accidents was used to calculate the number of accidents per km and the rate of accidents per million km travelled. The correlation between the number and rate of accidents was calculated and the most dangerous road segments were identified by the average rank order on both dimensions. Most accidents pr km occurred on the main roads to and from the capital region, but also east towards Hvolsvöllur, north towards Akureyri and in the Mideast region of the country. The rate of accidents pr million km travelled was highest in the northeast region, in northern Snæfellsnes and in the Westfjords. The most dangerous roads on both dimensions were in Mideast, northern Westfjords, in the north between Blönduós and Akureyri and in northern Snæfellsnes. Most accidents pr km occurred on roads with a low accident rate pr million km travelled. It is therefore possible to reduce accidents the most by increasing road safety where it is already the greatest but that would however increase inequalities in road safety. Policy development in transportation is therefore in part a question of priorities in healthcare. Individual equality in safety and health are not always fully

  17. Plastic pipe at road crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This article reports how a North Carolina company is using high-density polyethylene pipe at state road crossings as an insulator to keep the outer casing pipe from touching the inner gas carrier pipeline. This prevents static charges that can cause corrosion, gas leaks and other problems on the pipeline. It enables the company to meet requirements of the North Carolina Department of Transportation that large-diameter steel gas pipelines crossing beneath state highways be enclosed in another steel pipe for protection against damage.

  18. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  19. Physical And Technical Energy Problems. Factors of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction in the Road Transport of Latvia / Siltumnīcefekta Gāzu Emisiju Samazināšanas Faktori Autotransportā Latvijā

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grackova, L.; Klavs, G.

    2013-02-01

    The admissible scenarios are considered as related to reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions from the road transport in Latvia by 2020. All of the scenarios are analysed, and the proofs are presented for the possibility to reduce such emissions as well as the energy consumption through a more extensive use of efficient cars and biofuel. Izmantojot scenāriju modelēšanas pieeju un COPERT IV modeli, novērtēts siltumnīcefekta gāzu emisiju samazināšanas potenciāls autotransportā Latvijā līdz 2020. gadam. Modelēšanas rezultāti un analīze ļauj secināt, ka neskatoties uz sagaidāmo automašīnu skaita palielināšanos, jaunu energoefektīvu automašīnu ar augstākiem izmešu standartiem izmantošana un biodegvielas piemaisījuma palielināšana autotransportā izmantojamā degvielā ļauj ierobežot siltumnīcefekta gāzu emisiju pieaugumu.

  20. On the unsteady decline of atmospheric CFC-11: Bumps in the road to ozone recovery or variations in atmospheric transport and/or loss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, S. A.; Dutton, G. S.; Ray, E. A.; Moore, F. L.; Nance, J. D.; Hall, B. D.; Siso, C.; Miller, B.; Mondeel, D. J.; Hu, L.; Elkins, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric mole fractions of the ozone-depleting and greenhouse gas CFC-11 have declined since 1995 owing to global controls on production associated with the fully adjusted and amended Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. From 2002 to 2012, CFC-11 mole fractions in both hemispheres decreased at a near-constant rate of 2.2 ± 0.2 ppt/yr. Despite the decreasing being consistent throughout that decade, this rate was consistently slower than projected in WMO scenarios. Since 2012, however, the atmospheric decline of CFC-11 slowed substantially: the 2013 to 2015 rate was -1.3 ± 0.1 ppt/yr and the slow-down was most prominent in the northern hemisphere. This change is consistent with an increase in the net flux of CFC-11 to the northern hemisphere, and has been observed by three quasi-independent global measurement programs within NOAA. Given that global production of CFC-11 has been essentially zero since 2007, it seems improbable that this anomaly is due to increased emissions. Here we will explore this possibility, as well as the possibility that variations in transport (or in loss rates as recorded by surface observations) might explain the slower decline. Preliminary analyses with an idealized model suggest that the mass flux of CFC-11 from the stratosphere to the troposphere was anomalously low during 2014. Does this transport-related anomaly explain the anomalous rates in 2014 and does it persist through 2015? Or do the observations imply a significant increase in global CFC-11 emissions since 2013?

