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Sample records for roadside rest areas

  1. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safety rest areas. 752.5 Section 752.5 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE... design year. Expansion and modernization of older existing rest areas that do not provide adequate...

  2. Influence of traffic activity on heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-05-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals' homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  3. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-01-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  4. Heavy Metal Concentration of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas around Kathmandu, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, M.; Zeng, C.; Devkota, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    The heavy metals generated from road traffic activities are an important contaminant resource that can be disseminated to the roadside soil and pose hazard to local environment. Especially, if the roadways pass across farmland areas, the heavy metals may transport through the roadside soil into crops so as to have a potential affect on the food safety and human health. In this study, a factorial analysis is conducted to investigate heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) concentration of roadside farmland soil along the Trishuli Highway across mountainous areas around Kathmandu, Nepal. Four factors were considered for the experimental design, including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection. Totally, 342 samples of 0-5 cm topsoil along the highway were collected to analyze the factors' effect on roadside heavy metal distribution and concentration. The sampling sites were located along the highway at six levels of altitude, which are 800 m, 1000 m, 1200 m, 1400 m, 1600 m, and 1800 m. At each level of altitude, the sampling distances to the highway edge are 0 m, 10 m, 30 m, 50 m, and 100 m. The samples are classified into the topsoil in the up-grade terrain or down-grade terrain. Considering the potential tree protection effect on the roadside soil, the samples are also categorized into the topsoil with tree protection or topsoil without tree protection. The experimental results indicate that with the rise of altitude, the concentration of heavy metals in roadside topsoil expresses a clear increasing trend, which can be explained that the fuel-consumption efficiency of vehicles in higher altitude is lower than that in lower altitude due to the less Oxygen concentration. It was also found that the concentration of heavy metals in down-grade topsoil is lower than that in up-grade topsoil. Generally, the heavy metal content in roadside soil has a belt-shaped distribution in terms of distance to road edge, decreasing exponentially with increment of the

  5. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  6. Roadside measurements of deforestation in the Amazon area of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Locklin, Claudia Cordona; Haack, Barry

    2003-06-01

    This study describes the deforestation impact from three settlements, 5 de Junio, El Tigre, and 30 de Agosto, near the Madidi National Park in Bolivia. First deforestation rates along the road that connects the settlements and then deforestation within each settlement are examined. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery from 1987, 1997, and 2000 were used to measure the deforestation. Face-to-face interviews were also used to collect detailed social and land-use information. Road-building and farming have been the major causes of deforestation in this region. The TM measurements indicate a high increase in the deforestation rate along the road in the area of study. The results also show a rapidly escalating deforestation rate in 5 de Junio, a potential high future deforestation rate in El Tigre, and a gradual deforestation increase in 30 de Agosto. The information provided by the settlers about clearing was compared with the imagery analysis. Generally, the settler's estimates were lower than the deforestation as derived from the imagery.

  7. Geothermal applications for highway rest areas

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, J.A.; Engen, I.A.

    1982-02-01

    A feasibility study, made for the South Dakota Department of Transportation, regarding geothermal applications for highway rest areas is described. This preliminary information indicated that the retrofit of the heating systems in the rest area structures was feasible. Specific design assumptions, equipment selections, costs, and other data are reported. This information is conceptual in nature.

  8. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Safety rest areas. 752.5 Section 752.5 Highways FEDERAL... DEVELOPMENT § 752.5 Safety rest areas. (a) Safety rest areas should provide facilities reasonably necessary... may be provided in conjunction with a safety rest area at such locations where accommodations are...

  9. Characteristics, sources, and cytotoxicity of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban roadside areas of Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongzhen; Zhang, Hongjian

    2017-03-21

    The primary objective of this study is to understand the profiles, sources and cytotoxic effects of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are closely related to urban air contamination and public health, in urban roadside environments. On-road sampling campaigns were conducted from 2014 to 2015 at three urban road sites in Hangzhou, China. Sixteen gaseous and particulate matter (PM) 2.5-bound PAHs were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations at the three sites ranged from 750 to1142 ng/m(3) and 1050 to 1483 ng/m(3) in summer and winter, respectively. Low molecular weight PAHs were the most abundant compounds (77-86%) and primarily existed in gas phase. The concentrations and phase distributions of high molecular weight PAHs were varied at three sites due to the differences in traffic volume, vehicle composition, engine loading, and nearby artificial activity. Diagnostic ratios of the principal mass (m/z,178, 202, 228 and 276) parent PAHs were statistically described to determine the PAH sources to urban roadsides; principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to apportion the sources. The results indicated that high- and low-temperature fuel processes, as well as residential and industrial emissions, were major contributors to roadside PAHs. The cytotoxic potential of the roadside PAHs was evaluated using a human epithelial lung cell line (A549). Cell viability was measured after a direct exposure to PAH extract. The results reflected the profiles of roadside PAHs at the three sites. The cytotoxicity of reference PAHs was evaluated to provide further insights into the cytotoxic potential of PAHs. We found that low molecular weight PAHs, which are less cytotoxic compounds, synergistically promoted the lethal effect of cytotoxic compounds, posing a potential threat to public health.

  10. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  11. Towards innovative roadside monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, G.; Appel, E.; Magiera, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination along roadsides is an important factor of anthropogenic point source pollution. Climatic and traffic-specific factors influence the amount and characteristics of pollution emitted and deposited in the roadside soil. In our present study we focus on monitoring typical traffic pollutants (heavy metals HM, platinum group elements, polycyclic hydrocarbons PAH), and investigate the use of magnetic parameters, especially magnetic susceptibility (MS) as proxy. Monitoring plots were installed along roadside in areas with different climatic conditions and different traffic-specific activities (traffic density and speed, vehicle types, abrasion of tires, brake linings, petrol/diesel compounds and road maintenance). For monitoring we removed 10-15 cm of top soil at 1 m distance from the roadside edge and placed 30 plastic boxes there filled with clean quartz sand, to be sampled after regular intervals within two years. Preliminary data from the first year of monitoring are presented. Magnetic results revealed that a coarse grained magnetite-like phase is responsible for the enhancement of magnetic concentration. The mass-specific MS and concentration of pollutants (HM, PAH) all show a significant increase with time, however, there are obviously also seasonal and site-dependent effects which lead to more stable values over several months or even some decrease in the upper few cm due to migration into depth. Source identification indicates that the accumulated PAHs are primarily emissions from traffic. In order to be able to discriminate in between different kinds of transport and deposition (surface run off from the road and neighbouring soil material, splash water, air transport), we additionally established pillars at the roadside with clean quartz sampling boxes at different heights (surface, 0.5 m, 2 m). As a first surprising result we observed that the increase in the boxes at surface is not necessarily higher than at 0.5 m height. The results from our

  12. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... safety rest areas located on the rights-of-way of the Interstate system for the purpose of dispensing... the dispensing by any means, of petroleum products or motor vehicle replacement parts shall not be... statewide safety rest area system plan should be maintained. This plan should include development priorities...

  13. Roads in northern hardwood forests affect adjacent plant communities and soil chemistry in proportion to the maintained roadside area.

    PubMed

    Neher, Deborah A; Asmussen, David; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-04-01

    The spatial extent of the transported materials from three road types was studied in forest soil and vegetative communities in Vermont. Hypotheses were two-fold: 1) soil chemical concentrations above background environment would reflect traffic volume and road type (highway>2-lane paved>gravel), and 2) plant communities close to the road and near roads with greater traffic will be disturbance-tolerant and adept at colonization. Soil samples were gathered from 12 randomly identified transects for each of three road types classified as "highway," "two-lane paved," and "gravel." Using GIS mapping, transects were constructed perpendicular to the road, and samples were gathered at the shoulder, ditch, backslope, 10 m from the edge of the forest, and 50 m from road center. Sample locations were analyzed for a suite of soil elements and parameters, as well as percent area coverage by plant species. The main effects from roads depended on the construction modifications required for a roadway (i.e., vegetation clearing and topography modification). The cleared area defined the type of plant community and the distance that road pollutants travel. Secondarily, road presence affected soil chemistry. Metal concentrations (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) correlated positively with road type. Proximity to all road types made the soils more alkaline (pH 7.7) relative to the acidic soil of the adjacent native forest (pH 5.6). Roadside microtopography had marked effects on the composition of plant communities based on the direction of water flow. Ditch areas supported wetland plant species, greater soil moisture and sulfur content, while plant communities closer to the road were characteristic of drier upland zones. The area beyond the edge of the forest did not appear to be affected chemically or physically by any of the road types, possibly due to the dense vegetation that typically develops outside of the managed right-of-way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rest

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Rest is a health-related phenomenon. Researchers have explored the phenomenon of rest, but further concept development is recommended. The aim of my study was to develop and describe a concept of rest, from interviews with a total of 63 participants about their lived experiences of rest. I performed the developing process in two stages: first with descriptive phenomenology and second with a hermeneutic approach. The concept of rest is comprised of the essences of both rest and “non-rest,” and there is a current movement between these two conditions in peoples’ lives. The essence of rest is being in harmony in motivation, feeling, and action. The essence of non-rest is being in disharmony in motivation, feeling, and action. The essences reveal some meaning constituents. Health care professionals and researchers can use the concept as a frame of reference in health care praxis and in applied research. PMID:28462307

  15. The epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in urban areas, roadside settlements and rural villages in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Barongo, L R; Borgdorff, M W; Mosha, F F; Nicoll, A; Grosskurth, H; Senkoro, K P; Newell, J N; Changalucha, J; Klokke, A H; Killewo, J Z

    1992-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV-1 infection and to identify the most important risk factors for infection. A cross-sectional population survey carried out in 1990 and 1991 in Mwanza Region, Tanzania. Adults aged 15-54 years were selected from the region (population, 2 million) by stratified random cluster sampling: 2434 from 20 rural villages, 1157 from 20 roadside settlements and 1554 from 20 urban wards. Risk factor information was obtained from interviews. All sera were tested for HIV-1 antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); sera non-negative on ELISA were also tested by Western blot. The response rate was 81%. HIV-1 infection was 1.5 times more common in women than in men; 2.5% of the adult population in rural villages, 7.3% in roadside settlements and 11.8% in town were infected. HIV-1 infection occurred mostly in women aged 15-34 years and men aged 25-44 years. It was associated with being separated or widowed, multiple sex partners, presence of syphilis antibodies, history of genital discharge or genital ulcer, travel to Mwanza town, and receiving injections during the previous 12 months, but not with male circumcision. This study confirms that HIV-1 infection in this region in East Africa is more common in women than in men. The results are consistent with the spread of HIV-1 infection along the main roads. There is no evidence that lack of circumcision is a risk factor in this population.

  16. Lead content in roadside vegetation as indicators of atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Onasanya, L.O.; Ajewole, K. ); Adeyeye, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Leaves of six plant species from 31 different locations in Ibadan, Nigeria, were analysed for their lead content. The lead concentrations found ranged between 12 and 32 [mu]g/g, 50 m or more away from the roadside, between 47 and 115 [mu]g/g in the residential low traffic density areas, 5m from the roadside, and between 165 and 312 [mu]g/g in the commercial high traffic density roadsides, 5 m away from the roadside. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Recommendations for Constructing Roadside Vegetation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recommendations for external partners planting roadside vegetation. Intended for broad use, but immediate use will be to provide to project partners on the RESES roadside vegetation project and as an attachment to the RESES project QAPP Provide recommendations on the physical characteristics of roadside vegetation that can provide a local air quality benefit

  18. Predicting species distributions from samples collected along roadsides.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Kyle P; Fletcher, Robert J; Rota, Christopher T; Hutto, Richard L

    2012-02-01

    Predictive models of species distributions are typically developed with data collected along roads. Roadside sampling may provide a biased (nonrandom) sample; however, it is currently unknown whether roadside sampling limits the accuracy of predictions generated by species distribution models. We tested whether roadside sampling affects the accuracy of predictions generated by species distribution models by using a prospective sampling strategy designed specifically to address this issue. We built models from roadside data and validated model predictions at paired locations on unpaved roads and 200 m away from roads (off road), spatially and temporally independent from the data used for model building. We predicted species distributions of 15 bird species on the basis of point-count data from a landbird monitoring program in Montana and Idaho (U.S.A.). We used hierarchical occupancy models to account for imperfect detection. We expected predictions of species distributions derived from roadside-sampling data would be less accurate when validated with data from off-road sampling than when it was validated with data from roadside sampling and that model accuracy would be differentially affected by whether species were generalists, associated with edges, or associated with interior forest. Model performance measures (kappa, area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic plot, and true skill statistic) did not differ between model predictions of roadside and off-road distributions of species. Furthermore, performance measures did not differ among edge, generalist, and interior species, despite a difference in vegetation structure along roadsides and off road and that 2 of the 15 species were more likely to occur along roadsides. If the range of environmental gradients is surveyed in roadside-sampling efforts, our results suggest that surveys along unpaved roads can be a valuable, unbiased source of information for species distribution models. ©2011

  19. Effects of vegetation on runoff generation, sediment yield and soil shear strength on road-side slopes under a simulation rainfall test in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Jun; Wang, Tian-Wei; Cai, Chong-Fa; Li, Zhao-Xia; Cheng, Dong-Bing

    2014-07-01

    Vegetation recolonization has often been used to control roadside slope erosion, and in this paper, four restoration models - Natural Restoration, Grass, Grass & Shrub, Sodded Strip - were chosen to recolonize the plants on a newly built unpaved roadside slope in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. After eight months growth, eight rainfall simulations (intensity of 90 mm h(-1) for 60 min) and in-situ soil shear strength test were then carried out to identify the impacts of vegetation on roadside slope erosion and soil shear strength. The erosion on cutslopes was higher than that on fillslopes. The runoff coefficient and soil detachment rate were significantly lower on the Grass & Shrub model (4.3% and 1.99 g m(-2) min(-1), respectively) compared with the other three, which had the highest surface cover (91.4%), aboveground biomass (1.44 kg m(-2)) and root weight density (3.94 kg m(-3)). The runoff coefficient and soil detachment rate on roadside slopes showed a logarithmic decrease with the root weight density, root length density and aboveground biomass. The soil shear strength measured before and after the rainfall was higher on Grass & Shrub (59.29 and 53.73 kPa) and decreased on Grass (46.93 and 40.48 kPa), Sodded Strip (31.20 and 18.87 kPa) and Natural Restoration (25.31 and 9.36 kPa). Negative linear correlations were found between the soil shear strength reduction and aboveground biomass, root weight density and root length density. The variation of soil shear strength reduction was closely related to the roadside slope erosion, a positive linear correlation was found between runoff coefficient and soil shear strength reduction, and a power function was shown between soil detachment rate and soil shear strength reduction. This study demonstrated that Grass and Grass & Shrub were more suitable and highly cost-effective in controlling initial period erosion of newly built low-volume unpaved road.

  20. Potential roadside biases due to habitat changes along Breeding Bird Survey routes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, C.M.E.; Scallan, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Breeding Bird Surveys (BBS) are conducted along roadside routes to enable a large geographic area to be surveyed. Yet the potential biases of sampling populations only from roadsides have received little attention. We sampled aerial photography of BBS routes taken in the mid-1960s and late-1980s to evaluate whether habitat changes that occurred along roadsides were also occurring in the surrounding area, and whether the frequency of habitats encountered along roadsides were similar to that off-route. We examined 28 routes in Maryland and 25 routes in Ohio, and defined roadside area as within 200 m of the road, and off-route as 200-1,600 m from the road. Most habitat changes that occurred along BBS roadsides also were occurring in the off-route areas. However, increases in urban cover was significantly greater along the road in Maryland where urbanization of farmland was the predominant habitat change. The small increase in urban cover in Ohio was not significantly greater along the road. Construction of single family homes was greater along BBS roadsides in both states. In Ohio, the greatest change in habitat was the conversion of farmland back to forest, which was not significantly greater along the road. Changes associated with urbanization were more biased towards roadsides than the reforestation of farmland. Within one time period, roadside areas had less forest and more agricultural and urban cover types than occurred off-route.

  1. Effect of Roadside Vegetation Cutting on Moose Browsing.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amy L; Leroux, Shawn J

    2015-01-01

    Moose (Alces americanus ) vehicle collisions (MVCs) are an issue throughout the distribution of moose. Many mitigation strategies have been tested and implemented to reduce the number of MVCs, but there have been few empirical analyses of the effectiveness of roadside vegetation cutting. The goal of this study was to determine if roadside vegetation cutting attracted moose into roadside areas to browse on the vegetation regrowth. We hypothesized that moose would be attracted to roadside areas with cut vegetation. Consequently, we predicted that there would be higher levels of browsing in cut areas compared to uncut areas. To determine if moose were browsing more in cut or uncut areas, we measured the number of plants browsed by moose in paired treatment (cut on or after 2008) and control (not cut since at least 2008) sites, along with a suite of potential environmental covariates. Using a model selection approach, we fit generalized linear mixed-effects models to determine the most parsimonious set of environmental variables to explain variation in the proportion of moose browse among sites. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results show that the proportion of moose browse in the uncut control areas was significantly higher than in the cut treatment areas. The results of this study suggest that recently cut roadside areas (7 years or less based on our work) may create a less attractive foraging habitat for moose. The majority of the variance in the proportion of moose browse among sites was explained by treatment type and nested plot number within site identification (34.16%), with additional variance explained by traffic region (5.00%) and moose density (4.35%). Based on our study, we recommend that vegetation cutting be continued in roadside areas in Newfoundland as recently cut areas may be less attractive browsing sites for moose.

  2. Effect of Roadside Vegetation Cutting on Moose Browsing

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Amy L.; Leroux, Shawn J.

    2015-01-01

    Moose (Alces americanus ) vehicle collisions (MVCs) are an issue throughout the distribution of moose. Many mitigation strategies have been tested and implemented to reduce the number of MVCs, but there have been few empirical analyses of the effectiveness of roadside vegetation cutting. The goal of this study was to determine if roadside vegetation cutting attracted moose into roadside areas to browse on the vegetation regrowth. We hypothesized that moose would be attracted to roadside areas with cut vegetation. Consequently, we predicted that there would be higher levels of browsing in cut areas compared to uncut areas. To determine if moose were browsing more in cut or uncut areas, we measured the number of plants browsed by moose in paired treatment (cut on or after 2008) and control (not cut since at least 2008) sites, along with a suite of potential environmental covariates. Using a model selection approach, we fit generalized linear mixed-effects models to determine the most parsimonious set of environmental variables to explain variation in the proportion of moose browse among sites. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results show that the proportion of moose browse in the uncut control areas was significantly higher than in the cut treatment areas. The results of this study suggest that recently cut roadside areas (7 years or less based on our work) may create a less attractive foraging habitat for moose. The majority of the variance in the proportion of moose browse among sites was explained by treatment type and nested plot number within site identification (34.16%), with additional variance explained by traffic region (5.00%) and moose density (4.35%). Based on our study, we recommend that vegetation cutting be continued in roadside areas in Newfoundland as recently cut areas may be less attractive browsing sites for moose. PMID:26244576

  3. Changes in intervertebral disc cross-sectional area with bed rest and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A. D.; Evans, H. J.; Schneider, V. S.; Wendt, R. E. 3rd; Hedrick, T. D.

    1994-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. We measured the cross-sectional area of the intervertebral discs of normal volunteers after an overnight rest; before, during, and after 5 or 17 weeks of bed rest; and before and after 8 days of weightlessness. OBJECTIVES. This study sought to determine the degree of expansion of the lumbar discs resulting from bed rest and space flight. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Weightlessness and bed rest, an analog for weightlessness, reduce the mechanical loading on the musculoskeletal system. When unloaded, intervertebral discs will expand, increasing the nutritional diffusion distance and altering the mechanical properties of the spine. METHODS. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the cross-sectional area and transverse relaxation time (T2) of the intervertebral discs. RESULTS. Overnight or longer bed rest causes expansion of the disc area, which reaches an equilibrium value of about 22% (range 10-40%) above baseline within 4 days. Increases in disc area were associated with modest increases in disc T2. During bed rest, disc height increased approximately 1 mm, about one-half of previous estimates based on body height measurements. After 5 weeks of bed rest, disc area returned to baseline within a few days of ambulation, whereas after 17 weeks, disc area remained above baseline 6 weeks after reambulation. After 8 days of weightlessness, T2, disc area, and lumbar length were not significantly different from baseline values 24 hours after landing. CONCLUSIONS. Significant adaptive changes in the intervertebral discs can be expected during weightlessness. These changes, which are rapidly reversible after short-duration flights, may be an important factor during and after long-duration missions.

  4. Fan cooling of the resting area in a free stalls dairy barn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2014-08-01

    This summer study evaluated the effect of providing additional fans (cooling) in the resting area within a free-stall dairy barn that had fans and sprinklers in the feeding area and paddock availability. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups and kept in two pens: one had the resting area equipped with two fans (FAN) while no fans were added to the other resting area (CON). Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and milk pH traits were recorded. Time budgeting and the behaviour of the cows (time spent in the feeding area, standing and lying in other areas) were also recorded using digital video technology. Two slight-to-moderate heat waves were observed. During the hottest period the daily maximum temperature recorded was 33.5 °C and the daily maximum THI was 81.6. During this period, the BR and RT increased only slightly in both groups, with lower BR (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON. Milk yield was better maintained (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON during the hottest period. The FAN cows showed a greater ( P < 0.05) lying time in the free stalls (9.5 and 8.6 h/day in FAN and CON, respectively), whereas CON cows made greater ( P < 0.05) use of the paddock during evening and late evening hours. Consequently, the total daily lying time was 13.5 h/day in both groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that using fans in the resting area improves cow comfort, which increases use of the resting area. The lying time results also suggest that the benefits of providing ventilation in the resting area might be more evident in barns where there is no paddock.

  5. Fan cooling of the resting area in a free stalls dairy barn.

    PubMed

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2014-08-01

    This summer study evaluated the effect of providing additional fans (cooling) in the resting area within a free-stall dairy barn that had fans and sprinklers in the feeding area and paddock availability. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups and kept in two pens: one had the resting area equipped with two fans (FAN) while no fans were added to the other resting area (CON). Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and milk pH traits were recorded. Time budgeting and the behaviour of the cows (time spent in the feeding area, standing and lying in other areas) were also recorded using digital video technology. Two slight-to-moderate heat waves were observed. During the hottest period the daily maximum temperature recorded was 33.5 °C and the daily maximum THI was 81.6. During this period, the BR and RT increased only slightly in both groups, with lower BR (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON. Milk yield was better maintained (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON during the hottest period. The FAN cows showed a greater (P<0.05) lying time in the free stalls (9.5 and 8.6 h/day in FAN and CON, respectively), whereas CON cows made greater (P<0.05) use of the paddock during evening and late evening hours. Consequently, the total daily lying time was 13.5 h/day in both groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that using fans in the resting area improves cow comfort, which increases use of the resting area. The lying time results also suggest that the benefits of providing ventilation in the resting area might be more evident in barns where there is no paddock.

  6. Resting functional connectivity in patients with brain tumors in eloquent areas

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Juan; Honma, Susanne M.; Findlay, Anne M.; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Resection of brain tumors adjacent to eloquent areas represents a challenge in neurosurgery. If maximal resection is desired without inducing postoperative neurological deficits, a detailed knowledge of the functional topography in and around the tumor is crucial. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the value of preoperative magnetoencephalography (MEG) imaging of functional connectivity to predict the results of intraoperative electrical stimulation (IES) mapping, the clinical gold standard for neurosurgical localization of functional areas. Methods Resting-state whole-cortex MEG recordings were obtained from 57 consecutive subjects with focal brain tumors near or within motor, sensory or language areas. Neural activity was estimated using adaptive spatial filtering algorithms, and the mean imaginary coherence between the rest of the brain and voxels in and around brain tumors were compared to the mean imaginary coherence between the rest of the brain and contralesional voxels as an index of functional connectivity. IES mapping was performed in all subjects. The cortical connectivity pattern near the tumor was compared to IES results. Results Maps with decreased resting-state functional connectivity in the entire tumor area had a negative predictive value of 100% for absence of eloquent cortex during IES. Maps showing increased resting-state functional connectivity within the tumor area had a positive predictive value of 64% for finding language, motor or sensory cortical sites during IES mapping. Interpretation Preoperative resting state MEG connectivity analysis is a useful noninvasive tool to evaluate the functionality of the tissue surrounding tumors within eloquent areas, and could potentially contribute to surgical planning and patient counseling. PMID:21400562

  7. Delineating potential epileptogenic areas utilizing resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Ricardo; Nair, Veena; Meier, Timothy; Holdsworth, Ryan; Tunnell, Evelyn; Rutecki, Paul; Sillay, Karl; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-08-01

    Seizure localization includes neuroimaging like electroencephalogram, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with limited ability to characterize the epileptogenic network. Temporal clustering analysis (TCA) characterizes epileptogenic network congruent with interictal epileptiform discharges by clustering together voxels with transient signals. We generated epileptogenic areas for 12 of 13 epilepsy patients with TCA, congruent with different areas of seizure onset. Resting functional MRI (fMRI) scans are noninvasive, and can be acquired quickly, in patients with different levels of severity and function. Analyzing resting fMRI data using TCA is quick and can complement clinical methods to characterize the epileptogenic network.

  8. Misting and fan cooling of the rest area in a dairy barn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2012-03-01

    This summer study aimed to evaluate the effect on dairy cows, kept in a free stall barn equipped with fans and sprinklers in the feeding area, of the delivery rate of misters in a cooling system in rest areas with different bedding materials. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups according to milk yield and kept in two pens: one had beds with sand (SAMM) while the other had straw (STLM). Each pen was equipped with 2 fans (Ø 70 cm, 0.50 kW) and 2 misters (delivery rate of 11.2 and 22.5 L/h in STLM and SAMM, respectively) in the rest area. Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and some milk traits were recorded. Behavioural routines of the cows (standing and lying) were also continuously recorded during the hotter days. During the trial, two mild-moderate heat waves were observed. During these hotter periods, the daily maximum temperature recorded in the rest areas was 28.9 in SAMM and 31.2 in STLM, and the daily maximum THI was 78.2 in SAMM and 81.5 in STLM. In these periods, the cows in SAMM compared with those in STLM showed lower BR ( P < 0.05) and greater rest time (10.2 and 7.8 h/day in SAMM and STLM, respectively). The RT did not differ (38.89 ± 0.29 and 38.88 ± 0.33°C in STLM and SAMM r,espectively). In conclusion, our research suggests that the cooling system using fans plus misters with mild wetting in rest areas with sand as bedding materials reduces heat stress and improves cow comfort.

  9. Misting and fan cooling of the rest area in a dairy barn.

    PubMed

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2012-03-01

    This summer study aimed to evaluate the effect on dairy cows, kept in a free stall barn equipped with fans and sprinklers in the feeding area, of the delivery rate of misters in a cooling system in rest areas with different bedding materials. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups according to milk yield and kept in two pens: one had beds with sand (SAMM) while the other had straw (STLM). Each pen was equipped with 2 fans (Ø 70 cm, 0.50 kW) and 2 misters (delivery rate of 11.2 and 22.5 L/h in STLM and SAMM, respectively) in the rest area. Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and some milk traits were recorded. Behavioural routines of the cows (standing and lying) were also continuously recorded during the hotter days. During the trial, two mild-moderate heat waves were observed. During these hotter periods, the daily maximum temperature recorded in the rest areas was 28.9 in SAMM and 31.2 in STLM, and the daily maximum THI was 78.2 in SAMM and 81.5 in STLM. In these periods, the cows in SAMM compared with those in STLM showed lower BR (P < 0.05) and greater rest time (10.2 and 7.8 h/day in SAMM and STLM, respectively). The RT did not differ (38.89 ± 0.29 and 38.88 ± 0.33°C in STLM and SAMM r,espectively). In conclusion, our research suggests that the cooling system using fans plus misters with mild wetting in rest areas with sand as bedding materials reduces heat stress and improves cow comfort.

  10. Relationship between Resting Pulse Rate and Lipid Metabolic Dysfunctions in Chinese Adults Living in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-jian; Li, Yu-qian; Li, Lin-lin; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Jing-zhi; You, Ai-guo; Guo, Yi-rui; Li, Wen-jie

    2012-01-01

    Background Resting pulse rate has been observed to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, its association with lipid metabolic dysfunctions remains unclear, especially resting pulse rate as an indicator for identifying the risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between resting pulse rate and lipid metabolic dysfunctions, and then evaluate the feasibility of resting pulse rate as an indicator for screening the risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed, and 16,926 subjects were included in this study from rural community residents aged 35–78 years. Resting pulse rate and relevant covariates were collected from a standard questionnaire. The fasting blood samples were collected and measured for lipid profile. Predictive performance was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results A significant correlation was observed between resting pulse rate and TC (r = 0.102, P = 0.001), TG (r = 0.182, P = 0.001), and dyslipidemia (r = 0.037, P = 0.008). In the multivariate models, the adjusted odds ratios for hypercholesterolemia (from 1.07 to 1.15), hypertriglyceridemia (1.11 to 1.16), low HDL hypercholesterolemia (1.03 to 1.06), high LDL hypercholesterolemia (0.92 to 1.14), and dyslipidemia (1.04 to 1.07) were positively increased across quartiles of resting pulse rate (P for trend <0.05). The ROC curve indicated that resting pulse rate had low sensitivity (78.95%, 74.18%, 51.54%, 44.39%, and 54.22%), specificity (55.88%, 59.46%, 57.27%, 65.02%, and 60.56%), and the area under ROC curve (0.70, 0.69, 0.54, 0.56, and 0.58) for identifying the risk of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL hypercholesterolemia, high LDL hypercholesterolemia, and dyslipidemia, respectively. Conclusion Fast resting pulse rate was associated with a moderate increased risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions in rural adults. However

  11. Relationship between resting pulse rate and lipid metabolic dysfunctions in Chinese adults living in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-jian; Li, Yu-qian; Li, Lin-lin; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Jing-zhi; You, Ai-guo; Guo, Yi-rui; Li, Wen-jie

    2012-01-01

    Resting pulse rate has been observed to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, its association with lipid metabolic dysfunctions remains unclear, especially resting pulse rate as an indicator for identifying the risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between resting pulse rate and lipid metabolic dysfunctions, and then evaluate the feasibility of resting pulse rate as an indicator for screening the risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions. A cross-sectional survey was performed, and 16,926 subjects were included in this study from rural community residents aged 35-78 years. Resting pulse rate and relevant covariates were collected from a standard questionnaire. The fasting blood samples were collected and measured for lipid profile. Predictive performance was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A significant correlation was observed between resting pulse rate and TC (r = 0.102, P = 0.001), TG (r = 0.182, P = 0.001), and dyslipidemia (r = 0.037, P = 0.008). In the multivariate models, the adjusted odds ratios for hypercholesterolemia (from 1.07 to 1.15), hypertriglyceridemia (1.11 to 1.16), low HDL hypercholesterolemia (1.03 to 1.06), high LDL hypercholesterolemia (0.92 to 1.14), and dyslipidemia (1.04 to 1.07) were positively increased across quartiles of resting pulse rate (P for trend <0.05). The ROC curve indicated that resting pulse rate had low sensitivity (78.95%, 74.18%, 51.54%, 44.39%, and 54.22%), specificity (55.88%, 59.46%, 57.27%, 65.02%, and 60.56%), and the area under ROC curve (0.70, 0.69, 0.54, 0.56, and 0.58) for identifying the risk of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL hypercholesterolemia, high LDL hypercholesterolemia, and dyslipidemia, respectively. Fast resting pulse rate was associated with a moderate increased risk of lipid metabolic dysfunctions in rural adults. However, resting pulse rate as an indicator has limited potential for

  12. Roadside verges as habitats for endangered lizard-orchids (Himantoglossum spp.): Ecological traps or refuges?

    PubMed

    Fekete, Réka; Nagy, Timea; Bódis, Judit; Biró, Éva; Löki, Viktor; Süveges, Kristóf; Takács, Attila; Tökölyi, Jácint; Molnár V, Attila

    2017-12-31

    Alterations in traditional land use practices have led to severe declines in the area of semi-natural grasslands, thereby seriously threatening plant and animal species dependent on these habitats. Small anthropogenic managed habitats, like roadsides can act as refuges and might play an important role in conserving these species. Colonization of roadside verges by endangered lizard orchids (Himantoglossum spp.) has long been known, but few studies have systematically explored the suitability of roadside habitats for these orchids and the impact of roads on them. In this paper we present results of targeted surveys of three lizard orchid taxa on roadsides from eight European countries. During these surveys we searched for lizard orchids inhabiting roadside verges and recorded their distance from road, aspects of the roadside environment, as well as vegetative and reproductive characteristics of individual plants. We found large numbers of lizard orchids on roadside verges. Distance from roads was not uniformly distributed: orchids occurred more closely to roads than expected by chance. This suggests that regular management of roadsides (e.g. mowing) might enhance colonization and survival of lizard orchids. On the other hand, we also found that close proximity to roads negatively affects reproductive success, suggesting that the immediate vicinity of roads might act as an ecological trap (i.e. favorable in terms of colonization and survival but unfavorable in terms of reproduction). Nonetheless, the fact that significant and viable populations are maintained at roadsides suggests that traditionally managed roadside verges may allow long-term persistence of lizard orchid populations and may serve as refuges in a landscape context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Roadside camping on forest preserve lands in the Adirondack Park: A qualitative exploration of place attachment and resource substitutability

    Treesearch

    David A. Graefe; Chad Dawson; Rudolph M. Schuster

    2012-01-01

    Roadside camping is a popular and widespread public outdoor recreation activity on New York State Forest Preserve (FP) lands within the Adirondack Park (AP). While several roadside camping areas exist on FP lands throughout the Park, little is known about these camping areas or the visitors who use them. Recently, debate has developed over how to define and manage...

  14. Network asymmetry of motor areas revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Rong; Wu, Yi-Bo; Hu, De-Wen; Qin, Shang-Zhen; Xu, Guo-Zheng; Zeng, Xiao-Hua; Song, Hua

    2012-02-01

    There are ample functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on functional brain asymmetries, and the asymmetry of cerebral network in the resting state may be crucial to brain function organization. In this paper, a unified schema of voxel-wise functional connectivity and asymmetry analysis was presented and the network asymmetry of motor areas was studied. Twelve healthy male subjects with mean age 29.8 ± 6.4 were studied. Functional network in the resting state was described by using functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) analysis. Motor areas were selected as regions of interest (ROIs). Network asymmetry, including intra- and inter-network asymmetries, was formulated and analyzed. The intra-network asymmetry was defined as the difference between the left and right part of a particular functional network. The inter-network asymmetry was defined as the difference between the networks for a specific ROI in the left hemisphere and its homotopic ROI in the right hemisphere. Primary motor area (M1), primary sensory area (S1) and premotor area (PMA) exhibited higher functional correlation with the right parietal-temporal-occipital circuit and the middle frontal gyrus than they did with the left hemisphere. Right S1 and right PMA exhibited higher functional correlation with the ipsilateral precentral and supramarginal areas. There exist the large-scale hierarchical network asymmetries of the motor areas in the resting state. These asymmetries imply the right hemisphere dominance for predictive motor coding based on spatial attention and higher sensory processing load for the motor performance of non-dominant hemisphere.

  15. [Capture of culicids in urban areas: evaluation of the resting box method].

    PubMed

    Barata, Eudina Agar Miranda de Freitas; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes G; Barbosa, Angelita Anália C; Natal, Delsio; Barata, José Maria Soares; Andriguetti, Maria Teresa Macoris

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of adult culicid populations in urban areas and measure the sensitivity of the resting box collection method. Mosquito were collected in 1999 and 2000, in two cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: Ocauçu and Uchoa. In each city, 15 blocks were drawn by lots and then one home in each block was drawn. Two resting boxes were installed at each home: one inside and the other outside the house. Monthly collections were carried out at each home, over a 13-month period, using manual aspirators inside and outside the home and inside the boxes. The captured specimens were taken to the laboratory for screening and identification according to species and sex. Out of the 2,112 culicid specimens collected, 99.7% were of four species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, Cx. declarator and Cx. coronator. The distribution of these species in Ocauçu was 83.3%, 3.2%, 10.8% and 24%, respectively, and in Uchoa it was 83.8%, 8.4%, 4.4% and 3.0%, respectively. Among the females of the genus Culex, 34.3% were captured in the resting boxes and 59.9% were collected from inside the house. Among the females of Ae. aegypti, 17.6% were found in the resting boxes and 82.4% inside the home. The great majority of the specimens collected belonged to four species of culicids, and Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most common. Proportionally, the females of Ae. aegypti were found more inside the home than were those of the genus Culex. Resting boxes present potential for use as surveillance devices, but their use needs to be more thoroughly evaluated.

  16. Cooling systems of the resting area in free stall dairy barn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, F.; Calamari, L.; Frazzi, E.

    2016-04-01

    A study during the summer season evaluated the effect of different cooling systems on behavioral and productive responses of Italian Friesian dairy cows kept in an experimental-free stall barn located in the Po Valley in Italy. The study involved 30 lactating dairy cows subdivided into two groups kept in two pens with external hard court paddock in each free stall. The same cooling system was applied in the feeding area in both pens. A different cooling system in the resting area was applied to the two pens: in the pen SW, the resting area was equipped with fans and misters; in the other, there was simple ventilation (SV). Breathing rate, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk characteristics (fat, protein, and somatic cell count) were measured. Behavioral activities (standing and lying cows in the different areas, as well as the animals in the feed bunk) were recorded. Mild to moderate heat waves during the trial were observed. On average, the breathing rate was numerically greater in SV compared with SW cows (60.2 and 55.8 breath/min, respectively), and mean rectal temperature remained below 39 °C in both groups during the trial (on average 38.7 and 38.8 °C in SV and SW, respectively. During the hotter periods of the trial, the time spent lying indoor in the free stall was greater in SW (11.8 h/day) than SV (10.7 h/day). Conversely, the time spent standing indoor without feeding was greater in SV (4.3 h/day) than SW (3.8 h/day). Milk yield was slightly better maintained during hotter period in SW compared with SV and somatic cell count was also slightly greater in the former. In conclusion, the adoption of the cooling system by means of evaporative cooling also in the resting area reduces the alteration of time budget caused by heat stress.

  17. Cooling systems of the resting area in free stall dairy barn.

    PubMed

    Calegari, F; Calamari, L; Frazzi, E

    2016-04-01

    A study during the summer season evaluated the effect of different cooling systems on behavioral and productive responses of Italian Friesian dairy cows kept in an experimental-free stall barn located in the Po Valley in Italy. The study involved 30 lactating dairy cows subdivided into two groups kept in two pens with external hard court paddock in each free stall. The same cooling system was applied in the feeding area in both pens. A different cooling system in the resting area was applied to the two pens: in the pen SW, the resting area was equipped with fans and misters; in the other, there was simple ventilation (SV). Breathing rate, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk characteristics (fat, protein, and somatic cell count) were measured. Behavioral activities (standing and lying cows in the different areas, as well as the animals in the feed bunk) were recorded. Mild to moderate heat waves during the trial were observed. On average, the breathing rate was numerically greater in SV compared with SW cows (60.2 and 55.8 breath/min, respectively), and mean rectal temperature remained below 39 °C in both groups during the trial (on average 38.7 and 38.8 °C in SV and SW, respectively. During the hotter periods of the trial, the time spent lying indoor in the free stall was greater in SW (11.8 h/day) than SV (10.7 h/day). Conversely, the time spent standing indoor without feeding was greater in SV (4.3 h/day) than SW (3.8 h/day). Milk yield was slightly better maintained during hotter period in SW compared with SV and somatic cell count was also slightly greater in the former. In conclusion, the adoption of the cooling system by means of evaporative cooling also in the resting area reduces the alteration of time budget caused by heat stress.

  18. Beta Peak Frequencies at Rest Correlate with Endogenous GABA+/Cr Concentrations in Sensorimotor Cortex Areas

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Thomas J.; Oeltzschner, Georg; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillatory activity in the beta band (15–30 Hz) is a prominent signal within the human sensorimotor cortex. Computational modeling and pharmacological modulation studies suggest an influence of GABAergic interneurons on the generation of beta band oscillations. Accordingly, studies in humans have demonstrated a correlation between GABA concentrations and power of beta band oscillations. It remains unclear, however, if GABA concentrations also influence beta peak frequencies and whether this influence is present in the sensorimotor cortex at rest and without pharmacological modulation. In the present study, we investigated the relation between endogenous GABA concentration (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and beta oscillations (measured by magnetoencephalography) at rest in humans. GABA concentrations and beta band oscillations were measured for left and right sensorimotor and occipital cortex areas. A significant positive linear correlation between GABA concentration and beta peak frequency was found for the left sensorimotor cortex, whereas no significant correlations were found for the right sensorimotor and the occipital cortex. The results show a novel connection between endogenous GABA concentration and beta peak frequency at rest. This finding supports previous results that demonstrated a connection between oscillatory beta activity and pharmacologically modulated GABA concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that for a predominantly right-handed sample, the correlation between beta band oscillations and endogenous GABA concentrations is evident only in the left sensorimotor cortex. PMID:27258089

  19. Analysis of roadside inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in major Korean cities.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Park, Jin-Ho

    2005-12-01

    A data analysis of three major Korean cities was conducted to assess roadside inhalable particulate matter 10 microm or smaller in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), including temporal and meteorological variations, over a recent period of 4 to 6 years. The yearly roadside PM10 concentrations presented a well-defined increasing trend or no trend depending on the roadside monitoring station. Most mean values exceeded or approximated the Korean standard of 70 microg/m3 per year for PM10. A representative roadside diurnal trend was characterized by a distinct morning maximum. In most cases, the Sunday roadside concentrations were similar to or somewhat lower than the weekday concentrations, and the PM10 concentrations presented a well-defined seasonal variation, with the maximum concentration in March. The monthly maximum concentrations observed in March were most likely attributable to Asian dust storms. In two metropolitan cities (Seoul and Busan), the frequency of days with roadside PM10 concentrations exceeding the standard of 150 microg/m3 per 24 h was much lower for the roadside monitoring stations than for the residential monitoring station, whereas in the third city (Daegu), this result was reversed. Interestingly, the average maximum concentrations observed for the roadside sites in Seoul and Busan during March were higher than those for the residential sites, suggesting that the roadside concentrations responded more to the dust storms than the residential areas. The relationship between the pollutant concentrations and five important meteorological parameters (solar radiation, wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation) showed that the number and type of meteorological variables included in the equations varied according to the monitoring station or season. Finally, the current results confirmed that attention should be given to the PM10 exposure of residents living near roadways.

  20. A roadside study of observable driver distractions.

    PubMed

    Sullman, Mark J M; Prat, Francesc; Tasci, Duygu Kuzu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of observable distractions while driving and the effect of drivers' characteristics and time-related variables on their prevalence. Using roadside observation, 2 independent observers collected data at 4 randomly selected locations in St. Albans, UK. Of the 10,984 drivers observed, 16.8% were engaged in a secondary task, with talking to passengers being the most common distraction (8.8%), followed by smoking (1.9%) and talking on a hands-free mobile phone (1.7%). An additional 1.0% were observed talking on a handheld phone, and the rest of the distractions (e.g., texting, drinking) were recorded in less than 1% of the drivers observed. Gender-related differences were found for a number of different distractions (i.e., talking to passengers, drinking, and handheld mobile phone conversations), but age emerged as a significant predictor for most secondary tasks, including talking to passengers, smoking, hands-free mobile phone use, handheld mobile phone use, texting/keying numbers, drinking, and engagement in any type of distraction (all distractions combined). The overall pattern for age was that middle-aged and older drivers were less likely to be distracted than younger drivers. This work provides further evidence of the relatively high rate of distracted driving in the UK. The findings clearly indicate that younger drivers are more likely to drive distracted, which probably contributes to their higher crash rates.

  1. An approach for parcellating human cortical areas using resting-state correlations

    PubMed Central

    Wig, Gagan S.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Resting State Functional Connectivity (RSFC) reveals properties related to the brain’s underlying organization and function. Features related to RSFC signals, such as the locations where the patterns of RSFC exhibit abrupt transitions, can be used to identify putative boundaries between cortical areas (RSFC-Boundary Mapping). The locations of RSFC-based area boundaries are consistent across independent groups of subjects. RSFC-based parcellation converges with parcellation information from other modalities in many locations, including task-evoked activity and probabilistic estimates of cellular architecture, providing evidence for the ability of RSFC to parcellate brain structures into functionally meaningful units. We not only highlight a collection of these observations, but also point out several limitations and observations that mandate careful consideration in using and interpreting RSFC for the purposes of parcellating the brain’s cortical and subcortical structures. PMID:23876247

  2. Generation and Evaluation of a Cortical Area Parcellation from Resting-State Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Evan M.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Huckins, Jeremy F.; Kelley, William M.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    The cortical surface is organized into a large number of cortical areas; however, these areas have not been comprehensively mapped in the human. Abrupt transitions in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns can noninvasively identify locations of putative borders between cortical areas (RSFC-boundary mapping; Cohen et al. 2008). Here we describe a technique for using RSFC-boundary maps to define parcels that represent putative cortical areas. These parcels had highly homogenous RSFC patterns, indicating that they contained one unique RSFC signal; furthermore, the parcels were much more homogenous than a null model matched for parcel size when tested in two separate datasets. Several alternative parcellation schemes were tested this way, and no other parcellation was as homogenous as or had as large a difference compared with its null model. The boundary map-derived parcellation contained parcels that overlapped with architectonic mapping of areas 17, 2, 3, and 4. These parcels had a network structure similar to the known network structure of the brain, and their connectivity patterns were reliable across individual subjects. These observations suggest that RSFC-boundary map-derived parcels provide information about the location and extent of human cortical areas. A parcellation generated using this method is available at http://www.nil.wustl.edu/labs/petersen/Resources.html. PMID:25316338

  3. Generation and Evaluation of a Cortical Area Parcellation from Resting-State Correlations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Evan M; Laumann, Timothy O; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Huckins, Jeremy F; Kelley, William M; Petersen, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The cortical surface is organized into a large number of cortical areas; however, these areas have not been comprehensively mapped in the human. Abrupt transitions in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns can noninvasively identify locations of putative borders between cortical areas (RSFC-boundary mapping; Cohen et al. 2008). Here we describe a technique for using RSFC-boundary maps to define parcels that represent putative cortical areas. These parcels had highly homogenous RSFC patterns, indicating that they contained one unique RSFC signal; furthermore, the parcels were much more homogenous than a null model matched for parcel size when tested in two separate datasets. Several alternative parcellation schemes were tested this way, and no other parcellation was as homogenous as or had as large a difference compared with its null model. The boundary map-derived parcellation contained parcels that overlapped with architectonic mapping of areas 17, 2, 3, and 4. These parcels had a network structure similar to the known network structure of the brain, and their connectivity patterns were reliable across individual subjects. These observations suggest that RSFC-boundary map-derived parcels provide information about the location and extent of human cortical areas. A parcellation generated using this method is available at http://www.nil.wustl.edu/labs/petersen/Resources.html.

  4. Continuous Measurements of Eyeball Area and Their Spectrum Analyses -- Toward the Quantification of Rest Rhythm of Horses by Image Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    analyses of electroencephalogram at half- closed eye and fully closed eye. This study aimed at quantitative estimating rest rhythm of horses by the...analyses of eyeball movement. The mask attached with a miniature CCD camera was newly developed. The continuous images of the horse eye for about 24...eyeball area were calculated. As for the results, the fluctuating status of eyeball area was analyzed quantitatively, and the rest rhythm of horses was

  5. Soil organic carbon distribution in roadside soils of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhadip; Scharenbroch, Bryant C; Ow, Lai Fern

    2016-12-01

    Soil is the largest pool of organic carbon in terrestrial systems and plays a key role in carbon cycle. Global population living in urban areas are increasing substantially; however, the effects of urbanization on soil carbon storage and distribution are largely unknown. Here, we characterized the soil organic carbon (SOC) in roadside soils across the city-state of Singapore. We tested three hypotheses that SOC contents (concentration and density) in Singapore would be positively related to aboveground tree biomass, soil microbial biomass and land-use patterns. Overall mean SOC concentrations and densities (0-100 cm) of Singapore's roadside soils were 29 g kg(-1) (4-106 g kg(-1)) and 11 kg m(-2) (1.1-42.5 kg m(-2)) with median values of 26 g kg(-1) and 10 kg m(-2), respectively. There was significantly higher concentration of organic carbon (10.3 g kg(-1)) in the top 0-30 cm soil depth compared to the deeper (30-50 cm, and 50-100 cm) soil depths. Singapore's roadside soils represent 4% of Singapore's land, but store 2.9 million Mg C (estimated range of 0.3-11 million Mg C). This amount of SOC is equivalent to 25% of annual anthropogenic C emissions in Singapore. Soil organic C contents in Singapore's soils were not related to aboveground vegetation or soil microbial biomass, whereas land-use patterns to best explain variance in SOC in Singapore's roadside soils. We found SOC in Singapore's roadside soils to be inversely related to urbanization. We conclude that high SOC in Singapore roadside soils are probably due to management, such as specifications of high quality top-soil, high use of irrigation and fertilization and also due to an optimal climate promoting rapid growth and biological activity.

  6. Defining Functional Areas in Individual Human Brains using Resting Functional Connectivity MRI

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alexander L.; Fair, Damien A.; Dosenbach, Nico U.F.; Miezin, Francis M.; Dierker, Donna; Van Essen, David C.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is anatomically organized at many physical scales starting at the level of single neurons and extending up to functional systems. Current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies often focus at the level of areas, networks, and systems. Except in restricted domains, (e.g. topographically-organized sensory regions), it is difficult to determine area boundaries in the human brain using fMRI. The ability to delineate functional areas non-invasively would enhance the quality of many experimental analyses allowing more accurate across-subject comparisons of independently identified functional areas. Correlations in spontaneous BOLD activity, often referred to as resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI), are especially promising as a way to accurately localize differences in patterns of correlated activity across large expanses of cortex. In the current report, we applied a novel set of image analysis tools to explore the utility of rs-fcMRI for defining wide-ranging functional area boundaries. We find that rs-fcMRI patterns show sharp transitions in correlation patterns and that these putative areal boundaries can be reliably detected in individual subjects as well as in group data. Additionally, combining surface-based analysis techniques with image processing algorithms allows automated mapping of putative areal boundaries across large expanses of cortex without the need for prior information about a region’s function or topography. Our approach reliably produces maps of bounded regions appropriate in size and number for putative functional areas. These findings will hopefully stimulate further methodological refinements and validations. PMID:18367410

  7. Roadside-based communication system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A roadside-based communication system providing backup communication between emergency mobile units and emergency command centers. In the event of failure of a primary communication, the mobile units transmit wireless messages to nearby roadside controllers that may take the form of intersection controllers. The intersection controllers receive the wireless messages, convert the messages into standard digital streams, and transmit the digital streams along a citywide network to a destination intersection or command center.

  8. Increased neuronal firing in resting and sleep in areas of the macaque medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, Paul L; Rolls, Edmund T

    2013-06-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of humans and macaques is an integral part of the default mode network and is a brain region that shows increased activation in the resting state. A previous paper from our laboratory reported significantly increased firing rates of neurons in the macaque subgenual cingulate cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 25, during disengagement from a task and also during slow wave sleep [E.T. Rolls et al. (2003) J. Neurophysiology, 90, 134-142]. Here we report the finding that there are neurons in other areas of mPFC that also increase their firing rates during disengagement from a task, drowsiness and eye-closure. During the neurophysiological recording of single mPFC cells (n = 249) in BAs 9, 10, 13 m, 14c, 24b and especially pregenual area 32, populations of neurons were identified whose firing rates altered significantly with eye-closure compared with eye-opening. Three types of neuron were identified: Type 1 cells (28.1% of the total population) significantly increased (mean + 329%; P ≪ 0.01) their average firing rate with eye-closure, from 3.1 spikes/s when awake to 10.2 spikes/s when asleep; Type 2 cells (6.0%) significantly decreased (mean -68%; P < 0.05) their firing rate on eye-closure; and Type 3 cells (65.9%) were unaffected. Thus, in many areas of mPFC, implicated in the anterior default mode network, there is a substantial population of neurons that significantly increase their firing rates during periods of eye-closure. Such neurons may be part of an interconnected network of distributed brain regions that are more active during periods of relaxed wakefulness than during attention-demanding tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Safer Roadside Crash Walls Would Limit Deceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C.; Locke, James P.

    2003-01-01

    The figure depicts the aspects of a proposed deceleration-limiting design for crash walls at the sides of racetracks and highways. The proposal is intended to overcome the disadvantages of both rigid barriers and kinetic-energy-absorbing barriers of prior design. Rigid barriers can keep high-speed crashing motor vehicles from leaving roadways and thereby prevent injury to nearby persons and objects, but they can also subject the occupants of the vehicles to deceleration levels high enough to cause injury or death. Kinetic-energy-absorbing barriers of prior design reduce deceleration levels somewhat, but are not designed to soften impacts optimally; moreover, some of them allow debris to bounce back onto roadways or onto roadside areas, and, in cases of glancingly incident vehicles, some of them can trap the vehicles in such a manner as to cause more injury than would occur if the vehicles were allowed to skid along the rigid barriers. The proposed crash walls would (1) allow tangentially impacting vehicles to continue sliding along the racetrack without catching them, (2) catch directly impacting vehicles to prevent them from injuring nearby persons and objects, and (3) absorb kinetic energy in a more nearly optimum way to limit decelerations to levels that human occupants could survive.

  10. Relationship between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Grasses of Roadside Farmland in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-01-01

    Transportation activities can contribute to accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soil and grass, which could potentially compromise public health and the environment if the roadways cross farmland areas. Particularly, heavy metals may enter the food chain as a result of their uptake by roadside edible grasses. This research was conducted to investigate heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in roadside farmland soils and corresponding grasses around Kathmandu, Nepal. Four factors were considered for the experimental design, including sample type, sampling location, roadside distance, and tree protection. A total of 60 grass samples and 60 topsoil samples were collected under dry weather conditions. The Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that the concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soil samples are significantly higher than those in the grass samples; the concentrations of Cu and Pb in the suburban roadside farmland are higher than those in the rural mountainous roadside farmland; and the concentrations of Cu and Zn at the sampling locations with roadside trees are significantly lower than those without tree protection. The analysis of transfer factor, which is calculated as the ratio of heavy-metal concentrations in grass to those in the corresponding soil, indicates that the uptake capabilities of heavy metals from soil to grass is in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. Additionally, it is found that as the soils’ heavy-metal concentrations increase, the capability of heavy-metal transfer to the grass decreases, and this relationship can be characterized by an exponential regression model. PMID:23202679

  11. Drivers' perceptions and reactions to roadside memorials.

    PubMed

    Tay, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Despite their growing popularity in North America, little research has been conducted on understanding the effects of roadside memorials on drivers' behaviour. In this study, an online survey of 810 drivers found that public opinions on the policy options as well as drivers' self-reported reactions to the presence of roadside memorials were fairly divided. In addition, an on-road experiment was conducted to examine the short term effects of roadside memorials at two intersections. Our results showed that the number of red light violations was reduced by 16.7% in the 6 weeks after the installation of the mock memorials compared to the 6 weeks before whereas the number of violations at two comparison sites experienced an increase of 16.8%.

  12. New Hampshire's Stumpage and Roadside Prices: Characteristics and Trends

    Treesearch

    Susan B. Remington; Donald F. Dennis; Donald F. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Reports average stumpage and roadside prices and their relative rates of change for timber and logs in New Hampshire for 1964 to 1983. Stumpage and roadside prices increased overall from 1964 to 1983. Roadside prices increased at a slower rate than stumpage prices. Real sawtimber prices increased for all species except hemlock during the period. Red oak prices...

  13. Soil disturbance effects on the composition of seed-dispersing ants in roadside environments.

    PubMed

    Palfi, Zsofia; Spooner, Peter G; Robinson, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    Myrmecochory (the dispersal of seeds by ants) is a significant ecological process in sclerophyll woodlands, but habitat disturbance is known to alter the extent and success of this mutualism. We investigated the influence of soil disturbance on the composition of the seed-dispersing ant community. Surveys were conducted in roadside verges where soils are regularly disturbed by road maintenance activities. Using a 'cafeteria' bait station approach, we selected 24 roads of different widths to investigate ant composition and abundance in relation to soil disturbance. We found ant species richness was greater in non-disturbed than disturbed zones, where road verge width significantly influenced results. The composition and abundance of individual seed-dispersing ant species varied between disturbed and non-disturbed zones. Rhytidoponera metallica were more abundant in non-disturbed sites, whereas Melophorus bruneus and Monomorium rothseini were more frequently recorded in disturbed areas. Commonly found Iridomyrmex purpureus was significantly more abundant in disturbed zones in narrow roadsides and vice versa in wide roadsides, and strongly influenced total community composition. Variation in the abundance of commonly recorded Iridomyrmex and Monomorium genera were related more to site conditions (roadside width and habitat) than soil disturbance. The rich composition of seed dispersing ants in roadside environments, and the effects of soil disturbances on these ant communities that we describe, provide a key insight to important seed dispersal vectors occurring in fragmented rural landscapes.

  14. Resting behaviour, ecology and genetics of malaria vectors in large scale agricultural areas of Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Githeko, A K; Service, M W; Mbogo, C M; Atieli, F K

    1996-12-01

    In Kenya indoor and outdoor resting densities of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus at the Ahero rice irrigation scheme, and Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and An. funestus at the Miwani sugar belt were assessed for 13 months by pyrethrum spray collections in houses and granaries. The vector's house leaving behaviour was evaluated with exit traps and it was noted that early exophily (i.e., deliberate) was not detected in any of the vectors. Assortative indoor/outdoor resting behaviour was studied by a capture-mark-release-recapture method and showed that in An. arabiensis both indoor and outdoor resting traits were present in the same individuals. Samples of half-gravid female An. gambiae s.l. were chromosomally identified either as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or An. arabiensis and in a subsample chromosomal inversions were read. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis had the 2Rb inversion but in addition the 2La inversion was found in An. gambiae s.s. and this is an indication of low chromosomal variation. At Ahero An. arabiensis was most abundant when the rice crop was immature and An. funestus when the crop was mature. This succession of vectors facilitated the transmission of malaria throughout the year. At Miwani, An. gambiae s.l. population peaked during the long rains but the proportion of An. arabiensis was highest during the dry season. The indoor resting density of males of the three vector species was less than half of the females.