  1. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  2. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  3. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  4. Energy 101: Sustainable Public Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    2016-09-07

    You may already know that public transportation reduces pollution and eases congestion on the road. However, many transit fleets are switching over to cleaner, alternative fuels and technologies, making this mode of transportation even more sustainable.

  5. Energy 101: Sustainable Public Transportation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-09-20

    You may already know that public transportation reduces pollution and eases congestion on the road. However, many transit fleets are switching over to cleaner, alternative fuels and technologies, making this mode of transportation even more sustainable.

  6. Vehicular road influence areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  7. Future Road Density

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  8. Subglacial sediment provenance and transport in West Antarctica from micropaleontologic analysis of Subglacial Lake Whillans and the upstream sectors of the Whillans and Kamb ice streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Reed; Coenen, Jason; Warny, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling) project recovered sediment cores from Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) in West Antarctica. We report preliminary micropaleontological analyses of SLW sediments, augmented by analysis of sediments previously recovered from beneath the upstream camps of the Whillans Ice Stream (WIS) and Kamb Ice Stream (KIS). Microfossils in these sediments (notably diatoms, sponge spicules, and organic-walled palynomorphs), include information regarding sediment transport, subglacial physical processes and ice sheet history. Absolute abundance (particles per gram dry sediment) of identifiable diatoms and diatom fragments in different size classes were calculated to compare and contrast each environment. Sponge spicules are being analyzed for taphonomic effects from subglacial transport and shearing. Palynomorphs are analyzed for abundance, diversity, and source rock ages. In SLW the upper 30 cm is softer and more water-rich than the underlying sediments. However, no statistically significant variation in microfossil and fragment abundance or taphonomy is noted in these diamictons, which is in agreement with the stratigraphic homogeneity evident from geochemical and geological analyses performed to date. SLW contains 1.52x106 to 1.13x107 diatom fragments per gram, compared with 6.43x106 to 4.63x108 at upstream WIS and 6.13 107 to 1.58x108 at KIS. Whole diatoms are orders of magnitude lower in concentration. Low abundance and poor preservation of diatoms and spicules at SLW suggests relatively long distance transport from their marine sediment source, with evidence of high shear strain, following the subglacial shearing index of Scherer et al. (2004). Upper Miocene diatoms dominate all samples analyzed, though older and younger diatoms are noted as well. The WIS samples exhibit the highest diversity of diatoms, including Paleogene freshwater diatoms. KIS sediments have the highest abundance of whole diatoms, but they

  9. Making road safety a public health concern for policy-makers in India.

    PubMed

    Dandona, Rakhi

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries contribute substantially to the disease burden in India. This paper describes the road safety issues discussed by members of the Indian Parliament, and highlights the gaps that need to be addressed to make road safety visible as a public health problem to policy-makers in India. All questions asked to and information provided by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, and questions relating to accident asked to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India were reviewed for the two Houses of the Indian Parliament for the years 2002 to 2004. Of the 1529 questions asked to the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, only 140 (9.1%) were related to road safety, whereas 1076 (70.5%), 181 (11.8%), 51 (3.3%) and 81 (5.3%) were related to other aspects of the national highways, state roads, vehicles and other issues, respectively. Data on the magnitude of road crashes dealt only with the number of crashes and fatalities and not with the age, sex and type of road users affected by road traffic injuries. The parliamentarians were informed that human error was the main cause of road crashes in India; however, the robustness of this information is questionable. Strategies to prevent road crashes focused mainly on training of drivers with little attention to other factors that cause road crashes. The discussion on legislations also focused on drivers, ignoring other road users. Ten of the 4741 questions (0.2%) asked to Ministry of Health and Family Welfare were related to accident, the majority of which were about the setting up of trauma care services. An appropriate policy and intervention response by policy-makers is not possible with data that are presented in a manner that do not highlight the true nature of the problem, and are neither comprehensive nor robust. Majority of the proposed road safety interventions by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways are based on the traditional view of human error as a major

  10. Transportation in African Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschul, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the structure, role, and needs of Africa's national and intracontinental transportation system. Characteristics of rail, water, road, and air transportation are examined. The conclusion is that high investment in transportation systems is essential to the development process. (Author/KC)

  11. On-road diesel vehicle emission factors for nitrogen oxides and black carbon in two Chinese cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing; Westerdahl, Dane; Hu, Jingnan; Wu, Ye; Yin, Hang; Pan, Xiaochuan; Max Zhang, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x) and black carbon (BC) emission factors (EF) of 440 on-road diesel trucks were determined by conducting on-road chasing studies in Beijing and Chongqing, China, in the winter 2010. NO x and BC EF distributions are reported. The median NO x EFs for trucks sampled on level roads in Chongqing and Beijing are 40.0 and 47.4 g kg-fuel -1, respectively. The median BC EFs are 1.1 and 0.4 g kg-fuel -1in Chongqing and Beijing, respectively. In addition, a clear downward trend of BC EFs of on-road diesel trucks sampled in Beijing since 2008 is observed. Moreover, Beijing-registered trucks had the lowest BC EFs among the entire sample. These observations appear to reflect the effectiveness of emission standard and fuel quality standard implemented in Beijing (China IV) and nationwide (China III) in reducing BC (and likely overall particulate matter) emission. However, NO x EFs for Beijing-registered trucks did not show lower value than those from other regions. Unlike black carbon, there is no clear correlation between emission controls and NO x emissions from the sampled on-road trucks. Further analysis shows that trucks with high BC EFs do not usually have high NO x EFs, and vice versa, indicating that the current emission standards implemented in Beijing and nationwide have only limited impact on NO x emissions control. Therefore, effective multi-pollutant control strategies and in-use compliance programs are imperative to reduce the overall emissions from the transportation sector.

  12. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  13. Commentary: Status of road safety in Asia.

    PubMed

    Wismans, Jac; Skogsmo, Ingrid; Nilsson-Ehle, Anna; Lie, Anders; Thynell, Marie; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the status of road safety in Asia and present accident and injury prevention strategies based on global road safety improvement experiences and discuss the way forward by indicating opportunities and countermeasures that could be implemented to achieve a new level of safety in Asia. This study provides a review and analyses of data in the literature, including from the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank, and a review of lessons learned from best practices in high-income countries. In addition, an estimation of costs due to road transport injuries in Asia and review of future trends in road transport is provided. Data on the global and Asian road safety problem and status of prevention strategies in Asia as well as recommendations for future actions are discussed. The total number of deaths due to road accidents in the 24 Asian countries, encompassing 56% of the total world population, is 750,000 per year (statistics 2010). The total number of injuries is more than 50 million, of which 12% are hospital admissions. The loss to the economy in the 24 Asian countries is estimated to around US$800 billion or 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP). This article clearly shows that road safety is causing large problems and high costs in Asia, with an enormous impact on the well-being of people, economy, and productivity. In many Asian low- and middle-income countries, the yearly number of fatalities and injuries is increasing. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists combined) are particularly at risk. Road safety in Asia should be given rightful attention, including taking powerful, effective actions. This review stresses the need for reliable accident data, because there is considerable underreporting in the official statistics. Reliable accident data are imperative to determine evidence-based intervention strategies and monitor the success of these interventions and analyses. On the other

  14. Color vision for road scene interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandt, Frederic; Aubert, Didier; Festas, Laurence

    1993-12-01

    For ten years, unstructured road following has been the subject of many studies. Road following must support the automatic navigation, at reasonable speed, of mobile robots on irregular paths and roads, with heterogeneous surfaces and under variable lighting conditions. Civil and military applications of this technology include transportation, logistics, security and engineering. The definition of our lane following system requires an evaluation of the existing technologies. Although the various operational systems converge on a color perception and a region segmentation optimizing discrimination and stability respectively, the treatments and performances vary. In this paper, the robustness of four operational systems and two connected techniques are compared according to common evaluation criteria. We present the identification of typical situations that have been used to create the image data base, the experimental protocol designs to compare the performances of the techniques and the analysis of the experimental results.