  15. Wide-area mapping of resting state hemodynamic correlations at microvascular resolution with multi-contrast optical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senarathna, Janaka; Hadjiabadi, Darian; Gil, Stacy; Thakor, Nitish V.; Pathak, Arvind P.

    2017-02-01

    Different brain regions exhibit complex information processing even at rest. Therefore, assessing temporal correlations between regions permits task-free visualization of their `resting state connectivity'. Although functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used for mapping resting state connectivity in the human brain, it is not well suited for `microvascular scale' imaging in rodents because of its limited spatial resolution. Moreover, co-registered cerebral blood flow (CBF) and total hemoglobin (HbT) data are often unavailable in conventional fMRI experiments. Therefore, we built a customized system that combines laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging and fluorescence imaging (FI) to generate multi-contrast functional connectivity maps at a spatial resolution of 10 μm. This system comprised of three illumination sources: a 632 nm HeNe laser (for LSCI), a 570 nm ± 5 nm filtered white light source (for IOS), and a 473 nm blue laser (for FI), as well as a sensitive CCD camera operating at 10 frames per second for image acquisition. The acquired data enabled visualization of changes in resting state neurophysiology at microvascular spatial scales. Moreover, concurrent mapping of CBF and HbT-based temporal correlations enabled in vivo mapping of how resting brain regions were linked in terms of their hemodynamics. Additionally, we complemented this approach by exploiting the transit times of a fluorescent tracer (Dextran-FITC) to distinguish arterial from venous perfusion. Overall, we demonstrated the feasibility of wide area mapping of resting state connectivity at microvascular resolution and created a new toolbox for interrogating neurovascular function.

  16. Monitoring Puerto Rican avifauna using roadside surveys

    Treesearch

    Keith L. Pardieck; Bruce G. Peterjohn

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 we began investigating the use of roadside point counts to monitor the long-term status and trends of Puerto Rican bird populations. If such a methodology proves feasible it may provide the empirical data needed for the development of sound conservation plans for the island’s avifauna in much the same way that North American Breeding Bird Survey data...

  17. Roadside and in-vehicle concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Pei-Ling; Harrison, Roy M.

    Airborne concentrations of benzene, toluene and the xylenes have been measured inside passenger cars whilst driven along major roads in the city of Birmingham, UK, as well as immediately outside the car, and at the roadside. A comparison of concentrations measured in the car with those determined from immediately outside showed little difference, with a mean ratio for benzene of 1.17±0.34 and for toluene 1.11±0.16 ( n=53). The ratio of in-car to roadside concentration was rather higher at 1.55±0.68 for benzene and 1.54±0.72 for toluene ( n=53). The roadside concentrations were typically several-fold higher than those measured at a background suburban monitoring station within Birmingham, although much variation was seen between congested and uncongested roads, with concentrations adjacent to uncongested roads similar to those measured at the background monitoring station. Measurements of benzene and toluene in a car driven on a rural road outside the city showed very comparable in-car and out-of-car concentrations strengthening the conclusion that pollution inside the car is derived from pollutants outside entering with ventilation air. The exceptions were an older car where in-car concentrations appreciably exceeded those outside (in-to out-vehicle ratio=2.3 for benzene and 2.2 for toluene where n=5) indicating probable self-contamination, and a very new car which built up increased VOC concentrations when stationary without ventilation (in-to out-vehicle ratio=2.4 for benzene and 3.3 for toluene where n=5). A further set of measurements inside London taxi cabs showed concentrations to be influenced by the area within which the taxi was driven, the traffic density and the presence of passengers smoking cigarettes.

  18. Roadside alfalfa: Innocent bystanders or conveyers of genetically-engineered traits?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clumps of alfalfa are a common sight along roads and vacant lots in areas that grow alfalfa for hay or seed. So what role do feral roadside plants play in dispersing transgenes? Is there a risk that transgenic feral plants serve as reservoirs or conduits that might facilitate the movement of transg...

  19. Chapter 3 - At the roadside: Forest resources

    Treesearch

    Bryce Stokes; Timothy G. Rials; Leonard R. Johnson; Karen L. Abt; Prakash Nepal; Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Lixia He; Burton C. English

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 3 assesses the availability of forest resources to the roadside. Not all woody feedstocks are discussed in this chapter. Logging residues and wholetree biomass are included. Other feedstock categories have been moved to chapter 5 or are redefined to be included in the whole-tree biomass category. New methodologies and data are used in the assessment to

  20. The economics of roadside bear viewing.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Leslie; Rosen, Tatjana; Gunther, Kerry; Schwartz, Chuck

    2014-07-01

    Viewing bears along roadside habitats is a popular recreational activity in certain national parks throughout the United States. However, safely managing visitors during traffic jams that result from this activity often requires the use of limited park resources. Using unique visitor survey data, this study quantifies economic values associated with roadside bear viewing in Yellowstone National Park, monetary values that could be used to determine whether this continued use of park resources is warranted on economic grounds. Based on visitor expenditure data and results of a contingent visitation question, it is estimated that summer Park visitation would decrease if bears were no longer allowed to stay along roadside habitats, resulting in a loss of 155 jobs in the local economy. Results from a nonmarket valuation survey question indicate that on average, visitors to Yellowstone National Park are willing to pay around $41 more in Park entrance fees to ensure that bears are allowed to remain along roads within the Park. Generalizing this value to the relevant population of visitors indicates that the economic benefits of allowing this wildlife viewing opportunity to continue could outweigh the costs of using additional resources to effectively manage these traffic jams.

  1. The economics of roadside bear viewing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Leslie; Rosen, Tatjana; Gunther, Kerry; Schwartz, Chuck

    2014-01-01

    Viewing bears along roadside habitats is a popular recreational activity in certain national parks throughout the United States. However, safely managing visitors during traffic jams that result from this activity often requires the use of limited park resources. Using unique visitor survey data, this study quantifies economic values associated with roadside bear viewing in Yellowstone National Park, monetary values that could be used to determine whether this continued use of park resources is warranted on economic grounds. Based on visitor expenditure data and results of a contingent visitation question, it is estimated that summer Park visitation would decrease if bears were no longer allowed to stay along roadside habitats, resulting in a loss of 155 jobs in the local economy. Results from a nonmarket valuation survey question indicate that on average, visitors to Yellowstone National Park are willing to pay around $41 more in Park entrance fees to ensure that bears are allowed to remain along roads within the Park. Generalizing this value to the relevant population of visitors indicates that the economic benefits of allowing this wildlife viewing opportunity to continue could outweigh the costs of using additional resources to effectively manage these traffic jams.

  2. Synthetic Aperture Acoustic Imaging for Roadside Detection of Solid Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-20

    policy or decision, unless so designated by other documentation. 14. ABSTRACT A synthetic apertme acoustic system was developed to detect roadside...threats including IEDs and landmines. The technique uses audio-band sound broadcast from a compact trailer-mounted system to image the roadside...landmines. The technique uses audio-band sound broadcast from a compact trailer-mounted system to image the roadside perpendicular to the travel path. The

  3. Exploring the processes governing roadside pollutant concentrations in urban street canyon.

    PubMed

    Galatioto, Fabio; Bell, Margaret C

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes an in-depth analysis to investigate the huge variation in the measured roadside air-pollutant concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in terms of the traffic flow levels, the orientation of the street to the prevailing wind, the wind speed, temperature and barometric pressure. The work has attempted to develop generic parameters that can be applied to other urban areas. However, in the absence of a measure of congestion at the site in Palermo (Italy), the methodological approach proposed used the simultaneous noise measurements, in units of decibels (B), to help parameterise a generic congestion indicator in terms of the traffic flow. The potential transferability of the approach was demonstrated for a site in Marylebone Road, London (UK), given the similarity of the two study sites, canyon shape, traffic characteristics and road orientation. The results showed that, within the range of data available, noise levels could be used as a proxy for flow change on the shoulders of the peak hour and hence congestion and a generic relationship with factors statistically significant at 99% confidence allows roadside concentrations due to traffic to be estimated with a regression coefficient of R(2) = 0.73 (R = 0.85). The research demonstrates that whilst there are indeed underlying relationships that can explain the roadside concentrations based on traffic and meteorological conditions, evidence is presented that confirms the complexity of the physical and chemical processes that govern roadside concentrations.

  4. Roadside air quality and implications for control measures: A case study of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Z. T.; Mak, C. M.; Lee, H. C.

    2016-07-01

    Traffic related air pollution is one of major environmental issues in densely populated urban areas including Hong Kong. A series of control measures has been implemented by Hong Kong government to cut traffic related air pollutants, including retrofitting the Euro II and Euro III buses with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices to lower nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. In order to reveal the real-life roadside air quality and evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures, this study first analyzed the recent six-year data regarding concentrations of pollutants typically associated with traffic recorded in two governmental roadside monitoring stations and second conducted on-site measurements of concentration of pollutants at pedestrian level near five selected roads. Given that there is a possibility of ammonia leakage as a secondary pollutant from SCR devices, a special attention was paid to the measurements of ammonia level in bus stations and along roadsides. Important influencing factors, such as traffic intensity, street configuration and season, were analyzed. Control measures implemented by the government are effective to decrease the traffic emissions. In 2014, only NO2 cannot achieve the annual air quality objective of Hong Kong. However, it is important to find that particulate matters, rather than NO2, post potentially a short-term exposure risk to passengers and pedestrians. Based on the findings of this study, specific control measures are suggested, which are intended to further improve the roadside air quality.

  5. Differences in distribution of modified basins and ducks relative to roadside transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Sklebar, H. Thomas; Buhl, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Wetland basins in the Prairie Pothole Region of the U.S. are commonly modified by excavation (e.g., roadside ditches, stock dugouts), partial drainage (ditching), and diking. Differences in the distribution of modified wetlands may affect the predictive accuracy of waterfowl survey data if such wetlands are not distributed randomly in the landscape and if waterfowl are not distributed equally among them. We used data collected on thirty-eight 40-km2 plots in North Dakota to examine the distribution of modified basins relative to roadside transects and their use by five species of dabbling ducks in 1995. The 800-m-wide transects were subdivided into an inner 400-m transect, centered on the road, and the remaining outer transect area. We compared the distribution of modified and natural wetland basins among three sample areas: 1) the inner 400-m wide roadside transect area, 2) the outer transect area, and 3) the remaining area within the 40-km2 plot that was outside of the transects (outer plot). Duck use was compared between the two transect areas. The plots contained 20,582 basins, of which 88.5% were unmodified, 7.5% were excavated, 3.7% were partially drained, and 0.2% were diked. Nearly all excavated temporary (89%) and seasonal (90%) basins occurred in the inner transect area, reflecting the high proportion of basins that would be defined as roadside ditches. Excavated semipermanent basins were more evenly distributed among the outer plot and two transect widths; these basins often were dugouts but also included roadside ditches. Partially drained and diked basins also were fairly evenly distributed among the three sample areas. Semipermanent basins had greater use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintails (A. acuta) when they were partially drained than when they were excavated or unmodified; pintails also had greater use of partially drained seasonal basins. Use of wetland basins by gadwall (A. strepera), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and

  6. Characteristics of current roadside pollution of soils in Upper Silesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawer, M.; Szuszkiewicz, M.; Magiera, T.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was qualitative recognition of contemporary roadside pollutants deposited on topsoils in areas located in close vicinity to roads with high traffic volume (main roads, ring roads). So far, the determination of pollutant content in soil samples has shown only the amount of pollutants deposited on soils over long time period, without the possibility to assess the quality changes in type of deposition and to determine the present structure of roadside pollution. Moreover, in many cases, it is difficult to distinguish roadside pollution from other industrial sources. In order to avoid this issue and recognize currently emergent threats of road traffic origin, three monitoring plots filled with quartz sand had been installed in Zabrze, Gliwice and Opole (Poland) close to arteries with high traffic volume. For installation of monitoring plots 7 cm of topsoil had been removed and replaced by boxes filled with clean quartz sand with known chemical composition and neutral magnetic properties (diamagnetic). This sand was treated as neutral matrix for the accumulation of traffic pollution. Results of chemical analyses of heavy metal contents and magnetic susceptibility measurements of removed topsoils have shown that the highest content of Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni were observed in Zabrze. Amount of Zn and Pb exceeded threshold values. Magnetic susceptibility values were also the highest in Zabrze. In all investigated areas magnetic susceptibility values and heavy metal contents decreased with the distance from the road. Measurements of sand from monitoring plots which were executed after 3, 6 and 12 months of exposure have shown that values of magnetic susceptibility have increased during these time periods. It is visible especially in surface layer of sand. Initially magnetic susceptibility value of quartz sand which was used as matrix after first year of exposure increased from 0,25 - 10-8 m3kg-1 to 300 in Zabrze, 50 in Gliwice and 30- 10-8 m3kg-1

  7. Logging a roadside stand to protect scenic values

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Raymond V. Whiteley

    1972-01-01

    A case study on the Challenge Experimental Forest, California, demonstrated that logging along roadsides need not despoil roadside stands. Nearly every tree was "viewed" before marking. Because of the "special-care" procedures followed, combined logging and slash-disposal cost was about twice that of a single-tree selection cut.

  8. Roadside revegetation: A new frontier for native plant growers

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Riley; Kim M. Wilkinson

    2007-01-01

    Roadside revegetation projects are an important and growing new niche for native plant suppliers. Recent shifts in public policy now require the use of locally adapted native plants as the first choice when roadsides are being revegetated. These shifts in policy recognize that the establishment of healthy native plant communities is the best defense against invasive...

  9. Roadside Tracker Portal-less Portal Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Bradley, Eric Craig; Cunningham, Mark F.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Goddard, Jr, James Samuel; Hornback, Donald Eric; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Newby, Jason

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the full development cycle of the Roadside Tracker (RST) Portal-less Portal monitor (Fig. 1) funded by DHS DNDO. The project started with development of a proof-of-feasibility proto-type, proceeded through design and construction of a proof-of-concept (POC) prototype, a test-and-evaluation phase, participation in a Limited Use Exercise that included the Standoff Radiation Detections Systems developed under an Advanced Technology Demonstration and concluded with participation in a Characterization Study conducted by DNDO.

  10. Investigation of roadside pollution in Aliaga Industrial Zone (Izmir/Turkey) by using magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timur, Emre

    2014-05-01

    Pollution of soils is significantly reducing environmental quality and affecting human health. As a condition for effective protection and remediation actions, the screening and detection of soil and sediment pollution has become increasingly important. The pollutants of most cases are usually heavy metals, organic contaminants and agricultural applications such as chemical fertilizers, pestisides and hormones. The aim of this study is to trace the distribution and concentration of contaminants in soils along roads carrying both appreciably high and low traffic along three roads around Aliaga industrial zone. Magnetic susceptibility (Bartington MS2E) is used for pollution mapping in the field. The distribution of the susceptibility values represents contaminated areas strongly influenced by traffic frequency, roadside topography, vegetation and meteorological conditions. It was determined that approximately 5 m along both sides of Canakkale-Izmir highway, which has a very high traffic density (250 car/min), shows very high susceptibility values in comparison with the rest of the profile. This value reduced to 2.4 m and 0.7 m along two side roads, which are 300 and 1100 m away from the highway. Also these roads were having traffic densities of 47 cars/min and 3 cars/min respectively. The measurements were repeated in summer and winter seasons in order to observe possible climate effects. Also soil samples were collected at 2 stations in both sides of the roads to compare the heavy metal content with the background values. According to geochemical data Fe-oxides are found to be responsible for the high values of magnetic susceptibility. It was determined that magnetic susceptibility is a rapid and cheap method for investigating potentially contaminated areas.

  11. EEG Bands of Wakeful Rest, Slow-Wave and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep at Different Brain Areas in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Wei; Wang, Yanran; Fang, Guangzhan; Chen, Mingming; Xue, Miaomiao; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that neuronal oscillations with various frequency bands in the brain have different physiological functions. However, the frequency band divisions in rats were typically based on empirical spectral distribution from limited channels information. In the present study, functionally relevant frequency bands across vigilance states and brain regions were identified using factor analysis based on 9 channels EEG signals recorded from multiple brain areas in rats. We found that frequency band divisions varied both across vigilance states and brain regions. In particular, theta oscillations during REM sleep were subdivided into two bands, 5-7 and 8-11 Hz corresponding to the tonic and phasic stages, respectively. The spindle activities of SWS were different along the anterior-posterior axis, lower oscillations (~16 Hz) in frontal regions and higher in parietal (~21 Hz). The delta and theta activities co-varied in the visual and auditory cortex during wakeful rest. In addition, power spectra of beta oscillations were significantly decreased in association cortex during REM sleep compared with wakeful rest. These results provide us some new insights into understand the brain oscillations across vigilance states, and also indicate that the spatial factor should not be ignored when considering the frequency band divisions in rats.

  12. EEG Bands of Wakeful Rest, Slow-Wave and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep at Different Brain Areas in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Wei; Wang, Yanran; Fang, Guangzhan; Chen, Mingming; Xue, Miaomiao; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that neuronal oscillations with various frequency bands in the brain have different physiological functions. However, the frequency band divisions in rats were typically based on empirical spectral distribution from limited channels information. In the present study, functionally relevant frequency bands across vigilance states and brain regions were identified using factor analysis based on 9 channels EEG signals recorded from multiple brain areas in rats. We found that frequency band divisions varied both across vigilance states and brain regions. In particular, theta oscillations during REM sleep were subdivided into two bands, 5–7 and 8–11 Hz corresponding to the tonic and phasic stages, respectively. The spindle activities of SWS were different along the anterior-posterior axis, lower oscillations (~16 Hz) in frontal regions and higher in parietal (~21 Hz). The delta and theta activities co-varied in the visual and auditory cortex during wakeful rest. In addition, power spectra of beta oscillations were significantly decreased in association cortex during REM sleep compared with wakeful rest. These results provide us some new insights into understand the brain oscillations across vigilance states, and also indicate that the spatial factor should not be ignored when considering the frequency band divisions in rats. PMID:27536231

  13. Accumulation and distribution characteristics of platinum group elements in roadside dusts in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Yu, Yanke; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin

    2012-06-01

    The concentrations, distribution, and accumulation of platinum group elements (PGEs) were investigated in roadside dusts collected in four different foundational areas in Beijing during February to May 2010. The results showed that PGE levels in all samples were above the average upper crust values, with mean concentrations of 57.5 ng · g(-1) Pd, 28.2 ng · g(-1) Pt, and 9.8 ng · g(-1) Rh, respectively. Palladium concentration has increased rapidly in recent years. The rank of PGE levels in four different functional regions for roadside dusts was: heavy density traffic area > residential area > educational area > tourism area. Palladium, Pt, and Rh concentrations in dusts showed strong positive correlations, indicating a common traffic-related source of these metals. Meanwhile, PGEs in these samples were not correlated with other traffic-related metals except for Cr. The average PGE ratios of road dusts from Beijing were consistent with those in Germany and Western Australia, but lower than those in the United States and Mexico, indicating that various catalyst productions were used in different countries. In addition, grain-size partitioning of PGEs in dusts indicated that concentrations of PGEs differed from one particle size to another. The coarse fraction had higher PGE concentrations than the fine fraction in roadside dusts. These results showed that autocatalyst PGE contamination estimates in the environment would be significantly underestimated if only a fine-grain size fraction (<0.063 mm) is analyzed. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  14. To ingest or rest? Specialized roles of lateral hypothalamic area neurons in coordinating energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliette A.; Woodworth, Hillary L.; Leinninger, Gina M.

    2015-01-01

    Survival depends on an organism’s ability to sense nutrient status and accordingly regulate intake and energy expenditure behaviors. Uncoupling of energy sensing and behavior, however, underlies energy balance disorders such as anorexia or obesity. The hypothalamus regulates energy balance, and in particular the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) is poised to coordinate peripheral cues of energy status and behaviors that impact weight, such as drinking, locomotor behavior, arousal/sleep and autonomic output. There are several populations of LHA neurons that are defined by their neuropeptide content and contribute to energy balance. LHA neurons that express the neuropeptides melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or orexins/hypocretins (OX) are best characterized and these neurons play important roles in regulating ingestion, arousal, locomotor behavior and autonomic function via distinct neuronal circuits. Recently, another population of LHA neurons containing the neuropeptide Neurotensin (Nts) has been implicated in coordinating anorectic stimuli and behavior to regulate hydration and energy balance. Understanding the specific roles of MCH, OX and Nts neurons in harmonizing energy sensing and behavior thus has the potential to inform pharmacological strategies to modify behaviors and treat energy balance disorders. PMID:25741247

  15. Monitoring Puerto Rican avifauna using roadside surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardieck, K.L.; Peterjohn, B.G.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 we began investigating the use of roadside point counts to monitor the long-term status and trends of Puerto Rican bird populations. If such a methodology proves feasible it may provide the empirical data needed for the development of sound conservation plans for the island's avifauna in much the same way that North American Breeding Bird Survey data are used by the avian conservation prioritization process of Partners in Flight, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Canadian Wildlife Service. By the end of the 2003 field season, we will have the data needed to quantitatively evaluate the utility of the program for tracking the population trends of Puerto Rican avifauna. Here we present data from the 2001 and 2002 field seasons to demonstrate the potential utility of these data for quantifying and portraying avian distributions, abundances, and population trend estimates. In 2001, 27 of the 44 available 5-mile roadside routes (11 stops/route) were sampled between 15 April and 15 May. At each stop a 5-minute point count was conducted. The surveys detected 5,471 individuals representing 70 species. Distribution and abundance maps are depicted for seven endemic species. In 2002, 29 routes were sampled. A total of 6,252 individuals was detected representing 79 species. Significantly fewer species and individuals were detected on wet zone routes as compared to moist and dry zone routes.

  16. Respiratory health status of the roadside school children at Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Roychowdhury, A; Alam, Jane; Kundu, S

    2005-07-01

    School students in metro cities are often exposed to vehicle exhausts as their schools are situated mostly on the high traffic roadside. Acute exposure to automobile exhaust is associated with increased respiratory symptoms and may decrease and impair lung function in children. The lung functioning performance of the city school children was compared with rural school children where there is no pollution and automobile exhausts. In Kolkata, two schools for boys (n = 210) and two schools for girls (n = 200) and in rural area one school for boys (n = 99) and the other school for girls (n = 95) were investigated. City schools are situated on the main roadside, nearer to the traffic junction. The detail histories about health status of children, if they have any subjective feelings of health related problems during the school hours or after returning from the school, and the family histories were taken by questionnaire method. The pulmonary function tests (PFT) were carried out by Spirometric method by Spirovit-Sp-10 and Wright's Peak flow meter. The mean PFT values of the students found in the normal range. Boys were having higher values compared to the girls in both city and rural schools. Lung volumes and flow rates were significantly higher in rural students. Symptomatic changes like breathlessness, cough and other problems (sneezing, eye irritation, running nose etc.) among city schoolboys found 13%, 7% and 15% and in girls found 12%, 6% and 7% respectively. In symoptomatic students, mean PFT values were significantly lowered compared to non-symptomatic. PFT values were presented in relation to age and height. It has been found that a number of city school students are having different types of respiratory symptoms. Long-term effect of exposure into such environment may develop lung functional impairments.

  17. Biological monitoring of roadside plants exposed to vehicular pollution in Jalgaon city.

    PubMed

    Wagh, N D; Shukla, Poonam V; Tambe, Sarika B; Ingle, S T

    2006-05-01

    Experiments on air and biomonitoring were conducted to evaluate pollution impact on the vegetation along the road in Jalgaon City, Maharashtra. The plantation along the roads and mainly includes neem (Aadirachta indica), peepal (Ficus religiosa), banyan (Ficus benghalensis), almond (Terminalia catapa). For biomonitoring, leaf area, total chlorophyll, plant protein were analyzed to study the impact of air pollutants. It was observed that vegetation at roadside with heavy traffic and markets was much affected by vehicular emission. Significant decrease in total chlorophyll and protein content was observed with reduced leaf area. It is concluded that plants can be used as indicators for urban air pollution, and there is need to protect the roadside plants from air pollution.

  18. Monitoring roadside ditches for antibiotic resistant E. coli in forest and agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrer, S.; Archibald, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    There is growing concern over the threat of antibiotic resistant bacteria and how they travel through natural environments. This study was developed to: (1) measure the quantities of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli present in stormwater collected from roadside ditches, (2) examine the spatial and temporal distribution of antibiotic resistance and (3) explore the difference in antibiotic resistance between different land uses. Autosamplers were used to collect composite samples of stormwater flowing in roadside ditches located near manure fertilized fields or forested areas. Samples were filtered using standard membrane filtration methods and grown with and without antibiotics on EC medium containing MUG. Three antibiotics commonly used to treat infection in humans and dairy cows were used to measure antibiotic resistance: penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline. Though antibiotic resistance was found at forested and farm sites, preliminary data suggest higher counts of antibiotic resistant E. coli near agricultural areas.

  19. Resting cells of microorganisms in the 20-100 μm fraction of marine sediments in an Antarctic coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinomiya, Mutsuo; Nakamachi, Miwa; Fukuchi, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Akira

    We investigated the morphological features, vertical sinking fluxes, and number densities of the resting cells of ice-associated microorganisms in the 20-100 μm fraction of natural marine sediments collected from ice-covered and ice-free areas around Syowa Station, Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. We identified the resting cells of various taxonomic groups, including the spores of a diatom, cysts of three dinoflagellates, cysts of five oligotrich ciliates, and the eggs of a mesozooplankton. This is the first report of oligotrich ciliate cysts from Antarctic waters. The resting spores of Thalassiosira australis (diatom), cysts of Polarella glacialis (dinoflagellate), and egg type 1 sink to the bottom sediment during summer. Our results suggest that some planktonic and ice-associated microorganisms in Antarctic coastal areas send their resting cells to the bottom sediments as seed populations for the following generation.

  20. An evaluation of immediate roadside prohibitions for drinking drivers in British Columbia: findings from roadside surveys.

    PubMed

    Beirness, Douglas J; Beasley, Erin E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the impact of new immediate roadside prohibitions (IRPs) for drinking drivers introduced in British Columbia in September 2010 as assessed by random roadside surveys of alcohol and drug use among nighttime drivers. Two roadside surveys were conducted prior to and following the introduction of IRPs. Drivers were randomly selected from the traffic stream in 5 cities and asked to provide a breath sample to determine alcohol content and a sample of oral fluid to be tested for the presence of psychoactive drugs. The survey was conducted between the hours of 9:00 p.m. and 3:00 a.m. on Wednesday through Saturday nights in June 2010 and again in June 2012. Driving after drinking decreased significantly following the introduction of IRPs. In particular, the percentage of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) over 80 mg/dL decreased by 59 percent; drivers with BACs of at least 50 mg/dL decreased by 44 percent. The decreases in drinking and driving were not restricted to specific subgroups of drivers but were universal across age groups, sex, and communities. The results also revealed a changing pattern of drinking of driving. For example, the typical pattern of increased drinking and driving on weekend nights was not observed and the prevalence of drinking drivers on the road during late night hours was less than half that found in 2010. The prevalence of drug use by drivers in 2012 did not change from the levels reported in 2010. The IRP program combined immediate short-term roadside suspensions with vehicle impoundment and monetary penalties to enhance the swiftness, certainty, and perceived severity of sanctions for drinking and driving. The introduction of these measures was associated with a substantial reduction in the prevalence of driving with a BAC over 50 mg/dL and driving with a BAC over 80 mg/dL.

  1. Ecosystem development in roadside grasslands: biotic control, plant–soil interactions and dispersal limitations

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Soliveres, Santiago; Valladares, Fernando; Papadopoulos, Jorge; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Roadside grasslands undergoing secondary succession are abundant, and represent ecologically meaningful examples of novel, human-created ecosystems. Interactions between plant and soil communities (hereafter plant–soil interactions) are of major importance in understanding the role of biotic control in ecosystem functioning, but little is known about these links in the context of ecosystem restoration and succession. The assessment of the key biotic communities and interactions driving ecosystem development will help practitioners to better allocate the limited resources devoted to roadside grassland restoration. We surveyed roadside grasslands from three successional stages (0–2, 7–9 and > 20 years) in two Mediterranean regions of Spain. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate how interactions between plants, biological soil crusts [BSCs], and soil microbial functional diversity [soil microorganisms] affect indicators of ecosystem development and restoration: plant similarity to the reference ecosystem, erosion control and soil C storage and N accumulation. Changes in plant community composition along the successional gradient exerted the strongest influence on these indicators. High BSC cover was associated with high soil stability, and high soil microbial functional diversity from late-successional stages was associated with high soil fertility. Contrary to our expectations, the indirect effects of plants, mediated by either BSCs or soil microorganisms, were very weak in both regions, suggesting a minor role for plant–soil interactions upon ecosystem development indicators over long periods. Our results suggest that natural vegetation dynamics effectively improved ecosystem development within a time frame of 20 years in the grasslands evaluated. They also indicate that this time could be shortened if management actions focus on: 1) maintain well-conserved natural areas close to roadsides to enhance plant compositional changes towards late

  2. Ecosystem development in roadside grasslands: Biotic control, plant-soil interactions, and dispersal limitations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Palacios, P.; Bowker, M.A.; Maestre, F.T.; Soliveres, S.; Valladares, F.; Papadopoulos, J.; Escudero, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roadside grasslands undergoing secondary succession are abundant, and represent ecologically meaningful examples of novel, human-created ecosystems. Interactions between plant and soil communities (hereafter plant-soil interactions) are of major importance in understanding the role of biotic control in ecosystem functioning, but little is known about these links in the context of ecosystem restoration and succession. The assessment of the key biotic communities and interactions driving ecosystem development will help practitioners to better allocate the limited resources devoted to roadside grassland restoration. We surveyed roadside grasslands from three successional stages (0-2, 7-9, and > 20 years) in two Mediterranean regions of Spain. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate how interactions between plants, biological soil crusts (BSCs), and soil microbial functional diversity (soil microorganisms) affect indicators of ecosystem development and restoration: plant similarity to the reference ecosystem, erosion control, and soil C storage and N accumulation. Changes in plant community composition along the successional gradient exerted the strongest influence on these indicators. High BSC cover was associated with high soil stability, and high soil microbial functional diversity from late-successional stages was associated with high soil fertility. Contrary to our expectations, the indirect effects of plants, mediated by either BSCs or soil microorganisms, were very weak in both regions, suggesting a minor role for plant-soil interactions upon ecosystem development indicators over long periods. Our results suggest that natural vegetation dynamics effectively improved ecosystem development within a time frame of 20 years in the grasslands evaluated. They also indicate that this time could be shortened if management actions focus on: (1) maintaining wellconserved natural areas close to roadsides to enhance plant compositional changes towards late

  3. Chromium and nickel in roadside grapes.

    PubMed

    Pertoldi Marletta, G; Gabrielli Favretto, L; Favretto, L

    1989-01-01

    Chromium and nickel concentration in roadside unwashed wine grapes and leaves is considered as a function of the distance from the suspected source, an isolated straight road. The analyses were performed with electrothermal atomization in a graphite furnace. The decrease in the concentration of the element can be described by means of a three-parameter exponential function c = A + (B - A)exp(-Cd), which allows the determination of the asymptotic level far from the emitting source (C infinity) and the pollution level (C0) at the edge of the road (d = 0). Least-squares nonlinear regression gives the estimation of the parameters A, B, and C. The results indicate that an effect is detectable up to a distance of about 50 m.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Roadside/Obstacle Detection Method Using 3D Scanned Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ishii, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Katsuyuki

    In this paper, we have reported the development of a snowblower support system which can safely navigate snowblowers, even during a whiteout, with the combination of a very accurate GPS system, so called RTK-GPS, and a unique and highly accurate map of roadsides and obstacles on roads. Particularly emphasized new techniques in this paper are ways to detect accurate geographical positions of roadsides and obstacles by utilizing and analyzing 3D laser scanned data, whose data has become available in recent days. The experiment has shown that the map created by the methods and RTK-GPS can sufficiently navigate snowblowers, whereby a secure and pleasant social environment can be archived in snow areas of Japan. In addition, proposed methods are expected to be useful for other systems such as a quick development of a highly accurate road map, a safely navigation of a wheeled chair, and so on.

  5. Responses of Roadside Soil Cation Pools to Vehicular Emission Deposition in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Bain, D. J.; Jenerette, D.; Clarke, L. W.; Wilson, K.

    2013-12-01

    Roadside soils are heavily loaded with NO3- due to vehicular emissions. This deposition likely acidifies these soils, potentially mobilizing cationic species from soil exchange sites. Acidification driven mobilization is well documented in forest soils, but poorly understood in roadside soils. Metal concentrations in park and garden soils collected from Southern California were examined across gradients of soil chemistry, road network density, climate, and geology to examine cation mobilization effects. In our samples, soil pH is not clearly related to distance from the roadside or underlying geology. However, the depletion of several elements (Al, K) is clearly observed in near-road environments. These depletion trends occur despite contrary trends, including increased soil surface areas and soil organic matter in near-road environments. Additionally, inputs from the weathering of road building materials appear to affect soil chemistry. For example, soil Ca patterns remain relatively consistent relative to roads, suggesting Ca bearing weathering products replenish soil Ca pools in near-road areas. Simple mixing models constructed using elemental ratios are consistent with road material Ca source contributions. Observed near-road patterns in soil chemistry likely influence local ecological function, shifting plant communities and soil functions. Clear understanding of these shifts is essential to the effective use of green infrastructure and other strategies utilized to control road-sourced nutrients. This analytical framework can be applied globally as road networks continue to expand and affect larger ecosystems.

  6. Feeding and indoor resting behaviour of the mosquito Anopheles longipalpis in an area of hyperendemic malaria transmission in southern Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Kent, R. J.; Coetzee, M.; Mharakurwa, S.; Norris, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles longipalpis (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a predominantly zoophilic mosquito that has not been implicated in malaria transmission. However, this species was collected indoors with An. funestus s.l. in southern Zambia, where transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is hyperendemic, and we initially misidentified it morphologically and molecularly as An. funestus s.l. The indoor resting density and blood-feeding behaviour of An. longipalpis were investigated during the 2004 – 05 and 2005 – 06 transmission seasons in Mufwafwi village in southern Zambia. Numbers of endophilic An. longipalpis increased towards the end of the rainy season. Although specimens were collected during human landing catches, the feeding behaviour of An. longipalpis was significantly biased towards cattle (88.7%), with other bloodmeals originating from dogs, goats and chickens. None of the 177 specimens of An. longipalpis were infected with P. falciparum. These data are consistent with existing reports that An. longipalpis is not involved in malaria transmission. However, more extensive sampling is necessary. Importantly, the correct identification of An. longipalpis is crucial for malaria control programmes in areas where An. funestus s.l and An. longipalpis exist sympatrically so that scarce resources are not wasted on the control of a non-vector. PMID:17199758

  7. Real-time imaging of brain areas involved in the generation of spontaneous skin sympathetic nerve activity at rest.

    PubMed

    James, Cheree; Henderson, Luke; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2013-07-01

    In thermoneutral conditions resting skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is related to the level of arousal and emotional state. The brain regions responsible for the generation of spontaneous SSNA are not known. In the present study we used concurrent recordings of SSNA and brain activity in awake humans to identify cortical and subcortical areas involved in the generation of spontaneous SSNA in 13 healthy subjects. Blood oxygen level dependent signal intensity increases covaried with SSNA in the left thalamus in the region of the ventromedial nucleus, the left posterior and right anterior insula, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right frontal cortex, and bilaterally in the mid-cingulate cortex and precuneus. Functional connectivity analysis revealed a strong positive coupling between the right orbitofrontal cortex and the right anterior insula. Furthermore, signal intensity changes within the precuneus were temporally coupled to the left anterior and posterior insula, cerebellum, cingulate cortex and thalamus. It has been hypothesized that these brain regions monitor the internal state of the body and may regulate emotional state changes. Our results show that the activities within these regions are also correlated to spontaneous fluctuations in SSNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. About contaminant element composition of roadside dust samples from Budapest and Seoul, including Pt and Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, M.; Chon, H. T.; Marton, L.

    2012-04-01

    both cities, and moderate pollution for roadside dusts from the rest of Hungary. Pt and Pd concentrations were strongly intercorrelated, but not with the pollution index. In dusts from Budapest, Pt and Pd were strongly correlated with each other, and moderately just with Sn and Bi. In Seoul dusts, Pt was strong positively correlated with Ba-Cu-Fe-Ir-Mo-Pd-Sb, and slightly with Cr-Fe-Mo-Ni, but negatively with Ca-Cd-Hg-Pb. Pd in Seoul dusts, however, was positively correlated just with Pt and Ir, but negatively with K-Li-Na-Pb-Sr.

  9. Non-uniform overland flow-infiltration model for roadside swales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Serrana, María; Gulliver, John S.; Nieber, John L.

    2017-09-01

    There is a need to quantify the hydrologic performance of vegetated roadside swales (drainage ditches) as stormwater control measures (SCMs). To quantify their infiltration performance in both the side slope and the channel of the swale, a model has been developed for coupling a Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson (GAML) infiltration submodel with kinematic wave submodels for both overland flow down the side slope and open channel flow for flow in the ditch. The coupled GAML submodel and overland flow submodel has been validated using data collected in twelve simulated runoff tests in three different highways located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, MN. The percentage of the total water infiltrated into the side slope is considerably greater than into the channel. Thus, the side slope of a roadside swale is the main component contributing to the loss of runoff by infiltration and the channel primarily conveys the water that runs off the side slope, for the typical design found in highways. Finally, as demonstrated in field observations and the model, the fraction of the runoff/rainfall infiltrated (Vi∗) into the roadside swale appears to increase with a dimensionless saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks∗), which is a function of the saturated hydraulic conductivity, rainfall intensity, and dimensions of the swale and contributing road surface. For design purposes, the relationship between Vi∗ and Ks∗ can provide a rough estimate of the fraction of runoff/rainfall infiltrated with the few essential parameters that appear to dominate the results.

  10. Concentration and Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Roadside Soils, Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhaoyu; Liu, Ying; He, Yao; Chen, Ling

    2010-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent organic pollutants that may lead to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis or teratogenesis. Vehicular traffic pollution is one of the important sources for PAHs in soils. Concentrations of 19 PAHs were detected in soils along nine roads in Shanghai by automatic Soxhlet extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. Concentration and spatial distribution of PAHs in surface soils beside nine target roads in Shanghai were investigated and a preliminary migration regularity of PAHs was proposed based on data analysis of Cheting Highway (NO.320 Chinese National Highway). The result showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in the target roadside soils ranged from undetectable to 34.6μg/g-dw, with a mean of 7.77μg/g-dw. In comparison with the level of PAHs in urban or suburban roadside soils, the results showed significantly that Σ PAHs concentration in roadside soils inside industrial areas was higher. The study on the migration regularity of PAHs in soils along roads demonstrated that surface runoff had a more significant effect on the PAHs transportation than air-borne transportation.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Metabolism in Roadside Soils

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Henry G.; Hubbard, Jerry S.

    1981-01-01

    Air-dried soils which were equilibrated under relative humidities greater than 93% or moistened with liquid water showed marked increases in their capacities to oxidize CO to CO2. Liquid water addition in excess of saturation resulted in lower CO oxidation rates, reflecting the limited diffusion of CO through the aqueous phase. After 35 days' storage under 100% relative humidity, the capacity for CO oxidation decreased to 21% of the value observed with a freshly collected sample. Incubation of this stored soil under an atmosphere containing 200 ppm of CO (250 mg/m3) for 21 days resulted in a sevenfold increase in CO oxidation. A correlation was noted between the CO oxidative activity and the history of previous exposure of soils to high ambient levels of CO. The organisms responsible for CO oxidation apparently comprise a small fraction of the microbial population in the soils. With a roadside soil the oxidation of CO provided the driving force for the assimilation of CO2. The stoichiometry of the oxidative and assimilatory reactions in soil was in the range of values reported from laboratory studies with CO chemoautotrophs (carboxydobacteria). It is proposed that the population and activity of CO-oxidizing microorganisms increase in response to increasing levels of CO in the environment. PMID:16345770

  12. Correlation between the Effects of Acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and Functional Brain Areas: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Using True versus Sham Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jiping; Chen, Junqi; Zhang, Shaoqun; Li, Zhipeng; Chen, Jiarong; Ouyang, Huailiang; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chunzhi

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been shown to detect the specificity of acupuncture points, as proved by numerous studies. In this study, resting-state fMRI was used to observe brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint. A total of 15 healthy subjects received brain resting-state fMRI before acupuncture and after sham and true acupuncture, respectively, at LR3. Image data processing was performed using Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI and REST software. The combination of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to analyze the changes in brain function during sham and true acupuncture. Acupuncture at LR3 can specifically activate or deactivate brain areas related to vision, movement, sensation, emotion, and analgesia. The specific alterations in the anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and cerebellar posterior lobe have a crucial effect and provide a valuable reference. Sham acupuncture has a certain effect on psychological processes and does not affect brain areas related to function. PMID:24963329

  13. Infiltration capacity of roadside filter strips with non-uniform overland flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Serrana, María; Gulliver, John S.; Nieber, John L.

    2017-02-01

    The side slope to a roadside swale (drainage ditch) constitutes a filter strip that has potential for infiltration of road runoff, thereby serving as a stormwater quantity and quality control mechanism. A total of thirty-two tests were performed during three seasons in four different highways located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, MN to analyze the infiltration performance of roadside filter strips and the effect of fractional coverage of water on infiltration. Three different application rates were used in the experiments. All the tests showed that water flow on the lateral slope of a roadside swale is concentrated in fingers, instead of sheet flow, at the typical road runoff intensities for which infiltration practices are utilized to improve surface water quality. A linear relationship between flux of water from the road and fraction of wetted surface was observed, for the intensities tested. The average percentage infiltration of the medium road runoff rate (1.55 × 10-4 m2/s, without direct rainfall) experiments performed in fall was 85% and in spring 70%. For the high road runoff rate (3.1 × 10-4 m2/s, without direct rainfall) tests the average amount of water infiltrated was 47% and for the low road runoff rate (7.76 × 10-5 m2/s, without direct rainfall) tests it was 69%, both set of tests performed in spring and summer. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of swale soil was high, relative to the values typical of laboratory permeameter measurements for these types of soils. This is believed to be due to the macropores generated by vegetation roots, activity of macrofauna (e.g. earthworms), and construction/maintenance procedures. The trend was to have more infiltration when the saturated hydraulic conductivity was higher and for a greater side slope length, as expected. The vegetation, type of soil and length of the side slope are important to consider for constructing and maintaining roadside swales that will be efficient as stormwater

  14. Carbonyl compounds in the roadside environment of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ho, K F; Lee, S C; Tsai, W Y

    2006-05-20

    The levels of carbonyl compounds were determined at the roadside urban station at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HKPU) campus during January 2002 to February 2002. Nine carbonyl compounds were quantified in this study. Temperature and solar radiation were found to affect the photochemical reactions of the carbonyls. Formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratio ranged from 1.27 to 1.35. Strong correlations between formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found, in the time period 1800-2100, which indicated that they were originated from the same sources during this time period. Roadside carbonyl samples were also collected at four other roadside environments during 2001. Kwai Chung (KC) station showed the highest average formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations due to its highest traffic flow, especially for diesel vehicles. High concentration of toluene emitted from gasoline-fueled vehicles was believed to be the cause of high benzaldehyde level at the Central (CT) station through the photochemical oxidation of toluene. The average concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in Hong Kong are well within the ranges reported in roadside environments of other urban cities. However, Mexico City in Mexico and Cairo in Egypt had much higher concentration levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde than in Hong Kong roadside environment due to the incomplete combustion of different fuel compositions.

  15. Recommendations for Constructing Roadside Vegetation Barriers to Improve Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA report, Recommendations for Constructing Roadside Vegetation Barriers to Improve Near-Road Air Quality, summarizes the research findings on the best practices for building roadside vegetative barriers to improve air quality. This fact sheet describ

  16. Recommendations for Constructing Roadside Vegetation Barriers to Improve Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommendations for external partners planting roadside vegetation. Intended for broad use, but immediate use will be to provide to project partners on the RESES roadside vegetation project and as an attachment to the RESES project QAPP

  17. Recommendations for Constructing Roadside Vegetation Barriers to Improve Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommendations for external partners planting roadside vegetation. Intended for broad use, but immediate use will be to provide to project partners on the RESES roadside vegetation project and as an attachment to the RESES project QAPP

  18. Combined analysis of roadside and off-road breeding bird survey data to assess population change in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, Colleen M.; Sauer, John

    2017-01-01

    Management interest in North American birds has increasingly focused on species that breed in Alaska, USA, and Canada, where habitats are changing rapidly in response to climatic and anthropogenic factors. We used a series of hierarchical models to estimate rates of population change in 2 forested Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) in Alaska based on data from the roadside North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Alaska Landbird Monitoring Survey, which samples off-road areas on public resource lands. We estimated long-term (1993–2015) population trends for 84 bird species from the BBS and short-term (2003–2015) trends for 31 species from both surveys. Among the 84 species with long-term estimates, 11 had positive trends and 17 had negative trends in 1 or both BCRs; negative trends were primarily found among aerial insectivores and wetland-associated species, confirming range-wide negative continental trends for many of these birds. Three species with negative trends in the contiguous United States and southern Canada had positive trends in Alaska, suggesting different population dynamics at the northern edges of their ranges. Regional population trends within Alaska differed for several species, particularly those represented by different subspecies in the 2 BCRs, which are separated by rugged, glaciated mountain ranges. Analysis of the roadside and off-road data in a joint hierarchical model with shared parameters resulted in improved precision of trend estimates and suggested a roadside-related difference in underlying population trends for several species, particularly within the Northwestern Interior Forest BCR. The combined analysis highlights the importance of considering population structure, physiographic barriers, and spatial heterogeneity in habitat change when assessing patterns of population change across a landscape as broad as Alaska. Combined analysis of roadside and off-road survey data in a hierarchical framework may be particularly

  19. Stereoscopic roadside curb height measurement using V-disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matu, Florin O.; Vlaykov, Iskren; Thogersen, Mikkel; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Managing road assets, such as roadside curbs, is one of the interests of municipalities. As an interesting application of computer vision, this paper proposes a system for automated measurement of the height of the roadside curbs. The developed system uses the spatial information available in the disparity image obtained from a stereo setup. Data about the geometry of the scene is extracted in the form of a row-wise histogram of the disparity map. From parameterizing the two strongest lines, each pixel can be labeled as belonging to one plane, either ground, sidewalk or curb candidates. Experimental results show that the system can measure the height of the roadside curb with good accuracy and precision.

  20. Assessing public response to freeway roadsides: urban forestry and context-sensitive solutions

    Treesearch

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2006-01-01

    Social science methods can be used to assess how the public values contextsensitive solutions. The roadside landscape is a public lands resource that has many functions and provides many benefits. Diverse stakeholders may have varied expectations for roadside design. The urban forest is often a contested component of the urban roadside. Two research surveys based on...

  1. Roadside sobriety tests and attitudes toward a regulated cannabis market

    PubMed Central

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch; Gieringer, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Background Many argue that prohibition creates more troubles than alternative policies, but fewer than half of American voters support a taxed and regulated market for cannabis. Some oppose a regulated market because of concerns about driving after smoking cannabis. Although a roadside sobriety test for impairment exists, few voters know about it. The widespread use of a roadside sobriety test that could detect recent cannabis use might lead some voters who currently oppose a regulated market to support it. In contrast, a question that primes respondents about the potential for driving after cannabis use might lead respondents to be less likely to support a regulated market. Methods Phone interviews with a national sample of 1002 registered voters asked about support for a regulated cannabis market and support for such a market if a reliable roadside sobriety test were widely available. Results In this sample of registered voters, 36% supported a regulated cannabis market. Exploratory chi-square tests revealed significantly higher support among men and Caucasians but no link to age or education. These demographic variables covaried significantly. Logistic regression revealed that gender, ethnicity, and political party were significant when all predictors were included. Support increased significantly with a reliable roadside sobriety test to 44%, but some respondents who had agreed to the regulated market no longer agreed when the sobriety test was mentioned. Logistic regression revealed that ethnicity and political affiliation were again significant predictors of support with a reliable sobriety test, but gender was no longer significant. None of these demographic variables could identify who would change their votes in response to the reliable roadside test. Conclusion Increased awareness and use of roadside sobriety tests that detect recent cannabis use could increase support for a regulated cannabis market. Identifying concerns of voters who are not Caucasian

  2. Residual herbicide study on selected Hanford Site roadsides

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company routinely treats roadsides with herbicides to control undesirable plant growth. An experiment was conducted to test perennial grass germination in soils adjacent to roadways of the Hanford Site. The primary variable was the distance from the roadside. A simple germination test was executed in a controlled-environment chamber to determine the residual effects of these applications. As expected, the greatest herbicide activity was found directly adjacent to the roadway, approximately 0 to 20 ft (0 to 6.3 m) from the roadway.

  3. Alterations in task-induced activity and resting-state fluctuations in visual and DMN areas revealed in long-term meditators.

    PubMed

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Harel, Michal; Hahamy, Avital; Arieli, Amos; Malach, Rafael

    2016-07-15

    Recently we proposed that the information contained in spontaneously emerging (resting-state) fluctuations may reflect individually unique neuro-cognitive traits. One prediction of this conjecture, termed the "spontaneous trait reactivation" (STR) hypothesis, is that resting-state activity patterns could be diagnostic of unique personalities, talents and life-styles of individuals. Long-term meditators could provide a unique experimental group to test this hypothesis. Using fMRI we found that, during resting-state, the amplitude of spontaneous fluctuations in long-term mindfulness meditation (MM) practitioners was enhanced in the visual cortex and significantly reduced in the DMN compared to naïve controls. Importantly, during a visual recognition memory task, the MM group showed heightened visual cortex responsivity, concomitant with weaker negative responses in Default Mode Network (DMN) areas. This effect was also reflected in the behavioral performance, where MM practitioners performed significantly faster than the control group. Thus, our results uncover opposite changes in the visual and default mode systems in long-term meditators which are revealed during both rest and task. The results support the STR hypothesis and extend it to the domain of local changes in the magnitude of the spontaneous fluctuations.

  4. Comparison of exhaled carbon monoxide levels among commuters and roadside vendors in an urban and a suburban population in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sabzwari, Saniya R; Fatmi, Zafar

    2011-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the six criteria air pollutants related to urbanization and has a wide range of health effects. The study measured and compared the exhaled CO levels among commuters and roadside vendors in potentially heavy and low traffic volume areas of Karachi, a megacity in Pakistan. Saddar town [areas of M. A. Jinnah Road (Tibet Center, Denso Hall) and Empress Market] was selected to represent an area of high traffic volume and the suburban town of Gadap (Gadap and Gulshan-e-Maymar) was selected to represent an area of no or low traffic volume. The study compared the CO exposure of commuters and roadside vendors in high and low traffic volume in Karachi. CO exposure was measured in expired air using the breath analyzer module of Bacharach Monoxor-II, USA. A total of 326 individuals (115 commuters and 211 stationary roadside vendors) from Saddar town (n = 193) and Gadap town (n = 133) were selected. In addition, CO levels in ambient air in the same areas, using portable CO analyzer (Bacharach, Monoxor-II, USA), were measured. The mean ambient CO level at Saddar town was 15.6 (SE ± 2.6) ppm compared to 3.3 (SE ± 0.3) ppm at Gadap town. The mean CO level in expired air was significantly higher among nonsmokers at Saddar town (12.8 ± 0.5 ppm) compared to the nonsmokers at Gadap town (7.8 ± 0.4 ppm). The mean CO level in expired air among smokers was twice that of nonsmokers (21.6 vs. 10.6 ppm). CO in expired air was greater among high traffic volume commuters and roadside stationary population in Karachi, Pakistan. The population in Karachi is exposed to high concentration of air pollutants. These pollutants need to be characterized for health effects and interventions needs to be developed.

  5. Supporting technology of roadside in gob-side entry in 110 longwall mining method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Manchao; Guo, Pengfei; Chen, Shangyuan; Gao, Yubing; Wang, Yajun

    2017-05-01

    To get better results of shaping roadside in 110 longwall mining method, the roadside support can be reasonably choose and designed through theoretical analysis, engineering test and other methods. The roadway support need to be designed based on the mining height and influence of mining pressure, and it is necessary to consider the "limited deformation" but also "given deformation". Because of the small mining high and short time under mining pressure effect in thin coal seam, roadside support can meet the requirements of block rock from gob using I-steel, but I-steel can't satisfy the deformation of roadway roof and easily lead to I-steel flexural buckling. In that condition we should use the U-steel that can compatible deformation with subsidence of roadway roof and enough torque in overlapping part between tow U-steel should be given when the U-steel is used to support gangue from gob and the U steel assembling two cards can coordinal deformation in dynamic pressure area keeping constant resistance with the deformation of roadway roof and can get a good effect. Through field test, due to the great impact force of the gangue from gob, single props and I-steel and U-steel are easily knocked down when the mining height is more than 4m. For large mining height, gangue blocking hydraulic support is designed and developed which can guarantee the stability and integrity of the roadway roof in the dynamic pressure area and can prevent the impact of gangue from gob. So it has better effect of forming roadway side using gangue from gob. According to above classification, the field experiments were carried out and obtained satisfactory results.

  6. PreSurgMapp: a MATLAB Toolbox for Presurgical Mapping of Eloquent Functional Areas Based on Task-Related and Resting-State Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huiyuan; Ding, Zhongxiang; Mao, Dewang; Yuan, Jianhua; Zhu, Fangmei; Chen, Shuda; Xu, Yan; Lou, Lin; Feng, Xiaoyan; Qi, Le; Qiu, Wusi; Zhang, Han; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of brain tumor surgery is to maximize tumor resection while minimizing the risk of irreversible postoperative functional sequelae. Eloquent functional areas should be delineated preoperatively, particularly for patients with tumors near eloquent areas. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive technique that demonstrates great promise for presurgical planning. However, specialized data processing toolkits for presurgical planning remain lacking. Based on several functions in open-source software such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST), Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF) and Multiple Independent Component Analysis (MICA), here, we introduce an open-source MATLAB toolbox named PreSurgMapp. This toolbox can reveal eloquent areas using comprehensive methods and various complementary fMRI modalities. For example, PreSurgMapp supports both model-based (general linear model, GLM, and seed correlation) and data-driven (independent component analysis, ICA) methods and processes both task-based and resting-state fMRI data. PreSurgMapp is designed for highly automatic and individualized functional mapping with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for time-saving pipeline processing. For example, sensorimotor and language-related components can be automatically identified without human input interference using an effective, accurate component identification algorithm using discriminability index. All the results generated can be further evaluated and compared by neuro-radiologists or neurosurgeons. This software has substantial value for clinical neuro-radiology and neuro-oncology, including application to patients with low- and high-grade brain tumors and those with epilepsy foci in the dominant language hemisphere who are planning to undergo a temporal lobectomy.

  7. The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Phil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)

  8. Estimating vehicle roadside encroachment frequency using accident prediction models

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, S.-P.

    1996-07-01

    The existing data to support the development of roadside encroachment- based accident models are extremely limited and largely outdated. Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration and Transportation Research Board, several roadside safety projects have attempted to address this issue by providing rather comprehensive data collection plans and conducting pilot data collection efforts. It is clear from the results of these studies that the required field data collection efforts will be expensive. Furthermore, the validity of any field collected encroachment data may be questionable because of the technical difficulty to distinguish intentional from unintentional encroachments. This paper proposes an alternative method for estimating the basic roadside encroachment data without actually field collecting them. The method is developed by exploring the probabilistic relationships between a roadside encroachment event and a run-off-the-road event With some mild assumptions, the method is capable of providing a wide range of basic encroachment data from conventional accident prediction models. To illustrate the concept and use of such a method, some basic encroachment data are estimated for rural two-lane undivided roads. In addition, the estimated encroachment data are compared with the existing collected data. The illustration shows that the method described in this paper can be a viable approach to estimating basic encroachment data without actually collecting them which can be very costly.

  9. Freeway roadside management: the urban forest beyond the white line

    Treesearch

    Kathleen. Wolf

    2003-01-01

    A national survey was conducted in the United States to learn more about public preferences and perceptions regarding forest and vegetation planning and management in urban freeway roadsides. In response to images depicting a visual continuum of landscape management treatments, drivers most preferred settings having tree plantings that...

  10. The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Phil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF ROADSIDE TREES USING RFID AND ONTOLOGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuki, Nobuyoshi; Kikushige, Yuki; Fukuda, Tomohiro; Ebashi, Yumeka

    It is necessary to make scientific and systematic diagnosis for roadside trees, which are essential for comfortable urban environment, in order to keep them in healthy conditions because they may not be planted adequately. Therefore, in this research, a Roadside Tree Diagnosis Support System (RTDSS) was developed using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) to facilitate diagnosis based on the Visual Tree Assessment (VTA) method. The system was used on a trial basis to real roadside trees by tree surgeons and was highly evaluated. Since governmental or municipal agencies, which develop and maintain the databases of roadside trees, tend to use different terminologies, units and tree registration systems, it is difficult to compare or combine two or more roadside tree databases. Thus, the ontology of roadside tree management was developed to compare and analyze various roadside tree databases. Two different databases were developed and testing of the developed ontology system successfully showed proper searching result over different terminologies.

  12. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas.

  13. Decreased functional connectivity between ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens in Internet gaming disorder: evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Yip, Sarah W; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Chen, Chao; Yan, Chao-Gan; Liu, Lu; Liu, Ben; Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2015-11-18

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become an increasing mental health problem worldwide. Decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been found in substance use and is thought to play an important role in the development of substance addiction. However, rsFC between the VTA and NAcc in a non-substance addiction, such as IGD, has not been assessed previously. The current study aimed to investigate: (1) if individuals with IGD exhibit alterations in VTA-NAcc functional connectivity; and (2) whether VTA-NAcc functional connectivity is associated with subjective Internet craving. Thirty-five male participants with IGD and 24 healthy control (HC) individuals participated in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regions of interest (left NAcc, right NAcc and VTA) were selected based on the literature and were defined by placing spheres centered on Talairach Daemon coordinates. In comparison with HCs, individuals with IGD had significantly decreased rsFC between the VTA and right NAcc. Resting-state functional connectivity strength between the VTA and right NAcc was negatively correlated with self-reported subjective craving for the Internet. These results suggest possible neural functional similarities between individuals with IGD and individuals with substance addictions.