  15. Roadway management plan based on rockfall modelling calibration and validation. Application along the Ma-10 road in Mallorca (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Rosa Maria; Garcia, Inmaculada; Reichenbach, Paola; Herrera, Gerardo; Sarro, Roberto; Rius, Joan; Aguilo, Raul

    2016-04-01

    The Tramuntana range, in the northwestern sector of the island of Mallorca (Spain), is frequently affected by rockfalls which have caused significant damage, mainly along the road network. The Ma-10 road constitutes the main transportation corridor on the range with a heavy traffic estimated at 7,200 vehicles per day on average. With a length of 111 km and a tortuous path, the road is the connecting track for 12 municipalities and constitutes a strategic road on the island for many tourist resorts. For the period spanning from 1995 to current times, 63 rockfalls have affected the Ma-10 road with volumes ranging from 0.3m3 to 30,000 m3. Fortunately, no fatalities occurred but numerous blockages on the road took place which caused significant economic losses, valued of around 11 MEuro (Mateos el al., 2013). In this work we present the procedure we have applied to calibrate and validate rockfall modelling in the Tramuntana region, using 103 cases of the available detailed rockfall inventory (Mateos, 2006). We have exploited STONE (Guzzetti et al. 2002), a GIS based rockfall simulation software which computes 2D and 3D rockfall trajectories starting from a DTM and maps of the dynamic rolling friction coefficient and of the normal and tangential energy restitution coefficients. The appropriate identification of these parameters determines the accuracy of the simulation. To calibrate them, we have selected 40 rockfalls along the range which include a wide variety of outcropping lithologies. Coefficients values have been changed in numerous attempts in order to select those where the extent and shape of the simulation matched the field mapping. Best results were summarized with the average statistical values for each parameter and for each geotechnical unit, determining that mode values represent more precisely the data. Initially, for the validation stage, 10 well- known rockfalls exploited in the calibration phase have been selected. Confidence tests have been applied

  16. Gap Filling in Road Extraction Using Radon Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkan, A. A.; Hajeb, M.; Eslami, M.; Pourali, H.; Sadeghian, S.

    2012-07-01

    Road information has a key role in many applications such as transportation, automatic navigation, traffic management, crisis management, and also to facilitate and accelerate updating databases in a GIS. Therefore in the past two decades, automatic road extraction has become an important issue in remote sensing, photogrammetry and computer vision. An essential challenge in road extraction process is filling the gaps which have appeared due to getting placed under trees, tunnels or any other reason. Connection of roads is a momentous topological property that is necessity to perform most of the spatial analyses. Hence, Gap filling is an important post-process. The main aim of this paper is to provide a method which is applicable in road extraction algorithms to automatic fill the gaps. The proposed algorithm is based on Radon transformation and has four stags. In the first stage, detected road are thinned insofar as one pixel width is achieved. Then endpoints are detected. In the second stage, regarding to some constraints those endpoints which do not belong to any gaps are identified and deleted from endpoints list. In the third stage, the real gaps are found using the road direction computed by used of Radon technique. In fourth stage, the selected endpoints are connected together using Spline interpolation. This algorithm is applied on several datasets and also on a real detected road. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has good performance on straight roads but it does not work well in intersections, due to being direction-oriented.

  17. 75 FR 47879 - The Indiana Rail Road Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Sullivan County, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board The Indiana Rail Road Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Sullivan County, IN The Indiana Rail Road Company (INRD) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152...

  18. A decision algorithm for determining safe clearing limits for the construction of skid roads

    Treesearch

    Chris LeDoux

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the timber harvested in the United States is extracted by ground-based skidders and crawler/dozer systems. Ground-based systems generally require a primary transportation network (a network of skid trails/roads) throughout the area being harvested. Logs are skidded or dragged along these skid roads/trails as they are transported from where they were cut...

  19. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities such as public roads, highway bridges, trails, and bus stations; and (4) Other transportation...) Boardwalks; (5) Adjacent parking areas; (6) Maintenance yards; (7) Bus stations; (8) System public pedestrian... under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are eligible...

  20. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... facilities such as public roads, highway bridges, trails, and bus stations; and (4) Other transportation...) Boardwalks; (5) Adjacent parking areas; (6) Maintenance yards; (7) Bus stations; (8) System public pedestrian... under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are eligible...

  1. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... facilities such as public roads, highway bridges, trails, and bus stations; and (4) Other transportation...) Boardwalks; (5) Adjacent parking areas; (6) Maintenance yards; (7) Bus stations; (8) System public pedestrian... under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are eligible...

  2. Evaluating the impact and risk of pluvial flash flood on intra-urban road network: A case study in the city center of Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jie; Yu, Dapeng; Yin, Zhane; Liu, Min; He, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Urban pluvial flood are attracting growing public concern due to rising intense precipitation and increasing consequences. Accurate risk assessment is critical to an efficient urban pluvial flood management, particularly in transportation sector. This paper describes an integrated methodology, which initially makes use of high resolution 2D inundation modeling and flood depth-dependent measure to evaluate the potential impact and risk of pluvial flash flood on road network in the city center of Shanghai, China. Intensity-Duration-Frequency relationships of Shanghai rainstorm and Chicago Design Storm are combined to generate ensemble rainfall scenarios. A hydrodynamic model (FloodMap-HydroInundation2D) is used to simulate overland flow and flood inundation for each scenario. Furthermore, road impact and risk assessment are respectively conducted by a new proposed algorithm and proxy. Results suggest that the flood response is a function of spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and local characteristics (i.e. drainage and topography), and pluvial flash flood is found to lead to proportionate but nonlinear impact on intra-urban road inundation risk. The approach tested here would provide more detailed flood information for smart management of urban street network and may be applied to other big cities where road flood risk is evolving in the context of climate change and urbanization.

  3. Wildland road removal: research needs

    Treesearch

    T. Adam Switalski; John A. Bissonette; Tom H. Deluca; Charles H. Luce; Mary Ann Madej

    2003-01-01

    Wildland road removal is a common practice across the U.S. and in some parts of Canada. The main types of road removal include ripping, stream crossing restoration, and full recontour. Road removal creates a short-term disturbance that may temporarily increase sediment loss. However, research and long-term monitoring have shown that road removal both reduces erosion...

  4. Configuration of Appalachian logging roads

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1971-01-01

    The configuration - the curvature and grade - of logging roads in southern Appalachia is seldom severe, according to a recent Forest Service study. To improve the efficiency of logging roads, we must first define the characteristics of these roads; and in this report we provide a quantitative description of the configuration of over 200 miles of logging roads.

  5. New optimization strategies of pavement maintenance: A case study for national road network in Indonesia using integrated road management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Hadiwardoyo, Sigit P.; Correia, A. Gomes; Pereira, Paulo

    2017-06-01

    A road network requires timely maintenance to keep the road surface in good condition onward better services to improve accessibility and mobility. Strategies and maintenance techniques must be chosen in order to maximize road service level through cost-effective interventions. This approach requires an updated database, which the road network in Indonesia is supported by a manual and visual survey, also using NAASRA profiler. Furthermore, in this paper, the deterministic model of deterioration was used. This optimization model uses life cycle cost analysis (LCCA), applied in an integrated manner, using IRI indicator, and allows determining the priority of treatment, type of treatment and its relation to the cost. The purpose of this paper was focussed on the aspects of road maintenance management, i.e., maintenance optimization models for different levels of traffic and various initial of road distress conditions on the national road network in Indonesia. The implementation of Integrated Road Management System (IRMS) can provide a solution to the problem of cost constraints in the maintenance of the national road network. The results from this study found that as the lowest as agency cost, it will affect the increasing of user cost. With the achievement of the target plan scenario Pl000 with initial value IRI 2, it was found that the routine management throughout the year and in early reconstruction and periodic maintenance with a 30 mm thick overlay, will simultaneously provide a higher net benefit value and has the lowest total cost of transportation.