  14. Monitoring the impact of de-icing salt on roadside soils with time-lapse resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, Bo; Lundmark, Annika

    2009-03-01

    Monitoring systems along roads are needed to facilitate decisions on improving protection of water resources and decreasing the impact of road-related pollutants on the roadside environment. This paper presents a monitoring system using permanently installed electrodes and monthly measurements of resistivity at a motorway in Sweden with heavy loads of de-icing salt. A significant increase in resistivity in the vadose zone with increasing distance from the road was shown in both sand and glacial till areas during the whole year. By measuring temporal variations in a less affected environment further from the road, a distinction could be made between more natural variations and variations due to de-icing salt and melting of roadside snowbanks. The highest resistivities occurred in October-November and the lowest in January-March, while the more natural resistivities showed an opposing temporal variation. The difference was up to 35% on a log-scale in the sand area during the latter period. Hence, the time-lapse resistivity measurements clearly showed a strong influence of de-icing salt on roadside soils and groundwater during winter and spring. The measurement system and the analysis methods proved useful for monitoring both the spatial and seasonal variation in resistivity.

  15. Impact of housing condition on indoor-biting and indoor-resting Anopheles arabiensis density in a highland area, central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Animut, Abebe; Balkew, Meshesha; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-11-05

    Exposure of individuals to malaria infection may depend on their housing conditions as houses serve as biting and resting places of vectors. This study describes the association of housing conditions with densities of indoor-biting and indoor-resting Anopheles arabiensis in Hobe, Dirama and Wurib villages of a highland area in central Ethiopia. Data on housing conditions, including presence of house apertures, number of occupants and number and the type of domestic animal tethered inside, were collected. Indoor-biting mosquitoes were sampled using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and indoor-resting mosquitoes sampled with pyrethrum spray catches (PSCs) monthly for two years (July 2008 to June 2010). Female anophelines were identified to species and processed. Univariate and general linear estimating equation allowing for repeated measures were used to assess the contribution of housing conditions for indoor-biting and indoor-resting An. arabiensis. About 96% (4,597/4,788) of anophelines were caught inside residential houses. Nine anopheline species were identified, among which An. arabiensis was most prevalent (2,489; 52%). Vectors entering houses were higher in those situated at low (β = 4.475; 95% CI = 3.475-5.476; p <0.001; β = strength of the association) and medium (β = 2.850; 95% CI = 1.975-3.724; p <0.001) altitudes compared to high altitude, and where houses have no windows (β = -0.570; 95% CI = -1.047-0.094; p =0.019) compared with those that have. Numbers of indoor-resting vectors were higher in those situated at low (β = 6.100; 95% CI = 4.571-7.629; p <0.001) and medium (β = 4.411; 95% CI = 2.284-6.537; p <0.001) altitudes compared to high altitudes, and where houses had open eaves (β =1.201; 95% CI = 0.704-1.698; p <0.001) compared with those that had closed eaves. Housing conditions such as presence of open eaves, absence of window, location at low and mid altitudes, were strong predictors of indoor exposure to An. arabiensis bite

  16. Assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc contamination of roadside soils, surface films, and vegetables in Kampala City, Uganda

    SciTech Connect

    Nabulo, Grace . E-mail: sbxgn1@nottingham.ac.uk; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Diamond, Miriam

    2006-05-15

    The relationship between traffic density and trace metal concentrations in roadside soils, surface films, and a selected vegetable weed, Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex Thell., was determined in 11 farming sites along major highways around Kampala City in Uganda. Surface soil, atmospherically deposited surface films on windows, and leaves of Amaranthus dubius were sampled at known distances from the roads and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Atmospherically deposited trace metal particulates were sampled using window glass as an inert, passive collector. Total trace metal concentrations in soils ranged from 30.0{+-}2.3 to 64.6{+-}11.7 mg/kg Pb, 78.4{+-}18.4 to 265.6{+-}63.2 mg/kg Zn, and 0.8{+-}0.13 to 1.40{+-}0.16 mg/kg Cd. Total trace metal levels in soil decreased rapidly with distance from the road. Total Pb decreased with distance up to 30 m from the road, where it reached a background soil concentration of 28 mg/kg dry weight. The study found background values of 50 and 1.4 mg/kg for Zn and Cd in roadside soils, respectively. Similarly, Pb concentration in Amaranthus dubius leaves decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. The dominant pathway for Pb contamination was from atmospheric deposition, which was consistent with Pb concentrations in surface films. The mean Pb concentrations in leaves of roadside crops were higher than those in their respective roots, with the highest leaf-to-root ratio observed in the Brassica oleraceae acephala group. The lowest Pb and Zn concentrations were found in the fruit compared to the leaves of the same crops. Leaves of roadside vegetables were therefore considered a potential source of heavy metal contamination to farmers and consumers in urban areas. It is recommended that leafy vegetables should be grown 30 m from roads in high-traffic, urban areas.

  17. Assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc contamination of roadside soils, surface films, and vegetables in Kampala City, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nabulo, Grace; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Diamond, Miriam

    2006-05-01

    The relationship between traffic density and trace metal concentrations in roadside soils, surface films, and a selected vegetable weed, Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex Thell., was determined in 11 farming sites along major highways around Kampala City in Uganda. Surface soil, atmospherically deposited surface films on windows, and leaves of Amaranthus dubius were sampled at known distances from the roads and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Atmospherically deposited trace metal particulates were sampled using window glass as an inert, passive collector. Total trace metal concentrations in soils ranged from 30.0+/-2.3 to 64.6+/-11.7 mg/kg Pb, 78.4+/-18.4 to 265.6+/-63.2 mg/kg Zn, and 0.8+/-0.13 to 1.40+/-0.16 mg/kg Cd. Total trace metal levels in soil decreased rapidly with distance from the road. Total Pb decreased with distance up to 30 m from the road, where it reached a background soil concentration of 28 mg/kg dry weight. The study found background values of 50 and 1.4 mg/kg for Zn and Cd in roadside soils, respectively. Similarly, Pb concentration in Amaranthus dubius leaves decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. The dominant pathway for Pb contamination was from atmospheric deposition, which was consistent with Pb concentrations in surface films. The mean Pb concentrations in leaves of roadside crops were higher than those in their respective roots, with the highest leaf-to-root ratio observed in the Brassica oleraceae acephala group. The lowest Pb and Zn concentrations were found in the fruit compared to the leaves of the same crops. Leaves of roadside vegetables were therefore considered a potential source of heavy metal contamination to farmers and consumers in urban areas. It is recommended that leafy vegetables should be grown 30 m from roads in high-traffic, urban areas.

  18. Partial Correlation-Based Retinotopically Organized Resting-State Functional Connectivity Within and Between Areas of the Visual Cortex Reflects More Than Cortical Distance.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Debra Ann; Lam, Jack; Lewis, Lindsay B; Carbonell, Felix; Mendola, Janine D; Shmuel, Amir

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between cortical areas. Recent evidence suggests that synchronous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI reflect functional organization at a scale finer than that of visual areas. In this study, we investigated whether RSFCs within and between lower visual areas are retinotopically organized and whether retinotopically organized RSFC merely reflects cortical distance. Subjects underwent retinotopic mapping and separately resting-state fMRI. Visual areas V1, V2, and V3, were subdivided into regions of interest (ROIs) according to quadrants and visual field eccentricity. Functional connectivity (FC) was computed based on Pearson's linear correlation (correlation), and Pearson's linear partial correlation (correlation between two time courses after the time courses from all other regions in the network are regressed out). Within a quadrant, within visual areas, all correlation and nearly all partial correlation FC measures showed statistical significance. Consistently in V1, V2, and to a lesser extent in V3, correlation decreased with increasing eccentricity separation. Consistent with previously reported monkey anatomical connectivity, correlation/partial correlation values between regions from adjacent areas (V1-V2 and V2-V3) were higher than those between nonadjacent areas (V1-V3). Within a quadrant, partial correlation showed consistent significance between regions from two different areas with the same or adjacent eccentricities. Pairs of ROIs with similar eccentricity showed higher correlation/partial correlation than pairs distant in eccentricity. Between dorsal and ventral quadrants, partial correlation between common and adjacent eccentricity regions within a visual area showed statistical significance; this extended to more distant eccentricity regions in V1. Within and between quadrants, correlation decreased

  19. Partial Correlation-Based Retinotopically Organized Resting-State Functional Connectivity Within and Between Areas of the Visual Cortex Reflects More Than Cortical Distance

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Debra Ann; Lam, Jack; Lewis, Lindsay B.; Carbonell, Felix; Mendola, Janine D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between cortical areas. Recent evidence suggests that synchronous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI reflect functional organization at a scale finer than that of visual areas. In this study, we investigated whether RSFCs within and between lower visual areas are retinotopically organized and whether retinotopically organized RSFC merely reflects cortical distance. Subjects underwent retinotopic mapping and separately resting-state fMRI. Visual areas V1, V2, and V3, were subdivided into regions of interest (ROIs) according to quadrants and visual field eccentricity. Functional connectivity (FC) was computed based on Pearson's linear correlation (correlation), and Pearson's linear partial correlation (correlation between two time courses after the time courses from all other regions in the network are regressed out). Within a quadrant, within visual areas, all correlation and nearly all partial correlation FC measures showed statistical significance. Consistently in V1, V2, and to a lesser extent in V3, correlation decreased with increasing eccentricity separation. Consistent with previously reported monkey anatomical connectivity, correlation/partial correlation values between regions from adjacent areas (V1-V2 and V2-V3) were higher than those between nonadjacent areas (V1-V3). Within a quadrant, partial correlation showed consistent significance between regions from two different areas with the same or adjacent eccentricities. Pairs of ROIs with similar eccentricity showed higher correlation/partial correlation than pairs distant in eccentricity. Between dorsal and ventral quadrants, partial correlation between common and adjacent eccentricity regions within a visual area showed statistical significance; this extended to more distant eccentricity regions in V1. Within and between quadrants, correlation

  20. Chemical characteristics of size-resolved PM₂.₅ at a roadside environment in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaojie; Wu, Ye; Jiang, Jingkun; Yang, Liu; Cheng, Yuan; Hao, Jiming

    2012-02-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter in the three size ranges (0.2-0.5 μm, 0.5-1.0 μm, and 1.0-2.5 μm) were collected at a roadside site in Beijing during and after the 2008 Olympic Games. The concentrations of PM mass, 14 elements, 3 major inorganic ions, and carbonaceous species were determined. The main contributors to PM(2.5) were crustal sources, vehicle emissions, secondary aerosol formation along with coal combustion, biomass from burning, and industrial processes, with vehicle emissions contributing more to roadside PM(2.5) than in the urban areas. The peaks at 0.5-1.0 μm in summer for PM mass and inorganic ions were most likely due to secondary aerosol formation, whereas the peaks at 0.2-0.5 μm in winter for PM mass and some elements were probably attributed to combustion from heating sources. The temporary control measures applied during the Olympics showed different effects on various emission sources and chemical species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Roadside vegetation barrier designs to mitigate near-road air pollution impacts.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheming; Baldauf, Richard W; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Max Zhang, K

    2016-01-15

    With increasing evidence that exposures to air pollution near large roadways increases risks of a number of adverse human health effects, identifying methods to reduce these exposures has become a public health priority. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; however, the characteristics of these barriers needed to ensure pollution reductions are not well understood. Designing vegetation barriers to mitigate near-road air pollution requires a mechanistic understanding of how barrier configurations affect the transport of traffic-related air pollutants. We first evaluated the performance of the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to capture the effects of vegetation barriers on near-road air quality, compared against field data. Next, CTAG with LES was employed to explore the effects of six conceptual roadside vegetation/solid barrier configurations on near-road size-resolved particle concentrations, governed by dispersion and deposition. Two potentially viable design options are revealed: a) a wide vegetation barrier with high Leaf Area Density (LAD), and b) vegetation-solid barrier combinations, i.e., planting trees next to a solid barrier. Both designs reduce downwind particle concentrations significantly. The findings presented in the study will assist urban planning and forestry organizations with evaluating different green infrastructure design options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of mechanical mowing and chemical treatment on phytosociological, pedochemical and biological parameters in roadside soils and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Falcone, Lino; Loppi, Stefano; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Many chemical and non-chemical strategies have been applied to control weeds in agricultural and industrial areas. Knowledge regarding the effects of these methods on roadside vegetation is still poor. A 2-year field experiment was performed along a road located near Livorno (Tuscany, central Italy). Eight plots/strips were identified, of which four were subjected to periodical mechanical mowing and the remaining four were treated with a chemical herbicide based on glyphosate (the producer's recommended rates were used for the selective control of broad-leaved weeds). Our results clearly showed that roadside soil and vegetation are a significant reservoir of anthropogenic activities which have a strong negative effect on several phytosociological, pedochemical and biological parameters. Compared with conventional mechanical mowing, chemical treatment induced (i) a significant increase in organic matter in the upper plot layers (+18%), and (ii) a marked reduction in weed height throughout the entire period of the experiment. Irrespectively of the kind of treatment, no significance differences were detected in terms of (i) biological quality of soil (the abundance and diversity of arthropod communities did not change), and (ii) plant elemental content (bulk concentrations of analysed trace elements had a good fit within ranges of occurrence in the "reference plant"). The glyphosate partially controlled broad-leaved weeds and this moderate efficacy is dependent upon the season/time of application. In conclusion, the rational and sustainable use of chemical herbicides may be a useful tool for the management of roadside vegetation.

  3. PAH dynamics in roadside environments: Influence on the consistency of diagnostic ratio values and ecosystem contamination assessments.

    PubMed

    Clément, Nathalie; Muresan, Bogdan; Hedde, Mickael; François, Denis

    2015-12-15

    Roadside contamination (of air, soils and organisms) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined in an arable field and a mature forest (central France). Measured contents accounted for minute fractions of the cumulative vehicular exhaust emissions. The fate of vehicular PAHs was affected by many factors, including: atmospheric load dispersal, deposition on soils and vegetation, incorporation into water and organic matter cycles, and accumulation in species. Given these empirical results, we evaluated the consistency of a set of well-known diagnostic ratios. This effort has revealed that: i) most diagnostic ratio values vary considerably across roadside samples, including exhaust emissions; and ii) the first few meters from the carriageway or the road verge/forest interface or remote areas where surface water accumulates actually define turning or inflection points in the ratio profiles. These variations constitute a major obstacle to delimitating the extent of roadside contamination due to PAHs, in addition to raising questions over the applicability of ratios routinely used to designate sources. New ratios, namely (Flt+BkF)/(Pyr+BbF) and (Flt+BkF+BghiP)/Σ10PAH, have been specifically developed to address this challenge. The higher consistencies exhibited among environmental compartments as well as between surface soil and exhaust emissions still yield differentiated values relative to several industrial sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterizations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vehicular emissions at roadside environment: The first comprehensive study in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowei; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Xue, Yonggang; Huang, Yu; Wang, Liqin; Cheng, Yan; Dai, Wenting; Zhong, Haobin; Cao, Junji; Lee, Shuncheng

    2017-07-01

    Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for ground-level volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in both urban and suburban areas. A first comprehensive campaign was conducted at an urban roadside in Xi'an, China in summer, 2016. A total of 57 VOCs, as known as critical surface ozone (O3) precursors, and other trace gases were measured simultaneously during the sampling period. Iso-pentane, a tracer of gasoline evaporation, was the most abundant VOC in the roadside samples, followed by isobutane and benzene, attributed to the largest composition (∼70%) of gasoline-fueled vehicles on the road. The molar ratio of toluene/benzene (T/B) in our study (0.36) is far lower than the range reported in other cities, indicating the stronger contributions from diesel emissions. The results of source apportionment achieved with positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model were highly consistent with the vehicles compositions, strongly evidenced that the precise characterization of the VE sources from those marker species. The degrees of individual compound contributed to O3 production were weighed by ozone formation potential (OFP). Propylene (20%), 1-butene (11%) and iso-pentane(10%) were the top three contributors at the roadside. The information of this study complements the VOCs database regarding to the VE sources in Northwestern China.

  5. Characterization of gaseous pollutants and PM2.5 at fixed roadsides and along vehicle traveling routes in Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Kongpran, J.; Hang, N. T.; Parkpian, P.; Hung, N. T. Q.; Lee, S.-B.; Bae, G.-N.

    2013-10-01

    Traffic is a major source of air pollution in urban areas of developing countries that leads to high exposure risk of urban dwellers. This study comparatively investigated levels of fine particles (PM2.5), SO2, NO2, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) at fixed roadsides and on traveling routes in congested urban and less congested suburban areas of Bangkok in 2010. The roadside air quality monitoring was done at two opposite sites across the selected roads. The traffic counting was made simultaneously in these roads and hourly flows of 8 different vehicle types were determined. Roadside PM2.5 levels during dry season were high in both the city center and suburban area, significantly above the wet season, with 65-75% measurements exceeded 24 h Thailand ambient air quality standard of 50 μg m-3. Oppositely, roadside BTEX levels measured in the city center during wet season were higher than dry season and well above those in suburban area. Diurnal variations and the results of SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) analysis showed associations between roadside pollutants levels and hourly traffic flows. The differences in pollution levels between 2 monitoring sites across a road were explained by road configurations and prevalent wind directions. On-route pollution levels were measured simultaneously both inside and outside selected vehicles (van, pickup), and on motorcycle. The on-route PM2.5 levels along the urban route were higher during the dry season than wet season. PM2.5 levels inside the vehicles were lower than outside whereas the opposite was observed for BTEX. BTEX were higher on more congested urban sub-routes with lower vehicle speeds. Higher pollution levels suggest a high risk of exposure.

  6. Resting-State Functional Connectivity by Independent Component Analysis-Based Markers Corresponds to Areas of Initial Seizure Propagation Established by Prior Modalities from the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Wilfong, Angus A.; Curry, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to evaluate a clinically practical functional connectivity (fc) protocol designed to blindly identify the corresponding areas of initial seizure propagation and also to differentiate these areas from remote secondary areas affected by seizure. The patients in this cohort had intractable epilepsy caused by intrahypothalamic hamartoma, which is the location of the ictal focus. The ictal propagation pathway is homogeneous and established, thus creating the optimum situation for the proposed method validation study. Twelve patients with seizures from hypothalamic hamartoma and six normal control patients underwent resting-state functional MRI, using independent component analysis (ICA) to identify network differences in patients. This was followed by seed-based connectivity measures to determine the extent of fc derangement between hypothalamus and these areas. The areas with significant change in connectivity were compared with the results of prior studies' modalities used to evaluate seizure propagation. The left amygdala-parahippocampal gyrus area, cingulate gyrus, and occipitotemporal gyrus demonstrated the highest derangement in connectivity with the hypothalamus, p < 0.01, corresponding to the initial seizure propagation areas established by prior modalities. Areas of secondary ictal propagation were differentiated from these initial locations by first being identified as an abnormal neuronal signal source through ICA, but did not show significant connectivity directly with the known ictal focus. Noninvasive connectivity measures correspond to areas of initial ictal propagation and differentiate such areas from secondary ictal propagation, which may aid in ictal focus surgical disconnection planning and support the use of this newer modality for adjunctive information in epilepsy surgery evaluation. PMID:27503346

  7. Segregation of face sensitive areas within the fusiform gyrus using global signal regression? A study on amygdala resting-state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, Johann D; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Veer, Ilya M; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Erk, Susanne; Mohnke, Sebastian; Pöhland, Lydia; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    The application of global signal regression (GSR) to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and its usefulness is a widely discussed topic. In this article, we report an observation of segregated distribution of amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) within the fusiform gyrus (FFG) as an effect of GSR in a multi-center-sample of 276 healthy subjects. Specifically, we observed that amygdala rs-FC was distributed within the FFG as distinct anterior versus posterior clusters delineated by positive versus negative rs-FC polarity when GSR was performed. To characterize this effect in more detail, post hoc analyses revealed the following: first, direct overlays of task-functional magnetic resonance imaging derived face sensitive areas and clusters of positive versus negative amygdala rs-FC showed that the positive amygdala rs-FC cluster corresponded best with the fusiform face area, whereas the occipital face area corresponded to the negative amygdala rs-FC cluster. Second, as expected from a hierarchical face perception model, these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters showed differential rs-FC with other regions of the visual stream. Third, dynamic connectivity analyses revealed that these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters also differed in their rs-FC variance across time to the amygdala. Furthermore, subsample analyses of three independent research sites confirmed reliability of the effect of GSR, as revealed by similar patterns of distinct amygdala rs-FC polarity within the FFG. In this article, we discuss the potential of GSR to segregate face sensitive areas within the FFG and furthermore discuss how our results may relate to the functional organization of the face-perception circuit. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Impact of chloride on denitrification potential in roadside wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Nakita A; Bushey, Joseph T; Tobias, Craig R; Song, Bongkeun; Vadas, Timothy M

    2016-05-01

    Developed landscapes are exposed to changes in hydrology and water chemistry that limit their ability to mitigate detrimental impacts to coastal water bodies, particularly those that result from stormwater runoff. The elevated level of impervious cover increases not only runoff but also contaminant loading of nutrients, metals, and road salt used for deicing to water bodies. Here we investigate the impact that road salt has on denitrification in roadside environments. Sediments were collected from a series of forested and roadside wetlands and acclimated with a range of Cl(-) concentrations from 0 to 5000 mg L(-1) for 96 h. Denitrification rates were measured by the isotope pairing technique using (15)N-NO3(-), while denitrifying community structures were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ). Chloride significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited denitrification in forested wetlands at a Cl(-) dosage of 2500 or 5000 mg L(-1), but the decrease in denitrification rates was less and not significant for the roadside wetlands historically exposed to elevated concentrations of Cl(-). The difference could not be attributed to other significant changes in conditions, such as DOC concentrations, N species concentrations, or pH levels. Denitrifying communities, as measured by T-RFs of the nosZ gene, in the roadside wetlands with elevated concentration of Cl(-) were distinctly different and more diverse compared to forested wetlands, and also different in roadside wetlands after 96 h exposures to Cl(-). The shifts in denitrifying communities seem to minimize the decrease in denitrification rates in the wetlands previously exposed to Cl. As development results in more Cl(-) use and exposure to a broad range of natural or manmade wetland structures, an understanding of the seasonal effect of Cl on denitrification processes in these systems would aid in design or mitigation of the effects on N removal

  9. Insights into the chemical partitioning of trace metals in roadside and off-road agricultural soils along two major highways in Attica's region, Greece.

    PubMed

    Botsou, Fotini; Sungur, Ali; Kelepertzis, Efstratios; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    We report in this study the magnetic properties and partitioning patterns of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) in roadside and off-road (>200m distance from the road edge) agricultural soils collected along two major highways in Greece. Sequential extractions revealed that the examined trace metals for the entire data set were predominantly found in the residual fraction, averaging 37% for Cd up to 80% for Cu. Due to the strong influence of lithogenic factors, trace metal pseudototal contents of the roadside soils did not differ significantly to those of the off-road soils. Magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility determinations showed a magnetic enhancement of soils; however, it was primarily related to geogenic factors and not to traffic-derived magnetic particles. These results highlight that in areas characterized by strong geogenic backgrounds, neither pseudototal trace metal contents nor magnetic properties determinations effectively capture traffic-related contamination of topsoils. The vehicular emission signal was traced by the increased acid-soluble and reducible trace metal contents of the roadside soils compared to their off-road counterparts. In the case of Cu and Zn, changes in the partitioning patterns were also observed between the roadside and off-road soils. Environmental risks associated with agricultural lands extending at the margins of the studied highways may arise from the elevated Ni contents (both pseudototal and potentially mobile), and future studies should investigate Ni levels in the edible parts of plants grown on these agricultural soils.

  10. Investigation of the Traffic Noise Attenuation Provided by Roadside Green Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbalaei, Samaneh Sadat; Karimi, Elham; Naji, Hamid Reza; Ghasempoori, Seyed Mahmood; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Abdollahi, Mina

    2015-10-01

    Greenbelts are remarkably effective tools for minimizing traffic induced noise pollution. This study revealed the potential role of greenbelts along the roadside for the noise attenuation using various tree species of three different widths (25, 50 and 100m). Statistical analysis showed significant differences between stations. The reduction of noise level was also statistically analyzed. The results indicated that the greenbelts significantly contributed to the attenuation of noise pollution with positive correlation. The maximum noise level reduction compared to the open area was for trees and shrubs of 100m in width, and a mixture of conifers and broadleaves of 100m in width and 50m width by 44dB (A), 42.84dB (A) and 40.34dB (A), respectively. The results can be used as guidance for construction of tree belts for noise attenuation in environmental planning and management.

  11. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    PubMed

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate.

  12. Frontal areas contribute to reduced global coordination of resting-state gamma activities in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Takanori; Nagasawa, Tatsuya; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Minabe, Yoshio; Yoshimura, Masafumi; Strik, Werner; Dierks, Thomas; Koenig, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Schizophrenia has been postulated to involve impaired neuronal cooperation in large-scale neural networks, including cortico-cortical circuitry. Alterations in gamma band oscillations have attracted a great deal of interest as they appear to represent a pathophysiological process of cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia. Gamma band oscillations reflect local cortical activities, and the synchronization of these activities among spatially distributed cortical areas has been suggested to play a central role in the formation of networks. To assess global coordination across spatially distributed brain regions, Omega complexity (OC) in multichannel EEG was proposed. Using OC, we investigated global coordination of resting-state EEG activities in both gamma (30-50 Hz) and below-gamma (1.5-30 Hz) bands in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and investigated the effects of neuroleptic treatment. We found that gamma band OC was significantly higher in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia compared to control subjects and that a right frontal electrode (F3) contributed significantly to the higher OC. After neuroleptic treatment, reductions in the contribution of frontal electrodes to global OC in both bands correlated with the improvement of schizophrenia symptomatology. The present study suggests that frontal brain processes in schizophrenia were less coordinated with activity in the remaining brain. In addition, beneficial effects of neuroleptic treatment were accompanied by improvement of brain coordination predominantly due to changes in frontal regions. Our study provides new evidence of improper intrinsic brain integration in schizophrenia by investigating the resting-state gamma band activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced Denitrification in Roadside Ditches with Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluer, W.; Schneider, R.; Walter, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate (NO3) pollution remains a water quality problem in agriculture-dominated watersheds despite decades of research and concerted efforts. Excess NO3 causes eutrophication in estuarine and marine ecosystems far downstream of the pollution source. Denitrification reduces NO3 to inert dinitrogen gas; this process occurs naturally in saturated areas of the landscape but this rate cannot keep up with the runoff rate due to fertilizer and manure applications. Researchers developed denitrifying bioreactors as a solution to encourage denitrification at the field level. Denitrifying bioreactors remove NO3 at a significantly higher rate (>2 g N m-2 d-1) than natural systems such as wetlands (<0.5 g N m-2 d-1). Most current designs of denitrifying bioreactors necessitate connection with tile drainage as the inflow source of water and NO3. It also requires a portion of farmland (typically <1% of field area is needed) which farmers can be reluctant to relinquish. Meanwhile, road ditches commonly run along agricultural fields, channeling runoff and NO3 to surface water. Because the ditches are designed to avoid flooding, they channel water rapidly and minimize time and contact with soil microbes for denitrification (denitrification rates in ditches are typically <0.1 g N m-2 d-1). Modified denitrifying bioreactors placed in road ditches could provide high NO3 removal in already marginal land, especially at baseflow conditions. A pilot study of this shows instantaneous NO3 removal rates up to 110 g N m-2 d-1 in the first year. Continued results similar to this pilot study and wider application could significantly increase ditch denitrification and help mitigate NO3 pollution.

  14. Potential use of a roadside fern (Pteris vittata) to biomonitor Pb and other aerial metal deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Y.B.; Tai, K.M.

    1985-10-01

    Lead, widely used as antiknock additives in gasoline in many parts of the world, is released from vehicular exhausts and contaminates the roadside environment. The Pb-containing particulates often settle onto roadside vegetation by sedimentation, impaction and interception resulting in high Pb content in the vegetation. The concentrations of Pb in such plants in turn are often used to demonstrate the extent of aerial deposition of Pb along roadsides. Hong Kong is a city with high traffic density of over 200 vehicles per kilometer of road. In these studies it was found that some plants could be utilized as biomonitors of atmospheric Pb and other trace metals in the roadside environment. This paper reports on the Pb and other trace metal levels in the fern Pteris vittata growing along roadside and its possible use as biomonitor species for aerial deposition of metals.

  15. Comparison of proposed alternative methods for rescaling dialysis dose: resting energy expenditure, high metabolic rate organ mass, liver size, and body surface area.

    PubMed

    Daugirdas, John T; Levin, Nathan W; Kotanko, Peter; Depner, Thomas A; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Chertow, Glenn M; Rocco, Michael V

    2008-01-01

    A number of denominators for scaling the dose of dialysis have been proposed as alternatives to the urea distribution volume (V). These include resting energy expenditure (REE), mass of high metabolic rate organs (HMRO), visceral mass, and body surface area. Metabolic rate is an unlikely denominator as it varies enormously among humans with different levels of activity and correlates poorly with the glomerular filtration rate. Similarly, scaling based on HMRO may not be optimal, as many organs with high metabolic rates such as spleen, brain, and heart are unlikely to generate unusually large amounts of uremic toxins. Visceral mass, in particular the liver and gut, has potential merit as a denominator for scaling; liver size is related to protein intake and the liver, along with the gut, is known to be responsible for the generation of suspected uremic toxins. Surface area is time-honored as a scaling method for glomerular filtration rate and scales similarly to liver size. How currently recommended dialysis doses might be affected by these alternative rescaling methods was modeled by applying anthropometric equations to a large group of dialysis patients who participated in the HEMO study. The data suggested that rescaling to REE would not be much different from scaling to V. Scaling to HMRO mass would mandate substantially higher dialysis doses for smaller patients of either gender. Rescaling to liver mass would require substantially more dialysis for women compared with men at all levels of body size. Rescaling to body surface area would require more dialysis for smaller patients of either gender and also more dialysis for women of any size. Of these proposed alternative rescaling measures, body surface area may be the best, because it reflects gender-based scaling of liver size and thereby the rate of generation of uremic toxins.

  16. Characterisation of iron-rich atmospheric submicrometre particles in the roadside environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, P.; Su, S. S.; Chang, I. T. H.; Delgado Saborit, J. M.; Kepaptsoglou, D. M.; Weber, R. J. M.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-09-01

    Human exposure to ambient metallic nanoparticles is an area of great interest owing to their potential health impacts. Ambient metallic nanoparticles found in the roadside environment are contributed by combustion engines and wear of brakes, tyres and road surfaces. Submicrometre atmospheric particles collected at two UK urban sites have been subject to detailed characterisation. It is found that many metallic nanoparticles collected from roadside sampling sites are rich in iron. The Fe-rich nanoparticles can be classified into (1) high Fe content (ca 90 wt%) with each alloying element less than 1 wt%; and (2) moderate Fe content (<75 wt%) with high manganese and silicon content. Both clusters contain a variable mix of minor constituents, Mn, S and Si being most important in the high-Fe group. The moderate Fe group also contains Zn, Cu, Ba, Al and Ca. The Fe-rich nanoparticles exhibit primary particle sizes ranging between 20 and 30 nm, although some much larger particles up to around 100 nm can also be observed, along with some very small particles of 10 nm or less. These tend to agglomerate forming clusters ranging from ∼200 nm to 1 μm in diameter. The iron-rich particles observed are oxides, taking the form of spheres or multifaceted regular polyhedra. Analysis by EELS shows that both high- and moderate-Fe groups include particles of FeO, Fe3O4, α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 of which γ-Fe2O3 is the most prominent. Internal mixing of different Fe-oxides is not observed.

  17. Assessment of existing roadside swales with engineered filter soil: I. Characterization and lifetime expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ingvertsen, Simon T; Cederkvist, Karin; Régent, Yoann; Sommer, Harald; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Marina B

    2012-01-01

    Roadside infiltration swales with well-defined soil mixtures (filter soil) for the enhancement of both infiltration and treatment of stormwater runoff from roads and parking areas have been common practice in Germany for approximately two decades. Although the systems have proven hydraulically effective, their treatment efficiency and thus lifetime expectancies are not sufficiently documented. The lack of documentation restricts the implementation of new such systems in Germany as well as other countries. This study provides an assessment of eight roadside infiltration swales with filter soil from different locations in Germany that have been operational for 6 to16 yr. The swales were assessed with respect to visual appearance, infiltration rate, soil pH, and soil texture, as well as soil concentration of organic matter, heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn), and phosphorus. Visually, the swales appeared highly variable with respect to soil color and textural layering as well as composition of plants and soil-dwelling organisms. Three swales still comply with the German design criteria for infiltration rate (10 m/s), while the remaining swales have lower, yet acceptable, infiltration rates around 10 m/s. Six of the eight studied soils have heavy metal concentrations exceeding the limit value for unpolluted soil. Provided that the systems are able to continuously retain existing and incoming pollutants, our analysis indicates that the soils can remain operational for another 13 to 136 yr if the German limit values for unrestricted usage in open construction works are applied. However, no official guidelines exist for acceptable soil quality in existing infiltration facilities.

  18. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside tree leaves: identification of spatial and temporal variations in vehicle-derived particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzka, J.; Maher, B. A.

    We report here the novel use of rapid and non-destructive magnetic measurements to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of urban dust loadings on leaves of roadside trees. More than 600 leaves were collected from birch trees and their remanent magnetization (IRM 300 mT ) determined and normalized for the leaf area. The results show that this normalised 2-D magnetization is dominantly controlled by the tree's distance to the road. The magnetic analyses enabled detailed mapping of the spatial and temporal variations of vehicle-derived particulates. Higher 2D-magnetizations, indicating higher magnetic dust loadings, were measured for leaves collected adjacent to uphill road sections than for those next to downhill sections. This suggests that vehicle emissions, rather than friction wear or resuspended road dust, are the major source of the roadside magnetic particles. Additional magnetic analyses suggest that the particle size of the magnetic grains dominantly falls in the range classified for airborne particulate matter as PM 2.5 (<2.5 μm), a particle size hazardous to health due to its capacity to be respired deeply into the lungs. Thus, the leaf magnetizations relate directly to release into the atmosphere of harmful vehicle combustion products. For leaves from individual trees, magnetization values fall significantly from high values proximal to the roadside to lower values at the distal side, confirming the ability of trees to reduce aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere. Magnetic analysis of leaves over days and weeks shows that rainfall produces a net decrease in the leaf magnetic loadings.

  19. Creative Outdoor Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    Considering the creation of proper play areas for children (school sites, municipal and mini parks, private homes and backyards, shopping centers, apartment complexes, recreational areas, roadside parks, nursery schools, churches, summer camps, and drive-in theaters) as one of today's major challenges, the author recommends that professional…

  20. Creative Outdoor Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    Considering the creation of proper play areas for children (school sites, municipal and mini parks, private homes and backyards, shopping centers, apartment complexes, recreational areas, roadside parks, nursery schools, churches, summer camps, and drive-in theaters) as one of today's major challenges, the author recommends that professional…

  1. Extended Empirical Roadside Shadowing model from ACTS mobile measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard

    1995-01-01

    Employing multiple data bases derived from land-mobile satellite measurements using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) at 20 GHz, MARECS B-2 at 1.5 GHz, and helicopter measurements at 870 MHz and 1.5 GHz, the Empirical Road Side Shadowing Model (ERS) has been extended. The new model (Extended Empirical Roadside Shadowing Model, EERS) may now be employed at frequencies from UHF to 20 GHz, at elevation angles from 7 to 60 deg and at percentages from 1 to 80 percent (0 dB fade). The EERS distributions are validated against measured ones and fade deviations associated with the model are assessed. A model is also presented for estimating the effects of foliage (or non-foliage) on 20 GHz distributions, given distributions from deciduous trees devoid of leaves (or in full foliage).

  2. Roadside tree/pole crash barrier field test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was carried out to evaluate the performance of a crash barrier designed to protect the occupants of an automobile from serious injury. The JPL barrier design is a configuration of empty aluminum beverage cans contained in a tear-resistant bag which, in turn, is encased in a collapsible container made of plywood and steel. Tests were conducted with a driven vehicle impacting the barrier. The basic requirements of NCHRP Report 153 were followed except that speeds of 30 mph rather than 60 mph were used. Accelerometer readings on the driver's helmet showed that the driver was never subjected to dangerous decelerations, and never experienced more than temporary discomfort. Also, all of the requirements of the cited report were met. An extrapolation of data indicated that the JPL barrier installed in front of a tree or telephone pole along a roadside would also have met the requirements at a speed of 40 mph.

  3. Wireless Roadside Inspection Proof of Concept Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar; Knee, Helmut E; Plate, Randall S; Lascurain, Mary Beth

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) FMCSA commissioned the Wireless Roadside Inspection (WRI) Program to validate technologies and methodologies that can improve safety through inspections using wireless technologies that convey real-time identification of commercial vehicles, drivers, and carriers, as well as information about the condition of the vehicles and their drivers. It is hypothesized that these inspections will: -- Increase safety -- Decrease the number of unsafe commercial vehicles on the road; -- Increase efficiency -- Speed up the inspection process, enabling more inspections to occur, at least on par with the number of weight inspections; -- Improve effectiveness -- Reduce the probability of drivers bypassing CMV inspection stations and increase the likelihood that fleets will attempt to meet the safety regulations; and -- Benefit industry -- Reduce fleet costs, provide good return-on-investment, minimize wait times, and level the playing field. The WRI Program is defined in three phases which are: Phase 1: Proof of Concept Test (POC) Testing of commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) or near-COTS technology to validate the wireless inspection concept. Phase 2: Pilot Test Safety technology maturation and back office system integration Phase 3: Field Operational Test Multi-vehicle testing over a multi-state instrumented corridor This report focuses on Phase 1 efforts that were initiated in March, 2006. Technical efforts dealt with the ability of a Universal Wireless Inspection System (UWIS) to collect driver, vehicle, and carrier information; format a Safety Data Message Set from this information; and wirelessly transmit a Safety Data Message Set to a roadside receiver unit or mobile enforcement vehicle.

  4. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Basal Nucleus of Meynert, Locus Coeruleus, and Ventral Tegmental Area in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Ryan L.; Zhang, Sheng; Farr, Olivia M.; Hu, Sien; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methylphenidate (MPH) influences catecholaminergic signaling. Extant work examined the effects of MPH on the neural circuits of attention and cognitive control, but few studies have investigated the effect of MPH on the brain's resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Methods: In this observational study, we compared rsFC of a group of 24 healthy adults who were administered an oral 45 mg dose of MPH with a group of 24 age and gender matched controls who did not receive MPH. We focused on three seed regions: basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM), locus coeruleus (LC), and ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra, pars compacta (VTA/SNc), each providing cholinergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic inputs to the cerebral cortex. Images were pre-processed and analyzed as in our recent work (Li et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015). We used one-sample t-test to characterize group-specific rsFC of each seed region and two-sample t-test to compare rsFC between groups. Results: MPH reversed negative connectivity between BNM and precentral gyri. MPH reduced positive connectivity between LC and cerebellum, and induced positive connectivity between LC and right hippocampus. MPH decreased positive VTA/SNc connectivity to the cerebellum and putamen, and reduced negative connectivity to left middle occipital gyrus. Conclusion: MPH had distinct effects on the rsFC of BNM, LC, and VTA/SNc in healthy adults. These new findings may further our understanding of the role of catecholaminergic signaling in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease and provide insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of MPH in the treatment of clinical conditions that implicate catecholaminergic dysfunction. PMID:27148006

  5. Physiological functioning of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. under heavy roadside traffic: an approach to screen potential species for abatement of urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Savita; Sharma, R; Sinha, S; Kumar, M; Kumar, P; Verma, A; Sharma, S K

    2017-05-01

    The mitigation potential of avenue tree species needs a sound understanding, especially for landscape planning or planting tree species on roadside, especially in city limits where there is huge traffic due to more number of vehicles. A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the impact of heavy traffic movement and pollution thereof on physiological functioning of Lagerstroemia speciosa trees planted on roadside in terms of carbon absorption, mitigation potential and adaptive behavior. Trees on roadside exhibited reduced carbon assimilation (36.7 ± 2.4%) and transpiration rate (42.14 ± 2.9%), decreased stomatal conductance (66.85 ± 3.87%), increased stomatal resistance (212.2 ± 11.25%), more leaf thickness (40.54 ± 3.25) and water use efficiency (9.4 ± 0.87%), and changes in lead (179.31 ± 10.24%) and proline (15.61 ± 1.92%) concentration in leaf tissues when compared to less traffic area (FRI campus). The impacts were also witnessed in the form of enhanced vapour pressure deficit of air (63.18 ± 4.94%) and leaf (45.72 ± 3.25%), and air temperature (3.2 ± 0.16%) and leaf temperature (9.0 ± 0.82%) along roadside trees. It was inferred that heavy traffic movements interrupt the physiological functioning of trees due to alteration in the surrounding environment as compared to non-traffic areas. The present study provides baseline information to further explore and identify the potential avenue tree species having significant mitigation potential and adaptive efficiency to heavy traffic movements for improving urban environment.

  6. Impacts of Solid Noise Barriers and Roadside Vegetation on ?Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health concerns for populations spending time near high traffic roadways has increased substantially in recent years. Air quality measurements indicate high pollutant concentrations near these large roads. However, roadside features have been shown to substantially affec...

  7. Impacts of Solid Noise Barriers and Roadside Vegetation on Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health concerns for populations spending time near high traffic roadways has increased substantially in recent years. Air quality measurements indicate high pollutant concentrations near these large roads. However, roadside features have been shown to substantially affec...

  8. Giardia outbreak associated with a roadside spring in Rensselaer County, New York.

    PubMed

    Bedard, B A; Elder, R; Phillips, L; Wachunas, M F

    2016-10-01

    In September 2009, the Rensselaer County Department of Health investigated an increase in Giardia duodenalis cases. The epidemiological investigation identified that a source of the illness could be a roadside spring located in the eastern part of the county. Epidemiological and environmental health staff conducted a site visit to the roadside spring and found several concerns. Water samples were collected from the roadside spring and sent to the New York State Department of Health for analysis. The water sample results indicated the presence of empty Giardia cysts. Prevention methods occurred and the roadside spring was destroyed. A total of 36 laboratory-confirmed cases of Giardia were identified from this outbreak that included residents of New York State and Massachusetts.

  9. The Impact of Roadside Barriers and Buildings on Near Road Concentrations of Vehicle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Nico

    Exposure to elevated concentrations of vehicle emitted pollutants is associated with negative health effects. Elevated concentrations are typically found within several hundred meters of high traffic roads, where atmospheric dispersion has not sufficiently diluted pollutants. Tall buildings next to roads reduce dispersion, thereby creating pollutant hot spots and increasing exposure to vehicle emissions for city residents. Roadside barriers enhance dispersion of roadway emissions and thus can be used to mitigate elevated concentrations next to large roads. The work in this thesis develops semi-empirical dispersion models that are useful for estimating near road concentrations of vehicle emissions when there are buildings or barriers next to the road. Dispersion models that account for the effect of near road barriers on concentrations are developed and evaluated with data from a wind tunnel and a field tracer study. The model evaluation shows that the primary effect of roadside barriers is enhancement of the vertical mixing by an amount proportional to the barrier height. Additionally, turbulence is enhanced in the barrier's wake, resulting in more rapid growth of the pollutant plume. The models perform well during neutral and stable atmospheric conditions. During unstable conditions the models overestimate concentrations. A model that accounts for reduction of the mean wind speed in the barrier wake is unbiased for all stabilities. Models of the impact of tall buildings next to the road on near road concentrations of vehicle emissions are developed. The models are evaluated with data from field measurements conducted in Los Angeles and Riverside counties, CA, and with data from an urban area in Hannover, Germany. The study specifically investigates dispersion in cities with significant building height variability. Model evaluation shows that vertical turbulent transport dominates dispersion in cities. The primary variables governing near road concentrations of

  10. Diagnosing the traffic impact on roadside soils through a multianalytical data analysis of the concentration profiles of traffic-related elements.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Jose Antonio; Arrizabalaga, Iker; Bustamante, Julen; Goienaga, Naiara; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The road traffic has become one of the most serious environmental problems in many cities and the main source of pollution of urban soils. To diagnose properly the magnitude of such impacts on roadside soils, eight urban and metropolitan soils were selected as a function of traffic density, distance to the road and years of operation, for which the concentration of 60 elements (major, minor and trace elements) were measured by semi-quantitative ICP-MS after acid digestion, as a first step in assessing the traffic impact. With this information, a comprehensive study was carried out focusing on the quantitative analysis of the concentration of 46 elements from the 8 sampling areas, analyzing the vertical and horizontal distributions of the metals in the roadside soils. The chemometric analysis showed that only the traffic-related elements accumulate in topsoil and present a high decreasing profile with depth and the distance to the road; however, this clear behavior takes places only in old roads that have undergone the traffic impact for a long time, but not in new roads or roads with low traffic density. Finally, the geoaccumulation indexes are suggested to be used instead of the local guidelines to assess the pollution state of the roadside soils, especially for the emerging trace elements like Antimony.

  11. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    positively correlated with the carbohydrate fraction and negatively correlated with the aliphatic fraction of the soil C, while carbohydrate-C and alkyl-C increased and decreased with distance from the road, respectively. It is proposed that petroleum hydrocarbons supress soil biological activity at concentrations above 1500 mg kg-1, and that soil organic matter priming primarily affects the carbohydrate fraction of soil organic matter. It can be concluded that the abundance of solid carbohydrates (O-alkyl C) is of paramount importance for the hydrocarbon mineralization under natural conditions, compared to more recalcitrant SOM fractions (mainly aromatic and alkyl C). References Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2013) Distribution and fractional composition of petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, vol. 2013, Article ID 938703, 6 pages, DOI 10.1155/2013/938703 Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2014) Deposition of petroleum hydrocarbons with sediment trapped in snow in roadside areas. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 22(3):237-244, DOI 10.3846/16486897.2014.889698 Nelson P.N. and Baldock J.A. (2005) Estimating the molecular composition of a diverse range of natural organic materials from solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses, 2005, Biogeochemistry (2005) 72: 1-34, DOI 10.1007/s10533-004-0076-3 Zyakun, A., Nii-Annang, S., Franke, G., Fischer, T., Buegger, F., Dilly, O. (2011) Microbial Actvity and 13C/12C Ratio as Evidence of N-Hexadecane and N-Hexadecanoic Acid Biodegradation in Agricultural and Forest Soils. Geomicrobiology Journal 28:632-647, DOI 10.1080/01490451.2010.489922

  12. Roadside IED detection using subsurface imaging radar and rotary UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yexian; Twumasi, Jones O.; Le, Viet Q.; Ren, Yu-Jiun; Lai, C. P.; Yu, Tzuyang

    2016-05-01

    Modern improvised explosive device (IED) and mine detection sensors using microwave technology are based on ground penetrating radar operated by a ground vehicle. Vehicle size, road conditions, and obstacles along the troop marching direction limit operation of such sensors. This paper presents a new conceptual design using a rotary unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to carry subsurface imaging radar for roadside IED detection. We have built a UAV flight simulator with the subsurface imaging radar running in a laboratory environment and tested it with non-metallic and metallic IED-like targets. From the initial lab results, we can detect the IED-like target 10-cm below road surface while carried by a UAV platform. One of the challenges is to design the radar and antenna system for a very small payload (less than 3 lb). The motion compensation algorithm is also critical to the imaging quality. In this paper, we also demonstrated the algorithm simulation and experimental imaging results with different IED target materials, sizes, and clutters.

  13. Public sphere as assemblage: the cultural politics of roadside memorialization.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates contemporary academic accounts of the public sphere. In particular, it takes stock of post-Habermasian public sphere scholarship, and acknowledges a lively and variegated debate concerning the multiple ways in which individuals engage in contemporary political affairs. A critical eye is cast over a range of key insights which have come to establish the parameters of what 'counts' as a/the public sphere, who can be involved, and where and how communicative networks are established. This opens up the conceptual space for re-imagining a/the public sphere as an assemblage. Making use of recent developments in Deleuzian-inspired assemblage theory - most especially drawn from DeLanda's (2006) 'new philosophy of society' - the paper sets out an alternative perspective on the notion of the public sphere, and regards it as a space of connectivity brought into being through a contingent and heterogeneous assemblage of discursive, visual and performative practices. This is mapped out with reference to the cultural politics of roadside memorialization. However, a/the public sphere as an assemblage is not simply a 'social construction' brought into being through a logic of connectivity, but is an emergent and ephemeral space which reflexively nurtures and assembles the cultural politics (and political cultures) of which it is an integral part. The discussion concludes, then, with a consideration of the contribution of assemblage theory to public sphere studies. (Also see Campbell 2009a). © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  14. Do advertisements at the roadside distract the driver?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettwich, Carmen; Klinger, Karsten; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment. More and more cars are on the road. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio and navigation system, the environment outside the car has also become more and more complex. Hoardings, advertising pillars, shop fronts and video screens are just a few examples. For this reason the potential risk of driver distraction is rising. But in which way do the advertisements at the roadside influence the driver's attention? The investigation which is described is devoted to this topic. Various kinds of advertisements played an important role, like illuminated and non-illuminated posters as well as illuminated animated ads. Several test runs in an urban environment were performed. The gaze direction of the driver's eye was measured with an eye tracking system. The latter consists of three cameras which logged the eye movements during the test run and a small-sized scene camera recording the traffic scene. 16 subjects (six female and ten male) between 21 and 65 years of age took part in this experiment. Thus the driver's fixation duration of the different advertisements could be determined.

  15. Attraction and distraction of attention with roadside advertisements.

    PubMed

    Crundall, David; Van Loon, Editha; Underwood, Geoffrey

    2006-07-01

    The optimum positioning of roadside advertisements is recognized by the industry as an important factor in attracting the attention of passing drivers. Less acknowledged is the possibility that the location of an advertisement may distract attention from vital driving-related information. This study compared street-level advertisements (SLAs; predominantly bus shelters) with raised-level advertisements (RLAs) of the same size that were suspended 3 m above the ground, on their ability to attract attention under different task conditions. Participants were split into two groups and watched video clips of driving, rating them for hazardousness while their eye movements were recorded. One of the groups was additionally primed to attend to advertisements. SLAs received the most fixations when participants were solely looking for hazards, and the fewest fixations when primed to look for advertisements. Though SLAs also had longer fixations than the RLAs, they were more poorly recognized in a subsequent memory test. We conclude that SLAs attract and hold attention at inappropriate times compared to raised-level advertisements.

  16. New research opportunities for roadside safety barriers improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantisani, Giuseppe; Di Mascio, Paola; Polidori, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    Among the major topics regarding the protection of roads, restraint systems still represent a big opportunity in order to increase safety performances. When accidents happen, in fact, the infrastructure can substantially contribute to the reduction of consequences if its marginal spaces are well designed and/or effective restraint systems are installed there. Nevertheless, basic concepts and technology of road safety barriers have not significantly changed for the last two decades. The paper proposes a new approach to the study aimed to define possible enhancements of restraint safety systems performances, by using new materials and defining innovative design principles. In particular, roadside systems can be developed with regard to vehicle-barrier interaction, vehicle-oriented design (included low-mass and extremely low-mass vehicles), traffic suitability, user protection, working width reduction. In addition, thanks to sensors embedded into the barriers, it is also expected to deal with new challenges related to the guidance of automatic vehicles and I2V communication.

  17. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in roadside restaurants of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, M; Akter, S; Islam, M A; Mia, Z

    2011-01-15

    The microbiological status of water from dispensers in different roadside restaurants of Dhaka city and Savar area was analyzed in this study. Seven samples from Dhaka and 8 samples of Savar were checked. The heterotrophic plate count was in a range of 1.0 x 10(3) CFU mL(-1) to 2.0 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1) (from new bottles), 1.0 x 10(3) to 1.5 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1) (after dispensation), and 1.5 x 10(3) CFU mL(-1) to 1.0 x l0(5) CFU mL(-1) (from serving glass). In several of the samples, the heterotrophic plate count was higher than the count in water from new bottle or after dispensation, suggesting added contamination from the serving glass. 80% of the samples were contaminated with total and fecal coliform bacteria, which render these waters unacceptable for human consumption. The samples were found to contain gram negative bacteria like E coli, Shigella sp., Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Salmonella sp., which are potential pathogens and thus pose a serious threat to public health. This study elucidates the importance of monitoring the bottling companies and the restaurants and put them under strict regulations to prevent future outbreak of any water borne diseases caused by consumption of dispensed water.

  18. Evaluation of air pollution tolerance index of selected plant species along roadsides in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, S Jissy; Jaya, D S

    2010-05-01

    To develop the usefulness of plants as bioindicators requires an appropriate selection of plant species which entail an utmost importance for a particular situation. In the present study a periodic evaluation of air pollution tolerance index [APTI] of selected tree species such as Polyalthia longifolia, (Sonner) Thw., Alstonia scholaris, R. Br., Mangifera indica, L., and shrubs Clerodendron infortunatum, L., Eupatorium odoratum, L., and Hyptis suaveolens, (L.) Poit., growing adjacent to the National Highway-47 passing through Thiruvananthapuram District which lies on the south-west coast of India, was carried out with a view to find out the air pollution tolerance as well as sensitivity of the plant species during different seasons. Among the trees in the roadside areas studied, Polyalthia longifolia, (Sonner) Thw., expressed highest APTI values and proved to be a tolerant variety and the others as sensitive species to air pollutants. In the case of shrubs, Clerodendron infortunatum, L., exhibited highest APTI values (7.34) and found to be more tolerant compared to the other two shrub species studied.

  19. Determination of traffic-related palladium in tunnel dust and roadside soil.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Kerstin; Wörle, Katharina; Schindl, Roland; Huber, Lars; Maier, Marina; Schuster, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Roadside dust and soil samples were collected at different sites in the area of Ulm and Munich in Germany. Road dust samples were collected in tunnels where the traffic-related dust is less influenced by atmospheric conditions. Soil samples were taken with a drill bar at varying distances to motorways, district and regional roads with different traffic densities. The soil cylinders of 30cm length were divided into four sections in order to obtain depth profiles for palladium (Pd) distribution. Determination of Pd in total digests of the samples was performed by ligand-assisted selective separation and preconcentration of Pd(II) using solid phase extraction followed by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace spectrometry. The analytical procedure was successfully validated using the certified reference material BCR-723 Road Tunnel Dust and by recovery experiments in spiked soil samples. The average Pd concentration found in the road dusts was 311μgkg(-1), the maximum Pd concentration in the topsoil layer was 193μgkg(-1). Pd depth profiles reveal transportation of Pd into deeper soil layers, where even at a depth of 25 to 30cm a Pd concentration of 19μgkg(-1) was found, proving the high mobility of Pd. Different factors like traffic density and age of the soils are discussed in the context of the found Pd depth profiles.

  20. Multiple-Herbicide Resistance Is Widespread in Roadside Palmer Amaranth Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V.; Norsworthy, Jason K.

    2016-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth is a widespread issue in row-crop production in the Midsouthern US. Palmer amaranth is commonly found on roadside habitats in this region, but little is known on the degree of herbicide resistance in these populations. Herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations can represent the spread of an adaptive trait across a selective landscape. A large-scale survey was carried out in the Mississippi Delta region of eastern Arkansas to document the level of resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, two important herbicides with broad history of use in the region. A total of 215 Palmer amaranth populations collected across 500 random survey sites were used in the evaluations. About 89 and 73% of the surveyed populations showed >90% survival to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, respectively. Further, only 3% of the populations were completely susceptible to glyphosate, while none of the populations was completely controlled by pyrithiobac. Among the 215 populations evaluated, 209 populations showed multiple resistance to both pyrithiobac and glyphosate at varying degrees. Dose-response assays confirmed the presence of high levels of herbicide resistance in the five selected populations (≥ 25-fold compared to a susceptible standard). Results demonstrate the prevalence of multiple-herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations in this region. Growers should be vigilant of Palmer amaranth infestation in roadsides adjacent to their fields and implement appropriate control measures to prevent likely spread of herbicide resistance into their fields. PMID:27071064

  1. Multiple-Herbicide Resistance Is Widespread in Roadside Palmer Amaranth Populations.

    PubMed

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Norsworthy, Jason K

    2016-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth is a widespread issue in row-crop production in the Midsouthern US. Palmer amaranth is commonly found on roadside habitats in this region, but little is known on the degree of herbicide resistance in these populations. Herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations can represent the spread of an adaptive trait across a selective landscape. A large-scale survey was carried out in the Mississippi Delta region of eastern Arkansas to document the level of resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, two important herbicides with broad history of use in the region. A total of 215 Palmer amaranth populations collected across 500 random survey sites were used in the evaluations. About 89 and 73% of the surveyed populations showed >90% survival to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, respectively. Further, only 3% of the populations were completely susceptible to glyphosate, while none of the populations was completely controlled by pyrithiobac. Among the 215 populations evaluated, 209 populations showed multiple resistance to both pyrithiobac and glyphosate at varying degrees. Dose-response assays confirmed the presence of high levels of herbicide resistance in the five selected populations (≥ 25-fold compared to a susceptible standard). Results demonstrate the prevalence of multiple-herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations in this region. Growers should be vigilant of Palmer amaranth infestation in roadsides adjacent to their fields and implement appropriate control measures to prevent likely spread of herbicide resistance into their fields.

  2. Evaluation of aerosol processes between roadside and neighbourhood scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Matthias; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Pirjola, Liisa; Keuken, Menno P.