  6. Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the California Transportation Sector: Dynamics in Vehicle Fleet and Energy Supply Transitions to Achieve 80% Reduction in Emissions from 1990 Levels by 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighty, Wayne Waterman

    California's "80in50" target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by the year 2050 is based on climate science rather than technical feasibility of mitigation. As such, it raises four fundamental questions: is this magnitude of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions possible, what energy system transitions over the next 40 years are necessary, can intermediate policy goals be met on the pathway toward 2050, and does the path of transition matter for the objective of climate change mitigation? Scenarios for meeting the 80in50 goal in the transportation sector are modelled. Specifically, earlier work defining low carbon transport scenarios for the year 2050 is refined by incorporating new information about biofuel supply. Then transition paths for meeting 80in50 scenarios are modelled for the light-duty vehicle sub-sector, with important implications for the timing of action, rate of change, and cumulative greenhouse gas emissions. One aspect of these transitions -- development in the California wind industry to supply low-carbon electricity for plug-in electric vehicles -- is examined in detail. In general, the range of feasible scenarios for meeting the 80in50 target is narrow enough that several common themes are apparent: electrification of light-duty vehicles must occur; continued improvements in vehicle efficiency must be applied to improving fuel economy; and energy carriers must de-carbonize to less than half of the carbon intensity of gasoline and diesel. Reaching the 80in50 goal will require broad success in travel demand reduction, fuel economy improvements and low-carbon fuel supply, since there is little opportunity to increase emission reductions in one area if we experience failure in another. Although six scenarios for meeting the 80in50 target are defined, only one also meets the intermediate target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2020. Furthermore, the transition path taken to reach any

  7. Handbook of road safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Grime, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

  8. Road rage and collision involvement.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robert E; Zhao, Jinhui; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Smart, Reginald G; Donovan, John E

    2007-01-01

    To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement. The relationship between self-reported collision involvement and road rage victimization and perpetration was examined, based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of 4897 Ontario adult drivers interviewed between 2002 and 2004. Perpetrators and victims of both any road rage and serious road rage had a significantly higher risk of collision involvement than did those without road rage experience. This study provides epidemiological evidence that both victims and perpetrators of road rage experience increased collision risk. More detailed studies of the contribution of road rage to traffic crashes are needed.

  9. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  10. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  11. Polarimetric road ice detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Krista

    This thesis investigated the science behind polarimetric road ice detection systems. Laboratory Mueller matrix measurements of a simulated road under differing surface conditions were collected searching for a discriminatory polarization property. These Mueller matrices were decomposed into depolarization, diattenuation, and retardance. Individual sample surface polarization properties were then calculated from these three unique matrices and compared. Specular and off-specular reflection responses of each sample were collected. Four polarization properties stood out for having high separation between dry and iced measurements: Depolarization Index, Linear Diattenuation, Linear Polarizance, and Linear Retardance. Through our investigation polarimetric ice detection is possible. Continued research of the polarization properties of road ice can result in the development of a road ice detection system. Proposed deployment methods of such a system have been outlined following the analysis of the data collected in this experiment.

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  13. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  14. Road boundary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowers, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sethi, I. K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for extracting road boundaries using the monochrome image of a visual road scene is presented. The statistical information regarding the intensity levels present in the image along with some geometrical constraints concerning the road are the basics of this approach. Results and advantages of this technique compared to others are discussed. The major advantages of this technique, when compared to others, are its ability to process the image in only one pass, to limit the area searched in the image using only knowledge concerning the road geometry and previous boundary information, and dynamically adjust for inconsistencies in the located boundary information, all of which helps to increase the efficacy of this technique.

  15. [A review on road ecology].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Xiuzhen; Xiao, Duning

    2003-03-01

    Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes, and have great ecological effects, e.g., increased mortality of animals and plants and habitat loss from road construction, alteration of the physical and chemical environment, and changes in roadsides vegetation. The great impact on animal population includes road-kills, limiting population, road avoidance causing home arrange shift, modification of movement pattern and barrier effect subdividing habitat and populations. Roads alter landscape spatial pattern and interrupt horizontal ecological flows strongly. These impacts can be assayed by indices of road density, road-effect zone and road location. Furthermore, important applications of road ecology to planning, conservation and management are essential and potential. Road ecology presents us a surprising frontier of ecology.

  16. [Impacts of road network on forest landscape pattern in Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Hui; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Hong-Wei; Li, Na-Na; Hu, Yuan-Man; Chang, Yu

    2012-08-01

    By characterizing the composition of road network in the Huzhong Forestry Bureau in Great Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China, we investigated the effects of road networks on landscape pattern by quantifying 1989 landscape pattern for each of the 17 forestry farms on maps with and without roads by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that road networks, including the main and secondary timber-transport roads, were distributed evenly among the observed 17 forestry farms with a density of 2.3 m x hm(-2) and spread along the river networks throughout each farm. The emergence of roads significantly altered the landscape pattern at the landscape level in each farm, which was characterized by landscape fragmentation involving a decline in patch area and an increase in patch number and distance among patches. Furthermore, no significant correlation was found between fragmentation and road density. The road network had more impact on fragmentation than on aggregation at the landscape level.

  17. Efficient road geometry identification from digital vector data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrášik, Richard; Bíl, Michal

    2016-07-01

    A new method for the automatic identification of road geometry from digital vector data is presented. The method is capable of efficiently identifying circular curves with their radii and tangents (straight sections). The average error of identification ranged from 0.01 to 1.30 % for precisely drawn data and 4.81 % in the case of actual road data with noise in the location of vertices. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is faster and more precise than commonly used techniques. This approach can be used by road administrators to complete their databases with information concerning the geometry of roads. It can also be utilized by transport engineers or traffic safety analysts to investigate the possible dependence of traffic accidents on road geometries. The method presented is applicable as well to railroads and rivers or other line features.

  18. Road safety control: Application in urban environment in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charisoudis, A.; Mintsis, G.; Basbas, S.; Taxiltaris, Ch.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine what is and what is not a "road safety control" on the one hand and on the other hand to examine the procedure of the realization of this control in different countries in the level of the organization as well as in the level of the praxis through the Road Safety Manuals of each country. The countries under examination are: The United Kinghdom, Danish, U.S.A, Australia and New Zeeland. The Road Safety Manual of the International Organization World Road Association-PIARC is also mentioned. Finally examples of the application of road safety control, which were realized in the frame of the research programs of the research team of the Department of Transportation Engineering, School of Rural and Surveing, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in the town of Aridea, are given.(in Greeks)

  19. Multifractal and singularity analysis of weighted road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei; Wu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Road is an important element of modern traffic infrastructures in national economic construction. Accurately, road networks might be multifractal systems. The mathematics of multifractal can be used to provide a quantitative signature in many fields. The roads in this paper are endowed with weights according to their respective traffic abilities. With the aim in mind, the weighted road networks in three country-level cities (Danyang, Yangzhong and Jurong) which belong to Zhenjiang, China, are studied. We analyze the heterogeneities of the three weighted road networks with multifractal spectrum, which correspond to their socio-geographical contexts. Besides, we extract the singularity regions of three country-level cities with the annular segmentation method and the singularity exponent method, which can be helpful in further transportation planning.

  20. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... classified as either a primary road or an ancillary road. (2) A primary road is any road which is— (i) Used... is any road not classified as a primary road. (b) Performance standards. Each road shall be located...; (5) Protecting the natural drainage patterns by installing dikes or cross drains as necessary to...