    2015-04-01

    Particle emissions from road transport include vehicle exhaust emissions, tire/brake wear and re-suspension of road dust. Vehicle exhaust emissions usually constitute the most significant source of ultrafine particles (UFP), i.e. particles with diameters <100 nm, in urban environments. Several toxicological studies have concluded that UFP are more toxic than larger particles with the same chemical composition and at the same mass concentration. Since UFP contribute negligibly to the mass concentration of PM10 and PM2.5, they should be described in terms of particle number (PN) concentration. However, only PM10 and PM2.5 are regulated by current air pollution legislation. UFP emitted from road traffic are subject to complex dilution and transformation processes in the urban environment. This model study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on PN concentration on the spatial and temporal range between the roadside, typically represented by measurements at a traffic monitoring site, and the neighbourhood scale, extending from several hundred meters to several kilometres. Several dispersion scenarios for the cities Oslo, Helsinki and Rotterdam were simulated using the multicomponent aerosol dynamics process model MAFOR, approximating dilution by a power-law function. Aerosol processes considered in this study were condensation/evaporation of n-alkanes, coagulation and the dry deposition of particles. Under typical dispersion conditions dilution clearly dominated the change of total PN on the neighbourhood scale. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamical processes controlling the removal of particles from emitted from vehicular exhaust on urban time scales. The effect of condensation/evaporation of organic vapours emitted by vehicles on particle numbers and on particle size distributions was examined. A simplified parameterization for the implementation of coagulation and dry deposition of particles in

  3. Comparison of Birds Detected from Roadside and Off-Road Point Counts in the Shenandoah National Park

    Treesearch

    Cherry M.E. Keller; Mark R. Fuller

    1995-01-01

    Roadside point counts are generally used for large surveys to increase the number of samples. We examined differences in species detected from roadside versus off-road (200-m and 400-m) point counts in the Shenandoah National Park. We also compared the list of species detected in the first 3 minutes to those detected in 10 minutes for potential species biases. Results...

  4. Effects of roadside habitat and fox density on a snow track survey for foxes in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Bart, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Many methods have been used to survey red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and gray fox (Urocyon dnereoargenteus) populations. However, none has proven entirely satisfactory, and wild foxes remain one of the most difficult economically important wildlife species to monitor. In this study we evaluated the reliability of a snow track survey method for foxes by investigating whether the average number of road crossings per fox is influenced by changes in roadside habitat or changes in fox density. Several snow track surveys were conducted in two Ohio counties during January and February, 1984. Data on roadside habitat, relative fox densities, and fox crossings were collected. Results suggested that changes in roadside habitat could influence the average number of crossings per fox and, therefore, changes in the index could occur independent of actual population changes. We found no evidence that crossings per fox varied with fox density, but further research is needed to substantiate this finding.

  5. Comparison of birds detected from roadside and off-road point counts in the Shenandoah National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, C.M.E.; Fuller, M.R.; Ralph, C. John; Sauer, John R.; Droege, Sam

    1995-01-01

    Roadside point counts are generally used for large surveys to increase the number of samples. We examined differences in species detected from roadside versus off-road (200-m and 400-ha) point counts in the Shenandoah National Park. We also compared the list of species detected in the first 3 minutes to those detected in 10 minutes for potential species biases. Results from 81 paired roadside and off-road counts indicated that roadside counts had higher numbers of several edge species but did not have lower numbers of nonedge forest species. More individuals and species were detected from roadside points because of this increase in edge species. Sixty-five percent of the species detected in 10 minutes were recorded in the first 3 minutes.

  6. Characterization of black carbon at roadside sites and along vehicle roadways in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Nguyen Tri Quang; Lee, Seung-Bok; Hang, Nguyen Thanh; Kongpran, Jira; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2014-08-01

    To understand the seasonality of concentrations of traffic-related black carbon (BC) in a megacity, BC concentrations in fine particles were monitored at the roadside and on roads during both the wet and dry seasons of 2010 in the city center of Bangkok, Thailand. The BC concentration measured every 2 min by an aethalometer at the Dingdaeng roadside in the dry season was 17.9 ± 6.6 μg m-3, which was 1.6-fold higher than the value (11.5 ± 2.7 μg m-3) during the wet season. This seasonal difference could not be explained by washout by rain but was instead due to more frequent upwind conditions caused by a prevailing wind direction from the monitoring site toward the road in the wet season. When the prevailing wind direction was from the road, the average BC concentration at the roadside increased up to 30 μg m-3 during both seasons. In contrast, when the wind direction was from the site to the road, the BC concentration was reduced to the level of urban background concentrations measured inside Lumphini Park and the Dusit Zoo of Bangkok. Roadside BC concentrations were strongly correlated with NOx concentrations and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations measured in 24-h PM2.5 filter samples. Both relationships exhibited linear determination coefficients of more than 0.80, implying that NOx can be used as an indicator and an alternative for traffic-related BC at this roadside site when real-time BC monitors are not available. The average on-road BC concentration (25.5 μg m-3) was similar to the average at the roadside under downwind conditions (25.5 μg m-3) from morning to evening only. In contrast, the latter value was 1.7-fold higher than the daily average at the roadside (14.7 μg m-3) and 7.3-fold higher than the urban background level during the daytime (3.5 μg m-3). The results of this study suggest that residents who live next to major roads, pedestrians at the roadside, and drivers on the roads experience a high risk of exposure to severe levels of

  7. Toward National Estimates of Alcohol Use Disorders among Drivers: Results from the National Roadside Survey Pilot Program

    PubMed Central

    Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Voas, Robert B.; Lacey, John; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo; Smart, Mieka

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether drivers contacted at the roadside can be screened for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Secondarily, to produce preliminary estimates of AUDs among drivers and estimate the relationship between AUD status and BAC measured at the roadside. Methods A two-phase survey program was undertaken. In phase 1, 206 motorists were interviewed at the roadside using a 15-item AUD Survey derived from a condensed version of the AUDADIS and the AUDIT-C. One hundred sixty-seven of these motorists were invited, for a $25 incentive, to call the research team within 48 hours of the roadside assessment to repeat the questionnaire and complete a more detailed AUD assessment. Phase 2 involved a six-state pilot test of the AUD Survey as an add-on to the 2005 National Roadside Survey Pilot Program. The setting for both phases of the survey program was U.S. roadways on weekends between 10 p.m. and 3 a.m. Results Ninety-seven percent of all eligible drivers completed the AUD questionnaire. The correlation between roadside and telephone interview results was 0.3 for alcohol abuse, 0.6 for alcohol dependence and heavy drinking, and 0.7 for binge drinking. Alcohol abuse and dependence diagnoses had 0.6 and 0.7 correlation with diagnoses derived from the full AUDADIS and the AUDIT-C had a 0.8 correlation with the full AUDIT. There was also a statistically significant and positive relationship between having a positive BAC at the roadside and meeting criteria for heavy drinking. Conclusions AUD status can be effectively measured at the roadside. The poor reliability for alcohol abuse is related to underreporting of drinking and driving during roadside assessments, compared to telephone follow up. Other measures of hazardous alcohol use should be used in the roadside context to measure alcohol abuse. PMID:19746302

  8. Export fluxes in a naturally iron-fertilized area of the Southern Ocean - Part 2: Importance of diatom resting spores and faecal pellets for export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembauville, M.; Blain, S.; Armand, L.; Quéguiner, B.; Salter, I.

    2015-06-01

    The biological composition of the material exported to a moored sediment trap located under the winter mixed layer of the naturally fertilized Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean was studied over an annual cycle. Despite iron availability in spring, the annual particulate organic carbon (POC) export (98.2 mmol m-2) at 289 m was low, but annual biogenic silica export was significant (114 mmol m-2). This feature was related to the abundance of empty diatom cells and the ratio of full to empty cells exerted a first-order control in BSi : POC export stoichiometry of the biological pump. Chaetoceros Hyalochaete spp. and Thalassiosira antarctica resting spores were responsible for more than 60% of the annual POC flux that occurred during two very short export events of < 14 days in spring-summer. Relatively low diatom fluxes were observed over the remainder of the year. Faecal pellet contribution to annual carbon flux was lower (34%) and reached its seasonal maximum in autumn and winter (> 80%). The seasonal progression of faecal pellet types revealed a clear transition from small spherical shapes (small copepods) in spring, to larger cylindrical and ellipsoid shapes in summer (euphausiids and large copepods) and finally to large tabular shapes (salps) in autumn and winter. We propose in this high-biomass, low-export (HBLE) environment that small but highly silicified and fast-sinking resting spores are able to bypass the intense grazing pressure and efficient carbon transfer to higher trophic levels that are responsible for the low fluxes observed the during the remainder of the year. More generally our study also provides a statistical framework linking the ecological succession of diatom and zooplankton communities to the seasonality of carbon and silicon export within an iron-fertilized bloom region in the Southern Ocean.

  9. Influence of roadside hedgerows on air quality in urban street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromke, Christof; Jamarkattel, Nabaraj; Ruck, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    Understanding pollutant dispersion in the urban environment is an important aspect of providing solutions to reduce personal exposure to vehicle emissions. To this end, the dispersion of gaseous traffic pollutants in urban street canyons with roadside hedges was investigated. The study was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel using a reduced-scale (M = 1:150) canyon model with a street-width-to-building-height ratio of W/H = 2 and a street-length-to-building-height ratio of L/H = 10. Various hedge configurations of differing height, permeability and longitudinal segmentation (continuous over street length L or discontinuous with clearings) were investigated. Two arrangements were examined: (i) two eccentric hedgerows sidewise of the main traffic lanes and (ii) one central hedgerow between the main traffic lanes. In addition, selected configurations of low boundary walls, i.e. solid barriers, were examined. For a perpendicular approach wind and in the presence of continuous hedgerows, improvements in air quality in the center area of the street canyon were found in comparison to the hedge-free reference scenario. The pollutant reductions were greater for the central hedge arrangements than for the sidewise arrangements. Area-averaged reductions between 46 and 61% were observed at pedestrian head height level on the leeward side in front of the building for the centrally arranged hedges and between 18 and 39% for the two hedges arranged sidewise. Corresponding area-averaged reductions ranging from 39 to 55% and from 1 to 20% were found at the bottom of the building facades on the leeward side. Improvements were also found in the areas at the lateral canyon ends next to the crossings for the central hedge arrangements. For the sidewise arrangements, increases in traffic pollutants were generally observed. However, since the concentrations in the end areas were considerably lower compared to those in the center area, an overall improvement remained

  10. Increased oxidative burden associated with traffic component of ambient particulate matter at roadside and urban background schools sites in London.

    PubMed

    Godri, Krystal J; Harrison, Roy M; Evans, Tim; Baker, Timothy; Dunster, Christina; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    As the incidence of respiratory and allergic symptoms has been reported to be increased in children attending schools in close proximity to busy roads, it was hypothesised that PM from roadside schools would display enhanced oxidative potential (OP). Two consecutive one-week air quality monitoring campaigns were conducted at seven school sampling sites, reflecting roadside and urban background in London. Chemical characteristics of size fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples were related to the capacity to drive biological oxidation reactions in a synthetic respiratory tract lining fluid. Contrary to hypothesised contrasts in particulate OP between school site types, no robust size-fractionated differences in OP were identified due high temporal variability in concentrations of PM components over the one-week sampling campaigns. For OP assessed both by ascorbate (OP(AA) m(-3)) and glutathione (OP(GSH) m(-3)) depletion, the highest OP per cubic metre of air was in the largest size fraction, PM(1.9-10.2). However, when expressed per unit mass of particles OP(AA) µg(-1) showed no significant dependence upon particle size, while OP(GSH) µg(-1) had a tendency to increase with increasing particle size, paralleling increased concentrations of Fe, Ba and Cu. The two OP metrics were not significantly correlated with one another, suggesting that the glutathione and ascorbate depletion assays respond to different components of the particles. Ascorbate depletion per unit mass did not show the same dependence as for GSH and it is possible that other trace metals (Zn, Ni, V) or organic components which are enriched in the finer particle fractions, or the greater surface area of smaller particles, counter-balance the redox activity of Fe, Ba and Cu in the coarse particles. Further work with longer-term sampling and a larger suite of analytes is advised in order to better elucidate the determinants of oxidative potential, and to fuller explore the contrasts between site

  11. Increased Oxidative Burden Associated with Traffic Component of Ambient Particulate Matter at Roadside and Urban Background Schools Sites in London

    PubMed Central

    Godri, Krystal J.; Harrison, Roy M.; Evans, Tim; Baker, Timothy; Dunster, Christina; Mudway, Ian S.; Kelly, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    As the incidence of respiratory and allergic symptoms has been reported to be increased in children attending schools in close proximity to busy roads, it was hypothesised that PM from roadside schools would display enhanced oxidative potential (OP). Two consecutive one-week air quality monitoring campaigns were conducted at seven school sampling sites, reflecting roadside and urban background in London. Chemical characteristics of size fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples were related to the capacity to drive biological oxidation reactions in a synthetic respiratory tract lining fluid. Contrary to hypothesised contrasts in particulate OP between school site types, no robust size-fractionated differences in OP were identified due high temporal variability in concentrations of PM components over the one-week sampling campaigns. For OP assessed both by ascorbate (OPAA m−3) and glutathione (OPGSH m−3) depletion, the highest OP per cubic metre of air was in the largest size fraction, PM1.9–10.2. However, when expressed per unit mass of particles OPAA µg−1 showed no significant dependence upon particle size, while OPGSH µg−1 had a tendency to increase with increasing particle size, paralleling increased concentrations of Fe, Ba and Cu. The two OP metrics were not significantly correlated with one another, suggesting that the glutathione and ascorbate depletion assays respond to different components of the particles. Ascorbate depletion per unit mass did not show the same dependence as for GSH and it is possible that other trace metals (Zn, Ni, V) or organic components which are enriched in the finer particle fractions, or the greater surface area of smaller particles, counter-balance the redox activity of Fe, Ba and Cu in the coarse particles. Further work with longer-term sampling and a larger suite of analytes is advised in order to better elucidate the determinants of oxidative potential, and to fuller explore the contrasts between site types

  12. Spatial variation in vehicle-derived metal pollution identified by magnetic and elemental analysis of roadside tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, B. A.; Moore, C.; Matzka, J.

    Exposure to metal-rich particulate pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes. In particular, lead has recently been shown to be toxic in young children even at low levels previously considered 'safe'. Lead poisoning from vehicle pollution has been addressed internationally by removal of leaded petrol but toxic blood lead levels in children continue to be reported in urban areas, the source suggested to be resuspended roadside soil, enriched in lead due to previous leaded fuel usage. Here, we use paired geochemical and magnetic analyses of natural biomonitors—kerbside tree leaves—and of air sample filters to examine contemporary sources of particulate pollution, and show that co-associated, fine (<1 μm) lead- and iron-rich particles are emitted as vehicle-derived pollutants. Higher and strongly correlated lead, iron and magnetic remanence values were found closer to roads and on the road-proximal rather than road-distal sides of trees. Critically, highest pollutant values occurred on tree leaves next to uphill rather than downhill road lanes. The lead content of the leaf particulates was associated only with sub-micrometre, combustion-derived spherical particles. These results indicate that vehicle exhaust emissions, rather than resuspended soil dust, or tyre, brake or other vehicle wear are the major source of the lead, iron and magnetic loadings on roadside tree leaves. Analysis of leaves at different heights showed that leaf particulate lead and iron concentrations are highest at ˜0.3 m (i.e. small child height) and at 1.5-2 m (adult head height) above ground level; monitoring station collectors placed at 3 m above the surface thus significantly under-estimate kerbside, near-surface lead concentrations. These results indicate that vulnerable groups, especially young children, continue to be exposed to fine, lead- and iron-rich, vehicle-derived particulates.

  13. Does particulate matter along roadsides interfere with plant reproduction? A comparison of effects of different road types on Cichorium intybus pollen deposition and germination.

    PubMed

    Jaconis, Susan Y; Culley, Theresa M; Meier, Alexandra M

    2017-03-01

    The roadside habitat can be challenging for plants, which must maintain normal biological processes despite an influx of airborne pollutants. While the effects of many gases on plants have been quantified, the impacts of particulate pollutants have been relatively less studied. This is especially true of field experiments where particle dispersion may be influenced by meteorology and roadway use. We examined chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) along roadsides in the Cincinnati, Ohio metropolitan area to assess particulate influence on plant pollination through stigmatic clogging. We compared flowers collected from plants situated along interstates, U.S. highways, state highways, and county roads as these different road-types vary in motor vehicle usage and thus should have varying levels of particulate deposition on flowers. We examined floral stigmas for total particulates, total pollen, and percentage of pollen tube germination to determine whether particulates may interfere with early reproductive processes. Our results suggest that there was minimal variation of particulate matter found on chicory stigmas among road-types. Furthermore, the deposition of particulates on stigmas based on road-type did not show a strong link to variation in pollen deposition and pollen germination. There was also no significant relationship between total particulate levels and pollen germination rates across all road types. Future studies should investigate other plant species that may be more sensitive to roadside pollution, such as economically important crops. Locations in which vehicle use is increasing and where pollutants are not regulated strictly should also be examined as the effects of airborne particulates in early plant reproduction would be expected to be more substantial in these areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Roadside vegetation barrier designs to mitigate near-road air pollution impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    With increasing evidence that exposures to air pollution near large roadways increases risks of a number of adverse human health effects, identifying methods to reduce these exposures has become a public health priority. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to re...

  15. Roadside Soils: A Corridor for Invasion of Xeric Shrub by Nonindigenous Plants

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Stanley H. Crownover; Doria R. Gordon

    1997-01-01

    Invasion of ecosystems by nonindigenous species threatens native biodiversity by altering species compositi& and site chsracteristics, and by potentially impacting endangered species. We compared plant communities and soil charact&tics along clay, limerock, and unmodified sand roadsides, and in adjacent clearcuts in xeric Florida sand pine scrub to test our...

  16. Influence of Virtual Reality Training on the Roadside Crossing Judgments of Child Pedestrians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, James A.; Tolmie, Andrew K.; Foot, Hugh C.; Whelan, Kirstie M.; Sarvary, Penelope; Morrison, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    The roadside crossing judgments of children aged 7, 9, and 11 years were assessed relative to controls before and after training with a computer-simulated traffic environment. Trained children crossed more quickly, and their estimated crossing times became better aligned with actual crossing times. They crossed more promptly, missed fewer safe…

  17. Sensitive resettable odometer aids roadside census of red-winged blackbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harke, D.T.; Stickley, A.R.

    1968-01-01

    A sensitive resettable odometer reading to 0.01 mile facilitated censusing breeding male redwinged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) from a vehicle. Territorial males along roadsides were 'marked' with recorded mileage readings rather than with landmarks of the types employed by Hewitt for censuses based on the Lincoln index principle. Sensitive odometers that can be reset have many potential uses in wildlife investigations.

  18. Forest roadsides harbour less competitive habitats for a relict mountain plant (Pulsatilla vernalis) in lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielińska, Katarzyna M.; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Grzyl, Andrzej; Rewicz, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    The long-term survival of relict populations depends on the accessibility of appropriate sites (microrefugia). In recent times, due to the mass extinction of rare species that has resulted from the loss of natural habitats, the question is – Are there any human-made sites that can act as refugial habitats? We examined forest roadside populations of the mountain plant Pulsatilla vernalis in the last large lowland refugium in Central Europe. We compared the habitat conditions and community structure of roadsides with P. vernalis against the forest interior. Light availability and bryophyte composition were the main factors that distinguished roadsides. Pulsatilla occurred on sites that had more light than the forest interior, but were also more or less shaded by trees, so more light came as one-side illumination from the road. Roadsides had also a lower coverage of bryophytes that formed large, dense carpets. At the same time, they were characterised by a greater richness of vascular plants and ‘small’ bryophytes, which corresponds to a higher frequency of disturbances. In a warming and more fertile Anthropocene world, competition plays the main role in the transformation of forest communities, which is why relict populations have found refugia in extensively disturbed human-made habitats.

  19. Pollination of lark daisy on roadsides declines as traffic speed increases along an Amazonian highway.

    PubMed

    Dargas, J H F; Chaves, S R; Fischer, E

    2016-05-01

    Ecological disturbances caused by roadways have previously been reported, but traffic speed has not been addressed. We investigate effects of traffic speed on pollination of Centratherum punctatum (Asteraceae) along an Amazonian highway roadside. We hypothesised that frequency of flower visitors, duration of single visits and pollen deposition on stigmas will vary negatively as traffic speed increases. After measuring vehicle velocities, we classified three road sections as low-, mid- and high-velocity traffic. The main pollinator bee, Augochlora sp., visited C. punctatum inflorescences with decreasing frequency from low- to high-velocity roadside sections, whereas the nectar thief butterflies did the opposite. Duration of single visits by bees and butterflies was shorter, and arrival of pollen on C. punctatum stigmas was lower, in high- than in low-velocity roadside. Air turbulence due to passing vehicles increases with velocity and disturbed the flower visitors. Overall, results support that traffic velocity negatively affects foraging of flower visitors and the pollination of C. punctatum on roadsides.

  20. Assessing the safety effects of multiple roadside treatments using parametric and nonparametric approaches.

    PubMed

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the safety effectiveness of multiple roadside elements on roadway segments by estimating crash modification factors (CMFs) using the cross-sectional method. To consider the nonlinearity in crash predictors, the study develops generalized nonlinear models (GNMs) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models. The MARS is one of the promising data mining techniques due to its ability to consider the interaction impact of more than one variables and nonlinearity of predictors simultaneously. The CMFs were developed for four roadside elements (driveway density, poles density, distance to poles, and distance to trees) and combined safety effects of multiple treatments were interpreted by the interaction terms from the MARS models. Five years of crash data from 2008 to 2012 were collected for rural undivided four-lane roadways in Florida for different crash types and severity levels. The results show that the safety effects decrease as density of driveways and roadside poles increase. The estimated CMFs also indicate that increasing distance to roadside poles and trees reduces crashes. The study demonstrates that the GNMs show slightly better model fitness than negative binomial (NB) models. Moreover, the MARS models outperformed NB and GNM models due to its strength to reflect the nonlinearity of crash predictors and interaction impacts among variables under different ranges. Therefore, it can be recommended that the CMFs are estimated using MARS when there are nonlinear relationships between crash rate and roadway characteristics, and interaction impacts among multiple treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stormwise: Integrating arboriculture and silviculture to create storm-resilient roadside forests

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey S. Ward; Thomas E. Worthley; Thomas J. Degnan; Joseph P. Barsky

    2017-01-01

    The band of trees within 30 m of roads (i.e., roadside forests) is often left unmanaged during traditional forest management activities because of liability concerns about inadvertently causing a vehicular accident or damaging utility lines during harvests. The trees in these same neglected forests often cause extensive utility outages and road blockages during extreme...

  2. Roadside vegetation barrier designs to mitigate near-road air pollution impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    With increasing evidence that exposures to air pollution near large roadways increases risks of a number of adverse human health effects, identifying methods to reduce these exposures has become a public health priority. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to re...

  3. Model evaluation of roadside barrier impact on near-road air pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roadside noise barriers are common features along major highways in urban regions and are anticipated to have important effects on near-road air pollution – the occurrence of elevated air pollutant concentrations for several hundred meters downwind of a major roadway. A 3-dimens...

  4. Model evaluation of roadside barrier impact on near-road air pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roadside noise barriers are common features along major highways in urban regions and are anticipated to have important effects on near-road air pollution – the occurrence of elevated air pollutant concentrations for several hundred meters downwind of a major roadway. A 3-dimens...

  5. Urban trees and traffic safety: considering the U.S. roadside policy and crash data

    Treesearch

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2006-01-01

    In the mid to late 20th century, U.S. transportation agencies focused on traffic planning and design practices intended to achieve high levels of traffic capacity and safety for roads at lowest cost. Intangible values of the roadside such as community character and environmental systems were often overlooked, including the urban forest....

  6. Sampling Procedures and Survey Methodologies for the 1996 Survey with Comparisons to Earlier National Roadside Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestina, Diane C.; Greene, Michael; Voas, Robert B.; Wells, Joann

    1999-01-01

    Describes the multistage sampling system used in the 1996 national roadside survey of driver blood alcohol and compares it to the sampling methods used in prior surveys in 1973 and 1986. Although many more drivers were sampled in the most recent survey, the procedures are similar enough to allow comparison of results. (SLD)

  7. Forest roadsides harbour less competitive habitats for a relict mountain plant (Pulsatilla vernalis) in lowlands

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska, Katarzyna M.; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Grzyl, Andrzej; Rewicz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The long-term survival of relict populations depends on the accessibility of appropriate sites (microrefugia). In recent times, due to the mass extinction of rare species that has resulted from the loss of natural habitats, the question is – Are there any human-made sites that can act as refugial habitats? We examined forest roadside populations of the mountain plant Pulsatilla vernalis in the last large lowland refugium in Central Europe. We compared the habitat conditions and community structure of roadsides with P. vernalis against the forest interior. Light availability and bryophyte composition were the main factors that distinguished roadsides. Pulsatilla occurred on sites that had more light than the forest interior, but were also more or less shaded by trees, so more light came as one-side illumination from the road. Roadsides had also a lower coverage of bryophytes that formed large, dense carpets. At the same time, they were characterised by a greater richness of vascular plants and ‘small’ bryophytes, which corresponds to a higher frequency of disturbances. In a warming and more fertile Anthropocene world, competition plays the main role in the transformation of forest communities, which is why relict populations have found refugia in extensively disturbed human-made habitats. PMID:27534690

  8. Photographic monitoring of soiling and decay of roadside walls in central Oxford, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornbush, Mary J.; Viles, Heather A.

    2008-12-01

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring of Integrated Transport Strategies (EMITS) project, which examined the impact of the Oxford Transport Strategy (OTS) on the soiling and decay of buildings and structures in central Oxford, England, a simple photographic survey of a sample of roadside walls was carried out in 1997, with re-surveys in 1999 and 2003. Thirty photographs were taken each time, covering an area of stonework approximately 30 × 30 cm in dimensions at 1-1.3 m above pavement level. The resulting images have been used to investigate, both qualitatively as well as quantitatively, the progression of soiling and decay. Comparison of images by eye reveals a number of minor changes in soiling and decay patterns, but generally indicates stability except at one site where dramatic, superficial damage occurred over 2 years. Quantitative analysis of decay features (concavities resulting from surface blistering, flaking, and scaling), using simple techniques in Adobe Photoshop, shows variable pixel-based size proportions of concavities across 6 years of survey. Colour images (in Lab Color) generally have a reduced proportion of pixels, representing decay features in comparison to black and white (Grayscale) images. The study conveys that colour images provide more information both for general observations of soiling and decay patterns and for segmentation of decay-produced concavities. The study indicates that simple repeat photography can reveal useful information about changing patterns of both soiling and decay, although unavoidable variation in external lighting conditions between re-surveys is a factor limiting the accuracy of change detection.

  9. DNA Damage in Euonymus japonicus Leaf Cells Caused by Roadside Pollution in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Gu, Ke; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Crittenden, John; Lu, Zhongming

    2016-07-22

    The inhalable particles from vehicle exhaust can cause DNA damage to exposed organisms. Research on DNA damage is primarily focused on the influence of specific pollutants on certain species or the effect of environmental pollution on human beings. To date, little research has quantitatively studied the relationship between roadside pollution and DNA damage. Based on an investigation of the roadside pollution in Beijing, Euonymus japonicus leaves of differing ages grown in heavily-polluted sections were chosen as biomonitors to detect DNA damage using the comet assay technique. The percentage of DNA in the tail and tail moment was chosen as the analysis index based on SPSS data analysis. The roadside samples showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage than non-roadside samples, which increased in older leaves, and the DNA damage to Euonymus japonicus leaf cells was positively correlated with haze-aggravated roadside pollution. The correlation between damage and the Air Quality Index (AQI) are 0.921 (one-year-old leaves), 0.894 (two-year-old leaves), and 0.878 (three-year-old leaves). Over time, the connection between DNA damage and AQI weakened, with the sensitivity coefficient for δyear 1 being larger than δyear 2 and δyear 3. These findings support the suitability and sensitivity of the comet assay for surveying plants for an estimation of DNA damage induced by environmental genotoxic agents. This study might be applied as a preliminary quantitative method for Chinese urban air pollution damage assessment caused by environmental stress.

  10. At the Crossroads: Does the Configuration of Roadside Vegetation Affect Woodland Bird Communities in Rural Landscapes?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Mark; Nimmo, Dale; Bennett, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    In agricultural regions worldwide, linear networks of vegetation such as hedges, fencerows and live fences provide habitat for plant and animal species in heavily modified landscapes. In Australia, networks of remnant native vegetation along roadsides are a distinctive feature of many rural landscapes. Here, we investigated the richness and composition of woodland-dependent bird communities in networks of eucalypt woodland vegetation along roadsides, in an agricultural region in which >80% of native woodland and forest vegetation has been cleared. We stratified sites in a) cross sections and b) linear strips of roadside vegetation, to test the influence on woodland birds of site location and configuration in the linear network (the ‘intersection effect’). We also examined the influence of tree size at the site, the amount of wooded vegetation surrounding the site, and the abundance of an aggressive native species, the noisy miner Manorina melanocephala. Birds were surveyed at 26 pairs of sites (cross section or linear strip) on four occasions. A total of 66 species was recorded, including 35 woodland species. The richness of woodland bird species was influenced by site configuration, with more species present at cross sections, particularly those with larger trees (>30 cm diameter). However, the strongest influence on species richness was the relative abundance of the noisy miner. The richness of woodland birds at sites where noisy miners were abundant was ~20% of that where miners were absent. These results recognise the value of networks of roadside vegetation as habitat for woodland birds in depleted agricultural landscapes; but highlight that this value is not realised for much of this vast vegetation network because of the dominance of the noisy miner. Nevertheless, roadside vegetation is particularly important where the configuration of networks create nodes that facilitate movement. Globally, the protection, conservation and restoration of such linear

  11. At the Crossroads: Does the Configuration of Roadside Vegetation Affect Woodland Bird Communities in Rural Landscapes?

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark; Nimmo, Dale; Bennett, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    In agricultural regions worldwide, linear networks of vegetation such as hedges, fencerows and live fences provide habitat for plant and animal species in heavily modified landscapes. In Australia, networks of remnant native vegetation along roadsides are a distinctive feature of many rural landscapes. Here, we investigated the richness and composition of woodland-dependent bird communities in networks of eucalypt woodland vegetation along roadsides, in an agricultural region in which >80% of native woodland and forest vegetation has been cleared. We stratified sites in a) cross sections and b) linear strips of roadside vegetation, to test the influence on woodland birds of site location and configuration in the linear network (the 'intersection effect'). We also examined the influence of tree size at the site, the amount of wooded vegetation surrounding the site, and the abundance of an aggressive native species, the noisy miner Manorina melanocephala. Birds were surveyed at 26 pairs of sites (cross section or linear strip) on four occasions. A total of 66 species was recorded, including 35 woodland species. The richness of woodland bird species was influenced by site configuration, with more species present at cross sections, particularly those with larger trees (>30 cm diameter). However, the strongest influence on species richness was the relative abundance of the noisy miner. The richness of woodland birds at sites where noisy miners were abundant was ~20% of that where miners were absent. These results recognise the value of networks of roadside vegetation as habitat for woodland birds in depleted agricultural landscapes; but highlight that this value is not realised for much of this vast vegetation network because of the dominance of the noisy miner. Nevertheless, roadside vegetation is particularly important where the configuration of networks create nodes that facilitate movement. Globally, the protection, conservation and restoration of such linear

  12. DNA Damage in Euonymus japonicus Leaf Cells Caused by Roadside Pollution in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Gu, Ke; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Crittenden, John; Lu, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    The inhalable particles from vehicle exhaust can cause DNA damage to exposed organisms. Research on DNA damage is primarily focused on the influence of specific pollutants on certain species or the effect of environmental pollution on human beings. To date, little research has quantitatively studied the relationship between roadside pollution and DNA damage. Based on an investigation of the roadside pollution in Beijing, Euonymus japonicus leaves of differing ages grown in heavily-polluted sections were chosen as biomonitors to detect DNA damage using the comet assay technique. The percentage of DNA in the tail and tail moment was chosen as the analysis index based on SPSS data analysis. The roadside samples showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage than non-roadside samples, which increased in older leaves, and the DNA damage to Euonymus japonicus leaf cells was positively correlated with haze-aggravated roadside pollution. The correlation between damage and the Air Quality Index (AQI) are 0.921 (one-year-old leaves), 0.894 (two-year-old leaves), and 0.878 (three-year-old leaves). Over time, the connection between DNA damage and AQI weakened, with the sensitivity coefficient for δyear 1 being larger than δyear 2 and δyear 3. These findings support the suitability and sensitivity of the comet assay for surveying plants for an estimation of DNA damage induced by environmental genotoxic agents. This study might be applied as a preliminary quantitative method for Chinese urban air pollution damage assessment caused by environmental stress. PMID:27455298

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling to assess the impact of roadside barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road air quality is an issue of emerging concern, with field studies consistently showing elevated air pollutant concentrations adjacent to major roads, usually decreasing to background levels within several hundred meters. Roadside barriers, both vegetative and structural, ...

  14. Computational fluid dynamics modeling to assess the impact of roadside barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road air quality is an issue of emerging concern, with field studies consistently showing elevated air pollutant concentrations adjacent to major roads, usually decreasing to background levels within several hundred meters. Roadside barriers, both vegetative and structural, ...

  15. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  16. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  17. Preference of female mosquitoes for natural and artificial resting sites.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Eubanks, Micky D; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    At a wetland study site in Tuskegee National Forest, AL, resting female mosquitoes were collected from natural and artificial resting sites to identify species-specific resting sites and to evaluate various artificial resting sites for their utility in collecting resting mosquitoes. Natural resting sites included small tree cavities, large tree cavities, and understory vegetation. Artificial resting sites included resting boxes, fiber pots, and plastic trash cans. We collected 12,888 female mosquitoes, representing 23 species in 8 genera, during the 6-month study. Each mosquito species demonstrated a preference for a particular type of resting site. Resting Aedes vexans females were collected almost exclusively from understory vegetation, while the great majority of Anopheles quadrimaculatus females were aspirated from large tree cavities. Culex erraticus and Cx. peccator females preferred trash cans over other available resting sites. Females of Cx. territans, although collected most commonly in large tree cavities, were also collected frequently from understory vegetation and trash cans. A multiple regression of resting-site parameters (excluding vegetation), including volume, surface area, and opening size, indicated that 50% and 20% of the variability associated with An. quadrimaculatus and Cx. territans collections, respectively, could be explained by opening size. Inner surface area and volume accounted for 33% and 12% of variation in Cx. erraticus and Cx. peccator collections, respectively. Thus, female mosquitoes generally preferred larger resting sites over smaller resting sites. Similarly shaped artificial resting sites (fiber pots and trash cans) yielded comparable numbers of females per unit of volume (for those species that preferred artificial resting sites), indicating that shape of the resting site is an important factor in resting-site preference. In addition, trash cans proved to be a valuable novel tool for collecting resting female mosquitoes.

  18. Bed rest during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy problems, including: High blood pressure Premature or preterm changes in the cervix Problems with the placenta ... shown that being on bed rest can prevent preterm birth or other pregnancy problems. And some complications ...

  19. FRS REST Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    FRS exposes several REST services that allows developers to utilize a live feed of data from the FRS database. This web page is intended for a technical audience and describes the content and purpose of each service available.

  20. Bioaccumulation and physiological effects of excess lead in a roadside pioneer species Sonchus oleraceus L.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Z T

    1997-01-01

    Seedlings of Sonchus oleraceus L. were transplanted to soil supplied with lead acetate at dosages of 0, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg kg(-1) DW. Measures of chlorophyll content, peroxidase (POD) activity, shoot length, biomass and Pb content in the plant tissues were obtained from the experimental plants. With increasing amounts of Pb in the soil, the chlorophyll content, shoot length and biomass decreased, while POD activity and Pb content in the plant tissues increased. At 3200 mg kg(-1) Pb treatment, Pb content in the plant leaf, stem and root were 65.67, 149.82 and 1113.24 mg kg(-1), respectively. Only at 3200 mg kg(-1) Pb treatment did chlorophyll content, shoot length and biomass significantly increase by 18, 15 and 44%, respectively, while POD decreased by 39% over the control. The potential of applying this species in phytoremediation of Pb contaminated roadside soils and thus restoration of the roadside vegetation are discussed.

  1. Smart Roadside System for Driver Assistance and Safety Warnings: Framework and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun Suk; Cho, Han Byeog

    2011-01-01

    The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system for highways. Evaluation results for the two services are then shown using a micro-simulation method. In the given real-time applications for drivers, the framework and certain algorithms produce a very efficient solution with respect to the roadway type features and sensor type use. PMID:22164025

  2. Smart roadside system for driver assistance and safety warnings: framework and applications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun Suk; Cho, Han Byeog

    2011-01-01

    The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system for highways. Evaluation results for the two services are then shown using a micro-simulation method. In the given real-time applications for drivers, the framework and certain algorithms produce a very efficient solution with respect to the roadway type features and sensor type use.

  3. Fluorescence-based lateral flow assays for rapid oral fluid roadside detection of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Plouffe, Brian D; Murthy, Shashi K

    2017-02-01

    With the recent worldwide changes in the legalization of marijuana, there is a significant need for rapid, roadside screening test for driving under the influence of drugs. A robust, sensitive, lateral flow assay has been developed to detect recent use via oral-fluid testing for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This proof-of-concept assay uses a fluorescent-based immunoassay detection of polymeric beads, conjugated to antibodies against native THC. The fluorescent technique allows for significantly lower limits of detection and higher precision determination of recent marijuana use without the use of urine or blood sampling-thus allowing for roadside identification. Detection levels of 0.01 ng/mL were distinguished from background and the lower limit of quantification was determined to approach 1 ng/mL. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael D; Greicius, Michael

    2010-01-01

    During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI) and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm.

  5. Clinical Applications of Resting State Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Michael D.; Greicius, Michael

    2010-01-01

    During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI) and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm. PMID:20592951

  6. Bed rest and immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  7. Estimation of blood alcohol concentration in deaths due to roadside accidents.

    PubMed

    Arora, Puneet; Chanana, Ashok; Tejpal, Hakumat R

    2013-05-01

    Like any other disease, accidents too are caused by interaction between agent, host, and environment. Human factors include age, (accidents most common between 10 and 24 years), sex, education, medical conditions (heart attack, impaired vision), fatigue, influence of alcohol and other drugs, lack of bodily protection (like helmets, seat belts) and psychosocial factors like lack of experience, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, defective judgment and delay in decisions. Drunken driving is an important risk factor in causing accidents. This study was focused on the status of alcohol consumption in relation with roadside accidents in northern India in the region of Amritsar. The present study was carried out in 100 cases alleged to have died of roadside accident and brought to the mortuary attached to the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Government Medical College, Amritsar for autopsy examination. Blood samples were collected from the femoral vein and were tested for the presence of alcohol with steam distillation and titration method using potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. In the present study, 23% of the fatal driver/pedestrian victims of roadside accidents were found to have consumed alcohol before accident. Most of the victims of road accident were from the age group 21-30 and 31-40 years. Most of the accidents occurred on straight roads instead of bends or intersections, more during daytime and weekends. 57% of the blood alcohol positives were between 100 mg% and 149 mg%. Majority of the victims of roadside accidents were motorcyclists and the striking vehicles were trucks and buses causing head & neck injuries in most of the victims. Death occurred within a few minutes in most of the cases.

  8. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in roadside topsoil along Qinghai-Tibetan highway, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.; Zhang, F.; Yan, X.; Gao, D.

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid development of road construction and increase of vehicles on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau over last few decades, traffic source heavy metals have been continuously emitted into roadside soils and caused a growing concern on potential pollution of soils. In this study, a soil survey was conducted along the Qinghai-Tibet highway (Xining-Maduo-Budongquan-Naqu-Lhasa), China, to investigate the status and influence factors of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) in roadside topsoil. A total of 32 sampling sites, 144 topsoil (0~2 cm) samples were collected at different distances to the highway edge (0 m, 10 m, 30 m, 50 m and 100m). Vehicle volume, soil types and road types have significantly impacts on concentrations of the four heavy metals. On the whole, heavy metal concentrations were higher in Budongquan-Naqu-Lhasa (BNL) segment with higher traffic volume than Xining-Maduo-Budongquan (XMB) segment with lower traffic volume. The heavy metals concentrations also show higher levels for asphalt roads than gravel roads, and a sequence of severely degraded meadow soil (MS) > slightly degraded MS > desert soil > non-degraded MS. Besides, concentrations of all the four heavy metals show exponentially decreasing relationships with roadside distances. Compared to the background values of heavy metals in the soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, traffic source heavy metals pollution only exists within 10 m to the road edge in most segments. However, the maximum polluted distance can reach 30 m along the TMP segment. It should be noted that heavy metals pollution was more harmful to this high-altitude segment with fragile ecology. Keywords: Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn); Roadside soil; Qinghai-Tibet highway; Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Size and time-resolved roadside enrichment of atmospheric particulate pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Viana, M.; Richard, A.; Furger, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Bukowiecki, N.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Moreno, T.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.

    2011-03-01

    Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain). Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB), one traffic (T) and one heavy traffic (HT) location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE) in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn) showed the largest REs (>70%). Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd) showed lower but still consistent REs (25-40%), similar to those obtained for mineral matter resulting from road dust resuspension (Ca, La, Ce, Ti, Ga, Sr, 30-40%). The sum of primary and secondary organic carbon showed a RE of 41%, with contributions of secondary OC (SOC) to total OC ranging from 46% at the HT site, 63% at the T site, and 78% in the UB. Finally, other trace elements (As, Co, Bi) showed unexpected but consistent roadside enrichments (23% up to 69%), suggesting a link to traffic emissions even though the emission process is unclear. Hourly-resolved PM speciation data proved to be a highly resourceful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. At the HT site, up to 62% of fine Mn was attributable to industrial plumes, whereas coarse Mn levels were mainly attributed to traffic. Similarly, even though Zn showed on average no roadside enrichment and thus was classified as industrial, the hourly-resolved data proved that at least 15% of coarse Zn may be attributed to road traffic emissions. In addition, our results indicate that secondary nitrate formation occurs within the city-scale, even in the absence of long atmospheric residence times or long-range atmospheric transport processes. Characteristic tracer ratios of road traffic emissions were identified: Cu/Sb = 6.8-8.0, Cu/Sn = 4.7-5.4 and Sn/Sb = 1.5.

  10. Size and time-resolved roadside enrichment of atmospheric particulate pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Viana, M.; Richard, A.; Furger, M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Moreno, T.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.

    2011-01-01

    Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain). Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB), one traffic (T) and one heavy traffic (HT) location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE) in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn) showed the largest REs (>70%). Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd) showed lower but still consistent REs (25-40%), similar to those obtained for mineral matter resulting from road dust resuspension (Ca, La, Ce, Ti, Ga, Sr, 30-40%). The sum of primary and secondary organic carbon showed a RE of 41%, with contributions of secondary OC (SOC) to total OC ranging from 46% at the HT site, 63% at the T site, and 78% in the UB. Finally, other trace elements (As, Co, Bi) showed unexpected but consistent roadside enrichments (23% up to 69%), suggesting a link to traffic emissions even though the emission process is unclear. Hourly-resolved PM speciation data proved to be a highly resourceful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. At the HT site, up to 62% of fine Mn was attributable to industrial plumes, whereas coarse Mn levels were mainly attributed to traffic. Similarly, even though Zn showed on average no roadside enrichment and thus was classified as industrial, the hourly-resolved data proved that at least 15% of coarse Zn may be attributed to road traffic emissions. In addition, our results indicate that secondary nitrate formation occurs within the city-scale, even in the absence of long atmospheric residence times or long-range atmospheric transport processes.

  11. Identification of Heavy Metal Pollution Derived From Traffic in Roadside Soil Using Magnetic Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pingguo; Ge, Jing; Yang, Miao

    2017-06-01

    The study integrates surface and vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents (Pb, Cu, Zn and Fe) to characterize the signature of vehicle pollutants in roadside soils at Linfen city, China. Sites with reforestation and without vegetation cover were investigated. The results showed that magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents were higher at the roadside without trees than in the reforest belt. The variations of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents decreased both with distance and with depth. The maximum value was observed at 5-10 m away from the roadside edge. The vertical distribution in soil revealed accumulation of pollutants in 0-5 cm topsoils. The average contents were higher than the background values and in the order Fe (107.21 g kg(-1)), Zn (99.72 mg kg(-1)), Pb (90.99 mg kg(-1)), Cu (36.14 mg kg(-1)). Coarse multi domain grains were identified as the dominating magnetic particles. Multivariate statistical and SEM/EDX analyses suggested that the heavy metals derived from traffic sources. Trees act as efficient receptors and green barrier, which can reduce vehicle derived pollution.

  12. Mobilization of Roadside Soil Cation Pools by Exchange with Road Deicers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Bain, D.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past sixty years, road deicers (i.e., road salt) have been applied to roadways in high latitudes to improve traffic conditions in winter weather. However, the dissolution of road deicers in highway runoff create waters with high total dissolved solids (TDS), specifically high concentrations of sodium, which can mobilize soil metals via soil cation exchange reactions. While several studies have detailed the interactions of high TDS solutions and surface and ground waters, limited attention is paid to the impacts of high TDS solutions on near-road soils. Between 2013 and 2014, soil water samples were collected from a roadside transect of lysimeter nests in Pittsburgh, PA. Soil water samples were analyzed for metal concentrations and resulting data used to examine cation dynamics. Patterns in soil water calcium and magnesium concentrations follow patterns in soil water sodium concentrations. In our samples, the highest major cation concentrations are found at the deepest lysimeters, suggesting major cations are mobilized to, and potentially accumulate in, deeper soil horizons. Concentration peaks in the downslope soil waters lag concentration peaks at the near-road nest by two months, indicating that road salt plumes persist and migrate following the road salting season. Characterizing the interactions of high TDS solutions and roadside soil cation pools clarifies our understanding of metal dynamics in the roadside environment. A deeper understanding of these processes is necessary to effectively restore and manage watersheds as high TDS solutions (i.e., road deicing, hydraulic fracturing, and marginal irrigation water) increasingly influence ecosystem function.

  13. Road tunnel, roadside, and urban background measurements of aliphatic compounds in size-segregated particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Célia A.; Oliveira, César; Martins, Natércia; Mirante, Fátima; Caseiro, Alexandre; Pio, Casimiro; Matos, Manuel; Silva, Hugo F.; Oliveira, Cristina; Camões, Filomena

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter samples were collected in a road tunnel in Lisbon (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5, and PM2.5-10) and at two urban locations representing roadside and background stations (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10). Samples were analysed for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), n-alkanes, n-alkenes, hopanes, some isoprenoid compounds, and steranes. Particulate matter concentrations in the tunnel were 17-31 times higher than at roadside in the vicinity, evidencing an aerosol origin almost exclusively in fresh vehicle emissions. PM0.5 in the tunnel comprised more than 60% and 80% of the total OC and EC mass in PM10, respectively. Concentrations of the different aliphatic groups of compounds in the tunnel were up to 89 times higher than at roadside and 143 times higher than at urban background. Based on the application of hopane-to-OC or hopanes-to-EC ratios obtained in the tunnel, it was found that vehicle emissions are the dominant contributor to carbonaceous particles in the city but do not represent the only source of these triterpenic compounds. Contrary to what has been observed in other studies, the Σhopane-to-EC ratios were higher in summer than in winter, suggesting that other factors (e.g. biomass burning, dust resuspension, and different fuels/engine technologies) prevail in relation to the photochemical decay of triterpenoid hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust.

  14. Heavy metal concentrations in roadside soils and correlation with urban traffic in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xia, Xinghui; Zhao, Ye; Zhang, Ping

    2010-09-15

    A detailed investigation was conducted to study the heavy metal concentrations in roadside soils of Beijing. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn showed a decreasing trend with increasing distance from the road while such trend was not identified in As, Cr and Ni. In addition, the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn significantly positively correlated with black carbon (BC) and TOC (p<0.01). The soil samples from West 2nd Ring Road with the highest traffic volume had the highest heavy metal concentrations of the 10 roads, and Pb concentration was significantly positively correlated with traffic volumes (p<0.05). According to the soil guideline values of China, Cd was considered to have considerable contamination in roadside soils, while Cu, Pb and Zn less, but As, Ni, Cr none. The concentrations of heavy metals in roadside soils of Beijing were considered medium or low in comparison with those in other cities; this may be due to the windy and dry climate in Beijing. The heavy metals could move with wind along the wind direction and the soil samples had higher heavy metal concentrations at the downwind direction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Alien Roadside Species More Easily Invade Alpine than Lowland Plant Communities in a Subarctic Mountain Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lembrechts, Jonas J.; Milbau, Ann; Nijs, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment. PMID:24586947

  16. Modeling the hydrologic effects of roadside ditch networks on receiving waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Brian; Easton, Zachary M.; Schneider, Rebecca L.; Walter, M. Todd

    2013-04-01

    SummaryRoadside drainage networks can affect deleterious changes to watershed hydrology and water quality. However, very few studies have explored these effects in agricultural settings where the potential for nonpoint source pollution and the implications of tighter hydrologic linkages between landscape and stream are more critical. In this study, we apply a GIS-based, spatially distributed hydrologic model under a variety of drainage scenarios to quantify the hydrologic effects of roadside ditches at multiple spatial scales. We also qualitatively investigate the relative impacts of ditches on phosphorus transport. Our principle findings indicate that roadside ditches: (i) substantially alter basin morphometry and natural flow pathways, (ii) increase peak and total event discharge and (iii) expedite the transport of agricultural pollutants, thereby short-circuiting natural degradation processes that would otherwise have mitigated their effects. These findings underscore how relatively fine-scale alterations to natural flow pathways can result in substantial impacts to watershed scale hydrology and water quality and may help to inform spatially-targeted water resource management decisions and future modeling efforts.

  17. Assessment of heavy metal toxicants in the roadside soil along the N-5, National Highway, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nasiruddin; Wasim, Agha Arslan; Sarwar, Anila; Rasheed, M Faisal

    2011-11-01

    The assessment of the toxicants in roadside soil on regular basis has become extremely essential with the increase in awareness for the metal toxicity in the environment. The present study investigates the presence of toxic metals along National Highway (N-5), Pakistan. Averages of about 1.3 million per month of automobile vehicles ply on this route. Lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), and iron (Fe) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in roadside soil at the nine selected locations along the highway. Strong Pearson correlations (α = 0.05) were found between Pb and Zn (r(2) = 0.887), Fe and Mn (r(2) = 0.880), Hg and Cd (0.864), Cu and Zn (0.838), and Cu and Pb (0.814). The correlation between the elemental compositions of the main automobile components revealed vehicular traffic as the main non-point source of roadside soil pollution. Extremely high level of mercury, 144.05 mg kg(-1), was found at S5. It was revealed that the unregulated incineration and dumping sites of hazardous waste material along N-5 were also responsible for these contaminations. Multivariate analysis on the obtained data also disclosed the same interpretation. Cluster analysis of the data grouped Pb, Zn, and Cu at 85.23% similarity, whereas, Cd, Hg, and Ni were grouped at 78.75% similarity basis. The findings need swift action against the root cause of soil pollution.

  18. Wireless Roadside Inspection Phase II Tennessee Commercial Mobile Radio Services Pilot Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Capps, Gary J; Siekmann, Adam

    2011-05-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Wireless Roadside Inspection (WRI) Program is researching the feasibility and value of electronically assessing truck and bus driver and vehicle safety at least 25 times more often than is possible using only roadside physical inspections. The WRI program is evaluating the potential benefits to both the motor carrier industry and to government. These potential benefits include reduction in accidents, fatalities and injuries on our highways and keeping safe and legal drivers and vehicles moving on the highways. WRI Pilot tests were conducted to prototype, test and demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of electronically collecting safety data message sets from in-service commercial vehicles and performing wireless roadside inspections using three different communication methods. This report summarizes the design, conduct and results of the Tennessee CMRS WRI Pilot Test. The purpose of this Pilot test was to demonstrate the implementation of commercial mobile radio services to electronically request and collect safety data message sets from a limited number of commercial vehicles operating in Tennessee. The results of this test have been used in conjunction with the results of the complimentary pilot tests to support an overall assessment of the feasibility and benefits of WRI in enhancing motor carrier safety (reduction in accidents) due to increased compliance (change in motor carrier and driver behavior) caused by conducting frequent safety inspections electronically, at highway speeds, without delay or need to divert into a weigh station

  19. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  20. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  1. A Bonne enseigne: une grille de lecture de panneaux de la rue (On Good Authority: A Grid for Reading Roadside Signs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otman, Gabriel

    1987-01-01

    Classroom use of roadside signs and billboards is recommended both for understanding cultural and geographic context and for learning French. Exercises for decoding and comprehension are suggested. (MSE)

  2. Impact of Hong Kong's Voluntary Catalytic Converter Replacement Programme on Roadside Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Guo, H.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Lyu, X.; Meinardi, S.; Yam, Y. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    As part of its ongoing policies to improve roadside air quality, in 2013 the Hong Kong government launched an incentive programme to replace catalytic converters and oxygen sensors in taxis and light buses mainly fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The majority of replacements occurred from October 2013 to April 2014, with 75% of eligible vehicles participating in the programme, or 16,472 vehicles. Based on taxi exhaust measurements at a Hong Kong vehicle testing facility, the concentrations of n-butane, propane and i-butane (the primary components of LPG) decreased by 97% following the replacements. To determine the impact of the programme on roadside air quality, long-term measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed before, during and after the replacement programme, mainly at a busy roadside location in Mong Kok, Hong Kong. A clear decrease in the levels of major pollutants associated with LPG vehicle exhaust was observed at the roadside. For example, average (± 1 standard deviation) n-butane levels from October to April decreased from 13.0 ± 3.6 and 13.9 ± 2.6 ppbv in the two years preceding the programme, to 9.2 ± 2.9 ppbv during the programme, to 6.2 ± 1.7 ppbv the year after the programme. By contrast, compounds such as i-pentane that are not strongly associated with LPG or with LPG exhaust remained steady, averaging 0.90 ± 0.34, 1.01 ± 0.31, 0.93 ± 0.37, and 0.91 ± 0.42 ppbv from October to April of 2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15, respectively. Impacts of the programme on roadside levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) will also be discussed. Because many taxis are high mileage vehicles that travel several hundred kilometers daily, their catalytic converters need to be replaced approximately every 18 months. Therefore ongoing vehicle maintenance will be required in order to preserve the gains made from this initial subsidy programme.

  3. Quantitative comparisons on hand motor functional areas determined by resting state and task BOLD fMRI and anatomical MRI for pre-surgical planning of patients with brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Bob L.; Bhatia, Sanjay; Carpenter, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    For pre-surgical planning we present quantitative comparison of the location of the hand motor functional area determined by right hand finger tapping BOLD fMRI, resting state BOLD fMRI, and anatomically using high resolution T1 weighted images. Data were obtained on 10 healthy subjects and 25 patients with left sided brain tumors. Our results show that there are important differences in the locations (i.e., > 20 mm) of the determined hand motor voxels by these three MR imaging methods. This can have significant effect on the pre-surgical planning of these patients depending on the modality used. In 13 of the 25 cases (i.e., 52%) the distances between the task-determined and the rs-fMRI determined hand areas were more than 20 mm; in 13 of 25 cases (i.e., 52%) the distances between the task-determined and anatomically determined hand areas were > 20 mm; and in 16 of 25 cases (i.e., 64%) the distances between the rs-fMRI determined and anatomically determined hand areas were more than 20 mm. In just three cases, the distances determined by all three modalities were within 20 mm of each other. The differences in the location or fingerprint of the hand motor areas, as determined by these three MR methods result from the different underlying mechanisms of these three modalities and possibly the effects of tumors on these modalities. PMID:27069871

  4. Quantitative comparisons on hand motor functional areas determined by resting state and task BOLD fMRI and anatomical MRI for pre-surgical planning of patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bob L; Bhatia, Sanjay; Carpenter, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    For pre-surgical planning we present quantitative comparison of the location of the hand motor functional area determined by right hand finger tapping BOLD fMRI, resting state BOLD fMRI, and anatomically using high resolution T1 weighted images. Data were obtained on 10 healthy subjects and 25 patients with left sided brain tumors. Our results show that there are important differences in the locations (i.e., > 20 mm) of the determined hand motor voxels by these three MR imaging methods. This can have significant effect on the pre-surgical planning of these patients depending on the modality used. In 13 of the 25 cases (i.e., 52%) the distances between the task-determined and the rs-fMRI determined hand areas were more than 20 mm; in 13 of 25 cases (i.e., 52%) the distances between the task-determined and anatomically determined hand areas were > 20 mm; and in 16 of 25 cases (i.e., 64%) the distances between the rs-fMRI determined and anatomically determined hand areas were more than 20 mm. In just three cases, the distances determined by all three modalities were within 20 mm of each other. The differences in the location or fingerprint of the hand motor areas, as determined by these three MR methods result from the different underlying mechanisms of these three modalities and possibly the effects of tumors on these modalities.

  5. Drinking and Driving in the United States: Comparing Results from the 2007 and 1996 National Roadside Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John H.; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Yao, Jie; Berning, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (a) use data from the 2007 National Roadside Survey (NRS) to determine the characteristics of weekend nighttime drivers with positive blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) on U.S. roads in 2007; (b) determine the relationship of the driving environment and trip characteristics associated with drinking drivers; and (c) compare the findings for the 2007 NRS with those for the 1996 NRS. Methods Like the 1996 NRS, the 2007 NRS used a stratified random national roadside survey sample of the contiguous 48 states and collected nighttime data on Fridays and Saturdays between 10 PM and 3 AM. Officers directed 8,384 drivers into off-road parking areas where our research team asked them to participate in the survey. Results Of those approached, 7,159 (85.4%) provided a breath test. Results revealed that 12% of the nighttime drivers had positive BACs, and of those, 2% were higher than the .08 BAC illegal limit in the United States. Since the 1996 NRS, we found significant reductions in the percentage of BAC-positive drivers across different demographic groups. Age was among the most significant factors associated with a weekend driver having a positive BAC. The probability that a driver would be drinking peaked in the 21- to 25-year-old age group. Male drivers were more likely than female drivers to be drinking, and Asian and Hispanic drivers were less likely than White drivers to be drinking. Drinking drivers were more likely to be driving short distances (5 or fewer miles), late at night (between 1 and 3 AM), and to be coming from a bar or restaurant. Finally, 26% of the drivers who reported that they would drive less than 5 miles on the night of the survey had positive BACs, compared to only 16% who indicated they would drive between 6 and 20 miles and 10% who planned to drive more than 20 miles. Conclusions The 2007 NRS provides another benchmark in the four-decade record of drinking drivers on American roads and provides a

  6. The prevalence of distraction among passenger vehicle drivers: a roadside observational approach.

    PubMed

    Huisingh, Carrie; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving contributes to a large proportion of motor vehicle crashes, yet little is known about the prevalence of distracted driving and the specific types of distracting behaviors. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of driver distraction using a roadside observational study design. A cross-sectional survey involving direct roadside observation was conducted at 11 selected intersections. Trained investigators observed a sample of passenger vehicles and recorded distraction-related behaviors, driver characteristics, and contextual factors such as vehicle speed and traffic flow. Of the 3,265 drivers observed, the prevalence of distracted driving was 32.7%. Among those involved in a distracting activity, the most frequently observed distractions included interacting with another passenger (53.2%, where passengers were present), talking on the phone (31.4%), external-vehicle distractions (20.4%), and texting/dialing a phone (16.6%). The prevalence of talking on the phone was higher among females than males (38.6% vs. 24.3%), whereas external vehicle distractions were higher among males than females (25.8% vs. 24.3%). Drivers <30 years were observed being engaged in any distracting activity, interacting with other passengers, and texting/dialing more frequently than drivers aged 30-50 and >50 years. Drivers were engaged in distracting behaviors more frequently when the car was stopped. When using similar methodology, roadside observational studies generate comparable prevalence estimates of driver distraction as naturalistic driving studies. Driver distraction is a common problem among passenger vehicle drivers. Despite the increased awareness on the dangers of texting and cell phone use while driving, these specific activities were 2 of the most frequently observed distractions. There is a continued need for road safety education about the dangers of distracted driving, especially for younger drivers.

  7. The impact of walking while using a smartphone on pedestrians' awareness of roadside events.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-I Brandon; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that using a cell phone to talk or text while walking changes gait kinematics and encourages risky street-crossing behaviors. However, less is known about how the motor-cognitive interference imposed by smartphone tasks affects pedestrians' situational awareness to environmental targets relevant to pedestrian safety. This study systematically investigated the influence of smartphone use on detection of and responses to a variety of roadside events in a semi-virtual walking environment. Twenty-four healthy participants completed six treadmill walking sessions while engaged in a concurrent picture-dragging, texting, or news-reading task. During distracted walking, they were required to simultaneously monitor the occurrence of road events for two different levels of event frequency. Performance measures for smartphone tasks and event responses, eye movements, and perceived workload and situational awareness were compared across different dual-task conditions. The results revealed that during dual-task walking, the reading app was associated with a significantly higher level of perceived workload, and impaired awareness of the surrounding environment to a greater extent compared with the texting or picture-dragging apps. Pedestrians took longer to visually detect the roadside events in the reading and texting conditions than in the dragging condition. Differences in event response performances were mainly dependent on their salient features but were also affected by the type of smartphone task. Texting was found to make participants more reliant on their central vision to detect road events. Moreover, different gaze-scanning patterns were adopted by participants to better protect dual-task performance in response to the changes in road-event frequency. The findings of relationships between workload, dual-task performances, and allocation strategies for visual attention further our understanding of pedestrian behavior and safety. By knowing

  8. The prevalence of distraction among passenger vehicle drivers: a roadside observational approach

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving contributes to a large proportion of motor vehicle crashes, yet little is known about the prevalence of distracted driving and the specific types of distracting behaviors. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of driver distraction using a roadside observational study design. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving direct roadside observation was conducted at 11 selected intersections. Trained investigators observed a sample of passenger vehicles and recorded distraction-related behaviors, driver characteristics, and contextual factors such as vehicle speed and traffic flow. Results Of the 3,265 drivers observed, the prevalence of distracted driving was 32.7%. Among those involved in a distracting activity, the most frequently observed distractions included interacting with another passenger (53.2%, where passengers were present), talking on the phone (31.4%), external-vehicle distractions (20.4%), and texting/dialing a phone (16.6%). The prevalence of talking on the phone was higher among females than males (38.6% vs. 24.3%), whereas external vehicle distractions were higher among males than females (25.8% vs. 24.3%). Drivers <30 years were observed being engaged in any distracting activity, interacting with other passengers and texting/dialing more frequently than drivers aged 30–50 and >50 years. Drivers were engaged in distracting behaviors more frequently when the car was stopped. Conclusions When using similar methodology, roadside observational studies generate comparable prevalence estimates of driver distraction as naturalistic driving studies. Driver distraction is a common problem among passenger vehicle drivers. Despite the increased awareness on the dangers of texting and cell phone use while driving, these specific activities were two of the most frequently observed distractions. There is a continued need for road safety education about the dangers of distracted driving, especially for younger

  9. Chemical characterization and toxicity of particulate matter emissions from roadside trash combustion in urban India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreeland, Heidi; Schauer, James J.; Russell, Armistead G.; Marshall, Julian D.; Fushimi, Akihiro; Jain, Grishma; Sethuraman, Karthik; Verma, Vishal; Tripathi, Sachi N.; Bergin, Michael H.

    2016-12-01

    Roadside trash burning is largely unexamined as a factor that influences air quality, radiative forcing, and human health even though it is ubiquitously practiced across many global regions, including throughout India. The objective of this research is to examine characteristics and redox activity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with roadside trash burning in Bangalore, India. Emissions from smoldering and flaming roadside trash piles (n = 24) were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), brown carbon (BrC), and toxicity (i.e. redox activity, measured via the dithiothreitol "DTT" assay). A subset of samples (n = 8) were further assessed for toxicity by a cellular assay (macrophage assay) and also analyzed for trace organic compounds. Results show high variability of chemical composition and toxicity between trash-burning emissions, and characteristic differences from ambient samples. OC/EC ratios for trash-burning emissions range from 0.8 to 1500, while ambient OC/EC ratios were observed at 5.4 ± 1.8. Trace organic compound analyses indicate that emissions from trash-burning piles were frequently composed of aromatic di-acids (likely from burning plastics) and levoglucosan (an indicator of biomass burning), while the ambient sample showed high response from alkanes indicating notable representation from vehicular exhaust. Volume-normalized DTT results (i.e., redox activity normalized by the volume of air pulled through the filter during sampling) were, unsurprisingly, extremely elevated in all trash-burning samples. Interestingly, DTT results suggest that on a per-mass basis, fresh trash-burning emissions are an order of magnitude less redox-active than ambient air (13.4 ± 14.8 pmol/min/μgOC for trash burning; 107 ± 25 pmol/min/μgOC for ambient). However, overall results indicate that near trash-burning sources, exposure to redox-active PM can be extremely high.

  10. Size fractionated aerosol composition at roadside and background environments in the Madrid urban atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirante, Fátima; Salvador, Pedro; Pio, Casimiro; Alves, Célia; Artiñano, Begoña; Caseiro, Alexandre; Revuelta, Mª. Aranzazu

    2014-03-01

    The chemical composition of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) was studied during summer and winter sampling campaigns, at two different urban sites (roadside and urban background) in the city of Madrid, Spain. PM was sampled with high volume cascade impactors, in 4 size ranges: 10-2.5, 2.5-1, 1-0.5 and < 0.5 μm. The carbonaceous content (OC and EC) was determined by a thermo-optical method, whilst the water soluble ionic species were measured by ion chromatography. The most common synoptic meteorological situations, including those causing the transport of African dusty air masses, were identified in both seasons. Whether the PM10 mass or the highest concentrations of EC and OC were found predominantly in the ultrafine size fraction at both sites. In contrast with roadside, at the urban background, the particle mass concentrations for the different size ranges were statistically higher in summer than in winter. Observed inter-site differences suggest the existence of other sources and formation processes contributing in the summer period to the levels of PM at the urban background site apart from road traffic emissions. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) showed a clear seasonal pattern, with much higher concentrations in summer than in winter in both places, as well as higher relative contributions at the urban background than at the road traffic site. (NH4)2SO4 levels were at their maximum at both sites in summer in PM0.5. Differently, higher values were reached in winter for NH4NO3 in PM0.5 and for NaCl in PM2.5-10. From the ion balances, it was observed that, in summer, the formation of secondary inorganic compounds included an unusual enrichment in Ca2 + in the submicrometre fraction, either at roadside or at urban background.

  11. Drinking and driving in southeastern Brazil: results from a roadside survey study.

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; de Souza E Silva, Rebeca; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Palacios, Ester Nakamura; Grube, Joel W; Pinsky, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present data from a roadside survey study on drinking and driving and alcohol consumption in southeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional roadside survey study using a questionnaire and breathalyzer data is the method used to determine the prevalence of drinking and driving and to examine whether socio-demographic characteristics and drivers' behavior, attitude and alcohol consumption predicted positive blood alcohol content (BAC). The data were gathered from 2005 to 2007 through roadside surveys conducted on high volume public roads in four cities in southeastern Brazil. A total of 4182 randomly selected drivers took part in the research. Of these drivers, 3488 (83.4%) completed the questionnaire and agreed to take a breath test. Overall, 24.6% of drivers had a detectable blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and 15.9% had a BAC above the legal limit (0.6g/l) at the time of the study. Logistic regression controlling for locale (city), sex, age and marital status was used to predict whether each driver would present a positive breath test. Socio-demographic characteristics, driving behaviors and attitudes, and alcohol consumption patterns were included as predictors. These analyses indicated that those who believed drinking and driving was a serious offense were about two-thirds as likely to have a positive breath test, and that drivers reporting a pattern of regular alcohol use were three times as likely to have a positive breath test. These findings indicate that drinking and driving is relatively common in Brazil, and that it occurs considerably more frequently than similar surveys suggest, is the case in other countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does the type of exposure to a roadside sobriety checkpoint influence driver perceptions regarding drunk driving?

    PubMed

    Beck, Kenneth H; Moser, Mary L

    2006-01-01

    To determine if the type of exposure to roadside sobriety checkpoints is related to vulnerability of being stopped by the police for drinking and driving. Random household telephone surveys were conducted over 3 years. Personally exposed drivers had lower perceptions of vulnerability than did drivers who knew a family member who had been stopped. Exposed drivers who also had a family member and an acquaintance that had been stopped had higher perceptions of vulnerability. Direct exposure to a checkpoint appears to lower perceptions of risk than if one has had only indirect exposure (ie, family or friends).

  13. Applied animal psychology at an American roadside attraction: animal behavior enterprises and the IQ Zoo of Hot Springs, Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Drumm, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Keller and Marian Breland worked with B. F. Skinner on top-secret behavioral technology during World War II. They later applied that behavioral technology in postwar business ventures that included a roadside attraction called the IQ Zoo. It attracted motorists from across the United States and, like other roadside attractions of the period, was depicted in postcards available for purchase. While conducting research associated with the business, the Brelands discovered the phenomenon of instinctive drift, which significantly advanced subsequent theoretical accounts of the biological factors that influence learning.

  14. The demography of feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations occurring in roadside habitats in Southern Manitoba, Canada: implications for novel trait confinement.

    PubMed

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Gulden, Robert H; Begg, Graham S; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-09-01

    Feral populations of cultivated crops can act as reservoirs for novel genetically engineered (GE) traits and aid in trait movement at the landscape level. However, little information is available on the potential of cultivated crops to become feral. In this study, we investigated the ferality of alfalfa populations (non-GE version) occurring in roadside habitats. Knowledge on the nature of roadside alfalfa populations would be useful for designing efficient trait confinement protocols and coexistence strategies in alfalfa. We investigated roadside alfalfa populations from 2006 to 2009 in three rural municipalities (Hanover, MacDonald, and Springfield) in Southern Manitoba, Canada. We studied the demography of these populations including seedbank, seedling recruitment, and fecundity and examined the impact of road verge mowing on key life stages of these populations. We also compared the growth and reproductive attributes of roadside and cultivated alfalfa populations. Alfalfa is reproductively successful in roadside habitats and capable of establishing self-perpetuating populations. A substantial portion of the alfalfa seeds we extracted from seedbank samples were viable but not germinable, suggesting some degree of seedbank persistence in roadside habitats. In the roadside habitat, alfalfa seedlings recruited successfully, however, seedling mortality was high when seedlings were in close proximity to well-established alfalfa plants. Mowing dramatically reduced the reproductive success of roadside alfalfa. Generally, the growth and reproduction of roadside alfalfa was comparable to cultivated alfalfa except for total fecundity. Considering the long lifespan (>10 years) of alfalfa and the levels of fecundity, seedbank, and seedling survival we observed, long-term persistence of roadside alfalfa populations seems reasonable. In the context of novel trait confinement, our results suggest that feral alfalfa populations required to be managed if there is a desire

  15. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  16. Effect of deicing salts on urban soils and health status of roadside trees in the Opole region.

    PubMed

    Czerniawska-Kusza, Izabela; Kusza, Grzegorz; Duzyński, Mariusz

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on a study whose aim was to evaluate the impact of snow removal salts on urban soil properties and the health of roadside trees. The evaluation was done by chemical analyses of soil samples and plant matter combined with toxicity testing, performed with a Protoxkit F, a protozoan microbiotest. Samples were collected at 45 locations on three main roads in the town of Opole (Poland). The roads differed in the snow removal technology and amount of chemical substances (mostly NaCl) used on them during the winter. The study showed that when soil was exposed to a high level of NaCl, it tended to be more alkaline and also exhibited increased content of Na(+) and Cl(-). The toxic effects of the soil extract on protozoa appeared at 26.0 mg Na(+)/100 g soil dry mass (s.d.m.) and 12.0 mg Cl(-)/100 g s.d.m., whereas salt injury symptoms (chlorosis and necrosis of the edge of leaf blades) appeared at 13.2 mg Na(+)/100 g s.d.m. and 3.9 mg Cl(-)/100 g s.d.m., becoming more severe at 26.0 mg Na(+)/100 g s.d.m. and 12.0 mg Cl(-)/100 g s.d.m. because of extensive necrosis and defoliation. The lysimetric experiment, which was used to test soil samples collected from the city park area, indicated that salt plays a significant role in the pollution of soil in urban areas, with the least toxic salt being CaCl(2). Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Online Vehicle Type Classifier Design for Road-Side Radar Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Yow-Jen; Chen, Yu-Kuang

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an online vehicle type classifier for road-side radar detectors in multi-lane environments. An automatic learning framework which composes a parametric statistic model and algorithms is introduced. The parameters of an online vehicle type classifier are trained with vehicles passing in front of detectors. The online vehicle type classifier tries to identify the vehicle type in real time. The road-side radar detector is developed based on frequency-modulation continuous-wave (FMCW) radar with the carrier frequency at X-band. Vehicles are classified into two major categories, large and small. The classification based on (i) average energy maximum and (ii) average energy variance, that are extracted from the frequency-domain signatures caused by passed vehicles. A two-dimension Gaussian Mixed Model (denoted as GMM) is employed to develop the learning model. Expectation maximization (denoted EM) algorithm is implemented to obtain the parameters of GMM. Numerical examples are demonstrated with real-world experiments. In the field tests, the automatic framework delivers an accuracy of minimum 88%, even with extremes scenarios (including (i) small samples and (ii) large sample size difference of different vehicle types). The examples show satisfying results of the proposed online vehicle type classifier.

  18. Remote monitoring of emissions using on-vehicle sensing and vehicle to roadside communications

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    Recent developments in on-vehicle electronics makes practical remote monitoring of vehicle emissions compliance with CARB and EPA regulations. A system consisting of emission controls malfunction sensors, an on-board computer (OBC), and vehicle-to-roadside communications (VRC) would enable enforcement officials to remotely and automatically detect vehicle out-of-compliance status. Remote sensing could be accomplished at highway speeds as vehicles pass a roadside RF antenna and reader unit which would interrogate the on- vehicle monitoring and recording system. This paper will focus on the hardware system components require to achieve this goal with special attention to the VRC; a key element for remote monitoring. this remote sensing concept piggybacks on the development of inexpensive VRC equipment for automatic vehicle identification for electronic toll collection and intelligent transportation applications. Employing an RF transponder with appropriate interface to the OBC and malfunction sensors, a practical monitoring system can be developed with potentially important impact on air quality and enforcement. With such a system in place, the current -- and costly and ineffective -- emission control strategy of periodic smog checking could be replaced or modified.

  19. Metal accumulation in roadside soil in Melbourne, Australia: Effect of road age, traffic density and vehicular speed.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Shamali; Ball, Andrew S; Huynh, Trang; Reichman, Suzie M

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of vehicular emitted heavy metals in roadside soils result in long term environmental damage. This study assessed the relationships between traffic characteristics (traffic density, road age and vehicular speed) and roadside soil heavy metals. Significant levels were recorded for Cd (0.06-0.59 mg/kg), Cr (18-29 mg/kg), Cu (4-12 mg/kg), Ni (7-20 mg/kg), Mn (92-599 mg/kg), Pb (16-144 mg/kg) and Zn (10.36-88.75 mg/kg), with Mn concentrations exceeding the Ecological Investigation Level. Significant correlations were found between roadside soil metal concentration and vehicular speed (R = 0.90), road age (R = 0.82) and traffic density (R = 0.68). Recently introduced metals in automotive technology (e.g. Mn and Sb) were higher in younger roads, while the metals present for many years (e.g. Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) were higher in medium and old age roads confirming the risk of significant metal deposition and soil metal retention in roadside soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol- and Drug-Involved Driving in the United States: Methodology for the 2007 National Roadside Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, John H.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Torres, Pedro; Berning, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the methodology used in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey to estimate the prevalence of alcohol- and drug-impaired driving and alcohol- and drug-involved driving. This study involved randomly stopping drivers at 300 locations across the 48 continental U.S. states at sites selected through a stratified random sampling…

  1. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25759723

  2. A Simple and Inexpensive Technique for the Determination of the Amount of Particulate Desposition at Roadside Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple technique to monitor air pollutants and to simulate some of the features of roadside canopies. Included are the procedures, directions for the assembly of the apparatus, and a discussion of typical results. Graphs of sample data are presented. (CW)

  3. Expressions of Private Mourning in Public Space: The Evolving Structure of Spontaneous and Permanent Roadside Memorials in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaassens, Mirjam; Groote, Peter D.; Vanclay, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    A visual content analysis of photos of 216 roadside memorials in the Netherlands was undertaken together with 24 interviews with the people who constructed them to understand how they deal with traumatic death. Friends urgently need to memorialize the deceased and establish spontaneous memorials. They place meaningful objects at the place of…

  4. Expressions of Private Mourning in Public Space: The Evolving Structure of Spontaneous and Permanent Roadside Memorials in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaassens, Mirjam; Groote, Peter D.; Vanclay, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    A visual content analysis of photos of 216 roadside memorials in the Netherlands was undertaken together with 24 interviews with the people who constructed them to understand how they deal with traumatic death. Friends urgently need to memorialize the deceased and establish spontaneous memorials. They place meaningful objects at the place of…

  5. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  6. Alcohol- and Drug-Involved Driving in the United States: Methodology for the 2007 National Roadside Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, John H.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Torres, Pedro; Berning, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the methodology used in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey to estimate the prevalence of alcohol- and drug-impaired driving and alcohol- and drug-involved driving. This study involved randomly stopping drivers at 300 locations across the 48 continental U.S. states at sites selected through a stratified random sampling…

  7. Controlling roadside noncrop pine in SE Oklahoma using selected glyphosate formulations with and without LI 700 and Milestone VM Plus

    Treesearch

    J.L. Yeiser; M. Finke; J. Grogan

    2012-01-01

    Noncrop pine control is a major issue confronting managers of openings along roadsides and in clearcuts.Herbicides containing glyphosate are commonly used for pine control. Traditionally, managers have applied 4 quarts product/acre with inconsistent results. LI 700 is a penetrating non-ionic surfactant that contains lecithin. Selected treatments of Makaze, Accord...

  8. Removable partial dentures without rests.

    PubMed

    Meinig, D A

    1994-04-01

    Ever since Bonwill recommended the use of rests on removable partial dentures in 1899, rests have been universally considered inviolate and have gone unchallenged and untested. The author claims that removable partial dentures without rests may not cause the adverse conditions usually predicted, such as gingival stripping, gingival inflammation, mutilated residual ridges, or extensive and rapid resorption of the alveolar ridges. In removable partial dentures made by the author for several patients, the residual ridge remained stable and in physiologic equilibrium when rests were not used. A history of the long-term effect on patients wearing partial dentures with and without rests is presented.

  9. A new approach to in-situ determination of roadside particle emission factors of individual vehicles under conventional driving conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hak, Claudia S.; Hallquist, Mattias; Ljungström, Evert; Svane, Maria; Pettersson, Jan B. C.

    A method for continuous on-road measurements of particle number emissions for both diesel- and petrol-fuelled vehicles is presented. The setup allows the determination of particle number emission factors on an individual vehicle basis by the simultaneous measurement of CO 2 and particle concentrations. As an alternative to previous measurements on the kerbside, the sample is taken directly in the street, with the advantage of sampling in-situ within the exhaust plumes of passing vehicles, allowing the separation of the individual high-concentration plumes. The method was tested in two experiments that were conducted in the Gothenburg area. In the first study, which was performed at an urban roadside, we were able to determine particle emission factors from individual vehicles in a common car fleet passing the measurement site. The obtained emission factors were of the same order of magnitude (between 1.4 × 10 12 and 1.8 × 10 14 particles km -1) as values published in the recent literature for light duty vehicles. An additional on-road experiment was conducted at a rural road with four light duty reference vehicles (three of them petrol-powered and one diesel-powered) at driving speeds of 50 and 70 km h -1, realised with different engine speeds. The results of the traffic emission studies show that the method is applicable provided that instruments with an adequate dynamic range are used and that the traffic is not too dense. In addition, the variability in particle emissions for a specified driving condition was estimated.

  10. The role of acoustic screens in distribution of technogenic magnetic particles and chemical pollution in roadside soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawer, Małgorzata; Magiera, Tadeusz; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Roads constructed nowadays should by all means be functional for their motorized users but at the same time their effect on the environment ought to be limited to the minimum. Despite the existence of various methods for preventing from negative influence of roads on the environment, there is still lack of adequate techniques to monitor and reduce the spreading of roadside pollution in the air and soils. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of acoustic screens on spreading and deposition of solid pollutants deriving from car emissions, based on their quantitative and qualitative analysis. During this study, measurements of magnetic susceptibility and analyses of heavy metals as well as Pt and Rh contents in soil and plant samples (Taraxacum officinale, Plantago major, Parthenocissus quinquefolia) collected near different kinds of acoustic screens ("green walls", Plexiglass, sawdust concrete, steel panels and earth embankments) have been done. Previous investigations showed showed that most of traffic emission is deposited in the close vicinity of the roads (up to 10 m) and the level of contamination decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. However, the results of this project indicate that, in the area where the acoustic screens are located, this distribution is disturbed and the additional enrichment of heavy metals in soil about 10 - 15 m behind screens is observed. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contents in soil samples corresponds to its magnetic susceptibility values. High contents of Fe, Zn, Mn and Pb was observed next to acoustic screens made of sawdust concrete and steel panels. Additionally, concentration of Zn in soil samples collected close to these screens exceeded threshold value. Analyses of plants showed that the highest content of examined elements and highest values of magnetic susceptibility were recorded near road edge. What is more, samples of Parthenocissus quinquefolia collected at height 0.2 m were characterized

  11. Respiratory health associated with exposure to automobile exhaust. II. Personal NO2 exposure levels according to distance from the roadside.

    PubMed

    Nakai, S; Nitta, H; Maeda, K

    1995-01-01

    We have conducted several studies to investigate the effect of automobile exhaust on respiratory symptoms. This study was designed to explore differences in personal exposure levels among residents of zones located varying distances from trunk roads with heavy traffic in Tokyo. Personal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration levels for residents and NO2 concentrations inside and outside the residences of each study participant were measured during ten seasons over three years. Three residential zones were determined as follows: Zone A was 0-20 m from the roadside; Zone B was 20-150 m; and Zone C, a reference zone, was a residential district in a suburban area. Approximately fifty residents were selected as the subjects of NO2 measurements. Study participants were female, between 40 and 60 years of age, and nonsmokers. All participants used gas cooking stoves with electric ignition. Outdoor NO2 concentrations in Zone A were always the greatest among the three zones during the study periods, and those in Zone C were consistently the lowest. Personal exposure levels in Zone A were generally higher than those in the other zones, and concentrations in Zone C were the lowest during seasons when no indoor heating was used. The highest mean values for personal exposure levels in Zones A, B, and C were 63.4, 61.0, and 55.3 ppb, respectively. In analyses in which participants were stratified by heater type, the mean personal exposure levels in Zone A were the highest and the levels in Zone C were the lowest for participants without unvented heaters; differences of NO2 levels between Zones A and C ranged from 10.0 to 23.9 ppb. When there were no indoor NO2 sources except gas cooking stoves, both indoor and personal levels of NO2 were attributable primarily to motor vehicle exhaust. In contrast, the use of unvented heaters during the heating seasons could cause NO2 exposures comparable to those attributable to motor vehicles.

  12. Application of positive matrix factorization in characterization of PM(10) and PM(2.5) emission sources at urban roadside.

    PubMed

    Srimuruganandam, B; Shiva Nagendra, S M

    2012-06-01

    The 24-h average coarse (PM(10)) and fine (PM(2.5)) fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM) samples were collected for winter, summer and monsoon seasons during November 2008-April 2009 at an busy roadside in Chennai city, India. Results showed that the 24-h average ambient PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations were significantly higher in winter and monsoon seasons than in summer season. The 24-h average PM(10) concentration of weekdays was significantly higher (12-30%) than weekends of winter and monsoon seasons. On weekends, the PM(2.5) concentration was found to slightly higher (4-15%) in monsoon and summer seasons. The chemical composition of PM(10) and PM(2.5) masses showed a high concentration in winter followed by monsoon and summer seasons. The U.S.EPA-PMF (positive matrix factorization) version 3 was applied to identify the source contribution of ambient PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations at the study area. Results indicated that marine aerosol (40.4% in PM(10) and 21.5% in PM(2.5)) and secondary PM (22.9% in PM(10) and 42.1% in PM(2.5)) were found to be the major source contributors at the study site followed by the motor vehicles (16% in PM(10) and 6% in PM(2.5)), biomass burning (0.7% in PM(10) and 14% in PM(2.5)), tire and brake wear (4.1% in PM(10) and 5.4% in PM(2.5)), soil (3.4% in PM(10) and 4.3% in PM(2.5)) and other sources (12.7% in PM(10) and 6.8% in PM(2.5)).

  13. Relationships between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Roadside Topsoil and Distance to Road Edge Based on Field Observations in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Gao, Dan; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As) in roadside topsoil in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and evaluated the potential environmental risks of these roadside heavy metals due to traffic emissions. A total of 120 topsoil samples were collected along five road segments in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The nonlinear regression method was used to formulize the relationship between the metal concentrations in roadside soils and roadside distance. The Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was applied to assess the degrees of heavy metal contaminations. The regression results showed that both of the heavy metals’ concentrations and their ecological risk indices decreased exponentially with the increase of roadside distance. The large R square values of the regression models indicate that the exponential regression method can suitably describe the relationship between heavy metal accumulation and roadside distance. For the entire study region, there was a moderate level of potential ecological risk within a 10 m roadside distance. However, Cd was the only prominent heavy metal which posed potential hazard to the local soil ecosystem. Overall, the rank of risk contribution to the local environments among the eight heavy metals was Cd > As > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co > Zn > Cr. Considering that Cd is a more hazardous heavy metal than other elements for public health, the local government should pay special attention to this traffic-related environmental issue. PMID:23439515

  14. Green garden snail, Cantareus apertus, as biomonitor and sentinel for integrative metal pollution assessment in roadside soils.

    PubMed

    Mleiki, Anwar; Marigómez, Ionan; El Menif, Najoua Trigui

    2017-09-14

    The present investigation was conceived to study, in a small scale field study, the potential of the green garden snail, Cantareus apertus, as biomonitor and sentinel for integrative metal pollution assessment in soils. For this purpose, we investigated the association between the trace metal (Cd, Pb, As, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) concentrations in soil, plants (Trifolium repens), and C. apertus depending on the distance (20, 150, and 700 m) from a main roadside in Tunisia as well as between metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and neurotoxicity in C. apertus. Results revealed a clear association between the concentration of metals such as Ni, Cu, and Zn in snail digestive gland, both amongst them and with oxidative stress and neurotoxicity biomarkers recorded in the same organ. Interestingly, Ni, Pb, and Zn occurred at the highest concentration in soil, plant, and snails and the association appeared related to the immediacy of the roadside and the concentration of these three metals tended to decrease with distance from the roadside in the soil-plant-snail system. Conversely, Cd and Cu were bioaccumulated in plants and snails but their concentrations in soil were not high and did not show a decline in concentration with distance from the roadside. After PCA analysis, PC-01 (56% of the variance) represented metal bioaccumulation and associated toxic effects in snails in the presence of high levels of metal pollution (nearby the roadside) while PC-02 (35% of the variance) represented stress induced by moderate levels of metal pollution (at intermediate distances from the roadside). The four studied sites were clearly discriminated one from each other, depending on how they are affected by traffic pollution. In summary, this field study reveals that (a) C. apertus can be used as biomonitor for metal pollution in roadside soils and as sentinel for pollution effects assessment based on biochemical biomarkers; and (b) that oxidative

  15. Respiration of resting honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Hetz, Stefan K.; Petz, Markus; Crailsheim, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The relation between the respiratory activity of resting honeybees and ambient temperature (Ta) was investigated in the range of 5–40 °C. Bees were kept in a temperature controlled flow through respirometer chamber where their locomotor and endothermic activity, as well as abdominal ventilatory movements was recorded by infrared thermography. Surprisingly, true resting bees were often weakly endothermic (thorax surface up to 2.8 °C warmer than abdomen) at a Ta of 14–30 °C. Above 33 °C many bees cooled their body via evaporation from their mouthparts. A novel mathematical model allows description of the relationship of resting (standard) metabolic rate and temperature across the entire functional temperature range of bees. In chill coma (<11 °C) bees were ectothermic and CO2 release was mostly continuous. CO2 release rate (nl s−1) decreased from 9.3 at 9.7 °C to 5.4 at 5 °C. At a Ta of >11 °C CO2 was released discontinuously. In the bees’ active temperature range mean CO2 production rate (nl s−1) increased sigmoidally (10.6 at 14.1 °C, 24.1 at 26.5 °C, and 55.2 at 38.1 °C), coming to a halt towards the upper lethal temperature. This was primarily accomplished by an exponential increase in gas exchange frequency (0.54 and 3.1 breaths min−1 at 14.1 and 38.1 °C) but not in released CO2 volume per respiratory cycle (1487 and 1083 nl cycle−1 at 14.1 and 38.1 °C). Emission of CO2 bursts was mostly (98%) accompanied by abdominal ventilation movements even in small CO2 bursts. Larger bursts coincided with a longer duration of active ventilation. An increased amount of CO2 expelled per unit time of ventilation indicates a higher efficiency of ventilation at high ambient temperatures. PMID:17707395

  16. Resting cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  17. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jichul; Benoit, Diane L; Watson, Alan K

    2016-06-01

    In southern Québec, supplement roadside ground covers (i.e. Trifolium spp.) struggle to establish near edges of major roads and thus fail to assist turf recruitment. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd) on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed (A. artemisiifolia) and ground cover legumes (Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium arvense). All metals inhibited T. arvense germination, but the effect was least on A. artemisiifolia. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. artemisiifolia. Germination of L. corniculatus was not affected by Zn, Pb, and Ni, but inhibited by Cu and Cd. Germination of C. varia was decreased by Ni, Cu, and Cd and delayed by Zn and Pb. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. artemisiifolia but highest in T. arvense when exposed to the metal treatments. L. corniculatus and C. varia seedlings survived when subjected to high levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. artemisiifolia along roadside edges can be associated with its greater tolerance of heavy metals. The findings also revealed that L. corniculatus is a potential candidate for supplement ground cover in metal-contaminated roadside edges in southern Québec, especially sites contaminated with Zn and Pb.

  18. Study of the Effectivity of Several Tree Canopy Types on Roadside Green Belt in Influencing The Distribution Vertically and Horizontally of CO gas Emitted from Transportation Activities to Vicinity of The Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistyantara, Bambang; Nasrullah, Nizar; Sitti Fatimah, Indung; Indah Pratiwi, Prita

    2016-01-01

    High volume of vehicle leads to the increase of emission of pollutants level in major cities of Indonesia. Carbon monoxide (CO) is categorized as the main gas pollutants from transportation that are harmful to human health. Plants could be used as roadside green belt to reduce the level of pollutants emitted from the transportation. The purpose of this research is to determine tree canopy type that effectively reduce CO gas concentration, to determine the relation between tree canopy types and pollutant distribution vertically and horizontally. The research was conducted on roadside green belt of Jagorawi Highway, especially on the plot of glodogan (Polyanthea fragrans), plot of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and a control plot (open filed). Air sampling was conducted to measure the concentration of CO at three elevation 1.5 m, 5 m, and 10 m at each distance 0 m, 10 m, and 30 m. Concentration of CO was analysed using Iodometri method. Vertical distribution of CO gas shows that the concentration increases with the increasing of sampling elevation on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans and Swietenia mahogany, but the control plot shows the opposite. Horizontal distribution shows that the concentration decreases at the distance 10 m on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans and Swietenia mahogany, but the concentration increases again at the distance 30 m. At the distance 10 m and an elevation 1.5 m, the highest decline percentage of CO occurs on the plot of Swietenia mahogany (45.1%), on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans is just 22.2%, while in control plot, it increases by 2.2%. At the distance 30 m and elevation 1.5 m, the concentration increased again on all of the plots. Thus roadside green belt with a thickness 10 m is not effective in reducing the concentration of CO at the distance 30 m or in residential areas.

  19. Dual Roadside Seismic Sensor for Moving Road Vehicle Detection and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yinhai; Miller, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using a dual roadside seismic sensor to detect moving vehicles on roadway by installing them on a road shoulder. Seismic signals are split into fixed time intervals in recording. In each interval, the time delay of arrival (TDOA) is estimated using a generalized cross-correlation approach with phase transform (GCC-PHAT). Various kinds of vehicle characterization information, including vehicle speed, axle spacing, detection of both vehicle axles and moving direction, can also be extracted from the collected seismic signals as demonstrated in this paper. The error of both vehicle speed and axle spacing detected by this approach has been shown to be less than 20% through the field tests conducted on an urban street in Seattle. Compared to most existing sensors, this new design of dual seismic sensor is cost effective, easy to install, and effective in gathering information for various traffic management applications. PMID:24526304

  20. Advances in ground vehicle-based LADAR for standoff detection of road-side hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollinger, Jim; Vessey, Alyssa; Close, Ryan; Middleton, Seth; Williams, Kathryn; Rupp, Ronald; Nguyen, Son

    2016-05-01

    Commercial sensor technology has the potential to bring cost-effective sensors to a number of U.S. Army applications. By using sensors built for a widespread of commercial application, such as the automotive market, the Army can decrease costs of future systems while increasing overall capabilities. Additional sensors operating in alternate and orthogonal modalities can also be leveraged to gain a broader spectrum measurement of the environment. Leveraging multiple phenomenologies can reduce false alarms and make detection algorithms more robust to varied concealment materials. In this paper, this approach is applied to the detection of roadside hazards partially concealed by light-to-medium vegetation. This paper will present advances in detection algorithms using a ground vehicle-based commercial LADAR system. The benefits of augmenting a LADAR with millimeter-wave automotive radar and results from relevant data sets are also discussed.

  1. Dual roadside seismic sensor for moving road vehicle detection and characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yinhai; Miller, Gregory R

    2014-02-12

    This paper presents a method for using a dual roadside seismic sensor to detect moving vehicles on roadway by installing them on a road shoulder. Seismic signals are split into fixed time intervals in recording. In each interval, the time delay of arrival (TDOA) is estimated using a generalized cross-correlation approach with phase transform (GCC-PHAT). Various kinds of vehicle characterization information, including vehicle speed, axle spacing, detection of both vehicle axles and moving direction, can also be extracted from the collected seismic signals as demonstrated in this paper. The error of both vehicle speed and axle spacing detected by this approach has been shown to be less than 20% through the field tests conducted on an urban street in Seattle. Compared to most existing sensors, this new design of dual seismic sensor is cost effective, easy to install, and effective in gathering information for various traffic management applications.

  2. Metals in European roadside soils and soil solution--a review.

    PubMed

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-06-01

    This review provides a summary of studies analysing metal concentrations in soils and soil solution at European roadsides. The data collected during 27 studies covering a total of 64 sites across a number of European countries were summarised. Highest median values of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in the top soil layer at the first 5 m beside the road. Generally, the influence of traffic on soil contamination decreased with increasing soil depth and distance to the road. The concentration patterns of metals in soil solution were independent from concentrations in the soil matrix. At 10-m distance, elevated soil metal concentrations, low pH, and low percolation rates led to high solute concentrations. Directly beside the road, high percolation rates lead to high annual loadings although solute concentrations are comparatively low. These loadings might be problematic, especially in regions with acidic sandy soils and a high groundwater table.

  3. Road-Side Drug Testing: An Evaluation of the Alere DDS®2 Mobile Test System.

    PubMed

    Rohrig, Timothy P; Moore, Christine M; Stephens, Kimberly; Cooper, Kelsey; Coulter, Cynthia; Baird, Tyson; Garnier, Margaux; Miller, Samuel; Tuyay, James; Osawa, Kei; Chou, Joshua; Nuss, Carson; Collier, Jeff; Wittman, Karen Cudlin

    2017-09-06

    The number of drivers using drugs has increased over the last few years, and is likely to continue its upward trend. Testing drivers for alcohol use is routine and standardized, but the same is not true for the identification of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The Drug Evaluation and Classification Program (DECP) was developed to train police officers to recognize the signs and symptoms of recent drug use and remains an invaluable program; however there are insufficient numbers of these highly trained drug recognition experts (DRE's) who are available to attend every potential drug involved traffic incident. While blood and urine samples are used to test for drugs in a driver, both have disadvantages particularly as it pertains to the length of time required after a traffic stop to sample collection. Therefore, the development of oral fluid testing devices which can be operated at the roadside and have the potential to assist officers in the identification of drug use is a major advancement in DUID cases. This project evaluated the performance of one instrumental oral fluid roadside testing device (Alere DDS®2) compared to DRE opinion, oral fluid laboratory based analysis and routine blood testing. The results showed that there was a good correlation with DRE observations and the device performance was >80% in all drug categories compared to laboratory-based analytical testing; both in oral fluid and blood, with few exceptions. The instrument can be considered a useful tool to assist law enforcement in identifying a drugged driver. Because the device does not test for all potentially impairing drugs, the opinion of the police officer regarding the condition of a driver should still be considered the most important aspect for arrest and further action. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water sold by roadside vendors of Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Pankaj; Varma, Ajit; Jindal, Tanu

    2015-07-01

    Delhi has emerged as one of the greenest capital city of the world. Microbiological assessment of drinking water emphasizes estimation of the hygienic quality of the water sold with reference to community health significance. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors in east, west, north and south zones of capital of India. A total number of 36 samples (nine from each zone) were collected as per national guidelines and studied for microbiological assessment. All the drinking water samples were collected in gamma-sterilized bottles and were kept in an ice pack to prevent any significant change in the microbial flora of the samples during the transportation. The water samples were transported to the laboratory in vertical position maintaining the temperature 1-4 °C with ice pack enveloped conditions. Samples were analyzed for total MPN coliform per 100 ml and for the presence and absence of common human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the samples were found to be contaminated with coliform organisms in the range of 14 to >1600 per 100 ml of sample. Out of 36 water samples, the occurrence of E. coli was 61 %, Salmonella 25 % S. aureus 14 % and P. aeruginosa 53 % as 22, 9, 5 and 19 samples were found contaminated, respectively. The numbers of coliform bacteria and presence of some common pathogenic bacteria suggested that the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors is not within the Indian standard and WHO guidelines laid down for drinking water quality. Hence, there is a vital need to study the root cause in terms of hygiene, sanitation of vendors and source of contamination to prevent waterborne diseases.

  5. The effects of roadside structures on the transport and dispersion of ultrafine particles from highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, George E.; Baldauf, Richard; Isakov, Vlad; Khlystov, Andrey; Petersen, William

    Understanding local-scale transport and dispersion of pollutants emitted from traffic sources is important for urban planning and air quality assessments. Predicting pollutant concentration patterns in complex environments depends on accurate representations of local features (e.g., noise barriers, trees, buildings) affecting near-field air flows. This study examined the effects of roadside barriers on the flow patterns and dispersion of pollutants from a high-traffic highway in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. The effects of the structures were analyzed using the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) model, an empirically based diagnostic tool which simulates fine-scale wind field and dispersion patterns around obstacles. Model simulations were compared with the spatial distributions of ultrafine particles (UFP) from vehicular emissions measured using a passenger van equipped with a Differential Mobility Analyzer/Condensation Particle Counter. The field site allowed for an evaluation of pollutant concentrations in open terrain, with a noise barrier present near the road, and with a noise barrier and vegetation present near the road. Results indicated that air pollutant concentrations near the road were generally higher in open terrain situations with no barriers present; however, concentrations for this case decreased faster with distance than when roadside barriers were present. The presence of a noise barrier and vegetation resulted in the lowest downwind pollutant concentrations, indicating that the plume under this condition was relatively uniform and vertically well-mixed. Comparison of the QUIC model with the mobile UFP measurements indicated that QUIC reasonably represented pollutant transport and dispersion for each of the study configurations.

  6. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water sold by roadside vendors of Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Pankaj; Varma, Ajit; Jindal, Tanu

    2017-07-01

    Delhi has emerged as one of the greenest capital city of the world. Microbiological assessment of drinking water emphasizes estimation of the hygienic quality of the water sold with reference to community health significance. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors in east, west, north and south zones of capital of India. A total number of 36 samples (nine from each zone) were collected as per national guidelines and studied for microbiological assessment. All the drinking water samples were collected in gamma-sterilized bottles and were kept in an ice pack to prevent any significant change in the microbial flora of the samples during the transportation. The water samples were transported to the laboratory in vertical position maintaining the temperature 1-4 °C with ice pack enveloped conditions. Samples were analyzed for total MPN coliform per 100 ml and for the presence and absence of common human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the samples were found to be contaminated with coliform organisms in the range of 14 to >1600 per 100 ml of sample. Out of 36 water samples, the occurrence of E. coli was 61 %, Salmonella 25 % S. aureus 14 % and P. aeruginosa 53 % as 22, 9, 5 and 19 samples were found contaminated, respectively. The numbers of coliform bacteria and presence of some common pathogenic bacteria suggested that the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors is not within the Indian standard and WHO guidelines laid down for drinking water quality. Hence, there is a vital need to study the root cause in terms of hygiene, sanitation of vendors and source of contamination to prevent waterborne diseases.

  7. Improved method for roadside barrier length of need modeling using real-world trajectories.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Thomson, Robert; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-07-01

    The 2011 AASHTO Roadside Design Guide (RDG) contains perhaps the most widely used procedure for choosing an appropriate length of need (LON) for roadside barriers. However, this procedure has several limitations. The procedure uses a highly simplified model of vehicle departure, and the procedure does not allow designers to specify an explicit level of protection. A new procedure for choosing LON that addresses these limitations is presented in this paper. This new procedure is based on recent, real-world road departure trajectories and uses this departure data in a more realistic way. The new procedure also allows LON to be specified for a precisely known level of protection - a level which can be based on number of crashes, injury outcomes or even estimated crash cost - while still remaining straightforward and quick to use like the 2011 RDG procedure. In this analysis, the improved procedure was used to explore the effects of the RDG procedure's assumptions. LON recommendations given by the 2011 RDG procedure were compared with recommendations given by this improved procedure. For 55 mph roads, the 2011 RDG procedure appears to lead to a LON sufficient to intercept between 80% and 90% of right-side departures that would otherwise strike a hazard located 10 m from the roadway. For hazards closer than 10 m, the 2011 RDG procedure intercepts progressively higher percentages of real-world departures. This suggests the protection level provided by the 2011 RDG procedure varies with the hazard offset, becoming more conservative as the hazard moves closer to the roadway. The improved procedure, by comparison, gives a consistent protection level regardless of hazard location. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Roadside tree attenuation measurements at UHF for land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1987-01-01

    Tree attenuation results at 870 MHz are described for experiments conducted in October 1985 and March 1986 in Central Maryland. These experiments employed a helicopter as a source platform and a van with receiver and data acquisition instrumentation. Tree attenuation results were obtained for the cases in which the van was stationary and in motion. The experiments were performed for the purpose of providing the designers of planned land mobile satellite systems with important elements in the determination of link parameter requirements; namely, the expected fading statistics due to roadside trees for both mobile and stationary vehicles. Single tree attenuation results gave worst case median fades as high as 15 dB although roadside tree values were noted to produce fades in excess of 20 dB for small percentages of time. The cumulative fade distributions and their relative contributions as a function of path elevation angle, right side versus left side driving, and different road types are derived from the field measurements. Upon comparing the attenuations from bare deciduous trees (March 1986) with those due to trees in full foliage (October 1985), the increase in dB attenuations were, in general, less than 25 percent for the dynamic cases, and less than 40 percent for the worst case static configuration. This result demonstrates that the dominant fading is caused by the wooded tree branches as opposed to the leaves on these branches. The tail end of the observed fade distributions was observed to follow lognormal distributions with respect to dB attenuation.

  9. Rest tremor suppression may separate essential from parkinsonian rest tremor.

    PubMed

    Papengut, Frank; Raethjen, Jan; Binder, Andreas; Deuschl, Günther

    2013-07-01

    Rest tremor at 4-6 Hz is typical for classical rest tremor (PT) of Parkinson's disease (PD). But rest tremor also appears in other tremor syndromes and may therefore cause a misdiagnosis. In this study we evaluated if suppression of tremor during movement onset is a characteristic feature of Parkinsonian Tremor distinguishing PT from Essential tremor (ET) and if this sign can be reliably diagnosed. Clinically diagnosed patients with PT (n = 44) and ET (n = 22) with rest tremor were included. Video sequences were recorded according to a standardized protocol focusing on the change of tremor amplitude during transition from rest to posture (test 1) or to a target-directed movement (test 2). These videos were assessed for rest tremor suppression by 4 reviewers (2 specialists and 2 residents) blinded to the clinical diagnosis and were compared to the personal assessment of an unblinded movement disorder specialist. Rest tremor suppression was found in 39/44 PD patients and in 2/22 patients with ET during the personal assessment. Rest tremor suppression showed a high sensitivity (0.92-1.00) and an acceptable specificity (0.69-0.95) for PD tremor in both tests. The interrater-reliability of the video-sequences was good to very good (κ 0.73-0.91). Less than 3% of the video sequences were misclassified. We conclude that the assessment of the suppression of rest tremor during movement initiation is a simple and reliable tool to separate PT from rest tremor in ET also suggesting that the mechanisms of rest tremor in these two diseases are different.

  10. Understanding how roadside concentrations of NOx are influenced by the background levels, traffic density, and meteorological conditions using Boosted Regression Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayegh, Arwa; Tate, James E.; Ropkins, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) is a major component of photochemical smog and its constituents are considered principal traffic-related pollutants affecting human health. This study investigates the influence of background concentrations of NOx, traffic density, and prevailing meteorological conditions on roadside concentrations of NOx at UK urban, open motorway, and motorway tunnel sites using the statistical approach Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). BRT models have been fitted using hourly concentration, traffic, and meteorological data for each site. The models predict, rank, and visualise the relationship between model variables and roadside NOx concentrations. A strong relationship between roadside NOx and monitored local background concentrations is demonstrated. Relationships between roadside NOx and other model variables have been shown to be strongly influenced by the quality and resolution of background concentrations of NOx, i.e. if it were based on monitored data or modelled prediction. The paper proposes a direct method of using site-specific fundamental diagrams for splitting traffic data into four traffic states: free-flow, busy-flow, congested, and severely congested. Using BRT models, the density of traffic (vehicles per kilometre) was observed to have a proportional influence on the concentrations of roadside NOx, with different fitted regression line slopes for the different traffic states. When other influences are conditioned out, the relationship between roadside concentrations and ambient air temperature suggests NOx concentrations reach a minimum at around 22 °C with high concentrations at low ambient air temperatures which could be associated to restricted atmospheric dispersion and/or to changes in road traffic exhaust emission characteristics at low ambient air temperatures. This paper uses BRT models to study how different critical factors, and their relative importance, influence the variation of roadside NOx concentrations. The paper

  11. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  12. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  13. View of parking (resting) frame that supported the Shuttle assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of parking (resting) frame that supported the Shuttle assembly when the hydrodynamic supports were not engaged (removed from structure). - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. Measuring OVOCs and VOCs by PTR-MS in an urban roadside microenvironment of Hong Kong: relative humidity and temperature dependence, and field intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Long; Zhang, Zhou; Huang, Yu; Lee, Shun Cheng; Blake, Donald Ray; Ho, Kin Fai; Wang, Bei; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xin Ming; Kwok Keung Louie, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) control is an important issue of air quality management in Hong Kong because ozone formation is generally VOC limited. Several oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC) and VOC measurement techniques - namely, (1) offline 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridge sampling followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis; (2) online gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID); and (3) offline canister sampling followed by GC with mass spectrometer detection (MSD), FID, and electron capture detection (ECD) - were applied during this study. For the first time, the proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) technique was also introduced to measured OVOCs and VOCs in an urban roadside area of Hong Kong. The integrated effect of ambient relative humidity (RH) and temperature (T) on formaldehyde measurements by PTR-MS was explored in this study. A Poly 2-D regression was found to be the best nonlinear surface simulation (r = 0.97) of the experimental reaction rate coefficient ratio, ambient RH, and T for formaldehyde measurement. This correction method was found to be better than correcting formaldehyde concentrations directly via the absolute humidity of inlet sample, based on a 2-year field sampling campaign at Mong Kok (MK) in Hong Kong. For OVOC species, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and MEK showed good agreements between PTR-MS and DNPH-HPLC with slopes of 1.00, 1.10, 0.76, and 0.88, respectively, and correlation coefficients of 0.79, 0.75, 0.60, and 0.93, respectively. Overall, fair agreements were found between PTR-MS and online GC-FID for benzene (slope = 1.23, r = 0.95), toluene (slope = 1.01, r = 0.96) and C2-benzenes (slope = 1.02, r = 0.96) after correcting benzene and C2-benzenes levels which could be affected by fragments formed from ethylbenzene. For the intercomparisons between PTR-MS and offline canister measurements by GC-MSD/FID/ECD, benzene showed good agreement

  15. Driver perception of roadside configurations on two-lane rural roads: Effects on speed and lateral placement.

    PubMed

    Bella, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a driving simulator study which sought to analyze the effect that: (a) three roadside configurations on a two-lane rural road lined with trees have on speed and lateral position of the driver, depending on different cross-sections as well as geometric elements; (b) the beginning of the guardrail barrier has upon the driver's behavior whenever this occurs on the left curve, right curve or tangent. A two-lane rural road lined with trees was designed and implemented in an advanced-interactive driving simulator. Two different cross-sections (with and without a shoulder), which were combined with three roadside configurations (only trees, trees and barriers, trees and barriers having undergone a treatment), were tested. Six road scenarios were then analyzed. Thirty-six drivers (33 were deemed to be valid and used for the analysis) drove in the simulator using these scenarios and the speed and lateral placement values were collected. Statistical analysis showed that the driver behavior was only affected by the cross-sections and geometric elements but not by roadside configurations. Although the presence of trees along the road represents a factor that increases the severity of run-off-road accidents, drivers do not change their behavior when barriers are not present. Concerning the effects of the beginning of the barrier, MANOVA revealed a main effect for roadside configuration on lateral position but not on speed. There was also a clear tendency of drivers to "cut" both the right curves as well as the left curves in order to minimize the speed reduction in the tangent-curve-tangent transition. These main results allow useful suggestions to be made as regards safety measures for improving road safety on two-lane rural roads lined with trees.

  16. Concentrations of PAHs in atmospheric particles (PM-10) and roadside soil particles collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Nasr Yousef M. J.; Abas, M. Radzi Bin; Ketuly, Kamal Aziz; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric particles and roadside soil particles were measured at eight locations in the city center and the suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Atmospheric particles were collected using high-volume PM-10 sampler on glass fiber filters over 24 h average sampling period. Both types of samples were extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonic agitation. The extracts were then fractionated on an alumina-silica column and the aromatic fraction was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Total PAH concentrations in the atmospheric particles and roadside soil particles were found to be 6.28±4.35 ng m -3 and 0.22±0.11 μg g -1, respectively. Benzo[ g, h, i]perylene and coronene were found to be the most abundant PAHs in airborne particles at all locations. The most abundant PAHs in the roadside soil particles were fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene.

  17. Accumulations of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soils Close to Zhaling, Eling and Nam Co Lakes in the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Dan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of four typical heavy metals (Cu; Zn; Cd and Pb) in roadside soils close to three lakes in the Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this study. The hierarchical tree-based regression method was applied to classify concentrations of the heavy metals and analyze their potential influencing factors. It was found that the Tibetan Plateau meadow soils with higher content of sand lead to higher concentrations of Cu; Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increase with road traffic volume; and for the road segments with higher traffic volume; the Cd and Pb concentrations significantly decrease with the roadside distance. Additionally; the concentrations of Zn and Pb increase as the altitude of sampling site increases. Furthermore; the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was used to assess the contamination degree of the heavy metals for the study regions. The results show that accumulations of Cu; Zn and Pb in roadside soils remain an unpolluted level at all sites. However; the Cd indices in the regions with higher traffic volume have reached a strong potential ecological risk level; and some spots with peak concentrations have even been severely polluted due to traffic activities. PMID:23749055

  18. Black carbon at a roadside site in Beijing: Temporal variations and relationships with carbon monoxide and particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaojie; Wu, Ye; Xu, Jiayu; Ohara, Toshimasa; Hasegawa, Shuichi; Li, Jiaqi; Yang, Liu; Hao, Jiming

    2013-10-01

    Black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and particle number size distribution were measured near a major urban expressway of Beijing during summer and winter field campaigns in 2009. BC was also observed at urban and rural sites. The temporal variations of BC and its relationships with CO and particle number size distribution were analyzed. The average BC concentrations at the roadside site were 12.3 and 17.9 μg m-3 during the summer and winter campaigns, respectively. BC concentrations ranked in the order of roadside > urban > rural. A general diurnal pattern at all sites showed that the higher BC levels were observed at night. The diurnal pattern of summertime BC at the roadside site followed the variations of heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs). The increased proportion of HDDVs at night contributed to high ΔBC/ΔCO ratios. This study suggests that HDDVs are an important contributor to nighttime BC and particle number concentrations of both Aitken and accumulation modes near major roadways in Beijing, especially in summer.

  19. The distribution process of traffic contamination on roadside surface and the influence of meteorological conditions revealed by magnetic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Wang, Longsheng; Appel, Erwin

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing number of vehicles and the development of transport systems, traffic contamination has become an important source of current environmental pollution. The study of roadside distribution patterns of traffic-related contaminants and its influencing factors can contribute to assess the scope and distribution process of the contaminants. A large number of works confirmed that magnetic methods which are fast and economic can be used to indicate the traffic-related pollution. Based on the previous study, we installed two new monitoring sites and conducted repeated in situ measurements of magnetic susceptibility (κ). From these data, we calculated the accumulation amount and accumulation rate of κ to reveal the detailed distribution process of traffic contaminants on the roadside surface over time. In addition, we collected daily meteorological data (rainfall and wind direction) and conducted a correlation analysis between the accumulation rate of κ and the meteorological data. The results show that the accumulation rate of traffic contaminants on the roadside surface is lower in periods of higher rainfall, and that the winds influence the distribution pattern of contaminants through changing their transmission path. The results confirm that magnetic methods can be used to reveal the detailed distribution process of traffic-related contaminants and its influencing factors.

  20. Accumulations of heavy metals in roadside soils close to zhaling, eling and nam co lakes in the tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Dan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

    2013-06-07

    Concentrations of four typical heavy metals (Cu; Zn; Cd and Pb) in roadside soils close to three lakes in the Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this study. The hierarchical tree-based regression method was applied to classify concentrations of the heavy metals and analyze their potential influencing factors. It was found that the Tibetan Plateau meadow soils with higher content of sand lead to higher concentrations of Cu; Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increase with road traffic volume; and for the road segments with higher traffic volume; the Cd and Pb concentrations significantly decrease with the roadside distance. Additionally; the concentrations of Zn and Pb increase as the altitude of sampling site increases. Furthermore; the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was used to assess the contamination degree of the heavy metals for the study regions. The results show that accumulations of Cu; Zn and Pb in roadside soils remain an unpolluted level at all sites. However; the Cd indices in the regions with higher traffic volume have reached a strong potential ecological risk level; and some spots with peak concentrations have even been severely polluted due to traffic activities.

  1. FOREST RECREATION FOR PROFIT, SELF-HELP SUGGESTIONS FOR RURAL AREAS DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    FARMERS AND OTHER LAND OWNERS CAN UTILIZE WOODLAND FOR PROFIT BY DEVELOPING RECREATION AREAS. CAMPGROUND AND PICNIC AREAS CAN PROVIDE ADDITIONAL INCOME AND CAN FIT IN WITH THE OPERATION OF OTHER SMALL BUSINESSES, SUCH AS A ROADSIDE STORE, A PRODUCE STAND, OR A FILLING STATION. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS IN PLANNING A RECREATION DEVELOPMENT INCLUDE--(1)…

  2. RESTful Web Services at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, R.

    2011-06-14

    RESTful (REpresentational State Transfer) web services are an alternative implementation to SOAP/RPC web services in a client/server model. BNLs IT Division has started deploying RESTful Web Services for enterprise data retrieval and manipulation. Data is currently used by system administrators for tracking configuration information and as it is expanded will be used by Cyber Security for vulnerability management and as an aid to cyber investigations. This talk will describe the implementation and outstanding issues as well as some of the reasons for choosing RESTful over SOAP/RPC and future directions.

  3. Bioaccessibility and size distribution of metals in road dust and roadside soils along a peri-urban transect.

    PubMed

    Padoan, Elio; Romè, Chiara; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

    2017-12-01

    Road dust (RD), together with surface soils, is recognized as one of the main sinks of pollutants in urban environments. Over the last years, many studies have focused on total and bioaccessible concentrations while few have assessed the bioaccessibility of size-fractionated elements in RD. Therefore, the distribution and bioaccessibility of Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn in size fractions of RD and roadside soils (<2.5μm, 2.5-10μm and 10-200μm) have been studied using aqua regia extraction and the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test. Concentrations of metals in soils are higher than legislative limits for Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn. Fine fractions appear enriched in Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn, and 2.5-10μm particles are the most enriched. In RD, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn derive primarily from non-exhaust sources, while Zn is found in greater concentrations in the <2.5μm fraction, where it most likely has an industrial origin. Elemental distribution across soils is dependent on land use, with Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb being present in higher concentrations at traffic sites. In addition, Fe, Ni and Cr feature greater bioaccessibility in the two finer fractions, while anthropic metals (Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn) do not. In RD, only Zn has significantly higher bioaccessibility at traffic sites compared to background, and the finest particles are always the most bioaccessible; >90% of Pb, Zn and Cu is bioaccessible in the <2.5μm fraction, while for Mn, Ni, Sb, Fe and Cr, values vary from 76% to 5%. In the 2.5-10μm fraction, the values were 89% for Pb, 67% for Zn and 60% for Cu. These results make the evaluation of the bioaccessibility of size-fractionated particles appear to be a necessity for correct estimation of risk in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics and health implications of fine and coarse particulates at roadside, urban background and rural sites in UK.

    PubMed

    Namdeo, A; Bell, M C

    2005-05-01

    Recent studies have pointed to evidence that fine particles in the air could be significant contributors to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Epidemiologists looking at the health effects of particulate pollution need more information from various receptor locations to improve the understanding of this problem. Detailed information on temporal, spatial and size distributions of particulate pollution in urban areas is also important for air quality modellers as well as being an aid to decision and policy makers of local authorities. This paper presents a detailed analysis of temporal and seasonal variation of PM(10) and PM(2.5) levels at one urban roadside, one urban background and one rural monitoring location. Levels of PM(10), PM(2.5) and coarse fraction of particulates are compared. In addition, particulate levels are compared with NO(2) and CO concentrations. The study concludes that PM(10) and PM(2.5) are closely related at urban locations. Diurnal variation in PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratio shows the influence of vehicular emission and movement on size distribution. This ratio is higher in winter than in summer, indicating a build-up or longer residence time of finer particulates or washout due to wet weather in winter. In the second part of this study, a disease burden analysis is carried out based on the dose-response relationships recommended by the UK Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollution. The disease burden analysis indicates that if Marylebone Road (MR) levels of PM(10) were prevalent all over London, it will result in around 2.5% increase in death rates due to all causes. Whereas, if Bloomsbury (BB) levels were prevalent in London, which is more likely to occur as this is more representative of the urban background environment to which people in London are likely to be exposed, the corresponding increase would be around 1.7%. Considering this, in London, at Bloomsbury levels, 973 deaths and 1515 respiratory hospital admissions

  5. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  6. Watching the fetal brain at 'rest'.

    PubMed

    Schöpf, V; Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2012-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of human brain networks. According to the neurophysiological property of the fetal brain to generate spontaneous activity, we aimed to determine the feasibility of investigating the maturation of intrinsic networks, beginning at gestational week 20 in healthy human fetuses by combining resting-state fMRI and an analytical approach, independent component analysis (ICA). In this study, functional images of 16 fetuses with morphologically normal brain development, from 20 to 36 gestational weeks of age, were acquired on a 1.5T unit (Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) using single-shot, gradient-recalled echo-planar imaging. After preprocessing (motion correction, brain extraction), images were analyzed using single-subject ICA. We visualized a bilateral occipital network and medial and lateral prefrontal activity pattern that involved the future Brodmann areas 9-11. Furthermore, there was one either predominantly right (3/7 cases) or left (4/7 cases) hemispheric lateralized network that involved the superior temporal cortical regions (Brodmann areas 22 and 39). Frequency oscillations were in the range of 0.01-0.06Hz for all networks. This study shows that resting-state networks (RSNs) are shaped and are detectable in utero. Further investigations of resting-state measurements in the fetus may therefore allow developmental brain activity monitoring and may provide insights into early brain function. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Small mammal community composition in cornfields, roadside ditches, and prairies in eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Community composition of small mammals was examined in prairies, cornfields, and their adjacent roadside ditches in eastern Nebraska. Western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were associated with prairie habitat, were common in ditches, but avoided cornfields. Prairie voles (M. Ochrogaster) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were associated with ditch habitat, were common in prairies, but avoided cornfields. Short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) avoided cornfields, were associated with ditches next to cornfields, but were common in prairies and ditches next to prairies. Deer mice (P. Maniculatus) were associated with cornfields but were relatively common in prairies and ditches. House mice (Mus musculus) were most common in ditches next to cornfields, occurred in cornfields and ditches next to prairies, but were not captured in prairies. Although community composition appears to differ among prairies, ditches, and cornfields, ditches support a more complete suite of the native small mammal species in large and relatively even numbers, whereas cornfields only support deer mice in large numbers.

  8. Roadside BTEX and other gaseous air pollutants in relation to emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truc, Vo Thi Quynh; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    Hourly concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m, p-xylenes, and o-xylene (BTEX) plus CO, NO x, SO 2 were monitored at roadsides simultaneously with the traffic volume during the dry season of 2004, in Hanoi, Vietnam. The selected three streets included Truong Chinh (TC) with high traffic volume, Dien Bien Phu (DBP) with low traffic volume, and Nguyen Trai (NT) with high traffic volume running through an industrial estate. BTEX were sampled by SKC charcoal tubes and analyzed by GC-FID. Geometric means of hourly benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m, p-xylenes and o-xylene are, respectively, 65, 62, 15, 43, and 22 μg m -3 in TC street; 30, 38, 9, 26, and 13 μg m -3 in DBP street; and 123, 87, 24, 56, and 30 μg m -3 in NT street. Levels of other gaseous pollutants including CO, NO x, and SO 2, measured by automatic instruments, were low and not exceeding the Vietnam national ambient air quality standards. BTEX levels were comparatively analyzed for different downwind distances (3-50 m) from the street, between peak hours and off-peak hours, as well as between weekdays and weekend. Results of principal component analysis suggest that the gaseous pollutants are associated with different vehicle types.

  9. Impact of roadside ditch dredging on bacterial communities and biological contamination of a tidal creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Chance E.; Barkovskii, Andrei L.

    2017-03-01

    Tidal creek networks form the primary hydrologic link between estuaries and land-based activities on barrier islands. A possible impact from the excavation of drainage ditch systems on bacterial communities and biological contamination was studied in the water column and sediments of headwater, mid-stream, and mouth sites of the intertidal Oakdale Creek on Sapelo Island, GA. Community analysis was performed using the MiSeq Illumina platform and revealed that dredging was the cause of a significant rise in Proteobacteria, especially γ-proteobacteria. Targeted biological contaminants included fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus spp. (Entero-1), pathogens, Shigella spp. (ipaH), and Salmonella spp (invA), virulence associated genes (VG's) of pathogenic E. coli (eaeA, hlyD, stx1, stx2, and set1B), integrons (intI1, intI2), and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs). Incidence and gene concentrations of Shigella spp., eaeA and set1B, and of TRGs increased 3-20 folds after the onset of dredging, and followed the dredging schedule. Principal Component Analysis suggested possible common carriers for Shigella spp., some TRGs, and the pathogenic E. coli eaeA gene. At the site of dredging, all of the above contaminants were detected at high concentrations. We concluded that excavation of roadside ditches caused significant changes in bacterial composition and a rise in incidence and concentrations of biological contaminants in the creek. The authors suggest a different approach for the maintenance of this material be explored.

  10. Airborne pollutants along a roadside: assessment using snow analyses and moss bags.

    PubMed

    Viskari, E L; Rekilä, R; Roy, S; Lehto, O; Ruuskanen, J; Kärenlampi, L

    1997-01-01

    Vertical snow sampling and moss bag transplants were used to estimate the local inorganic and organic pollutant load deposited from traffic along a major highway in Finland. The pH and concentrations of Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Ca(2+), Na(+) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined from snow samples collected in winter at different sites along the highway. In summer, moss bags containing 20 g of fresh red-stemmed feather moss (Pleurozium schreberi) were transplanted at the same sites. The moss bag transplants remained exposed to roadside traffic for a period of one month following which the samples were collected and the PAH profiles and concentrations were analysed. The deposition of inorganic and organic pollutants from road traffic was observed up to 60 m from the road. The prevailing winds had a significant effect on the dispersion of pollutants. Snow appears to be a good collector of inorganic pollutants from the atmosphere and can be used to monitor local airborne pollution from road traffic. Snow packs can also be used as passive collectors of organic pollutant loads from road traffic on a local scale. To monitor organic PAH deposition from the road traffic, moss bags appeared to be better indicators compared to snow sampling. The efficiency of moss bags in accumulating PAH compounds indicate that vegetation may be an important sink for traffic pollution.

  11. Roadside bear viewing opportunities in Yellowstone National Park: characteristics, trends, and influence of whitebark pine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Gunther, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Opportunities for viewing grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) from roadways in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have increased in recent years. Unlike the panhandling bears common prior to the 1970s, current viewing usually involves bears feeding on natural foods. We define roadside bear viewing opportunities that cause traffic congestion as ‘‘bear-jams.’’ We investigated characteristics of bear-jams and their frequency relative to whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) cone production, an important fall food for bears, during 1990–2004. We observed a difference in diel distribution of bear-jams between species (x2=70.609, 4 df, P<0.001) with the occurrence of grizzly bear-jams being more crepuscular. We found evidence for decreasing distances between bears and roadways and increasing durations of bears-jams. The annual proportion of bear-jams for both species occurring after the week of 13–19 August were 3–4 times higher during poor cone crop years than good. We suggest that native foods found in road corridors may be especially important to some individual bears during years exhibiting poor whitebark pine crops. We discuss management implications of threats to whitebark pine and increasing habituation of bears to people.

  12. Platinum group element and cerium concentrations in roadside environments in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Hassan Pour, Zahra; Zereini, Fathi

    2016-02-01

    Platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) are accumulating globally in the environment, due to their use as catalysts to control automotive exhaust emissions. While environmental increases in platinum metal concentrations have been well documented for a number of countries, published data for Canada have been missing to date. The aim of this study is to examine the concentrations of Pt, Pd and Rh, as well as Ce, in soils and dust as a function of traffic volume in Toronto, Ontario. Soils and road and underpass dust were collected from two sites with medium and high volumes of traffic. Samples were acid digested and co-precipitated with Hg (for Pd) and Te (for Pt and Rh), prior to measurement using ICP-Q-MS. Palladium occurred at the highest levels in samples, followed by Pt and Rh. Median concentrations for all soil samples were 63 μg Pd/kg, 8.7 μg Pt/kg, 1.7 μg Rh/kg and 41 mg Ce/kg. The results support existing data regarding PGE accumulation trends in urban and roadside environments, due to their use as catalysts in automotive catalytic converters. This study also confirms a shift toward the heavier use of Pd as the catalyst of choice in recent years, as reflected in the higher concentrations measured for this metal relative to Pt and Rh. The results highlight a need to continue monitoring the accumulation of PGE, most notably Pd, in urban environments.

  13. Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.

    PubMed

    Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

    2012-10-02

    A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ≤ 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models.

  14. Investigating the impact of static roadside advertising on drivers' situation awareness.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristie L; Stephens, Amanda N; Logan, David B; Lenné, Michael G

    2017-04-01

    Roadside advertising has the potential to create a crash risk for drivers as it may distract attention from driving at critical times. In an on-road instrumented vehicle study, we examined if and how static advertising billboards affect drivers' situation awareness across different driving environments. Nineteen fully licensed drivers drove an instrumented vehicle around a 38 km urban test route comprising freeway, busy urban retail and arterial road sections. The route contained a number of static billboards. Drivers provided continuous verbal protocols throughout the drive. Results indicated that the structure and content of drivers' situation awareness was not appreciably affected by the billboards in any of the road environments examined. Drivers focused their attention on the billboards when driving demand was low, such as when driving on the freeway with light to moderate traffic, in lower speed zones, or when stationary. However, when drivers were required to perform a manoeuvre or driving demands increased, drivers directed less attention to the billboards and focussed their awareness on the immediate driving task. This suggests that drivers can, at least under some conditions, effectively self-regulate their attention to billboards when required to focus on the immediate traffic or driving situation.

  15. Using Roadside Billboard Posters to Increase Admission Rates to Problem Gambling Services: Reflections on Failure.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, Kimberly A; Wellington, William J

    2015-07-01

    Based on the stimulus-response model of advertising, this study sought to increase admission rates to a local problem gambling service (PGS) in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, by adding a series of locally based 10 foot by 20 foot roadside billboard posters to PGS's existing communications tools for a 24-week period. Using proof of performance reports, a pre-post survey of new callers to PGS, a website visit counter, and a media awareness survey, the findings showed that at least some individuals were influenced by billboard exposure, but admission rates continued to decline during the billboard campaign period. While one possible explanation for the communications failure was that the whole PGS communications campaign was below the minimal threshold for communications perception, another possible explanation is that the stimulus-response model of advertising used may not have been appropriate for such advertising that targets behavior change. Reflections on using an information-processing model instead of a stimulus-response model, and considerations of a two-step flow of communication, are provided. Recommendations are made regarding matching communications messages to stages of behavior change, use of online promotion, and strategies for future research.

  16. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  17. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  18. Continuous measurements at the urban roadside in an Asian megacity by Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM): particulate matter characteristics during fall and winter seasons in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Lee, B. P.; Huang, D.; Jie Li, Y.; Schurman, M. I.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Chan, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    Non-refractory submicron aerosol is characterized using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) in the fall and winter seasons of 2013 on the roadside in an Asian megacity environment in Hong Kong. Organic aerosol (OA), characterized by application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), and sulfate are found to be dominant. Traffic-related organic aerosol shows good correlation with other vehicle-related species, and cooking aerosol displays clear mealtime concentration maxima and association with surface winds from restaurant areas. Contributions of individual species and OA factors to high NR-PM1 are analyzed for hourly data and daily data; while cooking emissions in OA contribute to high hourly concentrations, particularly during mealtimes, secondary organic aerosol components are responsible for episodic events and high day-to-day PM concentrations. Clean periods are either associated with precipitation, which reduces secondary OA with a lesser impact on primary organics, or clean oceanic air masses with reduced long-range transport and better dilution of local pollution. Haze events are connected with increases in contribution of secondary organic aerosol, from 30 to 50 % among total non-refractory organics, and the influence of continental air masses.

  19. Continuous measurements at the urban roadside in an Asian Megacity by Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM): particulate matter characteristics during fall and winter seasons in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Lee, B. P.; Huang, D.; Li, Y. J.; Schurman, M. I.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Chan, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    Non-refractory submicron aerosol is characterized using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) in the fall and winter seasons of 2013 at the roadside in an Asian megacity environment in Hong Kong. Organic aerosol (OA), characterized by application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), and sulfate are found dominant. Traffic-related organic aerosol shows good correlation with other vehicle-related species, and cooking aerosol displays clear meal-time concentration maxima and association with surface winds from restaurant areas. Contributions of individual species and OA factors to high NR-PM1 are analyzed for hourly data and daily data; while cooking emissions in OA contribute to high hourly concentrations, particularly during meal times, secondary organic aerosol components are responsible for episodic events and high day-to-day PM concentrations. Clean periods are either associated with precipitation, which reduces secondary OA with a~lesser impact on primary organics, or clean oceanic air masses with reduced long-range transport and better dilution of local pollution. Haze events are connected with increases in contribution of secondary organic aerosol, from 30 to 50 % among total non-refractory organics, and influence of continental air masses.

  20. Study of the effectiveness of several tree canopy types on roadside green belt in influencing the distribution of NO2 gas emitted from transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desyana, R. D.; Sulistyantara, B.; Nasrullah, N.; Fatimah, I. S.

    2017-03-01

    Transportation is one significant factor which contributes to urban air pollution. One of the pollutants emitted from transportation which affect human’s health is NO2. Plants, especially trees, have high potential in reducing air pollutants from transportation through diffusion, absorbtion, adsorption and deposition. Purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of several tree canopy types on roadside green belt in influencing distribution of NO2 gas emitted from transportation. The study conducted in three plots of tree canopy in Jagorawi Highway: Bungur (Lagerstroemia speciosa), Gmelina (Gmelina arborea) and Tanjung (Mimusops elengi). The tree canopy ability in absorbing pollutant is derived by comparing air quality on vegetated area with ambience air quality at control area (open field). Air sampling was conducted to measure NO2 concentration at elevation 1.5m, 5m and 10m at distance 0m, 10m and 30m, using Air Sampler Impinger. Concentration of NO2 was analyzed with Griess-Saltzman method. From this research, the result of ANOVA showed that tree plot (vegetated area) affected significantly to NO2 concentration. However the effect of distance from road and elevation was not significant. Among the plots, the highest NO2 concentration was found on Control plot (area without tree canopy), while the lowest NO2 concentration was found in Tanjung plot. Tanjung plot with round shape and high density canopy performed better in reducing NO2 than Bungur plot with round shape and medium density canopy, regardless the sampling elevation and distance. Gmelina plot performed the best in reducing horizontal distribution of NO2 concentration at elevation 1.5 and 5m, but the result at elevation 10m was not significant.

  1. [Road-side observational survey on 4 unlawful acts among electric bicycle riders in Zhejiang].

    PubMed

    Zhao, M; Yu, M; Fang, L; Wang, H; Wu, W X; Huang, G H; Duan, L L; Chen, Z X; Chen, P F

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of key unlawful acts among electric bicycle riders and provide evidence for the development of specific interventions. A 4-day road-side survey was conducted in Jinhua, Zhejiang province, in 2013. The speed of electric bicycle was measured by speed measuring instrument and the unlawful acts of riders, such as reverse riding, running the red-light and carrying passengers, were observed with non-participatory way. A total of 3 448 running electric bicycles were observed and the average speed was 26 km/h, the proportion of electric bicycle at the speed of ≥15 km/h was 87.06%. The average speed was highest during 10 am-11 am(30 km/h). the number of observed electric bicycle riders with unlawful acts of ' running the red-light','reverse riding' and ' carrying passengers' were 1 315, 656 and 1 877 respectively, and the estimated rate was 10.01%, 4.99% and 15.22%, respectively. More ' running the red-light','reverse riding' and ' carrying passengers' occurred during 7 am-8 am(14.59%)and 13 pm-14 pm(15.25%), 13 pm-14 pm(7.33%)and 17 pm-18 pm(7.63%), 6 am-7 am(32.44%)and 12 pm-13 pm(27.90%), respectively. Overspeeding, carrying passengers, running the red-light, reverse riding were the key unlawful acts among electric bicycle riders. Targeted intervention should be carried out to reduce the prevalence of unlawful riding acts and the incidence of electric bicycle related injuries and deaths.

  2. Change-point detection of gaseous and particulate traffic-related pollutants at a roadside location.

    PubMed

    Carslaw, David C; Ropkins, Karl; Bell, Margaret C

    2006-11-15

    An 8-year (1998-2005), hourly data set of measurements of NOx, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and PMcoarse (defined as PM(2.5-10)) from a busy roadside location in central London has been analyzed to identify important change-points in the time series using a cumulative sum (CUSUM) technique. Randomization methods were used to estimate the uncertainty level associated with the change-points with uncertainty intervals derived using a bootstrap approach. The results show that there is a clear change-point increase for NO2 coinciding with the introduction of the London congestion-charging in February 2003 (95% confidence interval from January-March 2003). At this time there was both an increase in bus numbers and buses fitted with catalyzed diesel particulate filters, which increase direct emissions of NO2. A highly statistically significant change-point was also observed for PMcoarse (95% confidence interval from December 2002-February 2003), which also occurred close to the time of the congestion charge introduction and is most closely related to the increase in bus flows. The increase in PMcoarse at this time has largely compensated for reductions in the concentration of PM2.5, such that the concentration of PM10 has remained almost constant. Comparing the 2 years before and after the introduction of congestion charging, the increment in NO2 above background increased from 22 to 34 ppb and PMcoarse increased from 4 to 9 microg m(-3). These results could have important implications for meeting European air quality standards that currently set limits for PMlo rather than PM2.5.

  3. Field infiltration measurements in grassed roadside drainage ditches: Spatial and temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Farzana; Gulliver, John S.; Nieber, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Roadside drainage ditches (grassed swales) are an attractive stormwater control measure (SCM) since they can reduce runoff volume by infiltrating water into the soil, filter sediments and associated pollutants out of the water, and settle solids onto the soil surface. In this study a total of 722 infiltration measurements were collected in five swales located in Twin-Cities, MN and one swale located in Madison, WI to characterize the field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) derived from the infiltration measurements of these swales. Measurements were taken with a falling head device, the Modified Philip Dunne (MPD) infiltrometer, which allows the collection of simultaneous infiltration measurements at multiple locations with several infiltrometers. Field-saturated hydraulic conductivity was higher than expected for different soil texture classes. We hypothesize that this is due to plant roots creating macropores that break up the soil for infiltration. Statistical analysis was performed on the Kfs values to analyze the effect of initial soil moisture content, season, soil texture class and distance in downstream direction on the geometric mean Kfs value of a swale. Because of the high spatial variation of Kfs in the same swale no effect of initial soil moisture content, season and soil texture class was observed on the geometric mean Kfs value. But the distance in downstream direction may have positive or negative effect on the Kfs value. An uncertainty analysis on the Kfs value indicated that approximately twenty infiltration measurements is the minimum number to obtain a representative geometric mean Kfs value of a swale that is less than 350 m long within an acceptable level of uncertainty.

  4. [Rest for safety: which stakes?].

    PubMed

    Mion, G; Ricouard, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 were promulgated the texts regulating rest and safety, in the USA (approved by the ACGME) and in France (January 9th, 2001 and September 14th, 2001). The institution of the "rest for safety", an eleven hours duration interruption of activity, immediately after a night-call, can be viewed as a progress in the search for safety. Several studies showed a link between excessive work hours and occurrence of medical incidents related to tiredness. However published data do not show a link between tiredness and patients endangering. The tiredness resulting from sleep deprivation and disturbances in circadian rhythms is a cumulative phenomenon erased by a period of rest. In spite of a large individual variability, tiredness increases anxiety scores, irritability, depression and it deteriorates cognitive performances. The concept of "prophylactic" rest considers that a subject cannot start, rested, a work if he did not sleep at least 5 hours the previous night, or 12 hours during the previous 48 hours. The second important aspect of the rest for safety is the long-term prevention of potential pathologies in medical staff, in particular burnout syndrome. In our profession, night calls are considered most stressful; the psychological stress related to anticipation and night context causes measurable cardiovascular disturbances in anesthesiologists. Shift-work sleep disorders may induce gastric ulcers, heart attacks, metabolic syndrome, depression and accidents related to somnolence. Long duration work-hours, accompanied by sleep deprivation, may double the risk of car accidents in junior physicians, in whom vigilance levels can compare with those of patients concerned by narcolepsy or with the cognitive disturbances induced by alcohol intoxication. Reduced work-hours improve vigilance and divide by three the rate of serious medical errors. True opportunities of sleep and control of sleep duration at the individual level could be suggested. The idea that taking the

  5. Working in tandem: The contribution of remedial programs and roadside licence suspensions to drinking and driving deterrence in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tracey; Byrne, Patrick A; Haya, Maryam; Elzohairy, Yoassry

    2015-12-01

    In 1998, Ontario implemented a remedial program called "Back On Track" (BOT) for individuals convicted of alcohol-impaired driving. Drivers convicted before October 2000 were exposed to a single-component program ("Edu BOT"); those convicted after participated in a multi-component program ("Full BOT"). We evaluated the impact of BOT, and the preceding 90-day roadside licence suspension, on drinking and driving recidivism, an outcome yet to be examined, using population-wide driver records. A Chi Square Test was used to compare the three-year cumulative incidence of recidivism between three historically-defined cohorts: No BOT, Edu BOT, and Full BOT. Stratified analyses by completion status and by age were also conducted. Analyses of the roadside suspension were conducted using an interrupted time series approach based on segmented Poisson/negative binomial regression. The roadside suspension was associated with a 65.2% reduction in drinking driving recidivism. In combination with indefinite suspensions for non-completion, the BOT program was also associated with a 21% decrease in drinking and driving recidivism in the three years following a CCC driving prohibition, from 8.5% to 6.7%. This reduction cannot be explained by pre-existing trends in recidivism. Conversion of the BOT program from the single-component version to the multi-component program further reduced the three-year cumulative incidence of recidivism to 5.5% (a total reduction of 35% from pre-BOT). Results provide strong converging evidence that remedial alcohol education/treatment programs in combination with other sanctions can produce substantial increases in road safety.

  6. Major component composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 from roadside and urban background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Jones, Alan M.; Lawrence, Royston G.

    Using dichotomous Partisol samplers, airborne particulate matter has been collected and analysed as PM 2.5 and PM 10. The instruments were deployed at four sets of paired roadside and urban background locations, three in London and one in Birmingham (UK) and the sampling protocols aimed to give equal weight to all seasons of the year. In addition to determination of sample mass, concentrations have been determined for major chemical components as follows: sulphate, nitrate, chloride, organic carbon, elemental carbon, iron and calcium. The measured concentrations have been converted to equivalent quantities of ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate (in PM 2.5), sodium nitrate (in PM 2.5-10), sodium chloride, elemental carbon, carbon compounds, gypsum and iron-rich dusts. The mass of strongly bound water has also been calculated following the mass closure methodology of Harrison et al. (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 4927). Examination of the difference between roadside (mean 34.7 μg m -3 PM 10) and corresponding urban background (mean 23.2 μg m -3 PM 10) samples indicates average mass increments of 11.5 μg m -3 of PM 10 and 8.0 μg m -3 of PM 2.5 for the four site pairs, and that the roadside particle increment is comprised very largely of elemental carbon, organic compounds and iron-rich dusts. The major component composition lies somewhere between that reported as typical of the eastern and western US. A comparison with PM 2.5 and PM 15 sampled in Leeds (UK) in 1982 shows a decline in all major constituents except mineral dusts (PM 2.5 only). In a comparison of data for days with PM 10 above the EU 24-h Limit Value of 50 μg m -3 with data from all days, the component showing the greatest ratio between high pollution days and all days is fine particle nitrate.

  7. Resting habitat selection by fishers in California

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Richard L. Truex; Gregory A. Schmidt; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Kristin N. Schmidt; Reginald H. Barrett

    2004-01-01

    We studied the resting habitat ecology of fishers (Martes pennanti) in 2 disjunct populations in California, USA: the northwestern coastal mountains (hereafter, Coastal) and the southern Sierra Nevada (hereafter, Sierra). We described resting structures and compared features surrounding resting structures (the resting site) with those at randomly...

  8. 29 CFR 785.18 - Rest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rest. 785.18 Section 785.18 Labor Regulations Relating to... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Rest and Meal Periods § 785.18 Rest. Rest periods of short duration, running from 5 minutes to about 20 minutes, are common in...

  9. 29 CFR 785.18 - Rest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rest. 785.18 Section 785.18 Labor Regulations Relating to... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Rest and Meal Periods § 785.18 Rest. Rest periods of short duration, running from 5 minutes to about 20 minutes, are common in...

  10. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  11. Management-Related Traffic as a Stressor Eliciting Parental Care in a Roadside-Nesting Bird: The European Bee-Eater Merops apiaster.

    PubMed

    Blas, Julio; Abaurrea, Teresa; D'Amico, Marcello; Barcellona, Francesca; Revilla, Eloy; Román, Jacinto; Carrete, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Traffic is often acknowledged as a threat to biodiversity, but its effects have been mostly studied on roads subjected to high traffic intensity. The impact of lower traffic intensity such as those affecting protected areas is generally neglected, but conservation-oriented activities entailing motorized traffic could paradoxically transform suitable habitats into ecological traps. Here we questioned whether roadside-nesting bee-eaters Merops apiaster perceived low traffic intensity as a stressor eliciting risk-avoidance behaviors (alarm calls and flock flushes) and reducing parental care. Comparisons were established within Doñana National Park (Spain), between birds exposed to either negligible traffic (ca. 0-10 vehicles per day) or low traffic intensity (ca. 10-90 vehicles per day) associated to management and research activities. The frequencies of alarm calls and flock flushes were greater in areas of higher traffic intensity, which resulted in direct mortality at moderate vehicle speeds (≤ 40 km/h). Parental feeding rates paralleled changes in traffic intensity, but contrary to our predictions. Indeed, feeding rates were highest in traffic-exposed nests, during working days and traffic rush-hours. Traffic-avoidance responses were systematic and likely involved costs (energy expenditure and mortality), but vehicle transit positively influenced the reproductive performance of bee-eaters through an increase of nestling feeding rates. Because the expected outcome of traffic on individual performance can be opposed when responses are monitored during mating (i.e. negative effect by increase of alarm calls and flock flushes) or nestling-feeding period (i.e. at least short-term positive effect by increase of nestling feeding rates), caution should be taken before inferring fitness consequences only from isolated behaviors or specific life history stages.

  12. Management-Related Traffic as a Stressor Eliciting Parental Care in a Roadside-Nesting Bird: The European Bee-Eater Merops apiaster

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Julio; Abaurrea, Teresa; D’Amico, Marcello; Barcellona, Francesca; Revilla, Eloy; Román, Jacinto; Carrete, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Traffic is often acknowledged as a threat to biodiversity, but its effects have been mostly studied on roads subjected to high traffic intensity. The impact of lower traffic intensity such as those affecting protected areas is generally neglected, but conservation-oriented activities entailing motorized traffic could paradoxically transform suitable habitats into ecological traps. Here we questioned whether roadside-nesting bee-eaters Merops apiaster perceived low traffic intensity as a stressor eliciting risk-avoidance behaviors (alarm calls and flock flushes) and reducing parental care. Comparisons were established within Doñana National Park (Spain), between birds exposed to either negligible traffic (ca. 0–10 vehicles per day) or low traffic intensity (ca. 10–90 vehicles per day) associated to management and research activities. The frequencies of alarm calls and flock flushes were greater in areas of higher traffic intensity, which resulted in direct mortality at moderate vehicle speeds (≤ 40 km/h). Parental feeding rates paralleled changes in traffic intensity, but contrary to our predictions. Indeed, feeding rates were highest in traffic-exposed nests, during working days and traffic rush-hours. Traffic-avoidance responses were systematic and likely involved costs (energy expenditure and mortality), but vehicle transit positively influenced the reproductive performance of bee-eaters through an increase of nestling feeding rates. Because the expected outcome of traffic on individual performance can be opposed when responses are monitored during mating (i.e. negative effect by increase of alarm calls and flock flushes) or nestling-feeding period (i.e. at least short-term positive effect by increase of nestling feeding rates), caution should be taken before inferring fitness consequences only from isolated behaviors or specific life history stages. PMID:27706229

  13. BCDP: Budget Constrained and Delay-Bounded Placement for Hybrid Roadside Units in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. PMID:25436656

  14. BCDP: Budget constrained and delay-bounded placement for hybrid roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin

    2014-11-27

    In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods.

  15. Lead, cadmium, and aluminum accumulation in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii G. collected from roadside drainage ditches in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Madigosky, S R; Alvarez-Hernandez, X; Glass, J

    1991-02-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Al in tissues of crayfish Procambarus clarkii were evaluated from several wetland sites located adjacent to roadways and were compared to crayfish harvested from a commercial site free from roadside influences. Abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, alimentary tract, exoskeleton and blood were analyzed for metal content. Results indicated that levels of contamination obtained in almost all tissues of crayfish from roadside ditches contained significantly higher amounts of metals than those of the commercially harvested control crayfish (p = less than or equal to .05-.001). Detection limits of Pb, Cd, and Al ranged from 0.04 microgram Pb/g to 16.15 micrograms Pb/g, .001 microgram Cd/g to .13 microgram Cd/g, and 1.22 micrograms Al/g to 981 micrograms Al/g, respectively. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Al were highest in the hepatopancreas and alimentary tract. High levels of these elements were also detected in the exoskeleton. In contrast, muscle tissue was the least affected tissue. Several significant correlations among concentrations of metals were found when comparing a variety of tissues in Procambarus clarkii.

  16. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol, illicit drugs, and medicines, in Spanish drivers: a roadside study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Fierro, Inmaculada; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; Colás, Monica; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Javier Álvarez, F

    2012-11-30

    Following population, geographic, road type and time criteria, Spain has carried out random, roadside controls of 3302 representative sample of Spanish drivers, including saliva analysis for 24 psychoactive substances and alcohol breath tests. The 81.4% of the drivers were male, with an average age of 34.8±11.8 (mean±SD). The 17% of the drivers were found to be positive to any of the substances analysed. The 6.6% of the drivers found positive to alcohol (>0.05 mg/l in breath), 11% were found positive to any illicit drug, and 2% were positive to one of the medicines analysed. Some drivers were positive in more than one substance. The most common illicit drugs among Spanish drivers were cannabis (7.7%), or cocaine (3.5%), either alone or combined with other substances. The most prevalent medicines were the benzodiazepines (1.6%). As a tendency, higher figures for positive cases were observed among males than in females (being statistically significant the differences for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). Alcohol and cocaine positive cases were more frequently found among drivers of urban roads. Alcohol positive cases (alone, >0.05 mg/l), were more likely found as age increase (OR=1.02), those driving in urban roads (OR=2.13), and driving at any period than weekdays, while alcohol+drugs cases were more likely found among males (OR=2.819), those driving on urban road (OR=2.17) and driving at night periods. Finding a medicines positive case was more likely as elder the driver was (OR=1.05). There have been differences in the prevalence of positive cases of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine, in relation to the period of the week: in three cases the highest prevalence seen in night time. This study shows the high prevalence of psychoactive substances and alcohol in Spanish drivers, mainly illicit drugs (cannabis). This question requires a response from the authorities and from society, with an integral and multi-disciplinary approach that can heighten the population

  17. Size-resolved source apportionment of airborne particle mass in a roadside environment.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A; Hannigan, Michael P; Kleeman, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    Airborne particulate hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in six size fractions < 1.8 microm particle diameter at one site upwind and two sites downwind of the Interstate 5 freeway in San Diego, CA. The smallest size fraction collected was exclusively in the ultrafine size range (D(p) < 0.1 microm; PM0.1). Size distributions of hopanes, steranes, and PAHs peaked between 0.10-0.18 microm particle aerodynamic diameter with a tail extending into the PM0.1 size range. This pattern is similar to previous dynamometer studies of hopane, sterane, and PAH size distributions emitted from gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. Size-resolved source profiles were combined to form an "on-road" profile for motor oil, diesel, and gasoline contributions to EC and OC. The resulting equations were used to predict source contributions to the size distributions of EC and OC in the roadside environment. The method successfully accounted for the majority of the carbonaceous material in particles with diameter < 0.18 microm, with significant residual material in larger size fractions. The peak in both the measured and predicted EC size distribution occurred between 0.1-0.18 microm particle aerodynamic diameter. The predicted OC size distribution peaked between 0.1-0.18 microm particle diameter, butthe measured OC size distribution peaked between 0.56-1.0 microm particle diameter, possibly because of secondary organic aerosol formation. Predicted OC concentrations in particles with diameter < 0.18 microm were greater than measured values 18 m downwind of the roadway but showed good agreement 37 m downwind. The largest source contributions to the PM0.1 and PM0.18 size fractions were different. PM0.18 was dominated by diesel fuel and motor oil combustion products while PM0.1 was dominated by diesel fuel and gasoline fuel combustion products. Total source contributions to ultrafine (PM0.1) EC concentrations 37 m downwind of the roadway were 44 +/- 6

  18. A statistical downscaling approach for roadside NO2 concentrations: Application to a WRF-Chem study for Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuik, Friderike; Lauer, Axel; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Butler, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Many European cities continue to struggle with meeting the European air quality limits for NO2. In Berlin, Germany, most of the exceedances in NO2 recorded at monitoring sites near busy roads can be largely attributed to emissions from traffic. In order to assess the impact of changes in traffic emissions on air quality at policy relevant scales, we combine the regional atmosphere-chemistry transport model WRF-Chem at a resolution of 1kmx1km with a statistical downscaling approach. Here, we build on the recently published study evaluating the performance of a WRF-Chem setup in representing observed urban background NO2 concentrations from Kuik et al. (2016) and extend this setup by developing and testing an approach to statistically downscale simulated urban background NO2 concentrations to street level. The approach uses a multilinear regression model to relate roadside NO2 concentrations observed with the municipal monitoring network with observed NO2 concentrations at urban background sites and observed traffic counts. For this, the urban background NO2 concentrations are decomposed into a long term, a synoptic and a diurnal component using the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filtering method. We estimate the coefficients of the regression model for five different roadside stations in Berlin representing different street types. In a next step we combine the coefficients with simulated urban background concentrations and observed traffic counts, in order to estimate roadside NO2 concentrations based on the results obtained with WRF-Chem at the five selected stations. In a third step, we extrapolate the NO2 concentrations to all major roads in Berlin. The latter is based on available data for Berlin of daily mean traffic counts, diurnal and weekly cycles of traffic as well as simulated urban background NO2 concentrations. We evaluate the NO2 concentrations estimated with this method at street level for Berlin with additional observational data from stationary measurements and

  19. Rest in underperforming elite competitors.

    PubMed Central

    Koutedakis, Y; Budgett, R; Faulmann, L

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the effects of 3-5 weeks of physical rest on selected physical, physiological and psychological parameters obtained from 12 Olympic but latterly underperforming competitors and their matched control subjects. Cardiorespiratory data were directly determined from their work to volitional exhaustion on either a treadmill, cycle, or rowing ergometer. Anaerobic power and capacity were evaluated through modified Wingate tests. For psychometric assessments, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used. For the Olympic competitors, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant increases (p less than 0.05) in body weight, maximum respiratory exchange ratio, maximum oxygen consumption, and heart rate at the anaerobic threshold, following the rest period. There was also a significant reduction in fatigue and mood profile score, and a significant increase in vigour. No significant changes were found in the matched control subjects. The present data show that resting for 3-5 weeks assists underperforming elite competitors to improve their aerobic performance. PMID:2097024

  20. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    SciTech Connect

    Hammell, B.D.; Scheuerle, A.

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  1. Fixed-route monitoring and a comparative study of the occurrence of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) along a Japanese roadside

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previously, we conducted a roadside survey to reveal the occurrence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape along a Japanese roadside (Route 51). In this study, we performed successive and thorough fixed-route monitoring in 5 sections along another road (Route 23). Oilseed rape plants were detected on both sides of the road in each section between autumn 2009 and winter 2013, which included 3 flowering seasons. In four sections, more plants were found on the side of the road leading from the Yokkaichi port than on the opposite side. In the fifth section, the presence of clogged drains on the roadside, where juvenile plants concentrated, caused the opposite distribution: oilseed rape predominantly occurred along the inbound lanes (leading to the Yokkaichi port) in 2010 and 2012. Unlike in our previous survey, glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape plants were abundant (>75% of analyzed plants over 3 years). Moreover, a few individuals bearing both herbicide resistance traits were also detected in some sections. The spillage of imported seeds may explain the occurrence of oilseed rape on the roadside. The abundance of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants may reflect the extent of contamination with GM oilseed rape seed within imports. PMID:26838503

  2. Tracer Studies to Characterize the Effects of Roadside Noise Barriers on Near-Road Pollutant Dispersion under Varying Atmospheric Stability Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A roadway toxics dispersion study was conducted by the Field Research Division (FRD) of NOAA at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) near Idaho Falls, ID to document the effects on concentrations of roadway emissions behind a roadside sound barrier in various conditions of atmosph...

  3. Fixed-route monitoring and a comparative study of the occurrence of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) along a Japanese roadside.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2016-01-02

    Previously, we conducted a roadside survey to reveal the occurrence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape along a Japanese roadside (Route 51). In this study, we performed successive and thorough fixed-route monitoring in 5 sections along another road (Route 23). Oilseed rape plants were detected on both sides of the road in each section between autumn 2009 and winter 2013, which included 3 flowering seasons. In four sections, more plants were found on the side of the road leading from the Yokkaichi port than on the opposite side. In the fifth section, the presence of clogged drains on the roadside, where juvenile plants concentrated, caused the opposite distribution: oilseed rape predominantly occurred along the inbound lanes (leading to the Yokkaichi port) in 2010 and 2012. Unlike in our previous survey, glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape plants were abundant (>75% of analyzed plants over 3 years). Moreover, a few individuals bearing both herbicide resistance traits were also detected in some sections. The spillage of imported seeds may explain the occurrence of oilseed rape on the roadside. The abundance of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants may reflect the extent of contamination with GM oilseed rape seed within imports.

  4. Tracer Studies to Characterize the Effects of Roadside Noise Barriers on Near-Road Pollutant Dispersion under Varying Atmospheric Stability Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A roadway toxics dispersion study was conducted by the Field Research Division (FRD) of NOAA at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) near Idaho Falls, ID to document the effects on concentrations of roadway emissions behind a roadside sound barrier in various conditions of atmosph...

  5. Effect of prolonged bed rest on the anterior hip muscles.

    PubMed

    Dilani Mendis, M; Hides, Julie A; Wilson, Stephen J; Grimaldi, Alison; Belavý, Daniel L; Stanton, Warren; Felsenberg, Dieter; Rittweger, Joern; Richardson, Carolyn

    2009-11-01

    Prolonged bed rest and inactivity is known to cause muscular atrophy with previous research indicating that muscles involved in joint stabilisation are more susceptible. The anterior hip muscles are important for hip joint function and stability but little is known about the effects of prolonged inactivity on their function. This study investigated the effect of prolonged bed rest on the size of the anterior hip muscles and their pattern of recovery. The effect of resistive vibration exercise (RVE) as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy was also investigated. 12 male participants, randomly assigned to either a control or an exercise group, underwent 8 weeks of bed rest with 6 months follow-up. Changes in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles were measured by magnetic resonance imaging at regular intervals during bed rest and recovery phases. CSAs of iliopsoas and sartorius decreased at the hip joint (p<0.05) during bed rest but iliacus, psoas, and rectus femoris CSAs were unchanged (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups for all muscles (all p>0.1), suggesting inefficacy of the countermeasure in this sample. These findings suggest that prolonged bed rest can result in the atrophy of specific muscles across the hip joint which may affect its stability and function.

  6. Awareness of legal blood alcohol concentration limits amongst respondents of a national roadside survey for alcohol and traffic behaviours in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, Tatiana Valverde; De Boni, Raquel; Duarte, Paulina do Carmo Arruda Vieira; Pechansky, Flávio

    2012-03-01

    In Brazil the legal blood alcohol content (BAC) allowed for driving was changed to zero in 2008. If the BAC found is above 0.6g/L, drivers may be arrested. However, there are limited data on drivers' awareness of such limits. Drivers from 27 major metropolitan areas (n=3397) were randomly asked to participate in roadside survey from 12 a.m. to 12 p.m. on Fridays and Saturdays. They were breathalized by highway patrol officers, and after consent interviewers collected data on drinking behaviours, knowledge about the law, and breath tests results. The mean age was 37.3±11.3 years; 94.3% were male and 26.5% had some college education. When asked about the BAC that could result in arrest, 34.5% of the subjects claimed to know it. However, only 23.5% (8.1% of the total sample) provided correct answers. Factors associated with the right answers were: male gender (p=0.04; OR=2.08; CI=1.01-4.27); higher education (p<0.0001); negative BAC or self-report of driving under the influence (DUI) (p=0.02); higher family income (p=0.01) and non-professional driving (p=0.041). Age was not statistically different between groups. After multivariate analysis, male gender (p=0.002), higher education (p<0.0001) and negative BAC or DUI (p=0.046) remained in the model. The knowledge that BAC levels over 0.6g/L may result in arrest is sparse amongst Brazilian drivers, notably amongst women, the less educated and those who drink and drive. Educational programmes targeted at those specific groups may be necessary in order to increase awareness about the legal BAC limit and its consequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Variations of aerosol size distribution, chemical composition and optical properties from roadside to ambient environment: A case study in Hong Kong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Ning, Zhi; Shen, Zhenxing; Li, Guoliang; Zhang, Junke; Lei, Yali; Xu, Hongmei; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Westerdahl, Dane; Gali, Nirmal Kumar; Gong, Xuesong

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the ;roadside-to-ambient; evolution of particle physicochemical and optical properties in typical urban atmospheres of Hong Kong through collection of chemically-resolved PM2.5 data and PM2.5 size distribution at a roadside and an ambient site. Roadside particle size distribution showed typical peaks in the nuclei mode (30-40 nm) while ambient measurements peaked in the Aitken mode (50-70 nm), revealing possible condensation and coagulation growth of freshly emitted particles during aging processes. Much higher levels of anthropogenic chemical components, i.e. nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), but lower levels of OC/EC and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA)/EC ratios appeared in roadside than ambient particles. The high OC/EC and SIA/EC ratios in ambient particles implied high contributions from secondary aerosols. Black carbon (BC), a strong light absorbing material, showed large variations in optical properties when mixed with other inorganic and organic components. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs), an indicator of brown carbon (BrC), showed significant UV-absorbing ability. The average BC and p-PAHs concentrations were 3.8 and 87.6 ng m-3, respectively, at the roadside, but were only 1.5 and 18.1 ng m-3 at the ambient site, suggesting BC and p-PAHs concentrations heavily driven by traffic emissions. In contrast, PM2.5 UV light absorption coefficients (babs-BrC,370nm) at the ambient site (4.2 Mm-1) and at the roadside site (4.1 Mm-1) were similar, emphasizing that particle aging processes enhanced UV light-absorbing properties, a conclusion that was also supported by the finding that the Absorption Ångström coefficient (AAC) value at UV wavelengths (AAC_UV band) at the ambient site were ∼1.7 times higher than that at the roadside. Both aqueous reaction and photochemically produced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) for ambient aerosols contributed to the peak values of babs

  8. A resting platform for dog pens.

    PubMed

    Feldhaus, R A

    1980-08-01

    After converting our dog holding facilities from commercial dog cages to pen type enclosures, it became apparent that suitable resting platforms were needed. Clear acrylic plastic was used to construct the resting platforms.

  9. Traffic-related trace element accumulation in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

    2013-12-30

    This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species.

  10. Contributions of vehicular carbonaceous aerosols to PM2.5 in a roadside environment in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. H. Hilda; Bian, Q. J.; Louie, P. K. K.; Yu, J. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Hourly measurements of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were made at Mong Kok, a roadside air quality monitoring station in Hong Kong for a year from May 2011 to April 2012. The monthly average EC concentrations were 3.8-4.9 μgC m-3, accounting for 9.2-17.7% of the PM2.5 mass (21.5-49.7 μg m-3). The EC concentrations showed little seasonal variation and peaked twice daily in coincidence with the traffic rush hours of a day. Good correlations were found between EC and NOx concentrations, especially during the rush hours in the morning. In time periods when diesel-powered vehicles dominated the road traffic, the OC / EC ratio was approximately 0.5. The analysis by the minimum OC / EC ratio approach to determine OC / EC ratio representative of primary emissions also yields a value of 0.5, suggesting that it is a reasonable lower limit estimation of (OC / EC)vehicle in representing vehicular emissions. By applying the derived (OC / EC)vehicle ratio to the dataset, the monthly average vehicle-related OC was estimated to account for 16.6-64.0% of the measured OC throughout the year. Vehicle-related OC was also estimated using receptor modeling of a combined dataset of hourly NOx, OC, EC and select volatile organic compounds. The estimations by the two different approaches were in good agreement. When both EC and vehicle-derived organic matter (OM) (assuming an OM-to-OC ratio of 1.4) are considered, vehicular carbonaceous aerosols contributed ~ 7.3 μg m-3 to PM2.5, accounting for ~ 20% of PM2.5 mass (38.3 μg m-3) during winter when Hong Kong was largely influenced by regional transport of air pollutants and ~ 30% of PM2.5 mass (28.2 μg m-3) during summertime when local emission sources were dominant. A reduction of 3.82 μg m-3 in vehicular carbonaceous aerosols was observed during 07:00-11:00 LT (i.e. rush hours on weekdays) on Sundays and public holidays. This could mainly be attributed to less on-road public transportation (e.g. diesel-powered buses

  11. Contributions of vehicular carbonaceous aerosols to PM2.5 in a roadside environment in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. H. H.; Bian, Q. J.; Louie, P. K. K.; Yu, J. Z.

    2014-09-01

    Hourly measurements of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were made at Mong Kok, a roadside air quality monitoring station in Hong Kong, for a year, from May 2011 to April 2012. The monthly average EC concentrations were 3.8-4.9 μg C m-3, accounting for 9.2-17.7% of the PM2.5 mass (21.5-49.7 μg m-3). The EC concentrations showed little seasonal variation and peaked twice daily, coinciding with the traffic rush hours of a day. Strong correlations were found between EC and NOx concentrations, especially during the rush hours in the morning, confirming vehicular emissions as the dominant source of EC at this site. The analysis by means of the minimum OC / EC ratio approach to determine the OC / EC ratio representative of primary vehicular emissions yields a value of 0.5 for (OC / EC)vehicle. By applying the derived (OC / EC)vehicle ratio to the data set, the monthly average vehicle-related OC was estimated to account for 17-64% of the measured OC throughout the year. Vehicle-related OC was also estimated using receptor modeling of a combined data set of hourly NOx, OC, EC and volatile organic compounds characteristic of different types of vehicular emissions. The OCvehicle estimations by the two different approaches were in good agreement. When both EC and vehicle-derived organic matter (OM) (assuming an OM-to-OC ratio of 1.4) are considered, vehicular carbonaceous aerosols contributed ~ 7.3 μg m-3 to PM2.5, accounting for ~ 20% of PM2.5 mass (38.3 μg m-3) during winter, when Hong Kong received significant influence of air pollutants transported from outside, and ~ 30% of PM2.5 mass (28.2 μg m-3) during summertime, when local emission sources were dominant. A reduction of 3.8 μg m-3 in vehicular carbonaceous aerosols was estimated during 07:00-11:00 (i.e., rush hours on weekdays) on Sundays and public holidays. This could mainly be attributed to less on-road public transportation (e.g., diesel-powered buses) in comparison with non-holidays. These

  12. Traffic-Related Trace Element Accumulation in Roadside Soils and Wild Grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element’s bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species. PMID:24380977

  13. Identification of traffic-related metals and the effects of different environments on their enrichment in roadside soils along the Qinghai-Tibet highway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yili; Ding, Mingjun; Li, Lanhui

    2015-07-15

    The road transportation could affect roadside soils environment detrimentally, including heavy metal enrichment. In order to identify and evaluate the enrichment of heavy metals resulted from road transportation on the Tibetan Plateau, the 11 heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Rb, Pb and Tl) in the topsoil (0-10 cm depth) from four sites along the Qinghai-Tibet highway were discussed in this study. Our results indicate that heavy metals such as Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb are related to road transportation. The content of most of these heavy metals in roadside soils decreased exponentially with the distance from the road, as did some of the Nemero Synthesis Indexes (PN values). The contamination factor for the traffic-related metals ranged from 0.56 (no pollution) to 5.67 (considerable pollution) and the Nemero Synthesis Indexes of these heavy metals ranged from 0.80 (no pollution) to 4.49 (severe pollution). Cd was of priority concern as it had the highest contamination factor. The highest PN value for these traffic-related heavy metals was found in soils at site TTH (alpine steppe). Although transportation contributed to the high contents of these traffic-related metals in roadside environments, regional differences such as wind and the terrain also had significant relationship with their enrichment in these roadside soils. The roadside distance at which there is a potential risk to livestock and wildlife from the contamination of soils by heavy metals should be determined scientifically along the Qinghai-Tibet highway, based on the different natural environments found in the region.

  14. Resting energy expenditure among Japanese.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, N; Mitsuhashi, F; Sugiyama, M

    2002-10-01

    1. Resting energy expenditure (REE) provides appropriate basic data for the calculation of energy requirements. 2. The REE of 6498 subjects according to sex and age (1 year stratification), with a minimum of 10 subjects per group, was measured systematically using the easy portable calorimeter (Metavine; Vine, Tokyo, Japan). 3. The REE or the REE/kg according to age and sex was observed to obtain the amount of standard deviation (20-25%). 4. The REE/kg for male and female subjects was maintained at a steady level after the age of 15 years and was estimated to be around 29 kcal/kg.

  15. 78 FR 66865 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 135 Interpretation of Rest Requirements AGENCY... application of certain rest requirements during on-demand operations. Section 346 of the FAA Modernization and... finalize the interpretation proposed in Docket No. FAA-2010-1259, relating to rest requirements, and...

  16. The Resting Brain of Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Jung, Young-Chul; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects multiple cognitive processes supported by far-reaching cerebral networks. To identify neurofunctional mechanisms underlying selective deficits, 27 sober alcoholics and 26 age-matched controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity analysis assessed the default mode network (DMN); integrative executive control (EC), salience (SA), and attention (AT) networks; primary somatosensory, auditory, and visual (VI) input networks; and subcortical reward (RW) and emotion (EM) networks. The groups showed an extensive overlap of intrinsic connectivity in all brain networks examined, suggesting overall integrity of large-scale functional networks. Despite these similar patterns, connectivity analyses identified network-specific differences of weaker within-network connectivity and expanded connectivity to regions outside the main networks in alcoholics compared with controls. For AT and VI networks, better task performance was related to expanded connectivity in alcoholism, supporting the concept of network expansion as a neural mechanism for functional compensation. For default mode, SA, RW, and EC networks, both weaker within-network and expanded outside-network connectivity correlated with poorer performance and mood. Current smoking contributed to some of these abnormalities in connectivity. The observed pattern of resting-state connectivity might reflect neural vulnerability of intrinsic networking in alcoholics and suggests a mechanism to explain signature impairments in EM, RW evaluation, and EC ability. PMID:24935777

  17. Physiology of prolonged bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Bed rest has been a normal procedure used by physicians for centuries in the treatment of injury and disease. Exposure of patients to prolonged bed rest in the horizontal position induces adaptive deconditioning responses. While deconditioning responses are appropriate for patients or test subjects in the horizontal position, they usually result in adverse physiological responses (fainting, muscular weakness) when the patient assume the upright posture. These deconditioning responses result from reduction in hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, virtual elimination of longitudinal pressure on the long bones, some decrease in total body metabolism, changes in diet, and perhaps psychological impact from the different environment. Almost every system in the body is affected. An early stimulus is the cephalic shift of fluid from the legs which increases atrial pressure and induces compensatory responses for fluid and electrolyte redistribution. Without countermeasures, deterioration in strength and muscle function occurs within 1 wk while increased calcium loss may continue for months. Research should also focus on drug and carbohydrate metabolism.

  18. Structural, cytochemical, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural characterization of blood granulocytes of the roadside hawk Buteo magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788) (Avian, Falconiform).

    PubMed

    Santos, A A; Da Silva, A Marques Joppert; Silva, M R Regis; Segreto, H R Cômodo; Egami, M Imoto

    2003-10-01

    In the peripheral blood of the roadside hawk, Buteo magnirostris, the following types of granulocytic leucocytes were identified: heterophil, eosinophil and basophil. The heterophils presented acidophilic and spindle shaped granules, the eosinophils possess spherical eosinophilic granules and the basophils showed spherical and basophilic granules. The heterophils and eosinophils presented positive cytochemical reaction to glycogen and basic polyaminoacid, while the eosinophils presented sudanophilic granules, which were also positive for myeloperoxidase. The heterophils, alone, presented positivity for acid phosphatase in some granules and immunoreactivity to TGF-beta1 was observed only in the cytoplasm of the eosinophils. Electron microscopy demonstrated the heterophil granules as predominantly spindle shaped, being strongly electron-dense, while the eosinophils had numerous uniformly electron-dense spherical granules and the basophils presented three different types of granules identified according to their electron-density and the aspect of their matrix.

  19. Alcohol- and Drug-Involved Driving in the United States: Methodology for the 2007 National Roadside Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, John H.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Torres, Pedro; Berning, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the methodology used in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey to estimate the prevalence of alcohol- and drug-impaired driving and alcohol- and drug-involved driving. This study involved randomly stopping drivers at 300 locations across the 48 continental U.S. states at sites selected through a stratified random sampling procedure. Data were collected during a 2-hour Friday daytime session at 60 locations and during 2-hour nighttime weekend periods at 240 locations. Both self-report and biological measures were taken. Biological measures included breath alcohol measurements from 9,413 respondents, oral fluid samples from 7,719 respondents, and blood samples from 3,276 respondents. PMID:21997324

  20. Heavy meals in urban roadside soils, part 1: effect of particle size fractions on heavy metals partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Song; Qin, Yong; Chen, Yong-Kang

    2006-08-01

    Urban roadside soils are important environmental media for assessing heavy metal concentrations in urban environment. However, among other things, heavy metal concentrations are controlled by soil particle grain size fractions. In this study, two roadside sites were chosen within the city of Xuzhou (China) to reflect differences in land use. Bulk soil samples were collected and then divided by particle diameter into five physical size fractions, 500-250, 250-125, 125-74, 74-45, < 45 μm. Concentrations of metals (Ti, Cr, Al, Ga, Pb, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, Mo, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Bi, Ag) were determined for each individual fraction. These metals could be roughly classified into two groups: anthropogenic element (Pb, Ba, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Bi, Ag) and lithophile element (Ti, Cr, Al, Ga, Co, Mn, Ni, V) in terms of values of enrichment factor. As expected, higher concentrations of anthropogenic heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Hg, Bi, Ag) are observed in the finest particle grain size fraction (i.e. < 45 μm). However, heavy metals Se, Sb and Ba behave independently of selected grain size fractions. From the viewpoint of mass loading, more than 30% of the concentrations for all anthropogenic heavy metals are contributed by the particle grain size fractions of 45-74 μm at site 1 and more than 70% of the concentrations for all heavy metals are contributed by the particle grain size fractions of 45-74 and 74-125 μm at site 2. These results are important for transport of soil-bound heavy metals and pollution control by various remedial options.

  1. Characteristics of Designated Drivers and their Passengers from the 2007 National Roadside Survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Gwen; Yao, Jie; Shults, Ruth A.; Romano, Eduardo; Lacey, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of designated driving in the United States, compare these results with those from the 1996 National Roadside Survey, and explore the demographic, drinking, and trip characteristics of both designated drivers and their passengers. Methods The data used were from the 2007 National Roadside Survey which randomly stopped drivers, administered breath tests for alcohol, and administered a questionnaire to drivers and front seat passengers. Results Almost a third (30%) of nighttime drivers reported being designated drivers, with 84% of them having a blood alcohol concentration of zero. Drivers who were more likely to be designated drivers were those with a blood alcohol concentration that was over zero but still legal, who were under 35 years of age, who were African-American, Hispanic or Asian, and whose driving trip originated at a bar, tavern, or club. Over a third of passengers of designated drivers reported consuming an alcoholic drink the day of the survey compared with a fifth of passengers of non-designated drivers. One-fifth of designated driver passengers who reported drinking consumed five or more drinks that day. Conclusions Designated driving is widely used in the United States, with the majority of designated drivers abstaining from drinking alcohol. However as designated driving separates drinking from driving for passengers in a group travelling together, this may encourage passengers to binge drink, which is associated with many adverse health consequences in addition to those arising from alcohol-impaired driving. Designated driving programs and campaigns, although not proven to be effective when used alone, can complement proven effective interventions to help reduce excessive drinking and alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:24372499

  2. The lead (Pb) isotope signature, behaviour and fate of traffic-related lead pollution in roadside soils in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Walraven, N; van Os, B J H; Klaver, G Th; Middelburg, J J; Davies, G R

    2014-02-15

    In this study the origin, behaviour and fate of anthropogenic Pb in sandy roadside soils were assessed by measuring soil characteristics, Pb isotope composition and content. In 1991 and 2003 samples were taken at different depth intervals at approximately 8 and 75 m from two highways in The Netherlands. The Pb isotope composition of the litter layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.12-1.14) differs from the deeper soil samples ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.20-1.21). Based on a mixing model it is concluded that the samples contain two Pb sources: natural Pb and anthropogenic Pb, the latter mainly derived from gasoline. (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios demonstrate that the roadside soils were polluted to a depth of ~15 cm. Within this depth interval, anthropogenic Pb content is associated with organic matter. Although Pb pollution only reached a depth of ~15 cm, this does not mean that the topsoils retain all anthropogenic Pb. Due to the low pH and negligible binding capacity of soils at depths >15 cm, anthropogenic Pb migrated towards groundwater after reaching depths of >15 cm. The Pb isotope composition of the groundwater ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.135-1.185) establishes that groundwater is polluted with anthropogenic Pb. The contribution of anthropogenic Pb to the groundwater varies between ~30 and 100%. Based on the difference in soil Pb content and Pb isotope compositions over a period of 12 years, downward Pb migration is calculated to vary from 72 ± 95 to 324 ± 279 mg m(-2)y(-1). Assuming that the downward Pb flux is constant over time, it is calculated that 35-90% of the atmospherically delivered Pb has migrated to the groundwater.

  3. Assessment of existing roadside swales with engineered filter soil: II. Treatment efficiency and in situ mobilization in soil columns.

    PubMed

    Ingvertsen, Simon T; Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina B; Magid, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Use of roadside infiltration systems using engineered filter soil for optimized treatment has been common practice in Germany for decades, but little documentation is available regarding their long-term treatment performance. Here we present the results of laboratory leaching experiments with intact soil columns (15 cm i.d., 25-30 cm length) collected from two German roadside infiltration swales constructed in 1997. The columns were irrigated with synthetic solutions of unpolluted or polluted (dissolved heavy metals and fine suspended solids) road runoff, as well as a soluble nonreactive tracer (bromide) and a dye (brilliant blue). The experiments were performed at two irrigation rates corresponding to catchment rainfall intensities of approximately 5.1 and 34 mm/h. The bromide curves indicated that preferential flow was more pronounced at high irrigation rates, which was supported by the flow patterns revealed in the dye tracing experiment. Nonetheless, the soils seemed to be capable of retaining most of the dissolved heavy metals from the polluted road runoff at both low and high irrigation rates, except for Cr, which appears to pass through the soil as chromate. Fluorescent microspheres (diameter = 5 μm) used as surrogates for fine suspended solids were efficiently retained by the soils (>99%). However, despite promising treatment abilities, internal mobilization of heavy metals and P from the soil was observed, resulting in potentially critical effluent concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb. This is mainly ascribed to high concentrations of in situ mobilized dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Suggestions are provided for possible improvements and further research to minimize DOC mobilization in engineered filter soils.

  4. 23 CFR 752.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (c) The development of the roadside to include landscape development, safety rest areas, and the preservation of valuable adjacent scenic lands is a necessary component of highway development. Planning and... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE...

  5. 23 CFR 752.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy. 752.2 Section 752.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT.... (c) The development of the roadside to include landscape development, safety rest areas, and the...

  6. Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Lesley H; Johnston, David W; Urban, Dean L; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H; Deakos, Mark H; Mobley, Joseph R; Pack, Adam A; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood.

  7. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  8. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza Regaçone, Simone; Baptista de Lima, Daiane Damaris; Engrácia Valenti, Vitor; Figueiredo Frizzo, Ana Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR) and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs) at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX) and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration). There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR. PMID:26504838

  9. Mass versus relativistic and rest masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okun, L. B.

    2009-05-01

    The concept of relativistic mass, which increases with velocity, is not compatible with the standard language of relativity theory and impedes the understanding and learning of the theory by beginners. The same difficulty occurs with the term rest mass. To get rid of relativistic mass and rest mass it is appropriate to replace the equation E =mc2 by the true Einstein's equation E0=mc2, where E0 is the rest energy and m is the mass.

  10. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other other applications. This allows individuals to provide direct access to EPA's metadata outside the EDG interface. The EDG REST Interface allows each users to query the catalog through a URL using REST syntax. Accessing individual metadata documents through their REST URLs, or groups of documents that match specific search criteria through a REST-formatted search URL, provides powerful functionality for searching, viewing, and sharing EDG records.

  11. Distribution behavior and carcinogenic level of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roadside soil at major traffic intercepts within a developing city of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vaneet; Kothiyal, N C

    2012-10-01

    A study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in roadside soil was conducted at a developing city locations of Jalandhar (Punjab), India in winter season to ascertain the contamination levels and their distribution behavior in roadside soil. PAHs concentration level of ten locations was measured at 1, 2, and 3 m distances from roadside soil covering all the major traffic intercepts within a city. Samples were extracted in acetone and dichloromethane (1:1) using soxhlet extraction. The extracts were filtered on a silica gel micro column to remove impurities and eluate was subjected to GC-FID. The total average PAHs concentration (city average) was found to be 4.04 μg g(-1), whereas the concentration of 16 individual PAHs was found to vary between 0.008 and 28.4 μg g(-1). The average concentration of noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic PAHs in all the samples was 2.17 and 6.41 μg g(-1) (ratio 1:2.95). The concentration of five ringed PAHs was found to be 45% to 60%, whereas two ringed PAHs were found to be in the range from 0.28% to 0.56% in all most all locations. The average highest PAHs concentration for any individual location was found as 12.23 μg g(-1) at DAV Chowk at 1 m distance and minimum concentration was 0.98 μg g(-1) at Maqsuda Chowk at 1 m distance from roadside. DiB (ah) A was the individual PAHs found in highest concentration in all the intercepts ranging between 1.26 and 28 μg g(-1). At most of the city intercepts, total carcinogenic PAHs concentration was found to range from 60% to 80% in comparison to noncarcinogenic PAHs (20%-40%) at most of the intercepts. The pollution level our study was compared with other cities of India/worldwide.

  12. Occurrence and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in PM(2.5) in the roadside environment of a major city in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhigang; Lin, Tian; Zhang, Gan; Hu, Limin; Zheng, Mei

    2009-10-30

    Thirty six PM(2.5) samples were collected at a roadside site of the heaviest traffic road in Qingdao, a coastal mega city in North China, from March 2004 to January 2005 to perform a detailed characterization of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) proposed by the USEPA and n-alkanes. For PAHs, the significant increase in winter was observed with average PAH level of 32.3, 11.5, 48.9 and 263 ng m(-3) for spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. The average concentrations of n-alkane in PM(2.5) at ground level were 232, 121, 309 and 369 ng m(-3) in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The pyrogenic PAHs were mainly from the coal burning, and the liquid fossil fuel combustion was their second contribution even at the roadside of a busy street with heavy traffic in Qingdao. Petroleum residues were the dominant source for the n-alkanes. Principal component analysis results indicated that all the measured PAHs but naphthalene and those C17-C26 n-alkanes could be attributed to the fossil fuel burning while long-chain n-alkanes (C27-C35) were mainly derived from higher plant waxes. Good correlations between PAHs and n-alkanes in summer, autumn and winter suggested that they were mainly from local sources. The poor correlation of n-alkanes and PAHs in spring could be mainly due to the shift from the space heating season to non-heating season during the sampling period. This work indicated that the roadside environment in Qingdao was more deteriorated compared with non-roadside environment in other mega cities in China.

  13. Language in the brain at rest: new insights from resting state data and graph theoretical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Angela M.; Meyer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the most obvious functional lateralization is the specialization of the left hemisphere for language. Therefore, the involvement of the right hemisphere in language is one of the most remarkable findings during the last two decades of fMRI research. However, the importance of this finding continues to be underestimated. We examined the interaction between the two hemispheres and also the role of the right hemisphere in language. From two seeds representing Broca's area, we conducted a seed correlation analysis (SCA) of resting state fMRI data and could identify a resting state network (RSN) overlapping to significant extent with a language network that was generated by an automated meta-analysis tool. To elucidate the relationship between the clusters of this RSN, we then performed graph theoretical analyses (GTA) using the same resting state dataset. We show that the right hemisphere is clearly involved in language. A modularity analysis revealed that the interaction between the two hemispheres is mediated by three partitions: A bilateral frontal partition consists of nodes representing the classical left sided language regions as well as two right-sided homologs. The second bilateral partition consists of nodes from the right frontal, the left inferior parietal cortex as well as of two nodes within the posterior cerebellum. The third partition is also bilateral and comprises five regions from the posterior midline parts of the brain to the temporal and frontal cortex, two of the nodes are prominent default mode nodes. The involvement of this last partition in a language relevant function is a novel finding. PMID:24808843

  14. Language in the brain at rest: new insights from resting state data and graph theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Muller, Angela M; Meyer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the most obvious functional lateralization is the specialization of the left hemisphere for language. Therefore, the involvement of the right hemisphere in language is one of the most remarkable findings during the last two decades of fMRI research. However, the importance of this finding continues to be underestimated. We examined the interaction between the two hemispheres and also the role of the right hemisphere in language. From two seeds representing Broca's area, we conducted a seed correlation analysis (SCA) of resting state fMRI data and could identify a resting state network (RSN) overlapping to significant extent with a language network that was generated by an automated meta-analysis tool. To elucidate the relationship between the clusters of this RSN, we then performed graph theoretical analyses (GTA) using the same resting state dataset. We show that the right hemisphere is clearly involved in language. A modularity analysis revealed that the interaction between the two hemispheres is mediated by three partitions: A bilateral frontal partition consists of nodes representing the classical left sided language regions as well as two right-sided homologs. The second bilateral partition consists of nodes from the right frontal, the left inferior parietal cortex as well as of two nodes within the posterior cerebellum. The third partition is also bilateral and comprises five regions from the posterior midline parts of the brain to the temporal and frontal cortex, two of the nodes are prominent default mode nodes. The involvement of this last partition in a language relevant function is a novel finding.

  15. C5-C12 volatile organic compounds at roadside, residential, and background locations in Ankara, Turkey: temporal and spatial variations and sources.

    PubMed

    Kuntasal, Oznur Oğuz; Kilavuz, Seda Aslan; Karman, Deniz; Wang, Daniel; Tuncel, Gürdal

    2013-10-01

    Concentrations of 91 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ranging from C5 to C12 were measured at three sites in Ankara, the capital of Turkey, in the summer of 2003 and winter of 2004. Samples were collected at roadside, residential and background stations at consecutive 4-hr intervals over a 24-hr period for six weeks in each season. Air samples were collected onto cartridges packed with Tenax TA and Carbopack B resins and analyzed by thermal desorption, followed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass selective detector (GC/MSD). Time resolved data provided information on ambient levels, temporal and spatial variations and sources of VOCs in Ankara. Toluene is the most abundant compound at all sites with and average concentration of 13.1 ?g m(-3). The mean concentrations of benzene are 12.6, 5.2, and 2.4 ?g m(-3) during winter at roadside, residential and background stations, respectively. Diurnal variation in the data together with toluene to benzene concentration ratio (T:B) that is close to 2.0 indicated the influence of traffic related emissions at residential and roadside stations during winter season. Higher T:B ratio observed at residential and background stations during summer period and correlation analysis indicated additional VOC sources. Temporal variations and low m,p-xylene to ethylbenzene ratio (mpX:E) indicated that transported air mass is the major VOC source influencing VOC concentrations measured at the background station.

  16. Occurrence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations along roadsides in southern Manitoba, Canada and their potential role in intraspecific gene flow.

    PubMed

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Gulden, Robert H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2011-04-01

    Alfalfa is a highly outcrossing perennial species that can be noticed in roadsides as feral populations. There remains little information available on the extent of feral alfalfa populations in western Canadian prairies and their role in gene flow. The main objectives of this study were (a) to document the occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, and (b) to estimate the levels of outcrossing facilitated by feral populations. A roadside survey confirmed widespread occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, particularly in alfalfa growing regions. The feral populations were dynamic and their frequency ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 populations km(-1). In many cases, the nearest feral alfalfa population from alfalfa production field was located within a distance sufficient for outcrossing in alfalfa. The gene flow study confirmed that genes can move back and forth between feral and cultivated alfalfa populations. In this study, the estimated outcrossing levels were 62% (seed fields to feral), 78% (feral to seed fields), 82% (hay fields to feral) and 85% (feral to feral). Overall, the results show that feral alfalfa plants are prevalent in alfalfa producing regions in western Canada and they can serve as bridges for gene flow at landscape level. Management of feral populations should be considered, if gene flow is a concern. Emphasis on preventing seed spill/escapes and intentional roadside planting of alfalfa cultivars will be particularly helpful. Further, realistic and pragmatic threshold levels should be established for markets sensitive to the presence of GE traits.

  17. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  18. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  19. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  20. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kathleen H

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis format. The importance of rest is discussed as a nursing intervention, and model cases are presented to clarify the concept. Three defining attributes of cognitive rest are established: freedom from physical or mental discomfort, abstinence from mental exertion, and mental and emotional balance. Empirical referents are given as well as a suggested protocol to enable school nurses to form cognitive rest and return-to-classroom protocols that can be adapted to individual school settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Potential effects of roadside dry wells on groundwater quality on the Island of Hawai'i-Assessment using numerical groundwater models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread use of dry wells to dispose of roadside runoff has raised concern about the potential effects on the quality of groundwater on the Island of Hawai‘i. This study used semi-generic numerical models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport to assess the potential effect of dry wells on groundwater quality on the Island of Hawai‘i. The semi-generic models are generalized numerical groundwater-flow and solute-transport models that have a range of aquifer properties and regional groundwater gradients that are characteristic for the island. Several semi-generic models were created to study the effect of dry wells in different hydrogeologic conditions, such as different unsaturated-zone thicknesses or different aquifer characteristics. Results indicate that mixing of contaminated water from the surface with contaminant-free water in the saturated aquifer immediately reduces the contaminant concentration. The amount the concentration is reduced depends on the hydraulic properties of the aquifer in a given area, the thickness of the unsaturated zone, and whether the infiltration is focused in a small area of a dry well or spread naturally over a larger area. Model simulations indicate that focusing infiltration of contaminated runoff through a dry well can substantially increase contaminant concentrations in the underlying saturated aquifer relative to infiltration under natural conditions. Simulated concentrations directly beneath a dry well were nearly 8 times higher than the simulated concentrations directly beneath a broad infiltration area representing the natural condition. Where dry wells are present, contaminant concentrations in the underlying saturated aquifer are lower when the unsaturated zone is thicker and higher when the unsaturated zone is thinner. Contaminant concentrations decline quickly as the contaminant plume migrates, with the regional groundwater flow, away from the dry well. The differences among concentrations resulting from the

  2. Recovery to resting metabolic state after walking.

    PubMed

    Frankenfield, David C; Coleman, Abigail

    2009-11-01

    Metabolic rate is usually measured in a resting state. To achieve this, a period of up to 30 minutes is given to recover from walking prior to the test. A work group from the American Dietetic Association recommends that 10 to 20 minutes is sufficient to achieve rest, but supporting data are limited. The purpose of this prospective observational study then was to determine how much time is needed for adults to recover to rest after walking 300 meters. Each participant's metabolic rate was measured with indirect calorimetry for 30 minutes after a 30-minute rest. The participant then walked 300 meters on a measured course, and metabolic rate was measured again for 30 minutes. Recovery to rest was considered to have occurred when the measured metabolic rate returned to a level of less than 6% above the resting measurement. Forty healthy ambulatory adults completed this study. Analysis of variance indicated that after a 300-meter walk, resting level of metabolic rate was achieved by the 10th minute of rest. However, it took 20 minutes for 95% of all participants to meet the 6% threshold (the remaining 5% who did not reach the threshold were observed to be moving during the measurement). The results of this study indicate that if a person lies still, recovery to rest after walking occurs by 20 minutes, validating the recommendation made by the expert panel of the American Dietetic Association's work group on indirect calorimetry. Rest periods of 30 minutes are not required, but the person should be observed for movement.

  3. Roadside versus remote: Is the habitat sampled by the Breeding Bird Survey in Maryland representative of statewide conditions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, D.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Thomas, I.; Handley, Lawrence R.; D'Erchia, Frank J.; Charron, Tammy M.

    2000-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has received criticism that the bird habitat sampled along the 24.5 mile long roadside transects may not be proportional to regional totals. If true, trends in bird populations recorded by the BBS may not be sensitive predictors of regional or continental change in songbird abundance. To test whether the approximately 60 BBS routes in Maryland representatively sample the state's habitat, a geographic information system (GIS) database was compiled of significant bird habitat identified from remotely sensed landcover and land-use information (e.g., Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortiumclassified Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, etc.). These GIS data layers were analyzed to determine the statewide acreage of identified habitats as well as the acreage in each of the major physiographic regions of Maryland. Regional and statewide totals were also extracted for the subsample of habitat within 30 m of the BBS transects. The results of the comparison of regional and statewide habitat totals with the BBS sample showed very low proportional difference for nearly all of the identified habitat parameters. For Maryland and perhaps other urbanizing states, the BBS provides an accurate sample of available songbird habitats.

  4. Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Young Men Working at a Rural Roadside Market in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Jere, Diana L; Norr, Kathleen F; Bell, Carl C; Corte, Colleen; Dancy, Barbara L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Levy, Judith A

    Using an ecological model, we describe substance use and sexual risk behaviors of young male laborers at a roadside market in Malawi. Data included observations and interviews with 18 key market leaders and 15 laborers (ages 18-25 years). Alcohol, marijuana, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) were widely available. We identified three patterns of substance use: 6 young men currently used, 6 formerly used, and 3 never used. Substance use was linked to risky sex, including sex with CSWs. The market supported risky behaviors through availability of resources; supportive norms, including beliefs that substance use enhanced strength; and lack of restraints. Community-level poverty, cultural support for alcohol, interpersonal family/peer influences, early substance use, and school dropout also contributed to risky behaviors. Parental guidance was protective but not often reported. Local programs addressing substance use and risky sex simultaneously and better national substance use policies and mental health services are needed. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of the vegetative cover on the fate of trace metals in retention systems simulating roadside infiltration swales.

    PubMed

    Leroy, M C; Marcotte, S; Legras, M; Moncond'huy, V; Le Derf, F; Portet-Koltalo, F

    2017-02-15

    Large-scale outdoor mesocosms were designed and co-contaminated with metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) and organic compounds to better understand the complex functioning of urban roadside swale environments. Infiltration systems were planted with macrophytes (P. arundinaceae, J. effusus and I. pseudacorus) or grassed, and natural or spiked target metals were monitored over two years. In the non-spiked mesocosms, atmospheric metal inputs were slightly higher than outputs, leading to low metal accumulation in topsoils and to very low outflow water contamination (<0.7% of the initial metal stock). In the spiked infiltration systems that simulated point pollution through water inflow, transfer of the initial stock of metals to the deeper soil layers was quite low and outflow water contamination was very low (<0.6% of the initial stock). The main metal output from these systems occurred in the first days of their installation because of the high metal solubility in water and insufficient plant cover at that time. The infiltration systems stabilized after a few weeks, probably because of stronger sorption to soil aggregates, and because of plant root development. Mephytoextraction in plant roots was more efficient in mesocosms planted with P. arundinacea and grass. Metal phytoextraction in plant aerial parts was also better for grass and P. arundinacea, when considering metal standing stocks instead of their concentration in plants. J. effusus was a good metal accumulator, but its low aboveground biomass development was less favorable to metal removal through harvesting.

  6. Simulation study of dispersion and removal of particulate matter from traffic by road-side vegetation barrier.

    PubMed

    Morakinyo, Tobi Eniolu; Lam, Yun Fat

    2016-04-01

    Well-positioned and configured vegetation barriers (VBs) have been suggested as one of the green infrastructures that could improve near-road (local) air quality. This is because of their influence on the underlying mechanisms: dispersion and mass removal (by deposition). Some studies have investigated air quality improvement by near-road vegetation barrier using the dispersion-related method while few studies have done the same using the deposition-related method. However, decision making on vegetation barrier's configuration and placement for need-based maximum benefit requires a combined assessment with both methods which are not commonly found in a single study. In the present study, we employed a computational fluid dynamics model, ENVI-met, to evaluate the air quality benefit of near-road vegetation barrier using an integrated dispersion-deposition approach. A technique based on distance between source (road) and point of peak concentration before dwindling concentration downwind begins referred to as "distance to maximum concentration (DMC)" has been proposed to determine optimum position from source and thickness of vegetation barrier for improved dispersion and deposition-based benefit, respectively. Generally, a higher volume of vegetation barrier increases the overall mass removal while it weakens dispersion of pollutant within the same domain. Hence, the benefit of roadside vegetation barrier is need-based and can be expressed as either higher mass deposition or higher mass dispersion. Finally, recommendations on applications of our findings were presented.

  7. Leaching characteristics of arsenic and heavy metals in urban roadside soils using a simple bioavailability extraction test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-song; Qin, Yong; Chen, Yong-kang

    2007-06-01

    Regular ingestion of soils could pose a potential health threat due to long-term toxic element exposure. In order to estimate the human bioavailability quotients for As and heavy metals, 12 urban roadside soil samples were collected and analyzed for As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, and Cr using Simple Bioavailability Extraction Test (SBET). The quantities of As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, and Cr leached from soils within the simulated human stomach for 1 h indicated, on average, 27.3, 71.7, 40.4, 59.3, 17.7, 27.2 and 5.6% bioavailability, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between the amounts leached using SBET and the total amounts dissolved with HNO(3)-HCl-HF acid mixtures. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the amounts leached with SBET for As, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Co were not related to any of the physic-chemical parameters measured (i.e., soil texture, pH, total organic matter). These results may be valuable for providing input data for risk assessment at sites subject to anthropogenic soil contamination.

  8. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  9. Changes in intervertebral disc morphology persist 5 mo after 21-day bed rest.

    PubMed

    Belavý, Daniel L; Bansmann, P Martin; Böhme, Gisela; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Heer, Martina; Rittweger, Jörn; Zange, Jochen; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2011-11-01

    As part of the nutrition-countermeasures (NUC) study in Cologne, Germany in 2010, seven healthy male subjects underwent 21 days of head-down tilt bed rest and returned 153 days later to undergo a second bout of 21-day bed rest. As part of this model, we aimed to examine the recovery of the lumbar intervertebral discs and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) after bed rest using magnetic resonance imaging and conduct a pilot study on the effects of bed rest in lumbar muscle activation, as measured by signal intensity changes in T(2)-weighted images after a standardized isometric spinal extension loading task. The changes in intervertebral disc volume, anterior and posterior disc height, and intervertebral length seen after bed rest did not return to prebed-rest values 153 days later. While recovery of muscle CSA occurred after bed rest, increases (P ≤ 0.016) in multifidus, psoas, and quadratus lumborum muscle CSA were seen 153 days after bed rest. A trend was seen for greater activation of the erector spinae and multifidus muscles in the standardized loading task after bed rest. Greater reductions of multifidus and psoas CSA muscle and greater increases in multifidus signal intensity with loading were associated with incidence of low back pain in the first 28 days after bed rest (P ≤ 0.044). The current study contributes to our understanding of the recovery of the lumbar spine after 21-day bed rest, and the main finding was that a decrease in spinal extensor muscle CSA recovers within 5 mo after bed rest but that changes in the intervertebral discs persist.

  10. 9 CFR 72.17 - Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only, permitted in authorized pens for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unloading noninfected cattle for rest... cattle for rest, feed, and water only, permitted in authorized pens for such purpose. (a) Specifications for construction and maintenance. Cattle of the free area, and cattle of the quarantined area when...

  11. Temporal Reliability and Lateralization of the Resting-State Language Network

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Qihong; Wang, Jue; Gao, Jia-Hong; Niu, Zhendong

    2014-01-01

    The neural processing loop of language is complex but highly associated with Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The left dominance of these two areas was the earliest observation of brain asymmetry. It was demonstrated that the language network and its functional asymmetry during resting state were reproducible across institutions. However, the temporal reliability of resting-state language network and its functional asymmetry are still short of knowledge. In this study, we established a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis of language network with seed regions located at Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and investigated temporal reliability of language network and its functional asymmetry. The language network was found to be temporally reliable in both short- and long-term. In the aspect of functional asymmetry, the Broca's area was found to be left lateralized, while the Wernicke's area is mainly right lateralized. Functional asymmetry of these two areas revealed high short- and long-term reliability as well. In addition, the impact of global signal regression (GSR) on reliability of the resting-state language network was investigated, and our results demonstrated that GSR had negligible effect on the temporal reliability of the resting-state language network. Our study provided methodology basis for future cross-culture and clinical researches of resting-state language network and suggested priority of adopting seed-based functional connectivity for its high reliability. PMID:24475058

  12. Temporal reliability and lateralization of the resting-state language network.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linlin; Fan, Yang; Zou, Qihong; Wang, Jue; Gao, Jia-Hong; Niu, Zhendong

    2014-01-01

    The neural processing loop of language is complex but highly associated with Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The left dominance of these two areas was the earliest observation of brain asymmetry. It was demonstrated that the language network and its functional asymmetry during resting state were reproducible across institutions. However, the temporal reliability of resting-state language network and its functional asymmetry are still short of knowledge. In this study, we established a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis of language network with seed regions located at Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and investigated temporal reliability of language network and its functional asymmetry. The language network was found to be temporally reliable in both short- and long-term. In the aspect of functional asymmetry, the Broca's area was found to be left lateralized, while the Wernicke's area is mainly right lateralized. Functional asymmetry of these two areas revealed high short- and long-term reliability as well. In addition, the impact of global signal regression (GSR) on reliability of the resting-state language network was investigated, and our results demonstrated that GSR had negligible effect on the temporal reliability of the resting-state language network. Our study provided methodology basis for future cross-culture and clinical researches of resting-state language network and suggested priority of adopting seed-based functional connectivity for its high reliability.

  13. Nasolabial angle at rest and upon smiling.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Janson, Guilherme; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Cardoso, Camila Lopes

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the mean and SD of the nasolabial angle (NLA) and the linear measure pronasale (Prn)-A' at rest and upon smiling and 2) to determine the difference between smile and rest in participants with normal occlusion and facial harmony. The sample consisted of 40 white Brazilian participants (20 of each gender) aged 20 to 30 years and with normal occlusion, a pleasant profile, and facial harmony. The measures NLA and Prn-A' were analyzed in profile photographs at rest and during smile, with a millimeter ruler in front of the profile during use of the Dolphin software. The statistical analysis included dependent t tests to compare the rest and smiling variables. The mean of the NLA at rest was 104.93°; it was 110.67° during smile; and the difference between them was statistically significant, with a mean of 5.74°. The mean of the linear variable Prn-A' at rest was 23.25 mm, whereas during smile it was 24.04 mm, and the difference between them was statistically significant, with a mean of 0.79 mm. The variability in the NLA and Prn-A' at rest and upon smiling was found to be significant in a normal sample, and it should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the treatment planning for sagittal dentoskeletal deformities. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 23 CFR 752.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT § 752.3 Definitions. (a) Safety rest area. A roadside facility safely removed from the traveled way with parking and such facilities for the motorist deemed necessary for his rest, relaxation, comfort and information needs. The term is synonymous with “rest and recreation areas.” (b) Scenic...

  15. Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

  16. Focal Gray Matter Plasticity as a Function of Long Duration Head-down Tilt Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppelmans, V.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Koppelmans, V.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight (i.e., > or = 22 days) has been associated with changes in sensorimotor systems, resulting in difficulties that astronauts experience with posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes. Whether these sensorimotor changes may be related to structural and functional brain changes is yet unknown. However, experimental studies revealed changes in the gray matter (GM) of the brain after simulated microgravity. Thus, it is possible that spaceflight may affect brain structure and thereby cognitive functioning and motor behavior. Long duration head-down tilt bed rest has been suggested as an exclusionary analog to study microgravity effects on the sensorimotor system. Bed rest mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both in- and post-flight, we are conducting a prospective longitudinal 70-day bed rest study as an analog to investigate the effects of microgravity on the brain. VBM analysis revealed a progressive decrease from pre- to in- bed rest in GM volume in bilateral areas including the frontal medial cortex, the insular cortex and the caudate. Over the same time period, there was a progressive increase in GM volume in the cerebellum, occipital-, and parietal cortex, including the precuneus. The majority of these changes did not fully recover during the post-bed rest period. Analysis of lobular GM volumes obtained with BRAINS showed significantly increased volume from pre-bed rest to in-bed rest in GM of the parietal lobe and the third ventricle. Temporal GM volume at 70 days in bed rest was smaller than that at the first pre-bed rest measurement. Trend analysis showed significant positive linear and negative quadratic relationships between parietal GM and time, a positive linear relationship between third ventricle volume and time, and a negative linear

  17. 14 CFR 117.25 - Rest period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... minimum of 8 uninterrupted hours of sleep opportunity. (f) If a flightcrew member determines that a rest period under paragraph (e) of this section will not provide eight uninterrupted hours of sleep...

  18. Resting heart rate estimation using PIR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapu, Hemanth; Saraswat, Kavisha; Ozturk, Yusuf; Cetin, A. Enis

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a non-invasive and non-contact system of estimating resting heart rate (RHR) using a pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor. This infrared system monitors and records the chest motion of a subject using the analog output signal of the PIR sensor. The analog output signal represents the composite motion due to inhale-exhale process with magnitude much larger than the minute vibrations of heartbeat. Since the acceleration of the heart activity is much faster than breathing the second derivative of the PIR sensor signal monitoring the chest of the subject is used to estimate the resting heart rate. Experimental results indicate that this ambient sensor can measure resting heart rate with a chi-square significance level of α = 0.05 compared to an industry standard PPG sensor. This new system provides a low cost and an effective way to estimate the resting heart rate, which is an important biological marker.

  19. Is bed rest following embryo transfer necessary?

    PubMed

    Sharif, K; Afnan, M; Lashen, H; Elgendy, M; Morgan, C; Sinclair, L

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of no bed rest following ET on the results of an IVF program. Historical cohort-control study. A University-based assisted conception unit. One thousand and nineteen (1019) IVF cycles were performed at our unit from June 1994 to August 1996. The historical control consisted of all the 19,697 IVF cycles reported in the United Kingdom national database from April 1994 to March 1995. No bed rest following ET in our patients. Pregnancy rate (PR) and clinical PR per cycles started and per ET procedure. The clinical PR per ET was significantly higher in our patients than in the national data (30% versus 22.9%), as was the clinical PR per cycle (23.5% versus 18.6%). The implantation rate in our patients was 17.2%. The favorable PR in our patients despite no bed rest following ET suggests the bed rest is not necessary.

  20. Brief wakeful resting can eliminate directed forgetting.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Andreas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-02-01

    When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emotionally neutral music or perceived neutral pictures, or it was followed by an "active" distraction period in which subjects were engaged in counting or calculation tasks. Whereas typical directed forgetting was present after active distraction, the forgetting was absent after wakeful resting. The findings indicate that the degree to which people can intentionally forget memories is influenced by the cognitive activity that people engage in shortly after learning takes place. The results provide first evidence on the interplay between wakeful resting and intentional forgetting.

  1. Effects Of Exercise During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Bernauer, Edmund M.

    1993-01-01

    Pair of reports adds to growing body of knowledge of physical deconditioning caused by prolonged bed rest and effectiveness of various exercise regimens in preserving or restoring fitness. Major objective to determine what regimens to prescribe to astronauts before flight, during prolonged weightlessness, and immediately before returning to Earth. Knowledge also benefits patients confined by illness or injury. First report discusses experiment on effects of two types of periodic, intense, short-duration exercise during bed rest. Experiment also discussed in documents "Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest" (ARC-12190), and "Isotonic And Isokinetic Exercise During Bed Rest" (ARC-12180). Second report reviews knowledge acquired with view toward development of protocols for exercise regimens.

  2. Resting-state cortical connectivity predicts motor skill acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jennifer; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kaur, Arshdeep; Cramer, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined brain states in an effort to predict individual differences in capacity for learning, with overall moderate results. The present study investigated how measures of cortical network function acquired at rest using dense-array EEG (256 leads) predict subsequent acquisition of a new motor skill. Brain activity was recorded in 17 healthy young subjects during three minutes of wakeful rest prior to a single motor skill training session on a digital version of the pursuit rotor task. Practice was associated with significant gains in task performance (% time on target increased from 24% to 41%, p < 0.0001). Using a partial least squares regression (PLS) model, coherence with the region of the left primary motor area (M1) in resting EEG data was a strong predictor of motor skill acquisition (R2 = 0.81 in a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis), exceeding the information provided by baseline behavior and demographics. Within this PLS model, greater skill acquisition was predicted by higher connectivity between M1 and left parietal cortex, possibly reflecting greater capacity for visuomotor integration, and by lower connectivity between M1 and left frontal-premotor areas, possibly reflecting differences in motor planning strategies. EEG coherence, which reflects functional connectivity, predicts individual motor skill acquisition with a level of accuracy that is remarkably high compared to prior reports using EEG or fMRI measures. PMID:24473097

  3. ReSTful OSGi Web Applications Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja; Norris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation accompanies a tutorial on the ReSTful (Representational State Transfer) web application. Using Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi), ReST uses HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites. It also uses Eclipse for the rapid development, the Eclipse debugger, the test application, and the ease of export to production servers.

  4. ReSTful OSGi Web Applications Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja; Norris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation accompanies a tutorial on the ReSTful (Representational State Transfer) web application. Using Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi), ReST uses HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites. It also uses Eclipse for the rapid development, the Eclipse debugger, the test application, and the ease of export to production servers.

  5. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  6. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  7. An investigation into resting behavior in Asian elephants in UK zoos.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ellen; Bremner-Harrison, Samantha; Harvey, Naomi; Evison, Emma; Yon, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining adequate welfare in captive elephants is challenging. Few studies have investigated overnight rest behavior in zoo elephants, yet time spent resting has been identified as a welfare indicator in some species. We investigated resting behavior in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in UK zoos, with the aim of identifying patterns or preferences in lying rest. Details of standing (SR) and lying (LR) rest behavior were identified by observing video footage of inside enclosures collected for 14 elephants (2 male, 12 female) housed at three UK zoos (Zoo A: 18 nights; Zoo B: 27 nights; Zoo C: 46 nights) from 16:00 to 08:30 (approximately). Elephants engaged in a mean of 58-337 min rest per night. Time of night affected mean duration of LR bouts (P < 0.001); longest bouts were observed between 22:01 and 06:00. Elephants showed a substrate preference when lying to rest; LR was not observed on concrete or tiled flooring. Where sand was available (to 11/14 elephants), all elephants engaged in LR on sand flooring. Only two elephants engaged in LR on rubber flooring (available to 7/14 elephants). Mean duration of rest bouts was greater when a conspecific was within two body lengths than when conspecifics were not (P < 0.01). Our study indicated that elephants show substrate preferences when choosing an area for rest and engage in more rest when conspecifics are in close proximity. The results of this study could be used as a basis for future studies investigating the link between rest and welfare in captive elephants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Drivers' phone use at red traffic lights: a roadside observation study comparing calls and visual-manual interactions.

    PubMed

    Huth, Véronique; Sanchez, Yann; Brusque, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Phone use while driving has become one of the priority issues in road safety, given that it may lead to decreased situation awareness and deteriorated driving performance. It has been suggested that drivers can regulate their exposure to secondary tasks and seek for compatibility of phone use and driving. Phone use strategies include the choice of driving situations with low demands and interruptions of the interaction when the context changes. Traffic light situations at urban intersections imply both a temptation to use the phone while waiting at the red traffic light and a potential threat due to the incompatibility of phone use and driving when the traffic light turns green. These two situations were targeted in a roadside observation study, with the aim to investigate the existence of a phone use strategy at the red traffic light and to test its effectiveness. N=124 phone users and a corresponding control group of non-users were observed. Strategic phone use behaviour was detected for visual-manual interactions, which are more likely to be initiated at the red traffic light and tend to be stopped before the vehicle moves off, while calls are less likely to be limited to the red traffic light situation. As an indicator of impaired situation awareness, delayed start was associated to phone use and in particular to visual-manual interactions, whether phone use was interrupted before moving off or not. Traffic light situations do not seem to allow effective application of phone use strategies, although drivers attempt to do so for the most demanding phone use mode. The underlying factors of phone use need to be studied so as to reduce the temptation of phone use and facilitate exposure regulation strategies.

  9. Metal accumulation, biochemical response and yield of Indian mustard grown in soil amended with rural roadside pond sediment.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Kumar Paul, Ranjit; Das, D K

    2013-06-01

    This present study aims to discern the effect of roadside pond sediments on Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (cv. Rohini) by examining heavy metal uptake by different parts of the plant and its influence on biochemical properties, biomass, yield and oil content in plant. Although the treated soils were clearly contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) after application of pond sediments and chemical fertilizers, but the metal content in mustard leaves and seeds are below the permissible limit of consumable food. HMs accumulation was proportionally lesser in grains than in shoots and roots. All the biochemical characteristics were significantly (p<0.05) responded to the pond sediments application as compared to the control. Increase in photosynthetic pigment was also observed during growing period while pond sediment was used as amendment. This study revealed that Brassica juncea is well adapted to tolerate and accumulate high quantities of HMs due to increased level of antioxidants (cysteine and ascorbic acid) in roots, shoots and leaves. Multivariate techniques like principal component analysis and cluster analysis (CA) were used as classification techniques. On the basis of factor loadings and principal component scores, different parameters were grouped based on their similarity or closeness, separately in leaves, roots and seeds. A very similar grouping was also obtained using CA. However, pond sediment did not thwart the enhancement of mustard yield and oil content. Therefore, pond sediment would be a valuable resource for mustard as an alternative soil amendment for nutrients, but long-term use may require the cessation to restrict HMs contamination in soils.

  10. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    PubMed Central

    Scheinost, Dustin; Stoica, Teodora; Wasylink, Suzanne; Gruner, Patricia; Saksa, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Hampson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients—personalized medicine—requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Individual response to this intervention is variable. Here we used patterns of brain functional connectivity, as measured by baseline resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), to predict improvements in contamination anxiety after neurofeedback training. Activity of a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 10, associated with contamination anxiety in each subject was measured in real time and presented as a neurofeedback signal, permitting subjects to learn to modulate this target brain region. We have previously reported both enhanced OFC/BA 10 control and improved anxiety in a group of subclinically anxious subjects after neurofeedback. Five individuals with contamination-related OCD who underwent the same protocol also showed improved clinical symptomatology. In both groups, these behavioral improvements were strongly correlated with baseline whole-brain connectivity in the OFC/BA 10, computed from rs-fMRI collected several days prior to neurofeedback training. These pilot data suggest that rs-fMRI can be used to identify individuals likely to benefit from rt-fMRI neurofeedback training to control contamination anxiety. PMID:25309375

  11. Are Auditory Hallucinations Related to the Brain's Resting State Activity? A 'Neurophenomenal Resting State Hypothesis'

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While several hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been suggested, the exact role of the recently highlighted intrinsic resting state activity of the brain remains unclear. Based on recent findings, we therefore developed what we call the 'resting state hypotheses' of AVH. Our hypothesis suggest that AVH may be traced back to abnormally elevated resting state activity in auditory cortex itself, abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by anterior cortical midline regions as part of the default-mode network, and neural confusion between auditory cortical resting state changes and stimulus-induced activity. We discuss evidence in favour of our 'resting state hypothesis' and show its correspondence with phenomenal, i.e., subjective-experiential features as explored in phenomenological accounts. Therefore I speak of a 'neurophenomenal resting state hypothesis' of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. PMID:25598821

  12. Source apportionment of fine and coarse particles at a roadside and urban background site in London during the 2012 summer ClearfLo campaign.

    PubMed

    Crilley, Leigh R; Lucarelli, Franco; Bloss, William J; Harrison, Roy M; Beddows, David C; Calzolai, Giulia; Nava, Silvia; Valli, Gianluigi; Bernardoni, Vera; Vecchi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    London, like many major cities, has a noted air pollution problem, and a better understanding of the sources of airborne particles in the different size fractions will facilitate the implementation and effectiveness of control strategies to reduce air pollution. Thus, the trace elemental composition of the fine and coarse fraction were analysed at hourly time resolution at urban background (North Kensington, NK) and roadside (Marylebone Road, MR) sites within central London. Unlike previous work, the current study focuses on measurements during the summer providing a snapshot of contributing sources, utilising the high time resolution to improve source identification. Roadside enrichment was observed for a large number of elements associated with traffic emissions (Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb and Zr), while those elements that are typically from more regional sources (e.g. Na, Cl, S and K) were not found to have an appreciable increment. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied for the source apportionment of the particle mass at both sites with similar sources being identified, including sea salt, airborne soil, traffic emissions, secondary inorganic aerosols and a Zn-Pb source. In the fine fraction, traffic emissions was the largest contributing source at MR (31.9%), whereas it was incorporated within an "urban background" source at NK, which had contributions from wood smoke, vehicle emissions and secondary particles. Regional sources were the major contributors to the coarse fraction at both sites. Secondary inorganic aerosols (which contained influences from shipping emissions and coal combustion) source factors accounted for around 33% of the PM10 at NK and were found to have the highest contributions from regional sources, including from the European mainland. Exhaust and non-exhaust sources both contribute appreciably to PM10 levels at the MR site, highlighting the continuing importance of vehicle-related air pollutants at

  13. Arctic megaslide at presumed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Wolfram H.; Gebhardt, A. Catalina; Gross, Felix; Wollenburg, Jutta; Jensen, Laura; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Elger, Judith; Osti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Slope failure like in the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide is one of the major geohazards in a changing Arctic environment. We analysed hydroacoustic and 2D high-resolution seismic data from the apparently intact continental slope immediately north of the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide for signs of past and future instabilities. Our new bathymetry and seismic data show clear evidence for incipient slope instability. Minor slide deposits and an internally-deformed sedimentary layer near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone imply an incomplete failure event, most probably about 30000 years ago, contemporaneous to or shortly after the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide. An active gas reservoir at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone demonstrate that over-pressured fluids might have played a key role in the initiation of slope failure at the studied slope, but more importantly also for the giant HYM slope failure. To date, it is not clear, if the studied slope is fully preconditioned to fail completely in future or if it might be slowly deforming and creeping at present. We detected widespread methane seepage on the adjacent shallow shelf areas not sealed by gas hydrates.

  14. Arctic megaslide at presumed rest

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Wolfram H.; Gebhardt, A. Catalina; Gross, Felix; Wollenburg, Jutta; Jensen, Laura; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Elger, Judith; Osti, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Slope failure like in the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide is one of the major geohazards in a changing Arctic environment. We analysed hydroacoustic and 2D high-resolution seismic data from the apparently intact continental slope immediately north of the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide for signs of past and future instabilities. Our new bathymetry and seismic data show clear evidence for incipient slope instability. Minor slide deposits and an internally-deformed sedimentary layer near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone imply an incomplete failure event, most probably about 30000 years ago, contemporaneous to or shortly after the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide. An active gas reservoir at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone demonstrate that over-pressured fluids might have played a key role in the initiation of slope failure at the studied slope, but more importantly also for the giant HYM slope failure. To date, it is not clear, if the studied slope is fully preconditioned to fail completely in future or if it might be slowly deforming and creeping at present. We detected widespread methane seepage on the adjacent shallow shelf areas not sealed by gas hydrates. PMID:27922097

  15. Arctic megaslide at presumed rest.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Wolfram H; Gebhardt, A Catalina; Gross, Felix; Wollenburg, Jutta; Jensen, Laura; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita C; Krastel, Sebastian; Elger, Judith; Osti, Giacomo

    2016-12-06

    Slope failure like in the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide is one of the major geohazards in a changing Arctic environment. We analysed hydroacoustic and 2D high-resolution seismic data from the apparently intact continental slope immediately north of the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide for signs of past and future instabilities. Our new bathymetry and seismic data show clear evidence for incipient slope instability. Minor slide deposits and an internally-deformed sedimentary layer near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone imply an incomplete failure event, most probably about 30000 years ago, contemporaneous to or shortly after the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide. An active gas reservoir at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone demonstrate that over-pressured fluids might have played a key role in the initiation of slope failure at the studied slope, but more importantly also for the giant HYM slope failure. To date, it is not clear, if the studied slope is fully preconditioned to fail completely in future or if it might be slowly deforming and creeping at present. We detected widespread methane seepage on the adjacent shallow shelf areas not sealed by gas hydrates.

  16. Roadside increments in PM10, NOx and NO2 concentrations observed over 2 months at a major highway in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Longley, Ian; Somervell, Elizabeth; Gray, Sally

    Continuous and simultaneous observational particulate matter (measured as PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) data were captured at a kerbside site alongside a major highway in Auckland, New Zealand, and at a pair of setback sites within 250 m of the highway, day and night over 8 weeks. The three measurement sites were intended to allow emissions from the highway to be largely isolated from other sources. By filtering the data and subtracting upwind concentrations, the average roadside increment was calculated to be 1.8, 7.2 and 101.4 μg m(-3) for PM10, NO2 and NOx, respectively, relative to a predominantly upwind setback site, and -0.1, 9.4 and 98.5 μg m(-3) for PM10, NO2 and NOx, respectively, relative to a downwind setback site. The negative value for PM10 was attributed to local evening heating sources impacting the setback site. On days when peak 24 h PM10 concentrations were observed, the absolute kerbside increment was 2.1 μg m(-3). The absolute roadside 24 h average PM10 increment varied diurnally, peaking (on average) at 2.4 μg m(-3) during peak traffic hours. The largest observed 24-h average PM10 roadside increment was 6.9 μg m(-3) and exceeded 5 μg m(-3) on nine occasions. On each of these occasions, the daily mean wind speed was less than 2 m s(-1). The diurnally averaged difference in NOx concentrations between the kerbside site and the setback sites clearly resembled the diurnal cycle in traffic volume, and peaked during the morning traffic peak at around 180 μg m(-3). Background NOx concentrations were slightly higher in our study compared to a similar study in Las Vegas but absolute roadside concentrations were higher. This may be consistent with higher NOx emission factors in Auckland, but differences in the precise distance of the monitor from the road lanes and differences in meteorology need to be considered.

  17. Simulating human space physiology with bed rest.

    PubMed

    Jost, P D

    2008-08-01

    In a recent review on bed rest studies of the past 20 years, it was concluded that head-down bed rest has proved its usefulness as a reliable simulation model for most physiological effects of spaceflight. Much of this research has been conducted to find countermeasures against the negative effects, which are associated with gravitational unloading. There have been partial successes in the prevention of, for example muscle wasting, cardio-vascular deconditioning, adverse metabolic changes, and bone demineralization. Reviews refer to bone-related measurements of the U.S. and Russian space programmes, as well as data from bed rest analogues, and conclude that in spite of the wealth of knowledge obtained thus far, many questions remain regarding bone loss, bone recovery, and the factors affecting these skeletal processes. Bed rest research has also direct relevance for medical science on Earth. Valuable data on physiology and early reversible pathological changes that are associated with a sedentary lifestyle on Earth can be obtained. A good example is the conclusion from a metabolic protocol implemented during the 2001/2002 90-day ESA/CNES/NASDA male bed rest study. The results of that experiment on fatty acid oxidation suggest that Mediterranean diets should be recommended in recumbent patients. Some other unexpected results obtained during the ESA/NASA/CNES/CSA 60-day female bed rest study WISE-2005 may well prompt the development of a treatment for certain cardiac diseases. A nutritional supplement that was designed to alleviate skeletal muscle atrophy turned out to preserve cardiac muscle mass. In order to optimise bed rest research, a systematic and standardised approach will be beneficial. During the last years, serious efforts have been made towards such standardisation on an international level. It is expected that results from future studies, combined with in-flight validation, will provide the answers to many biomedical problems that currently limit safe

  18. Brain functional plasticity at rest and during action in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Anthony; Rico, Audrey; Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Reuter, Françoise; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Guye, Maxime; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Audoin, Bertrand

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to demonstrate that basal functional connectivity reorganization observed in a specific network at rest using resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) could be associated with functional cortical reorganization in such network during action (ta-fMRI) in a population of early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Altered basal functional connectivity has been previously reported in patients with MS but relationships with cortical reorganization during action have not been explored. Thirteen patients with early relapsing-remitting MS and 14 matched healthy controls were explored on a 3T MRI scanner at rest and during a motor task (conjugate finger flexion and extension movements of each hand). Hand motor networks were extracted from rs-fMRI data using group spatial independent component analysis. For the non-dominant motor network, patients presented a higher basal functional connectivity at rest and recruited a supplementary prefrontal cortical area during action compared to the controls. The levels of hyperconnectivity at rest and of activation in the recruited area during action were significantly correlated. No differences were demonstrated for the dominant motor network at rest and during action. The present study, combining rs-fMRI and ta-fMRI in non-disabled patients with early MS, revealed for the first time a direct association between functional reorganization depicted at rest and during action within the same system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential neural network approach in information process for prediction of roadside air pollution by peat fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkin, V.; Tarkhov, D.; Timofeev, V.; Lozhkina, O.; Vasilyev, A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a novel differential neural network model estimating the dispersion of CO emissions from a peat fire near a highway. We have developed approaches for the optimization of the model on the base of simulated and experimental measurements of CO concentrations in the area of dispersion of the smoke cloud. The numerical solutions of the problem are presented in the form of neural network approximations by the Gaussian model and in the form of neural network approximate solutions of partial differential equations. The trained neural network model can be used for the prediction of emergency when wind speed and direction and other fire parameters are changing. The method is also recommended for the development of air quality monitoring and predicting information systems.

  20. [Advances in copepod resting egg ecology in estuarine and coastal waters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Luan, Lei-lei; Chen, Liang-dong; Yang, Yu-feng

    2015-07-01

    Copepods are the key group in aquatic ecosystems, and play an important role in energy flow, the cycle of materials and information transfer. This paper summarized the distribution and composition of the copepods that spawn resting eggs in the estuarine and coastal marine areas. It also reviewed the survival time, hatching rates, abundance of resting eggs in the sediments, and the potential recruitment into the plankton population as correlated with environmental factors. The prospects of copepod resting egg ecology were also proposed in order to provide new ideas for future research.

  1. Resting state connectivity patterns with near-infrared spectroscopy data of the whole head

    PubMed Central

    Novi, Sergio L.; Rodrigues, Renato B. M. L.; Mesquita, Rickson C.

    2016-01-01

    Resting state cerebral dynamics has been a useful approach to explore the brain’s functional organization. In this study, we employed graph theory to deeply investigate resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Our results suggest that network parameters are very similar across time and subjects. We also identified the most frequent connections between brain regions and the main hubs that participate in the spontaneous activity of brain hemodynamics. Similar to previous findings, we verified that symmetrically located brain areas are highly connected. Overall, our results introduce new insights in NIRS-based functional connectivity at rest. PMID:27446687

  2. The Resting Brain: Unconstrained yet Reliable

    PubMed Central

    Shehzad, Zarrar; Kelly, A. M. Clare; Reiss, Philip T.; Gee, Dylan G.; Gotimer, Kristin; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Lee, Sang Han; Margulies, Daniel S.; Roy, Amy Krain; Biswal, Bharat B.; Petkova, Eva; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the usage of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine functional connectivity (fcMRI), both in normal and pathological populations. Despite this increasing popularity, concerns about the psychologically unconstrained nature of the “resting-state” remain. Across studies, the patterns of functional connectivity detected are remarkably consistent. However, the test–retest reliability for measures of resting state fcMRI measures has not been determined. Here, we quantify the test–retest reliability, using resting scans from 26 participants at 3 different time points. Specifically, we assessed intersession (>5 months apart), intrasession (<1 h apart), and multiscan (across all 3 scans) reliability and consistency for both region-of-interest and voxel-wise analyses. For both approaches, we observed modest to high reliability across connections, dependent upon 3 predictive factors: 1) correlation significance (significantly nonzero > nonsignificant), 2) correlation valence (positive > negative), and 3) network membership (default mode > task positive network). Short- and long-term measures of the consistency of global connectivity patterns were highly robust. Finally, hierarchical clustering solutions were highly reproducible, both across participants and sessions. Our findings provide a solid foundation for continued examination of resting state fcMRI in typical and atypical populations. PMID:19221144

  3. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  4. Stress Impact on Resting State Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Soares, José Miguel; Sampaio, Adriana; Ferreira, Luís Miguel; Santos, Nadine Correia; Marques, Paulo; Marques, Fernanda; Palha, Joana Almeida; Cerqueira, João José; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Resting state brain networks (RSNs) are spatially distributed large-scale networks, evidenced by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Importantly, RSNs are implicated in several relevant brain functions and present abnormal functional patterns in many neuropsychiatric disorders, for which stress exposure is an established risk factor. Yet, so far, little is known about the effect of stress in the architecture of RSNs, both in resting state conditions or during shift to task performance. Herein we assessed the architecture of the RSNs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a cohort of participants exposed to prolonged stress (participants that had just finished their long period of preparation for the medical residence selection exam), and respective gender- and age-matched controls (medical students under normal academic activities). Analysis focused on the pattern of activity in resting state conditions and after deactivation. A volumetric estimation of the RSNs was also performed. Data shows that stressed participants displayed greater activation of the default mode (DMN), dorsal attention (DAN), ventral attention (VAN), sensorimotor (SMN), and primary visual (VN) networks than controls. Importantly, stressed participants also evidenced impairments in the deactivation of resting state-networks when compared to controls. These functional changes are paralleled by a constriction of the DMN that is in line with the pattern of brain atrophy observed after stress exposure. These results reveal that stress impacts on activation-deactivation pattern of RSNs, a finding that may underlie stress-induced changes in several dimensions of brain activity.

  5. Brain and behavioural evidence for rest-activity cycles in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Brown, Euan R; Piscopo, Stefania; De Stefano, Rosanna; Giuditta, Antonio

    2006-09-25

    Octopus vulgaris maintained under a 12/12h light/dark cycle exhibit a pronounced nocturnal activity pattern. Animals deprived of rest during the light period show a marked 'rebound' in activity in the following 24h. 'Active' octopuses attack faster than 'quiet' animals and brain activity recorded electrically intensifies during 'quiet' behaviour. Thus, in Octopus as in vertebrates, brain areas involved in memory or 'higher' processes exhibit 'off-line' activity during rest periods.

  6. Construction of a 40-mile long roadside scale model of the solar system in northern Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCartney, K.

    2001-05-01

    The Maine Solar System Model is currently under construction along Route 1 between Houlton and Presque Isle, in Aroostook County, northern Maine. The scale is 1:93,000,000, or 1 mile equals an astronomical unit. There is a 40 mile distance between the Sun (diameter 49.5 feet) and Pluto (diameter 1 inch). The model will include the Sun, nine planets and seven moons, with diameters and distances all to the same scale. Except for the Sun, all components will be three-dimensional and built to withstand the northern Maine climate. Construction is generally of steel with fiberglass globes positioned on steel posts at least ten feet above ground and 55 feet off the roadway. Road safety concerns require that the Jupiter and Saturn sites include parking lots. Educational information associated with the model will be provided on brochures, since textual information at the sites would require excessive stops and parking problems. Learning exercises will also be provided by travelling trunks prepared by Maine teachers to support the State of Maine Learning Results. This is a community project with the various components being built by ten area schools and with active assistance from many community members and organizations. It is being built with with very little money, with most materials and labor donated.

  7. Litter Accumulation and Nutrient Content of Roadside Plant Communities in Sichuan Basin, China.

    PubMed

    He, Huiqin; Monaco, Thomas

    2017-08-30

    It is widely recognized that feedbacks exist between plant litter and plant community species composition, but this relationship is difficult to interpret over heterogeneous conditions typical of modified environments such as roadways. Given the need to expedite natural recovery of disturbed areas through restoration interventions, we characterized litter accumulation and nutrient content (i.e., organic carbon, total N, and P) and quantified their association with key plant species. Plant species cover and litter characteristics were sampled at 18 successional forest plant communities along major roadways in Sichuan Basin, western China. Variation in litter across communities was assessed with principal component analysis (PCA) and species with the highest correlation to PCA axes were determined with Pearson's r coefficients. Plant communities with the longest time since road construction (i.e., 70 years) were distinctly different in litter total N and organic carbon compared to plant communities with a shorter disturbance history. We encountered 59 plant species across sampling plots, but only four rare species (i.e., frequency < 5) were strongly correlated with litter characteristics (p < 0.01); none of which were the most abundant where they occurred. These results highlight the importance of site-specific factors (i.e., geographic location, disturbance age) regulating plant litter across heavily disturbed landscapes and how litter characteristics and rare plant species are correlated.

  8. Noise annoyance and activity disturbance before and after the erection of a roadside noise barrier.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Mats E; Berglund, Birgitta

    2006-04-01

    Questionnaire studies were conducted in a residential area before and after the erection of a 2.25 m high noise barrier of conventional type along a heavily traveled road (19,600 vehicles/24 h). The interval between studies was two years. Houses closest to the barrier received a sound-level reduction from -70.0 to 62.5 dB Lden at the most exposed facade. The sound-level reduction decreased with distance to the road, and was negligible for houses at more than 100 m distance. Up to this distance, the noise barrier reduced residents' noise annoyance outdoors and indoors as well as improved speech communication outdoors. Indoors, speech communication and sleep disturbance were slightly but nonsignificantly improved. Predictions of the number of annoyed persons from published exposure-response curves (in Lden) agreed with the percentage of residents being annoyed when indoors, before and after the barrier. Conversely, the percentage of residents being annoyed when outdoors clearly exceeded the predictions. These results suggest that these exposure-response curves may be used in predicting indoor situations, but they should not be applied in situations where outdoor annoyance is at focus.

  9. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  10. Effect of Resting Patterns of Tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax) on the Spatial Distribution of Seeds and Seedling Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Culot, Laurence; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distributions of dispersed seeds have important evolutionary consequences for plants. Repeated defecations in sites frequently used by seed dispersers can result in high seed concentrations. We observed the resting behavior of a mixed-species group of tamarins in Peru and recorded the occurrence of seed dispersal (over 8 mo) and seed fate (over 11–22 mo) to determine whether the location and use of resting sites influenced the spatial distribution of dispersed seeds and seedlings. The tamarins rested mostly on trees (Saguinus fuscicollis: 60.6%, S. mystax: 89.2%) and dead trunks (S. fuscicollis: 24.4%) and used 61% of their resting sites repeatedly. During both the dry and wet seasons, tamarins dispersed significantly more seeds within resting areas (0.00662 and 0.00424 seeds/m2, respectively) than outside them (0.00141 and 0.00181 seeds/m2). Seed survival and seedling recruitment did not differ significantly between resting and other areas, resulting in a higher seedling concentration around the resting sites. Seed density did not increase with the duration or the frequency of use of the resting sites but did increase when we pooled the seasonal resting sites together in 50 m × 50 m quadrats, ultimately causing a clumped distribution of dispersed seeds. The use of resting sites in secondary forest, particularly during the dry season, allows the creation of seedling recruitment centers for species coming from the primary forest. Our findings show that tamarin resting behavior affects the spatial distribution of dispersed seeds and seedlings, and their resting sites play an important role in plant diversity maintenance and facilitate forest regeneration in degraded areas. PMID:21423318

  11. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  12. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  13. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  14. Association Between Resting-State Microstates and Ratings on the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Pipinis, Evaldas; Melynyte, Sigita; Koenig, Thomas; Jarutyte, Lina; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Griskova-Bulanova, Inga

    2017-03-01

    There is a gap in understanding on how physiologically observed activity is related to the subjective, internally oriented experience during resting state. Microstate analysis is a frequent approach to evaluate resting-state EEG. But the relationship of commonly observed resting-state microstates to psychological domains of resting is not clear. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ) was recently introduced, offering an effective way to quantify subjective states after a period of resting and associate these quantifiers to psychological and physiological variables. In a sample of 94 healthy volunteers who participated in closed-eyes 5 min resting session with concurrent EEG recording and subsequent filling of the ARSQ we evaluated parameters of microstate Classes A, B, C, D. We showed a moderate negative association between contribution (r = -0.40) of Class C and experienced somatic awareness (SA). The negative correlation between Class C and SA seems reasonable as Class C becomes more dominant when connections to contextual information (and bodily sensations as assessed with SA) are loosened (in reduced attention states, during sleep, hypnosis, or psychosis). We suggest that the use of questionnaires such as the ARSQ is helpful in exploring the variation of resting-state EEG parameters and its relationship to variation in sensory and non-sensory experiences.

  15. On the simultaneous deployment of two single-particle mass spectrometers at an urban background and a roadside site during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C. S.; McGillicuddy, Eoin J.; Esser-Gietl, Johanna K.; Harrison, Roy M.; Wenger, John C.

    2016-08-01

    The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) provides size-resolved information on the chemical composition of single particles with high time resolution. Within SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies), continuous ATOFMS measurements of ambient particles were made simultaneously at two urban locations: urban background (UB) site and roadside (RS) site in the city of Barcelona (Spain) from 17 September to 18 October 2010. Two different instrumental configurations were used: ATOFMS (TSI 3800) with a converging nozzle inlet (high efficiency at about 800-2000 nm) at the UB site and ATOFMS (TSI 3800-100) with an aerodynamic lens inlet (high efficiency at about 300-700 nm) at the RS site. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that two ATOFMS instruments have been deployed in the same field study. The different instrument configurations had an impact on the observed particle types at the two sites. Nevertheless, 10 particle types were detected at both locations, including local and regional elemental carbon (22.7-58.9 % of total particles), fresh and aged sea salt (1.0-14.6 %), local and regional nitrate-containing aerosols (3-11.6 %), local lead-containing metallic particles (0.1-0.2 %), and transported Fe-nitrate particles (0.8-2.5 %). The ATOFMS at the UB also characterized four particle types: calcium-containing dust (0.9 %), Saharan dust (1.3 %), vanadium-containing particles (0.9 %), and vegetative debris (1.7 %). By contrast, the high statistical counts of fine particles detected at the RS allowed identification of eight particle types. Four of these contained organic nitrogen of primary and secondary origin, which highlights the complex nature of the sources and processes that contribute to this aerosol chemical component. Aminium salts were found related to coarse sulfate-rich particle types, suggesting heterogeneous reaction mechanisms for their formation. The other four particle types mainly containing organic carbon were

  16. The influence of chloride deicers on mineral nutrition and the health status of roadside trees in the city of Kielce, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Podlaski, Rafał; Dołęgowska, Sabina; Michalik, Artur

    2011-05-01

    Application of chemical road deicers has a negative impact on roadside vegetation. Every year, the trees in cities suffer from direct and indirect effects of salt application for winter road maintenance. To elucidate this problem in the city of Kielce, the chemistry of snow, soil, tree bark, and leaf samples has been investigated together with an assessment of the health status of the trees. Twelve investigation sites were selected along the roads with different traffic intensity. Snow samples were collected twice during the winter and analyzed for pH, EC, Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Cl(-). In soil (collected from two depth intervals), tree bark, and leaf samples, the concentrations of B, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S, and Zn were determined. The contents of total organic carbon (TOC) in soils, as well as the pH of soil and tree bark samples were also measured. Negative symptoms revealed by roadside trees included the loss of assimilative apparatus and decreased vitality. The results of chemical analyses indicated that the snowmelt might be a substantial source of chloride ions and alkalizing substances that influenced higher pH of soils. The soil samples displayed elevated concentrations of S and Zn and lower than typical for soil contents of B, Mg, and TOC. The pH of alkaline soils favored greater bioavailability of B and reduced bioavailability of Na and Zn by the trees examined.

  17. Time series models for prediction the total and dissolved heavy metals concentration in road runoff and soil solution of roadside embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljoumani, Basem; Kluge, Björn; sanchez, Josep; Wessolek, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    Highways and main roads are potential sources of contamination for the surrounding environment. High traffic rates result in elevated heavy metal concentrations in road runoff, soil and water seepage, which has attracted much attention in the recent past. Prediction of heavy metals transfer near the roadside into deeper soil layers are very important to prevent the groundwater pollution. This study was carried out on data of a number of lysimeters which were installed along the A115 highway (Germany) with a mean daily traffic of 90.000 vehicles per day. Three polyethylene (PE) lysimeters were installed at the A115 highway. They have the following dimensions: length 150 cm, width 100 cm, height 60 cm. The lysimeters were filled with different soil materials, which were recently used for embankment construction in Germany. With the obtained data, we will develop a time series analysis model to predict total and dissolved metal concentration in road runoff and in soil solution of the roadside embankments. The time series consisted of monthly measurements of heavy metals and was transformed to a stationary situation. Subsequently, the transformed data will be used to conduct analyses in the time domain in order to obtain the parameters of a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. Four phase approaches for identifying and fitting ARIMA models will be used: identification, parameter estimation, diagnostic checking, and forecasting. An automatic selection criterion, such as the Akaike information criterion, will use to enhance this flexible approach to model building

  18. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition.

    PubMed

    Diaz, B Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Van Someren, Eus J W; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition-and tools to quantify them-have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease.

  19. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, B. Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease. PMID:23964225

  20. Rest perfusion abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: correlation with myocardial fibrosis and risk factors for sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Chiribiri, A; Leuzzi, S; Conte, M R; Bongioanni, S; Bratis, K; Olivotti, L; De Rosa, C; Lardone, E; Di Donna, P; Villa, A D M; Cesarani, F; Nagel, E; Gaita, F; Bonamini, R

    2015-05-01

    To measure the prevalence of abnormal rest perfusion in a population of consecutive patients with known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) referred for cardiovascular MRI (CMR), and to assess any associations between abnormal rest perfusion and the presence, pattern, and severity of myocardial scar and the presence of risk factors for sudden death. Eighty consecutive patients with known HCM referred for CMR underwent functional imaging, rest first-pass perfusion, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Thirty percent of the patients had abnormal rest perfusion, all of them corresponding to areas of mid-myocardial LGE and to a higher degree of segmental hypertrophy. Rest perfusion abnormalities correlated with more extensive and confluent LGE. The subgroup of patients with myocardial fibrosis and rest perfusion abnormalities (fibrosis+/perfusion+) had more than twice the incidence of episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter monitoring in comparison to patients with myocardial fibrosis and normal rest perfusion (fibrosis+/perfusion-) and patients with no fibrosis and normal rest perfusion (fibrosis-/perfusion-). First-pass perfusion CMR identifies abnormal rest perfusion in a significant proportion of patients with HCM. These abnormalities are associated with the presence and distribution of myocardial scar and the degree of hypertrophy. Rest perfusion abnormalities identify patients with increased incidence of episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter monitoring, independently from the presence of myocardial fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of short-term bed-rest on radial pulse in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Yim, Yun-Kyoung; Park, Kwang Suk

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of short-term bed rest on the radial pulse in healthy subjects. Twenty-one healthy volunteers participated in this study. Their radial pulse was measured at different measuring positions using a multi-step tonometry system. The participants took 30 minutes of bed rest and their radial pulse was measured before and after the bed rest. The effects of bed rest on the radial pulse were analyzed. The pulse area, the amplitudes of h4 and h5, the pulse period, and the diastolic pulse proportion increased with short-term bed rest, whereas the proportions of systolic and hightension pulse and the fundamental frequency of the pulse wave decreased with short-term bed rest. All the changes were in the same direction in both male and female participants at all measuring positions; however, some parameters changed more in women than in men, and some changed more at the distal position than at the proximal position. In shortly, Short-term bed rest induces significant changes in the radial pulse of healthy subjects. The results of this study could be used as a control reference for clinical acupuncture studies with participants lying on a bed for acupuncture treatment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Adding attenuation corrected images in myocardial perfusion imaging reduces the need for a rest study.

    PubMed

    Trägårdh, Elin; Valind, Sven; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The American Society of Nuclear Cardiology and the Society of Nuclear Medicine conclude that incorporation of attenuation corrected (AC) images in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) will improve diagnostic accuracy. The aim was to investigate the value of adding AC stress-only images for the decision whether a rest study is necessary or not. 1,261 patients admitted to (99m)Tc MPS were studied. The stress studies were interpreted by two physicians who judged each study as "no rest study necessary" or "rest study necessary", by evaluating NC stress-only and NC + AC stress-only images. When there was disagreement between the two physicians, a third physician evaluated the studies. Thus, agreement between 2 out of 3 physicians was evaluated. The physicians assessed 214 more NC + AC images than NC images as "no rest study necessary" (17% of the study population). The number of no-rest-study-required was significantly higher for NC + AC studies compared to NC studies (859 vs 645 cases (p < 0.0001). In the final report according to clinical routine, ischemia or infarction was reported in 23 patients, assessed as "no rest study necessary" (22 NC + AC cases; 8 NC cases), (no statistically significant difference). In 11 of these, the final report stated "suspected/possible ischemia or infarction in a small area". Adding AC stress-only images to NC stress-only images reduce the number of unnecessary rest studies substantially.

  3. Parkinson's disease rigidity: EMG in a small hand muscle at "rest".

    PubMed

    Cantello, R; Gianelli, M; Civardi, C; Mutani, R

    1995-10-01

    The presence of excessive EMG at "rest" might be an important factor in the genesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) rigidity, and we studied it in the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) of 8 idiopathic PD patients. We had 8 age- and sex-matched normal controls. In the PD group, the average area of the surface EMG at "rest" correlated significantly with the clinical evaluation of rigidity and remained abnormally enhanced for 10-15 min after a command to "relax." Later, it tended to decline, but its entity was still much greater than in controls. The EMG "at rest" consisted of unwilled motor unit (MU) firing. A larger MU number was recruited in patients than in controls at "rest." MU rate coding was similar in both groups. Eventually, patients could get periods of EMG silence which, however, were interrupted by short EMG bursts, even if there was no muscle stretch. These bursts were interpreted as residual fragments of the original excessive EMG at "rest." MUs first recruited during such bursts showed high, but not total, overlapping with those first recruited by a gentle voluntary contraction or by a weak transcranial magnetic stimulus to motor cortex. We conclude that EMG activity at "rest" was made up of the discharge of low-threshold MUs, with a recruitment order similar to that resulting from descending cortico-spinal volleys. However, we cannot exclude other possible input sources to the alpha-motoneurones at "rest."

  4. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  5. Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, S.; Berry, P; Cohen, M.; Danelis, J.; Deroshia, C.; Greenleaf, J.; Harris, B.; Keil, L.; Bernauer, E.; Bond, M.; hide

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiment to investigate effects of isotonic and isokinetic leg exercises in counteracting effects of bed rest upon physical and mental conditions of subjects. Data taken on capacity for work, endurance and strength, tolerance to sitting up, equilibrium, posture, gait, atrophy, mineralization and density of bones, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid and electrolyte balances, intermediary metabolism of muscles, mood, and performance.

  6. Rest break interventions in stoop labor tasks.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Julia; Meyers, James; Miles, John; Janowitz, Ira; Fathallah, Fadi

    2007-03-01

    Hand cultivation and harvest of agricultural products constitute strenuous physical tasks. Working with labor-management ergonomics committees in agricultural settings, the UC Agricultural Ergonomics Research Center (AERC) tested an experimental rest and recovery protocol for its impact on symptoms and productivity during two types of work tasks. The experimental condition consisted of adding a 5 min rest break to every working hour in which there was no other scheduled break (e.g., lunchtime). This resulted in an additional 20 min of rest per workday. We tested the intervention in two trials: Trial one compared workers (n=66) randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group during the harvest of commercial strawberries. Trial two utilized a cross-over design (n=16 pairs of workers) to compare experimental and control conditions while workers inserted bud grafts into young 18'' high citrus trees. For both trials, workers under the experimental condition reported significantly less severe symptoms than workers under control conditions. The order in which the intervention was given, however, appeared to result in variations in productivity. We conclude that the introduction of frequent, brief rest breaks may improve symptoms for workers engaged in strenuous work tasks.

  7. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Costes, D.

    2012-07-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  8. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  9. Wakeful rest alleviates interference-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Retroactive interference (RI)--the disruptive influence of events occurring after the formation of a new memory--is one of the primary causes of forgetting. Placing individuals within an environment that postpones interference should, therefore, greatly reduce the likelihood of information being lost from memory. For example, a short period of wakeful rest should diminish interference-based forgetting. To test this hypothesis, participants took part in a foreign language learning activity and were shown English translations of 20 Icelandic words for immediate recall. Half of the participants were then given an 8-min rest before completing a similar or dissimilar interfering distractor task. The other half did not receive a rest until after the distractor task, at which point interference had already taken place. All participants were then asked to translate the Icelandic words for a second time. Results revealed that retention was significantly worse at the second recall test, but being allowed a brief rest before completing the distractor task helped reduce the amount of forgetting. Taking a short, passive break can shield new memories from RI and alleviate forgetting.

  10. Physiological responses during meditation and rest.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, M M

    1984-06-01

    Forty nonmeditators and 12 experienced transcendental meditators were randomly assigned to four experimental cells devised to control for order and expectation effects. All 52 (female) subjects were continuously monitored on seven physiological measures during both meditation and rest. Each subject was her own control in an abab experimental paradigm comparing meditation to rest. Analyses of variance on change scores calculated from both initial and running (intertrial) baselines revealed small but significant conditions effects for all variables except diastolic BP. The same subjects (both experienced meditators and those meditating for the first time) showed lower psychophysiological arousal during the meditation than during the rest condition for systolic BP, HR, SCL, digital BV, digital ST, and frontalis EMG. The experienced meditators showed only marginally more conditions effects than the novices practicing "noncultic" meditation. For the nonmeditators, deliberately fostering positive expectations of meditations was associated with lower physiological arousal in terms of diastolic BP, HR, and SCL. These findings suggest that both cultic and noncultic meditation are associated with lower physiological activation than eyes-closed rest. The meditators, however, tended to become more relaxed over meditation trials, whereas the nonmeditators showed the opposite trend.

  11. The Bouncing Ball DOES Come To Rest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Worth J.

    1970-01-01

    Considers a ball which is dropped from a height h above a flat surface and rebounds to a height rh, when r is a positive fraction less than one. The question asked is if the ball continues to fall and rebound in the same manner, how much time is required for the ball to come to rest? (RP)

  12. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111... REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each person... shall receive a minimum of 10 hours of rest in any 24-hour period. (b) The hours of rest required under...

  13. 46 CFR 15.1111 - Work hours and rest periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Work hours and rest periods. 15.1111 Section 15.1111... REQUIREMENTS Vessels Subject to Requirements of STCW § 15.1111 Work hours and rest periods. (a) Each person... shall receive a minimum of 10 hours of rest in any 24-hour period. (b) The hours of rest required under...

  14. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Perhonen, M A; Franco, F; Lane, L D; Buckey, J C; Blomqvist, C G; Zerwekh, J E; Peshock, R M; Weatherall, P T; Levine, B D

    2001-08-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  15. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  16. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  17. REST: a toolkit for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data processing.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Wei; Dong, Zhang-Ye; Long, Xiang-Yu; Li, Su-Fang; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zhu, Chao-Zhe; He, Yong; Yan, Chao-Gan; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) has been drawing more and more attention in recent years. However, a publicly available, systematically integrated and easy-to-use tool for RS-fMRI data processing is still lacking. We developed a toolkit for the analysis of RS-fMRI data, namely the RESting-state fMRI data analysis Toolkit (REST). REST was developed in MATLAB with graphical user interface (GUI). After data preprocessing with SPM or AFNI, a few analytic methods can be performed in REST, including functional connectivity analysis based on linear correlation, regional homogeneity, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and fractional ALFF. A few additional functions were implemented in REST, including a DICOM sorter, linear trend removal, bandpass filtering, time course extraction, regression of covariates, image calculator, statistical analysis, and slice viewer (for result visualization, multiple comparison correction, etc.). REST is an open-source package and is freely available at http://www.restfmri.net.

  18. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Brain Functional Connectivity and Sensorimotor Functioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Castenada, R. Riascos; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor functioning. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt (HDT) position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to HDT bed rest on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. To validate that our findings were not due to confounding factors such as time or task practice, we also acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral measurements from 14 normative control participants at four time points. Bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Rs-fMRI and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8 days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70 days during bed rest; and 8 and 12 days after bed rest. 70 days of HDT bed rest resulted in significant increases in functional connectivity during bed rest followed by a reversal of changes in the post bed rest recovery period between motor cortical and somatosensory areas of the brain. In contrast, decreases in connectivity were observed between temporoparietal regions. Furthermore, post-hoc correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between motor-somatosensory network connectivity and standing balance performance changes; participants that exhibited the greatest increases in connectivity strength showed the least deterioration in postural

  19. Resting state fMRI: A review of methods and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Megan H.; Smyser, Christopher D.; Shimony, Joshua S.

    2014-01-01

    Resting state fMRI measures spontaneous, low frequency fluctuations in the BOLD signal to investigate the functional architecture of the brain. Application of this technique has allowed for the identification of various RSNs, or spatially distinct areas of the brain that demonstrate synchronous BOLD fluctuations at rest. Various methods exist for analyzing resting state data, including seed based approaches, independent component analysis, graph methods, clustering algorithms, neural networks, and pattern classifiers. Clinical applications of resting state fMRI are at an early stage of development. However, its use in presurgical planning for brain tumor and epilepsy patients demonstrates early promise, and the technique may also have a future role in providing diagnostic and prognostic information for neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:22936095

  20. Aging effects on the resting state motor network and interlimb coordination.

    PubMed

    Solesio-Jofre, Elena; Serbruyns, Leen; Woolley, Daniel G; Mantini, Dante; Beets, Iseult A M; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2014-08-01

    Both increases and decreases in resting state functional connectivity have been previously observed within the motor network during aging. Moreover, the relationship between altered functional connectivity and age-related declines in bimanual coordination remains unclear. Here, we explored the developmental dynamics of the resting brain within a task-specific motor network in a sample of 128 healthy participants, aged 18-80 years. We found that age-related increases in functional connectivity between interhemispheric dorsal and ventral premotor areas were associated with poorer performance on a novel bimanual visuomotor task. Additionally, a control analysis performed on the default mode network confirmed that our age-related increases in functional connectivity were specific to the motor system. Our findings suggest that increases in functional connectivity within the resting state motor network with aging reflect a loss of functional specialization that may not only occur in the active brain but also in the resting brain.

  1. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Zeng, Fang; Li, Yong-xin; Yu, Bai-li; Qiu, Li-hua; Qin, Wei; Li, Ji; Zhou, Yu-mei; Liang, Fan-rong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks) and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients. PMID:26109950

  2. Magnetic characterization of Daphnia resting eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, Masanobu; Kawasaki, Tamami . E-mail: tamami@rtri.or.jp; Shibue, Toshimichi; Takada, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Hideyuki; Namiki, Hideo

    2006-12-15

    This study characterized the magnetic materials found within Daphnia resting eggs by measuring static magnetization with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer, after forming two types of conditions, each of which consists of zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC). Magnetic ions, such as Fe{sup 3+}, contained in Daphnia resting eggs existed as (1) paramagnetic and superparamagnetic particles, demonstrated by a magnetization and temperature dependence of the magnetic moments under an applied magnetic field after ZFC and FC, and (2) ferromagnetic particles with definite magnetic moments, the content of which was estimated to be very low, demonstrated by the Moskowitz test. Conventionally, biomagnets have been directly detected by transmission electron microscopes (TEM). As demonstrated in this study, it is possible to nondestructively detect small biomagnets by magnetization measurement, especially after two types of ZFC and FC. This nondestructive method can be applied in detecting biomagnets in complex biological organisms.

  3. Magnetic characterization of Daphnia resting eggs.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Masanobu; Kawasaki, Tamami; Shibue, Toshimichi; Takada, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Hideyuki; Namiki, Hideo

    2006-12-15

    This study characterized the magnetic materials found within Daphnia resting eggs by measuring static magnetization with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer, after forming two types of conditions, each of which consists of zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC). Magnetic ions, such as Fe(3+), contained in Daphnia resting eggs existed as (1) paramagnetic and superparamagnetic particles, demonstrated by a magnetization and temperature dependence of the magnetic moments under an applied magnetic field after ZFC and FC, and (2) ferromagnetic particles with definite magnetic moments, the content of which was estimated to be very low, demonstrated by the Moskowitz test. Conventionally, biomagnets have been directly detected by transmission electron microscopes (TEM). As demonstrated in this study, it is possible to nondestructively detect small biomagnets by magnetization measurement, especially after two types of ZFC and FC. This nondestructive method can be applied in detecting biomagnets in complex biological organisms.

  4. Cardiac atrophy in women following bed rest.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Todd A; Levine, Benjamin D; Tillery, Tommy; Peshock, Ronald M; Hastings, Jeff L; Schneider, Suzanne M; Macias, Brandon R; Biolo, Gianni; Hargens, Alan R

    2007-07-01

    Both chronic microgravity exposure and long-duration bed rest induce cardiac atrophy, which leads to reduced standing stroke volume and orthostatic intolerance. However, despite the fact that women appear to be more susceptible to postspaceflight presyncope and orthostatic hypotension than male astronauts, most previous high-resolution studies of cardiac morphology following microgravity have been performed only in men. Because female athletes have less physiological hypertrophy than male athletes, we reasoned that they also might have altered physiological cardiac atrophy after bed rest. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 24 healthy young women (32.1 +/- 4 yr) to measure left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) mass, volumes, and morphology accurately before and after 60 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest. Subjects were matched and then randomly assigned to sedentary bed rest (controls, n = 8) or two treatment groups consisting of 1) exercise training using supine treadmill running within lower body negative pressure plus resistive training (n = 8), or 2) protein (0.45 g x kg(-1) x day(-1) increase) plus branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) (7.2 g/day) supplementation (n = 8). After sedentary bed rest without nutritional supplementation, there were significant reductions in LV (96 +/- 26 to 77 +/- 25 ml; P = 0.03) and RV volumes (104 +/- 33 to 86 +/- 25 ml; P = 0.02), LV (2.2 +/- 0.2 to 2.0 +/- 0.2 g/kg; P = 0.003) and RV masses (0.8 +/- 0.1 to 0.6 +/- 0.1 g/kg; P < 0.001), and the length of the major axis of the LV (90 +/- 6 to 84 +/- 7 mm. P < 0.001), similar to what has been observed previously in men (8.0%; Perhonen MA, Franco F, Lane LD, Buckey JC, Blomqvist Zerwekh JE, Peshock RM, Weatherall PT, Levine BD. J Appl Physiol 91: 645-653, 2001). In contrast, there were no significant reductions in LV or RV volumes in the exercise-trained group, and the length of the major axis was preserved. Moreover, there were significant increases in

  5. Synchronous pattern distinguishes resting tremor associated with essential tremor from rest tremor of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nisticò, R; Pirritano, D; Salsone, M; Novellino, F; Del Giudice, F; Morelli, M; Trotta, M; Bilotti, G; Condino, F; Cherubini, A; Valentino, P; Quattrone, A

    2011-01-01

    Rest tremor associated with essential tremor (ET) is a condition that poses challenges in diagnosing Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated tremor parameters in PD and ET patients with rest tremor. Fifteen patients with PD and 15 patients with ET underwent electrophysiological examination to evaluate characteristics of muscle bursting in rest postures. Rest tremor amplitude of PD patients was significantly higher than that of patients with ET (p = 0.002), whereas burst duration and frequency were significantly higher in ET than in PD group (p = 0.002, p < 0.001, respectively). Patients with PD, however, showed some overlap of these electrophysiological values with values from patients with ET. By contrast, rest tremor pattern showed no overlap between the two diseases, because all patients with ET presented a synchronous pattern whereas PD patients had an alternating pattern (p < 0.001), a finding that differentiated the patients on an individual basis. The electromyographic pattern of rest tremor may help to differentiate PD from ET.

  6. "Let It Rest:" Reflecting on Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontichiaro, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Top Chef is one of America's top food television shows. In one episode, lead judge Tom Colicchio, chef and restaurant owner, chides a contestant for hurriedly slicing a piece of meat as soon as it had emerged from the oven. The meat was fully cooked, but the competitor had not "let it rest," or let it steep in its own juices outside the oven for…

  7. Estimation of Warfighter Resting Metabolic Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-14

    influencing basal metabolic rate in normal adults. Am J Clin Nutr 33:2372-2374, 1980. Daly, J.M.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Head, C.A.; Harvey, L.P.; Nixon, D.W...Reappraisal of the resting metabolic rate of normal young men. Am J Clin Nutr 53(1):21-26, 1991. Cunningham, J.L. A reanalysis of the factors

  8. "Let It Rest:" Reflecting on Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontichiaro, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Top Chef is one of America's top food television shows. In one episode, lead judge Tom Colicchio, chef and restaurant owner, chides a contestant for hurriedly slicing a piece of meat as soon as it had emerged from the oven. The meat was fully cooked, but the competitor had not "let it rest," or let it steep in its own juices outside the oven for…

  9. Information Flow Between Resting-State Networks

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Ibai; Erramuzpe, Asier; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Cabrera, Alberto; Marinazzo, Daniele; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J.; Stramaglia, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The resting brain dynamics self-organize into a finite number of correlated patterns known as resting-state networks (RSNs). It is well known that techniques such as independent component analysis can separate the brain activity at rest to provide such RSNs, but the specific pattern of interaction between RSNs is not yet fully understood. To this aim, we propose here a novel method to compute the information flow (IF) between different RSNs from resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. After hemodynamic response function blind deconvolution of all voxel signals, and under the hypothesis that RSNs define regions of interest, our method first uses principal component analysis to reduce dimensionality in each RSN to next compute IF (estimated here in terms of transfer entropy) between the different RSNs by systematically increasing k (the number of principal components used in the calculation). When k=1, this method is equivalent to computing IF using the average of all voxel activities in each RSN. For k≥1, our method calculates the k multivariate IF between the different RSNs. We find that the average IF among RSNs is dimension dependent, increasing from k=1 (i.e., the average voxel activity) up to a maximum occurring at k=5 and to finally decay to zero for k≥10. This suggests that a small number of components (close to five) is sufficient to describe the IF pattern between RSNs. Our method—addressing differences in IF between RSNs for any generic data—can be used for group comparison in health or disease. To illustrate this, we have calculated the inter-RSN IF in a data set of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to find that the most significant differences between AD and controls occurred for k=2, in addition to AD showing increased IF w.r.t. controls. The spatial localization of the k=2 component, within RSNs, allows the characterization of IF differences between AD and controls. PMID:26177254

  10. Resting calcium influx in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Luis M; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca

    2005-01-01

    Plasma membrane Ca2+ leak remains the most uncertain of the cellular Ca2+ regulation pathways. During passive Ca2+ influx in non-stimulated smooth muscle cells, basal activity of constitutive Ca2+ channels seems to be involved. In vascular smooth muscle, the 3 following Ca2+ entry pathways contribute to this phenomenon: (i) via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, (ii) receptor gated Ca2+ channels, and (iii) store operated Ca2+ channels, although, in airway smooth muscle it seems only 2 passive Ca2+ influx pathways are implicated, one sensitive to SKF 96365 (receptor gated Ca2+ channels) and the other to Ni2+ (store operated Ca2+ channels). Resting Ca2+ entry could provide a sufficient amount of Ca2+ and contribute to resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), maintenance of the resting membrane potential, myogenic tone, and sarcoplasmic reticulum-Ca2+ refilling. However, further research, especially in airway smooth muscle, is required to better explore the physiological role of this passive Ca2+ influx pathway as it could be involved in airway hyperresponsiveness.

  11. Effective Connectivity within the Mesocorticolimbic System during Resting-State in Cocaine Users.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suchismita; Di, Xin; Biswal, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although effective connectivity between brain regions has been examined in cocaine users during tasks, no effective connectivity study has been conducted on cocaine users during resting-state. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined effective connectivity in resting-brain, between the brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, implicated in reward and motivated behavior, while the chronic cocaine users and controls took part in a resting-state scan by using a spectral Dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) approach. Method: As part of a study testing cocaine cue reactivity in cocaine users (Ray et al., 2015b), 20 non-treatment seeking cocaine-smoking (abstinent for at least 3 days) and 17 control participants completed a resting state scan and an anatomical scan. A mean voxel-based time series data extracted from four key brain areas (ventral tegmental area, VTA; nucleus accumbens, NAc; hippocampus, medial frontal cortex) within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system during resting-state from the cocaine and control participants were used as input to the spDCM program to generate spDCM analysis outputs. Results: Compared to the control group, the cocaine group had higher effective connectivity from the VTA to NAc, hippocampus and medial frontal cortex. In contrast, the control group showed a higher effective connectivity from the medial frontal cortex to VTA, from the NAc to medial frontal cortex, and on the hippocampus self-loop. Conclusions: The present study is the first to show that during resting-state in abstaining cocaine users compared to controls, the VTA initiates an enhanced effective connectivity to NAc, hippocampus and medial frontal cortex areas within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the brain's reward system. Future studies of effective connectivity analysis during resting-state may eventually be used to monitor treatment outcome.

  12. Effective Connectivity within the Mesocorticolimbic System during Resting-State in Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Suchismita; Di, Xin; Biswal, Bharat B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although effective connectivity between brain regions has been examined in cocaine users during tasks, no effective connectivity study has been conducted on cocaine users during resting-state. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined effective connectivity in resting-brain, between the brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, implicated in reward and motivated behavior, while the chronic cocaine users and controls took part in a resting-state scan by using a spectral Dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) approach. Method: As part of a study testing cocaine cue reactivity in cocaine users (Ray et al., 2015b), 20 non-treatment seeking cocaine-smoking (abstinent for at least 3 days) and 17 control participants completed a resting state scan and an anatomical scan. A mean voxel-based time series data extracted from four key brain areas (ventral tegmental area, VTA; nucleus accumbens, NAc; hippocampus, medial frontal cortex) within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system during resting-state from the cocaine and control participants were used as input to the spDCM program to generate spDCM analysis outputs. Results: Compared to the control group, the cocaine group had higher effective connectivity from the VTA to NAc, hippocampus and medial frontal cortex. In contrast, the control group showed a higher effective connectivity from the medial frontal cortex to VTA, from the NAc to medial frontal cortex, and on the hippocampus self-loop. Conclusions: The present study is the first to show that during resting-state in abstaining cocaine users compared to controls, the VTA initiates an enhanced effective connectivity to NAc, hippocampus and medial frontal cortex areas within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the brain’s reward system. Future studies of effective connectivity analysis during resting-state may eventually be used to monitor treatment outcome. PMID:27881959

  13. Nigrostriatal dopamine-independent resting-state functional networks in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jee Hyun; Cha, Jungho; Lee, Jae Jung; Baek, Gwang-Min; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Hong, Jin Yong; Shin, Na-Young; Sohn, Young Ho; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2015-10-01

    As an indicator of synchronous neural activity, resting-state functional networks are influenced by neuropathological and neurochemical changes in degenerative diseases. To further advance understanding about neurochemical and neuropathological basis for resting-state functional maps, we performed a comparative analysis of resting-state functional connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and drug induced parkinsonism (DIP). Resting-state neuroimaging data were analyzed with a seed-based approach to investigate striatocortical functional connectivity and cortical functional connectivity within the default mode network, executive control network, and the dorsal attention network. The striatal subregions were divided into the more or less affected sides in terms of dopamine transporter uptake. Compared with DIP, PD exhibited an increased cerebellar connectivity from the more affected side of the caudate and the less affected sides of the anterior and the posterior putamen. Additionally, PD showed increased functional connectivity in the anterior prefrontal areas from the more affected side of the anterior putamen and from the less affected side of the posterior putamen. However, PD exhibited decreased cortical functional connectivity from the posterior cingulate cortex in the left temporal area. Finally, DIP patients showed decreased cortical functional connectivity from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in frontal and parietal areas compared with PD patients. In summary, the present study demonstrates that PD patients exhibited a unique resting state functional connectivity that may be associated with PD-related pathological changes beyond the dopaminergic system, whereas DIP patients showed altered functional connectivity within executive control network.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with vegetation and soil parameters under rest grazing management in a desert steppe ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bai, Gegenbaoleer; Bao, Yuying; Du, Guoxin; Qi, Yunlong

    2013-05-01

    The impact of rest grazing on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the interactions of AMF with vegetation and soil parameters under rest grazing condition were investigated between spring and late summer in a desert steppe ecosystem with different grazing managements (rest grazing with different lengths of resting period, banned or continuous grazing) in Inner Mongolia, China. AMF diversity and colonization, vegetation biomass, soil properties and soil phosphatase activity were examined. In rest grazing areas of 60 days, AMF spore number and diversity index at a 0-10 cm soil depth as well as vesicular and hyphal colonization rates were higher compared with other grazing treatments. In addition, soil organic matter and total N contents were highest and soil alkaline phosphatase was most active under 60-day rest grazing. In August and September, these areas also had the highest amount of aboveground vegetation. The results indicated that resting grazing for an appropriate period of time in spring has a positive effect on AMF sporulation, colonization and diversity, and that under rest grazing conditions, AMF parameters are positively correlated with some soil characteristics.

  15. Factors influencing particle number concentrations, size distributions and modal parameters at a roof-level and roadside site in Leicester, UK.

    PubMed

    Agus, Emily L; Young, David T; Lingard, Justin J N; Smalley, Robert J; Tate, James E; Goodman, Paul S; Tomlin, Alison S

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of urban particle number concentrations and size distributions in the range 5-1000 nm were taken at elevated (roof-level) and roadside sampling sites on Narborough Road in Leicester, UK, along with simultaneous measurements of traffic, NO(x), CO and 1,3-butadiene concentrations and meteorological parameters. A fitting program was used to determine the characteristics of up to five modal groups present in the particle size distributions. All particle modal concentrations peaked during the morning and evening rush hours. Additional events associated with the smallest mode, that were not observed to be connected to primary emissions, were also present suggesting that this mode consisted of newly formed secondary particles. These events included peaks in concentration which coincided with peaks in solar radiation, and lower concentrations of the larger modes. Investigation into the relationships between traffic flow and occupancy indicated three flow regimes; free-flow, unstable and congested. During free-flow conditions, positive linear relationships existed between traffic flow and particle modal number concentrations. However, during unstable and congested periods, this relationship was shown to break-down. Similar trends were observed for concentrations of the gas phase pollutants NO(x), CO and 1,3-butadiene. Strong linear relationships existed between NO(x), CO, 1,3-butadiene concentrations, nucleation and Aitken mode concentrations at both sampling locations, indicating a local traffic related emission source. At the roadside, both nucleation and Aitken mode are best represented by a decreasing exponential function with wind speed, whereas at the roof-level this relationship only occurred for Aitken mode particles. The differing relationships at the two sampling locations are most likely due to a combination of meteorological factors and distance from the local emission source.

  16. Characterization of volatile organic compounds at a roadside environment in Hong Kong: An investigation of influences after air pollution control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Ling, Zhen Hao; Lee, Shun Cheng; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Jun Ji; Blake, Donald R.; Cheng, Yan; Lai, Sen Chao; Ho, Kin Fai; Gao, Yuan; Cui, Long; Louie, Peter K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emission is one of the important anthropogenic pollution sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Four characterization campaigns were conducted at a representative urban roadside environment in Hong Kong between May 2011 and February 2012. Carbon monoxide (CO) and VOCs including methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), halocarbons, and alkyl nitrates were quantified. Both mixing ratios and compositions of the target VOCs show ignorable seasonal variations. Except CO, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tracers of propane, i-butane and n-butane are the three most abundant VOCs, which increased significantly as compared with the data measured at the same location in 2003. Meanwhile, the mixing ratios of diesel- and gasoline tracers such as ethyne, alkenes, aromatics, halogenated, and nitrated hydrocarbons decreased by at least of 37%. The application of advanced multivariate receptor modeling technique of positive matrix factorization (PMF) evidenced that the LPG fuel consumption is the largest pollution source, accounting for 60 ± 5% of the total quantified VOCs at the roadside location. The sum of ozone formation potential (OFP) for the target VOCs was 300.9 μg-O3 m-3, which was 47% lower than the value of 567.3 μg-O3 m-3 measured in 2003. The utilization of LPG as fuel in public transport (i.e., taxis and mini-buses) contributed 51% of the sum of OFP, significantly higher than the contributions from gasoline- (16%) and diesel-fueled (12%) engine emissions. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of the switch from diesel to LPG-fueled engine for taxis and mini-buses implemented by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government between the recent ten years, in additional to the execution of substitution to LPG-fueled engine and restrictions of the vehicular emissions in compliance with the updated European emission standards.

  17. Profile of a drunk driver and risk factors for drunk driving. Findings in roadside testing in the province of Uusimaa in Finland 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Rajalin, S; Eriksson, C J P; Gunnar, T; Koskimaa, H; Kuoppasalmi, K

    2013-09-10

    The aim of the present study was to define the profile of a drunk driver and to determine risk factors for drunk driving by analyzing data on both sober and drunk drivers. Systematic roadside surveys have been carried out in Southern Finland for over 18 years, with 20,000-30,000 drivers breath tested annually. During the study period, 1241 drunk drivers were caught (legal blood alcohol limit 0.50‰). The comparison material consisted of 3407 sober drivers. The surveys were designed to further investigate demographic features and driving habits of drivers. The prevalence of drunk driving has been 0.2% over the time period, with only random variations. According to the data, a typical drunk driver is a man aged 40-49 who has a valid driving license and drives his own car, usually alone, with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 1.0‰. He has a job and is married or cohabiting. The profile remained consistent throughout the study period. The risk of drunk driving was found to be five times higher for men than for women. Divorcees and widow(er)s had a substantially higher risk factor for being caught drunk driving than married drivers. Drunk drivers are most likely to be caught by roadside testing on Saturday mornings. During the study period the blood alcohol limit for aggravated drunk driving was lowered in 1994 from 1.5 to 1.2‰. In 2004 the taxation of alcohol beverages was reduced by 30%. Neither of these measures affected the prevalence of drunk driving or the mean BAC of drunk drivers (p=0.63). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages in aquatic 'seed banks'.

    PubMed

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Ribeiro, Sofia

    2017-05-05

    In the past decade, research on long-term persistence of phytoplankton resting stages has intensified. Simultaneously, insight into life-cycle variability in the diverse groups of phytoplankton has also increased. Aquatic 'seed banks' have tremendous significance and show many interesting parallels to terrestrial seed beds of vascular plants, but are much less studied. It is therefore timely to review the phenomenon of long-term persistence of aquatic resting stages in sediment seed banks. Herein we compare function, morphology and physiology of phytoplankton resting stages to factors central for persistence of terrestrial seeds. We review the types of resting stages found in different groups of phytoplankton and focus on the groups for which long-term (multi-decadal) persistence has been shown: dinoflagellates, diatoms, green algae and cyanobacteria. We discuss the metabolism of long-term dormancy in phytoplankton resting stages and the ecological, evolutionary and management implications of this important trait. Phytoplankton resting stages exhibiting long-term viability are characterized by thick, often multi-layered walls and accumulation vesicles containing starch, lipids or other materials such as pigments, cyanophycin or unidentified granular materials. They are reported to play central roles in evolutionary resilience and survival of catastrophic events. Promising areas for future research include the role of hormones in mediating dormancy, elucidating the mechanisms behind metabolic shut-down and testing bet-hedging hypotheses. © 2017 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. Regional homogeneity and resting state functional connectivity: associations with exposure to early life stress

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Noah S.; Kuras, Yuliya I.; Valentine, Thomas R.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) confers risk for psychiatric illness. Previous literature suggests ELS is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in adulthood, but there are no studies of resting-state neuronal activity in this population. This study investigated whether ELS-exposed individuals demonstrate resting-state activity patterns similar to those found in PTSD. Twenty-seven adults (14 with at least moderate ELS), who were medication-free and without psychiatric or medical illness, underwent MRI scans during two 4-minute rest periods. Resting-state activity was examined using regional homogeneity (ReHo), which estimates regional activation patterns through indices of localized concordance. ReHo values were compared between groups, followed by rs-FC analyses utilizing ReHo-localized areas as seeds to identify other involved regions. Relative to controls, ELS subjects demonstrated diminished ReHo in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). ReHo values were inversely correlated with ELS severity. Secondary analyses revealed decreased rs-FC between the IPL and right precuneus/posterior cingulate, left fusiform gyrus, cerebellum and caudate in ELS subjects. These findings indicate that ELS is associated with altered resting-state activity and connectivity in brain regions involved in trauma-related psychiatric disorders. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether these associations represent potential imaging biomarkers of stress exposure. PMID:24090510

  20. What is the best?: simple versus visitor restricted rest period.

    PubMed

    Silvius-Byron, Stephanie A; Florimonte, Christine; Panganiban, Elizabeth G; Ulmer, Janice Fitzgerald

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a highly structured planned rest protocol that includes visitor and healthcare personnel restrictions with a simple planned rest period that encourages patients to rest during a designated time without restriction of visitors and healthcare personnel. Many hospitals acute care have begun to restrict visitors and nonessential health team interventions during specific times despite the lack of experimentally designed studies. Using a convenience sample of 52 intermediate care unit patients, a randomized experimental design study compared a highly structured planned rest protocol with restriction of visitors/healthcare personnel to a simple planned rest period without restrictions. The primary outcome variable was the patient's perceived quality of rest after a 2-hour rest period. Intermediate care patients' perception of rest and sleep during a designated rest period was similar whether elaborate rest strategies were used, including visitor and healthcare personnel restrictions, or if it was only suggested they rest and the door to their room closed. The restriction of visitors and healthcare personnel during a 2-hour rest period did not improve the patient's perception of rest or how long it took them to go to sleep.

  1. Cross coherence independent component analysis in resting and action states EEG discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almurshedi, A.; Ismail, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Cross Coherence time frequency transform and independent component analysis (ICA) method were used to analyse the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in resting and action states during open and close eyes conditions. From the topographical scalp distributions of delta, theta, alpha, and beta power spectrum can clearly discriminate between the signal when the eyes were open or closed, but it was difficult to distinguish between resting and action states when the eyes were closed. In open eyes condition, the frontal area (Fp1, Fp2) was activated (higher power) in delta and theta bands whilst occipital (O1, O2) and partial (P3, P4, Pz) area of brain was activated alpha band in closed eyes condition. The cross coherence method of time frequency analysis is capable of discrimination between rest and action brain signals in closed eyes condition.

  2. The cerebral oscillatory network of parkinsonian resting tremor.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Lars; Gross, Joachim; Dirks, Martin; Volkmann, Jens; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2003-01-01

    Data from experiments in MPTP monkeys as well as from invasive and non-invasive recordings in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest an abnormal synchronization of neuronal activity in the generation of resting tremor in Parkinson's disease. In six patients with tremor-dominant idiopathic Parkinson's disease, we recorded simultaneously surface electromyograms (EMGs) of hand muscles, and brain activity with a whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. Using a recently developed analysis tool (Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources; DICS), we determined cerebro-muscular and cerebro-cerebral coherence as well as the partial coherence between cerebral areas and muscle, and localized coherent sources within the individual MRI scans. The phase lag between the EMG and cerebral activity was determined by means of a Hilbert transform of both signals. After overnight withdrawal from medication, patients showed typical Parkinson's disease resting tremor (4-6 Hz). This tremor was associated with strong coherence between the EMG of forearm muscles and activity in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) at tremor frequency but also at double tremor frequency. Phase lags between M1 activity and EMG were between 15 and 25 ms (M1 activity leading) at single, but also at double tremor frequency, corresponding well to the corticomuscular conduction time. Furthermore, significant coherence was observed between M1 and medial wall areas (cingulate/supplementary motor area; CMA/SMA), lateral premotor cortex (PM), diencephalon, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the contralateral cerebellum at single tremor and, even stronger at double tremor frequency. Spectra of coherence between thalamic activity and cerebellum as well as several brain areas revealed additional broad peaks around 20 Hz. Power spectral analysis of activity in all central areas indicated the strongest frequency components at double tremor frequency. Partial coherence

  3. Resting-State Functional Connectivity Differences in Premature Children

    PubMed Central

    Damaraju, Eswar; Phillips, John R.; Lowe, Jean R.; Ohls, Robin; Calhoun, Vince D.; Caprihan, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    We examine the coherence in the spontaneous brain activity of sleeping children as measured by the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. The results are described in terms of resting-state networks (RSN) and their properties. More specifically, in this study we examine the effect of severe prematurity on the spatial location of the visual, temporal, motor, basal ganglia, and the default mode networks, the temporal response properties of each of these networks, and the functional connectivity between them. Our results suggest that the anatomical locations of the RSNs are well developed by 18 months of age and their spatial locations are not distinguishable between premature and term born infants at 18 months or at 36 months, with the exception of small spatial differences noted in the basal ganglia area and the visual cortex. The two major differences between term and pre-term children were present at 36 but not 18 months and include: (1) increased spectral energy in the low frequency range (0.01–0.06 Hz) for pre-term children in the basal ganglia component, and (2) stronger connectivity between RSNs in term children. We speculate that children born very prematurely are vulnerable to injury resulting in weaker connectivity between resting-state networks by 36 months of age. Further work is required to determine whether this could be a clinically useful tool to identify children at risk of developmental delay related to premature birth. PMID:20725534

  4. Meditators and non-meditators: EEG source imaging during resting.

    PubMed

    Tei, Shisei; Faber, Pascal L; Lehmann, Dietrich; Tsujiuchi, Takuya; Kumano, Hiroaki; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Kochi, Kieko

    2009-11-01

    Many meditation exercises aim at increased awareness of ongoing experiences through sustained attention and at detachment, i.e., non-engaging observation of these ongoing experiences by the intent not to analyze, judge or expect anything. Long-term meditation practice is believed to generalize the ability of increased awareness and greater detachment into everyday life. We hypothesized that neuroplasticity effects of meditation (correlates of increased awareness and detachment) would be detectable in a no-task resting state. EEG recorded during resting was compared between Qigong meditators and controls. Using LORETA (low resolution electromagnetic tomography) to compute the intracerebral source locations, differences in brain activations between groups were found in the inhibitory delta EEG frequency band. In the meditators, appraisal systems were inhibited, while brain areas involved in the detection and integration of internal and external sensory information showed increased activation. This suggests that neuroplasticity effects of long-term meditation practice, subjectively described as increased awareness and greater detachment, are carried over into non-meditating states.

  5. Effect of bed rest and exercise on body balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    A battery of 11 body balance tests was administered to 7 men before and after 14 days of bedrest. Seven men who had not undergone bed rest served as controls. During bed rest, each subject underwent daily either isotonic, isometric, or no leg exercise. The results showed that, for the bed-rested no exercise, isotonic exercise, and isometric exercise groups, 2 weeks of bed rest produces significant body balance decrements on 3, 4, and 5 of the 11 tests, respectively. Daily leg exercise did not prevent the debilitating effects of bed rest on body balance. After bed rest, balance skill was relearned rapidly so that in most tests, performance had reached prebed-rest levels by the third recovery day. These data suggest that balance impairment is not due to loss of muscular strength in the legs but, perhaps, to a bed-rest-related change in the neurally coded information to postural control centers.

  6. Resting heart rate: its correlations and potential for screening metabolic dysfunctions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rômulo A; Vaz Ronque, Enio R; Venturini, Danielle; Barbosa, Décio S; Silva, Danilo P; Cogo, Crisieli T; Carnelossi, Mariana Souza; Batista, Mariana B; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson S

    2013-04-05

    In pediatric populations, the use of resting heart rate as a health index remains unclear, mainly in epidemiological settings. The aims of this study were to analyze the impact of resting heart rate on screening dyslipidemia and high blood glucose and also to identify its significance in pediatric populations. The sample was composed of 971 randomly selected adolescents aged 11 to 17 years (410 boys and 561 girls). Resting heart rate was measured with oscillometric devices using two types of cuffs according to the arm circumference. Biochemical parameters triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose were measured. Body fatness, sleep, smoking, alcohol consumption and cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed. Resting heart rate was positively related to higher sleep quality (β = 0.005, p = 0.039) and negatively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (β = -0.207, p = 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated significant potential for resting heart rate in the screening of adolescents at increased values of fasting glucose (area under curve = 0.611 ± 0.039 [0.534 - 0.688]) and triglycerides (area under curve = 0.618 ± 0.044 [0.531 - 0.705]). High resting heart rate constitutes a significant and independent risk related to dyslipidemia and high blood glucose in pediatric populations. Sleep and cardiorespiratory fitness are two important determinants of the resting heart rate.

  7. In vivo delivery of DN:REST improves transcriptional changes of REST-regulated genes in HD mice.

    PubMed

    Conforti, P; Mas Monteys, A; Zuccato, C; Buckley, N J; Davidson, B; Cattaneo, E

    2013-06-01

    Current therapeutic strategies for Huntington's disease (HD) are focused on symptom management of disease progression. Transcriptional dysregulation is one of the major characteristics in HD. REST is a transcriptional repressor that silences gene expression through binding to RE1/NRSE sites found in the regulatory regions of numerous neuronal genes. Dysregulation of REST and its targeted genes has been reported in different cell and mouse HD models, as well as in biopsies from human patients. In this work, we characterized transcriptional dysregulation associated with REST in two different HD mouse models and assessed the therapeutic effect of interfering with REST function by overexpressing a dominant-negative form (DN:REST). We show that delivery of DN:REST in the motor cortex restores brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein levels by reducing endogenous REST occupancy at the Bdnf locus. Similarly, expression of other REST-regulated genes such as Synapsin I (Syn1), Proenkephalin (Penk1) and Cholinergic receptor muscarinic 4 (Chrm4) were restored to normal levels while non-REST-regulated genes were unaffected. This is the first study conducted to investigate REST's role in vivo in a neurodegenerative disease. Our data show that DN:REST in motor cortex reversed RESTs repressive effects on target genes. However, the lack of therapeutic effect on motor function suggests that a more widespread rescue of REST-regulated sites in the affected brain regions may be necessary.

  8. Exercise countermeasures for bed rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The major objectives were to evaluate the efficiency of different modes of exercise (isotonic and isokinetic) for countering the effects of bed rest deconditioning on work capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength, orthostatic tolerance, posture, equilibrium and gait; and to collect additional data of a more fundamental nature to help understand how these deconditioning responses occur. These data will be used for writing prescriptions for exercise to be utilized by astronauts for maintaining work capacity and well-being on Freedom Station, and to determine what exercise devices should be place in the station.

  9. Traveling and Resting Crystals in Active Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Andreas M.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2013-02-01

    A microscopic field theory for crystallization in active systems is proposed which unifies the phase-field-crystal model of freezing with the Toner—Tu theory for self-propelled particles. A wealth of different active crystalline states are predicted and characterized. In particular, for increasing strength of self-propulsion, a transition from a resting crystal to a traveling crystalline state is found where the particles migrate collectively while keeping their crystalline order. Our predictions, which are verifiable in experiments and in particle-resolved computer simulations, provide a starting point for the design of new active materials.

  10. Framework for ReSTful Web Services in OSGi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Mittman, David S.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Rabe, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ensemble ReST is a software system that eases the development, deployment, and maintenance of server-side application programs to perform functions that would otherwise be performed by client software. Ensemble ReST takes advantage of the proven disciplines of ReST (Representational State Transfer. ReST leverages the standardized HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites

  11. Different Resting State EEG Features in Children from Switzerland and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alahmadi, Nsreen; Evdokimov, Sergey A.; Kropotov, Yury (Juri); Müller, Andreas M.; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research field concerned with studying the influences of different cultures on brain anatomy and function. In this study, we examined whether different cultural or genetic influences might influence the resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) in young children (mean age 10 years) from Switzerland and Saudi Arabia. Methods: Resting state EEG recordings were obtained from relatively large groups of healthy children (95 healthy Swiss children and 102 Saudi Arabian children). These EEG data were analyzed using group independent components analyses (gICA) and conventional analyses of spectral data, together with estimations of the underlying intracortical sources, using LORETA software. Results: We identified many similarities, but also some substantial differences with respect to the resting state EEG data. For Swiss children, we found stronger delta band power values in mesial frontal areas and stronger power values in three out of four frequency bands in occipital areas. For Saudi Arabian children, we uncovered stronger alpha band power over the sensorimotor cortex. The additionally measured theta/beta ratio (TBR) was similar for Swiss and Saudi Arabian children. Conclusions: The different EEG resting state features identified, are discussed in the context of different cultural experiences and possible genetic influences. In addition, we emphasize the importance of using appropriate EEG databases when comparing resting state EEG features between groups. PMID:27853430

  12. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of astronauts visual changes raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings included hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, hypotheses speculate that hypertension in the brain caused by cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight is a possible mechanism for these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. In addition, previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP). For these reasons, vision monitoring of HDT bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies. Subjects selected for these studies were healthy adults (14 males and 5 females). Average age was 37.5 plus or minus 9.1 years, weight was 77.4 plus or minus 11.3 Kg, and height was 173.4 plus or minus 7.2 14 cm. Controlled conditions followed for all NASA bed rest studies were implemented. These conditions included factors such as eating a standardized diet, maintaining a strict sleep wake cycle, and remaining in bed for 24 hours each day. In one study, subjects maintained a horizontal (0 degree) position while in bed and were exercised six days per week with an integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program. In the other study, subjects were placed at 6 degrees HDT while in bed and did not engage in exercise. All subjects underwent pre- and post bed rest vision testing. While the battery of vision tests for each study was not identical, measures common to both studies will be presented. These measures included IOP and measures that provided an indication of optic disc swelling as derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) testing: average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (millimeters), disc area (square millimeters), rim area (square millimters), and average cup to disc (C

  13. 77 FR 28763 - Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Administration 14 CFR Parts 117, 119, and 121 RIN 2120-AJ58 Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements... correcting the final flightcrew member duty and rest rule published on January 4, 2012. In that rule, the FAA amended its existing flight, duty and rest regulations applicable to certificate holders and their...

  14. Resting Functional Connectivity of Language Networks: Characterization and Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.

    2011-01-01

    The neural basis of language comprehension and production has been associated with superior temporal (Wernicke’s) and inferior frontal (Broca’s) cortical areas respectively. However, recent resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and lesion studies implicate a more extended network in language processing. Using a large RSFC dataset from 970 healthy subjects and seed regions in Broca’s and Wernicke’s we recapitulate this extended network that includes adjoining prefrontal, temporal and parietal regions but also bilateral caudate and left putamen/globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus. We also show that the language network has predominance of short-range functional connectivity (except posterior Wernicke’s area that exhibited predominant long-range connectivity), which is consistent with reliance on local processing. Predominantly, the long-range connectivity was left lateralized (except anterior W