  1. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... classified as either a primary road or an ancillary road. (2) A primary road is any road which is— (i) Used... is any road not classified as a primary road (b) Performance standards. Each road shall be located...; (5) Protecting the natural drainage patterns by installing dikes or cross drains as necessary to...

  2. An effective road management system using web-based GIS software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Ramli Nik Yusoff, Nik; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Muniandy, Ratnasamy

    2014-06-01

    Recently, there is a rapid development of road transportation network. This situation arises due to the number of vehicle on the road that keeps increasing year by year. Thus, this will increase the possibility of dangerous situations to the road users if roads are not being maintained appropriately. Therefore, in order to keep the road in safe condition, the road management activity should be improved. A complete system for road management has been applied in the developed countries for the past decades. However, the usage of application programming interface (API) from GIS software has limitation to make modification in terms of interactivity of the system. Open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost of developing road monitoring system. In this paper, open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost in developing road management system. OpenLayers framework was used as map rendering platform. The system can be used by administrator of road network to update the road information. At the same time, it can be used by the road user as well to view the information regarding road-related incidents.

  3. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  4. Hitting the Road: Safe Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labriola, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of school administrators' taking an active role in selecting motor coach carriers for their school trips. School administrators must be able to prove due diligence in selecting safe motor carriers. If not, they risk significant liability exposure for neglecting this critical responsibility. The article…

  5. Hitting the Road: Safe Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labriola, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of school administrators' taking an active role in selecting motor coach carriers for their school trips. School administrators must be able to prove due diligence in selecting safe motor carriers. If not, they risk significant liability exposure for neglecting this critical responsibility. The article…

  6. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  7. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  8. Compilation and application of a primary PM 2.5 emissions inventory with high sectoral resolution in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Toshiharu; Nansai, Keisuke; Tohno, Susumu; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    To elucidate the macro-structure of the PM 2.5 emissions generated by Japan's economic activities, this paper presents an emission inventory of primary particles of PM 2.5 with high sectoral resolution based on the Japanese Input-Output Tables, comprising some 400 sectors. These primary PM 2.5 emissions were estimated by multiplying the estimated energy consumption associated with each fuel type by a PM 10 emission factor incorporating the technological level of dust collection in each sector and the mass ratio of PM 2.5 to PM 10. Non-energy emissions from agricultural open burning were also determined. Total PM 2.5 emissions in 2000 were 252 kt, 49% of which were due to mobile emission sources. Changes in total PM 2.5 emissions between 1990 and 2000 were also calculated. This showed that a substantial increase in energy sector emissions due to rising coal consumption was offset by a sharp decline in emissions from road vehicles and shipping vessels, resulting in an overall decrease in total emissions. In addition, the emissions induced by economic demand in each sector were quantified by means of input-output analysis, which revealed that demand for construction, foods and communications and services constituted the principal causes of real domestic emissions. An assessment of sectoral contributions to PM 2.5 emissions that takes into account the effects of human exposure, expressed as external costs, suggests that the contribution of transportation is greater than indicated on the grounds of direct emissions alone.

  9. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  10. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes. Interstate...

  11. 49 CFR 37.169 - Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service... Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities. (a) Private entities operating over-the-road buses, in addition to compliance with other applicable provisions of this part...

  12. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes. Interstate...

  13. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes. Interstate...

  14. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes. Interstate...

  15. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes. Interstate...

  16. 49 CFR 37.169 - Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service... Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 57936, September 19, 2011. (a) Private entities operating over-the-road buses,...

  17. Distance to nearest road in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The new dataset is the first member of the National Overview Road Metrics (NORM) family of road related indicators.  This indicator measures straight-line or Euclidean distance (ED) to the nearest road, and is given the compound name NORM ED.  NORM ED data can be viewed and downloaded from the transportation section of the web viewer for The National Map, http://nationalmap.usgs.gov.  The full-resolution dataset for the conterminous states is made of 8.7 billion values.

  18. View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  19. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on west side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  20. View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Wolf Den Road showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT