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Sample records for roadside rest areas

  1. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safety rest areas. 752.5 Section 752.5 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE... design year. Expansion and modernization of older existing rest areas that do not provide...

  2. Influence of traffic activity on heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-05-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals' homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  3. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-01-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  4. Heavy Metal Concentration of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas around Kathmandu, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, M.; Zeng, C.; Devkota, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    The heavy metals generated from road traffic activities are an important contaminant resource that can be disseminated to the roadside soil and pose hazard to local environment. Especially, if the roadways pass across farmland areas, the heavy metals may transport through the roadside soil into crops so as to have a potential affect on the food safety and human health. In this study, a factorial analysis is conducted to investigate heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) concentration of roadside farmland soil along the Trishuli Highway across mountainous areas around Kathmandu, Nepal. Four factors were considered for the experimental design, including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection. Totally, 342 samples of 0-5 cm topsoil along the highway were collected to analyze the factors' effect on roadside heavy metal distribution and concentration. The sampling sites were located along the highway at six levels of altitude, which are 800 m, 1000 m, 1200 m, 1400 m, 1600 m, and 1800 m. At each level of altitude, the sampling distances to the highway edge are 0 m, 10 m, 30 m, 50 m, and 100 m. The samples are classified into the topsoil in the up-grade terrain or down-grade terrain. Considering the potential tree protection effect on the roadside soil, the samples are also categorized into the topsoil with tree protection or topsoil without tree protection. The experimental results indicate that with the rise of altitude, the concentration of heavy metals in roadside topsoil expresses a clear increasing trend, which can be explained that the fuel-consumption efficiency of vehicles in higher altitude is lower than that in lower altitude due to the less Oxygen concentration. It was also found that the concentration of heavy metals in down-grade topsoil is lower than that in up-grade topsoil. Generally, the heavy metal content in roadside soil has a belt-shaped distribution in terms of distance to road edge, decreasing exponentially with increment of the

  5. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo

    2017-03-07

    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  6. Roadside measurements of deforestation in the Amazon area of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Locklin, Claudia Cordona; Haack, Barry

    2003-06-01

    This study describes the deforestation impact from three settlements, 5 de Junio, El Tigre, and 30 de Agosto, near the Madidi National Park in Bolivia. First deforestation rates along the road that connects the settlements and then deforestation within each settlement are examined. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery from 1987, 1997, and 2000 were used to measure the deforestation. Face-to-face interviews were also used to collect detailed social and land-use information. Road-building and farming have been the major causes of deforestation in this region. The TM measurements indicate a high increase in the deforestation rate along the road in the area of study. The results also show a rapidly escalating deforestation rate in 5 de Junio, a potential high future deforestation rate in El Tigre, and a gradual deforestation increase in 30 de Agosto. The information provided by the settlers about clearing was compared with the imagery analysis. Generally, the settler's estimates were lower than the deforestation as derived from the imagery.

  7. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Safety rest areas. 752.5 Section 752.5 Highways FEDERAL... DEVELOPMENT § 752.5 Safety rest areas. (a) Safety rest areas should provide facilities reasonably necessary... may be provided in conjunction with a safety rest area at such locations where accommodations...

  8. Characteristics, sources, and cytotoxicity of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban roadside areas of Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongzhen; Zhang, Hongjian

    2017-03-21

    The primary objective of this study is to understand the profiles, sources and cytotoxic effects of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are closely related to urban air contamination and public health, in urban roadside environments. On-road sampling campaigns were conducted from 2014 to 2015 at three urban road sites in Hangzhou, China. Sixteen gaseous and particulate matter (PM) 2.5-bound PAHs were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations at the three sites ranged from 750 to1142 ng/m(3) and 1050 to 1483 ng/m(3) in summer and winter, respectively. Low molecular weight PAHs were the most abundant compounds (77-86%) and primarily existed in gas phase. The concentrations and phase distributions of high molecular weight PAHs were varied at three sites due to the differences in traffic volume, vehicle composition, engine loading, and nearby artificial activity. Diagnostic ratios of the principal mass (m/z,178, 202, 228 and 276) parent PAHs were statistically described to determine the PAH sources to urban roadsides; principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to apportion the sources. The results indicated that high- and low-temperature fuel processes, as well as residential and industrial emissions, were major contributors to roadside PAHs. The cytotoxic potential of the roadside PAHs was evaluated using a human epithelial lung cell line (A549). Cell viability was measured after a direct exposure to PAH extract. The results reflected the profiles of roadside PAHs at the three sites. The cytotoxicity of reference PAHs was evaluated to provide further insights into the cytotoxic potential of PAHs. We found that low molecular weight PAHs, which are less cytotoxic compounds, synergistically promoted the lethal effect of cytotoxic compounds, posing a potential threat to public health.

  9. The epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in urban areas, roadside settlements and rural villages in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Barongo, L R; Borgdorff, M W; Mosha, F F; Nicoll, A; Grosskurth, H; Senkoro, K P; Newell, J N; Changalucha, J; Klokke, A H; Killewo, J Z

    1992-12-01

    Between August 1990 and February 1991, health workers took blood samples from, and trained interviewers spoke to, 5145 15-to-54-year-old adults living in either an urban area (1554), in a rural village (2434), or in a roadside settlement (1157) in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 infection and its most significant risk factors. The prevalence rate of HIV-1 infection was highest in urban areas, lower in roadside settlements, and lowest in rural areas (11.8%, 7.3%, and 2.5%, respectively), suggesting that HIV-1 had spread along main roads. Yet, there were as many people infected with HIV-1 in rural areas of the Mwanza Region as there were in Mwanza town. Women were 1.2 (rural) to 1.7 (urban) times more likely to be infected with HIV-1 than were men, indicating greater efficiency of HIV-1 transmission from men to women than from women to men. HIV-1 infection peaked in the 15-to-34-year-old group in women and in the 25-to-44-year-old group in men. Separated, divorced, or widowed men and women were at increased risk of being HIV-1 infected, even when controlled for numerous factors (odds ratio (OR) = 3.4 and 1.6, respectively). This may have been an indication of multiple partners, since the question concerning multiple partners was vague. Other important risk factors for women and men were syphilis antibodies (OR = 1.7 and 1.85), history of genital discharge or chancroid (OR = 2, 1.6 and 2.7, 1.6), travel to Mwanza town (OR = 2.1 and 1.7), and receiving injections during the previous 12 months (OR = 1.5 and 1.9). There was no link between male circumcision and HIV-1 infection. In fact, there seemed to be a moderate protective effect (OR = 0.8). This effect may be even more likely since urban men, who were at greatest risk of HIV-1 infection (8.7% vs. 5.4% [roadside] and 2.4% [rural]), had the highest rate of circumcision (61% vs. 29% and 17%, respectively).

  10. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  11. Towards innovative roadside monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, G.; Appel, E.; Magiera, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination along roadsides is an important factor of anthropogenic point source pollution. Climatic and traffic-specific factors influence the amount and characteristics of pollution emitted and deposited in the roadside soil. In our present study we focus on monitoring typical traffic pollutants (heavy metals HM, platinum group elements, polycyclic hydrocarbons PAH), and investigate the use of magnetic parameters, especially magnetic susceptibility (MS) as proxy. Monitoring plots were installed along roadside in areas with different climatic conditions and different traffic-specific activities (traffic density and speed, vehicle types, abrasion of tires, brake linings, petrol/diesel compounds and road maintenance). For monitoring we removed 10-15 cm of top soil at 1 m distance from the roadside edge and placed 30 plastic boxes there filled with clean quartz sand, to be sampled after regular intervals within two years. Preliminary data from the first year of monitoring are presented. Magnetic results revealed that a coarse grained magnetite-like phase is responsible for the enhancement of magnetic concentration. The mass-specific MS and concentration of pollutants (HM, PAH) all show a significant increase with time, however, there are obviously also seasonal and site-dependent effects which lead to more stable values over several months or even some decrease in the upper few cm due to migration into depth. Source identification indicates that the accumulated PAHs are primarily emissions from traffic. In order to be able to discriminate in between different kinds of transport and deposition (surface run off from the road and neighbouring soil material, splash water, air transport), we additionally established pillars at the roadside with clean quartz sampling boxes at different heights (surface, 0.5 m, 2 m). As a first surprising result we observed that the increase in the boxes at surface is not necessarily higher than at 0.5 m height. The results from our

  12. Roads in northern hardwood forests affect adjacent plant communities and soil chemistry in proportion to the maintained roadside area.

    PubMed

    Neher, Deborah A; Asmussen, David; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-04-01

    The spatial extent of the transported materials from three road types was studied in forest soil and vegetative communities in Vermont. Hypotheses were two-fold: 1) soil chemical concentrations above background environment would reflect traffic volume and road type (highway>2-lane paved>gravel), and 2) plant communities close to the road and near roads with greater traffic will be disturbance-tolerant and adept at colonization. Soil samples were gathered from 12 randomly identified transects for each of three road types classified as "highway," "two-lane paved," and "gravel." Using GIS mapping, transects were constructed perpendicular to the road, and samples were gathered at the shoulder, ditch, backslope, 10 m from the edge of the forest, and 50 m from road center. Sample locations were analyzed for a suite of soil elements and parameters, as well as percent area coverage by plant species. The main effects from roads depended on the construction modifications required for a roadway (i.e., vegetation clearing and topography modification). The cleared area defined the type of plant community and the distance that road pollutants travel. Secondarily, road presence affected soil chemistry. Metal concentrations (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) correlated positively with road type. Proximity to all road types made the soils more alkaline (pH 7.7) relative to the acidic soil of the adjacent native forest (pH 5.6). Roadside microtopography had marked effects on the composition of plant communities based on the direction of water flow. Ditch areas supported wetland plant species, greater soil moisture and sulfur content, while plant communities closer to the road were characteristic of drier upland zones. The area beyond the edge of the forest did not appear to be affected chemically or physically by any of the road types, possibly due to the dense vegetation that typically develops outside of the managed right-of-way.

  13. Effects of vegetation on runoff generation, sediment yield and soil shear strength on road-side slopes under a simulation rainfall test in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Jun; Wang, Tian-Wei; Cai, Chong-Fa; Li, Zhao-Xia; Cheng, Dong-Bing

    2014-07-01

    Vegetation recolonization has often been used to control roadside slope erosion, and in this paper, four restoration models - Natural Restoration, Grass, Grass & Shrub, Sodded Strip - were chosen to recolonize the plants on a newly built unpaved roadside slope in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. After eight months growth, eight rainfall simulations (intensity of 90 mm h(-1) for 60 min) and in-situ soil shear strength test were then carried out to identify the impacts of vegetation on roadside slope erosion and soil shear strength. The erosion on cutslopes was higher than that on fillslopes. The runoff coefficient and soil detachment rate were significantly lower on the Grass & Shrub model (4.3% and 1.99 g m(-2) min(-1), respectively) compared with the other three, which had the highest surface cover (91.4%), aboveground biomass (1.44 kg m(-2)) and root weight density (3.94 kg m(-3)). The runoff coefficient and soil detachment rate on roadside slopes showed a logarithmic decrease with the root weight density, root length density and aboveground biomass. The soil shear strength measured before and after the rainfall was higher on Grass & Shrub (59.29 and 53.73 kPa) and decreased on Grass (46.93 and 40.48 kPa), Sodded Strip (31.20 and 18.87 kPa) and Natural Restoration (25.31 and 9.36 kPa). Negative linear correlations were found between the soil shear strength reduction and aboveground biomass, root weight density and root length density. The variation of soil shear strength reduction was closely related to the roadside slope erosion, a positive linear correlation was found between runoff coefficient and soil shear strength reduction, and a power function was shown between soil detachment rate and soil shear strength reduction. This study demonstrated that Grass and Grass & Shrub were more suitable and highly cost-effective in controlling initial period erosion of newly built low-volume unpaved road.

  14. Potential roadside biases due to habitat changes along Breeding Bird Survey routes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, C.M.E.; Scallan, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Breeding Bird Surveys (BBS) are conducted along roadside routes to enable a large geographic area to be surveyed. Yet the potential biases of sampling populations only from roadsides have received little attention. We sampled aerial photography of BBS routes taken in the mid-1960s and late-1980s to evaluate whether habitat changes that occurred along roadsides were also occurring in the surrounding area, and whether the frequency of habitats encountered along roadsides were similar to that off-route. We examined 28 routes in Maryland and 25 routes in Ohio, and defined roadside area as within 200 m of the road, and off-route as 200-1,600 m from the road. Most habitat changes that occurred along BBS roadsides also were occurring in the off-route areas. However, increases in urban cover was significantly greater along the road in Maryland where urbanization of farmland was the predominant habitat change. The small increase in urban cover in Ohio was not significantly greater along the road. Construction of single family homes was greater along BBS roadsides in both states. In Ohio, the greatest change in habitat was the conversion of farmland back to forest, which was not significantly greater along the road. Changes associated with urbanization were more biased towards roadsides than the reforestation of farmland. Within one time period, roadside areas had less forest and more agricultural and urban cover types than occurred off-route.

  15. Changes in intervertebral disc cross-sectional area with bed rest and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A. D.; Evans, H. J.; Schneider, V. S.; Wendt, R. E. 3rd; Hedrick, T. D.

    1994-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. We measured the cross-sectional area of the intervertebral discs of normal volunteers after an overnight rest; before, during, and after 5 or 17 weeks of bed rest; and before and after 8 days of weightlessness. OBJECTIVES. This study sought to determine the degree of expansion of the lumbar discs resulting from bed rest and space flight. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Weightlessness and bed rest, an analog for weightlessness, reduce the mechanical loading on the musculoskeletal system. When unloaded, intervertebral discs will expand, increasing the nutritional diffusion distance and altering the mechanical properties of the spine. METHODS. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the cross-sectional area and transverse relaxation time (T2) of the intervertebral discs. RESULTS. Overnight or longer bed rest causes expansion of the disc area, which reaches an equilibrium value of about 22% (range 10-40%) above baseline within 4 days. Increases in disc area were associated with modest increases in disc T2. During bed rest, disc height increased approximately 1 mm, about one-half of previous estimates based on body height measurements. After 5 weeks of bed rest, disc area returned to baseline within a few days of ambulation, whereas after 17 weeks, disc area remained above baseline 6 weeks after reambulation. After 8 days of weightlessness, T2, disc area, and lumbar length were not significantly different from baseline values 24 hours after landing. CONCLUSIONS. Significant adaptive changes in the intervertebral discs can be expected during weightlessness. These changes, which are rapidly reversible after short-duration flights, may be an important factor during and after long-duration missions.

  16. Fan cooling of the resting area in a free stalls dairy barn.

    PubMed

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2014-08-01

    This summer study evaluated the effect of providing additional fans (cooling) in the resting area within a free-stall dairy barn that had fans and sprinklers in the feeding area and paddock availability. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups and kept in two pens: one had the resting area equipped with two fans (FAN) while no fans were added to the other resting area (CON). Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and milk pH traits were recorded. Time budgeting and the behaviour of the cows (time spent in the feeding area, standing and lying in other areas) were also recorded using digital video technology. Two slight-to-moderate heat waves were observed. During the hottest period the daily maximum temperature recorded was 33.5 °C and the daily maximum THI was 81.6. During this period, the BR and RT increased only slightly in both groups, with lower BR (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON. Milk yield was better maintained (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON during the hottest period. The FAN cows showed a greater (P<0.05) lying time in the free stalls (9.5 and 8.6 h/day in FAN and CON, respectively), whereas CON cows made greater (P<0.05) use of the paddock during evening and late evening hours. Consequently, the total daily lying time was 13.5 h/day in both groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that using fans in the resting area improves cow comfort, which increases use of the resting area. The lying time results also suggest that the benefits of providing ventilation in the resting area might be more evident in barns where there is no paddock.

  17. Fan cooling of the resting area in a free stalls dairy barn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2014-08-01

    This summer study evaluated the effect of providing additional fans (cooling) in the resting area within a free-stall dairy barn that had fans and sprinklers in the feeding area and paddock availability. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups and kept in two pens: one had the resting area equipped with two fans (FAN) while no fans were added to the other resting area (CON). Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and milk pH traits were recorded. Time budgeting and the behaviour of the cows (time spent in the feeding area, standing and lying in other areas) were also recorded using digital video technology. Two slight-to-moderate heat waves were observed. During the hottest period the daily maximum temperature recorded was 33.5 °C and the daily maximum THI was 81.6. During this period, the BR and RT increased only slightly in both groups, with lower BR (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON. Milk yield was better maintained (n.s.) in FAN compared with CON during the hottest period. The FAN cows showed a greater ( P < 0.05) lying time in the free stalls (9.5 and 8.6 h/day in FAN and CON, respectively), whereas CON cows made greater ( P < 0.05) use of the paddock during evening and late evening hours. Consequently, the total daily lying time was 13.5 h/day in both groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that using fans in the resting area improves cow comfort, which increases use of the resting area. The lying time results also suggest that the benefits of providing ventilation in the resting area might be more evident in barns where there is no paddock.

  18. Effect of Roadside Vegetation Cutting on Moose Browsing

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Amy L.; Leroux, Shawn J.

    2015-01-01

    Moose (Alces americanus ) vehicle collisions (MVCs) are an issue throughout the distribution of moose. Many mitigation strategies have been tested and implemented to reduce the number of MVCs, but there have been few empirical analyses of the effectiveness of roadside vegetation cutting. The goal of this study was to determine if roadside vegetation cutting attracted moose into roadside areas to browse on the vegetation regrowth. We hypothesized that moose would be attracted to roadside areas with cut vegetation. Consequently, we predicted that there would be higher levels of browsing in cut areas compared to uncut areas. To determine if moose were browsing more in cut or uncut areas, we measured the number of plants browsed by moose in paired treatment (cut on or after 2008) and control (not cut since at least 2008) sites, along with a suite of potential environmental covariates. Using a model selection approach, we fit generalized linear mixed-effects models to determine the most parsimonious set of environmental variables to explain variation in the proportion of moose browse among sites. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results show that the proportion of moose browse in the uncut control areas was significantly higher than in the cut treatment areas. The results of this study suggest that recently cut roadside areas (7 years or less based on our work) may create a less attractive foraging habitat for moose. The majority of the variance in the proportion of moose browse among sites was explained by treatment type and nested plot number within site identification (34.16%), with additional variance explained by traffic region (5.00%) and moose density (4.35%). Based on our study, we recommend that vegetation cutting be continued in roadside areas in Newfoundland as recently cut areas may be less attractive browsing sites for moose. PMID:26244576

  19. Effect of Roadside Vegetation Cutting on Moose Browsing.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amy L; Leroux, Shawn J

    2015-01-01

    Moose (Alces americanus ) vehicle collisions (MVCs) are an issue throughout the distribution of moose. Many mitigation strategies have been tested and implemented to reduce the number of MVCs, but there have been few empirical analyses of the effectiveness of roadside vegetation cutting. The goal of this study was to determine if roadside vegetation cutting attracted moose into roadside areas to browse on the vegetation regrowth. We hypothesized that moose would be attracted to roadside areas with cut vegetation. Consequently, we predicted that there would be higher levels of browsing in cut areas compared to uncut areas. To determine if moose were browsing more in cut or uncut areas, we measured the number of plants browsed by moose in paired treatment (cut on or after 2008) and control (not cut since at least 2008) sites, along with a suite of potential environmental covariates. Using a model selection approach, we fit generalized linear mixed-effects models to determine the most parsimonious set of environmental variables to explain variation in the proportion of moose browse among sites. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results show that the proportion of moose browse in the uncut control areas was significantly higher than in the cut treatment areas. The results of this study suggest that recently cut roadside areas (7 years or less based on our work) may create a less attractive foraging habitat for moose. The majority of the variance in the proportion of moose browse among sites was explained by treatment type and nested plot number within site identification (34.16%), with additional variance explained by traffic region (5.00%) and moose density (4.35%). Based on our study, we recommend that vegetation cutting be continued in roadside areas in Newfoundland as recently cut areas may be less attractive browsing sites for moose.

  20. Resting functional connectivity in patients with brain tumors in eloquent areas

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Juan; Honma, Susanne M.; Findlay, Anne M.; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Resection of brain tumors adjacent to eloquent areas represents a challenge in neurosurgery. If maximal resection is desired without inducing postoperative neurological deficits, a detailed knowledge of the functional topography in and around the tumor is crucial. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the value of preoperative magnetoencephalography (MEG) imaging of functional connectivity to predict the results of intraoperative electrical stimulation (IES) mapping, the clinical gold standard for neurosurgical localization of functional areas. Methods Resting-state whole-cortex MEG recordings were obtained from 57 consecutive subjects with focal brain tumors near or within motor, sensory or language areas. Neural activity was estimated using adaptive spatial filtering algorithms, and the mean imaginary coherence between the rest of the brain and voxels in and around brain tumors were compared to the mean imaginary coherence between the rest of the brain and contralesional voxels as an index of functional connectivity. IES mapping was performed in all subjects. The cortical connectivity pattern near the tumor was compared to IES results. Results Maps with decreased resting-state functional connectivity in the entire tumor area had a negative predictive value of 100% for absence of eloquent cortex during IES. Maps showing increased resting-state functional connectivity within the tumor area had a positive predictive value of 64% for finding language, motor or sensory cortical sites during IES mapping. Interpretation Preoperative resting state MEG connectivity analysis is a useful noninvasive tool to evaluate the functionality of the tissue surrounding tumors within eloquent areas, and could potentially contribute to surgical planning and patient counseling. PMID:21400562

  1. Delineating potential epileptogenic areas utilizing resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Ricardo; Nair, Veena; Meier, Timothy; Holdsworth, Ryan; Tunnell, Evelyn; Rutecki, Paul; Sillay, Karl; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-08-01

    Seizure localization includes neuroimaging like electroencephalogram, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with limited ability to characterize the epileptogenic network. Temporal clustering analysis (TCA) characterizes epileptogenic network congruent with interictal epileptiform discharges by clustering together voxels with transient signals. We generated epileptogenic areas for 12 of 13 epilepsy patients with TCA, congruent with different areas of seizure onset. Resting functional MRI (fMRI) scans are noninvasive, and can be acquired quickly, in patients with different levels of severity and function. Analyzing resting fMRI data using TCA is quick and can complement clinical methods to characterize the epileptogenic network.

  2. Misting and fan cooling of the rest area in a dairy barn.

    PubMed

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2012-03-01

    This summer study aimed to evaluate the effect on dairy cows, kept in a free stall barn equipped with fans and sprinklers in the feeding area, of the delivery rate of misters in a cooling system in rest areas with different bedding materials. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups according to milk yield and kept in two pens: one had beds with sand (SAMM) while the other had straw (STLM). Each pen was equipped with 2 fans (Ø 70 cm, 0.50 kW) and 2 misters (delivery rate of 11.2 and 22.5 L/h in STLM and SAMM, respectively) in the rest area. Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and some milk traits were recorded. Behavioural routines of the cows (standing and lying) were also continuously recorded during the hotter days. During the trial, two mild-moderate heat waves were observed. During these hotter periods, the daily maximum temperature recorded in the rest areas was 28.9 in SAMM and 31.2 in STLM, and the daily maximum THI was 78.2 in SAMM and 81.5 in STLM. In these periods, the cows in SAMM compared with those in STLM showed lower BR (P < 0.05) and greater rest time (10.2 and 7.8 h/day in SAMM and STLM, respectively). The RT did not differ (38.89 ± 0.29 and 38.88 ± 0.33°C in STLM and SAMM r,espectively). In conclusion, our research suggests that the cooling system using fans plus misters with mild wetting in rest areas with sand as bedding materials reduces heat stress and improves cow comfort.

  3. Misting and fan cooling of the rest area in a dairy barn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2012-03-01

    This summer study aimed to evaluate the effect on dairy cows, kept in a free stall barn equipped with fans and sprinklers in the feeding area, of the delivery rate of misters in a cooling system in rest areas with different bedding materials. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups according to milk yield and kept in two pens: one had beds with sand (SAMM) while the other had straw (STLM). Each pen was equipped with 2 fans (Ø 70 cm, 0.50 kW) and 2 misters (delivery rate of 11.2 and 22.5 L/h in STLM and SAMM, respectively) in the rest area. Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and some milk traits were recorded. Behavioural routines of the cows (standing and lying) were also continuously recorded during the hotter days. During the trial, two mild-moderate heat waves were observed. During these hotter periods, the daily maximum temperature recorded in the rest areas was 28.9 in SAMM and 31.2 in STLM, and the daily maximum THI was 78.2 in SAMM and 81.5 in STLM. In these periods, the cows in SAMM compared with those in STLM showed lower BR ( P < 0.05) and greater rest time (10.2 and 7.8 h/day in SAMM and STLM, respectively). The RT did not differ (38.89 ± 0.29 and 38.88 ± 0.33°C in STLM and SAMM r,espectively). In conclusion, our research suggests that the cooling system using fans plus misters with mild wetting in rest areas with sand as bedding materials reduces heat stress and improves cow comfort.

  4. Network asymmetry of motor areas revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Rong; Wu, Yi-Bo; Hu, De-Wen; Qin, Shang-Zhen; Xu, Guo-Zheng; Zeng, Xiao-Hua; Song, Hua

    2012-02-01

    There are ample functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on functional brain asymmetries, and the asymmetry of cerebral network in the resting state may be crucial to brain function organization. In this paper, a unified schema of voxel-wise functional connectivity and asymmetry analysis was presented and the network asymmetry of motor areas was studied. Twelve healthy male subjects with mean age 29.8 ± 6.4 were studied. Functional network in the resting state was described by using functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) analysis. Motor areas were selected as regions of interest (ROIs). Network asymmetry, including intra- and inter-network asymmetries, was formulated and analyzed. The intra-network asymmetry was defined as the difference between the left and right part of a particular functional network. The inter-network asymmetry was defined as the difference between the networks for a specific ROI in the left hemisphere and its homotopic ROI in the right hemisphere. Primary motor area (M1), primary sensory area (S1) and premotor area (PMA) exhibited higher functional correlation with the right parietal-temporal-occipital circuit and the middle frontal gyrus than they did with the left hemisphere. Right S1 and right PMA exhibited higher functional correlation with the ipsilateral precentral and supramarginal areas. There exist the large-scale hierarchical network asymmetries of the motor areas in the resting state. These asymmetries imply the right hemisphere dominance for predictive motor coding based on spatial attention and higher sensory processing load for the motor performance of non-dominant hemisphere.

  5. Cooling systems of the resting area in free stall dairy barn.

    PubMed

    Calegari, F; Calamari, L; Frazzi, E

    2016-04-01

    A study during the summer season evaluated the effect of different cooling systems on behavioral and productive responses of Italian Friesian dairy cows kept in an experimental-free stall barn located in the Po Valley in Italy. The study involved 30 lactating dairy cows subdivided into two groups kept in two pens with external hard court paddock in each free stall. The same cooling system was applied in the feeding area in both pens. A different cooling system in the resting area was applied to the two pens: in the pen SW, the resting area was equipped with fans and misters; in the other, there was simple ventilation (SV). Breathing rate, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk characteristics (fat, protein, and somatic cell count) were measured. Behavioral activities (standing and lying cows in the different areas, as well as the animals in the feed bunk) were recorded. Mild to moderate heat waves during the trial were observed. On average, the breathing rate was numerically greater in SV compared with SW cows (60.2 and 55.8 breath/min, respectively), and mean rectal temperature remained below 39 °C in both groups during the trial (on average 38.7 and 38.8 °C in SV and SW, respectively. During the hotter periods of the trial, the time spent lying indoor in the free stall was greater in SW (11.8 h/day) than SV (10.7 h/day). Conversely, the time spent standing indoor without feeding was greater in SV (4.3 h/day) than SW (3.8 h/day). Milk yield was slightly better maintained during hotter period in SW compared with SV and somatic cell count was also slightly greater in the former. In conclusion, the adoption of the cooling system by means of evaporative cooling also in the resting area reduces the alteration of time budget caused by heat stress.

  6. Cooling systems of the resting area in free stall dairy barn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, F.; Calamari, L.; Frazzi, E.

    2016-04-01

    A study during the summer season evaluated the effect of different cooling systems on behavioral and productive responses of Italian Friesian dairy cows kept in an experimental-free stall barn located in the Po Valley in Italy. The study involved 30 lactating dairy cows subdivided into two groups kept in two pens with external hard court paddock in each free stall. The same cooling system was applied in the feeding area in both pens. A different cooling system in the resting area was applied to the two pens: in the pen SW, the resting area was equipped with fans and misters; in the other, there was simple ventilation (SV). Breathing rate, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk characteristics (fat, protein, and somatic cell count) were measured. Behavioral activities (standing and lying cows in the different areas, as well as the animals in the feed bunk) were recorded. Mild to moderate heat waves during the trial were observed. On average, the breathing rate was numerically greater in SV compared with SW cows (60.2 and 55.8 breath/min, respectively), and mean rectal temperature remained below 39 °C in both groups during the trial (on average 38.7 and 38.8 °C in SV and SW, respectively. During the hotter periods of the trial, the time spent lying indoor in the free stall was greater in SW (11.8 h/day) than SV (10.7 h/day). Conversely, the time spent standing indoor without feeding was greater in SV (4.3 h/day) than SW (3.8 h/day). Milk yield was slightly better maintained during hotter period in SW compared with SV and somatic cell count was also slightly greater in the former. In conclusion, the adoption of the cooling system by means of evaporative cooling also in the resting area reduces the alteration of time budget caused by heat stress.

  7. Beta Peak Frequencies at Rest Correlate with Endogenous GABA+/Cr Concentrations in Sensorimotor Cortex Areas

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Thomas J.; Oeltzschner, Georg; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillatory activity in the beta band (15–30 Hz) is a prominent signal within the human sensorimotor cortex. Computational modeling and pharmacological modulation studies suggest an influence of GABAergic interneurons on the generation of beta band oscillations. Accordingly, studies in humans have demonstrated a correlation between GABA concentrations and power of beta band oscillations. It remains unclear, however, if GABA concentrations also influence beta peak frequencies and whether this influence is present in the sensorimotor cortex at rest and without pharmacological modulation. In the present study, we investigated the relation between endogenous GABA concentration (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and beta oscillations (measured by magnetoencephalography) at rest in humans. GABA concentrations and beta band oscillations were measured for left and right sensorimotor and occipital cortex areas. A significant positive linear correlation between GABA concentration and beta peak frequency was found for the left sensorimotor cortex, whereas no significant correlations were found for the right sensorimotor and the occipital cortex. The results show a novel connection between endogenous GABA concentration and beta peak frequency at rest. This finding supports previous results that demonstrated a connection between oscillatory beta activity and pharmacologically modulated GABA concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that for a predominantly right-handed sample, the correlation between beta band oscillations and endogenous GABA concentrations is evident only in the left sensorimotor cortex. PMID:27258089

  8. Generation and Evaluation of a Cortical Area Parcellation from Resting-State Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Evan M.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Huckins, Jeremy F.; Kelley, William M.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    The cortical surface is organized into a large number of cortical areas; however, these areas have not been comprehensively mapped in the human. Abrupt transitions in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns can noninvasively identify locations of putative borders between cortical areas (RSFC-boundary mapping; Cohen et al. 2008). Here we describe a technique for using RSFC-boundary maps to define parcels that represent putative cortical areas. These parcels had highly homogenous RSFC patterns, indicating that they contained one unique RSFC signal; furthermore, the parcels were much more homogenous than a null model matched for parcel size when tested in two separate datasets. Several alternative parcellation schemes were tested this way, and no other parcellation was as homogenous as or had as large a difference compared with its null model. The boundary map-derived parcellation contained parcels that overlapped with architectonic mapping of areas 17, 2, 3, and 4. These parcels had a network structure similar to the known network structure of the brain, and their connectivity patterns were reliable across individual subjects. These observations suggest that RSFC-boundary map-derived parcels provide information about the location and extent of human cortical areas. A parcellation generated using this method is available at http://www.nil.wustl.edu/labs/petersen/Resources.html. PMID:25316338

  9. Generation and Evaluation of a Cortical Area Parcellation from Resting-State Correlations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Evan M; Laumann, Timothy O; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Huckins, Jeremy F; Kelley, William M; Petersen, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The cortical surface is organized into a large number of cortical areas; however, these areas have not been comprehensively mapped in the human. Abrupt transitions in resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns can noninvasively identify locations of putative borders between cortical areas (RSFC-boundary mapping; Cohen et al. 2008). Here we describe a technique for using RSFC-boundary maps to define parcels that represent putative cortical areas. These parcels had highly homogenous RSFC patterns, indicating that they contained one unique RSFC signal; furthermore, the parcels were much more homogenous than a null model matched for parcel size when tested in two separate datasets. Several alternative parcellation schemes were tested this way, and no other parcellation was as homogenous as or had as large a difference compared with its null model. The boundary map-derived parcellation contained parcels that overlapped with architectonic mapping of areas 17, 2, 3, and 4. These parcels had a network structure similar to the known network structure of the brain, and their connectivity patterns were reliable across individual subjects. These observations suggest that RSFC-boundary map-derived parcels provide information about the location and extent of human cortical areas. A parcellation generated using this method is available at http://www.nil.wustl.edu/labs/petersen/Resources.html.

  10. Continuous Measurements of Eyeball Area and Their Spectrum Analyses -- Toward the Quantification of Rest Rhythm of Horses by Image Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    analyses of electroencephalogram at half- closed eye and fully closed eye. This study aimed at quantitative estimating rest rhythm of horses by the...analyses of eyeball movement. The mask attached with a miniature CCD camera was newly developed. The continuous images of the horse eye for about 24...eyeball area were calculated. As for the results, the fluctuating status of eyeball area was analyzed quantitatively, and the rest rhythm of horses was

  11. Soil organic carbon distribution in roadside soils of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhadip; Scharenbroch, Bryant C; Ow, Lai Fern

    2016-12-01

    Soil is the largest pool of organic carbon in terrestrial systems and plays a key role in carbon cycle. Global population living in urban areas are increasing substantially; however, the effects of urbanization on soil carbon storage and distribution are largely unknown. Here, we characterized the soil organic carbon (SOC) in roadside soils across the city-state of Singapore. We tested three hypotheses that SOC contents (concentration and density) in Singapore would be positively related to aboveground tree biomass, soil microbial biomass and land-use patterns. Overall mean SOC concentrations and densities (0-100 cm) of Singapore's roadside soils were 29 g kg(-1) (4-106 g kg(-1)) and 11 kg m(-2) (1.1-42.5 kg m(-2)) with median values of 26 g kg(-1) and 10 kg m(-2), respectively. There was significantly higher concentration of organic carbon (10.3 g kg(-1)) in the top 0-30 cm soil depth compared to the deeper (30-50 cm, and 50-100 cm) soil depths. Singapore's roadside soils represent 4% of Singapore's land, but store 2.9 million Mg C (estimated range of 0.3-11 million Mg C). This amount of SOC is equivalent to 25% of annual anthropogenic C emissions in Singapore. Soil organic C contents in Singapore's soils were not related to aboveground vegetation or soil microbial biomass, whereas land-use patterns to best explain variance in SOC in Singapore's roadside soils. We found SOC in Singapore's roadside soils to be inversely related to urbanization. We conclude that high SOC in Singapore roadside soils are probably due to management, such as specifications of high quality top-soil, high use of irrigation and fertilization and also due to an optimal climate promoting rapid growth and biological activity.

  12. Roadside-based communication system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A roadside-based communication system providing backup communication between emergency mobile units and emergency command centers. In the event of failure of a primary communication, the mobile units transmit wireless messages to nearby roadside controllers that may take the form of intersection controllers. The intersection controllers receive the wireless messages, convert the messages into standard digital streams, and transmit the digital streams along a citywide network to a destination intersection or command center.

  13. Safer Roadside Crash Walls Would Limit Deceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C.; Locke, James P.

    2003-01-01

    The figure depicts the aspects of a proposed deceleration-limiting design for crash walls at the sides of racetracks and highways. The proposal is intended to overcome the disadvantages of both rigid barriers and kinetic-energy-absorbing barriers of prior design. Rigid barriers can keep high-speed crashing motor vehicles from leaving roadways and thereby prevent injury to nearby persons and objects, but they can also subject the occupants of the vehicles to deceleration levels high enough to cause injury or death. Kinetic-energy-absorbing barriers of prior design reduce deceleration levels somewhat, but are not designed to soften impacts optimally; moreover, some of them allow debris to bounce back onto roadways or onto roadside areas, and, in cases of glancingly incident vehicles, some of them can trap the vehicles in such a manner as to cause more injury than would occur if the vehicles were allowed to skid along the rigid barriers. The proposed crash walls would (1) allow tangentially impacting vehicles to continue sliding along the racetrack without catching them, (2) catch directly impacting vehicles to prevent them from injuring nearby persons and objects, and (3) absorb kinetic energy in a more nearly optimum way to limit decelerations to levels that human occupants could survive.

  14. Relationship between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Grasses of Roadside Farmland in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-01-01

    Transportation activities can contribute to accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soil and grass, which could potentially compromise public health and the environment if the roadways cross farmland areas. Particularly, heavy metals may enter the food chain as a result of their uptake by roadside edible grasses. This research was conducted to investigate heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in roadside farmland soils and corresponding grasses around Kathmandu, Nepal. Four factors were considered for the experimental design, including sample type, sampling location, roadside distance, and tree protection. A total of 60 grass samples and 60 topsoil samples were collected under dry weather conditions. The Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that the concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soil samples are significantly higher than those in the grass samples; the concentrations of Cu and Pb in the suburban roadside farmland are higher than those in the rural mountainous roadside farmland; and the concentrations of Cu and Zn at the sampling locations with roadside trees are significantly lower than those without tree protection. The analysis of transfer factor, which is calculated as the ratio of heavy-metal concentrations in grass to those in the corresponding soil, indicates that the uptake capabilities of heavy metals from soil to grass is in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. Additionally, it is found that as the soils’ heavy-metal concentrations increase, the capability of heavy-metal transfer to the grass decreases, and this relationship can be characterized by an exponential regression model. PMID:23202679

  15. Resting behaviour, ecology and genetics of malaria vectors in large scale agricultural areas of Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Githeko, A K; Service, M W; Mbogo, C M; Atieli, F K

    1996-12-01

    In Kenya indoor and outdoor resting densities of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus at the Ahero rice irrigation scheme, and Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and An. funestus at the Miwani sugar belt were assessed for 13 months by pyrethrum spray collections in houses and granaries. The vector's house leaving behaviour was evaluated with exit traps and it was noted that early exophily (i.e., deliberate) was not detected in any of the vectors. Assortative indoor/outdoor resting behaviour was studied by a capture-mark-release-recapture method and showed that in An. arabiensis both indoor and outdoor resting traits were present in the same individuals. Samples of half-gravid female An. gambiae s.l. were chromosomally identified either as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or An. arabiensis and in a subsample chromosomal inversions were read. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis had the 2Rb inversion but in addition the 2La inversion was found in An. gambiae s.s. and this is an indication of low chromosomal variation. At Ahero An. arabiensis was most abundant when the rice crop was immature and An. funestus when the crop was mature. This succession of vectors facilitated the transmission of malaria throughout the year. At Miwani, An. gambiae s.l. population peaked during the long rains but the proportion of An. arabiensis was highest during the dry season. The indoor resting density of males of the three vector species was less than half of the females.

  16. Drivers' perceptions and reactions to roadside memorials.

    PubMed

    Tay, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Despite their growing popularity in North America, little research has been conducted on understanding the effects of roadside memorials on drivers' behaviour. In this study, an online survey of 810 drivers found that public opinions on the policy options as well as drivers' self-reported reactions to the presence of roadside memorials were fairly divided. In addition, an on-road experiment was conducted to examine the short term effects of roadside memorials at two intersections. Our results showed that the number of red light violations was reduced by 16.7% in the 6 weeks after the installation of the mock memorials compared to the 6 weeks before whereas the number of violations at two comparison sites experienced an increase of 16.8%.

  17. Roadside and in-vehicle concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Pei-Ling; Harrison, Roy M.

    Airborne concentrations of benzene, toluene and the xylenes have been measured inside passenger cars whilst driven along major roads in the city of Birmingham, UK, as well as immediately outside the car, and at the roadside. A comparison of concentrations measured in the car with those determined from immediately outside showed little difference, with a mean ratio for benzene of 1.17±0.34 and for toluene 1.11±0.16 ( n=53). The ratio of in-car to roadside concentration was rather higher at 1.55±0.68 for benzene and 1.54±0.72 for toluene ( n=53). The roadside concentrations were typically several-fold higher than those measured at a background suburban monitoring station within Birmingham, although much variation was seen between congested and uncongested roads, with concentrations adjacent to uncongested roads similar to those measured at the background monitoring station. Measurements of benzene and toluene in a car driven on a rural road outside the city showed very comparable in-car and out-of-car concentrations strengthening the conclusion that pollution inside the car is derived from pollutants outside entering with ventilation air. The exceptions were an older car where in-car concentrations appreciably exceeded those outside (in-to out-vehicle ratio=2.3 for benzene and 2.2 for toluene where n=5) indicating probable self-contamination, and a very new car which built up increased VOC concentrations when stationary without ventilation (in-to out-vehicle ratio=2.4 for benzene and 3.3 for toluene where n=5). A further set of measurements inside London taxi cabs showed concentrations to be influenced by the area within which the taxi was driven, the traffic density and the presence of passengers smoking cigarettes.

  18. Roadside alfalfa: Innocent bystanders or conveyers of genetically-engineered traits?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clumps of alfalfa are a common sight along roads and vacant lots in areas that grow alfalfa for hay or seed. So what role do feral roadside plants play in dispersing transgenes? Is there a risk that transgenic feral plants serve as reservoirs or conduits that might facilitate the movement of transg...

  19. The economics of roadside bear viewing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Leslie; Rosen, Tatjana; Gunther, Kerry; Schwartz, Chuck

    2014-01-01

    Viewing bears along roadside habitats is a popular recreational activity in certain national parks throughout the United States. However, safely managing visitors during traffic jams that result from this activity often requires the use of limited park resources. Using unique visitor survey data, this study quantifies economic values associated with roadside bear viewing in Yellowstone National Park, monetary values that could be used to determine whether this continued use of park resources is warranted on economic grounds. Based on visitor expenditure data and results of a contingent visitation question, it is estimated that summer Park visitation would decrease if bears were no longer allowed to stay along roadside habitats, resulting in a loss of 155 jobs in the local economy. Results from a nonmarket valuation survey question indicate that on average, visitors to Yellowstone National Park are willing to pay around $41 more in Park entrance fees to ensure that bears are allowed to remain along roads within the Park. Generalizing this value to the relevant population of visitors indicates that the economic benefits of allowing this wildlife viewing opportunity to continue could outweigh the costs of using additional resources to effectively manage these traffic jams.

  20. The economics of roadside bear viewing.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Leslie; Rosen, Tatjana; Gunther, Kerry; Schwartz, Chuck

    2014-07-01

    Viewing bears along roadside habitats is a popular recreational activity in certain national parks throughout the United States. However, safely managing visitors during traffic jams that result from this activity often requires the use of limited park resources. Using unique visitor survey data, this study quantifies economic values associated with roadside bear viewing in Yellowstone National Park, monetary values that could be used to determine whether this continued use of park resources is warranted on economic grounds. Based on visitor expenditure data and results of a contingent visitation question, it is estimated that summer Park visitation would decrease if bears were no longer allowed to stay along roadside habitats, resulting in a loss of 155 jobs in the local economy. Results from a nonmarket valuation survey question indicate that on average, visitors to Yellowstone National Park are willing to pay around $41 more in Park entrance fees to ensure that bears are allowed to remain along roads within the Park. Generalizing this value to the relevant population of visitors indicates that the economic benefits of allowing this wildlife viewing opportunity to continue could outweigh the costs of using additional resources to effectively manage these traffic jams.

  1. Roadside air quality and implications for control measures: A case study of Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Z. T.; Mak, C. M.; Lee, H. C.

    2016-07-01

    Traffic related air pollution is one of major environmental issues in densely populated urban areas including Hong Kong. A series of control measures has been implemented by Hong Kong government to cut traffic related air pollutants, including retrofitting the Euro II and Euro III buses with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices to lower nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. In order to reveal the real-life roadside air quality and evaluate the effectiveness of the control measures, this study first analyzed the recent six-year data regarding concentrations of pollutants typically associated with traffic recorded in two governmental roadside monitoring stations and second conducted on-site measurements of concentration of pollutants at pedestrian level near five selected roads. Given that there is a possibility of ammonia leakage as a secondary pollutant from SCR devices, a special attention was paid to the measurements of ammonia level in bus stations and along roadsides. Important influencing factors, such as traffic intensity, street configuration and season, were analyzed. Control measures implemented by the government are effective to decrease the traffic emissions. In 2014, only NO2 cannot achieve the annual air quality objective of Hong Kong. However, it is important to find that particulate matters, rather than NO2, post potentially a short-term exposure risk to passengers and pedestrians. Based on the findings of this study, specific control measures are suggested, which are intended to further improve the roadside air quality.

  2. Differences in distribution of modified basins and ducks relative to roadside transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Sklebar, H. Thomas; Buhl, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Wetland basins in the Prairie Pothole Region of the U.S. are commonly modified by excavation (e.g., roadside ditches, stock dugouts), partial drainage (ditching), and diking. Differences in the distribution of modified wetlands may affect the predictive accuracy of waterfowl survey data if such wetlands are not distributed randomly in the landscape and if waterfowl are not distributed equally among them. We used data collected on thirty-eight 40-km2 plots in North Dakota to examine the distribution of modified basins relative to roadside transects and their use by five species of dabbling ducks in 1995. The 800-m-wide transects were subdivided into an inner 400-m transect, centered on the road, and the remaining outer transect area. We compared the distribution of modified and natural wetland basins among three sample areas: 1) the inner 400-m wide roadside transect area, 2) the outer transect area, and 3) the remaining area within the 40-km2 plot that was outside of the transects (outer plot). Duck use was compared between the two transect areas. The plots contained 20,582 basins, of which 88.5% were unmodified, 7.5% were excavated, 3.7% were partially drained, and 0.2% were diked. Nearly all excavated temporary (89%) and seasonal (90%) basins occurred in the inner transect area, reflecting the high proportion of basins that would be defined as roadside ditches. Excavated semipermanent basins were more evenly distributed among the outer plot and two transect widths; these basins often were dugouts but also included roadside ditches. Partially drained and diked basins also were fairly evenly distributed among the three sample areas. Semipermanent basins had greater use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintails (A. acuta) when they were partially drained than when they were excavated or unmodified; pintails also had greater use of partially drained seasonal basins. Use of wetland basins by gadwall (A. strepera), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and

  3. EEG Bands of Wakeful Rest, Slow-Wave and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep at Different Brain Areas in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Wei; Wang, Yanran; Fang, Guangzhan; Chen, Mingming; Xue, Miaomiao; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that neuronal oscillations with various frequency bands in the brain have different physiological functions. However, the frequency band divisions in rats were typically based on empirical spectral distribution from limited channels information. In the present study, functionally relevant frequency bands across vigilance states and brain regions were identified using factor analysis based on 9 channels EEG signals recorded from multiple brain areas in rats. We found that frequency band divisions varied both across vigilance states and brain regions. In particular, theta oscillations during REM sleep were subdivided into two bands, 5-7 and 8-11 Hz corresponding to the tonic and phasic stages, respectively. The spindle activities of SWS were different along the anterior-posterior axis, lower oscillations (~16 Hz) in frontal regions and higher in parietal (~21 Hz). The delta and theta activities co-varied in the visual and auditory cortex during wakeful rest. In addition, power spectra of beta oscillations were significantly decreased in association cortex during REM sleep compared with wakeful rest. These results provide us some new insights into understand the brain oscillations across vigilance states, and also indicate that the spatial factor should not be ignored when considering the frequency band divisions in rats.

  4. EEG Bands of Wakeful Rest, Slow-Wave and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep at Different Brain Areas in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Wei; Wang, Yanran; Fang, Guangzhan; Chen, Mingming; Xue, Miaomiao; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that neuronal oscillations with various frequency bands in the brain have different physiological functions. However, the frequency band divisions in rats were typically based on empirical spectral distribution from limited channels information. In the present study, functionally relevant frequency bands across vigilance states and brain regions were identified using factor analysis based on 9 channels EEG signals recorded from multiple brain areas in rats. We found that frequency band divisions varied both across vigilance states and brain regions. In particular, theta oscillations during REM sleep were subdivided into two bands, 5–7 and 8–11 Hz corresponding to the tonic and phasic stages, respectively. The spindle activities of SWS were different along the anterior-posterior axis, lower oscillations (~16 Hz) in frontal regions and higher in parietal (~21 Hz). The delta and theta activities co-varied in the visual and auditory cortex during wakeful rest. In addition, power spectra of beta oscillations were significantly decreased in association cortex during REM sleep compared with wakeful rest. These results provide us some new insights into understand the brain oscillations across vigilance states, and also indicate that the spatial factor should not be ignored when considering the frequency band divisions in rats. PMID:27536231

  5. Characteristics of current roadside pollution of soils in Upper Silesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawer, M.; Szuszkiewicz, M.; Magiera, T.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was qualitative recognition of contemporary roadside pollutants deposited on topsoils in areas located in close vicinity to roads with high traffic volume (main roads, ring roads). So far, the determination of pollutant content in soil samples has shown only the amount of pollutants deposited on soils over long time period, without the possibility to assess the quality changes in type of deposition and to determine the present structure of roadside pollution. Moreover, in many cases, it is difficult to distinguish roadside pollution from other industrial sources. In order to avoid this issue and recognize currently emergent threats of road traffic origin, three monitoring plots filled with quartz sand had been installed in Zabrze, Gliwice and Opole (Poland) close to arteries with high traffic volume. For installation of monitoring plots 7 cm of topsoil had been removed and replaced by boxes filled with clean quartz sand with known chemical composition and neutral magnetic properties (diamagnetic). This sand was treated as neutral matrix for the accumulation of traffic pollution. Results of chemical analyses of heavy metal contents and magnetic susceptibility measurements of removed topsoils have shown that the highest content of Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni were observed in Zabrze. Amount of Zn and Pb exceeded threshold values. Magnetic susceptibility values were also the highest in Zabrze. In all investigated areas magnetic susceptibility values and heavy metal contents decreased with the distance from the road. Measurements of sand from monitoring plots which were executed after 3, 6 and 12 months of exposure have shown that values of magnetic susceptibility have increased during these time periods. It is visible especially in surface layer of sand. Initially magnetic susceptibility value of quartz sand which was used as matrix after first year of exposure increased from 0,25 - 10-8 m3kg-1 to 300 in Zabrze, 50 in Gliwice and 30- 10-8 m3kg-1

  6. To ingest or rest? Specialized roles of lateral hypothalamic area neurons in coordinating energy balance

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliette A.; Woodworth, Hillary L.; Leinninger, Gina M.

    2015-01-01

    Survival depends on an organism’s ability to sense nutrient status and accordingly regulate intake and energy expenditure behaviors. Uncoupling of energy sensing and behavior, however, underlies energy balance disorders such as anorexia or obesity. The hypothalamus regulates energy balance, and in particular the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) is poised to coordinate peripheral cues of energy status and behaviors that impact weight, such as drinking, locomotor behavior, arousal/sleep and autonomic output. There are several populations of LHA neurons that are defined by their neuropeptide content and contribute to energy balance. LHA neurons that express the neuropeptides melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or orexins/hypocretins (OX) are best characterized and these neurons play important roles in regulating ingestion, arousal, locomotor behavior and autonomic function via distinct neuronal circuits. Recently, another population of LHA neurons containing the neuropeptide Neurotensin (Nts) has been implicated in coordinating anorectic stimuli and behavior to regulate hydration and energy balance. Understanding the specific roles of MCH, OX and Nts neurons in harmonizing energy sensing and behavior thus has the potential to inform pharmacological strategies to modify behaviors and treat energy balance disorders. PMID:25741247

  7. Investigation of roadside pollution in Aliaga Industrial Zone (Izmir/Turkey) by using magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timur, Emre

    2014-05-01

    Pollution of soils is significantly reducing environmental quality and affecting human health. As a condition for effective protection and remediation actions, the screening and detection of soil and sediment pollution has become increasingly important. The pollutants of most cases are usually heavy metals, organic contaminants and agricultural applications such as chemical fertilizers, pestisides and hormones. The aim of this study is to trace the distribution and concentration of contaminants in soils along roads carrying both appreciably high and low traffic along three roads around Aliaga industrial zone. Magnetic susceptibility (Bartington MS2E) is used for pollution mapping in the field. The distribution of the susceptibility values represents contaminated areas strongly influenced by traffic frequency, roadside topography, vegetation and meteorological conditions. It was determined that approximately 5 m along both sides of Canakkale-Izmir highway, which has a very high traffic density (250 car/min), shows very high susceptibility values in comparison with the rest of the profile. This value reduced to 2.4 m and 0.7 m along two side roads, which are 300 and 1100 m away from the highway. Also these roads were having traffic densities of 47 cars/min and 3 cars/min respectively. The measurements were repeated in summer and winter seasons in order to observe possible climate effects. Also soil samples were collected at 2 stations in both sides of the roads to compare the heavy metal content with the background values. According to geochemical data Fe-oxides are found to be responsible for the high values of magnetic susceptibility. It was determined that magnetic susceptibility is a rapid and cheap method for investigating potentially contaminated areas.

  8. Roadside Tracker Portal-less Portal Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Bradley, Eric Craig; Cunningham, Mark F.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Goddard, Jr, James Samuel; Hornback, Donald Eric; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Newby, Jason

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the full development cycle of the Roadside Tracker (RST) Portal-less Portal monitor (Fig. 1) funded by DHS DNDO. The project started with development of a proof-of-feasibility proto-type, proceeded through design and construction of a proof-of-concept (POC) prototype, a test-and-evaluation phase, participation in a Limited Use Exercise that included the Standoff Radiation Detections Systems developed under an Advanced Technology Demonstration and concluded with participation in a Characterization Study conducted by DNDO.

  9. Monitoring Puerto Rican avifauna using roadside surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardieck, K.L.; Peterjohn, B.G.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 we began investigating the use of roadside point counts to monitor the long-term status and trends of Puerto Rican bird populations. If such a methodology proves feasible it may provide the empirical data needed for the development of sound conservation plans for the island's avifauna in much the same way that North American Breeding Bird Survey data are used by the avian conservation prioritization process of Partners in Flight, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Canadian Wildlife Service. By the end of the 2003 field season, we will have the data needed to quantitatively evaluate the utility of the program for tracking the population trends of Puerto Rican avifauna. Here we present data from the 2001 and 2002 field seasons to demonstrate the potential utility of these data for quantifying and portraying avian distributions, abundances, and population trend estimates. In 2001, 27 of the 44 available 5-mile roadside routes (11 stops/route) were sampled between 15 April and 15 May. At each stop a 5-minute point count was conducted. The surveys detected 5,471 individuals representing 70 species. Distribution and abundance maps are depicted for seven endemic species. In 2002, 29 routes were sampled. A total of 6,252 individuals was detected representing 79 species. Significantly fewer species and individuals were detected on wet zone routes as compared to moist and dry zone routes.

  10. Biological monitoring of roadside plants exposed to vehicular pollution in Jalgaon city.

    PubMed

    Wagh, N D; Shukla, Poonam V; Tambe, Sarika B; Ingle, S T

    2006-05-01

    Experiments on air and biomonitoring were conducted to evaluate pollution impact on the vegetation along the road in Jalgaon City, Maharashtra. The plantation along the roads and mainly includes neem (Aadirachta indica), peepal (Ficus religiosa), banyan (Ficus benghalensis), almond (Terminalia catapa). For biomonitoring, leaf area, total chlorophyll, plant protein were analyzed to study the impact of air pollutants. It was observed that vegetation at roadside with heavy traffic and markets was much affected by vehicular emission. Significant decrease in total chlorophyll and protein content was observed with reduced leaf area. It is concluded that plants can be used as indicators for urban air pollution, and there is need to protect the roadside plants from air pollution.

  11. Monitoring roadside ditches for antibiotic resistant E. coli in forest and agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrer, S.; Archibald, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    There is growing concern over the threat of antibiotic resistant bacteria and how they travel through natural environments. This study was developed to: (1) measure the quantities of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli present in stormwater collected from roadside ditches, (2) examine the spatial and temporal distribution of antibiotic resistance and (3) explore the difference in antibiotic resistance between different land uses. Autosamplers were used to collect composite samples of stormwater flowing in roadside ditches located near manure fertilized fields or forested areas. Samples were filtered using standard membrane filtration methods and grown with and without antibiotics on EC medium containing MUG. Three antibiotics commonly used to treat infection in humans and dairy cows were used to measure antibiotic resistance: penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline. Though antibiotic resistance was found at forested and farm sites, preliminary data suggest higher counts of antibiotic resistant E. coli near agricultural areas.

  12. Ecosystem development in roadside grasslands: Biotic control, plant-soil interactions, and dispersal limitations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Palacios, P.; Bowker, M.A.; Maestre, F.T.; Soliveres, S.; Valladares, F.; Papadopoulos, J.; Escudero, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roadside grasslands undergoing secondary succession are abundant, and represent ecologically meaningful examples of novel, human-created ecosystems. Interactions between plant and soil communities (hereafter plant-soil interactions) are of major importance in understanding the role of biotic control in ecosystem functioning, but little is known about these links in the context of ecosystem restoration and succession. The assessment of the key biotic communities and interactions driving ecosystem development will help practitioners to better allocate the limited resources devoted to roadside grassland restoration. We surveyed roadside grasslands from three successional stages (0-2, 7-9, and > 20 years) in two Mediterranean regions of Spain. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate how interactions between plants, biological soil crusts (BSCs), and soil microbial functional diversity (soil microorganisms) affect indicators of ecosystem development and restoration: plant similarity to the reference ecosystem, erosion control, and soil C storage and N accumulation. Changes in plant community composition along the successional gradient exerted the strongest influence on these indicators. High BSC cover was associated with high soil stability, and high soil microbial functional diversity from late-successional stages was associated with high soil fertility. Contrary to our expectations, the indirect effects of plants, mediated by either BSCs or soil microorganisms, were very weak in both regions, suggesting a minor role for plant-soil interactions upon ecosystem development indicators over long periods. Our results suggest that natural vegetation dynamics effectively improved ecosystem development within a time frame of 20 years in the grasslands evaluated. They also indicate that this time could be shortened if management actions focus on: (1) maintaining wellconserved natural areas close to roadsides to enhance plant compositional changes towards late

  13. Ecosystem development in roadside grasslands: biotic control, plant–soil interactions and dispersal limitations

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Soliveres, Santiago; Valladares, Fernando; Papadopoulos, Jorge; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Roadside grasslands undergoing secondary succession are abundant, and represent ecologically meaningful examples of novel, human-created ecosystems. Interactions between plant and soil communities (hereafter plant–soil interactions) are of major importance in understanding the role of biotic control in ecosystem functioning, but little is known about these links in the context of ecosystem restoration and succession. The assessment of the key biotic communities and interactions driving ecosystem development will help practitioners to better allocate the limited resources devoted to roadside grassland restoration. We surveyed roadside grasslands from three successional stages (0–2, 7–9 and > 20 years) in two Mediterranean regions of Spain. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate how interactions between plants, biological soil crusts [BSCs], and soil microbial functional diversity [soil microorganisms] affect indicators of ecosystem development and restoration: plant similarity to the reference ecosystem, erosion control and soil C storage and N accumulation. Changes in plant community composition along the successional gradient exerted the strongest influence on these indicators. High BSC cover was associated with high soil stability, and high soil microbial functional diversity from late-successional stages was associated with high soil fertility. Contrary to our expectations, the indirect effects of plants, mediated by either BSCs or soil microorganisms, were very weak in both regions, suggesting a minor role for plant–soil interactions upon ecosystem development indicators over long periods. Our results suggest that natural vegetation dynamics effectively improved ecosystem development within a time frame of 20 years in the grasslands evaluated. They also indicate that this time could be shortened if management actions focus on: 1) maintain well-conserved natural areas close to roadsides to enhance plant compositional changes towards late

  14. Development and Evaluation of Roadside/Obstacle Detection Method Using 3D Scanned Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ishii, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Katsuyuki

    In this paper, we have reported the development of a snowblower support system which can safely navigate snowblowers, even during a whiteout, with the combination of a very accurate GPS system, so called RTK-GPS, and a unique and highly accurate map of roadsides and obstacles on roads. Particularly emphasized new techniques in this paper are ways to detect accurate geographical positions of roadsides and obstacles by utilizing and analyzing 3D laser scanned data, whose data has become available in recent days. The experiment has shown that the map created by the methods and RTK-GPS can sufficiently navigate snowblowers, whereby a secure and pleasant social environment can be archived in snow areas of Japan. In addition, proposed methods are expected to be useful for other systems such as a quick development of a highly accurate road map, a safely navigation of a wheeled chair, and so on.

  15. Responses of Roadside Soil Cation Pools to Vehicular Emission Deposition in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Bain, D. J.; Jenerette, D.; Clarke, L. W.; Wilson, K.

    2013-12-01

    Roadside soils are heavily loaded with NO3- due to vehicular emissions. This deposition likely acidifies these soils, potentially mobilizing cationic species from soil exchange sites. Acidification driven mobilization is well documented in forest soils, but poorly understood in roadside soils. Metal concentrations in park and garden soils collected from Southern California were examined across gradients of soil chemistry, road network density, climate, and geology to examine cation mobilization effects. In our samples, soil pH is not clearly related to distance from the roadside or underlying geology. However, the depletion of several elements (Al, K) is clearly observed in near-road environments. These depletion trends occur despite contrary trends, including increased soil surface areas and soil organic matter in near-road environments. Additionally, inputs from the weathering of road building materials appear to affect soil chemistry. For example, soil Ca patterns remain relatively consistent relative to roads, suggesting Ca bearing weathering products replenish soil Ca pools in near-road areas. Simple mixing models constructed using elemental ratios are consistent with road material Ca source contributions. Observed near-road patterns in soil chemistry likely influence local ecological function, shifting plant communities and soil functions. Clear understanding of these shifts is essential to the effective use of green infrastructure and other strategies utilized to control road-sourced nutrients. This analytical framework can be applied globally as road networks continue to expand and affect larger ecosystems.

  16. About contaminant element composition of roadside dust samples from Budapest and Seoul, including Pt and Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, M.; Chon, H. T.; Marton, L.

    2012-04-01

    both cities, and moderate pollution for roadside dusts from the rest of Hungary. Pt and Pd concentrations were strongly intercorrelated, but not with the pollution index. In dusts from Budapest, Pt and Pd were strongly correlated with each other, and moderately just with Sn and Bi. In Seoul dusts, Pt was strong positively correlated with Ba-Cu-Fe-Ir-Mo-Pd-Sb, and slightly with Cr-Fe-Mo-Ni, but negatively with Ca-Cd-Hg-Pb. Pd in Seoul dusts, however, was positively correlated just with Pt and Ir, but negatively with K-Li-Na-Pb-Sr.

  17. Concentration and Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Roadside Soils, Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhaoyu; Liu, Ying; He, Yao; Chen, Ling

    2010-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent organic pollutants that may lead to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis or teratogenesis. Vehicular traffic pollution is one of the important sources for PAHs in soils. Concentrations of 19 PAHs were detected in soils along nine roads in Shanghai by automatic Soxhlet extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. Concentration and spatial distribution of PAHs in surface soils beside nine target roads in Shanghai were investigated and a preliminary migration regularity of PAHs was proposed based on data analysis of Cheting Highway (NO.320 Chinese National Highway). The result showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in the target roadside soils ranged from undetectable to 34.6μg/g-dw, with a mean of 7.77μg/g-dw. In comparison with the level of PAHs in urban or suburban roadside soils, the results showed significantly that Σ PAHs concentration in roadside soils inside industrial areas was higher. The study on the migration regularity of PAHs in soils along roads demonstrated that surface runoff had a more significant effect on the PAHs transportation than air-borne transportation.

  18. Correlation between the Effects of Acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and Functional Brain Areas: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Using True versus Sham Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jiping; Chen, Junqi; Zhang, Shaoqun; Li, Zhipeng; Chen, Jiarong; Ouyang, Huailiang; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chunzhi

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been shown to detect the specificity of acupuncture points, as proved by numerous studies. In this study, resting-state fMRI was used to observe brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint. A total of 15 healthy subjects received brain resting-state fMRI before acupuncture and after sham and true acupuncture, respectively, at LR3. Image data processing was performed using Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI and REST software. The combination of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to analyze the changes in brain function during sham and true acupuncture. Acupuncture at LR3 can specifically activate or deactivate brain areas related to vision, movement, sensation, emotion, and analgesia. The specific alterations in the anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and cerebellar posterior lobe have a crucial effect and provide a valuable reference. Sham acupuncture has a certain effect on psychological processes and does not affect brain areas related to function. PMID:24963329

  19. Carbon Monoxide Metabolism in Roadside Soils

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Henry G.; Hubbard, Jerry S.

    1981-01-01

    Air-dried soils which were equilibrated under relative humidities greater than 93% or moistened with liquid water showed marked increases in their capacities to oxidize CO to CO2. Liquid water addition in excess of saturation resulted in lower CO oxidation rates, reflecting the limited diffusion of CO through the aqueous phase. After 35 days' storage under 100% relative humidity, the capacity for CO oxidation decreased to 21% of the value observed with a freshly collected sample. Incubation of this stored soil under an atmosphere containing 200 ppm of CO (250 mg/m3) for 21 days resulted in a sevenfold increase in CO oxidation. A correlation was noted between the CO oxidative activity and the history of previous exposure of soils to high ambient levels of CO. The organisms responsible for CO oxidation apparently comprise a small fraction of the microbial population in the soils. With a roadside soil the oxidation of CO provided the driving force for the assimilation of CO2. The stoichiometry of the oxidative and assimilatory reactions in soil was in the range of values reported from laboratory studies with CO chemoautotrophs (carboxydobacteria). It is proposed that the population and activity of CO-oxidizing microorganisms increase in response to increasing levels of CO in the environment. PMID:16345770

  20. Infiltration capacity of roadside filter strips with non-uniform overland flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Serrana, María; Gulliver, John S.; Nieber, John L.

    2017-02-01

    The side slope to a roadside swale (drainage ditch) constitutes a filter strip that has potential for infiltration of road runoff, thereby serving as a stormwater quantity and quality control mechanism. A total of thirty-two tests were performed during three seasons in four different highways located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, MN to analyze the infiltration performance of roadside filter strips and the effect of fractional coverage of water on infiltration. Three different application rates were used in the experiments. All the tests showed that water flow on the lateral slope of a roadside swale is concentrated in fingers, instead of sheet flow, at the typical road runoff intensities for which infiltration practices are utilized to improve surface water quality. A linear relationship between flux of water from the road and fraction of wetted surface was observed, for the intensities tested. The average percentage infiltration of the medium road runoff rate (1.55 × 10-4 m2/s, without direct rainfall) experiments performed in fall was 85% and in spring 70%. For the high road runoff rate (3.1 × 10-4 m2/s, without direct rainfall) tests the average amount of water infiltrated was 47% and for the low road runoff rate (7.76 × 10-5 m2/s, without direct rainfall) tests it was 69%, both set of tests performed in spring and summer. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of swale soil was high, relative to the values typical of laboratory permeameter measurements for these types of soils. This is believed to be due to the macropores generated by vegetation roots, activity of macrofauna (e.g. earthworms), and construction/maintenance procedures. The trend was to have more infiltration when the saturated hydraulic conductivity was higher and for a greater side slope length, as expected. The vegetation, type of soil and length of the side slope are important to consider for constructing and maintaining roadside swales that will be efficient as stormwater

  1. Carbonyl compounds in the roadside environment of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ho, K F; Lee, S C; Tsai, W Y

    2006-05-20

    The levels of carbonyl compounds were determined at the roadside urban station at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HKPU) campus during January 2002 to February 2002. Nine carbonyl compounds were quantified in this study. Temperature and solar radiation were found to affect the photochemical reactions of the carbonyls. Formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratio ranged from 1.27 to 1.35. Strong correlations between formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found, in the time period 1800-2100, which indicated that they were originated from the same sources during this time period. Roadside carbonyl samples were also collected at four other roadside environments during 2001. Kwai Chung (KC) station showed the highest average formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations due to its highest traffic flow, especially for diesel vehicles. High concentration of toluene emitted from gasoline-fueled vehicles was believed to be the cause of high benzaldehyde level at the Central (CT) station through the photochemical oxidation of toluene. The average concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in Hong Kong are well within the ranges reported in roadside environments of other urban cities. However, Mexico City in Mexico and Cairo in Egypt had much higher concentration levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde than in Hong Kong roadside environment due to the incomplete combustion of different fuel compositions.

  2. Recommendations for Constructing Roadside Vegetation Barriers to Improve Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA report, Recommendations for Constructing Roadside Vegetation Barriers to Improve Near-Road Air Quality, summarizes the research findings on the best practices for building roadside vegetative barriers to improve air quality. This fact sheet describ

  3. Recommendations for Constructing Roadside Vegetation Barriers to Improve Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommendations for external partners planting roadside vegetation. Intended for broad use, but immediate use will be to provide to project partners on the RESES roadside vegetation project and as an attachment to the RESES project QAPP

  4. Alterations in task-induced activity and resting-state fluctuations in visual and DMN areas revealed in long-term meditators.

    PubMed

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Harel, Michal; Hahamy, Avital; Arieli, Amos; Malach, Rafael

    2016-07-15

    Recently we proposed that the information contained in spontaneously emerging (resting-state) fluctuations may reflect individually unique neuro-cognitive traits. One prediction of this conjecture, termed the "spontaneous trait reactivation" (STR) hypothesis, is that resting-state activity patterns could be diagnostic of unique personalities, talents and life-styles of individuals. Long-term meditators could provide a unique experimental group to test this hypothesis. Using fMRI we found that, during resting-state, the amplitude of spontaneous fluctuations in long-term mindfulness meditation (MM) practitioners was enhanced in the visual cortex and significantly reduced in the DMN compared to naïve controls. Importantly, during a visual recognition memory task, the MM group showed heightened visual cortex responsivity, concomitant with weaker negative responses in Default Mode Network (DMN) areas. This effect was also reflected in the behavioral performance, where MM practitioners performed significantly faster than the control group. Thus, our results uncover opposite changes in the visual and default mode systems in long-term meditators which are revealed during both rest and task. The results support the STR hypothesis and extend it to the domain of local changes in the magnitude of the spontaneous fluctuations.

  5. PreSurgMapp: a MATLAB Toolbox for Presurgical Mapping of Eloquent Functional Areas Based on Task-Related and Resting-State Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huiyuan; Ding, Zhongxiang; Mao, Dewang; Yuan, Jianhua; Zhu, Fangmei; Chen, Shuda; Xu, Yan; Lou, Lin; Feng, Xiaoyan; Qi, Le; Qiu, Wusi; Zhang, Han; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of brain tumor surgery is to maximize tumor resection while minimizing the risk of irreversible postoperative functional sequelae. Eloquent functional areas should be delineated preoperatively, particularly for patients with tumors near eloquent areas. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a noninvasive technique that demonstrates great promise for presurgical planning. However, specialized data processing toolkits for presurgical planning remain lacking. Based on several functions in open-source software such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST), Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI (DPARSF) and Multiple Independent Component Analysis (MICA), here, we introduce an open-source MATLAB toolbox named PreSurgMapp. This toolbox can reveal eloquent areas using comprehensive methods and various complementary fMRI modalities. For example, PreSurgMapp supports both model-based (general linear model, GLM, and seed correlation) and data-driven (independent component analysis, ICA) methods and processes both task-based and resting-state fMRI data. PreSurgMapp is designed for highly automatic and individualized functional mapping with a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for time-saving pipeline processing. For example, sensorimotor and language-related components can be automatically identified without human input interference using an effective, accurate component identification algorithm using discriminability index. All the results generated can be further evaluated and compared by neuro-radiologists or neurosurgeons. This software has substantial value for clinical neuro-radiology and neuro-oncology, including application to patients with low- and high-grade brain tumors and those with epilepsy foci in the dominant language hemisphere who are planning to undergo a temporal lobectomy.

  6. Residual herbicide study on selected Hanford Site roadsides

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company routinely treats roadsides with herbicides to control undesirable plant growth. An experiment was conducted to test perennial grass germination in soils adjacent to roadways of the Hanford Site. The primary variable was the distance from the roadside. A simple germination test was executed in a controlled-environment chamber to determine the residual effects of these applications. As expected, the greatest herbicide activity was found directly adjacent to the roadway, approximately 0 to 20 ft (0 to 6.3 m) from the roadway.

  7. Comparison of exhaled carbon monoxide levels among commuters and roadside vendors in an urban and a suburban population in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sabzwari, Saniya R; Fatmi, Zafar

    2011-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the six criteria air pollutants related to urbanization and has a wide range of health effects. The study measured and compared the exhaled CO levels among commuters and roadside vendors in potentially heavy and low traffic volume areas of Karachi, a megacity in Pakistan. Saddar town [areas of M. A. Jinnah Road (Tibet Center, Denso Hall) and Empress Market] was selected to represent an area of high traffic volume and the suburban town of Gadap (Gadap and Gulshan-e-Maymar) was selected to represent an area of no or low traffic volume. The study compared the CO exposure of commuters and roadside vendors in high and low traffic volume in Karachi. CO exposure was measured in expired air using the breath analyzer module of Bacharach Monoxor-II, USA. A total of 326 individuals (115 commuters and 211 stationary roadside vendors) from Saddar town (n = 193) and Gadap town (n = 133) were selected. In addition, CO levels in ambient air in the same areas, using portable CO analyzer (Bacharach, Monoxor-II, USA), were measured. The mean ambient CO level at Saddar town was 15.6 (SE ± 2.6) ppm compared to 3.3 (SE ± 0.3) ppm at Gadap town. The mean CO level in expired air was significantly higher among nonsmokers at Saddar town (12.8 ± 0.5 ppm) compared to the nonsmokers at Gadap town (7.8 ± 0.4 ppm). The mean CO level in expired air among smokers was twice that of nonsmokers (21.6 vs. 10.6 ppm). CO in expired air was greater among high traffic volume commuters and roadside stationary population in Karachi, Pakistan. The population in Karachi is exposed to high concentration of air pollutants. These pollutants need to be characterized for health effects and interventions needs to be developed.

  8. Estimating vehicle roadside encroachment frequency using accident prediction models

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, S.-P.

    1996-07-01

    The existing data to support the development of roadside encroachment- based accident models are extremely limited and largely outdated. Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration and Transportation Research Board, several roadside safety projects have attempted to address this issue by providing rather comprehensive data collection plans and conducting pilot data collection efforts. It is clear from the results of these studies that the required field data collection efforts will be expensive. Furthermore, the validity of any field collected encroachment data may be questionable because of the technical difficulty to distinguish intentional from unintentional encroachments. This paper proposes an alternative method for estimating the basic roadside encroachment data without actually field collecting them. The method is developed by exploring the probabilistic relationships between a roadside encroachment event and a run-off-the-road event With some mild assumptions, the method is capable of providing a wide range of basic encroachment data from conventional accident prediction models. To illustrate the concept and use of such a method, some basic encroachment data are estimated for rural two-lane undivided roads. In addition, the estimated encroachment data are compared with the existing collected data. The illustration shows that the method described in this paper can be a viable approach to estimating basic encroachment data without actually collecting them which can be very costly.

  9. The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Phil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF ROADSIDE TREES USING RFID AND ONTOLOGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuki, Nobuyoshi; Kikushige, Yuki; Fukuda, Tomohiro; Ebashi, Yumeka

    It is necessary to make scientific and systematic diagnosis for roadside trees, which are essential for comfortable urban environment, in order to keep them in healthy conditions because they may not be planted adequately. Therefore, in this research, a Roadside Tree Diagnosis Support System (RTDSS) was developed using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) to facilitate diagnosis based on the Visual Tree Assessment (VTA) method. The system was used on a trial basis to real roadside trees by tree surgeons and was highly evaluated. Since governmental or municipal agencies, which develop and maintain the databases of roadside trees, tend to use different terminologies, units and tree registration systems, it is difficult to compare or combine two or more roadside tree databases. Thus, the ontology of roadside tree management was developed to compare and analyze various roadside tree databases. Two different databases were developed and testing of the developed ontology system successfully showed proper searching result over different terminologies.

  11. Impact of chloride on denitrification potential in roadside wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Nakita A; Bushey, Joseph T; Tobias, Craig R; Song, Bongkeun; Vadas, Timothy M

    2016-05-01

    Developed landscapes are exposed to changes in hydrology and water chemistry that limit their ability to mitigate detrimental impacts to coastal water bodies, particularly those that result from stormwater runoff. The elevated level of impervious cover increases not only runoff but also contaminant loading of nutrients, metals, and road salt used for deicing to water bodies. Here we investigate the impact that road salt has on denitrification in roadside environments. Sediments were collected from a series of forested and roadside wetlands and acclimated with a range of Cl(-) concentrations from 0 to 5000 mg L(-1) for 96 h. Denitrification rates were measured by the isotope pairing technique using (15)N-NO3(-), while denitrifying community structures were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ). Chloride significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited denitrification in forested wetlands at a Cl(-) dosage of 2500 or 5000 mg L(-1), but the decrease in denitrification rates was less and not significant for the roadside wetlands historically exposed to elevated concentrations of Cl(-). The difference could not be attributed to other significant changes in conditions, such as DOC concentrations, N species concentrations, or pH levels. Denitrifying communities, as measured by T-RFs of the nosZ gene, in the roadside wetlands with elevated concentration of Cl(-) were distinctly different and more diverse compared to forested wetlands, and also different in roadside wetlands after 96 h exposures to Cl(-). The shifts in denitrifying communities seem to minimize the decrease in denitrification rates in the wetlands previously exposed to Cl. As development results in more Cl(-) use and exposure to a broad range of natural or manmade wetland structures, an understanding of the seasonal effect of Cl on denitrification processes in these systems would aid in design or mitigation of the effects on N removal

  12. Microbial counts and particulate matter levels in roadside air samples under skytrain stations, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Kongtip, Pornpimol

    2010-05-01

    In conditions with heavy traffic and crowds of people on roadside areas under skytrain stations in Bangkok, the natural air ventilation may be insufficient and air quality may be poor. A study of 350 air samples collected from the roadside, under skytrain stations in Bangkok, was carried out to assess microbial counts (210 air samples) and particulate matter (PM10) levels (140 samples). The results reveal the mean +/- standard deviation bacterial counts and fungal counts were 406.8 +/- 302.7 cfu/m3 and 128.9 +/- 89.7 cfu/m3, respectively. The PM10 level was 186.1 +/- 188.1 microg/m3. When compared to recommended levels, 4.8% of air samples (10/210 samples) had bacterial counts more than recommended levels (> 1,000 cfu/ m3) and 27.1% (38/140 samples) had PM10 levels more than recommended levels (> 120 microg/m3). These may affect human health, especially of street venders who spend most of their working time in these areas.

  13. Monitoring the impact of de-icing salt on roadside soils with time-lapse resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, Bo; Lundmark, Annika

    2009-03-01

    Monitoring systems along roads are needed to facilitate decisions on improving protection of water resources and decreasing the impact of road-related pollutants on the roadside environment. This paper presents a monitoring system using permanently installed electrodes and monthly measurements of resistivity at a motorway in Sweden with heavy loads of de-icing salt. A significant increase in resistivity in the vadose zone with increasing distance from the road was shown in both sand and glacial till areas during the whole year. By measuring temporal variations in a less affected environment further from the road, a distinction could be made between more natural variations and variations due to de-icing salt and melting of roadside snowbanks. The highest resistivities occurred in October-November and the lowest in January-March, while the more natural resistivities showed an opposing temporal variation. The difference was up to 35% on a log-scale in the sand area during the latter period. Hence, the time-lapse resistivity measurements clearly showed a strong influence of de-icing salt on roadside soils and groundwater during winter and spring. The measurement system and the analysis methods proved useful for monitoring both the spatial and seasonal variation in resistivity.

  14. Assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc contamination of roadside soils, surface films, and vegetables in Kampala City, Uganda

    SciTech Connect

    Nabulo, Grace . E-mail: sbxgn1@nottingham.ac.uk; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Diamond, Miriam

    2006-05-15

    The relationship between traffic density and trace metal concentrations in roadside soils, surface films, and a selected vegetable weed, Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex Thell., was determined in 11 farming sites along major highways around Kampala City in Uganda. Surface soil, atmospherically deposited surface films on windows, and leaves of Amaranthus dubius were sampled at known distances from the roads and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Atmospherically deposited trace metal particulates were sampled using window glass as an inert, passive collector. Total trace metal concentrations in soils ranged from 30.0{+-}2.3 to 64.6{+-}11.7 mg/kg Pb, 78.4{+-}18.4 to 265.6{+-}63.2 mg/kg Zn, and 0.8{+-}0.13 to 1.40{+-}0.16 mg/kg Cd. Total trace metal levels in soil decreased rapidly with distance from the road. Total Pb decreased with distance up to 30 m from the road, where it reached a background soil concentration of 28 mg/kg dry weight. The study found background values of 50 and 1.4 mg/kg for Zn and Cd in roadside soils, respectively. Similarly, Pb concentration in Amaranthus dubius leaves decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. The dominant pathway for Pb contamination was from atmospheric deposition, which was consistent with Pb concentrations in surface films. The mean Pb concentrations in leaves of roadside crops were higher than those in their respective roots, with the highest leaf-to-root ratio observed in the Brassica oleraceae acephala group. The lowest Pb and Zn concentrations were found in the fruit compared to the leaves of the same crops. Leaves of roadside vegetables were therefore considered a potential source of heavy metal contamination to farmers and consumers in urban areas. It is recommended that leafy vegetables should be grown 30 m from roads in high-traffic, urban areas.

  15. Segregation of face sensitive areas within the fusiform gyrus using global signal regression? A study on amygdala resting-state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, Johann D; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Veer, Ilya M; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Erk, Susanne; Mohnke, Sebastian; Pöhland, Lydia; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Martin; Walter, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    The application of global signal regression (GSR) to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and its usefulness is a widely discussed topic. In this article, we report an observation of segregated distribution of amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) within the fusiform gyrus (FFG) as an effect of GSR in a multi-center-sample of 276 healthy subjects. Specifically, we observed that amygdala rs-FC was distributed within the FFG as distinct anterior versus posterior clusters delineated by positive versus negative rs-FC polarity when GSR was performed. To characterize this effect in more detail, post hoc analyses revealed the following: first, direct overlays of task-functional magnetic resonance imaging derived face sensitive areas and clusters of positive versus negative amygdala rs-FC showed that the positive amygdala rs-FC cluster corresponded best with the fusiform face area, whereas the occipital face area corresponded to the negative amygdala rs-FC cluster. Second, as expected from a hierarchical face perception model, these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters showed differential rs-FC with other regions of the visual stream. Third, dynamic connectivity analyses revealed that these amygdala rs-FC defined clusters also differed in their rs-FC variance across time to the amygdala. Furthermore, subsample analyses of three independent research sites confirmed reliability of the effect of GSR, as revealed by similar patterns of distinct amygdala rs-FC polarity within the FFG. In this article, we discuss the potential of GSR to segregate face sensitive areas within the FFG and furthermore discuss how our results may relate to the functional organization of the face-perception circuit.

  16. Resting-State Functional Connectivity by Independent Component Analysis-Based Markers Corresponds to Areas of Initial Seizure Propagation Established by Prior Modalities from the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Wilfong, Angus A.; Curry, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to evaluate a clinically practical functional connectivity (fc) protocol designed to blindly identify the corresponding areas of initial seizure propagation and also to differentiate these areas from remote secondary areas affected by seizure. The patients in this cohort had intractable epilepsy caused by intrahypothalamic hamartoma, which is the location of the ictal focus. The ictal propagation pathway is homogeneous and established, thus creating the optimum situation for the proposed method validation study. Twelve patients with seizures from hypothalamic hamartoma and six normal control patients underwent resting-state functional MRI, using independent component analysis (ICA) to identify network differences in patients. This was followed by seed-based connectivity measures to determine the extent of fc derangement between hypothalamus and these areas. The areas with significant change in connectivity were compared with the results of prior studies' modalities used to evaluate seizure propagation. The left amygdala-parahippocampal gyrus area, cingulate gyrus, and occipitotemporal gyrus demonstrated the highest derangement in connectivity with the hypothalamus, p < 0.01, corresponding to the initial seizure propagation areas established by prior modalities. Areas of secondary ictal propagation were differentiated from these initial locations by first being identified as an abnormal neuronal signal source through ICA, but did not show significant connectivity directly with the known ictal focus. Noninvasive connectivity measures correspond to areas of initial ictal propagation and differentiate such areas from secondary ictal propagation, which may aid in ictal focus surgical disconnection planning and support the use of this newer modality for adjunctive information in epilepsy surgery evaluation. PMID:27503346

  17. Roadside vegetation barrier designs to mitigate near-road air pollution impacts.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheming; Baldauf, Richard W; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Zhang, K Max

    2016-01-15

    With increasing evidence that exposures to air pollution near large roadways increases risks of a number of adverse human health effects, identifying methods to reduce these exposures has become a public health priority. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; however, the characteristics of these barriers needed to ensure pollution reductions are not well understood. Designing vegetation barriers to mitigate near-road air pollution requires a mechanistic understanding of how barrier configurations affect the transport of traffic-related air pollutants. We first evaluated the performance of the Comprehensive Turbulent Aerosol Dynamics and Gas Chemistry (CTAG) model with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to capture the effects of vegetation barriers on near-road air quality, compared against field data. Next, CTAG with LES was employed to explore the effects of six conceptual roadside vegetation/solid barrier configurations on near-road size-resolved particle concentrations, governed by dispersion and deposition. Two potentially viable design options are revealed: a) a wide vegetation barrier with high Leaf Area Density (LAD), and b) vegetation-solid barrier combinations, i.e., planting trees next to a solid barrier. Both designs reduce downwind particle concentrations significantly. The findings presented in the study will assist urban planning and forestry organizations with evaluating different green infrastructure design options.

  18. Impact of mechanical mowing and chemical treatment on phytosociological, pedochemical and biological parameters in roadside soils and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Falcone, Lino; Loppi, Stefano; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Many chemical and non-chemical strategies have been applied to control weeds in agricultural and industrial areas. Knowledge regarding the effects of these methods on roadside vegetation is still poor. A 2-year field experiment was performed along a road located near Livorno (Tuscany, central Italy). Eight plots/strips were identified, of which four were subjected to periodical mechanical mowing and the remaining four were treated with a chemical herbicide based on glyphosate (the producer's recommended rates were used for the selective control of broad-leaved weeds). Our results clearly showed that roadside soil and vegetation are a significant reservoir of anthropogenic activities which have a strong negative effect on several phytosociological, pedochemical and biological parameters. Compared with conventional mechanical mowing, chemical treatment induced (i) a significant increase in organic matter in the upper plot layers (+18%), and (ii) a marked reduction in weed height throughout the entire period of the experiment. Irrespectively of the kind of treatment, no significance differences were detected in terms of (i) biological quality of soil (the abundance and diversity of arthropod communities did not change), and (ii) plant elemental content (bulk concentrations of analysed trace elements had a good fit within ranges of occurrence in the "reference plant"). The glyphosate partially controlled broad-leaved weeds and this moderate efficacy is dependent upon the season/time of application. In conclusion, the rational and sustainable use of chemical herbicides may be a useful tool for the management of roadside vegetation.

  19. Characterization of gaseous pollutants and PM2.5 at fixed roadsides and along vehicle traveling routes in Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Kongpran, J.; Hang, N. T.; Parkpian, P.; Hung, N. T. Q.; Lee, S.-B.; Bae, G.-N.

    2013-10-01

    Traffic is a major source of air pollution in urban areas of developing countries that leads to high exposure risk of urban dwellers. This study comparatively investigated levels of fine particles (PM2.5), SO2, NO2, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) at fixed roadsides and on traveling routes in congested urban and less congested suburban areas of Bangkok in 2010. The roadside air quality monitoring was done at two opposite sites across the selected roads. The traffic counting was made simultaneously in these roads and hourly flows of 8 different vehicle types were determined. Roadside PM2.5 levels during dry season were high in both the city center and suburban area, significantly above the wet season, with 65-75% measurements exceeded 24 h Thailand ambient air quality standard of 50 μg m-3. Oppositely, roadside BTEX levels measured in the city center during wet season were higher than dry season and well above those in suburban area. Diurnal variations and the results of SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) analysis showed associations between roadside pollutants levels and hourly traffic flows. The differences in pollution levels between 2 monitoring sites across a road were explained by road configurations and prevalent wind directions. On-route pollution levels were measured simultaneously both inside and outside selected vehicles (van, pickup), and on motorcycle. The on-route PM2.5 levels along the urban route were higher during the dry season than wet season. PM2.5 levels inside the vehicles were lower than outside whereas the opposite was observed for BTEX. BTEX were higher on more congested urban sub-routes with lower vehicle speeds. Higher pollution levels suggest a high risk of exposure.

  20. Insights into the chemical partitioning of trace metals in roadside and off-road agricultural soils along two major highways in Attica's region, Greece.

    PubMed

    Botsou, Fotini; Sungur, Ali; Kelepertzis, Efstratios; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    We report in this study the magnetic properties and partitioning patterns of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) in roadside and off-road (>200m distance from the road edge) agricultural soils collected along two major highways in Greece. Sequential extractions revealed that the examined trace metals for the entire data set were predominantly found in the residual fraction, averaging 37% for Cd up to 80% for Cu. Due to the strong influence of lithogenic factors, trace metal pseudototal contents of the roadside soils did not differ significantly to those of the off-road soils. Magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility determinations showed a magnetic enhancement of soils; however, it was primarily related to geogenic factors and not to traffic-derived magnetic particles. These results highlight that in areas characterized by strong geogenic backgrounds, neither pseudototal trace metal contents nor magnetic properties determinations effectively capture traffic-related contamination of topsoils. The vehicular emission signal was traced by the increased acid-soluble and reducible trace metal contents of the roadside soils compared to their off-road counterparts. In the case of Cu and Zn, changes in the partitioning patterns were also observed between the roadside and off-road soils. Environmental risks associated with agricultural lands extending at the margins of the studied highways may arise from the elevated Ni contents (both pseudototal and potentially mobile), and future studies should investigate Ni levels in the edible parts of plants grown on these agricultural soils.

  1. Comparison of proposed alternative methods for rescaling dialysis dose: resting energy expenditure, high metabolic rate organ mass, liver size, and body surface area.

    PubMed

    Daugirdas, John T; Levin, Nathan W; Kotanko, Peter; Depner, Thomas A; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Chertow, Glenn M; Rocco, Michael V

    2008-01-01

    A number of denominators for scaling the dose of dialysis have been proposed as alternatives to the urea distribution volume (V). These include resting energy expenditure (REE), mass of high metabolic rate organs (HMRO), visceral mass, and body surface area. Metabolic rate is an unlikely denominator as it varies enormously among humans with different levels of activity and correlates poorly with the glomerular filtration rate. Similarly, scaling based on HMRO may not be optimal, as many organs with high metabolic rates such as spleen, brain, and heart are unlikely to generate unusually large amounts of uremic toxins. Visceral mass, in particular the liver and gut, has potential merit as a denominator for scaling; liver size is related to protein intake and the liver, along with the gut, is known to be responsible for the generation of suspected uremic toxins. Surface area is time-honored as a scaling method for glomerular filtration rate and scales similarly to liver size. How currently recommended dialysis doses might be affected by these alternative rescaling methods was modeled by applying anthropometric equations to a large group of dialysis patients who participated in the HEMO study. The data suggested that rescaling to REE would not be much different from scaling to V. Scaling to HMRO mass would mandate substantially higher dialysis doses for smaller patients of either gender. Rescaling to liver mass would require substantially more dialysis for women compared with men at all levels of body size. Rescaling to body surface area would require more dialysis for smaller patients of either gender and also more dialysis for women of any size. Of these proposed alternative rescaling measures, body surface area may be the best, because it reflects gender-based scaling of liver size and thereby the rate of generation of uremic toxins.

  2. Investigation of the Traffic Noise Attenuation Provided by Roadside Green Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbalaei, Samaneh Sadat; Karimi, Elham; Naji, Hamid Reza; Ghasempoori, Seyed Mahmood; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Abdollahi, Mina

    2015-10-01

    Greenbelts are remarkably effective tools for minimizing traffic induced noise pollution. This study revealed the potential role of greenbelts along the roadside for the noise attenuation using various tree species of three different widths (25, 50 and 100m). Statistical analysis showed significant differences between stations. The reduction of noise level was also statistically analyzed. The results indicated that the greenbelts significantly contributed to the attenuation of noise pollution with positive correlation. The maximum noise level reduction compared to the open area was for trees and shrubs of 100m in width, and a mixture of conifers and broadleaves of 100m in width and 50m width by 44dB (A), 42.84dB (A) and 40.34dB (A), respectively. The results can be used as guidance for construction of tree belts for noise attenuation in environmental planning and management.

  3. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    PubMed

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate.

  4. Potential use of a roadside fern (Pteris vittata) to biomonitor Pb and other aerial metal deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Y.B.; Tai, K.M.

    1985-10-01

    Lead, widely used as antiknock additives in gasoline in many parts of the world, is released from vehicular exhausts and contaminates the roadside environment. The Pb-containing particulates often settle onto roadside vegetation by sedimentation, impaction and interception resulting in high Pb content in the vegetation. The concentrations of Pb in such plants in turn are often used to demonstrate the extent of aerial deposition of Pb along roadsides. Hong Kong is a city with high traffic density of over 200 vehicles per kilometer of road. In these studies it was found that some plants could be utilized as biomonitors of atmospheric Pb and other trace metals in the roadside environment. This paper reports on the Pb and other trace metal levels in the fern Pteris vittata growing along roadside and its possible use as biomonitor species for aerial deposition of metals.

  5. Characterisation of iron-rich atmospheric submicrometre particles in the roadside environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, P.; Su, S. S.; Chang, I. T. H.; Delgado Saborit, J. M.; Kepaptsoglou, D. M.; Weber, R. J. M.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-09-01

    Human exposure to ambient metallic nanoparticles is an area of great interest owing to their potential health impacts. Ambient metallic nanoparticles found in the roadside environment are contributed by combustion engines and wear of brakes, tyres and road surfaces. Submicrometre atmospheric particles collected at two UK urban sites have been subject to detailed characterisation. It is found that many metallic nanoparticles collected from roadside sampling sites are rich in iron. The Fe-rich nanoparticles can be classified into (1) high Fe content (ca 90 wt%) with each alloying element less than 1 wt%; and (2) moderate Fe content (<75 wt%) with high manganese and silicon content. Both clusters contain a variable mix of minor constituents, Mn, S and Si being most important in the high-Fe group. The moderate Fe group also contains Zn, Cu, Ba, Al and Ca. The Fe-rich nanoparticles exhibit primary particle sizes ranging between 20 and 30 nm, although some much larger particles up to around 100 nm can also be observed, along with some very small particles of 10 nm or less. These tend to agglomerate forming clusters ranging from ∼200 nm to 1 μm in diameter. The iron-rich particles observed are oxides, taking the form of spheres or multifaceted regular polyhedra. Analysis by EELS shows that both high- and moderate-Fe groups include particles of FeO, Fe3O4, α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 of which γ-Fe2O3 is the most prominent. Internal mixing of different Fe-oxides is not observed.

  6. Assessment of existing roadside swales with engineered filter soil: I. Characterization and lifetime expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ingvertsen, Simon T; Cederkvist, Karin; Régent, Yoann; Sommer, Harald; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Marina B

    2012-01-01

    Roadside infiltration swales with well-defined soil mixtures (filter soil) for the enhancement of both infiltration and treatment of stormwater runoff from roads and parking areas have been common practice in Germany for approximately two decades. Although the systems have proven hydraulically effective, their treatment efficiency and thus lifetime expectancies are not sufficiently documented. The lack of documentation restricts the implementation of new such systems in Germany as well as other countries. This study provides an assessment of eight roadside infiltration swales with filter soil from different locations in Germany that have been operational for 6 to16 yr. The swales were assessed with respect to visual appearance, infiltration rate, soil pH, and soil texture, as well as soil concentration of organic matter, heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn), and phosphorus. Visually, the swales appeared highly variable with respect to soil color and textural layering as well as composition of plants and soil-dwelling organisms. Three swales still comply with the German design criteria for infiltration rate (10 m/s), while the remaining swales have lower, yet acceptable, infiltration rates around 10 m/s. Six of the eight studied soils have heavy metal concentrations exceeding the limit value for unpolluted soil. Provided that the systems are able to continuously retain existing and incoming pollutants, our analysis indicates that the soils can remain operational for another 13 to 136 yr if the German limit values for unrestricted usage in open construction works are applied. However, no official guidelines exist for acceptable soil quality in existing infiltration facilities.

  7. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Basal Nucleus of Meynert, Locus Coeruleus, and Ventral Tegmental Area in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Ryan L.; Zhang, Sheng; Farr, Olivia M.; Hu, Sien; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methylphenidate (MPH) influences catecholaminergic signaling. Extant work examined the effects of MPH on the neural circuits of attention and cognitive control, but few studies have investigated the effect of MPH on the brain's resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Methods: In this observational study, we compared rsFC of a group of 24 healthy adults who were administered an oral 45 mg dose of MPH with a group of 24 age and gender matched controls who did not receive MPH. We focused on three seed regions: basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM), locus coeruleus (LC), and ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra, pars compacta (VTA/SNc), each providing cholinergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic inputs to the cerebral cortex. Images were pre-processed and analyzed as in our recent work (Li et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2015). We used one-sample t-test to characterize group-specific rsFC of each seed region and two-sample t-test to compare rsFC between groups. Results: MPH reversed negative connectivity between BNM and precentral gyri. MPH reduced positive connectivity between LC and cerebellum, and induced positive connectivity between LC and right hippocampus. MPH decreased positive VTA/SNc connectivity to the cerebellum and putamen, and reduced negative connectivity to left middle occipital gyrus. Conclusion: MPH had distinct effects on the rsFC of BNM, LC, and VTA/SNc in healthy adults. These new findings may further our understanding of the role of catecholaminergic signaling in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease and provide insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of MPH in the treatment of clinical conditions that implicate catecholaminergic dysfunction. PMID:27148006

  8. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside tree leaves: identification of spatial and temporal variations in vehicle-derived particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzka, J.; Maher, B. A.

    We report here the novel use of rapid and non-destructive magnetic measurements to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of urban dust loadings on leaves of roadside trees. More than 600 leaves were collected from birch trees and their remanent magnetization (IRM 300 mT ) determined and normalized for the leaf area. The results show that this normalised 2-D magnetization is dominantly controlled by the tree's distance to the road. The magnetic analyses enabled detailed mapping of the spatial and temporal variations of vehicle-derived particulates. Higher 2D-magnetizations, indicating higher magnetic dust loadings, were measured for leaves collected adjacent to uphill road sections than for those next to downhill sections. This suggests that vehicle emissions, rather than friction wear or resuspended road dust, are the major source of the roadside magnetic particles. Additional magnetic analyses suggest that the particle size of the magnetic grains dominantly falls in the range classified for airborne particulate matter as PM 2.5 (<2.5 μm), a particle size hazardous to health due to its capacity to be respired deeply into the lungs. Thus, the leaf magnetizations relate directly to release into the atmosphere of harmful vehicle combustion products. For leaves from individual trees, magnetization values fall significantly from high values proximal to the roadside to lower values at the distal side, confirming the ability of trees to reduce aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere. Magnetic analysis of leaves over days and weeks shows that rainfall produces a net decrease in the leaf magnetic loadings.

  9. Creative Outdoor Play Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy L.

    Considering the creation of proper play areas for children (school sites, municipal and mini parks, private homes and backyards, shopping centers, apartment complexes, recreational areas, roadside parks, nursery schools, churches, summer camps, and drive-in theaters) as one of today's major challenges, the author recommends that professional…

  10. Roadside tree/pole crash barrier field test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was carried out to evaluate the performance of a crash barrier designed to protect the occupants of an automobile from serious injury. The JPL barrier design is a configuration of empty aluminum beverage cans contained in a tear-resistant bag which, in turn, is encased in a collapsible container made of plywood and steel. Tests were conducted with a driven vehicle impacting the barrier. The basic requirements of NCHRP Report 153 were followed except that speeds of 30 mph rather than 60 mph were used. Accelerometer readings on the driver's helmet showed that the driver was never subjected to dangerous decelerations, and never experienced more than temporary discomfort. Also, all of the requirements of the cited report were met. An extrapolation of data indicated that the JPL barrier installed in front of a tree or telephone pole along a roadside would also have met the requirements at a speed of 40 mph.

  11. Extended Empirical Roadside Shadowing model from ACTS mobile measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard

    1995-01-01

    Employing multiple data bases derived from land-mobile satellite measurements using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) at 20 GHz, MARECS B-2 at 1.5 GHz, and helicopter measurements at 870 MHz and 1.5 GHz, the Empirical Road Side Shadowing Model (ERS) has been extended. The new model (Extended Empirical Roadside Shadowing Model, EERS) may now be employed at frequencies from UHF to 20 GHz, at elevation angles from 7 to 60 deg and at percentages from 1 to 80 percent (0 dB fade). The EERS distributions are validated against measured ones and fade deviations associated with the model are assessed. A model is also presented for estimating the effects of foliage (or non-foliage) on 20 GHz distributions, given distributions from deciduous trees devoid of leaves (or in full foliage).

  12. Wireless Roadside Inspection Proof of Concept Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar; Knee, Helmut E; Plate, Randall S; Lascurain, Mary Beth

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) FMCSA commissioned the Wireless Roadside Inspection (WRI) Program to validate technologies and methodologies that can improve safety through inspections using wireless technologies that convey real-time identification of commercial vehicles, drivers, and carriers, as well as information about the condition of the vehicles and their drivers. It is hypothesized that these inspections will: -- Increase safety -- Decrease the number of unsafe commercial vehicles on the road; -- Increase efficiency -- Speed up the inspection process, enabling more inspections to occur, at least on par with the number of weight inspections; -- Improve effectiveness -- Reduce the probability of drivers bypassing CMV inspection stations and increase the likelihood that fleets will attempt to meet the safety regulations; and -- Benefit industry -- Reduce fleet costs, provide good return-on-investment, minimize wait times, and level the playing field. The WRI Program is defined in three phases which are: Phase 1: Proof of Concept Test (POC) Testing of commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) or near-COTS technology to validate the wireless inspection concept. Phase 2: Pilot Test Safety technology maturation and back office system integration Phase 3: Field Operational Test Multi-vehicle testing over a multi-state instrumented corridor This report focuses on Phase 1 efforts that were initiated in March, 2006. Technical efforts dealt with the ability of a Universal Wireless Inspection System (UWIS) to collect driver, vehicle, and carrier information; format a Safety Data Message Set from this information; and wirelessly transmit a Safety Data Message Set to a roadside receiver unit or mobile enforcement vehicle.

  13. Giardia outbreak associated with a roadside spring in Rensselaer County, New York.

    PubMed

    Bedard, B A; Elder, R; Phillips, L; Wachunas, M F

    2016-10-01

    In September 2009, the Rensselaer County Department of Health investigated an increase in Giardia duodenalis cases. The epidemiological investigation identified that a source of the illness could be a roadside spring located in the eastern part of the county. Epidemiological and environmental health staff conducted a site visit to the roadside spring and found several concerns. Water samples were collected from the roadside spring and sent to the New York State Department of Health for analysis. The water sample results indicated the presence of empty Giardia cysts. Prevention methods occurred and the roadside spring was destroyed. A total of 36 laboratory-confirmed cases of Giardia were identified from this outbreak that included residents of New York State and Massachusetts.

  14. Impacts of Solid Noise Barriers and Roadside Vegetation on ?Near-Road Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health concerns for populations spending time near high traffic roadways has increased substantially in recent years. Air quality measurements indicate high pollutant concentrations near these large roads. However, roadside features have been shown to substantially affec...

  15. The Impact of Roadside Barriers and Buildings on Near Road Concentrations of Vehicle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Nico

    Exposure to elevated concentrations of vehicle emitted pollutants is associated with negative health effects. Elevated concentrations are typically found within several hundred meters of high traffic roads, where atmospheric dispersion has not sufficiently diluted pollutants. Tall buildings next to roads reduce dispersion, thereby creating pollutant hot spots and increasing exposure to vehicle emissions for city residents. Roadside barriers enhance dispersion of roadway emissions and thus can be used to mitigate elevated concentrations next to large roads. The work in this thesis develops semi-empirical dispersion models that are useful for estimating near road concentrations of vehicle emissions when there are buildings or barriers next to the road. Dispersion models that account for the effect of near road barriers on concentrations are developed and evaluated with data from a wind tunnel and a field tracer study. The model evaluation shows that the primary effect of roadside barriers is enhancement of the vertical mixing by an amount proportional to the barrier height. Additionally, turbulence is enhanced in the barrier's wake, resulting in more rapid growth of the pollutant plume. The models perform well during neutral and stable atmospheric conditions. During unstable conditions the models overestimate concentrations. A model that accounts for reduction of the mean wind speed in the barrier wake is unbiased for all stabilities. Models of the impact of tall buildings next to the road on near road concentrations of vehicle emissions are developed. The models are evaluated with data from field measurements conducted in Los Angeles and Riverside counties, CA, and with data from an urban area in Hannover, Germany. The study specifically investigates dispersion in cities with significant building height variability. Model evaluation shows that vertical turbulent transport dominates dispersion in cities. The primary variables governing near road concentrations of

  16. Diagnosing the traffic impact on roadside soils through a multianalytical data analysis of the concentration profiles of traffic-related elements.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Jose Antonio; Arrizabalaga, Iker; Bustamante, Julen; Goienaga, Naiara; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The road traffic has become one of the most serious environmental problems in many cities and the main source of pollution of urban soils. To diagnose properly the magnitude of such impacts on roadside soils, eight urban and metropolitan soils were selected as a function of traffic density, distance to the road and years of operation, for which the concentration of 60 elements (major, minor and trace elements) were measured by semi-quantitative ICP-MS after acid digestion, as a first step in assessing the traffic impact. With this information, a comprehensive study was carried out focusing on the quantitative analysis of the concentration of 46 elements from the 8 sampling areas, analyzing the vertical and horizontal distributions of the metals in the roadside soils. The chemometric analysis showed that only the traffic-related elements accumulate in topsoil and present a high decreasing profile with depth and the distance to the road; however, this clear behavior takes places only in old roads that have undergone the traffic impact for a long time, but not in new roads or roads with low traffic density. Finally, the geoaccumulation indexes are suggested to be used instead of the local guidelines to assess the pollution state of the roadside soils, especially for the emerging trace elements like Antimony.

  17. Bed rest during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the inferior vena cava. How Can I Deal with Discomfort from Bed Rest? Bed rest can ... Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  18. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    positively correlated with the carbohydrate fraction and negatively correlated with the aliphatic fraction of the soil C, while carbohydrate-C and alkyl-C increased and decreased with distance from the road, respectively. It is proposed that petroleum hydrocarbons supress soil biological activity at concentrations above 1500 mg kg-1, and that soil organic matter priming primarily affects the carbohydrate fraction of soil organic matter. It can be concluded that the abundance of solid carbohydrates (O-alkyl C) is of paramount importance for the hydrocarbon mineralization under natural conditions, compared to more recalcitrant SOM fractions (mainly aromatic and alkyl C). References Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2013) Distribution and fractional composition of petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, vol. 2013, Article ID 938703, 6 pages, DOI 10.1155/2013/938703 Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2014) Deposition of petroleum hydrocarbons with sediment trapped in snow in roadside areas. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 22(3):237-244, DOI 10.3846/16486897.2014.889698 Nelson P.N. and Baldock J.A. (2005) Estimating the molecular composition of a diverse range of natural organic materials from solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses, 2005, Biogeochemistry (2005) 72: 1-34, DOI 10.1007/s10533-004-0076-3 Zyakun, A., Nii-Annang, S., Franke, G., Fischer, T., Buegger, F., Dilly, O. (2011) Microbial Actvity and 13C/12C Ratio as Evidence of N-Hexadecane and N-Hexadecanoic Acid Biodegradation in Agricultural and Forest Soils. Geomicrobiology Journal 28:632-647, DOI 10.1080/01490451.2010.489922

  19. Public sphere as assemblage: the cultural politics of roadside memorialization.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates contemporary academic accounts of the public sphere. In particular, it takes stock of post-Habermasian public sphere scholarship, and acknowledges a lively and variegated debate concerning the multiple ways in which individuals engage in contemporary political affairs. A critical eye is cast over a range of key insights which have come to establish the parameters of what 'counts' as a/the public sphere, who can be involved, and where and how communicative networks are established. This opens up the conceptual space for re-imagining a/the public sphere as an assemblage. Making use of recent developments in Deleuzian-inspired assemblage theory - most especially drawn from DeLanda's (2006) 'new philosophy of society' - the paper sets out an alternative perspective on the notion of the public sphere, and regards it as a space of connectivity brought into being through a contingent and heterogeneous assemblage of discursive, visual and performative practices. This is mapped out with reference to the cultural politics of roadside memorialization. However, a/the public sphere as an assemblage is not simply a 'social construction' brought into being through a logic of connectivity, but is an emergent and ephemeral space which reflexively nurtures and assembles the cultural politics (and political cultures) of which it is an integral part. The discussion concludes, then, with a consideration of the contribution of assemblage theory to public sphere studies. (Also see Campbell 2009a).

  20. Attraction and distraction of attention with roadside advertisements.

    PubMed

    Crundall, David; Van Loon, Editha; Underwood, Geoffrey

    2006-07-01

    The optimum positioning of roadside advertisements is recognized by the industry as an important factor in attracting the attention of passing drivers. Less acknowledged is the possibility that the location of an advertisement may distract attention from vital driving-related information. This study compared street-level advertisements (SLAs; predominantly bus shelters) with raised-level advertisements (RLAs) of the same size that were suspended 3 m above the ground, on their ability to attract attention under different task conditions. Participants were split into two groups and watched video clips of driving, rating them for hazardousness while their eye movements were recorded. One of the groups was additionally primed to attend to advertisements. SLAs received the most fixations when participants were solely looking for hazards, and the fewest fixations when primed to look for advertisements. Though SLAs also had longer fixations than the RLAs, they were more poorly recognized in a subsequent memory test. We conclude that SLAs attract and hold attention at inappropriate times compared to raised-level advertisements.

  1. Roadside IED detection using subsurface imaging radar and rotary UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yexian; Twumasi, Jones O.; Le, Viet Q.; Ren, Yu-Jiun; Lai, C. P.; Yu, Tzuyang

    2016-05-01

    Modern improvised explosive device (IED) and mine detection sensors using microwave technology are based on ground penetrating radar operated by a ground vehicle. Vehicle size, road conditions, and obstacles along the troop marching direction limit operation of such sensors. This paper presents a new conceptual design using a rotary unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to carry subsurface imaging radar for roadside IED detection. We have built a UAV flight simulator with the subsurface imaging radar running in a laboratory environment and tested it with non-metallic and metallic IED-like targets. From the initial lab results, we can detect the IED-like target 10-cm below road surface while carried by a UAV platform. One of the challenges is to design the radar and antenna system for a very small payload (less than 3 lb). The motion compensation algorithm is also critical to the imaging quality. In this paper, we also demonstrated the algorithm simulation and experimental imaging results with different IED target materials, sizes, and clutters.

  2. Do advertisements at the roadside distract the driver?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettwich, Carmen; Klinger, Karsten; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment. More and more cars are on the road. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio and navigation system, the environment outside the car has also become more and more complex. Hoardings, advertising pillars, shop fronts and video screens are just a few examples. For this reason the potential risk of driver distraction is rising. But in which way do the advertisements at the roadside influence the driver's attention? The investigation which is described is devoted to this topic. Various kinds of advertisements played an important role, like illuminated and non-illuminated posters as well as illuminated animated ads. Several test runs in an urban environment were performed. The gaze direction of the driver's eye was measured with an eye tracking system. The latter consists of three cameras which logged the eye movements during the test run and a small-sized scene camera recording the traffic scene. 16 subjects (six female and ten male) between 21 and 65 years of age took part in this experiment. Thus the driver's fixation duration of the different advertisements could be determined.

  3. Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in roadside restaurants of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, M; Akter, S; Islam, M A; Mia, Z

    2011-01-15

    The microbiological status of water from dispensers in different roadside restaurants of Dhaka city and Savar area was analyzed in this study. Seven samples from Dhaka and 8 samples of Savar were checked. The heterotrophic plate count was in a range of 1.0 x 10(3) CFU mL(-1) to 2.0 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1) (from new bottles), 1.0 x 10(3) to 1.5 x 10(4) CFU mL(-1) (after dispensation), and 1.5 x 10(3) CFU mL(-1) to 1.0 x l0(5) CFU mL(-1) (from serving glass). In several of the samples, the heterotrophic plate count was higher than the count in water from new bottle or after dispensation, suggesting added contamination from the serving glass. 80% of the samples were contaminated with total and fecal coliform bacteria, which render these waters unacceptable for human consumption. The samples were found to contain gram negative bacteria like E coli, Shigella sp., Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Salmonella sp., which are potential pathogens and thus pose a serious threat to public health. This study elucidates the importance of monitoring the bottling companies and the restaurants and put them under strict regulations to prevent future outbreak of any water borne diseases caused by consumption of dispensed water.

  4. Determination of traffic-related palladium in tunnel dust and roadside soil.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Kerstin; Wörle, Katharina; Schindl, Roland; Huber, Lars; Maier, Marina; Schuster, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Roadside dust and soil samples were collected at different sites in the area of Ulm and Munich in Germany. Road dust samples were collected in tunnels where the traffic-related dust is less influenced by atmospheric conditions. Soil samples were taken with a drill bar at varying distances to motorways, district and regional roads with different traffic densities. The soil cylinders of 30cm length were divided into four sections in order to obtain depth profiles for palladium (Pd) distribution. Determination of Pd in total digests of the samples was performed by ligand-assisted selective separation and preconcentration of Pd(II) using solid phase extraction followed by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace spectrometry. The analytical procedure was successfully validated using the certified reference material BCR-723 Road Tunnel Dust and by recovery experiments in spiked soil samples. The average Pd concentration found in the road dusts was 311μgkg(-1), the maximum Pd concentration in the topsoil layer was 193μgkg(-1). Pd depth profiles reveal transportation of Pd into deeper soil layers, where even at a depth of 25 to 30cm a Pd concentration of 19μgkg(-1) was found, proving the high mobility of Pd. Different factors like traffic density and age of the soils are discussed in the context of the found Pd depth profiles.

  5. Multiple-Herbicide Resistance Is Widespread in Roadside Palmer Amaranth Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V.; Norsworthy, Jason K.

    2016-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth is a widespread issue in row-crop production in the Midsouthern US. Palmer amaranth is commonly found on roadside habitats in this region, but little is known on the degree of herbicide resistance in these populations. Herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations can represent the spread of an adaptive trait across a selective landscape. A large-scale survey was carried out in the Mississippi Delta region of eastern Arkansas to document the level of resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, two important herbicides with broad history of use in the region. A total of 215 Palmer amaranth populations collected across 500 random survey sites were used in the evaluations. About 89 and 73% of the surveyed populations showed >90% survival to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, respectively. Further, only 3% of the populations were completely susceptible to glyphosate, while none of the populations was completely controlled by pyrithiobac. Among the 215 populations evaluated, 209 populations showed multiple resistance to both pyrithiobac and glyphosate at varying degrees. Dose-response assays confirmed the presence of high levels of herbicide resistance in the five selected populations (≥ 25-fold compared to a susceptible standard). Results demonstrate the prevalence of multiple-herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations in this region. Growers should be vigilant of Palmer amaranth infestation in roadsides adjacent to their fields and implement appropriate control measures to prevent likely spread of herbicide resistance into their fields. PMID:27071064

  6. Multiple-Herbicide Resistance Is Widespread in Roadside Palmer Amaranth Populations.

    PubMed

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Norsworthy, Jason K

    2016-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth is a widespread issue in row-crop production in the Midsouthern US. Palmer amaranth is commonly found on roadside habitats in this region, but little is known on the degree of herbicide resistance in these populations. Herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations can represent the spread of an adaptive trait across a selective landscape. A large-scale survey was carried out in the Mississippi Delta region of eastern Arkansas to document the level of resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, two important herbicides with broad history of use in the region. A total of 215 Palmer amaranth populations collected across 500 random survey sites were used in the evaluations. About 89 and 73% of the surveyed populations showed >90% survival to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, respectively. Further, only 3% of the populations were completely susceptible to glyphosate, while none of the populations was completely controlled by pyrithiobac. Among the 215 populations evaluated, 209 populations showed multiple resistance to both pyrithiobac and glyphosate at varying degrees. Dose-response assays confirmed the presence of high levels of herbicide resistance in the five selected populations (≥ 25-fold compared to a susceptible standard). Results demonstrate the prevalence of multiple-herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations in this region. Growers should be vigilant of Palmer amaranth infestation in roadsides adjacent to their fields and implement appropriate control measures to prevent likely spread of herbicide resistance into their fields.

  7. Effects of roadside habitat and fox density on a snow track survey for foxes in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Bart, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Many methods have been used to survey red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and gray fox (Urocyon dnereoargenteus) populations. However, none has proven entirely satisfactory, and wild foxes remain one of the most difficult economically important wildlife species to monitor. In this study we evaluated the reliability of a snow track survey method for foxes by investigating whether the average number of road crossings per fox is influenced by changes in roadside habitat or changes in fox density. Several snow track surveys were conducted in two Ohio counties during January and February, 1984. Data on roadside habitat, relative fox densities, and fox crossings were collected. Results suggested that changes in roadside habitat could influence the average number of crossings per fox and, therefore, changes in the index could occur independent of actual population changes. We found no evidence that crossings per fox varied with fox density, but further research is needed to substantiate this finding.

  8. Comparison of birds detected from roadside and off-road point counts in the Shenandoah National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, C.M.E.; Fuller, M.R.; Ralph, C. John; Sauer, John R.; Droege, Sam

    1995-01-01

    Roadside point counts are generally used for large surveys to increase the number of samples. We examined differences in species detected from roadside versus off-road (200-m and 400-ha) point counts in the Shenandoah National Park. We also compared the list of species detected in the first 3 minutes to those detected in 10 minutes for potential species biases. Results from 81 paired roadside and off-road counts indicated that roadside counts had higher numbers of several edge species but did not have lower numbers of nonedge forest species. More individuals and species were detected from roadside points because of this increase in edge species. Sixty-five percent of the species detected in 10 minutes were recorded in the first 3 minutes.

  9. Characterization of black carbon at roadside sites and along vehicle roadways in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Nguyen Tri Quang; Lee, Seung-Bok; Hang, Nguyen Thanh; Kongpran, Jira; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2014-08-01

    To understand the seasonality of concentrations of traffic-related black carbon (BC) in a megacity, BC concentrations in fine particles were monitored at the roadside and on roads during both the wet and dry seasons of 2010 in the city center of Bangkok, Thailand. The BC concentration measured every 2 min by an aethalometer at the Dingdaeng roadside in the dry season was 17.9 ± 6.6 μg m-3, which was 1.6-fold higher than the value (11.5 ± 2.7 μg m-3) during the wet season. This seasonal difference could not be explained by washout by rain but was instead due to more frequent upwind conditions caused by a prevailing wind direction from the monitoring site toward the road in the wet season. When the prevailing wind direction was from the road, the average BC concentration at the roadside increased up to 30 μg m-3 during both seasons. In contrast, when the wind direction was from the site to the road, the BC concentration was reduced to the level of urban background concentrations measured inside Lumphini Park and the Dusit Zoo of Bangkok. Roadside BC concentrations were strongly correlated with NOx concentrations and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations measured in 24-h PM2.5 filter samples. Both relationships exhibited linear determination coefficients of more than 0.80, implying that NOx can be used as an indicator and an alternative for traffic-related BC at this roadside site when real-time BC monitors are not available. The average on-road BC concentration (25.5 μg m-3) was similar to the average at the roadside under downwind conditions (25.5 μg m-3) from morning to evening only. In contrast, the latter value was 1.7-fold higher than the daily average at the roadside (14.7 μg m-3) and 7.3-fold higher than the urban background level during the daytime (3.5 μg m-3). The results of this study suggest that residents who live next to major roads, pedestrians at the roadside, and drivers on the roads experience a high risk of exposure to severe levels of

  10. Toward National Estimates of Alcohol Use Disorders among Drivers: Results from the National Roadside Survey Pilot Program

    PubMed Central

    Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Voas, Robert B.; Lacey, John; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo; Smart, Mieka

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether drivers contacted at the roadside can be screened for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Secondarily, to produce preliminary estimates of AUDs among drivers and estimate the relationship between AUD status and BAC measured at the roadside. Methods A two-phase survey program was undertaken. In phase 1, 206 motorists were interviewed at the roadside using a 15-item AUD Survey derived from a condensed version of the AUDADIS and the AUDIT-C. One hundred sixty-seven of these motorists were invited, for a $25 incentive, to call the research team within 48 hours of the roadside assessment to repeat the questionnaire and complete a more detailed AUD assessment. Phase 2 involved a six-state pilot test of the AUD Survey as an add-on to the 2005 National Roadside Survey Pilot Program. The setting for both phases of the survey program was U.S. roadways on weekends between 10 p.m. and 3 a.m. Results Ninety-seven percent of all eligible drivers completed the AUD questionnaire. The correlation between roadside and telephone interview results was 0.3 for alcohol abuse, 0.6 for alcohol dependence and heavy drinking, and 0.7 for binge drinking. Alcohol abuse and dependence diagnoses had 0.6 and 0.7 correlation with diagnoses derived from the full AUDADIS and the AUDIT-C had a 0.8 correlation with the full AUDIT. There was also a statistically significant and positive relationship between having a positive BAC at the roadside and meeting criteria for heavy drinking. Conclusions AUD status can be effectively measured at the roadside. The poor reliability for alcohol abuse is related to underreporting of drinking and driving during roadside assessments, compared to telephone follow up. Other measures of hazardous alcohol use should be used in the roadside context to measure alcohol abuse. PMID:19746302

  11. Influence of roadside hedgerows on air quality in urban street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromke, Christof; Jamarkattel, Nabaraj; Ruck, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    Understanding pollutant dispersion in the urban environment is an important aspect of providing solutions to reduce personal exposure to vehicle emissions. To this end, the dispersion of gaseous traffic pollutants in urban street canyons with roadside hedges was investigated. The study was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel using a reduced-scale (M = 1:150) canyon model with a street-width-to-building-height ratio of W/H = 2 and a street-length-to-building-height ratio of L/H = 10. Various hedge configurations of differing height, permeability and longitudinal segmentation (continuous over street length L or discontinuous with clearings) were investigated. Two arrangements were examined: (i) two eccentric hedgerows sidewise of the main traffic lanes and (ii) one central hedgerow between the main traffic lanes. In addition, selected configurations of low boundary walls, i.e. solid barriers, were examined. For a perpendicular approach wind and in the presence of continuous hedgerows, improvements in air quality in the center area of the street canyon were found in comparison to the hedge-free reference scenario. The pollutant reductions were greater for the central hedge arrangements than for the sidewise arrangements. Area-averaged reductions between 46 and 61% were observed at pedestrian head height level on the leeward side in front of the building for the centrally arranged hedges and between 18 and 39% for the two hedges arranged sidewise. Corresponding area-averaged reductions ranging from 39 to 55% and from 1 to 20% were found at the bottom of the building facades on the leeward side. Improvements were also found in the areas at the lateral canyon ends next to the crossings for the central hedge arrangements. For the sidewise arrangements, increases in traffic pollutants were generally observed. However, since the concentrations in the end areas were considerably lower compared to those in the center area, an overall improvement remained

  12. Does particulate matter along roadsides interfere with plant reproduction? A comparison of effects of different road types on Cichorium intybus pollen deposition and germination.

    PubMed

    Jaconis, Susan Y; Culley, Theresa M; Meier, Alexandra M

    2017-03-01

    The roadside habitat can be challenging for plants, which must maintain normal biological processes despite an influx of airborne pollutants. While the effects of many gases on plants have been quantified, the impacts of particulate pollutants have been relatively less studied. This is especially true of field experiments where particle dispersion may be influenced by meteorology and roadway use. We examined chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) along roadsides in the Cincinnati, Ohio metropolitan area to assess particulate influence on plant pollination through stigmatic clogging. We compared flowers collected from plants situated along interstates, U.S. highways, state highways, and county roads as these different road-types vary in motor vehicle usage and thus should have varying levels of particulate deposition on flowers. We examined floral stigmas for total particulates, total pollen, and percentage of pollen tube germination to determine whether particulates may interfere with early reproductive processes. Our results suggest that there was minimal variation of particulate matter found on chicory stigmas among road-types. Furthermore, the deposition of particulates on stigmas based on road-type did not show a strong link to variation in pollen deposition and pollen germination. There was also no significant relationship between total particulate levels and pollen germination rates across all road types. Future studies should investigate other plant species that may be more sensitive to roadside pollution, such as economically important crops. Locations in which vehicle use is increasing and where pollutants are not regulated strictly should also be examined as the effects of airborne particulates in early plant reproduction would be expected to be more substantial in these areas.

  13. Increased oxidative burden associated with traffic component of ambient particulate matter at roadside and urban background schools sites in London.

    PubMed

    Godri, Krystal J; Harrison, Roy M; Evans, Tim; Baker, Timothy; Dunster, Christina; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    As the incidence of respiratory and allergic symptoms has been reported to be increased in children attending schools in close proximity to busy roads, it was hypothesised that PM from roadside schools would display enhanced oxidative potential (OP). Two consecutive one-week air quality monitoring campaigns were conducted at seven school sampling sites, reflecting roadside and urban background in London. Chemical characteristics of size fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples were related to the capacity to drive biological oxidation reactions in a synthetic respiratory tract lining fluid. Contrary to hypothesised contrasts in particulate OP between school site types, no robust size-fractionated differences in OP were identified due high temporal variability in concentrations of PM components over the one-week sampling campaigns. For OP assessed both by ascorbate (OP(AA) m(-3)) and glutathione (OP(GSH) m(-3)) depletion, the highest OP per cubic metre of air was in the largest size fraction, PM(1.9-10.2). However, when expressed per unit mass of particles OP(AA) µg(-1) showed no significant dependence upon particle size, while OP(GSH) µg(-1) had a tendency to increase with increasing particle size, paralleling increased concentrations of Fe, Ba and Cu. The two OP metrics were not significantly correlated with one another, suggesting that the glutathione and ascorbate depletion assays respond to different components of the particles. Ascorbate depletion per unit mass did not show the same dependence as for GSH and it is possible that other trace metals (Zn, Ni, V) or organic components which are enriched in the finer particle fractions, or the greater surface area of smaller particles, counter-balance the redox activity of Fe, Ba and Cu in the coarse particles. Further work with longer-term sampling and a larger suite of analytes is advised in order to better elucidate the determinants of oxidative potential, and to fuller explore the contrasts between site

  14. Increased Oxidative Burden Associated with Traffic Component of Ambient Particulate Matter at Roadside and Urban Background Schools Sites in London

    PubMed Central

    Godri, Krystal J.; Harrison, Roy M.; Evans, Tim; Baker, Timothy; Dunster, Christina; Mudway, Ian S.; Kelly, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    As the incidence of respiratory and allergic symptoms has been reported to be increased in children attending schools in close proximity to busy roads, it was hypothesised that PM from roadside schools would display enhanced oxidative potential (OP). Two consecutive one-week air quality monitoring campaigns were conducted at seven school sampling sites, reflecting roadside and urban background in London. Chemical characteristics of size fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples were related to the capacity to drive biological oxidation reactions in a synthetic respiratory tract lining fluid. Contrary to hypothesised contrasts in particulate OP between school site types, no robust size-fractionated differences in OP were identified due high temporal variability in concentrations of PM components over the one-week sampling campaigns. For OP assessed both by ascorbate (OPAA m−3) and glutathione (OPGSH m−3) depletion, the highest OP per cubic metre of air was in the largest size fraction, PM1.9–10.2. However, when expressed per unit mass of particles OPAA µg−1 showed no significant dependence upon particle size, while OPGSH µg−1 had a tendency to increase with increasing particle size, paralleling increased concentrations of Fe, Ba and Cu. The two OP metrics were not significantly correlated with one another, suggesting that the glutathione and ascorbate depletion assays respond to different components of the particles. Ascorbate depletion per unit mass did not show the same dependence as for GSH and it is possible that other trace metals (Zn, Ni, V) or organic components which are enriched in the finer particle fractions, or the greater surface area of smaller particles, counter-balance the redox activity of Fe, Ba and Cu in the coarse particles. Further work with longer-term sampling and a larger suite of analytes is advised in order to better elucidate the determinants of oxidative potential, and to fuller explore the contrasts between site types

  15. Spatial variation in vehicle-derived metal pollution identified by magnetic and elemental analysis of roadside tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, B. A.; Moore, C.; Matzka, J.

    Exposure to metal-rich particulate pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes. In particular, lead has recently been shown to be toxic in young children even at low levels previously considered 'safe'. Lead poisoning from vehicle pollution has been addressed internationally by removal of leaded petrol but toxic blood lead levels in children continue to be reported in urban areas, the source suggested to be resuspended roadside soil, enriched in lead due to previous leaded fuel usage. Here, we use paired geochemical and magnetic analyses of natural biomonitors—kerbside tree leaves—and of air sample filters to examine contemporary sources of particulate pollution, and show that co-associated, fine (<1 μm) lead- and iron-rich particles are emitted as vehicle-derived pollutants. Higher and strongly correlated lead, iron and magnetic remanence values were found closer to roads and on the road-proximal rather than road-distal sides of trees. Critically, highest pollutant values occurred on tree leaves next to uphill rather than downhill road lanes. The lead content of the leaf particulates was associated only with sub-micrometre, combustion-derived spherical particles. These results indicate that vehicle exhaust emissions, rather than resuspended soil dust, or tyre, brake or other vehicle wear are the major source of the lead, iron and magnetic loadings on roadside tree leaves. Analysis of leaves at different heights showed that leaf particulate lead and iron concentrations are highest at ˜0.3 m (i.e. small child height) and at 1.5-2 m (adult head height) above ground level; monitoring station collectors placed at 3 m above the surface thus significantly under-estimate kerbside, near-surface lead concentrations. These results indicate that vulnerable groups, especially young children, continue to be exposed to fine, lead- and iron-rich, vehicle-derived particulates.

  16. Model evaluation of roadside barrier impact on near-road air pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roadside noise barriers are common features along major highways in urban regions and are anticipated to have important effects on near-road air pollution – the occurrence of elevated air pollutant concentrations for several hundred meters downwind of a major roadway. A 3-dimens...

  17. Pollination of lark daisy on roadsides declines as traffic speed increases along an Amazonian highway.

    PubMed

    Dargas, J H F; Chaves, S R; Fischer, E

    2016-05-01

    Ecological disturbances caused by roadways have previously been reported, but traffic speed has not been addressed. We investigate effects of traffic speed on pollination of Centratherum punctatum (Asteraceae) along an Amazonian highway roadside. We hypothesised that frequency of flower visitors, duration of single visits and pollen deposition on stigmas will vary negatively as traffic speed increases. After measuring vehicle velocities, we classified three road sections as low-, mid- and high-velocity traffic. The main pollinator bee, Augochlora sp., visited C. punctatum inflorescences with decreasing frequency from low- to high-velocity roadside sections, whereas the nectar thief butterflies did the opposite. Duration of single visits by bees and butterflies was shorter, and arrival of pollen on C. punctatum stigmas was lower, in high- than in low-velocity roadside. Air turbulence due to passing vehicles increases with velocity and disturbed the flower visitors. Overall, results support that traffic velocity negatively affects foraging of flower visitors and the pollination of C. punctatum on roadsides.

  18. Forest roadsides harbour less competitive habitats for a relict mountain plant (Pulsatilla vernalis) in lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielińska, Katarzyna M.; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Grzyl, Andrzej; Rewicz, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    The long-term survival of relict populations depends on the accessibility of appropriate sites (microrefugia). In recent times, due to the mass extinction of rare species that has resulted from the loss of natural habitats, the question is – Are there any human-made sites that can act as refugial habitats? We examined forest roadside populations of the mountain plant Pulsatilla vernalis in the last large lowland refugium in Central Europe. We compared the habitat conditions and community structure of roadsides with P. vernalis against the forest interior. Light availability and bryophyte composition were the main factors that distinguished roadsides. Pulsatilla occurred on sites that had more light than the forest interior, but were also more or less shaded by trees, so more light came as one-side illumination from the road. Roadsides had also a lower coverage of bryophytes that formed large, dense carpets. At the same time, they were characterised by a greater richness of vascular plants and ‘small’ bryophytes, which corresponds to a higher frequency of disturbances. In a warming and more fertile Anthropocene world, competition plays the main role in the transformation of forest communities, which is why relict populations have found refugia in extensively disturbed human-made habitats.

  19. Roadside vegetation barrier designs to mitigate near-road air pollution impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    With increasing evidence that exposures to air pollution near large roadways increases risks of a number of adverse human health effects, identifying methods to reduce these exposures has become a public health priority. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to re...

  20. Forest roadsides harbour less competitive habitats for a relict mountain plant (Pulsatilla vernalis) in lowlands

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska, Katarzyna M.; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Grzyl, Andrzej; Rewicz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The long-term survival of relict populations depends on the accessibility of appropriate sites (microrefugia). In recent times, due to the mass extinction of rare species that has resulted from the loss of natural habitats, the question is – Are there any human-made sites that can act as refugial habitats? We examined forest roadside populations of the mountain plant Pulsatilla vernalis in the last large lowland refugium in Central Europe. We compared the habitat conditions and community structure of roadsides with P. vernalis against the forest interior. Light availability and bryophyte composition were the main factors that distinguished roadsides. Pulsatilla occurred on sites that had more light than the forest interior, but were also more or less shaded by trees, so more light came as one-side illumination from the road. Roadsides had also a lower coverage of bryophytes that formed large, dense carpets. At the same time, they were characterised by a greater richness of vascular plants and ‘small’ bryophytes, which corresponds to a higher frequency of disturbances. In a warming and more fertile Anthropocene world, competition plays the main role in the transformation of forest communities, which is why relict populations have found refugia in extensively disturbed human-made habitats. PMID:27534690

  1. Sensitive resettable odometer aids roadside census of red-winged blackbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harke, D.T.; Stickley, A.R.

    1968-01-01

    A sensitive resettable odometer reading to 0.01 mile facilitated censusing breeding male redwinged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) from a vehicle. Territorial males along roadsides were 'marked' with recorded mileage readings rather than with landmarks of the types employed by Hewitt for censuses based on the Lincoln index principle. Sensitive odometers that can be reset have many potential uses in wildlife investigations.

  2. Photographic monitoring of soiling and decay of roadside walls in central Oxford, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornbush, Mary J.; Viles, Heather A.

    2008-12-01

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring of Integrated Transport Strategies (EMITS) project, which examined the impact of the Oxford Transport Strategy (OTS) on the soiling and decay of buildings and structures in central Oxford, England, a simple photographic survey of a sample of roadside walls was carried out in 1997, with re-surveys in 1999 and 2003. Thirty photographs were taken each time, covering an area of stonework approximately 30 × 30 cm in dimensions at 1-1.3 m above pavement level. The resulting images have been used to investigate, both qualitatively as well as quantitatively, the progression of soiling and decay. Comparison of images by eye reveals a number of minor changes in soiling and decay patterns, but generally indicates stability except at one site where dramatic, superficial damage occurred over 2 years. Quantitative analysis of decay features (concavities resulting from surface blistering, flaking, and scaling), using simple techniques in Adobe Photoshop, shows variable pixel-based size proportions of concavities across 6 years of survey. Colour images (in Lab Color) generally have a reduced proportion of pixels, representing decay features in comparison to black and white (Grayscale) images. The study conveys that colour images provide more information both for general observations of soiling and decay patterns and for segmentation of decay-produced concavities. The study indicates that simple repeat photography can reveal useful information about changing patterns of both soiling and decay, although unavoidable variation in external lighting conditions between re-surveys is a factor limiting the accuracy of change detection.

  3. DNA Damage in Euonymus japonicus Leaf Cells Caused by Roadside Pollution in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Gu, Ke; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Crittenden, John; Lu, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    The inhalable particles from vehicle exhaust can cause DNA damage to exposed organisms. Research on DNA damage is primarily focused on the influence of specific pollutants on certain species or the effect of environmental pollution on human beings. To date, little research has quantitatively studied the relationship between roadside pollution and DNA damage. Based on an investigation of the roadside pollution in Beijing, Euonymus japonicus leaves of differing ages grown in heavily-polluted sections were chosen as biomonitors to detect DNA damage using the comet assay technique. The percentage of DNA in the tail and tail moment was chosen as the analysis index based on SPSS data analysis. The roadside samples showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage than non-roadside samples, which increased in older leaves, and the DNA damage to Euonymus japonicus leaf cells was positively correlated with haze-aggravated roadside pollution. The correlation between damage and the Air Quality Index (AQI) are 0.921 (one-year-old leaves), 0.894 (two-year-old leaves), and 0.878 (three-year-old leaves). Over time, the connection between DNA damage and AQI weakened, with the sensitivity coefficient for δyear 1 being larger than δyear 2 and δyear 3. These findings support the suitability and sensitivity of the comet assay for surveying plants for an estimation of DNA damage induced by environmental genotoxic agents. This study might be applied as a preliminary quantitative method for Chinese urban air pollution damage assessment caused by environmental stress. PMID:27455298

  4. At the Crossroads: Does the Configuration of Roadside Vegetation Affect Woodland Bird Communities in Rural Landscapes?

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark; Nimmo, Dale; Bennett, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    In agricultural regions worldwide, linear networks of vegetation such as hedges, fencerows and live fences provide habitat for plant and animal species in heavily modified landscapes. In Australia, networks of remnant native vegetation along roadsides are a distinctive feature of many rural landscapes. Here, we investigated the richness and composition of woodland-dependent bird communities in networks of eucalypt woodland vegetation along roadsides, in an agricultural region in which >80% of native woodland and forest vegetation has been cleared. We stratified sites in a) cross sections and b) linear strips of roadside vegetation, to test the influence on woodland birds of site location and configuration in the linear network (the 'intersection effect'). We also examined the influence of tree size at the site, the amount of wooded vegetation surrounding the site, and the abundance of an aggressive native species, the noisy miner Manorina melanocephala. Birds were surveyed at 26 pairs of sites (cross section or linear strip) on four occasions. A total of 66 species was recorded, including 35 woodland species. The richness of woodland bird species was influenced by site configuration, with more species present at cross sections, particularly those with larger trees (>30 cm diameter). However, the strongest influence on species richness was the relative abundance of the noisy miner. The richness of woodland birds at sites where noisy miners were abundant was ~20% of that where miners were absent. These results recognise the value of networks of roadside vegetation as habitat for woodland birds in depleted agricultural landscapes; but highlight that this value is not realised for much of this vast vegetation network because of the dominance of the noisy miner. Nevertheless, roadside vegetation is particularly important where the configuration of networks create nodes that facilitate movement. Globally, the protection, conservation and restoration of such linear

  5. At the Crossroads: Does the Configuration of Roadside Vegetation Affect Woodland Bird Communities in Rural Landscapes?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Mark; Nimmo, Dale; Bennett, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    In agricultural regions worldwide, linear networks of vegetation such as hedges, fencerows and live fences provide habitat for plant and animal species in heavily modified landscapes. In Australia, networks of remnant native vegetation along roadsides are a distinctive feature of many rural landscapes. Here, we investigated the richness and composition of woodland-dependent bird communities in networks of eucalypt woodland vegetation along roadsides, in an agricultural region in which >80% of native woodland and forest vegetation has been cleared. We stratified sites in a) cross sections and b) linear strips of roadside vegetation, to test the influence on woodland birds of site location and configuration in the linear network (the ‘intersection effect’). We also examined the influence of tree size at the site, the amount of wooded vegetation surrounding the site, and the abundance of an aggressive native species, the noisy miner Manorina melanocephala. Birds were surveyed at 26 pairs of sites (cross section or linear strip) on four occasions. A total of 66 species was recorded, including 35 woodland species. The richness of woodland bird species was influenced by site configuration, with more species present at cross sections, particularly those with larger trees (>30 cm diameter). However, the strongest influence on species richness was the relative abundance of the noisy miner. The richness of woodland birds at sites where noisy miners were abundant was ~20% of that where miners were absent. These results recognise the value of networks of roadside vegetation as habitat for woodland birds in depleted agricultural landscapes; but highlight that this value is not realised for much of this vast vegetation network because of the dominance of the noisy miner. Nevertheless, roadside vegetation is particularly important where the configuration of networks create nodes that facilitate movement. Globally, the protection, conservation and restoration of such linear

  6. FRS REST Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    FRS exposes several REST services that allows developers to utilize a live feed of data from the FRS database. This web page is intended for a technical audience and describes the content and purpose of each service available.

  7. Preference of female mosquitoes for natural and artificial resting sites.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Eubanks, Micky D; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    At a wetland study site in Tuskegee National Forest, AL, resting female mosquitoes were collected from natural and artificial resting sites to identify species-specific resting sites and to evaluate various artificial resting sites for their utility in collecting resting mosquitoes. Natural resting sites included small tree cavities, large tree cavities, and understory vegetation. Artificial resting sites included resting boxes, fiber pots, and plastic trash cans. We collected 12,888 female mosquitoes, representing 23 species in 8 genera, during the 6-month study. Each mosquito species demonstrated a preference for a particular type of resting site. Resting Aedes vexans females were collected almost exclusively from understory vegetation, while the great majority of Anopheles quadrimaculatus females were aspirated from large tree cavities. Culex erraticus and Cx. peccator females preferred trash cans over other available resting sites. Females of Cx. territans, although collected most commonly in large tree cavities, were also collected frequently from understory vegetation and trash cans. A multiple regression of resting-site parameters (excluding vegetation), including volume, surface area, and opening size, indicated that 50% and 20% of the variability associated with An. quadrimaculatus and Cx. territans collections, respectively, could be explained by opening size. Inner surface area and volume accounted for 33% and 12% of variation in Cx. erraticus and Cx. peccator collections, respectively. Thus, female mosquitoes generally preferred larger resting sites over smaller resting sites. Similarly shaped artificial resting sites (fiber pots and trash cans) yielded comparable numbers of females per unit of volume (for those species that preferred artificial resting sites), indicating that shape of the resting site is an important factor in resting-site preference. In addition, trash cans proved to be a valuable novel tool for collecting resting female mosquitoes.

  8. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael D; Greicius, Michael

    2010-01-01

    During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI) and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm.

  9. Clinical Applications of Resting State Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Michael D.; Greicius, Michael

    2010-01-01

    During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI) and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm. PMID:20592951

  10. Bed rest and immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  11. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics modeling to assess the impact of roadside barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-road air quality is an issue of emerging concern, with field studies consistently showing elevated air pollutant concentrations adjacent to major roads, usually decreasing to background levels within several hundred meters. Roadside barriers, both vegetative and structural, ...

  13. Evaluation and development of tools to quantify the impacts of roadside vegetation barriers on near-road air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory and urban planning programs require an accurate evaluation of how traffic emissions transport and disperse from roads to fully determine exposures and health risks. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; ...

  14. Smart roadside system for driver assistance and safety warnings: framework and applications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun Suk; Cho, Han Byeog

    2011-01-01

    The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system for highways. Evaluation results for the two services are then shown using a micro-simulation method. In the given real-time applications for drivers, the framework and certain algorithms produce a very efficient solution with respect to the roadway type features and sensor type use.

  15. Smart Roadside System for Driver Assistance and Safety Warnings: Framework and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun Suk; Cho, Han Byeog

    2011-01-01

    The use of newly emerging sensor technologies in traditional roadway systems can provide real-time traffic services to drivers through Telematics and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). This paper introduces a smart roadside system that utilizes various sensors for driver assistance and traffic safety warnings. This paper shows two road application models for a smart roadside system and sensors: a red-light violation warning system for signalized intersections, and a speed advisory system for highways. Evaluation results for the two services are then shown using a micro-simulation method. In the given real-time applications for drivers, the framework and certain algorithms produce a very efficient solution with respect to the roadway type features and sensor type use. PMID:22164025

  16. Bioaccumulation and physiological effects of excess lead in a roadside pioneer species Sonchus oleraceus L.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Z T

    1997-01-01

    Seedlings of Sonchus oleraceus L. were transplanted to soil supplied with lead acetate at dosages of 0, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg kg(-1) DW. Measures of chlorophyll content, peroxidase (POD) activity, shoot length, biomass and Pb content in the plant tissues were obtained from the experimental plants. With increasing amounts of Pb in the soil, the chlorophyll content, shoot length and biomass decreased, while POD activity and Pb content in the plant tissues increased. At 3200 mg kg(-1) Pb treatment, Pb content in the plant leaf, stem and root were 65.67, 149.82 and 1113.24 mg kg(-1), respectively. Only at 3200 mg kg(-1) Pb treatment did chlorophyll content, shoot length and biomass significantly increase by 18, 15 and 44%, respectively, while POD decreased by 39% over the control. The potential of applying this species in phytoremediation of Pb contaminated roadside soils and thus restoration of the roadside vegetation are discussed.

  17. Fluorescence-based lateral flow assays for rapid oral fluid roadside detection of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Plouffe, Brian D; Murthy, Shashi K

    2017-02-01

    With the recent worldwide changes in the legalization of marijuana, there is a significant need for rapid, roadside screening test for driving under the influence of drugs. A robust, sensitive, lateral flow assay has been developed to detect recent use via oral-fluid testing for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This proof-of-concept assay uses a fluorescent-based immunoassay detection of polymeric beads, conjugated to antibodies against native THC. The fluorescent technique allows for significantly lower limits of detection and higher precision determination of recent marijuana use without the use of urine or blood sampling-thus allowing for roadside identification. Detection levels of 0.01 ng/mL were distinguished from background and the lower limit of quantification was determined to approach 1 ng/mL.

  18. Quantitative comparisons on hand motor functional areas determined by resting state and task BOLD fMRI and anatomical MRI for pre-surgical planning of patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bob L; Bhatia, Sanjay; Carpenter, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    For pre-surgical planning we present quantitative comparison of the location of the hand motor functional area determined by right hand finger tapping BOLD fMRI, resting state BOLD fMRI, and anatomically using high resolution T1 weighted images. Data were obtained on 10 healthy subjects and 25 patients with left sided brain tumors. Our results show that there are important differences in the locations (i.e., > 20 mm) of the determined hand motor voxels by these three MR imaging methods. This can have significant effect on the pre-surgical planning of these patients depending on the modality used. In 13 of the 25 cases (i.e., 52%) the distances between the task-determined and the rs-fMRI determined hand areas were more than 20 mm; in 13 of 25 cases (i.e., 52%) the distances between the task-determined and anatomically determined hand areas were > 20 mm; and in 16 of 25 cases (i.e., 64%) the distances between the rs-fMRI determined and anatomically determined hand areas were more than 20 mm. In just three cases, the distances determined by all three modalities were within 20 mm of each other. The differences in the location or fingerprint of the hand motor areas, as determined by these three MR methods result from the different underlying mechanisms of these three modalities and possibly the effects of tumors on these modalities.

  19. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in roadside topsoil along Qinghai-Tibetan highway, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.; Zhang, F.; Yan, X.; Gao, D.

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid development of road construction and increase of vehicles on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau over last few decades, traffic source heavy metals have been continuously emitted into roadside soils and caused a growing concern on potential pollution of soils. In this study, a soil survey was conducted along the Qinghai-Tibet highway (Xining-Maduo-Budongquan-Naqu-Lhasa), China, to investigate the status and influence factors of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) in roadside topsoil. A total of 32 sampling sites, 144 topsoil (0~2 cm) samples were collected at different distances to the highway edge (0 m, 10 m, 30 m, 50 m and 100m). Vehicle volume, soil types and road types have significantly impacts on concentrations of the four heavy metals. On the whole, heavy metal concentrations were higher in Budongquan-Naqu-Lhasa (BNL) segment with higher traffic volume than Xining-Maduo-Budongquan (XMB) segment with lower traffic volume. The heavy metals concentrations also show higher levels for asphalt roads than gravel roads, and a sequence of severely degraded meadow soil (MS) > slightly degraded MS > desert soil > non-degraded MS. Besides, concentrations of all the four heavy metals show exponentially decreasing relationships with roadside distances. Compared to the background values of heavy metals in the soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, traffic source heavy metals pollution only exists within 10 m to the road edge in most segments. However, the maximum polluted distance can reach 30 m along the TMP segment. It should be noted that heavy metals pollution was more harmful to this high-altitude segment with fragile ecology. Keywords: Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn); Roadside soil; Qinghai-Tibet highway; Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Size and time-resolved roadside enrichment of atmospheric particulate pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Viana, M.; Richard, A.; Furger, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Bukowiecki, N.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Moreno, T.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.

    2011-03-01

    Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain). Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB), one traffic (T) and one heavy traffic (HT) location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE) in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn) showed the largest REs (>70%). Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd) showed lower but still consistent REs (25-40%), similar to those obtained for mineral matter resulting from road dust resuspension (Ca, La, Ce, Ti, Ga, Sr, 30-40%). The sum of primary and secondary organic carbon showed a RE of 41%, with contributions of secondary OC (SOC) to total OC ranging from 46% at the HT site, 63% at the T site, and 78% in the UB. Finally, other trace elements (As, Co, Bi) showed unexpected but consistent roadside enrichments (23% up to 69%), suggesting a link to traffic emissions even though the emission process is unclear. Hourly-resolved PM speciation data proved to be a highly resourceful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. At the HT site, up to 62% of fine Mn was attributable to industrial plumes, whereas coarse Mn levels were mainly attributed to traffic. Similarly, even though Zn showed on average no roadside enrichment and thus was classified as industrial, the hourly-resolved data proved that at least 15% of coarse Zn may be attributed to road traffic emissions. In addition, our results indicate that secondary nitrate formation occurs within the city-scale, even in the absence of long atmospheric residence times or long-range atmospheric transport processes. Characteristic tracer ratios of road traffic emissions were identified: Cu/Sb = 6.8-8.0, Cu/Sn = 4.7-5.4 and Sn/Sb = 1.5.

  1. Size and time-resolved roadside enrichment of atmospheric particulate pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Viana, M.; Richard, A.; Furger, M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Moreno, T.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.

    2011-01-01

    Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain). Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB), one traffic (T) and one heavy traffic (HT) location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE) in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn) showed the largest REs (>70%). Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd) showed lower but still consistent REs (25-40%), similar to those obtained for mineral matter resulting from road dust resuspension (Ca, La, Ce, Ti, Ga, Sr, 30-40%). The sum of primary and secondary organic carbon showed a RE of 41%, with contributions of secondary OC (SOC) to total OC ranging from 46% at the HT site, 63% at the T site, and 78% in the UB. Finally, other trace elements (As, Co, Bi) showed unexpected but consistent roadside enrichments (23% up to 69%), suggesting a link to traffic emissions even though the emission process is unclear. Hourly-resolved PM speciation data proved to be a highly resourceful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. At the HT site, up to 62% of fine Mn was attributable to industrial plumes, whereas coarse Mn levels were mainly attributed to traffic. Similarly, even though Zn showed on average no roadside enrichment and thus was classified as industrial, the hourly-resolved data proved that at least 15% of coarse Zn may be attributed to road traffic emissions. In addition, our results indicate that secondary nitrate formation occurs within the city-scale, even in the absence of long atmospheric residence times or long-range atmospheric transport processes.

  2. Estimation of blood alcohol concentration in deaths due to roadside accidents.

    PubMed

    Arora, Puneet; Chanana, Ashok; Tejpal, Hakumat R

    2013-05-01

    Like any other disease, accidents too are caused by interaction between agent, host, and environment. Human factors include age, (accidents most common between 10 and 24 years), sex, education, medical conditions (heart attack, impaired vision), fatigue, influence of alcohol and other drugs, lack of bodily protection (like helmets, seat belts) and psychosocial factors like lack of experience, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, defective judgment and delay in decisions. Drunken driving is an important risk factor in causing accidents. This study was focused on the status of alcohol consumption in relation with roadside accidents in northern India in the region of Amritsar. The present study was carried out in 100 cases alleged to have died of roadside accident and brought to the mortuary attached to the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Government Medical College, Amritsar for autopsy examination. Blood samples were collected from the femoral vein and were tested for the presence of alcohol with steam distillation and titration method using potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. In the present study, 23% of the fatal driver/pedestrian victims of roadside accidents were found to have consumed alcohol before accident. Most of the victims of road accident were from the age group 21-30 and 31-40 years. Most of the accidents occurred on straight roads instead of bends or intersections, more during daytime and weekends. 57% of the blood alcohol positives were between 100 mg% and 149 mg%. Majority of the victims of roadside accidents were motorcyclists and the striking vehicles were trucks and buses causing head & neck injuries in most of the victims. Death occurred within a few minutes in most of the cases.

  3. Road tunnel, roadside, and urban background measurements of aliphatic compounds in size-segregated particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Célia A.; Oliveira, César; Martins, Natércia; Mirante, Fátima; Caseiro, Alexandre; Pio, Casimiro; Matos, Manuel; Silva, Hugo F.; Oliveira, Cristina; Camões, Filomena

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter samples were collected in a road tunnel in Lisbon (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5, and PM2.5-10) and at two urban locations representing roadside and background stations (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10). Samples were analysed for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), n-alkanes, n-alkenes, hopanes, some isoprenoid compounds, and steranes. Particulate matter concentrations in the tunnel were 17-31 times higher than at roadside in the vicinity, evidencing an aerosol origin almost exclusively in fresh vehicle emissions. PM0.5 in the tunnel comprised more than 60% and 80% of the total OC and EC mass in PM10, respectively. Concentrations of the different aliphatic groups of compounds in the tunnel were up to 89 times higher than at roadside and 143 times higher than at urban background. Based on the application of hopane-to-OC or hopanes-to-EC ratios obtained in the tunnel, it was found that vehicle emissions are the dominant contributor to carbonaceous particles in the city but do not represent the only source of these triterpenic compounds. Contrary to what has been observed in other studies, the Σhopane-to-EC ratios were higher in summer than in winter, suggesting that other factors (e.g. biomass burning, dust resuspension, and different fuels/engine technologies) prevail in relation to the photochemical decay of triterpenoid hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust.

  4. Alien Roadside Species More Easily Invade Alpine than Lowland Plant Communities in a Subarctic Mountain Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lembrechts, Jonas J.; Milbau, Ann; Nijs, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment. PMID:24586947

  5. Modeling the hydrologic effects of roadside ditch networks on receiving waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Brian; Easton, Zachary M.; Schneider, Rebecca L.; Walter, M. Todd

    2013-04-01

    SummaryRoadside drainage networks can affect deleterious changes to watershed hydrology and water quality. However, very few studies have explored these effects in agricultural settings where the potential for nonpoint source pollution and the implications of tighter hydrologic linkages between landscape and stream are more critical. In this study, we apply a GIS-based, spatially distributed hydrologic model under a variety of drainage scenarios to quantify the hydrologic effects of roadside ditches at multiple spatial scales. We also qualitatively investigate the relative impacts of ditches on phosphorus transport. Our principle findings indicate that roadside ditches: (i) substantially alter basin morphometry and natural flow pathways, (ii) increase peak and total event discharge and (iii) expedite the transport of agricultural pollutants, thereby short-circuiting natural degradation processes that would otherwise have mitigated their effects. These findings underscore how relatively fine-scale alterations to natural flow pathways can result in substantial impacts to watershed scale hydrology and water quality and may help to inform spatially-targeted water resource management decisions and future modeling efforts.

  6. Heavy metal concentrations in roadside soils and correlation with urban traffic in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xia, Xinghui; Zhao, Ye; Zhang, Ping

    2010-09-15

    A detailed investigation was conducted to study the heavy metal concentrations in roadside soils of Beijing. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn showed a decreasing trend with increasing distance from the road while such trend was not identified in As, Cr and Ni. In addition, the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn significantly positively correlated with black carbon (BC) and TOC (p<0.01). The soil samples from West 2nd Ring Road with the highest traffic volume had the highest heavy metal concentrations of the 10 roads, and Pb concentration was significantly positively correlated with traffic volumes (p<0.05). According to the soil guideline values of China, Cd was considered to have considerable contamination in roadside soils, while Cu, Pb and Zn less, but As, Ni, Cr none. The concentrations of heavy metals in roadside soils of Beijing were considered medium or low in comparison with those in other cities; this may be due to the windy and dry climate in Beijing. The heavy metals could move with wind along the wind direction and the soil samples had higher heavy metal concentrations at the downwind direction.

  7. Mobilization of Roadside Soil Cation Pools by Exchange with Road Deicers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Bain, D.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past sixty years, road deicers (i.e., road salt) have been applied to roadways in high latitudes to improve traffic conditions in winter weather. However, the dissolution of road deicers in highway runoff create waters with high total dissolved solids (TDS), specifically high concentrations of sodium, which can mobilize soil metals via soil cation exchange reactions. While several studies have detailed the interactions of high TDS solutions and surface and ground waters, limited attention is paid to the impacts of high TDS solutions on near-road soils. Between 2013 and 2014, soil water samples were collected from a roadside transect of lysimeter nests in Pittsburgh, PA. Soil water samples were analyzed for metal concentrations and resulting data used to examine cation dynamics. Patterns in soil water calcium and magnesium concentrations follow patterns in soil water sodium concentrations. In our samples, the highest major cation concentrations are found at the deepest lysimeters, suggesting major cations are mobilized to, and potentially accumulate in, deeper soil horizons. Concentration peaks in the downslope soil waters lag concentration peaks at the near-road nest by two months, indicating that road salt plumes persist and migrate following the road salting season. Characterizing the interactions of high TDS solutions and roadside soil cation pools clarifies our understanding of metal dynamics in the roadside environment. A deeper understanding of these processes is necessary to effectively restore and manage watersheds as high TDS solutions (i.e., road deicing, hydraulic fracturing, and marginal irrigation water) increasingly influence ecosystem function.

  8. Wireless Roadside Inspection Phase II Tennessee Commercial Mobile Radio Services Pilot Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Capps, Gary J; Siekmann, Adam

    2011-05-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Wireless Roadside Inspection (WRI) Program is researching the feasibility and value of electronically assessing truck and bus driver and vehicle safety at least 25 times more often than is possible using only roadside physical inspections. The WRI program is evaluating the potential benefits to both the motor carrier industry and to government. These potential benefits include reduction in accidents, fatalities and injuries on our highways and keeping safe and legal drivers and vehicles moving on the highways. WRI Pilot tests were conducted to prototype, test and demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of electronically collecting safety data message sets from in-service commercial vehicles and performing wireless roadside inspections using three different communication methods. This report summarizes the design, conduct and results of the Tennessee CMRS WRI Pilot Test. The purpose of this Pilot test was to demonstrate the implementation of commercial mobile radio services to electronically request and collect safety data message sets from a limited number of commercial vehicles operating in Tennessee. The results of this test have been used in conjunction with the results of the complimentary pilot tests to support an overall assessment of the feasibility and benefits of WRI in enhancing motor carrier safety (reduction in accidents) due to increased compliance (change in motor carrier and driver behavior) caused by conducting frequent safety inspections electronically, at highway speeds, without delay or need to divert into a weigh station

  9. A Bonne enseigne: une grille de lecture de panneaux de la rue (On Good Authority: A Grid for Reading Roadside Signs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otman, Gabriel

    1987-01-01

    Classroom use of roadside signs and billboards is recommended both for understanding cultural and geographic context and for learning French. Exercises for decoding and comprehension are suggested. (MSE)

  10. Impact of Hong Kong's Voluntary Catalytic Converter Replacement Programme on Roadside Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Guo, H.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Lyu, X.; Meinardi, S.; Yam, Y. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    As part of its ongoing policies to improve roadside air quality, in 2013 the Hong Kong government launched an incentive programme to replace catalytic converters and oxygen sensors in taxis and light buses mainly fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The majority of replacements occurred from October 2013 to April 2014, with 75% of eligible vehicles participating in the programme, or 16,472 vehicles. Based on taxi exhaust measurements at a Hong Kong vehicle testing facility, the concentrations of n-butane, propane and i-butane (the primary components of LPG) decreased by 97% following the replacements. To determine the impact of the programme on roadside air quality, long-term measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed before, during and after the replacement programme, mainly at a busy roadside location in Mong Kok, Hong Kong. A clear decrease in the levels of major pollutants associated with LPG vehicle exhaust was observed at the roadside. For example, average (± 1 standard deviation) n-butane levels from October to April decreased from 13.0 ± 3.6 and 13.9 ± 2.6 ppbv in the two years preceding the programme, to 9.2 ± 2.9 ppbv during the programme, to 6.2 ± 1.7 ppbv the year after the programme. By contrast, compounds such as i-pentane that are not strongly associated with LPG or with LPG exhaust remained steady, averaging 0.90 ± 0.34, 1.01 ± 0.31, 0.93 ± 0.37, and 0.91 ± 0.42 ppbv from October to April of 2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15, respectively. Impacts of the programme on roadside levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) will also be discussed. Because many taxis are high mileage vehicles that travel several hundred kilometers daily, their catalytic converters need to be replaced approximately every 18 months. Therefore ongoing vehicle maintenance will be required in order to preserve the gains made from this initial subsidy programme.

  11. Drinking and Driving in the United States: Comparing Results from the 2007 and 1996 National Roadside Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John H.; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Yao, Jie; Berning, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (a) use data from the 2007 National Roadside Survey (NRS) to determine the characteristics of weekend nighttime drivers with positive blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) on U.S. roads in 2007; (b) determine the relationship of the driving environment and trip characteristics associated with drinking drivers; and (c) compare the findings for the 2007 NRS with those for the 1996 NRS. Methods Like the 1996 NRS, the 2007 NRS used a stratified random national roadside survey sample of the contiguous 48 states and collected nighttime data on Fridays and Saturdays between 10 PM and 3 AM. Officers directed 8,384 drivers into off-road parking areas where our research team asked them to participate in the survey. Results Of those approached, 7,159 (85.4%) provided a breath test. Results revealed that 12% of the nighttime drivers had positive BACs, and of those, 2% were higher than the .08 BAC illegal limit in the United States. Since the 1996 NRS, we found significant reductions in the percentage of BAC-positive drivers across different demographic groups. Age was among the most significant factors associated with a weekend driver having a positive BAC. The probability that a driver would be drinking peaked in the 21- to 25-year-old age group. Male drivers were more likely than female drivers to be drinking, and Asian and Hispanic drivers were less likely than White drivers to be drinking. Drinking drivers were more likely to be driving short distances (5 or fewer miles), late at night (between 1 and 3 AM), and to be coming from a bar or restaurant. Finally, 26% of the drivers who reported that they would drive less than 5 miles on the night of the survey had positive BACs, compared to only 16% who indicated they would drive between 6 and 20 miles and 10% who planned to drive more than 20 miles. Conclusions The 2007 NRS provides another benchmark in the four-decade record of drinking drivers on American roads and provides a

  12. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  13. The prevalence of distraction among passenger vehicle drivers: a roadside observational approach

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving contributes to a large proportion of motor vehicle crashes, yet little is known about the prevalence of distracted driving and the specific types of distracting behaviors. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of driver distraction using a roadside observational study design. Methods A cross-sectional survey involving direct roadside observation was conducted at 11 selected intersections. Trained investigators observed a sample of passenger vehicles and recorded distraction-related behaviors, driver characteristics, and contextual factors such as vehicle speed and traffic flow. Results Of the 3,265 drivers observed, the prevalence of distracted driving was 32.7%. Among those involved in a distracting activity, the most frequently observed distractions included interacting with another passenger (53.2%, where passengers were present), talking on the phone (31.4%), external-vehicle distractions (20.4%), and texting/dialing a phone (16.6%). The prevalence of talking on the phone was higher among females than males (38.6% vs. 24.3%), whereas external vehicle distractions were higher among males than females (25.8% vs. 24.3%). Drivers <30 years were observed being engaged in any distracting activity, interacting with other passengers and texting/dialing more frequently than drivers aged 30–50 and >50 years. Drivers were engaged in distracting behaviors more frequently when the car was stopped. Conclusions When using similar methodology, roadside observational studies generate comparable prevalence estimates of driver distraction as naturalistic driving studies. Driver distraction is a common problem among passenger vehicle drivers. Despite the increased awareness on the dangers of texting and cell phone use while driving, these specific activities were two of the most frequently observed distractions. There is a continued need for road safety education about the dangers of distracted driving, especially for younger

  14. Chemical characterization and toxicity of particulate matter emissions from roadside trash combustion in urban India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreeland, Heidi; Schauer, James J.; Russell, Armistead G.; Marshall, Julian D.; Fushimi, Akihiro; Jain, Grishma; Sethuraman, Karthik; Verma, Vishal; Tripathi, Sachi N.; Bergin, Michael H.

    2016-12-01

    Roadside trash burning is largely unexamined as a factor that influences air quality, radiative forcing, and human health even though it is ubiquitously practiced across many global regions, including throughout India. The objective of this research is to examine characteristics and redox activity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with roadside trash burning in Bangalore, India. Emissions from smoldering and flaming roadside trash piles (n = 24) were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), brown carbon (BrC), and toxicity (i.e. redox activity, measured via the dithiothreitol "DTT" assay). A subset of samples (n = 8) were further assessed for toxicity by a cellular assay (macrophage assay) and also analyzed for trace organic compounds. Results show high variability of chemical composition and toxicity between trash-burning emissions, and characteristic differences from ambient samples. OC/EC ratios for trash-burning emissions range from 0.8 to 1500, while ambient OC/EC ratios were observed at 5.4 ± 1.8. Trace organic compound analyses indicate that emissions from trash-burning piles were frequently composed of aromatic di-acids (likely from burning plastics) and levoglucosan (an indicator of biomass burning), while the ambient sample showed high response from alkanes indicating notable representation from vehicular exhaust. Volume-normalized DTT results (i.e., redox activity normalized by the volume of air pulled through the filter during sampling) were, unsurprisingly, extremely elevated in all trash-burning samples. Interestingly, DTT results suggest that on a per-mass basis, fresh trash-burning emissions are an order of magnitude less redox-active than ambient air (13.4 ± 14.8 pmol/min/μgOC for trash burning; 107 ± 25 pmol/min/μgOC for ambient). However, overall results indicate that near trash-burning sources, exposure to redox-active PM can be extremely high.

  15. The impact of walking while using a smartphone on pedestrians' awareness of roadside events.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-I Brandon; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that using a cell phone to talk or text while walking changes gait kinematics and encourages risky street-crossing behaviors. However, less is known about how the motor-cognitive interference imposed by smartphone tasks affects pedestrians' situational awareness to environmental targets relevant to pedestrian safety. This study systematically investigated the influence of smartphone use on detection of and responses to a variety of roadside events in a semi-virtual walking environment. Twenty-four healthy participants completed six treadmill walking sessions while engaged in a concurrent picture-dragging, texting, or news-reading task. During distracted walking, they were required to simultaneously monitor the occurrence of road events for two different levels of event frequency. Performance measures for smartphone tasks and event responses, eye movements, and perceived workload and situational awareness were compared across different dual-task conditions. The results revealed that during dual-task walking, the reading app was associated with a significantly higher level of perceived workload, and impaired awareness of the surrounding environment to a greater extent compared with the texting or picture-dragging apps. Pedestrians took longer to visually detect the roadside events in the reading and texting conditions than in the dragging condition. Differences in event response performances were mainly dependent on their salient features but were also affected by the type of smartphone task. Texting was found to make participants more reliant on their central vision to detect road events. Moreover, different gaze-scanning patterns were adopted by participants to better protect dual-task performance in response to the changes in road-event frequency. The findings of relationships between workload, dual-task performances, and allocation strategies for visual attention further our understanding of pedestrian behavior and safety. By knowing

  16. Resting cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  17. Effect of deicing salts on urban soils and health status of roadside trees in the Opole region.

    PubMed

    Czerniawska-Kusza, Izabela; Kusza, Grzegorz; Duzyński, Mariusz

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on a study whose aim was to evaluate the impact of snow removal salts on urban soil properties and the health of roadside trees. The evaluation was done by chemical analyses of soil samples and plant matter combined with toxicity testing, performed with a Protoxkit F, a protozoan microbiotest. Samples were collected at 45 locations on three main roads in the town of Opole (Poland). The roads differed in the snow removal technology and amount of chemical substances (mostly NaCl) used on them during the winter. The study showed that when soil was exposed to a high level of NaCl, it tended to be more alkaline and also exhibited increased content of Na(+) and Cl(-). The toxic effects of the soil extract on protozoa appeared at 26.0 mg Na(+)/100 g soil dry mass (s.d.m.) and 12.0 mg Cl(-)/100 g s.d.m., whereas salt injury symptoms (chlorosis and necrosis of the edge of leaf blades) appeared at 13.2 mg Na(+)/100 g s.d.m. and 3.9 mg Cl(-)/100 g s.d.m., becoming more severe at 26.0 mg Na(+)/100 g s.d.m. and 12.0 mg Cl(-)/100 g s.d.m. because of extensive necrosis and defoliation. The lysimetric experiment, which was used to test soil samples collected from the city park area, indicated that salt plays a significant role in the pollution of soil in urban areas, with the least toxic salt being CaCl(2).

  18. Remote monitoring of emissions using on-vehicle sensing and vehicle to roadside communications

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    Recent developments in on-vehicle electronics makes practical remote monitoring of vehicle emissions compliance with CARB and EPA regulations. A system consisting of emission controls malfunction sensors, an on-board computer (OBC), and vehicle-to-roadside communications (VRC) would enable enforcement officials to remotely and automatically detect vehicle out-of-compliance status. Remote sensing could be accomplished at highway speeds as vehicles pass a roadside RF antenna and reader unit which would interrogate the on- vehicle monitoring and recording system. This paper will focus on the hardware system components require to achieve this goal with special attention to the VRC; a key element for remote monitoring. this remote sensing concept piggybacks on the development of inexpensive VRC equipment for automatic vehicle identification for electronic toll collection and intelligent transportation applications. Employing an RF transponder with appropriate interface to the OBC and malfunction sensors, a practical monitoring system can be developed with potentially important impact on air quality and enforcement. With such a system in place, the current -- and costly and ineffective -- emission control strategy of periodic smog checking could be replaced or modified.

  19. Rest tremor suppression may separate essential from parkinsonian rest tremor.

    PubMed

    Papengut, Frank; Raethjen, Jan; Binder, Andreas; Deuschl, Günther

    2013-07-01

    Rest tremor at 4-6 Hz is typical for classical rest tremor (PT) of Parkinson's disease (PD). But rest tremor also appears in other tremor syndromes and may therefore cause a misdiagnosis. In this study we evaluated if suppression of tremor during movement onset is a characteristic feature of Parkinsonian Tremor distinguishing PT from Essential tremor (ET) and if this sign can be reliably diagnosed. Clinically diagnosed patients with PT (n = 44) and ET (n = 22) with rest tremor were included. Video sequences were recorded according to a standardized protocol focusing on the change of tremor amplitude during transition from rest to posture (test 1) or to a target-directed movement (test 2). These videos were assessed for rest tremor suppression by 4 reviewers (2 specialists and 2 residents) blinded to the clinical diagnosis and were compared to the personal assessment of an unblinded movement disorder specialist. Rest tremor suppression was found in 39/44 PD patients and in 2/22 patients with ET during the personal assessment. Rest tremor suppression showed a high sensitivity (0.92-1.00) and an acceptable specificity (0.69-0.95) for PD tremor in both tests. The interrater-reliability of the video-sequences was good to very good (κ 0.73-0.91). Less than 3% of the video sequences were misclassified. We conclude that the assessment of the suppression of rest tremor during movement initiation is a simple and reliable tool to separate PT from rest tremor in ET also suggesting that the mechanisms of rest tremor in these two diseases are different.

  20. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  1. Alcohol- and Drug-Involved Driving in the United States: Methodology for the 2007 National Roadside Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, John H.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Torres, Pedro; Berning, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the methodology used in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey to estimate the prevalence of alcohol- and drug-impaired driving and alcohol- and drug-involved driving. This study involved randomly stopping drivers at 300 locations across the 48 continental U.S. states at sites selected through a stratified random sampling…

  2. A Simple and Inexpensive Technique for the Determination of the Amount of Particulate Desposition at Roadside Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple technique to monitor air pollutants and to simulate some of the features of roadside canopies. Included are the procedures, directions for the assembly of the apparatus, and a discussion of typical results. Graphs of sample data are presented. (CW)

  3. Metal accumulation in roadside soil in Melbourne, Australia: Effect of road age, traffic density and vehicular speed.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Shamali; Ball, Andrew S; Huynh, Trang; Reichman, Suzie M

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of vehicular emitted heavy metals in roadside soils result in long term environmental damage. This study assessed the relationships between traffic characteristics (traffic density, road age and vehicular speed) and roadside soil heavy metals. Significant levels were recorded for Cd (0.06-0.59 mg/kg), Cr (18-29 mg/kg), Cu (4-12 mg/kg), Ni (7-20 mg/kg), Mn (92-599 mg/kg), Pb (16-144 mg/kg) and Zn (10.36-88.75 mg/kg), with Mn concentrations exceeding the Ecological Investigation Level. Significant correlations were found between roadside soil metal concentration and vehicular speed (R = 0.90), road age (R = 0.82) and traffic density (R = 0.68). Recently introduced metals in automotive technology (e.g. Mn and Sb) were higher in younger roads, while the metals present for many years (e.g. Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) were higher in medium and old age roads confirming the risk of significant metal deposition and soil metal retention in roadside soils.

  4. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25759723

  5. Expressions of Private Mourning in Public Space: The Evolving Structure of Spontaneous and Permanent Roadside Memorials in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaassens, Mirjam; Groote, Peter D.; Vanclay, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    A visual content analysis of photos of 216 roadside memorials in the Netherlands was undertaken together with 24 interviews with the people who constructed them to understand how they deal with traumatic death. Friends urgently need to memorialize the deceased and establish spontaneous memorials. They place meaningful objects at the place of…

  6. The role of acoustic screens in distribution of technogenic magnetic particles and chemical pollution in roadside soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawer, Małgorzata; Magiera, Tadeusz; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Roads constructed nowadays should by all means be functional for their motorized users but at the same time their effect on the environment ought to be limited to the minimum. Despite the existence of various methods for preventing from negative influence of roads on the environment, there is still lack of adequate techniques to monitor and reduce the spreading of roadside pollution in the air and soils. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of acoustic screens on spreading and deposition of solid pollutants deriving from car emissions, based on their quantitative and qualitative analysis. During this study, measurements of magnetic susceptibility and analyses of heavy metals as well as Pt and Rh contents in soil and plant samples (Taraxacum officinale, Plantago major, Parthenocissus quinquefolia) collected near different kinds of acoustic screens ("green walls", Plexiglass, sawdust concrete, steel panels and earth embankments) have been done. Previous investigations showed showed that most of traffic emission is deposited in the close vicinity of the roads (up to 10 m) and the level of contamination decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. However, the results of this project indicate that, in the area where the acoustic screens are located, this distribution is disturbed and the additional enrichment of heavy metals in soil about 10 - 15 m behind screens is observed. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contents in soil samples corresponds to its magnetic susceptibility values. High contents of Fe, Zn, Mn and Pb was observed next to acoustic screens made of sawdust concrete and steel panels. Additionally, concentration of Zn in soil samples collected close to these screens exceeded threshold value. Analyses of plants showed that the highest content of examined elements and highest values of magnetic susceptibility were recorded near road edge. What is more, samples of Parthenocissus quinquefolia collected at height 0.2 m were characterized

  7. A new approach to in-situ determination of roadside particle emission factors of individual vehicles under conventional driving conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hak, Claudia S.; Hallquist, Mattias; Ljungström, Evert; Svane, Maria; Pettersson, Jan B. C.

    A method for continuous on-road measurements of particle number emissions for both diesel- and petrol-fuelled vehicles is presented. The setup allows the determination of particle number emission factors on an individual vehicle basis by the simultaneous measurement of CO 2 and particle concentrations. As an alternative to previous measurements on the kerbside, the sample is taken directly in the street, with the advantage of sampling in-situ within the exhaust plumes of passing vehicles, allowing the separation of the individual high-concentration plumes. The method was tested in two experiments that were conducted in the Gothenburg area. In the first study, which was performed at an urban roadside, we were able to determine particle emission factors from individual vehicles in a common car fleet passing the measurement site. The obtained emission factors were of the same order of magnitude (between 1.4 × 10 12 and 1.8 × 10 14 particles km -1) as values published in the recent literature for light duty vehicles. An additional on-road experiment was conducted at a rural road with four light duty reference vehicles (three of them petrol-powered and one diesel-powered) at driving speeds of 50 and 70 km h -1, realised with different engine speeds. The results of the traffic emission studies show that the method is applicable provided that instruments with an adequate dynamic range are used and that the traffic is not too dense. In addition, the variability in particle emissions for a specified driving condition was estimated.

  8. Application of positive matrix factorization in characterization of PM(10) and PM(2.5) emission sources at urban roadside.

    PubMed

    Srimuruganandam, B; Shiva Nagendra, S M

    2012-06-01

    The 24-h average coarse (PM(10)) and fine (PM(2.5)) fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM) samples were collected for winter, summer and monsoon seasons during November 2008-April 2009 at an busy roadside in Chennai city, India. Results showed that the 24-h average ambient PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations were significantly higher in winter and monsoon seasons than in summer season. The 24-h average PM(10) concentration of weekdays was significantly higher (12-30%) than weekends of winter and monsoon seasons. On weekends, the PM(2.5) concentration was found to slightly higher (4-15%) in monsoon and summer seasons. The chemical composition of PM(10) and PM(2.5) masses showed a high concentration in winter followed by monsoon and summer seasons. The U.S.EPA-PMF (positive matrix factorization) version 3 was applied to identify the source contribution of ambient PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations at the study area. Results indicated that marine aerosol (40.4% in PM(10) and 21.5% in PM(2.5)) and secondary PM (22.9% in PM(10) and 42.1% in PM(2.5)) were found to be the major source contributors at the study site followed by the motor vehicles (16% in PM(10) and 6% in PM(2.5)), biomass burning (0.7% in PM(10) and 14% in PM(2.5)), tire and brake wear (4.1% in PM(10) and 5.4% in PM(2.5)), soil (3.4% in PM(10) and 4.3% in PM(2.5)) and other sources (12.7% in PM(10) and 6.8% in PM(2.5)).

  9. Study of the Effectivity of Several Tree Canopy Types on Roadside Green Belt in Influencing The Distribution Vertically and Horizontally of CO gas Emitted from Transportation Activities to Vicinity of The Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistyantara, Bambang; Nasrullah, Nizar; Sitti Fatimah, Indung; Indah Pratiwi, Prita

    2016-01-01

    High volume of vehicle leads to the increase of emission of pollutants level in major cities of Indonesia. Carbon monoxide (CO) is categorized as the main gas pollutants from transportation that are harmful to human health. Plants could be used as roadside green belt to reduce the level of pollutants emitted from the transportation. The purpose of this research is to determine tree canopy type that effectively reduce CO gas concentration, to determine the relation between tree canopy types and pollutant distribution vertically and horizontally. The research was conducted on roadside green belt of Jagorawi Highway, especially on the plot of glodogan (Polyanthea fragrans), plot of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and a control plot (open filed). Air sampling was conducted to measure the concentration of CO at three elevation 1.5 m, 5 m, and 10 m at each distance 0 m, 10 m, and 30 m. Concentration of CO was analysed using Iodometri method. Vertical distribution of CO gas shows that the concentration increases with the increasing of sampling elevation on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans and Swietenia mahogany, but the control plot shows the opposite. Horizontal distribution shows that the concentration decreases at the distance 10 m on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans and Swietenia mahogany, but the concentration increases again at the distance 30 m. At the distance 10 m and an elevation 1.5 m, the highest decline percentage of CO occurs on the plot of Swietenia mahogany (45.1%), on the plot of Polyalthia fragrans is just 22.2%, while in control plot, it increases by 2.2%. At the distance 30 m and elevation 1.5 m, the concentration increased again on all of the plots. Thus roadside green belt with a thickness 10 m is not effective in reducing the concentration of CO at the distance 30 m or in residential areas.

  10. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jichul; Benoit, Diane L; Watson, Alan K

    2016-06-01

    In southern Québec, supplement roadside ground covers (i.e. Trifolium spp.) struggle to establish near edges of major roads and thus fail to assist turf recruitment. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd) on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed (A. artemisiifolia) and ground cover legumes (Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium arvense). All metals inhibited T. arvense germination, but the effect was least on A. artemisiifolia. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. artemisiifolia. Germination of L. corniculatus was not affected by Zn, Pb, and Ni, but inhibited by Cu and Cd. Germination of C. varia was decreased by Ni, Cu, and Cd and delayed by Zn and Pb. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. artemisiifolia but highest in T. arvense when exposed to the metal treatments. L. corniculatus and C. varia seedlings survived when subjected to high levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. artemisiifolia along roadside edges can be associated with its greater tolerance of heavy metals. The findings also revealed that L. corniculatus is a potential candidate for supplement ground cover in metal-contaminated roadside edges in southern Québec, especially sites contaminated with Zn and Pb.

  11. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  12. View of parking (resting) frame that supported the Shuttle assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of parking (resting) frame that supported the Shuttle assembly when the hydrodynamic supports were not engaged (removed from structure). - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. Dual roadside seismic sensor for moving road vehicle detection and characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yinhai; Miller, Gregory R

    2014-02-12

    This paper presents a method for using a dual roadside seismic sensor to detect moving vehicles on roadway by installing them on a road shoulder. Seismic signals are split into fixed time intervals in recording. In each interval, the time delay of arrival (TDOA) is estimated using a generalized cross-correlation approach with phase transform (GCC-PHAT). Various kinds of vehicle characterization information, including vehicle speed, axle spacing, detection of both vehicle axles and moving direction, can also be extracted from the collected seismic signals as demonstrated in this paper. The error of both vehicle speed and axle spacing detected by this approach has been shown to be less than 20% through the field tests conducted on an urban street in Seattle. Compared to most existing sensors, this new design of dual seismic sensor is cost effective, easy to install, and effective in gathering information for various traffic management applications.

  14. Advances in ground vehicle-based LADAR for standoff detection of road-side hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollinger, Jim; Vessey, Alyssa; Close, Ryan; Middleton, Seth; Williams, Kathryn; Rupp, Ronald; Nguyen, Son

    2016-05-01

    Commercial sensor technology has the potential to bring cost-effective sensors to a number of U.S. Army applications. By using sensors built for a widespread of commercial application, such as the automotive market, the Army can decrease costs of future systems while increasing overall capabilities. Additional sensors operating in alternate and orthogonal modalities can also be leveraged to gain a broader spectrum measurement of the environment. Leveraging multiple phenomenologies can reduce false alarms and make detection algorithms more robust to varied concealment materials. In this paper, this approach is applied to the detection of roadside hazards partially concealed by light-to-medium vegetation. This paper will present advances in detection algorithms using a ground vehicle-based commercial LADAR system. The benefits of augmenting a LADAR with millimeter-wave automotive radar and results from relevant data sets are also discussed.

  15. Dual Roadside Seismic Sensor for Moving Road Vehicle Detection and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yinhai; Miller, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using a dual roadside seismic sensor to detect moving vehicles on roadway by installing them on a road shoulder. Seismic signals are split into fixed time intervals in recording. In each interval, the time delay of arrival (TDOA) is estimated using a generalized cross-correlation approach with phase transform (GCC-PHAT). Various kinds of vehicle characterization information, including vehicle speed, axle spacing, detection of both vehicle axles and moving direction, can also be extracted from the collected seismic signals as demonstrated in this paper. The error of both vehicle speed and axle spacing detected by this approach has been shown to be less than 20% through the field tests conducted on an urban street in Seattle. Compared to most existing sensors, this new design of dual seismic sensor is cost effective, easy to install, and effective in gathering information for various traffic management applications. PMID:24526304

  16. Metals in European roadside soils and soil solution--a review.

    PubMed

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-06-01

    This review provides a summary of studies analysing metal concentrations in soils and soil solution at European roadsides. The data collected during 27 studies covering a total of 64 sites across a number of European countries were summarised. Highest median values of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in the top soil layer at the first 5 m beside the road. Generally, the influence of traffic on soil contamination decreased with increasing soil depth and distance to the road. The concentration patterns of metals in soil solution were independent from concentrations in the soil matrix. At 10-m distance, elevated soil metal concentrations, low pH, and low percolation rates led to high solute concentrations. Directly beside the road, high percolation rates lead to high annual loadings although solute concentrations are comparatively low. These loadings might be problematic, especially in regions with acidic sandy soils and a high groundwater table.

  17. Roadside tree attenuation measurements at UHF for land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1987-01-01

    Tree attenuation results at 870 MHz are described for experiments conducted in October 1985 and March 1986 in Central Maryland. These experiments employed a helicopter as a source platform and a van with receiver and data acquisition instrumentation. Tree attenuation results were obtained for the cases in which the van was stationary and in motion. The experiments were performed for the purpose of providing the designers of planned land mobile satellite systems with important elements in the determination of link parameter requirements; namely, the expected fading statistics due to roadside trees for both mobile and stationary vehicles. Single tree attenuation results gave worst case median fades as high as 15 dB although roadside tree values were noted to produce fades in excess of 20 dB for small percentages of time. The cumulative fade distributions and their relative contributions as a function of path elevation angle, right side versus left side driving, and different road types are derived from the field measurements. Upon comparing the attenuations from bare deciduous trees (March 1986) with those due to trees in full foliage (October 1985), the increase in dB attenuations were, in general, less than 25 percent for the dynamic cases, and less than 40 percent for the worst case static configuration. This result demonstrates that the dominant fading is caused by the wooded tree branches as opposed to the leaves on these branches. The tail end of the observed fade distributions was observed to follow lognormal distributions with respect to dB attenuation.

  18. Improved method for roadside barrier length of need modeling using real-world trajectories.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Thomson, Robert; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-07-01

    The 2011 AASHTO Roadside Design Guide (RDG) contains perhaps the most widely used procedure for choosing an appropriate length of need (LON) for roadside barriers. However, this procedure has several limitations. The procedure uses a highly simplified model of vehicle departure, and the procedure does not allow designers to specify an explicit level of protection. A new procedure for choosing LON that addresses these limitations is presented in this paper. This new procedure is based on recent, real-world road departure trajectories and uses this departure data in a more realistic way. The new procedure also allows LON to be specified for a precisely known level of protection - a level which can be based on number of crashes, injury outcomes or even estimated crash cost - while still remaining straightforward and quick to use like the 2011 RDG procedure. In this analysis, the improved procedure was used to explore the effects of the RDG procedure's assumptions. LON recommendations given by the 2011 RDG procedure were compared with recommendations given by this improved procedure. For 55 mph roads, the 2011 RDG procedure appears to lead to a LON sufficient to intercept between 80% and 90% of right-side departures that would otherwise strike a hazard located 10 m from the roadway. For hazards closer than 10 m, the 2011 RDG procedure intercepts progressively higher percentages of real-world departures. This suggests the protection level provided by the 2011 RDG procedure varies with the hazard offset, becoming more conservative as the hazard moves closer to the roadway. The improved procedure, by comparison, gives a consistent protection level regardless of hazard location.

  19. The effects of roadside structures on the transport and dispersion of ultrafine particles from highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, George E.; Baldauf, Richard; Isakov, Vlad; Khlystov, Andrey; Petersen, William

    Understanding local-scale transport and dispersion of pollutants emitted from traffic sources is important for urban planning and air quality assessments. Predicting pollutant concentration patterns in complex environments depends on accurate representations of local features (e.g., noise barriers, trees, buildings) affecting near-field air flows. This study examined the effects of roadside barriers on the flow patterns and dispersion of pollutants from a high-traffic highway in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. The effects of the structures were analyzed using the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) model, an empirically based diagnostic tool which simulates fine-scale wind field and dispersion patterns around obstacles. Model simulations were compared with the spatial distributions of ultrafine particles (UFP) from vehicular emissions measured using a passenger van equipped with a Differential Mobility Analyzer/Condensation Particle Counter. The field site allowed for an evaluation of pollutant concentrations in open terrain, with a noise barrier present near the road, and with a noise barrier and vegetation present near the road. Results indicated that air pollutant concentrations near the road were generally higher in open terrain situations with no barriers present; however, concentrations for this case decreased faster with distance than when roadside barriers were present. The presence of a noise barrier and vegetation resulted in the lowest downwind pollutant concentrations, indicating that the plume under this condition was relatively uniform and vertically well-mixed. Comparison of the QUIC model with the mobile UFP measurements indicated that QUIC reasonably represented pollutant transport and dispersion for each of the study configurations.

  20. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water sold by roadside vendors of Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Pankaj; Varma, Ajit; Jindal, Tanu

    2015-07-01

    Delhi has emerged as one of the greenest capital city of the world. Microbiological assessment of drinking water emphasizes estimation of the hygienic quality of the water sold with reference to community health significance. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors in east, west, north and south zones of capital of India. A total number of 36 samples (nine from each zone) were collected as per national guidelines and studied for microbiological assessment. All the drinking water samples were collected in gamma-sterilized bottles and were kept in an ice pack to prevent any significant change in the microbial flora of the samples during the transportation. The water samples were transported to the laboratory in vertical position maintaining the temperature 1-4 °C with ice pack enveloped conditions. Samples were analyzed for total MPN coliform per 100 ml and for the presence and absence of common human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the samples were found to be contaminated with coliform organisms in the range of 14 to >1600 per 100 ml of sample. Out of 36 water samples, the occurrence of E. coli was 61 %, Salmonella 25 % S. aureus 14 % and P. aeruginosa 53 % as 22, 9, 5 and 19 samples were found contaminated, respectively. The numbers of coliform bacteria and presence of some common pathogenic bacteria suggested that the quality of drinking water sold by roadside vendors is not within the Indian standard and WHO guidelines laid down for drinking water quality. Hence, there is a vital need to study the root cause in terms of hygiene, sanitation of vendors and source of contamination to prevent waterborne diseases.

  1. RESTful Web Services at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, R.

    2011-06-14

    RESTful (REpresentational State Transfer) web services are an alternative implementation to SOAP/RPC web services in a client/server model. BNLs IT Division has started deploying RESTful Web Services for enterprise data retrieval and manipulation. Data is currently used by system administrators for tracking configuration information and as it is expanded will be used by Cyber Security for vulnerability management and as an aid to cyber investigations. This talk will describe the implementation and outstanding issues as well as some of the reasons for choosing RESTful over SOAP/RPC and future directions.

  2. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  3. Understanding how roadside concentrations of NOx are influenced by the background levels, traffic density, and meteorological conditions using Boosted Regression Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayegh, Arwa; Tate, James E.; Ropkins, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) is a major component of photochemical smog and its constituents are considered principal traffic-related pollutants affecting human health. This study investigates the influence of background concentrations of NOx, traffic density, and prevailing meteorological conditions on roadside concentrations of NOx at UK urban, open motorway, and motorway tunnel sites using the statistical approach Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). BRT models have been fitted using hourly concentration, traffic, and meteorological data for each site. The models predict, rank, and visualise the relationship between model variables and roadside NOx concentrations. A strong relationship between roadside NOx and monitored local background concentrations is demonstrated. Relationships between roadside NOx and other model variables have been shown to be strongly influenced by the quality and resolution of background concentrations of NOx, i.e. if it were based on monitored data or modelled prediction. The paper proposes a direct method of using site-specific fundamental diagrams for splitting traffic data into four traffic states: free-flow, busy-flow, congested, and severely congested. Using BRT models, the density of traffic (vehicles per kilometre) was observed to have a proportional influence on the concentrations of roadside NOx, with different fitted regression line slopes for the different traffic states. When other influences are conditioned out, the relationship between roadside concentrations and ambient air temperature suggests NOx concentrations reach a minimum at around 22 °C with high concentrations at low ambient air temperatures which could be associated to restricted atmospheric dispersion and/or to changes in road traffic exhaust emission characteristics at low ambient air temperatures. This paper uses BRT models to study how different critical factors, and their relative importance, influence the variation of roadside NOx concentrations. The paper

  4. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  5. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  6. Measuring OVOCs and VOCs by PTR-MS in an urban roadside microenvironment of Hong Kong: relative humidity and temperature dependence, and field intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Long; Zhang, Zhou; Huang, Yu; Lee, Shun Cheng; Blake, Donald Ray; Ho, Kin Fai; Wang, Bei; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xin Ming; Kwok Keung Louie, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) control is an important issue of air quality management in Hong Kong because ozone formation is generally VOC limited. Several oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC) and VOC measurement techniques - namely, (1) offline 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridge sampling followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis; (2) online gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID); and (3) offline canister sampling followed by GC with mass spectrometer detection (MSD), FID, and electron capture detection (ECD) - were applied during this study. For the first time, the proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) technique was also introduced to measured OVOCs and VOCs in an urban roadside area of Hong Kong. The integrated effect of ambient relative humidity (RH) and temperature (T) on formaldehyde measurements by PTR-MS was explored in this study. A Poly 2-D regression was found to be the best nonlinear surface simulation (r = 0.97) of the experimental reaction rate coefficient ratio, ambient RH, and T for formaldehyde measurement. This correction method was found to be better than correcting formaldehyde concentrations directly via the absolute humidity of inlet sample, based on a 2-year field sampling campaign at Mong Kok (MK) in Hong Kong. For OVOC species, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and MEK showed good agreements between PTR-MS and DNPH-HPLC with slopes of 1.00, 1.10, 0.76, and 0.88, respectively, and correlation coefficients of 0.79, 0.75, 0.60, and 0.93, respectively. Overall, fair agreements were found between PTR-MS and online GC-FID for benzene (slope = 1.23, r = 0.95), toluene (slope = 1.01, r = 0.96) and C2-benzenes (slope = 1.02, r = 0.96) after correcting benzene and C2-benzenes levels which could be affected by fragments formed from ethylbenzene. For the intercomparisons between PTR-MS and offline canister measurements by GC-MSD/FID/ECD, benzene showed good agreement

  7. Driver perception of roadside configurations on two-lane rural roads: Effects on speed and lateral placement.

    PubMed

    Bella, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a driving simulator study which sought to analyze the effect that: (a) three roadside configurations on a two-lane rural road lined with trees have on speed and lateral position of the driver, depending on different cross-sections as well as geometric elements; (b) the beginning of the guardrail barrier has upon the driver's behavior whenever this occurs on the left curve, right curve or tangent. A two-lane rural road lined with trees was designed and implemented in an advanced-interactive driving simulator. Two different cross-sections (with and without a shoulder), which were combined with three roadside configurations (only trees, trees and barriers, trees and barriers having undergone a treatment), were tested. Six road scenarios were then analyzed. Thirty-six drivers (33 were deemed to be valid and used for the analysis) drove in the simulator using these scenarios and the speed and lateral placement values were collected. Statistical analysis showed that the driver behavior was only affected by the cross-sections and geometric elements but not by roadside configurations. Although the presence of trees along the road represents a factor that increases the severity of run-off-road accidents, drivers do not change their behavior when barriers are not present. Concerning the effects of the beginning of the barrier, MANOVA revealed a main effect for roadside configuration on lateral position but not on speed. There was also a clear tendency of drivers to "cut" both the right curves as well as the left curves in order to minimize the speed reduction in the tangent-curve-tangent transition. These main results allow useful suggestions to be made as regards safety measures for improving road safety on two-lane rural roads lined with trees.

  8. The distribution process of traffic contamination on roadside surface and the influence of meteorological conditions revealed by magnetic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Wang, Longsheng; Appel, Erwin

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing number of vehicles and the development of transport systems, traffic contamination has become an important source of current environmental pollution. The study of roadside distribution patterns of traffic-related contaminants and its influencing factors can contribute to assess the scope and distribution process of the contaminants. A large number of works confirmed that magnetic methods which are fast and economic can be used to indicate the traffic-related pollution. Based on the previous study, we installed two new monitoring sites and conducted repeated in situ measurements of magnetic susceptibility (κ). From these data, we calculated the accumulation amount and accumulation rate of κ to reveal the detailed distribution process of traffic contaminants on the roadside surface over time. In addition, we collected daily meteorological data (rainfall and wind direction) and conducted a correlation analysis between the accumulation rate of κ and the meteorological data. The results show that the accumulation rate of traffic contaminants on the roadside surface is lower in periods of higher rainfall, and that the winds influence the distribution pattern of contaminants through changing their transmission path. The results confirm that magnetic methods can be used to reveal the detailed distribution process of traffic-related contaminants and its influencing factors.

  9. Substrate Factors Determine Roadside Vegetation Structure and Species Richness: A Case Study Along a Meridional Gradient in Fennoscandia.

    PubMed

    Jaźwa, Małgorzata; Heise, Waldemar; Klimek, Beata

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed the effects of road-related alteration of substrate, including increased salinity, on vegetation along a meridional gradient in Fennoscandia. Vegetation community composition were surveyed in 29 randomly selected 1-m(2) sized roadside plots. Number of plant species and plant cover (%) on the plots were positively interrelated (p < 0.0001). Both variables also decreased towards the north and with increasing coarseness of the substrate. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that roadside vegetation diversity and composition were most related to the importance of the road (i.e. its size and traffic intensity) and substrate pH. Road importance affects plant dispersal, whereas substrate pH was found to be a factor limiting growth. CCA indicated also that vegetation composition was affected by the meridional gradient and by the substrate salinity; both substrate salinity pH and salinity were not related to meridional gradient. Our results indicate that roadside vegetation diversity and composition is driven by natural and anthropogenic factors.

  10. Accumulations of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soils Close to Zhaling, Eling and Nam Co Lakes in the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Dan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of four typical heavy metals (Cu; Zn; Cd and Pb) in roadside soils close to three lakes in the Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this study. The hierarchical tree-based regression method was applied to classify concentrations of the heavy metals and analyze their potential influencing factors. It was found that the Tibetan Plateau meadow soils with higher content of sand lead to higher concentrations of Cu; Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increase with road traffic volume; and for the road segments with higher traffic volume; the Cd and Pb concentrations significantly decrease with the roadside distance. Additionally; the concentrations of Zn and Pb increase as the altitude of sampling site increases. Furthermore; the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was used to assess the contamination degree of the heavy metals for the study regions. The results show that accumulations of Cu; Zn and Pb in roadside soils remain an unpolluted level at all sites. However; the Cd indices in the regions with higher traffic volume have reached a strong potential ecological risk level; and some spots with peak concentrations have even been severely polluted due to traffic activities. PMID:23749055

  11. Accumulations of heavy metals in roadside soils close to zhaling, eling and nam co lakes in the tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Dan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

    2013-06-07

    Concentrations of four typical heavy metals (Cu; Zn; Cd and Pb) in roadside soils close to three lakes in the Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this study. The hierarchical tree-based regression method was applied to classify concentrations of the heavy metals and analyze their potential influencing factors. It was found that the Tibetan Plateau meadow soils with higher content of sand lead to higher concentrations of Cu; Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increase with road traffic volume; and for the road segments with higher traffic volume; the Cd and Pb concentrations significantly decrease with the roadside distance. Additionally; the concentrations of Zn and Pb increase as the altitude of sampling site increases. Furthermore; the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was used to assess the contamination degree of the heavy metals for the study regions. The results show that accumulations of Cu; Zn and Pb in roadside soils remain an unpolluted level at all sites. However; the Cd indices in the regions with higher traffic volume have reached a strong potential ecological risk level; and some spots with peak concentrations have even been severely polluted due to traffic activities.

  12. FOREST RECREATION FOR PROFIT, SELF-HELP SUGGESTIONS FOR RURAL AREAS DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    FARMERS AND OTHER LAND OWNERS CAN UTILIZE WOODLAND FOR PROFIT BY DEVELOPING RECREATION AREAS. CAMPGROUND AND PICNIC AREAS CAN PROVIDE ADDITIONAL INCOME AND CAN FIT IN WITH THE OPERATION OF OTHER SMALL BUSINESSES, SUCH AS A ROADSIDE STORE, A PRODUCE STAND, OR A FILLING STATION. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS IN PLANNING A RECREATION DEVELOPMENT INCLUDE--(1)…

  13. [Rest for safety: which stakes?].

    PubMed

    Mion, G; Ricouard, S

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 were promulgated the texts regulating rest and safety, in the USA (approved by the ACGME) and in France (January 9th, 2001 and September 14th, 2001). The institution of the "rest for safety", an eleven hours duration interruption of activity, immediately after a night-call, can be viewed as a progress in the search for safety. Several studies showed a link between excessive work hours and occurrence of medical incidents related to tiredness. However published data do not show a link between tiredness and patients endangering. The tiredness resulting from sleep deprivation and disturbances in circadian rhythms is a cumulative phenomenon erased by a period of rest. In spite of a large individual variability, tiredness increases anxiety scores, irritability, depression and it deteriorates cognitive performances. The concept of "prophylactic" rest considers that a subject cannot start, rested, a work if he did not sleep at least 5 hours the previous night, or 12 hours during the previous 48 hours. The second important aspect of the rest for safety is the long-term prevention of potential pathologies in medical staff, in particular burnout syndrome. In our profession, night calls are considered most stressful; the psychological stress related to anticipation and night context causes measurable cardiovascular disturbances in anesthesiologists. Shift-work sleep disorders may induce gastric ulcers, heart attacks, metabolic syndrome, depression and accidents related to somnolence. Long duration work-hours, accompanied by sleep deprivation, may double the risk of car accidents in junior physicians, in whom vigilance levels can compare with those of patients concerned by narcolepsy or with the cognitive disturbances induced by alcohol intoxication. Reduced work-hours improve vigilance and divide by three the rate of serious medical errors. True opportunities of sleep and control of sleep duration at the individual level could be suggested. The idea that taking the

  14. Roadside bear viewing opportunities in Yellowstone National Park: characteristics, trends, and influence of whitebark pine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Gunther, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Opportunities for viewing grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) from roadways in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have increased in recent years. Unlike the panhandling bears common prior to the 1970s, current viewing usually involves bears feeding on natural foods. We define roadside bear viewing opportunities that cause traffic congestion as ‘‘bear-jams.’’ We investigated characteristics of bear-jams and their frequency relative to whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) cone production, an important fall food for bears, during 1990–2004. We observed a difference in diel distribution of bear-jams between species (x2=70.609, 4 df, P<0.001) with the occurrence of grizzly bear-jams being more crepuscular. We found evidence for decreasing distances between bears and roadways and increasing durations of bears-jams. The annual proportion of bear-jams for both species occurring after the week of 13–19 August were 3–4 times higher during poor cone crop years than good. We suggest that native foods found in road corridors may be especially important to some individual bears during years exhibiting poor whitebark pine crops. We discuss management implications of threats to whitebark pine and increasing habituation of bears to people.

  15. Using Roadside Billboard Posters to Increase Admission Rates to Problem Gambling Services: Reflections on Failure.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, Kimberly A; Wellington, William J

    2015-07-01

    Based on the stimulus-response model of advertising, this study sought to increase admission rates to a local problem gambling service (PGS) in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, by adding a series of locally based 10 foot by 20 foot roadside billboard posters to PGS's existing communications tools for a 24-week period. Using proof of performance reports, a pre-post survey of new callers to PGS, a website visit counter, and a media awareness survey, the findings showed that at least some individuals were influenced by billboard exposure, but admission rates continued to decline during the billboard campaign period. While one possible explanation for the communications failure was that the whole PGS communications campaign was below the minimal threshold for communications perception, another possible explanation is that the stimulus-response model of advertising used may not have been appropriate for such advertising that targets behavior change. Reflections on using an information-processing model instead of a stimulus-response model, and considerations of a two-step flow of communication, are provided. Recommendations are made regarding matching communications messages to stages of behavior change, use of online promotion, and strategies for future research.

  16. Impact of roadside ditch dredging on bacterial communities and biological contamination of a tidal creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Chance E.; Barkovskii, Andrei L.

    2017-03-01

    Tidal creek networks form the primary hydrologic link between estuaries and land-based activities on barrier islands. A possible impact from the excavation of drainage ditch systems on bacterial communities and biological contamination was studied in the water column and sediments of headwater, mid-stream, and mouth sites of the intertidal Oakdale Creek on Sapelo Island, GA. Community analysis was performed using the MiSeq Illumina platform and revealed that dredging was the cause of a significant rise in Proteobacteria, especially γ-proteobacteria. Targeted biological contaminants included fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus spp. (Entero-1), pathogens, Shigella spp. (ipaH), and Salmonella spp (invA), virulence associated genes (VG's) of pathogenic E. coli (eaeA, hlyD, stx1, stx2, and set1B), integrons (intI1, intI2), and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs). Incidence and gene concentrations of Shigella spp., eaeA and set1B, and of TRGs increased 3-20 folds after the onset of dredging, and followed the dredging schedule. Principal Component Analysis suggested possible common carriers for Shigella spp., some TRGs, and the pathogenic E. coli eaeA gene. At the site of dredging, all of the above contaminants were detected at high concentrations. We concluded that excavation of roadside ditches caused significant changes in bacterial composition and a rise in incidence and concentrations of biological contaminants in the creek. The authors suggest a different approach for the maintenance of this material be explored.

  17. Investigating the impact of static roadside advertising on drivers' situation awareness.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristie L; Stephens, Amanda N; Logan, David B; Lenné, Michael G

    2017-04-01

    Roadside advertising has the potential to create a crash risk for drivers as it may distract attention from driving at critical times. In an on-road instrumented vehicle study, we examined if and how static advertising billboards affect drivers' situation awareness across different driving environments. Nineteen fully licensed drivers drove an instrumented vehicle around a 38 km urban test route comprising freeway, busy urban retail and arterial road sections. The route contained a number of static billboards. Drivers provided continuous verbal protocols throughout the drive. Results indicated that the structure and content of drivers' situation awareness was not appreciably affected by the billboards in any of the road environments examined. Drivers focused their attention on the billboards when driving demand was low, such as when driving on the freeway with light to moderate traffic, in lower speed zones, or when stationary. However, when drivers were required to perform a manoeuvre or driving demands increased, drivers directed less attention to the billboards and focussed their awareness on the immediate driving task. This suggests that drivers can, at least under some conditions, effectively self-regulate their attention to billboards when required to focus on the immediate traffic or driving situation.

  18. Small mammal community composition in cornfields, roadside ditches, and prairies in eastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Community composition of small mammals was examined in prairies, cornfields, and their adjacent roadside ditches in eastern Nebraska. Western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were associated with prairie habitat, were common in ditches, but avoided cornfields. Prairie voles (M. Ochrogaster) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were associated with ditch habitat, were common in prairies, but avoided cornfields. Short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) avoided cornfields, were associated with ditches next to cornfields, but were common in prairies and ditches next to prairies. Deer mice (P. Maniculatus) were associated with cornfields but were relatively common in prairies and ditches. House mice (Mus musculus) were most common in ditches next to cornfields, occurred in cornfields and ditches next to prairies, but were not captured in prairies. Although community composition appears to differ among prairies, ditches, and cornfields, ditches support a more complete suite of the native small mammal species in large and relatively even numbers, whereas cornfields only support deer mice in large numbers.

  19. Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles.

    PubMed

    Rhys-Tyler, Glyn A; Bell, Margaret C

    2012-10-02

    A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing data set collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-powered cars ≤ 3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4-8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9-12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2, respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models.

  20. Roadside BTEX and other gaseous air pollutants in relation to emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truc, Vo Thi Quynh; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    Hourly concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m, p-xylenes, and o-xylene (BTEX) plus CO, NO x, SO 2 were monitored at roadsides simultaneously with the traffic volume during the dry season of 2004, in Hanoi, Vietnam. The selected three streets included Truong Chinh (TC) with high traffic volume, Dien Bien Phu (DBP) with low traffic volume, and Nguyen Trai (NT) with high traffic volume running through an industrial estate. BTEX were sampled by SKC charcoal tubes and analyzed by GC-FID. Geometric means of hourly benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m, p-xylenes and o-xylene are, respectively, 65, 62, 15, 43, and 22 μg m -3 in TC street; 30, 38, 9, 26, and 13 μg m -3 in DBP street; and 123, 87, 24, 56, and 30 μg m -3 in NT street. Levels of other gaseous pollutants including CO, NO x, and SO 2, measured by automatic instruments, were low and not exceeding the Vietnam national ambient air quality standards. BTEX levels were comparatively analyzed for different downwind distances (3-50 m) from the street, between peak hours and off-peak hours, as well as between weekdays and weekend. Results of principal component analysis suggest that the gaseous pollutants are associated with different vehicle types.

  1. Platinum group element and cerium concentrations in roadside environments in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Hassan Pour, Zahra; Zereini, Fathi

    2016-02-01

    Platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) are accumulating globally in the environment, due to their use as catalysts to control automotive exhaust emissions. While environmental increases in platinum metal concentrations have been well documented for a number of countries, published data for Canada have been missing to date. The aim of this study is to examine the concentrations of Pt, Pd and Rh, as well as Ce, in soils and dust as a function of traffic volume in Toronto, Ontario. Soils and road and underpass dust were collected from two sites with medium and high volumes of traffic. Samples were acid digested and co-precipitated with Hg (for Pd) and Te (for Pt and Rh), prior to measurement using ICP-Q-MS. Palladium occurred at the highest levels in samples, followed by Pt and Rh. Median concentrations for all soil samples were 63 μg Pd/kg, 8.7 μg Pt/kg, 1.7 μg Rh/kg and 41 mg Ce/kg. The results support existing data regarding PGE accumulation trends in urban and roadside environments, due to their use as catalysts in automotive catalytic converters. This study also confirms a shift toward the heavier use of Pd as the catalyst of choice in recent years, as reflected in the higher concentrations measured for this metal relative to Pt and Rh. The results highlight a need to continue monitoring the accumulation of PGE, most notably Pd, in urban environments.

  2. Continuous measurements at the urban roadside in an Asian megacity by Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM): particulate matter characteristics during fall and winter seasons in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Lee, B. P.; Huang, D.; Jie Li, Y.; Schurman, M. I.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Chan, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    Non-refractory submicron aerosol is characterized using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) in the fall and winter seasons of 2013 on the roadside in an Asian megacity environment in Hong Kong. Organic aerosol (OA), characterized by application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), and sulfate are found to be dominant. Traffic-related organic aerosol shows good correlation with other vehicle-related species, and cooking aerosol displays clear mealtime concentration maxima and association with surface winds from restaurant areas. Contributions of individual species and OA factors to high NR-PM1 are analyzed for hourly data and daily data; while cooking emissions in OA contribute to high hourly concentrations, particularly during mealtimes, secondary organic aerosol components are responsible for episodic events and high day-to-day PM concentrations. Clean periods are either associated with precipitation, which reduces secondary OA with a lesser impact on primary organics, or clean oceanic air masses with reduced long-range transport and better dilution of local pollution. Haze events are connected with increases in contribution of secondary organic aerosol, from 30 to 50 % among total non-refractory organics, and the influence of continental air masses.

  3. Continuous measurements at the urban roadside in an Asian Megacity by Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM): particulate matter characteristics during fall and winter seasons in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Lee, B. P.; Huang, D.; Li, Y. J.; Schurman, M. I.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Chan, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    Non-refractory submicron aerosol is characterized using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) in the fall and winter seasons of 2013 at the roadside in an Asian megacity environment in Hong Kong. Organic aerosol (OA), characterized by application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), and sulfate are found dominant. Traffic-related organic aerosol shows good correlation with other vehicle-related species, and cooking aerosol displays clear meal-time concentration maxima and association with surface winds from restaurant areas. Contributions of individual species and OA factors to high NR-PM1 are analyzed for hourly data and daily data; while cooking emissions in OA contribute to high hourly concentrations, particularly during meal times, secondary organic aerosol components are responsible for episodic events and high day-to-day PM concentrations. Clean periods are either associated with precipitation, which reduces secondary OA with a~lesser impact on primary organics, or clean oceanic air masses with reduced long-range transport and better dilution of local pollution. Haze events are connected with increases in contribution of secondary organic aerosol, from 30 to 50 % among total non-refractory organics, and influence of continental air masses.

  4. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  5. Rest in underperforming elite competitors.

    PubMed Central

    Koutedakis, Y; Budgett, R; Faulmann, L

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the effects of 3-5 weeks of physical rest on selected physical, physiological and psychological parameters obtained from 12 Olympic but latterly underperforming competitors and their matched control subjects. Cardiorespiratory data were directly determined from their work to volitional exhaustion on either a treadmill, cycle, or rowing ergometer. Anaerobic power and capacity were evaluated through modified Wingate tests. For psychometric assessments, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used. For the Olympic competitors, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant increases (p less than 0.05) in body weight, maximum respiratory exchange ratio, maximum oxygen consumption, and heart rate at the anaerobic threshold, following the rest period. There was also a significant reduction in fatigue and mood profile score, and a significant increase in vigour. No significant changes were found in the matched control subjects. The present data show that resting for 3-5 weeks assists underperforming elite competitors to improve their aerobic performance. PMID:2097024

  6. Field infiltration measurements in grassed roadside drainage ditches: Spatial and temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Farzana; Gulliver, John S.; Nieber, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Roadside drainage ditches (grassed swales) are an attractive stormwater control measure (SCM) since they can reduce runoff volume by infiltrating water into the soil, filter sediments and associated pollutants out of the water, and settle solids onto the soil surface. In this study a total of 722 infiltration measurements were collected in five swales located in Twin-Cities, MN and one swale located in Madison, WI to characterize the field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) derived from the infiltration measurements of these swales. Measurements were taken with a falling head device, the Modified Philip Dunne (MPD) infiltrometer, which allows the collection of simultaneous infiltration measurements at multiple locations with several infiltrometers. Field-saturated hydraulic conductivity was higher than expected for different soil texture classes. We hypothesize that this is due to plant roots creating macropores that break up the soil for infiltration. Statistical analysis was performed on the Kfs values to analyze the effect of initial soil moisture content, season, soil texture class and distance in downstream direction on the geometric mean Kfs value of a swale. Because of the high spatial variation of Kfs in the same swale no effect of initial soil moisture content, season and soil texture class was observed on the geometric mean Kfs value. But the distance in downstream direction may have positive or negative effect on the Kfs value. An uncertainty analysis on the Kfs value indicated that approximately twenty infiltration measurements is the minimum number to obtain a representative geometric mean Kfs value of a swale that is less than 350 m long within an acceptable level of uncertainty.

  7. Working in tandem: The contribution of remedial programs and roadside licence suspensions to drinking and driving deterrence in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tracey; Byrne, Patrick A; Haya, Maryam; Elzohairy, Yoassry

    2015-12-01

    In 1998, Ontario implemented a remedial program called "Back On Track" (BOT) for individuals convicted of alcohol-impaired driving. Drivers convicted before October 2000 were exposed to a single-component program ("Edu BOT"); those convicted after participated in a multi-component program ("Full BOT"). We evaluated the impact of BOT, and the preceding 90-day roadside licence suspension, on drinking and driving recidivism, an outcome yet to be examined, using population-wide driver records. A Chi Square Test was used to compare the three-year cumulative incidence of recidivism between three historically-defined cohorts: No BOT, Edu BOT, and Full BOT. Stratified analyses by completion status and by age were also conducted. Analyses of the roadside suspension were conducted using an interrupted time series approach based on segmented Poisson/negative binomial regression. The roadside suspension was associated with a 65.2% reduction in drinking driving recidivism. In combination with indefinite suspensions for non-completion, the BOT program was also associated with a 21% decrease in drinking and driving recidivism in the three years following a CCC driving prohibition, from 8.5% to 6.7%. This reduction cannot be explained by pre-existing trends in recidivism. Conversion of the BOT program from the single-component version to the multi-component program further reduced the three-year cumulative incidence of recidivism to 5.5% (a total reduction of 35% from pre-BOT). Results provide strong converging evidence that remedial alcohol education/treatment programs in combination with other sanctions can produce substantial increases in road safety.

  8. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    SciTech Connect

    Hammell, B.D.; Scheuerle, A.

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  9. Effect of prolonged bed rest on the anterior hip muscles.

    PubMed

    Dilani Mendis, M; Hides, Julie A; Wilson, Stephen J; Grimaldi, Alison; Belavý, Daniel L; Stanton, Warren; Felsenberg, Dieter; Rittweger, Joern; Richardson, Carolyn

    2009-11-01

    Prolonged bed rest and inactivity is known to cause muscular atrophy with previous research indicating that muscles involved in joint stabilisation are more susceptible. The anterior hip muscles are important for hip joint function and stability but little is known about the effects of prolonged inactivity on their function. This study investigated the effect of prolonged bed rest on the size of the anterior hip muscles and their pattern of recovery. The effect of resistive vibration exercise (RVE) as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy was also investigated. 12 male participants, randomly assigned to either a control or an exercise group, underwent 8 weeks of bed rest with 6 months follow-up. Changes in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles were measured by magnetic resonance imaging at regular intervals during bed rest and recovery phases. CSAs of iliopsoas and sartorius decreased at the hip joint (p<0.05) during bed rest but iliacus, psoas, and rectus femoris CSAs were unchanged (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups for all muscles (all p>0.1), suggesting inefficacy of the countermeasure in this sample. These findings suggest that prolonged bed rest can result in the atrophy of specific muscles across the hip joint which may affect its stability and function.

  10. Resting energy expenditure among Japanese.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, N; Mitsuhashi, F; Sugiyama, M

    2002-10-01

    1. Resting energy expenditure (REE) provides appropriate basic data for the calculation of energy requirements. 2. The REE of 6498 subjects according to sex and age (1 year stratification), with a minimum of 10 subjects per group, was measured systematically using the easy portable calorimeter (Metavine; Vine, Tokyo, Japan). 3. The REE or the REE/kg according to age and sex was observed to obtain the amount of standard deviation (20-25%). 4. The REE/kg for male and female subjects was maintained at a steady level after the age of 15 years and was estimated to be around 29 kcal/kg.

  11. Management-Related Traffic as a Stressor Eliciting Parental Care in a Roadside-Nesting Bird: The European Bee-Eater Merops apiaster.

    PubMed

    Blas, Julio; Abaurrea, Teresa; D'Amico, Marcello; Barcellona, Francesca; Revilla, Eloy; Román, Jacinto; Carrete, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Traffic is often acknowledged as a threat to biodiversity, but its effects have been mostly studied on roads subjected to high traffic intensity. The impact of lower traffic intensity such as those affecting protected areas is generally neglected, but conservation-oriented activities entailing motorized traffic could paradoxically transform suitable habitats into ecological traps. Here we questioned whether roadside-nesting bee-eaters Merops apiaster perceived low traffic intensity as a stressor eliciting risk-avoidance behaviors (alarm calls and flock flushes) and reducing parental care. Comparisons were established within Doñana National Park (Spain), between birds exposed to either negligible traffic (ca. 0-10 vehicles per day) or low traffic intensity (ca. 10-90 vehicles per day) associated to management and research activities. The frequencies of alarm calls and flock flushes were greater in areas of higher traffic intensity, which resulted in direct mortality at moderate vehicle speeds (≤ 40 km/h). Parental feeding rates paralleled changes in traffic intensity, but contrary to our predictions. Indeed, feeding rates were highest in traffic-exposed nests, during working days and traffic rush-hours. Traffic-avoidance responses were systematic and likely involved costs (energy expenditure and mortality), but vehicle transit positively influenced the reproductive performance of bee-eaters through an increase of nestling feeding rates. Because the expected outcome of traffic on individual performance can be opposed when responses are monitored during mating (i.e. negative effect by increase of alarm calls and flock flushes) or nestling-feeding period (i.e. at least short-term positive effect by increase of nestling feeding rates), caution should be taken before inferring fitness consequences only from isolated behaviors or specific life history stages.

  12. Management-Related Traffic as a Stressor Eliciting Parental Care in a Roadside-Nesting Bird: The European Bee-Eater Merops apiaster

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Julio; Abaurrea, Teresa; D’Amico, Marcello; Barcellona, Francesca; Revilla, Eloy; Román, Jacinto; Carrete, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Traffic is often acknowledged as a threat to biodiversity, but its effects have been mostly studied on roads subjected to high traffic intensity. The impact of lower traffic intensity such as those affecting protected areas is generally neglected, but conservation-oriented activities entailing motorized traffic could paradoxically transform suitable habitats into ecological traps. Here we questioned whether roadside-nesting bee-eaters Merops apiaster perceived low traffic intensity as a stressor eliciting risk-avoidance behaviors (alarm calls and flock flushes) and reducing parental care. Comparisons were established within Doñana National Park (Spain), between birds exposed to either negligible traffic (ca. 0–10 vehicles per day) or low traffic intensity (ca. 10–90 vehicles per day) associated to management and research activities. The frequencies of alarm calls and flock flushes were greater in areas of higher traffic intensity, which resulted in direct mortality at moderate vehicle speeds (≤ 40 km/h). Parental feeding rates paralleled changes in traffic intensity, but contrary to our predictions. Indeed, feeding rates were highest in traffic-exposed nests, during working days and traffic rush-hours. Traffic-avoidance responses were systematic and likely involved costs (energy expenditure and mortality), but vehicle transit positively influenced the reproductive performance of bee-eaters through an increase of nestling feeding rates. Because the expected outcome of traffic on individual performance can be opposed when responses are monitored during mating (i.e. negative effect by increase of alarm calls and flock flushes) or nestling-feeding period (i.e. at least short-term positive effect by increase of nestling feeding rates), caution should be taken before inferring fitness consequences only from isolated behaviors or specific life history stages. PMID:27706229

  13. Lead, cadmium, and aluminum accumulation in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii G. collected from roadside drainage ditches in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Madigosky, S R; Alvarez-Hernandez, X; Glass, J

    1991-02-01

    The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Al in tissues of crayfish Procambarus clarkii were evaluated from several wetland sites located adjacent to roadways and were compared to crayfish harvested from a commercial site free from roadside influences. Abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, alimentary tract, exoskeleton and blood were analyzed for metal content. Results indicated that levels of contamination obtained in almost all tissues of crayfish from roadside ditches contained significantly higher amounts of metals than those of the commercially harvested control crayfish (p = less than or equal to .05-.001). Detection limits of Pb, Cd, and Al ranged from 0.04 microgram Pb/g to 16.15 micrograms Pb/g, .001 microgram Cd/g to .13 microgram Cd/g, and 1.22 micrograms Al/g to 981 micrograms Al/g, respectively. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Al were highest in the hepatopancreas and alimentary tract. High levels of these elements were also detected in the exoskeleton. In contrast, muscle tissue was the least affected tissue. Several significant correlations among concentrations of metals were found when comparing a variety of tissues in Procambarus clarkii.

  14. BCDP: Budget Constrained and Delay-Bounded Placement for Hybrid Roadside Units in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. PMID:25436656

  15. The Resting Brain of Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Jung, Young-Chul; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects multiple cognitive processes supported by far-reaching cerebral networks. To identify neurofunctional mechanisms underlying selective deficits, 27 sober alcoholics and 26 age-matched controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity analysis assessed the default mode network (DMN); integrative executive control (EC), salience (SA), and attention (AT) networks; primary somatosensory, auditory, and visual (VI) input networks; and subcortical reward (RW) and emotion (EM) networks. The groups showed an extensive overlap of intrinsic connectivity in all brain networks examined, suggesting overall integrity of large-scale functional networks. Despite these similar patterns, connectivity analyses identified network-specific differences of weaker within-network connectivity and expanded connectivity to regions outside the main networks in alcoholics compared with controls. For AT and VI networks, better task performance was related to expanded connectivity in alcoholism, supporting the concept of network expansion as a neural mechanism for functional compensation. For default mode, SA, RW, and EC networks, both weaker within-network and expanded outside-network connectivity correlated with poorer performance and mood. Current smoking contributed to some of these abnormalities in connectivity. The observed pattern of resting-state connectivity might reflect neural vulnerability of intrinsic networking in alcoholics and suggests a mechanism to explain signature impairments in EM, RW evaluation, and EC ability. PMID:24935777

  16. Physiology of prolonged bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Bed rest has been a normal procedure used by physicians for centuries in the treatment of injury and disease. Exposure of patients to prolonged bed rest in the horizontal position induces adaptive deconditioning responses. While deconditioning responses are appropriate for patients or test subjects in the horizontal position, they usually result in adverse physiological responses (fainting, muscular weakness) when the patient assume the upright posture. These deconditioning responses result from reduction in hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, virtual elimination of longitudinal pressure on the long bones, some decrease in total body metabolism, changes in diet, and perhaps psychological impact from the different environment. Almost every system in the body is affected. An early stimulus is the cephalic shift of fluid from the legs which increases atrial pressure and induces compensatory responses for fluid and electrolyte redistribution. Without countermeasures, deterioration in strength and muscle function occurs within 1 wk while increased calcium loss may continue for months. Research should also focus on drug and carbohydrate metabolism.

  17. Size-resolved source apportionment of airborne particle mass in a roadside environment.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A; Hannigan, Michael P; Kleeman, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    Airborne particulate hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in six size fractions < 1.8 microm particle diameter at one site upwind and two sites downwind of the Interstate 5 freeway in San Diego, CA. The smallest size fraction collected was exclusively in the ultrafine size range (D(p) < 0.1 microm; PM0.1). Size distributions of hopanes, steranes, and PAHs peaked between 0.10-0.18 microm particle aerodynamic diameter with a tail extending into the PM0.1 size range. This pattern is similar to previous dynamometer studies of hopane, sterane, and PAH size distributions emitted from gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. Size-resolved source profiles were combined to form an "on-road" profile for motor oil, diesel, and gasoline contributions to EC and OC. The resulting equations were used to predict source contributions to the size distributions of EC and OC in the roadside environment. The method successfully accounted for the majority of the carbonaceous material in particles with diameter < 0.18 microm, with significant residual material in larger size fractions. The peak in both the measured and predicted EC size distribution occurred between 0.1-0.18 microm particle aerodynamic diameter. The predicted OC size distribution peaked between 0.1-0.18 microm particle diameter, butthe measured OC size distribution peaked between 0.56-1.0 microm particle diameter, possibly because of secondary organic aerosol formation. Predicted OC concentrations in particles with diameter < 0.18 microm were greater than measured values 18 m downwind of the roadway but showed good agreement 37 m downwind. The largest source contributions to the PM0.1 and PM0.18 size fractions were different. PM0.18 was dominated by diesel fuel and motor oil combustion products while PM0.1 was dominated by diesel fuel and gasoline fuel combustion products. Total source contributions to ultrafine (PM0.1) EC concentrations 37 m downwind of the roadway were 44 +/- 6

  18. Fixed-route monitoring and a comparative study of the occurrence of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) along a Japanese roadside.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2016-01-02

    Previously, we conducted a roadside survey to reveal the occurrence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape along a Japanese roadside (Route 51). In this study, we performed successive and thorough fixed-route monitoring in 5 sections along another road (Route 23). Oilseed rape plants were detected on both sides of the road in each section between autumn 2009 and winter 2013, which included 3 flowering seasons. In four sections, more plants were found on the side of the road leading from the Yokkaichi port than on the opposite side. In the fifth section, the presence of clogged drains on the roadside, where juvenile plants concentrated, caused the opposite distribution: oilseed rape predominantly occurred along the inbound lanes (leading to the Yokkaichi port) in 2010 and 2012. Unlike in our previous survey, glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape plants were abundant (>75% of analyzed plants over 3 years). Moreover, a few individuals bearing both herbicide resistance traits were also detected in some sections. The spillage of imported seeds may explain the occurrence of oilseed rape on the roadside. The abundance of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants may reflect the extent of contamination with GM oilseed rape seed within imports.

  19. Fixed-route monitoring and a comparative study of the occurrence of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) along a Japanese roadside

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Toru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previously, we conducted a roadside survey to reveal the occurrence of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape along a Japanese roadside (Route 51). In this study, we performed successive and thorough fixed-route monitoring in 5 sections along another road (Route 23). Oilseed rape plants were detected on both sides of the road in each section between autumn 2009 and winter 2013, which included 3 flowering seasons. In four sections, more plants were found on the side of the road leading from the Yokkaichi port than on the opposite side. In the fifth section, the presence of clogged drains on the roadside, where juvenile plants concentrated, caused the opposite distribution: oilseed rape predominantly occurred along the inbound lanes (leading to the Yokkaichi port) in 2010 and 2012. Unlike in our previous survey, glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape plants were abundant (>75% of analyzed plants over 3 years). Moreover, a few individuals bearing both herbicide resistance traits were also detected in some sections. The spillage of imported seeds may explain the occurrence of oilseed rape on the roadside. The abundance of herbicide-resistant oilseed rape plants may reflect the extent of contamination with GM oilseed rape seed within imports. PMID:26838503

  20. Tracer Studies to Characterize the Effects of Roadside Noise Barriers on Near-Road Pollutant Dispersion under Varying Atmospheric Stability Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A roadway toxics dispersion study was conducted by the Field Research Division (FRD) of NOAA at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) near Idaho Falls, ID to document the effects on concentrations of roadway emissions behind a roadside sound barrier in various conditions of atmosph...

  1. Identification of traffic-related metals and the effects of different environments on their enrichment in roadside soils along the Qinghai-Tibet highway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yili; Ding, Mingjun; Li, Lanhui

    2015-07-15

    The road transportation could affect roadside soils environment detrimentally, including heavy metal enrichment. In order to identify and evaluate the enrichment of heavy metals resulted from road transportation on the Tibetan Plateau, the 11 heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Rb, Pb and Tl) in the topsoil (0-10 cm depth) from four sites along the Qinghai-Tibet highway were discussed in this study. Our results indicate that heavy metals such as Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb are related to road transportation. The content of most of these heavy metals in roadside soils decreased exponentially with the distance from the road, as did some of the Nemero Synthesis Indexes (PN values). The contamination factor for the traffic-related metals ranged from 0.56 (no pollution) to 5.67 (considerable pollution) and the Nemero Synthesis Indexes of these heavy metals ranged from 0.80 (no pollution) to 4.49 (severe pollution). Cd was of priority concern as it had the highest contamination factor. The highest PN value for these traffic-related heavy metals was found in soils at site TTH (alpine steppe). Although transportation contributed to the high contents of these traffic-related metals in roadside environments, regional differences such as wind and the terrain also had significant relationship with their enrichment in these roadside soils. The roadside distance at which there is a potential risk to livestock and wildlife from the contamination of soils by heavy metals should be determined scientifically along the Qinghai-Tibet highway, based on the different natural environments found in the region.

  2. Contributions of vehicular carbonaceous aerosols to PM2.5 in a roadside environment in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. H. Hilda; Bian, Q. J.; Louie, P. K. K.; Yu, J. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Hourly measurements of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were made at Mong Kok, a roadside air quality monitoring station in Hong Kong for a year from May 2011 to April 2012. The monthly average EC concentrations were 3.8-4.9 μgC m-3, accounting for 9.2-17.7% of the PM2.5 mass (21.5-49.7 μg m-3). The EC concentrations showed little seasonal variation and peaked twice daily in coincidence with the traffic rush hours of a day. Good correlations were found between EC and NOx concentrations, especially during the rush hours in the morning. In time periods when diesel-powered vehicles dominated the road traffic, the OC / EC ratio was approximately 0.5. The analysis by the minimum OC / EC ratio approach to determine OC / EC ratio representative of primary emissions also yields a value of 0.5, suggesting that it is a reasonable lower limit estimation of (OC / EC)vehicle in representing vehicular emissions. By applying the derived (OC / EC)vehicle ratio to the dataset, the monthly average vehicle-related OC was estimated to account for 16.6-64.0% of the measured OC throughout the year. Vehicle-related OC was also estimated using receptor modeling of a combined dataset of hourly NOx, OC, EC and select volatile organic compounds. The estimations by the two different approaches were in good agreement. When both EC and vehicle-derived organic matter (OM) (assuming an OM-to-OC ratio of 1.4) are considered, vehicular carbonaceous aerosols contributed ~ 7.3 μg m-3 to PM2.5, accounting for ~ 20% of PM2.5 mass (38.3 μg m-3) during winter when Hong Kong was largely influenced by regional transport of air pollutants and ~ 30% of PM2.5 mass (28.2 μg m-3) during summertime when local emission sources were dominant. A reduction of 3.82 μg m-3 in vehicular carbonaceous aerosols was observed during 07:00-11:00 LT (i.e. rush hours on weekdays) on Sundays and public holidays. This could mainly be attributed to less on-road public transportation (e.g. diesel-powered buses

  3. Contributions of vehicular carbonaceous aerosols to PM2.5 in a roadside environment in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. H. H.; Bian, Q. J.; Louie, P. K. K.; Yu, J. Z.

    2014-09-01

    Hourly measurements of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were made at Mong Kok, a roadside air quality monitoring station in Hong Kong, for a year, from May 2011 to April 2012. The monthly average EC concentrations were 3.8-4.9 μg C m-3, accounting for 9.2-17.7% of the PM2.5 mass (21.5-49.7 μg m-3). The EC concentrations showed little seasonal variation and peaked twice daily, coinciding with the traffic rush hours of a day. Strong correlations were found between EC and NOx concentrations, especially during the rush hours in the morning, confirming vehicular emissions as the dominant source of EC at this site. The analysis by means of the minimum OC / EC ratio approach to determine the OC / EC ratio representative of primary vehicular emissions yields a value of 0.5 for (OC / EC)vehicle. By applying the derived (OC / EC)vehicle ratio to the data set, the monthly average vehicle-related OC was estimated to account for 17-64% of the measured OC throughout the year. Vehicle-related OC was also estimated using receptor modeling of a combined data set of hourly NOx, OC, EC and volatile organic compounds characteristic of different types of vehicular emissions. The OCvehicle estimations by the two different approaches were in good agreement. When both EC and vehicle-derived organic matter (OM) (assuming an OM-to-OC ratio of 1.4) are considered, vehicular carbonaceous aerosols contributed ~ 7.3 μg m-3 to PM2.5, accounting for ~ 20% of PM2.5 mass (38.3 μg m-3) during winter, when Hong Kong received significant influence of air pollutants transported from outside, and ~ 30% of PM2.5 mass (28.2 μg m-3) during summertime, when local emission sources were dominant. A reduction of 3.8 μg m-3 in vehicular carbonaceous aerosols was estimated during 07:00-11:00 (i.e., rush hours on weekdays) on Sundays and public holidays. This could mainly be attributed to less on-road public transportation (e.g., diesel-powered buses) in comparison with non-holidays. These

  4. Traffic-Related Trace Element Accumulation in Roadside Soils and Wild Grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element’s bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species. PMID:24380977

  5. Traffic-related trace element accumulation in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

    2013-12-30

    This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species.

  6. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza Regaçone, Simone; Baptista de Lima, Daiane Damaris; Engrácia Valenti, Vitor; Figueiredo Frizzo, Ana Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR) and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs) at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX) and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration). There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR. PMID:26504838

  7. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  8. Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Lesley H; Johnston, David W; Urban, Dean L; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H; Deakos, Mark H; Mobley, Joseph R; Pack, Adam A; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood.

  9. Mass versus relativistic and rest masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okun, L. B.

    2009-05-01

    The concept of relativistic mass, which increases with velocity, is not compatible with the standard language of relativity theory and impedes the understanding and learning of the theory by beginners. The same difficulty occurs with the term rest mass. To get rid of relativistic mass and rest mass it is appropriate to replace the equation E =mc2 by the true Einstein's equation E0=mc2, where E0 is the rest energy and m is the mass.

  10. Alcohol- and Drug-Involved Driving in the United States: Methodology for the 2007 National Roadside Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, John H.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Torres, Pedro; Berning, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the methodology used in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey to estimate the prevalence of alcohol- and drug-impaired driving and alcohol- and drug-involved driving. This study involved randomly stopping drivers at 300 locations across the 48 continental U.S. states at sites selected through a stratified random sampling procedure. Data were collected during a 2-hour Friday daytime session at 60 locations and during 2-hour nighttime weekend periods at 240 locations. Both self-report and biological measures were taken. Biological measures included breath alcohol measurements from 9,413 respondents, oral fluid samples from 7,719 respondents, and blood samples from 3,276 respondents. PMID:21997324

  11. Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Young Men Working at a Rural Roadside Market in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Jere, Diana L; Norr, Kathleen F; Bell, Carl C; Corte, Colleen; Dancy, Barbara L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Levy, Judith A

    Using an ecological model, we describe substance use and sexual risk behaviors of young male laborers at a roadside market in Malawi. Data included observations and interviews with 18 key market leaders and 15 laborers (ages 18-25 years). Alcohol, marijuana, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) were widely available. We identified three patterns of substance use: 6 young men currently used, 6 formerly used, and 3 never used. Substance use was linked to risky sex, including sex with CSWs. The market supported risky behaviors through availability of resources; supportive norms, including beliefs that substance use enhanced strength; and lack of restraints. Community-level poverty, cultural support for alcohol, interpersonal family/peer influences, early substance use, and school dropout also contributed to risky behaviors. Parental guidance was protective but not often reported. Local programs addressing substance use and risky sex simultaneously and better national substance use policies and mental health services are needed.

  12. Structural, cytochemical, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural characterization of blood granulocytes of the roadside hawk Buteo magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788) (Avian, Falconiform).

    PubMed

    Santos, A A; Da Silva, A Marques Joppert; Silva, M R Regis; Segreto, H R Cômodo; Egami, M Imoto

    2003-10-01

    In the peripheral blood of the roadside hawk, Buteo magnirostris, the following types of granulocytic leucocytes were identified: heterophil, eosinophil and basophil. The heterophils presented acidophilic and spindle shaped granules, the eosinophils possess spherical eosinophilic granules and the basophils showed spherical and basophilic granules. The heterophils and eosinophils presented positive cytochemical reaction to glycogen and basic polyaminoacid, while the eosinophils presented sudanophilic granules, which were also positive for myeloperoxidase. The heterophils, alone, presented positivity for acid phosphatase in some granules and immunoreactivity to TGF-beta1 was observed only in the cytoplasm of the eosinophils. Electron microscopy demonstrated the heterophil granules as predominantly spindle shaped, being strongly electron-dense, while the eosinophils had numerous uniformly electron-dense spherical granules and the basophils presented three different types of granules identified according to their electron-density and the aspect of their matrix.

  13. Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) REST Interface

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Use the Environmental Dataset Gateway (EDG) to find and access EPA's environmental resources. Many options are available for easily reusing EDG content in other other applications. This allows individuals to provide direct access to EPA's metadata outside the EDG interface. The EDG REST Interface allows each users to query the catalog through a URL using REST syntax. Accessing individual metadata documents through their REST URLs, or groups of documents that match specific search criteria through a REST-formatted search URL, provides powerful functionality for searching, viewing, and sharing EDG records.

  14. Characteristics of Designated Drivers and their Passengers from the 2007 National Roadside Survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Gwen; Yao, Jie; Shults, Ruth A.; Romano, Eduardo; Lacey, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of designated driving in the United States, compare these results with those from the 1996 National Roadside Survey, and explore the demographic, drinking, and trip characteristics of both designated drivers and their passengers. Methods The data used were from the 2007 National Roadside Survey which randomly stopped drivers, administered breath tests for alcohol, and administered a questionnaire to drivers and front seat passengers. Results Almost a third (30%) of nighttime drivers reported being designated drivers, with 84% of them having a blood alcohol concentration of zero. Drivers who were more likely to be designated drivers were those with a blood alcohol concentration that was over zero but still legal, who were under 35 years of age, who were African-American, Hispanic or Asian, and whose driving trip originated at a bar, tavern, or club. Over a third of passengers of designated drivers reported consuming an alcoholic drink the day of the survey compared with a fifth of passengers of non-designated drivers. One-fifth of designated driver passengers who reported drinking consumed five or more drinks that day. Conclusions Designated driving is widely used in the United States, with the majority of designated drivers abstaining from drinking alcohol. However as designated driving separates drinking from driving for passengers in a group travelling together, this may encourage passengers to binge drink, which is associated with many adverse health consequences in addition to those arising from alcohol-impaired driving. Designated driving programs and campaigns, although not proven to be effective when used alone, can complement proven effective interventions to help reduce excessive drinking and alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:24372499

  15. The lead (Pb) isotope signature, behaviour and fate of traffic-related lead pollution in roadside soils in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Walraven, N; van Os, B J H; Klaver, G Th; Middelburg, J J; Davies, G R

    2014-02-15

    In this study the origin, behaviour and fate of anthropogenic Pb in sandy roadside soils were assessed by measuring soil characteristics, Pb isotope composition and content. In 1991 and 2003 samples were taken at different depth intervals at approximately 8 and 75 m from two highways in The Netherlands. The Pb isotope composition of the litter layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.12-1.14) differs from the deeper soil samples ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.20-1.21). Based on a mixing model it is concluded that the samples contain two Pb sources: natural Pb and anthropogenic Pb, the latter mainly derived from gasoline. (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios demonstrate that the roadside soils were polluted to a depth of ~15 cm. Within this depth interval, anthropogenic Pb content is associated with organic matter. Although Pb pollution only reached a depth of ~15 cm, this does not mean that the topsoils retain all anthropogenic Pb. Due to the low pH and negligible binding capacity of soils at depths >15 cm, anthropogenic Pb migrated towards groundwater after reaching depths of >15 cm. The Pb isotope composition of the groundwater ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.135-1.185) establishes that groundwater is polluted with anthropogenic Pb. The contribution of anthropogenic Pb to the groundwater varies between ~30 and 100%. Based on the difference in soil Pb content and Pb isotope compositions over a period of 12 years, downward Pb migration is calculated to vary from 72 ± 95 to 324 ± 279 mg m(-2)y(-1). Assuming that the downward Pb flux is constant over time, it is calculated that 35-90% of the atmospherically delivered Pb has migrated to the groundwater.

  16. Assessment of existing roadside swales with engineered filter soil: II. Treatment efficiency and in situ mobilization in soil columns.

    PubMed

    Ingvertsen, Simon T; Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina B; Magid, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Use of roadside infiltration systems using engineered filter soil for optimized treatment has been common practice in Germany for decades, but little documentation is available regarding their long-term treatment performance. Here we present the results of laboratory leaching experiments with intact soil columns (15 cm i.d., 25-30 cm length) collected from two German roadside infiltration swales constructed in 1997. The columns were irrigated with synthetic solutions of unpolluted or polluted (dissolved heavy metals and fine suspended solids) road runoff, as well as a soluble nonreactive tracer (bromide) and a dye (brilliant blue). The experiments were performed at two irrigation rates corresponding to catchment rainfall intensities of approximately 5.1 and 34 mm/h. The bromide curves indicated that preferential flow was more pronounced at high irrigation rates, which was supported by the flow patterns revealed in the dye tracing experiment. Nonetheless, the soils seemed to be capable of retaining most of the dissolved heavy metals from the polluted road runoff at both low and high irrigation rates, except for Cr, which appears to pass through the soil as chromate. Fluorescent microspheres (diameter = 5 μm) used as surrogates for fine suspended solids were efficiently retained by the soils (>99%). However, despite promising treatment abilities, internal mobilization of heavy metals and P from the soil was observed, resulting in potentially critical effluent concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb. This is mainly ascribed to high concentrations of in situ mobilized dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Suggestions are provided for possible improvements and further research to minimize DOC mobilization in engineered filter soils.

  17. 23 CFR 752.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (c) The development of the roadside to include landscape development, safety rest areas, and the preservation of valuable adjacent scenic lands is a necessary component of highway development. Planning and... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE...

  18. Language in the brain at rest: new insights from resting state data and graph theoretical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Angela M.; Meyer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the most obvious functional lateralization is the specialization of the left hemisphere for language. Therefore, the involvement of the right hemisphere in language is one of the most remarkable findings during the last two decades of fMRI research. However, the importance of this finding continues to be underestimated. We examined the interaction between the two hemispheres and also the role of the right hemisphere in language. From two seeds representing Broca's area, we conducted a seed correlation analysis (SCA) of resting state fMRI data and could identify a resting state network (RSN) overlapping to significant extent with a language network that was generated by an automated meta-analysis tool. To elucidate the relationship between the clusters of this RSN, we then performed graph theoretical analyses (GTA) using the same resting state dataset. We show that the right hemisphere is clearly involved in language. A modularity analysis revealed that the interaction between the two hemispheres is mediated by three partitions: A bilateral frontal partition consists of nodes representing the classical left sided language regions as well as two right-sided homologs. The second bilateral partition consists of nodes from the right frontal, the left inferior parietal cortex as well as of two nodes within the posterior cerebellum. The third partition is also bilateral and comprises five regions from the posterior midline parts of the brain to the temporal and frontal cortex, two of the nodes are prominent default mode nodes. The involvement of this last partition in a language relevant function is a novel finding. PMID:24808843

  19. Language in the brain at rest: new insights from resting state data and graph theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Muller, Angela M; Meyer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the most obvious functional lateralization is the specialization of the left hemisphere for language. Therefore, the involvement of the right hemisphere in language is one of the most remarkable findings during the last two decades of fMRI research. However, the importance of this finding continues to be underestimated. We examined the interaction between the two hemispheres and also the role of the right hemisphere in language. From two seeds representing Broca's area, we conducted a seed correlation analysis (SCA) of resting state fMRI data and could identify a resting state network (RSN) overlapping to significant extent with a language network that was generated by an automated meta-analysis tool. To elucidate the relationship between the clusters of this RSN, we then performed graph theoretical analyses (GTA) using the same resting state dataset. We show that the right hemisphere is clearly involved in language. A modularity analysis revealed that the interaction between the two hemispheres is mediated by three partitions: A bilateral frontal partition consists of nodes representing the classical left sided language regions as well as two right-sided homologs. The second bilateral partition consists of nodes from the right frontal, the left inferior parietal cortex as well as of two nodes within the posterior cerebellum. The third partition is also bilateral and comprises five regions from the posterior midline parts of the brain to the temporal and frontal cortex, two of the nodes are prominent default mode nodes. The involvement of this last partition in a language relevant function is a novel finding.

  20. 29 CFR 785.18 - Rest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rest. 785.18 Section 785.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Rest and Meal...

  1. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  2. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  3. Changes in intervertebral disc morphology persist 5 mo after 21-day bed rest.

    PubMed

    Belavý, Daniel L; Bansmann, P Martin; Böhme, Gisela; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Heer, Martina; Rittweger, Jörn; Zange, Jochen; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2011-11-01

    As part of the nutrition-countermeasures (NUC) study in Cologne, Germany in 2010, seven healthy male subjects underwent 21 days of head-down tilt bed rest and returned 153 days later to undergo a second bout of 21-day bed rest. As part of this model, we aimed to examine the recovery of the lumbar intervertebral discs and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) after bed rest using magnetic resonance imaging and conduct a pilot study on the effects of bed rest in lumbar muscle activation, as measured by signal intensity changes in T(2)-weighted images after a standardized isometric spinal extension loading task. The changes in intervertebral disc volume, anterior and posterior disc height, and intervertebral length seen after bed rest did not return to prebed-rest values 153 days later. While recovery of muscle CSA occurred after bed rest, increases (P ≤ 0.016) in multifidus, psoas, and quadratus lumborum muscle CSA were seen 153 days after bed rest. A trend was seen for greater activation of the erector spinae and multifidus muscles in the standardized loading task after bed rest. Greater reductions of multifidus and psoas CSA muscle and greater increases in multifidus signal intensity with loading were associated with incidence of low back pain in the first 28 days after bed rest (P ≤ 0.044). The current study contributes to our understanding of the recovery of the lumbar spine after 21-day bed rest, and the main finding was that a decrease in spinal extensor muscle CSA recovers within 5 mo after bed rest but that changes in the intervertebral discs persist.

  4. Temporal Reliability and Lateralization of the Resting-State Language Network

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Qihong; Wang, Jue; Gao, Jia-Hong; Niu, Zhendong

    2014-01-01

    The neural processing loop of language is complex but highly associated with Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The left dominance of these two areas was the earliest observation of brain asymmetry. It was demonstrated that the language network and its functional asymmetry during resting state were reproducible across institutions. However, the temporal reliability of resting-state language network and its functional asymmetry are still short of knowledge. In this study, we established a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis of language network with seed regions located at Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and investigated temporal reliability of language network and its functional asymmetry. The language network was found to be temporally reliable in both short- and long-term. In the aspect of functional asymmetry, the Broca's area was found to be left lateralized, while the Wernicke's area is mainly right lateralized. Functional asymmetry of these two areas revealed high short- and long-term reliability as well. In addition, the impact of global signal regression (GSR) on reliability of the resting-state language network was investigated, and our results demonstrated that GSR had negligible effect on the temporal reliability of the resting-state language network. Our study provided methodology basis for future cross-culture and clinical researches of resting-state language network and suggested priority of adopting seed-based functional connectivity for its high reliability. PMID:24475058

  5. Temporal reliability and lateralization of the resting-state language network.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linlin; Fan, Yang; Zou, Qihong; Wang, Jue; Gao, Jia-Hong; Niu, Zhendong

    2014-01-01

    The neural processing loop of language is complex but highly associated with Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The left dominance of these two areas was the earliest observation of brain asymmetry. It was demonstrated that the language network and its functional asymmetry during resting state were reproducible across institutions. However, the temporal reliability of resting-state language network and its functional asymmetry are still short of knowledge. In this study, we established a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis of language network with seed regions located at Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and investigated temporal reliability of language network and its functional asymmetry. The language network was found to be temporally reliable in both short- and long-term. In the aspect of functional asymmetry, the Broca's area was found to be left lateralized, while the Wernicke's area is mainly right lateralized. Functional asymmetry of these two areas revealed high short- and long-term reliability as well. In addition, the impact of global signal regression (GSR) on reliability of the resting-state language network was investigated, and our results demonstrated that GSR had negligible effect on the temporal reliability of the resting-state language network. Our study provided methodology basis for future cross-culture and clinical researches of resting-state language network and suggested priority of adopting seed-based functional connectivity for its high reliability.

  6. C5-C12 volatile organic compounds at roadside, residential, and background locations in Ankara, Turkey: temporal and spatial variations and sources.

    PubMed

    Kuntasal, Oznur Oğuz; Kilavuz, Seda Aslan; Karman, Deniz; Wang, Daniel; Tuncel, Gürdal

    2013-10-01

    Concentrations of 91 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) ranging from C5 to C12 were measured at three sites in Ankara, the capital of Turkey, in the summer of 2003 and winter of 2004. Samples were collected at roadside, residential and background stations at consecutive 4-hr intervals over a 24-hr period for six weeks in each season. Air samples were collected onto cartridges packed with Tenax TA and Carbopack B resins and analyzed by thermal desorption, followed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass selective detector (GC/MSD). Time resolved data provided information on ambient levels, temporal and spatial variations and sources of VOCs in Ankara. Toluene is the most abundant compound at all sites with and average concentration of 13.1 ?g m(-3). The mean concentrations of benzene are 12.6, 5.2, and 2.4 ?g m(-3) during winter at roadside, residential and background stations, respectively. Diurnal variation in the data together with toluene to benzene concentration ratio (T:B) that is close to 2.0 indicated the influence of traffic related emissions at residential and roadside stations during winter season. Higher T:B ratio observed at residential and background stations during summer period and correlation analysis indicated additional VOC sources. Temporal variations and low m,p-xylene to ethylbenzene ratio (mpX:E) indicated that transported air mass is the major VOC source influencing VOC concentrations measured at the background station.

  7. Occurrence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations along roadsides in southern Manitoba, Canada and their potential role in intraspecific gene flow.

    PubMed

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Gulden, Robert H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2011-04-01

    Alfalfa is a highly outcrossing perennial species that can be noticed in roadsides as feral populations. There remains little information available on the extent of feral alfalfa populations in western Canadian prairies and their role in gene flow. The main objectives of this study were (a) to document the occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, and (b) to estimate the levels of outcrossing facilitated by feral populations. A roadside survey confirmed widespread occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, particularly in alfalfa growing regions. The feral populations were dynamic and their frequency ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 populations km(-1). In many cases, the nearest feral alfalfa population from alfalfa production field was located within a distance sufficient for outcrossing in alfalfa. The gene flow study confirmed that genes can move back and forth between feral and cultivated alfalfa populations. In this study, the estimated outcrossing levels were 62% (seed fields to feral), 78% (feral to seed fields), 82% (hay fields to feral) and 85% (feral to feral). Overall, the results show that feral alfalfa plants are prevalent in alfalfa producing regions in western Canada and they can serve as bridges for gene flow at landscape level. Management of feral populations should be considered, if gene flow is a concern. Emphasis on preventing seed spill/escapes and intentional roadside planting of alfalfa cultivars will be particularly helpful. Further, realistic and pragmatic threshold levels should be established for markets sensitive to the presence of GE traits.

  8. Focal Gray Matter Plasticity as a Function of Long Duration Head-down Tilt Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppelmans, V.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Koppelmans, V.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight (i.e., > or = 22 days) has been associated with changes in sensorimotor systems, resulting in difficulties that astronauts experience with posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes. Whether these sensorimotor changes may be related to structural and functional brain changes is yet unknown. However, experimental studies revealed changes in the gray matter (GM) of the brain after simulated microgravity. Thus, it is possible that spaceflight may affect brain structure and thereby cognitive functioning and motor behavior. Long duration head-down tilt bed rest has been suggested as an exclusionary analog to study microgravity effects on the sensorimotor system. Bed rest mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both in- and post-flight, we are conducting a prospective longitudinal 70-day bed rest study as an analog to investigate the effects of microgravity on the brain. VBM analysis revealed a progressive decrease from pre- to in- bed rest in GM volume in bilateral areas including the frontal medial cortex, the insular cortex and the caudate. Over the same time period, there was a progressive increase in GM volume in the cerebellum, occipital-, and parietal cortex, including the precuneus. The majority of these changes did not fully recover during the post-bed rest period. Analysis of lobular GM volumes obtained with BRAINS showed significantly increased volume from pre-bed rest to in-bed rest in GM of the parietal lobe and the third ventricle. Temporal GM volume at 70 days in bed rest was smaller than that at the first pre-bed rest measurement. Trend analysis showed significant positive linear and negative quadratic relationships between parietal GM and time, a positive linear relationship between third ventricle volume and time, and a negative linear

  9. 14 CFR 117.25 - Rest period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... minimum of 8 uninterrupted hours of sleep opportunity. (f) If a flightcrew member determines that a rest period under paragraph (e) of this section will not provide eight uninterrupted hours of...

  10. Brief wakeful resting can eliminate directed forgetting.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Andreas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-02-01

    When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emotionally neutral music or perceived neutral pictures, or it was followed by an "active" distraction period in which subjects were engaged in counting or calculation tasks. Whereas typical directed forgetting was present after active distraction, the forgetting was absent after wakeful resting. The findings indicate that the degree to which people can intentionally forget memories is influenced by the cognitive activity that people engage in shortly after learning takes place. The results provide first evidence on the interplay between wakeful resting and intentional forgetting.

  11. Effects Of Exercise During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Bernauer, Edmund M.

    1993-01-01

    Pair of reports adds to growing body of knowledge of physical deconditioning caused by prolonged bed rest and effectiveness of various exercise regimens in preserving or restoring fitness. Major objective to determine what regimens to prescribe to astronauts before flight, during prolonged weightlessness, and immediately before returning to Earth. Knowledge also benefits patients confined by illness or injury. First report discusses experiment on effects of two types of periodic, intense, short-duration exercise during bed rest. Experiment also discussed in documents "Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest" (ARC-12190), and "Isotonic And Isokinetic Exercise During Bed Rest" (ARC-12180). Second report reviews knowledge acquired with view toward development of protocols for exercise regimens.

  12. ReSTful OSGi Web Applications Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja; Norris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation accompanies a tutorial on the ReSTful (Representational State Transfer) web application. Using Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGi), ReST uses HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites. It also uses Eclipse for the rapid development, the Eclipse debugger, the test application, and the ease of export to production servers.

  13. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  14. Potential effects of roadside dry wells on groundwater quality on the Island of Hawai'i-Assessment using numerical groundwater models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread use of dry wells to dispose of roadside runoff has raised concern about the potential effects on the quality of groundwater on the Island of Hawai‘i. This study used semi-generic numerical models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport to assess the potential effect of dry wells on groundwater quality on the Island of Hawai‘i. The semi-generic models are generalized numerical groundwater-flow and solute-transport models that have a range of aquifer properties and regional groundwater gradients that are characteristic for the island. Several semi-generic models were created to study the effect of dry wells in different hydrogeologic conditions, such as different unsaturated-zone thicknesses or different aquifer characteristics. Results indicate that mixing of contaminated water from the surface with contaminant-free water in the saturated aquifer immediately reduces the contaminant concentration. The amount the concentration is reduced depends on the hydraulic properties of the aquifer in a given area, the thickness of the unsaturated zone, and whether the infiltration is focused in a small area of a dry well or spread naturally over a larger area. Model simulations indicate that focusing infiltration of contaminated runoff through a dry well can substantially increase contaminant concentrations in the underlying saturated aquifer relative to infiltration under natural conditions. Simulated concentrations directly beneath a dry well were nearly 8 times higher than the simulated concentrations directly beneath a broad infiltration area representing the natural condition. Where dry wells are present, contaminant concentrations in the underlying saturated aquifer are lower when the unsaturated zone is thicker and higher when the unsaturated zone is thinner. Contaminant concentrations decline quickly as the contaminant plume migrates, with the regional groundwater flow, away from the dry well. The differences among concentrations resulting from the

  15. Are Auditory Hallucinations Related to the Brain's Resting State Activity? A 'Neurophenomenal Resting State Hypothesis'

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While several hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been suggested, the exact role of the recently highlighted intrinsic resting state activity of the brain remains unclear. Based on recent findings, we therefore developed what we call the 'resting state hypotheses' of AVH. Our hypothesis suggest that AVH may be traced back to abnormally elevated resting state activity in auditory cortex itself, abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by anterior cortical midline regions as part of the default-mode network, and neural confusion between auditory cortical resting state changes and stimulus-induced activity. We discuss evidence in favour of our 'resting state hypothesis' and show its correspondence with phenomenal, i.e., subjective-experiential features as explored in phenomenological accounts. Therefore I speak of a 'neurophenomenal resting state hypothesis' of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. PMID:25598821

  16. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    PubMed Central

    Scheinost, Dustin; Stoica, Teodora; Wasylink, Suzanne; Gruner, Patricia; Saksa, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Hampson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients—personalized medicine—requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Individual response to this intervention is variable. Here we used patterns of brain functional connectivity, as measured by baseline resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), to predict improvements in contamination anxiety after neurofeedback training. Activity of a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 10, associated with contamination anxiety in each subject was measured in real time and presented as a neurofeedback signal, permitting subjects to learn to modulate this target brain region. We have previously reported both enhanced OFC/BA 10 control and improved anxiety in a group of subclinically anxious subjects after neurofeedback. Five individuals with contamination-related OCD who underwent the same protocol also showed improved clinical symptomatology. In both groups, these behavioral improvements were strongly correlated with baseline whole-brain connectivity in the OFC/BA 10, computed from rs-fMRI collected several days prior to neurofeedback training. These pilot data suggest that rs-fMRI can be used to identify individuals likely to benefit from rt-fMRI neurofeedback training to control contamination anxiety. PMID:25309375

  17. Influence of the vegetative cover on the fate of trace metals in retention systems simulating roadside infiltration swales.

    PubMed

    Leroy, M C; Marcotte, S; Legras, M; Moncond'huy, V; Le Derf, F; Portet-Koltalo, F

    2017-02-15

    Large-scale outdoor mesocosms were designed and co-contaminated with metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) and organic compounds to better understand the complex functioning of urban roadside swale environments. Infiltration systems were planted with macrophytes (P. arundinaceae, J. effusus and I. pseudacorus) or grassed, and natural or spiked target metals were monitored over two years. In the non-spiked mesocosms, atmospheric metal inputs were slightly higher than outputs, leading to low metal accumulation in topsoils and to very low outflow water contamination (<0.7% of the initial metal stock). In the spiked infiltration systems that simulated point pollution through water inflow, transfer of the initial stock of metals to the deeper soil layers was quite low and outflow water contamination was very low (<0.6% of the initial stock). The main metal output from these systems occurred in the first days of their installation because of the high metal solubility in water and insufficient plant cover at that time. The infiltration systems stabilized after a few weeks, probably because of stronger sorption to soil aggregates, and because of plant root development. Mephytoextraction in plant roots was more efficient in mesocosms planted with P. arundinacea and grass. Metal phytoextraction in plant aerial parts was also better for grass and P. arundinacea, when considering metal standing stocks instead of their concentration in plants. J. effusus was a good metal accumulator, but its low aboveground biomass development was less favorable to metal removal through harvesting.

  18. Simulation study of dispersion and removal of particulate matter from traffic by road-side vegetation barrier.

    PubMed

    Morakinyo, Tobi Eniolu; Lam, Yun Fat

    2016-04-01

    Well-positioned and configured vegetation barriers (VBs) have been suggested as one of the green infrastructures that could improve near-road (local) air quality. This is because of their influence on the underlying mechanisms: dispersion and mass removal (by deposition). Some studies have investigated air quality improvement by near-road vegetation barrier using the dispersion-related method while few studies have done the same using the deposition-related method. However, decision making on vegetation barrier's configuration and placement for need-based maximum benefit requires a combined assessment with both methods which are not commonly found in a single study. In the present study, we employed a computational fluid dynamics model, ENVI-met, to evaluate the air quality benefit of near-road vegetation barrier using an integrated dispersion-deposition approach. A technique based on distance between source (road) and point of peak concentration before dwindling concentration downwind begins referred to as "distance to maximum concentration (DMC)" has been proposed to determine optimum position from source and thickness of vegetation barrier for improved dispersion and deposition-based benefit, respectively. Generally, a higher volume of vegetation barrier increases the overall mass removal while it weakens dispersion of pollutant within the same domain. Hence, the benefit of roadside vegetation barrier is need-based and can be expressed as either higher mass deposition or higher mass dispersion. Finally, recommendations on applications of our findings were presented.

  19. Arctic megaslide at presumed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Wolfram H.; Gebhardt, A. Catalina; Gross, Felix; Wollenburg, Jutta; Jensen, Laura; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Elger, Judith; Osti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Slope failure like in the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide is one of the major geohazards in a changing Arctic environment. We analysed hydroacoustic and 2D high-resolution seismic data from the apparently intact continental slope immediately north of the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide for signs of past and future instabilities. Our new bathymetry and seismic data show clear evidence for incipient slope instability. Minor slide deposits and an internally-deformed sedimentary layer near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone imply an incomplete failure event, most probably about 30000 years ago, contemporaneous to or shortly after the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide. An active gas reservoir at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone demonstrate that over-pressured fluids might have played a key role in the initiation of slope failure at the studied slope, but more importantly also for the giant HYM slope failure. To date, it is not clear, if the studied slope is fully preconditioned to fail completely in future or if it might be slowly deforming and creeping at present. We detected widespread methane seepage on the adjacent shallow shelf areas not sealed by gas hydrates.

  20. Arctic megaslide at presumed rest

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Wolfram H.; Gebhardt, A. Catalina; Gross, Felix; Wollenburg, Jutta; Jensen, Laura; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita C.; Krastel, Sebastian; Elger, Judith; Osti, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Slope failure like in the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide is one of the major geohazards in a changing Arctic environment. We analysed hydroacoustic and 2D high-resolution seismic data from the apparently intact continental slope immediately north of the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide for signs of past and future instabilities. Our new bathymetry and seismic data show clear evidence for incipient slope instability. Minor slide deposits and an internally-deformed sedimentary layer near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone imply an incomplete failure event, most probably about 30000 years ago, contemporaneous to or shortly after the Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide. An active gas reservoir at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone demonstrate that over-pressured fluids might have played a key role in the initiation of slope failure at the studied slope, but more importantly also for the giant HYM slope failure. To date, it is not clear, if the studied slope is fully preconditioned to fail completely in future or if it might be slowly deforming and creeping at present. We detected widespread methane seepage on the adjacent shallow shelf areas not sealed by gas hydrates. PMID:27922097

  1. Resting state connectivity patterns with near-infrared spectroscopy data of the whole head

    PubMed Central

    Novi, Sergio L.; Rodrigues, Renato B. M. L.; Mesquita, Rickson C.

    2016-01-01

    Resting state cerebral dynamics has been a useful approach to explore the brain’s functional organization. In this study, we employed graph theory to deeply investigate resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Our results suggest that network parameters are very similar across time and subjects. We also identified the most frequent connections between brain regions and the main hubs that participate in the spontaneous activity of brain hemodynamics. Similar to previous findings, we verified that symmetrically located brain areas are highly connected. Overall, our results introduce new insights in NIRS-based functional connectivity at rest. PMID:27446687

  2. The Resting Brain: Unconstrained yet Reliable

    PubMed Central

    Shehzad, Zarrar; Kelly, A. M. Clare; Reiss, Philip T.; Gee, Dylan G.; Gotimer, Kristin; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Lee, Sang Han; Margulies, Daniel S.; Roy, Amy Krain; Biswal, Bharat B.; Petkova, Eva; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the usage of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine functional connectivity (fcMRI), both in normal and pathological populations. Despite this increasing popularity, concerns about the psychologically unconstrained nature of the “resting-state” remain. Across studies, the patterns of functional connectivity detected are remarkably consistent. However, the test–retest reliability for measures of resting state fcMRI measures has not been determined. Here, we quantify the test–retest reliability, using resting scans from 26 participants at 3 different time points. Specifically, we assessed intersession (>5 months apart), intrasession (<1 h apart), and multiscan (across all 3 scans) reliability and consistency for both region-of-interest and voxel-wise analyses. For both approaches, we observed modest to high reliability across connections, dependent upon 3 predictive factors: 1) correlation significance (significantly nonzero > nonsignificant), 2) correlation valence (positive > negative), and 3) network membership (default mode > task positive network). Short- and long-term measures of the consistency of global connectivity patterns were highly robust. Finally, hierarchical clustering solutions were highly reproducible, both across participants and sessions. Our findings provide a solid foundation for continued examination of resting state fcMRI in typical and atypical populations. PMID:19221144

  3. Brain and behavioural evidence for rest-activity cycles in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Brown, Euan R; Piscopo, Stefania; De Stefano, Rosanna; Giuditta, Antonio

    2006-09-25

    Octopus vulgaris maintained under a 12/12h light/dark cycle exhibit a pronounced nocturnal activity pattern. Animals deprived of rest during the light period show a marked 'rebound' in activity in the following 24h. 'Active' octopuses attack faster than 'quiet' animals and brain activity recorded electrically intensifies during 'quiet' behaviour. Thus, in Octopus as in vertebrates, brain areas involved in memory or 'higher' processes exhibit 'off-line' activity during rest periods.

  4. Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

  5. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  6. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  7. Association Between Resting-State Microstates and Ratings on the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Pipinis, Evaldas; Melynyte, Sigita; Koenig, Thomas; Jarutyte, Lina; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Griskova-Bulanova, Inga

    2017-03-01

    There is a gap in understanding on how physiologically observed activity is related to the subjective, internally oriented experience during resting state. Microstate analysis is a frequent approach to evaluate resting-state EEG. But the relationship of commonly observed resting-state microstates to psychological domains of resting is not clear. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ) was recently introduced, offering an effective way to quantify subjective states after a period of resting and associate these quantifiers to psychological and physiological variables. In a sample of 94 healthy volunteers who participated in closed-eyes 5 min resting session with concurrent EEG recording and subsequent filling of the ARSQ we evaluated parameters of microstate Classes A, B, C, D. We showed a moderate negative association between contribution (r = -0.40) of Class C and experienced somatic awareness (SA). The negative correlation between Class C and SA seems reasonable as Class C becomes more dominant when connections to contextual information (and bodily sensations as assessed with SA) are loosened (in reduced attention states, during sleep, hypnosis, or psychosis). We suggest that the use of questionnaires such as the ARSQ is helpful in exploring the variation of resting-state EEG parameters and its relationship to variation in sensory and non-sensory experiences.

  8. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  9. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, B. Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease. PMID:23964225

  10. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition.

    PubMed

    Diaz, B Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Van Someren, Eus J W; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition-and tools to quantify them-have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease.

  11. Drivers' phone use at red traffic lights: a roadside observation study comparing calls and visual-manual interactions.

    PubMed

    Huth, Véronique; Sanchez, Yann; Brusque, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Phone use while driving has become one of the priority issues in road safety, given that it may lead to decreased situation awareness and deteriorated driving performance. It has been suggested that drivers can regulate their exposure to secondary tasks and seek for compatibility of phone use and driving. Phone use strategies include the choice of driving situations with low demands and interruptions of the interaction when the context changes. Traffic light situations at urban intersections imply both a temptation to use the phone while waiting at the red traffic light and a potential threat due to the incompatibility of phone use and driving when the traffic light turns green. These two situations were targeted in a roadside observation study, with the aim to investigate the existence of a phone use strategy at the red traffic light and to test its effectiveness. N=124 phone users and a corresponding control group of non-users were observed. Strategic phone use behaviour was detected for visual-manual interactions, which are more likely to be initiated at the red traffic light and tend to be stopped before the vehicle moves off, while calls are less likely to be limited to the red traffic light situation. As an indicator of impaired situation awareness, delayed start was associated to phone use and in particular to visual-manual interactions, whether phone use was interrupted before moving off or not. Traffic light situations do not seem to allow effective application of phone use strategies, although drivers attempt to do so for the most demanding phone use mode. The underlying factors of phone use need to be studied so as to reduce the temptation of phone use and facilitate exposure regulation strategies.

  12. Metal accumulation, biochemical response and yield of Indian mustard grown in soil amended with rural roadside pond sediment.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Kumar Paul, Ranjit; Das, D K

    2013-06-01

    This present study aims to discern the effect of roadside pond sediments on Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (cv. Rohini) by examining heavy metal uptake by different parts of the plant and its influence on biochemical properties, biomass, yield and oil content in plant. Although the treated soils were clearly contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) after application of pond sediments and chemical fertilizers, but the metal content in mustard leaves and seeds are below the permissible limit of consumable food. HMs accumulation was proportionally lesser in grains than in shoots and roots. All the biochemical characteristics were significantly (p<0.05) responded to the pond sediments application as compared to the control. Increase in photosynthetic pigment was also observed during growing period while pond sediment was used as amendment. This study revealed that Brassica juncea is well adapted to tolerate and accumulate high quantities of HMs due to increased level of antioxidants (cysteine and ascorbic acid) in roots, shoots and leaves. Multivariate techniques like principal component analysis and cluster analysis (CA) were used as classification techniques. On the basis of factor loadings and principal component scores, different parameters were grouped based on their similarity or closeness, separately in leaves, roots and seeds. A very similar grouping was also obtained using CA. However, pond sediment did not thwart the enhancement of mustard yield and oil content. Therefore, pond sediment would be a valuable resource for mustard as an alternative soil amendment for nutrients, but long-term use may require the cessation to restrict HMs contamination in soils.

  13. Source apportionment of fine and coarse particles at a roadside and urban background site in London during the 2012 summer ClearfLo campaign.

    PubMed

    Crilley, Leigh R; Lucarelli, Franco; Bloss, William J; Harrison, Roy M; Beddows, David C; Calzolai, Giulia; Nava, Silvia; Valli, Gianluigi; Bernardoni, Vera; Vecchi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    London, like many major cities, has a noted air pollution problem, and a better understanding of the sources of airborne particles in the different size fractions will facilitate the implementation and effectiveness of control strategies to reduce air pollution. Thus, the trace elemental composition of the fine and coarse fraction were analysed at hourly time resolution at urban background (North Kensington, NK) and roadside (Marylebone Road, MR) sites within central London. Unlike previous work, the current study focuses on measurements during the summer providing a snapshot of contributing sources, utilising the high time resolution to improve source identification. Roadside enrichment was observed for a large number of elements associated with traffic emissions (Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb and Zr), while those elements that are typically from more regional sources (e.g. Na, Cl, S and K) were not found to have an appreciable increment. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied for the source apportionment of the particle mass at both sites with similar sources being identified, including sea salt, airborne soil, traffic emissions, secondary inorganic aerosols and a Zn-Pb source. In the fine fraction, traffic emissions was the largest contributing source at MR (31.9%), whereas it was incorporated within an "urban background" source at NK, which had contributions from wood smoke, vehicle emissions and secondary particles. Regional sources were the major contributors to the coarse fraction at both sites. Secondary inorganic aerosols (which contained influences from shipping emissions and coal combustion) source factors accounted for around 33% of the PM10 at NK and were found to have the highest contributions from regional sources, including from the European mainland. Exhaust and non-exhaust sources both contribute appreciably to PM10 levels at the MR site, highlighting the continuing importance of vehicle-related air pollutants at

  14. Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, S.; Berry, P; Cohen, M.; Danelis, J.; Deroshia, C.; Greenleaf, J.; Harris, B.; Keil, L.; Bernauer, E.; Bond, M.; Ellis, S.; Lee, P.; Selzer, R.; Wade, C.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiment to investigate effects of isotonic and isokinetic leg exercises in counteracting effects of bed rest upon physical and mental conditions of subjects. Data taken on capacity for work, endurance and strength, tolerance to sitting up, equilibrium, posture, gait, atrophy, mineralization and density of bones, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid and electrolyte balances, intermediary metabolism of muscles, mood, and performance.

  15. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Costes, D.

    2012-07-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  16. Wakeful rest alleviates interference-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Retroactive interference (RI)--the disruptive influence of events occurring after the formation of a new memory--is one of the primary causes of forgetting. Placing individuals within an environment that postpones interference should, therefore, greatly reduce the likelihood of information being lost from memory. For example, a short period of wakeful rest should diminish interference-based forgetting. To test this hypothesis, participants took part in a foreign language learning activity and were shown English translations of 20 Icelandic words for immediate recall. Half of the participants were then given an 8-min rest before completing a similar or dissimilar interfering distractor task. The other half did not receive a rest until after the distractor task, at which point interference had already taken place. All participants were then asked to translate the Icelandic words for a second time. Results revealed that retention was significantly worse at the second recall test, but being allowed a brief rest before completing the distractor task helped reduce the amount of forgetting. Taking a short, passive break can shield new memories from RI and alleviate forgetting.

  17. Rest break interventions in stoop labor tasks.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Julia; Meyers, James; Miles, John; Janowitz, Ira; Fathallah, Fadi

    2007-03-01

    Hand cultivation and harvest of agricultural products constitute strenuous physical tasks. Working with labor-management ergonomics committees in agricultural settings, the UC Agricultural Ergonomics Research Center (AERC) tested an experimental rest and recovery protocol for its impact on symptoms and productivity during two types of work tasks. The experimental condition consisted of adding a 5 min rest break to every working hour in which there was no other scheduled break (e.g., lunchtime). This resulted in an additional 20 min of rest per workday. We tested the intervention in two trials: Trial one compared workers (n=66) randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group during the harvest of commercial strawberries. Trial two utilized a cross-over design (n=16 pairs of workers) to compare experimental and control conditions while workers inserted bud grafts into young 18'' high citrus trees. For both trials, workers under the experimental condition reported significantly less severe symptoms than workers under control conditions. The order in which the intervention was given, however, appeared to result in variations in productivity. We conclude that the introduction of frequent, brief rest breaks may improve symptoms for workers engaged in strenuous work tasks.

  18. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  19. Parkinson's disease rigidity: EMG in a small hand muscle at "rest".

    PubMed

    Cantello, R; Gianelli, M; Civardi, C; Mutani, R

    1995-10-01

    The presence of excessive EMG at "rest" might be an important factor in the genesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) rigidity, and we studied it in the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) of 8 idiopathic PD patients. We had 8 age- and sex-matched normal controls. In the PD group, the average area of the surface EMG at "rest" correlated significantly with the clinical evaluation of rigidity and remained abnormally enhanced for 10-15 min after a command to "relax." Later, it tended to decline, but its entity was still much greater than in controls. The EMG "at rest" consisted of unwilled motor unit (MU) firing. A larger MU number was recruited in patients than in controls at "rest." MU rate coding was similar in both groups. Eventually, patients could get periods of EMG silence which, however, were interrupted by short EMG bursts, even if there was no muscle stretch. These bursts were interpreted as residual fragments of the original excessive EMG at "rest." MUs first recruited during such bursts showed high, but not total, overlapping with those first recruited by a gentle voluntary contraction or by a weak transcranial magnetic stimulus to motor cortex. We conclude that EMG activity at "rest" was made up of the discharge of low-threshold MUs, with a recruitment order similar to that resulting from descending cortico-spinal volleys. However, we cannot exclude other possible input sources to the alpha-motoneurones at "rest."

  20. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  1. Roadside increments in PM10, NOx and NO2 concentrations observed over 2 months at a major highway in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Longley, Ian; Somervell, Elizabeth; Gray, Sally

    Continuous and simultaneous observational particulate matter (measured as PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) data were captured at a kerbside site alongside a major highway in Auckland, New Zealand, and at a pair of setback sites within 250 m of the highway, day and night over 8 weeks. The three measurement sites were intended to allow emissions from the highway to be largely isolated from other sources. By filtering the data and subtracting upwind concentrations, the average roadside increment was calculated to be 1.8, 7.2 and 101.4 μg m(-3) for PM10, NO2 and NOx, respectively, relative to a predominantly upwind setback site, and -0.1, 9.4 and 98.5 μg m(-3) for PM10, NO2 and NOx, respectively, relative to a downwind setback site. The negative value for PM10 was attributed to local evening heating sources impacting the setback site. On days when peak 24 h PM10 concentrations were observed, the absolute kerbside increment was 2.1 μg m(-3). The absolute roadside 24 h average PM10 increment varied diurnally, peaking (on average) at 2.4 μg m(-3) during peak traffic hours. The largest observed 24-h average PM10 roadside increment was 6.9 μg m(-3) and exceeded 5 μg m(-3) on nine occasions. On each of these occasions, the daily mean wind speed was less than 2 m s(-1). The diurnally averaged difference in NOx concentrations between the kerbside site and the setback sites clearly resembled the diurnal cycle in traffic volume, and peaked during the morning traffic peak at around 180 μg m(-3). Background NOx concentrations were slightly higher in our study compared to a similar study in Las Vegas but absolute roadside concentrations were higher. This may be consistent with higher NOx emission factors in Auckland, but differences in the precise distance of the monitor from the road lanes and differences in meteorology need to be considered.

  2. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Brain Functional Connectivity and Sensorimotor Functioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Castenada, R. Riascos; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor functioning. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt (HDT) position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to HDT bed rest on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. To validate that our findings were not due to confounding factors such as time or task practice, we also acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral measurements from 14 normative control participants at four time points. Bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Rs-fMRI and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8 days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70 days during bed rest; and 8 and 12 days after bed rest. 70 days of HDT bed rest resulted in significant increases in functional connectivity during bed rest followed by a reversal of changes in the post bed rest recovery period between motor cortical and somatosensory areas of the brain. In contrast, decreases in connectivity were observed between temporoparietal regions. Furthermore, post-hoc correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between motor-somatosensory network connectivity and standing balance performance changes; participants that exhibited the greatest increases in connectivity strength showed the least deterioration in postural

  3. Differential neural network approach in information process for prediction of roadside air pollution by peat fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkin, V.; Tarkhov, D.; Timofeev, V.; Lozhkina, O.; Vasilyev, A.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a novel differential neural network model estimating the dispersion of CO emissions from a peat fire near a highway. We have developed approaches for the optimization of the model on the base of simulated and experimental measurements of CO concentrations in the area of dispersion of the smoke cloud. The numerical solutions of the problem are presented in the form of neural network approximations by the Gaussian model and in the form of neural network approximate solutions of partial differential equations. The trained neural network model can be used for the prediction of emergency when wind speed and direction and other fire parameters are changing. The method is also recommended for the development of air quality monitoring and predicting information systems.

  4. Resting state fMRI: A review of methods and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Megan H.; Smyser, Christopher D.; Shimony, Joshua S.

    2014-01-01

    Resting state fMRI measures spontaneous, low frequency fluctuations in the BOLD signal to investigate the functional architecture of the brain. Application of this technique has allowed for the identification of various RSNs, or spatially distinct areas of the brain that demonstrate synchronous BOLD fluctuations at rest. Various methods exist for analyzing resting state data, including seed based approaches, independent component analysis, graph methods, clustering algorithms, neural networks, and pattern classifiers. Clinical applications of resting state fMRI are at an early stage of development. However, its use in presurgical planning for brain tumor and epilepsy patients demonstrates early promise, and the technique may also have a future role in providing diagnostic and prognostic information for neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:22936095

  5. Aging effects on the resting state motor network and interlimb coordination.

    PubMed

    Solesio-Jofre, Elena; Serbruyns, Leen; Woolley, Daniel G; Mantini, Dante; Beets, Iseult A M; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2014-08-01

    Both increases and decreases in resting state functional connectivity have been previously observed within the motor network during aging. Moreover, the relationship between altered functional connectivity and age-related declines in bimanual coordination remains unclear. Here, we explored the developmental dynamics of the resting brain within a task-specific motor network in a sample of 128 healthy participants, aged 18-80 years. We found that age-related increases in functional connectivity between interhemispheric dorsal and ventral premotor areas were associated with poorer performance on a novel bimanual visuomotor task. Additionally, a control analysis performed on the default mode network confirmed that our age-related increases in functional connectivity were specific to the motor system. Our findings suggest that increases in functional connectivity within the resting state motor network with aging reflect a loss of functional specialization that may not only occur in the active brain but also in the resting brain.

  6. Noise annoyance and activity disturbance before and after the erection of a roadside noise barrier.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Mats E; Berglund, Birgitta

    2006-04-01

    Questionnaire studies were conducted in a residential area before and after the erection of a 2.25 m high noise barrier of conventional type along a heavily traveled road (19,600 vehicles/24 h). The interval between studies was two years. Houses closest to the barrier received a sound-level reduction from -70.0 to 62.5 dB Lden at the most exposed facade. The sound-level reduction decreased with distance to the road, and was negligible for houses at more than 100 m distance. Up to this distance, the noise barrier reduced residents' noise annoyance outdoors and indoors as well as improved speech communication outdoors. Indoors, speech communication and sleep disturbance were slightly but nonsignificantly improved. Predictions of the number of annoyed persons from published exposure-response curves (in Lden) agreed with the percentage of residents being annoyed when indoors, before and after the barrier. Conversely, the percentage of residents being annoyed when outdoors clearly exceeded the predictions. These results suggest that these exposure-response curves may be used in predicting indoor situations, but they should not be applied in situations where outdoor annoyance is at focus.

  7. Construction of a 40-mile long roadside scale model of the solar system in northern Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCartney, K.

    2001-05-01

    The Maine Solar System Model is currently under construction along Route 1 between Houlton and Presque Isle, in Aroostook County, northern Maine. The scale is 1:93,000,000, or 1 mile equals an astronomical unit. There is a 40 mile distance between the Sun (diameter 49.5 feet) and Pluto (diameter 1 inch). The model will include the Sun, nine planets and seven moons, with diameters and distances all to the same scale. Except for the Sun, all components will be three-dimensional and built to withstand the northern Maine climate. Construction is generally of steel with fiberglass globes positioned on steel posts at least ten feet above ground and 55 feet off the roadway. Road safety concerns require that the Jupiter and Saturn sites include parking lots. Educational information associated with the model will be provided on brochures, since textual information at the sites would require excessive stops and parking problems. Learning exercises will also be provided by travelling trunks prepared by Maine teachers to support the State of Maine Learning Results. This is a community project with the various components being built by ten area schools and with active assistance from many community members and organizations. It is being built with with very little money, with most materials and labor donated.

  8. Magnetic characterization of Daphnia resting eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, Masanobu; Kawasaki, Tamami . E-mail: tamami@rtri.or.jp; Shibue, Toshimichi; Takada, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Hideyuki; Namiki, Hideo

    2006-12-15

    This study characterized the magnetic materials found within Daphnia resting eggs by measuring static magnetization with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer, after forming two types of conditions, each of which consists of zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC). Magnetic ions, such as Fe{sup 3+}, contained in Daphnia resting eggs existed as (1) paramagnetic and superparamagnetic particles, demonstrated by a magnetization and temperature dependence of the magnetic moments under an applied magnetic field after ZFC and FC, and (2) ferromagnetic particles with definite magnetic moments, the content of which was estimated to be very low, demonstrated by the Moskowitz test. Conventionally, biomagnets have been directly detected by transmission electron microscopes (TEM). As demonstrated in this study, it is possible to nondestructively detect small biomagnets by magnetization measurement, especially after two types of ZFC and FC. This nondestructive method can be applied in detecting biomagnets in complex biological organisms.

  9. On the simultaneous deployment of two single-particle mass spectrometers at an urban background and a roadside site during SAPUSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C. S.; McGillicuddy, Eoin J.; Esser-Gietl, Johanna K.; Harrison, Roy M.; Wenger, John C.

    2016-08-01

    The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) provides size-resolved information on the chemical composition of single particles with high time resolution. Within SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies), continuous ATOFMS measurements of ambient particles were made simultaneously at two urban locations: urban background (UB) site and roadside (RS) site in the city of Barcelona (Spain) from 17 September to 18 October 2010. Two different instrumental configurations were used: ATOFMS (TSI 3800) with a converging nozzle inlet (high efficiency at about 800-2000 nm) at the UB site and ATOFMS (TSI 3800-100) with an aerodynamic lens inlet (high efficiency at about 300-700 nm) at the RS site. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that two ATOFMS instruments have been deployed in the same field study. The different instrument configurations had an impact on the observed particle types at the two sites. Nevertheless, 10 particle types were detected at both locations, including local and regional elemental carbon (22.7-58.9 % of total particles), fresh and aged sea salt (1.0-14.6 %), local and regional nitrate-containing aerosols (3-11.6 %), local lead-containing metallic particles (0.1-0.2 %), and transported Fe-nitrate particles (0.8-2.5 %). The ATOFMS at the UB also characterized four particle types: calcium-containing dust (0.9 %), Saharan dust (1.3 %), vanadium-containing particles (0.9 %), and vegetative debris (1.7 %). By contrast, the high statistical counts of fine particles detected at the RS allowed identification of eight particle types. Four of these contained organic nitrogen of primary and secondary origin, which highlights the complex nature of the sources and processes that contribute to this aerosol chemical component. Aminium salts were found related to coarse sulfate-rich particle types, suggesting heterogeneous reaction mechanisms for their formation. The other four particle types mainly containing organic carbon were

  10. Synchronous pattern distinguishes resting tremor associated with essential tremor from rest tremor of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nisticò, R; Pirritano, D; Salsone, M; Novellino, F; Del Giudice, F; Morelli, M; Trotta, M; Bilotti, G; Condino, F; Cherubini, A; Valentino, P; Quattrone, A

    2011-01-01

    Rest tremor associated with essential tremor (ET) is a condition that poses challenges in diagnosing Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated tremor parameters in PD and ET patients with rest tremor. Fifteen patients with PD and 15 patients with ET underwent electrophysiological examination to evaluate characteristics of muscle bursting in rest postures. Rest tremor amplitude of PD patients was significantly higher than that of patients with ET (p = 0.002), whereas burst duration and frequency were significantly higher in ET than in PD group (p = 0.002, p < 0.001, respectively). Patients with PD, however, showed some overlap of these electrophysiological values with values from patients with ET. By contrast, rest tremor pattern showed no overlap between the two diseases, because all patients with ET presented a synchronous pattern whereas PD patients had an alternating pattern (p < 0.001), a finding that differentiated the patients on an individual basis. The electromyographic pattern of rest tremor may help to differentiate PD from ET.

  11. "Let It Rest:" Reflecting on Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontichiaro, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Top Chef is one of America's top food television shows. In one episode, lead judge Tom Colicchio, chef and restaurant owner, chides a contestant for hurriedly slicing a piece of meat as soon as it had emerged from the oven. The meat was fully cooked, but the competitor had not "let it rest," or let it steep in its own juices outside the oven for…

  12. Estimation of Warfighter Resting Metabolic Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-14

    influencing basal metabolic rate in normal adults. Am J Clin Nutr 33:2372-2374, 1980. Daly, J.M.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Head, C.A.; Harvey, L.P.; Nixon, D.W...Reappraisal of the resting metabolic rate of normal young men. Am J Clin Nutr 53(1):21-26, 1991. Cunningham, J.L. A reanalysis of the factors

  13. Information Flow Between Resting-State Networks

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Ibai; Erramuzpe, Asier; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Cabrera, Alberto; Marinazzo, Daniele; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J.; Stramaglia, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The resting brain dynamics self-organize into a finite number of correlated patterns known as resting-state networks (RSNs). It is well known that techniques such as independent component analysis can separate the brain activity at rest to provide such RSNs, but the specific pattern of interaction between RSNs is not yet fully understood. To this aim, we propose here a novel method to compute the information flow (IF) between different RSNs from resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. After hemodynamic response function blind deconvolution of all voxel signals, and under the hypothesis that RSNs define regions of interest, our method first uses principal component analysis to reduce dimensionality in each RSN to next compute IF (estimated here in terms of transfer entropy) between the different RSNs by systematically increasing k (the number of principal components used in the calculation). When k=1, this method is equivalent to computing IF using the average of all voxel activities in each RSN. For k≥1, our method calculates the k multivariate IF between the different RSNs. We find that the average IF among RSNs is dimension dependent, increasing from k=1 (i.e., the average voxel activity) up to a maximum occurring at k=5 and to finally decay to zero for k≥10. This suggests that a small number of components (close to five) is sufficient to describe the IF pattern between RSNs. Our method—addressing differences in IF between RSNs for any generic data—can be used for group comparison in health or disease. To illustrate this, we have calculated the inter-RSN IF in a data set of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to find that the most significant differences between AD and controls occurred for k=2, in addition to AD showing increased IF w.r.t. controls. The spatial localization of the k=2 component, within RSNs, allows the characterization of IF differences between AD and controls. PMID:26177254

  14. Resting calcium influx in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Luis M; Bazán-Perkins, Blanca

    2005-01-01

    Plasma membrane Ca2+ leak remains the most uncertain of the cellular Ca2+ regulation pathways. During passive Ca2+ influx in non-stimulated smooth muscle cells, basal activity of constitutive Ca2+ channels seems to be involved. In vascular smooth muscle, the 3 following Ca2+ entry pathways contribute to this phenomenon: (i) via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, (ii) receptor gated Ca2+ channels, and (iii) store operated Ca2+ channels, although, in airway smooth muscle it seems only 2 passive Ca2+ influx pathways are implicated, one sensitive to SKF 96365 (receptor gated Ca2+ channels) and the other to Ni2+ (store operated Ca2+ channels). Resting Ca2+ entry could provide a sufficient amount of Ca2+ and contribute to resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), maintenance of the resting membrane potential, myogenic tone, and sarcoplasmic reticulum-Ca2+ refilling. However, further research, especially in airway smooth muscle, is required to better explore the physiological role of this passive Ca2+ influx pathway as it could be involved in airway hyperresponsiveness.

  15. Effective Connectivity within the Mesocorticolimbic System during Resting-State in Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Suchismita; Di, Xin; Biswal, Bharat B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although effective connectivity between brain regions has been examined in cocaine users during tasks, no effective connectivity study has been conducted on cocaine users during resting-state. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined effective connectivity in resting-brain, between the brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, implicated in reward and motivated behavior, while the chronic cocaine users and controls took part in a resting-state scan by using a spectral Dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) approach. Method: As part of a study testing cocaine cue reactivity in cocaine users (Ray et al., 2015b), 20 non-treatment seeking cocaine-smoking (abstinent for at least 3 days) and 17 control participants completed a resting state scan and an anatomical scan. A mean voxel-based time series data extracted from four key brain areas (ventral tegmental area, VTA; nucleus accumbens, NAc; hippocampus, medial frontal cortex) within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system during resting-state from the cocaine and control participants were used as input to the spDCM program to generate spDCM analysis outputs. Results: Compared to the control group, the cocaine group had higher effective connectivity from the VTA to NAc, hippocampus and medial frontal cortex. In contrast, the control group showed a higher effective connectivity from the medial frontal cortex to VTA, from the NAc to medial frontal cortex, and on the hippocampus self-loop. Conclusions: The present study is the first to show that during resting-state in abstaining cocaine users compared to controls, the VTA initiates an enhanced effective connectivity to NAc, hippocampus and medial frontal cortex areas within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the brain’s reward system. Future studies of effective connectivity analysis during resting-state may eventually be used to monitor treatment outcome. PMID:27881959

  16. Effective Connectivity within the Mesocorticolimbic System during Resting-State in Cocaine Users.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suchismita; Di, Xin; Biswal, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although effective connectivity between brain regions has been examined in cocaine users during tasks, no effective connectivity study has been conducted on cocaine users during resting-state. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined effective connectivity in resting-brain, between the brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, implicated in reward and motivated behavior, while the chronic cocaine users and controls took part in a resting-state scan by using a spectral Dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) approach. Method: As part of a study testing cocaine cue reactivity in cocaine users (Ray et al., 2015b), 20 non-treatment seeking cocaine-smoking (abstinent for at least 3 days) and 17 control participants completed a resting state scan and an anatomical scan. A mean voxel-based time series data extracted from four key brain areas (ventral tegmental area, VTA; nucleus accumbens, NAc; hippocampus, medial frontal cortex) within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system during resting-state from the cocaine and control participants were used as input to the spDCM program to generate spDCM analysis outputs. Results: Compared to the control group, the cocaine group had higher effective connectivity from the VTA to NAc, hippocampus and medial frontal cortex. In contrast, the control group showed a higher effective connectivity from the medial frontal cortex to VTA, from the NAc to medial frontal cortex, and on the hippocampus self-loop. Conclusions: The present study is the first to show that during resting-state in abstaining cocaine users compared to controls, the VTA initiates an enhanced effective connectivity to NAc, hippocampus and medial frontal cortex areas within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the brain's reward system. Future studies of effective connectivity analysis during resting-state may eventually be used to monitor treatment outcome.

  17. Nigrostriatal dopamine-independent resting-state functional networks in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jee Hyun; Cha, Jungho; Lee, Jae Jung; Baek, Gwang-Min; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Hong, Jin Yong; Shin, Na-Young; Sohn, Young Ho; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2015-10-01

    As an indicator of synchronous neural activity, resting-state functional networks are influenced by neuropathological and neurochemical changes in degenerative diseases. To further advance understanding about neurochemical and neuropathological basis for resting-state functional maps, we performed a comparative analysis of resting-state functional connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and drug induced parkinsonism (DIP). Resting-state neuroimaging data were analyzed with a seed-based approach to investigate striatocortical functional connectivity and cortical functional connectivity within the default mode network, executive control network, and the dorsal attention network. The striatal subregions were divided into the more or less affected sides in terms of dopamine transporter uptake. Compared with DIP, PD exhibited an increased cerebellar connectivity from the more affected side of the caudate and the less affected sides of the anterior and the posterior putamen. Additionally, PD showed increased functional connectivity in the anterior prefrontal areas from the more affected side of the anterior putamen and from the less affected side of the posterior putamen. However, PD exhibited decreased cortical functional connectivity from the posterior cingulate cortex in the left temporal area. Finally, DIP patients showed decreased cortical functional connectivity from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in frontal and parietal areas compared with PD patients. In summary, the present study demonstrates that PD patients exhibited a unique resting state functional connectivity that may be associated with PD-related pathological changes beyond the dopaminergic system, whereas DIP patients showed altered functional connectivity within executive control network.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with vegetation and soil parameters under rest grazing management in a desert steppe ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bai, Gegenbaoleer; Bao, Yuying; Du, Guoxin; Qi, Yunlong

    2013-05-01

    The impact of rest grazing on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the interactions of AMF with vegetation and soil parameters under rest grazing condition were investigated between spring and late summer in a desert steppe ecosystem with different grazing managements (rest grazing with different lengths of resting period, banned or continuous grazing) in Inner Mongolia, China. AMF diversity and colonization, vegetation biomass, soil properties and soil phosphatase activity were examined. In rest grazing areas of 60 days, AMF spore number and diversity index at a 0-10 cm soil depth as well as vesicular and hyphal colonization rates were higher compared with other grazing treatments. In addition, soil organic matter and total N contents were highest and soil alkaline phosphatase was most active under 60-day rest grazing. In August and September, these areas also had the highest amount of aboveground vegetation. The results indicated that resting grazing for an appropriate period of time in spring has a positive effect on AMF sporulation, colonization and diversity, and that under rest grazing conditions, AMF parameters are positively correlated with some soil characteristics.

  19. Cross coherence independent component analysis in resting and action states EEG discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almurshedi, A.; Ismail, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Cross Coherence time frequency transform and independent component analysis (ICA) method were used to analyse the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in resting and action states during open and close eyes conditions. From the topographical scalp distributions of delta, theta, alpha, and beta power spectrum can clearly discriminate between the signal when the eyes were open or closed, but it was difficult to distinguish between resting and action states when the eyes were closed. In open eyes condition, the frontal area (Fp1, Fp2) was activated (higher power) in delta and theta bands whilst occipital (O1, O2) and partial (P3, P4, Pz) area of brain was activated alpha band in closed eyes condition. The cross coherence method of time frequency analysis is capable of discrimination between rest and action brain signals in closed eyes condition.

  20. Does brain activity at rest reflect adaptive strategies? Evidence from speech processing after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Strelnikov, K; Rouger, J; Demonet, J-F; Lagleyre, S; Fraysse, B; Deguine, O; Barone, P

    2010-05-01

    In functional neuroimaging studies, task-related activity refers to the signal difference between the stimulation and rest conditions. We asked whether long-term changes in the sensory environment may affect brain activity at rest. To answer this question, we compared regional cerebral blood flow between a group of normally hearing controls and a group of cochlear-implanted (CI) deaf patients. Here we present evidence that long-term alteration of auditory experience, such as profound deafness followed by partial auditory recuperation through cochlear implantation, leads to functional cortical reorganizations at rest. Without any visual or auditory stimulation, CI subjects showed changes of cerebral blood flow in the visual, auditory cortex, Broca area, and in the posterior temporal cortex with an increment of activity in these areas from the time of activation of the implant to less than a year after the implantation.

  1. Effect of bed rest and exercise on body balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    A battery of 11 body balance tests was administered to 7 men before and after 14 days of bedrest. Seven men who had not undergone bed rest served as controls. During bed rest, each subject underwent daily either isotonic, isometric, or no leg exercise. The results showed that, for the bed-rested no exercise, isotonic exercise, and isometric exercise groups, 2 weeks of bed rest produces significant body balance decrements on 3, 4, and 5 of the 11 tests, respectively. Daily leg exercise did not prevent the debilitating effects of bed rest on body balance. After bed rest, balance skill was relearned rapidly so that in most tests, performance had reached prebed-rest levels by the third recovery day. These data suggest that balance impairment is not due to loss of muscular strength in the legs but, perhaps, to a bed-rest-related change in the neurally coded information to postural control centers.

  2. Resting-State Functional Connectivity Differences in Premature Children

    PubMed Central

    Damaraju, Eswar; Phillips, John R.; Lowe, Jean R.; Ohls, Robin; Calhoun, Vince D.; Caprihan, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    We examine the coherence in the spontaneous brain activity of sleeping children as measured by the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. The results are described in terms of resting-state networks (RSN) and their properties. More specifically, in this study we examine the effect of severe prematurity on the spatial location of the visual, temporal, motor, basal ganglia, and the default mode networks, the temporal response properties of each of these networks, and the functional connectivity between them. Our results suggest that the anatomical locations of the RSNs are well developed by 18 months of age and their spatial locations are not distinguishable between premature and term born infants at 18 months or at 36 months, with the exception of small spatial differences noted in the basal ganglia area and the visual cortex. The two major differences between term and pre-term children were present at 36 but not 18 months and include: (1) increased spectral energy in the low frequency range (0.01–0.06 Hz) for pre-term children in the basal ganglia component, and (2) stronger connectivity between RSNs in term children. We speculate that children born very prematurely are vulnerable to injury resulting in weaker connectivity between resting-state networks by 36 months of age. Further work is required to determine whether this could be a clinically useful tool to identify children at risk of developmental delay related to premature birth. PMID:20725534

  3. Meditators and non-meditators: EEG source imaging during resting.

    PubMed

    Tei, Shisei; Faber, Pascal L; Lehmann, Dietrich; Tsujiuchi, Takuya; Kumano, Hiroaki; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Kochi, Kieko

    2009-11-01

    Many meditation exercises aim at increased awareness of ongoing experiences through sustained attention and at detachment, i.e., non-engaging observation of these ongoing experiences by the intent not to analyze, judge or expect anything. Long-term meditation practice is believed to generalize the ability of increased awareness and greater detachment into everyday life. We hypothesized that neuroplasticity effects of meditation (correlates of increased awareness and detachment) would be detectable in a no-task resting state. EEG recorded during resting was compared between Qigong meditators and controls. Using LORETA (low resolution electromagnetic tomography) to compute the intracerebral source locations, differences in brain activations between groups were found in the inhibitory delta EEG frequency band. In the meditators, appraisal systems were inhibited, while brain areas involved in the detection and integration of internal and external sensory information showed increased activation. This suggests that neuroplasticity effects of long-term meditation practice, subjectively described as increased awareness and greater detachment, are carried over into non-meditating states.

  4. The cerebral oscillatory network of parkinsonian resting tremor.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Lars; Gross, Joachim; Dirks, Martin; Volkmann, Jens; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2003-01-01

    Data from experiments in MPTP monkeys as well as from invasive and non-invasive recordings in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest an abnormal synchronization of neuronal activity in the generation of resting tremor in Parkinson's disease. In six patients with tremor-dominant idiopathic Parkinson's disease, we recorded simultaneously surface electromyograms (EMGs) of hand muscles, and brain activity with a whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. Using a recently developed analysis tool (Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources; DICS), we determined cerebro-muscular and cerebro-cerebral coherence as well as the partial coherence between cerebral areas and muscle, and localized coherent sources within the individual MRI scans. The phase lag between the EMG and cerebral activity was determined by means of a Hilbert transform of both signals. After overnight withdrawal from medication, patients showed typical Parkinson's disease resting tremor (4-6 Hz). This tremor was associated with strong coherence between the EMG of forearm muscles and activity in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) at tremor frequency but also at double tremor frequency. Phase lags between M1 activity and EMG were between 15 and 25 ms (M1 activity leading) at single, but also at double tremor frequency, corresponding well to the corticomuscular conduction time. Furthermore, significant coherence was observed between M1 and medial wall areas (cingulate/supplementary motor area; CMA/SMA), lateral premotor cortex (PM), diencephalon, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the contralateral cerebellum at single tremor and, even stronger at double tremor frequency. Spectra of coherence between thalamic activity and cerebellum as well as several brain areas revealed additional broad peaks around 20 Hz. Power spectral analysis of activity in all central areas indicated the strongest frequency components at double tremor frequency. Partial coherence

  5. Exercise countermeasures for bed rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The major objectives were to evaluate the efficiency of different modes of exercise (isotonic and isokinetic) for countering the effects of bed rest deconditioning on work capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength, orthostatic tolerance, posture, equilibrium and gait; and to collect additional data of a more fundamental nature to help understand how these deconditioning responses occur. These data will be used for writing prescriptions for exercise to be utilized by astronauts for maintaining work capacity and well-being on Freedom Station, and to determine what exercise devices should be place in the station.

  6. Traveling and Resting Crystals in Active Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Andreas M.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2013-02-01

    A microscopic field theory for crystallization in active systems is proposed which unifies the phase-field-crystal model of freezing with the Toner—Tu theory for self-propelled particles. A wealth of different active crystalline states are predicted and characterized. In particular, for increasing strength of self-propulsion, a transition from a resting crystal to a traveling crystalline state is found where the particles migrate collectively while keeping their crystalline order. Our predictions, which are verifiable in experiments and in particle-resolved computer simulations, provide a starting point for the design of new active materials.

  7. Framework for ReSTful Web Services in OSGi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Mittman, David S.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Rabe, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ensemble ReST is a software system that eases the development, deployment, and maintenance of server-side application programs to perform functions that would otherwise be performed by client software. Ensemble ReST takes advantage of the proven disciplines of ReST (Representational State Transfer. ReST leverages the standardized HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites

  8. Different Resting State EEG Features in Children from Switzerland and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alahmadi, Nsreen; Evdokimov, Sergey A.; Kropotov, Yury (Juri); Müller, Andreas M.; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research field concerned with studying the influences of different cultures on brain anatomy and function. In this study, we examined whether different cultural or genetic influences might influence the resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) in young children (mean age 10 years) from Switzerland and Saudi Arabia. Methods: Resting state EEG recordings were obtained from relatively large groups of healthy children (95 healthy Swiss children and 102 Saudi Arabian children). These EEG data were analyzed using group independent components analyses (gICA) and conventional analyses of spectral data, together with estimations of the underlying intracortical sources, using LORETA software. Results: We identified many similarities, but also some substantial differences with respect to the resting state EEG data. For Swiss children, we found stronger delta band power values in mesial frontal areas and stronger power values in three out of four frequency bands in occipital areas. For Saudi Arabian children, we uncovered stronger alpha band power over the sensorimotor cortex. The additionally measured theta/beta ratio (TBR) was similar for Swiss and Saudi Arabian children. Conclusions: The different EEG resting state features identified, are discussed in the context of different cultural experiences and possible genetic influences. In addition, we emphasize the importance of using appropriate EEG databases when comparing resting state EEG features between groups. PMID:27853430

  9. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of astronauts visual changes raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings included hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, hypotheses speculate that hypertension in the brain caused by cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight is a possible mechanism for these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. In addition, previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP). For these reasons, vision monitoring of HDT bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies. Subjects selected for these studies were healthy adults (14 males and 5 females). Average age was 37.5 plus or minus 9.1 years, weight was 77.4 plus or minus 11.3 Kg, and height was 173.4 plus or minus 7.2 14 cm. Controlled conditions followed for all NASA bed rest studies were implemented. These conditions included factors such as eating a standardized diet, maintaining a strict sleep wake cycle, and remaining in bed for 24 hours each day. In one study, subjects maintained a horizontal (0 degree) position while in bed and were exercised six days per week with an integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program. In the other study, subjects were placed at 6 degrees HDT while in bed and did not engage in exercise. All subjects underwent pre- and post bed rest vision testing. While the battery of vision tests for each study was not identical, measures common to both studies will be presented. These measures included IOP and measures that provided an indication of optic disc swelling as derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) testing: average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (millimeters), disc area (square millimeters), rim area (square millimters), and average cup to disc (C

  10. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).

    PubMed

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta<5°C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements.

  11. Resting Functional Connectivity of Language Networks: Characterization and Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.

    2011-01-01

    The neural basis of language comprehension and production has been associated with superior temporal (Wernicke’s) and inferior frontal (Broca’s) cortical areas respectively. However, recent resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) and lesion studies implicate a more extended network in language processing. Using a large RSFC dataset from 970 healthy subjects and seed regions in Broca’s and Wernicke’s we recapitulate this extended network that includes adjoining prefrontal, temporal and parietal regions but also bilateral caudate and left putamen/globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus. We also show that the language network has predominance of short-range functional connectivity (except posterior Wernicke’s area that exhibited predominant long-range connectivity), which is consistent with reliance on local processing. Predominantly, the long-range connectivity was left lateralized (except anterior Wernicke’s area that exhibited rightward lateralization). The language network also exhibited anticorrelated activity with auditory (only for Wernickes’s area) and visual cortices that suggests integrated sequential activity with regions involved with listening or reading words. Assessment of the intra subject’s reproducibility of this network and its characterization in individuals with language dysfunction is needed to determine its potential as a biomarker for language disorders. PMID:22212597

  12. Plasticity of resting state brain networks in recovery from stress.

    PubMed

    Soares, José M; Sampaio, Adriana; Marques, Paulo; Ferreira, Luís M; Santos, Nadine C; Marques, Fernanda; Palha, Joana A; Cerqueira, João J; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress has been widely reported to have deleterious impact in multiple biological systems. Specifically, structural and functional remodeling of several brain regions following prolonged stress exposure have been described; importantly, some of these changes are eventually reversible. Recently, we showed the impact of stress on resting state networks (RSNs), but nothing is known about the plasticity of RSNs after recovery from stress. Herein, we examined the "plasticity" of RSNs, both at functional and structural levels, by comparing the same individuals before and after recovery from the exposure to chronic stress; results were also contrasted with a control group. Here we show that the stressed individuals after recovery displayed a decreased resting functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN), ventral attention network (VAN), and sensorimotor network (SMN) when compared to themselves immediately after stress; however, this functional plastic recovery was only partial as when compared with the control group, as there were still areas of increased connectivity in dorsal attention network (DAN), SMN and primary visual network (VN) in participants recovered from stress. Data also shows that participants after recovery from stress displayed increased deactivations in DMN, SMN, and auditory network (AN), to levels similar to those of controls, showing a normalization of the deactivation pattern in RSNs after recovery from stress. In contrast, structural changes (volumetry) of the brain areas involving these networks are absent after the recovery period. These results reveal plastic phenomena in specific RSNs and a functional remodeling of the activation-deactivation pattern following recovery from chronic-stress, which is not accompanied by significant structural plasticity.

  13. Exercise thermoregulation after 14 days of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Reese, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of bed rest and exercise training during bed rest on body temperature and thermoregulatory responses at rest and during exercise are investigated. Seven male subjects underwent three two-week periods of bed rest during which isometric, isotonic, or no exercises were performed, separated by two ambulatory control periods and preceded by a two-week control period, during which they exercised regularly. Rectal and mean skin temperatures and sweating responses were determined during 70-min submaximal supine exercise during the bed rest and recovery periods. Measurements reveal a reduction in basal oral temperature during the control-recovery periods, with a relatively constant level during bed rest periods, and a significant increase in the rectal temperature elavation brought on by exercise following all three bed-rest regimes. It is concluded that the excessive increase in rectal temperature could be influenced by changes in skin heat conductance or the inhibition of sweating.

  14. Improvements and validation of the erythropoiesis control model for bed rest simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The most significant improvement in the model is the explicit formulation of separate elements representing erythropoietin production and red cell production. Other modifications include bone marrow time-delays, capability to shift oxyhemoglobin affinity and an algorithm for entering experimental data as time-varying driving functions. An area of model development is suggested by applying the model to simulating onset, diagnosis and treatment of a hematologic disorder. Recommendations for further improvements in the model and suggestions for experimental application are also discussed. A detailed analysis of the hematologic response to bed rest including simulation of the recent Baylor Medical College bed rest studies is also presented.

  15. Factors influencing particle number concentrations, size distributions and modal parameters at a roof-level and roadside site in Leicester, UK.

    PubMed

    Agus, Emily L; Young, David T; Lingard, Justin J N; Smalley, Robert J; Tate, James E; Goodman, Paul S; Tomlin, Alison S

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of urban particle number concentrations and size distributions in the range 5-1000 nm were taken at elevated (roof-level) and roadside sampling sites on Narborough Road in Leicester, UK, along with simultaneous measurements of traffic, NO(x), CO and 1,3-butadiene concentrations and meteorological parameters. A fitting program was used to determine the characteristics of up to five modal groups present in the particle size distributions. All particle modal concentrations peaked during the morning and evening rush hours. Additional events associated with the smallest mode, that were not observed to be connected to primary emissions, were also present suggesting that this mode consisted of newly formed secondary particles. These events included peaks in concentration which coincided with peaks in solar radiation, and lower concentrations of the larger modes. Investigation into the relationships between traffic flow and occupancy indicated three flow regimes; free-flow, unstable and congested. During free-flow conditions, positive linear relationships existed between traffic flow and particle modal number concentrations. However, during unstable and congested periods, this relationship was shown to break-down. Similar trends were observed for concentrations of the gas phase pollutants NO(x), CO and 1,3-butadiene. Strong linear relationships existed between NO(x), CO, 1,3-butadiene concentrations, nucleation and Aitken mode concentrations at both sampling locations, indicating a local traffic related emission source. At the roadside, both nucleation and Aitken mode are best represented by a decreasing exponential function with wind speed, whereas at the roof-level this relationship only occurred for Aitken mode particles. The differing relationships at the two sampling locations are most likely due to a combination of meteorological factors and distance from the local emission source.

  16. Characterization of volatile organic compounds at a roadside environment in Hong Kong: An investigation of influences after air pollution control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Ling, Zhen Hao; Lee, Shun Cheng; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Jun Ji; Blake, Donald R.; Cheng, Yan; Lai, Sen Chao; Ho, Kin Fai; Gao, Yuan; Cui, Long; Louie, Peter K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emission is one of the important anthropogenic pollution sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Four characterization campaigns were conducted at a representative urban roadside environment in Hong Kong between May 2011 and February 2012. Carbon monoxide (CO) and VOCs including methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), halocarbons, and alkyl nitrates were quantified. Both mixing ratios and compositions of the target VOCs show ignorable seasonal variations. Except CO, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tracers of propane, i-butane and n-butane are the three most abundant VOCs, which increased significantly as compared with the data measured at the same location in 2003. Meanwhile, the mixing ratios of diesel- and gasoline tracers such as ethyne, alkenes, aromatics, halogenated, and nitrated hydrocarbons decreased by at least of 37%. The application of advanced multivariate receptor modeling technique of positive matrix factorization (PMF) evidenced that the LPG fuel consumption is the largest pollution source, accounting for 60 ± 5% of the total quantified VOCs at the roadside location. The sum of ozone formation potential (OFP) for the target VOCs was 300.9 μg-O3 m-3, which was 47% lower than the value of 567.3 μg-O3 m-3 measured in 2003. The utilization of LPG as fuel in public transport (i.e., taxis and mini-buses) contributed 51% of the sum of OFP, significantly higher than the contributions from gasoline- (16%) and diesel-fueled (12%) engine emissions. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of the switch from diesel to LPG-fueled engine for taxis and mini-buses implemented by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government between the recent ten years, in additional to the execution of substitution to LPG-fueled engine and restrictions of the vehicular emissions in compliance with the updated European emission standards.

  17. Profile of a drunk driver and risk factors for drunk driving. Findings in roadside testing in the province of Uusimaa in Finland 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Rajalin, S; Eriksson, C J P; Gunnar, T; Koskimaa, H; Kuoppasalmi, K

    2013-09-10

    The aim of the present study was to define the profile of a drunk driver and to determine risk factors for drunk driving by analyzing data on both sober and drunk drivers. Systematic roadside surveys have been carried out in Southern Finland for over 18 years, with 20,000-30,000 drivers breath tested annually. During the study period, 1241 drunk drivers were caught (legal blood alcohol limit 0.50‰). The comparison material consisted of 3407 sober drivers. The surveys were designed to further investigate demographic features and driving habits of drivers. The prevalence of drunk driving has been 0.2% over the time period, with only random variations. According to the data, a typical drunk driver is a man aged 40-49 who has a valid driving license and drives his own car, usually alone, with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 1.0‰. He has a job and is married or cohabiting. The profile remained consistent throughout the study period. The risk of drunk driving was found to be five times higher for men than for women. Divorcees and widow(er)s had a substantially higher risk factor for being caught drunk driving than married drivers. Drunk drivers are most likely to be caught by roadside testing on Saturday mornings. During the study period the blood alcohol limit for aggravated drunk driving was lowered in 1994 from 1.5 to 1.2‰. In 2004 the taxation of alcohol beverages was reduced by 30%. Neither of these measures affected the prevalence of drunk driving or the mean BAC of drunk drivers (p=0.63).

  18. Resting-State and Task-Based Functional Brain Connectivity in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Matthias; Wimmer, Heinz; Richlan, Fabio; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Klackl, Johannes; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Reading requires the interaction between multiple cognitive processes situated in distant brain areas. This makes the study of functional brain connectivity highly relevant for understanding developmental dyslexia. We used seed-voxel correlation mapping to analyse connectivity in a left-hemispheric network for task-based and resting-state fMRI data. Our main finding was reduced connectivity in dyslexic readers between left posterior temporal areas (fusiform, inferior temporal, middle temporal, superior temporal) and the left inferior frontal gyrus. Reduced connectivity in these networks was consistently present for 2 reading-related tasks and for the resting state, showing a permanent disruption which is also present in the absence of explicit task demands and potential group differences in performance. Furthermore, we found that connectivity between multiple reading-related areas and areas of the default mode network, in particular the precuneus, was stronger in dyslexic compared with nonimpaired readers. PMID:25169986

  19. Major contribution of diatom resting spores to vertical flux in the sub-polar North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynearson, T. A.; Richardson, K.; Lampitt, R. S.; Sieracki, M. E.; Poulton, A. J.; Lyngsgaard, M. M.; Perry, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The mass sinking of phytoplankton cells following blooms is an important source of carbon to the ocean's interior, with some species contributing more to the flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) than others. During the 2008 North Atlantic Bloom Experiment in the Iceland Basin, we examined plankton community composition from surface waters and from sediment traps at depths down to 750 m. Samples collected with neutrally buoyant Lagrangian sediment traps captured a major flux event. Diatoms comprised ≥99% of cell flux into the sediment traps, with vegetative cells and resting spores of the genus Chaetoceros contributing 50-95% of cell flux. Resting spores of one species, identified as Chaetoceros aff. diadema, were dominant, comprising 35-92% of cell flux. The flux of resting spores ranged from 2 to 63 mg C m-2 day-1 and was significantly correlated with POC flux (p=0.003). Over the course of 10 days, the flux of resting spores increased by 26 fold, suggesting that the cells sank en masse, possibly in aggregates. In contrast, vegetative cells of C. aff. diadema sampled from surface waters during the period preceding the flux event generally comprised <1% of the diatom community and never exceeded 5.2%. Resting spores of C. aff. diadema were rarely observed in surface waters but their concentrations increased with depth (to 200 m) below the mixed layer. This increase in resting spore abundance, coupled with increased dissolved silicic acid concentrations at depth, suggest that the morphological changes associated with spore formation may have occurred in the mesopelagic zone, while cells were sinking. The values of variable fluorescence (Fv/Fm) measured on sediment trap material dominated by resting spores were among the highest values measured in the study area at any depth. This, in combination with the rapid germination of resting spores in ship-board incubations, suggests that vegetative cells were not physiologically stressed during spore formation. The

  20. [Resting heart rate and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2014-07-07

    Heart rate reflects autonomic nervous system activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an increased heart rate at rest is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as an independent risk factor. It has been shown a link between cardiac autonomic balance and inflammation. Thus, an elevated heart rate produces a micro-inflammatory response and is involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. In turn, decrease in heart rate produces benefits in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Alteration of other heart rate-related parameters, such as their variability and recovery after exercise, is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. Drugs reducing the heart rate (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and inhibitors of If channels) have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Although not recommended in healthy subjects, interventions for reducing heart rate constitute a reasonable therapeutic goal in certain pathologies.

  1. Dr. Wernher von Braun Laid to Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun served as Marshall Space Flight Center's first director from July 1, 1960 until January 27, 1970, when he was appointed NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning. Following World War II, Dr. von Braun and his German colleagues arrived in the United States under Project Paper Clip to continue their rocket development work. In 1950, von Braun and his rocket team were transferred from Ft. Bliss, Texas to Huntsville, Alabama to work for the Army's rocket program at Redstone Arsenal and later, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Under von Braun's leadership, Marshall developed the Saturn V launch vehicle which took Apollo astronauts to the moon. Dr. von Braun died in Alexandria, Va., on June 16, 1977, seven years after his NASA appointment. This photo was taken at the site where he was laid to rest.

  2. A resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of concussion in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Suzanne M; Sikoglu, Elif M; Liso Navarro, Ana A; McCafferty, Joseph; Eisenstock, Jordan; Stevenson, J Herbert; King, Jean A; Moore, Constance M

    2015-06-01

    Sports-related concussions are currently diagnosed through multi-domain assessment by a medical professional and may utilize neurocognitive testing as an aid. However, these tests have only been able to detect differences in the days to week post-concussion. Here, we investigate a measure of brain function, namely resting state functional connectivity, which may detect residual brain differences in the weeks to months after concussion. Twenty-one student athletes (9 concussed within 6 months of enrollment; 12 non-concussed; between ages 18 and 22 years) were recruited for this study. All participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and the Color-Word Interference Test. Neuroimaging data, specifically resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data, were acquired to examine resting state functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to compare the neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity patterns among concussed and non-concussed participants. Correlations between neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity measures were also determined across all subjects. There were no significant differences in neurocognitive performance between concussed and non-concussed groups. Concussed subjects had significantly increased connections between areas of the brain that underlie executive function. Across all subjects, better neurocognitive performance corresponded to stronger brain connectivity. Even at rest, brains of concussed athletes may have to 'work harder' than their healthy peers to achieve similar neurocognitive results. Resting state brain connectivity may be able to detect prolonged brain differences in concussed athletes in a more quantitative manner than neurocognitive test scores.

  3. A Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Concussion in Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Czerniak, Suzanne M; Sikoglu, Elif M; Navarro, Ana A Liso; McCafferty, Joseph; Eisenstock, Jordan; Stevenson, J Herbert; King, Jean A; Moore, Constance M

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are currently diagnosed through multi-domain assessment by a medical professional and may utilize neurocognitive testing as an aide. However, these tests have only been able to detect differences in the days to week post-concussion. Here, we investigate a measure of brain function, namely resting state functional connectivity, which may detect residual brain differences in the weeks to months after concussion. Twenty-one student athletes (9 concussed within 6 months of enrollment; 12 non-concussed; between ages 18 to 22 years) were recruited for this study. All participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and the Color-Word Interference Test. Neuroimaging data, specifically resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data, were acquired to examine resting state functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to compare the neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity patterns among concussed and non-concussed participants. Correlations between neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity measures were also determined across all subjects. There were no significant differences in neurocognitive performance between concussed and non-concussed groups. Concussed subjects had significantly increased connections between areas of the brain that underlie executive function. Across all subjects, better neurocognitive performance corresponded to stronger brain connectivity. Even at rest, brains of concussed athletes may have to ‘work harder’ than their healthy peers to achieve similar neurocognitive results. Resting state brain connectivity may be able to detect prolonged brain differences in concussed athletes in a more quantitative manner than neurocognitive test scores. PMID:25112544

  4. Cortical connective field estimates from resting state fMRI activity.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Nicolás; Harvey, Ben; Nordhjem, Barbara; Haak, Koen V; Dumoulin, Serge O; Renken, Remco; Curčić-Blake, Branislava; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2014-01-01

    One way to study connectivity in visual cortical areas is by examining spontaneous neural activity. In the absence of visual input, such activity remains shaped by the underlying neural architecture and, presumably, may still reflect visuotopic organization. Here, we applied population connective field (CF) modeling to estimate the spatial profile of functional connectivity in the early visual cortex during resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). This model-based analysis estimates the spatial integration between blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in distinct cortical visual field maps using fMRI. Just as population receptive field (pRF) mapping predicts the collective neural activity in a voxel as a function of response selectivity to stimulus position in visual space, CF modeling predicts the activity of voxels in one visual area as a function of the aggregate activity in voxels in another visual area. In combination with pRF mapping, CF locations on the cortical surface can be interpreted in visual space, thus enabling reconstruction of visuotopic maps from resting state data. We demonstrate that V1 ➤ V2 and V1 ➤ V3 CF maps estimated from resting state fMRI data show visuotopic organization. Therefore, we conclude that-despite some variability in CF estimates between RS scans-neural properties such as CF maps and CF size can be derived from resting state data.

  5. Spontaneous BOLD event triggered averages for estimating functional connectivity at resting state

    PubMed Central

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Balenzuela, Pablo; Fraiman, Daniel; Montoya, Pedro; Chialvo, Dante R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the spontaneous brain activity reflects, to a large extent, the same activation patterns measured in response to cognitive and behavioral tasks. This correspondence between activation and rest has been explored with a large repertoire of computational methods, ranging from analysis of pairwise interactions between areas of the brain to the global brain networks yielded by independent component analysis. In this paper we describe an alternative method based on the averaging of the BOLD signal at a region of interest (target) triggered by spontaneous increments in activity at another brain area (seed). The resting BOLD event triggered averages (“rBeta”) can be used to estimate functional connectivity at resting state. Using two simple examples, here we illustrate how the analysis of the average response triggered by spontaneous increases/decreases in the BOLD signal is sufficient to capture the aforementioned correspondence in a variety of circumstances. The computation of the non linear response during rest here described allows for a direct comparison with results obtained during task performance, providing an alternative measure of functional interaction between brain areas. PMID:21078369

  6. Cortical connective field estimates from resting state fMRI activity

    PubMed Central

    Gravel, Nicolás; Harvey, Ben; Nordhjem, Barbara; Haak, Koen V.; Dumoulin, Serge O.; Renken, Remco; Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2014-01-01

    One way to study connectivity in visual cortical areas is by examining spontaneous neural activity. In the absence of visual input, such activity remains shaped by the underlying neural architecture and, presumably, may still reflect visuotopic organization. Here, we applied population connective field (CF) modeling to estimate the spatial profile of functional connectivity in the early visual cortex during resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). This model-based analysis estimates the spatial integration between blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in distinct cortical visual field maps using fMRI. Just as population receptive field (pRF) mapping predicts the collective neural activity in a voxel as a function of response selectivity to stimulus position in visual space, CF modeling predicts the activity of voxels in one visual area as a function of the aggregate activity in voxels in another visual area. In combination with pRF mapping, CF locations on the cortical surface can be interpreted in visual space, thus enabling reconstruction of visuotopic maps from resting state data. We demonstrate that V1 ➤ V2 and V1 ➤ V3 CF maps estimated from resting state fMRI data show visuotopic organization. Therefore, we conclude that—despite some variability in CF estimates between RS scans—neural properties such as CF maps and CF size can be derived from resting state data. PMID:25400541

  7. Opportunities and methodological challenges in EEG and MEG resting state functional brain network research.

    PubMed

    van Diessen, E; Numan, T; van Dellen, E; van der Kooi, A W; Boersma, M; Hofman, D; van Lutterveld, R; van Dijk, B W; van Straaten, E C W; Hillebrand, A; Stam, C J

    2015-08-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings during resting state are increasingly used to study functional connectivity and network topology. Moreover, the number of different analysis approaches is expanding along with the rising interest in this research area. The comparison between studies can therefore be challenging and discussion is needed to underscore methodological opportunities and pitfalls in functional connectivity and network studies. In this overview we discuss methodological considerations throughout the analysis pipeline of recording and analyzing resting state EEG and MEG data, with a focus on functional connectivity and network analysis. We summarize current common practices with their advantages and disadvantages; provide practical tips, and suggestions for future research. Finally, we discuss how methodological choices in resting state research can affect the construction of functional networks. When taking advantage of current best practices and avoid the most obvious pitfalls, functional connectivity and network studies can be improved and enable a more accurate interpretation and comparison between studies.

  8. Lasting impact of regret and gratification on resting brain activity and its relation to depressive traits.

    PubMed

    Eryilmaz, Hamdi; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Schwartz, Sophie; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-06-04

    Obtaining lower gains than rejected alternatives during decision making evokes feelings of regret, whereas higher gains elicit gratification. Although decision-related emotions produce lingering effects on mental state, neuroscience research has generally focused on transient brain responses to positive or negative events, but ignored more sustained consequences of emotional episodes on subsequent brain states. We investigated how spontaneous brain activity and functional connectivity at rest are modulated by postdecision regret and gratification in 18 healthy human subjects using a gambling task in fMRI. Differences between obtained and unobtained outcomes were manipulated parametrically to evoke different levels of regret or gratification. We investigated how individual personality traits related to depression and rumination affected these responses. Medial and ventral prefrontal areas differentially responded to favorable and unfavorable outcomes during the gambling period. More critically, during subsequent rest, rostral anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and insula showed parametric response to the gratification level of preceding outcomes. Functional coupling of posterior cingulate with striatum and amygdala was also enhanced during rest after high gratification. Regret produced distinct changes in connectivity of subgenual cingulate with orbitofrontal cortex and thalamus. Interestingly, individual differences in depressive traits and ruminations correlated with activity of the striatum after gratification and orbitofrontal cortex after regret, respectively. By revealing lingering effects of decision-related emotions on key nodes of resting state networks, our findings illuminate how such emotions may influence self-reflective processing and subsequent behavioral adjustment, but also highlight the malleability of resting networks in emotional contexts.

  9. Auditory Hallucinations and the Brain’s Resting-State Networks: Findings and Methodological Observations

    PubMed Central

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Diederen, Kelly; Fernyhough, Charles; Ford, Judith M.; Horga, Guillermo; Margulies, Daniel S.; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Northoff, Georg; Shine, James M.; Turner, Jessica; van de Ven, Vincent; van Lutterveld, Remko; Waters, Flavie; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain’s resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area. In the report, we describe findings from resting connectivity fMRI in AH (in schizophrenia and nonclinical individuals) and compare them with findings from neurophysiological research, structural MRI, and research on visual hallucinations (VH). In AH, various studies show resting connectivity differences in left-hemisphere auditory and language regions, as well as atypical interaction of the default mode network and RSNs linked to cognitive control and salience. As the latter are also evident in studies of VH, this points to a domain-general mechanism for hallucinations alongside modality-specific changes to RSNs in different sensory regions. However, we also observed high methodological heterogeneity in the current literature, affecting the ability to make clear comparisons between studies. To address this, we provide some methodological recommendations and options for future research on the resting state and hallucinations. PMID:27280452

  10. Auditory Hallucinations and the Brain's Resting-State Networks: Findings and Methodological Observations.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben; Diederen, Kelly; Fernyhough, Charles; Ford, Judith M; Horga, Guillermo; Margulies, Daniel S; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Northoff, Georg; Shine, James M; Turner, Jessica; van de Ven, Vincent; van Lutterveld, Remko; Waters, Flavie; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain's resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area. In the report, we describe findings from resting connectivity fMRI in AH (in schizophrenia and nonclinical individuals) and compare them with findings from neurophysiological research, structural MRI, and research on visual hallucinations (VH). In AH, various studies show resting connectivity differences in left-hemisphere auditory and language regions, as well as atypical interaction of the default mode network and RSNs linked to cognitive control and salience. As the latter are also evident in studies of VH, this points to a domain-general mechanism for hallucinations alongside modality-specific changes to RSNs in different sensory regions. However, we also observed high methodological heterogeneity in the current literature, affecting the ability to make clear comparisons between studies. To address this, we provide some methodological recommendations and options for future research on the resting state and hallucinations.

  11. REST and stress resistance in ageing and Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Aron, Liviu; Zullo, Joseph; Pan, Ying; Kim, Haeyoung; Chen, Yiwen; Yang, Tun-Hsiang; Kim, Hyun-Min; Drake, Derek; Liu, X. Shirley; Bennett, David A.; Colaiácovo, Monica P.; Yankner, Bruce A.

    2014-03-01

    Human neurons are functional over an entire lifetime, yet the mechanisms that preserve function and protect against neurodegeneration during ageing are unknown. Here we show that induction of the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST; also known as neuron-restrictive silencer factor, NRSF) is a universal feature of normal ageing in human cortical and hippocampal neurons. REST is lost, however, in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with deep sequencing and expression analysis show that REST represses genes that promote cell death and Alzheimer's disease pathology, and induces the expression of stress response genes. Moreover, REST potently protects neurons from oxidative stress and amyloid β-protein toxicity, and conditional deletion of REST in the mouse brain leads to age-related neurodegeneration. A functional orthologue of REST, Caenorhabditis elegans SPR-4, also protects against oxidative stress and amyloid β-protein toxicity. During normal ageing, REST is induced in part by cell non-autonomous Wnt signalling. However, in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, REST is lost from the nucleus and appears in autophagosomes together with pathological misfolded proteins. Finally, REST levels during ageing are closely correlated with cognitive preservation and longevity. Thus, the activation state of REST may distinguish neuroprotection from neurodegeneration in the ageing brain.

  12. Brain dynamics of post-task resting state are influenced by expertise: Insights from baseball players.

    PubMed

    Muraskin, Jordan; Dodhia, Sonam; Lieberman, Gregory; Garcia, Javier O; Verstynen, Timothy; Vettel, Jean M; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Post-task resting state dynamics can be viewed as a task-driven state where behavioral performance is improved through endogenous, non-explicit learning. Tasks that have intrinsic value for individuals are hypothesized to produce post-task resting state dynamics that promote learning. We measured simultaneous fMRI/EEG and DTI in Division-1 collegiate baseball players and compared to a group of controls, examining differences in both functional and structural connectivity. Participants performed a surrogate baseball pitch Go/No-Go task before a resting state scan, and we compared post-task resting state connectivity using a seed-based analysis from the supplementary motor area (SMA), an area whose activity discriminated players and controls in our previous results using this task. Although both groups were equally trained on the task, the experts showed differential activity in their post-task resting state consistent with motor learning. Specifically, we found (1) differences in bilateral SMA-L Insula functional connectivity between experts and controls that may reflect group differences in motor learning, (2) differences in BOLD-alpha oscillation correlations between groups suggests variability in modulatory attention in the post-task state, and (3) group differences between BOLD-beta oscillations that may indicate cognitive processing of motor inhibition. Structural connectivity analysis identified group differences in portions of the functionally derived network, suggesting that functional differences may also partially arise from variability in the underlying white matter pathways. Generally, we find that brain dynamics in the post-task resting state differ as a function of subject expertise and potentially result from differences in both functional and structural connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4454-4471, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Brain dynamics of post‐task resting state are influenced by expertise: Insights from baseball players

    PubMed Central

    Dodhia, Sonam; Lieberman, Gregory; Garcia, Javier O.; Verstynen, Timothy; Vettel, Jean M.; Sherwin, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Post‐task resting state dynamics can be viewed as a task‐driven state where behavioral performance is improved through endogenous, non‐explicit learning. Tasks that have intrinsic value for individuals are hypothesized to produce post‐task resting state dynamics that promote learning. We measured simultaneous fMRI/EEG and DTI in Division‐1 collegiate baseball players and compared to a group of controls, examining differences in both functional and structural connectivity. Participants performed a surrogate baseball pitch Go/No‐Go task before a resting state scan, and we compared post‐task resting state connectivity using a seed‐based analysis from the supplementary motor area (SMA), an area whose activity discriminated players and controls in our previous results using this task. Although both groups were equally trained on the task, the experts showed differential activity in their post‐task resting state consistent with motor learning. Specifically, we found (1) differences in bilateral SMA–L Insula functional connectivity between experts and controls that may reflect group differences in motor learning, (2) differences in BOLD‐alpha oscillation correlations between groups suggests variability in modulatory attention in the post‐task state, and (3) group differences between BOLD‐beta oscillations that may indicate cognitive processing of motor inhibition. Structural connectivity analysis identified group differences in portions of the functionally derived network, suggesting that functional differences may also partially arise from variability in the underlying white matter pathways. Generally, we find that brain dynamics in the post‐task resting state differ as a function of subject expertise and potentially result from differences in both functional and structural connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4454–4471, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27448098

  14. REST regulation of gene networks in adult neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shradha; Brulet, Rebecca; Zhang, Ling; Hsieh, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neural stem cells generate newborn neurons throughout life due to their ability to self-renew and exist as quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs) before differentiating into transit-amplifying progenitors (TAPs) and newborn neurons. The mechanisms that control adult neural stem cell self-renewal are still largely unknown. Conditional knockout of REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) results in precocious activation of QNPs and reduced neurogenesis over time. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which REST regulates adult neural stem cells, we perform chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA-sequencing to identify direct REST target genes. We find REST regulates both QNPs and TAPs, and importantly, ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle and neuronal genes in the process. Furthermore, overexpression of individual REST target ribosome biogenesis or cell cycle genes is sufficient to induce activation of QNPs. Our data define novel REST targets to maintain the quiescent neural stem cell state. PMID:27819263

  15. REST regulation of gene networks in adult neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shradha; Brulet, Rebecca; Zhang, Ling; Hsieh, Jenny

    2016-11-07

    Adult hippocampal neural stem cells generate newborn neurons throughout life due to their ability to self-renew and exist as quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs) before differentiating into transit-amplifying progenitors (TAPs) and newborn neurons. The mechanisms that control adult neural stem cell self-renewal are still largely unknown. Conditional knockout of REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) results in precocious activation of QNPs and reduced neurogenesis over time. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which REST regulates adult neural stem cells, we perform chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA-sequencing to identify direct REST target genes. We find REST regulates both QNPs and TAPs, and importantly, ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle and neuronal genes in the process. Furthermore, overexpression of individual REST target ribosome biogenesis or cell cycle genes is sufficient to induce activation of QNPs. Our data define novel REST targets to maintain the quiescent neural stem cell state.

  16. Non-coding RNAs derived from an alternatively spliced REST transcript (REST-003) regulate breast cancer invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nan Sook; Evgrafov, Oleg V; Souaiaia, Tade; Bonyad, Adrineh; Herstein, Jennifer; Lee, Joo Yeun; Kim, Jihong; Ning, Yan; Sixto, Marcos; Weitz, Andrew C; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Wang, Kai; Knowles, James A; Press, Michael F; Salvaterra, Paul M; Shung, K Kirk; Chow, Robert H

    2015-06-08

    RE1-Silencing Transcription factor (REST) has a well-established role in regulating transcription of genes important for neuronal development. Its role in cancer, though significant, is less well understood. We show that REST downregulation in weakly invasive MCF-7 breast cancer cells converts them to a more invasive phenotype, while REST overexpression in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells suppresses invasiveness. Surprisingly, the mechanism responsible for these phenotypic changes does not depend directly on the transcriptional function of REST protein. Instead, it is driven by previously unstudied mid-size (30-200 nt) non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) derived from the first exon of an alternatively spliced REST transcript: REST-003. We show that processing of REST-003 into ncRNAs is controlled by an uncharacterized serine/arginine repeat-related protein, SRRM3. SRRM3 expression may be under REST-mediated transcriptional control, as it increases following REST downregulation. The SRRM3-dependent regulation of REST-003 processing into ncRNAs has many similarities to recently described promoter-associated small RNA-like processes. Targeting ncRNAs that control invasiveness could lead to new therapeutic approaches to limit breast cancer metastasis.

  17. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  18. CyREST: Turbocharging Cytoscape Access for External Tools via a RESTful API.

    PubMed

    Ono, Keiichiro; Muetze, Tanja; Kolishovski, Georgi; Shannon, Paul; Demchak, Barry

    2015-01-01

    As bioinformatic workflows become increasingly complex and involve multiple specialized tools, so does the difficulty of reliably reproducing those workflows. Cytoscape is a critical workflow component for executing network visualization, analysis, and publishing tasks, but it can be operated only manually via a point-and-click user interface. Consequently, Cytoscape-oriented tasks are laborious and often error prone, especially with multistep protocols involving many networks. In this paper, we present the new cyREST Cytoscape app and accompanying harmonization libraries. Together, they improve workflow reproducibility and researcher productivity by enabling popular languages (e.g., Python and R, JavaScript, and C#) and tools (e.g., IPython/Jupyter Notebook and RStudio) to directly define and query networks, and perform network analysis, layouts and renderings. We describe cyREST's API and overall construction, and present Python- and R-based examples that illustrate how Cytoscape can be integrated into large scale data analysis pipelines. cyREST is available in the Cytoscape app store (http://apps.cytoscape.org) where it has been downloaded over 1900 times since its release in late 2014.

  19. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and left ventricular function at rest in patients with rest angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Kane, S.A.; Amenta, A.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rest thallium-201 perfusion pattern during angina-free periods in 40 patients with rest angina pectoris secondary to coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing). Seventeen patients had previous Q wave myocardial infarction. The perfusion defects were considered fixed or reversible, depending on the absence or presence of redistribution in the 4-hour delayed images. There were 40 perfusion defects (26 fixed and 14 reversible) in 27 patients whereas 13 patients had normal scans. Reversible perfusion defects were present in 10 patients (25%). Of the 26 fixed perfusion defects, 17 did not have corresponding Q waves. Occluded vessels (63%) had more perfusion defects than vessels with subtotal occlusion (30%) (p less than 0.01). The perfusion defect size was larger in patients with lower ejection fraction than in patients with higher ejection fraction. We conclude: (1) perfusion defects are common in patients with rest angina and are reversible in 25% of patients indicating reduced regional coronary blood flow; (2) the degree of stenosis affects the presence of perfusion defect; (3) fixed defects may be present without corresponding Q waves; and (4) global left ventricular function is related to the size of perfusion defects.

  20. Changes in resting-state fMRI in vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Helmchen, Christoph; Ye, Zheng; Sprenger, Andreas; Münte, Thomas F

    2014-11-01

    responsiveness, postural sway). VN leads to a change in resting-state activity of the contralateral IPS adjacent to the SMG, which reverses during vestibular compensation over 3 months. The ventral intraparietal area in the IPS contains multimodal regions with directionally selective responses to vestibular stimuli making them suitable for participating in spatial orientation and multisensory integration. The clinical importance is indicated by the fact that the increase in resting-state activity tended to be larger in those patients with only little disability at the follow-up examination. This may indicate powerful restitution-related or compensatory cortical changes in resting-state activity.

  1. Coupling between resting cerebral perfusion and EEG.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, R L; Poil, S-S; Brandeis, D; Klaver, P; Bollmann, S; Ghisleni, C; Lüchinger, R; Martin, E; Shankaranarayanan, A; Alsop, D C; Michels, L

    2013-07-01

    While several studies have investigated interactions between the electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging BOLD signal fluctuations, less is known about the associations between EEG oscillations and baseline brain haemodynamics, and few studies have examined the link between EEG power outside the alpha band and baseline perfusion. Here we compare whole-brain arterial spin labelling perfusion MRI and EEG in a group of healthy adults (n = 16, ten females, median age: 27 years, range 21-48) during an eyes closed rest condition. Correlations emerged between perfusion and global average EEG power in low (delta: 2-4 Hz and theta: 4-7 Hz), middle (alpha: 8-13 Hz), and high (beta: 13-30 Hz and gamma: 30-45 Hz) frequency bands in both cortical and sub-cortical regions. The correlations were predominately positive in middle and high-frequency bands, and negative in delta. In addition, central alpha frequency positively correlated with perfusion in a network of brain regions associated with the modulation of attention and preparedness for external input, and central theta frequency correlated negatively with a widespread network of cortical regions. These results indicate that the coupling between average EEG power/frequency and local cerebral blood flow varies in a frequency specific manner. Our results are consistent with longstanding concepts that decreasing EEG frequencies which in general map onto decreasing levels of activation.

  2. Sleep and Rest Requirements: Physiological Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Sleep is a vital physiological need which must be met to insure optimal functioning. A single night of significantly shortened sleep negatively impacts performance, alertness, and mood. Restricted sleep studies have shown that even a relatively small amount of sleep loss over several consecutive days can be additive and result in a cumulative sleep debt with similar detrimental effects. Compounding the problem of sleep loss in the operational environment is the poor correlation between subjective reports of sleepiness and objective measures of physiological sleep need. Some of the factors determining how sleepy an individual is at a given point in time are: (1) individual characteristics (e.g., amount of prior sleep and wakefulness, circadian phase, age), (2) environmental conditions (e.g., noise, temperature, amount of social interaction), and (3) task variables (e.g., signal rate, workload). Although sleep need can be masked with medications, the only way to reduce it is with sleep itself. The timing of the sleep period can affect sleep duration and quality and thus its restorative strength. The data are clear that increasing sleep time results in improved alertness. This paper will briefly review the scientific findings on sleep need, the effects of sleep loss, napping strategies, and the implications of incorporating physiologically sound sleep and rest strategies into the operational aviation environment.

  3. Introducing the PRIDE Archive RESTful web services

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Florian; del-Toro, Noemi; Ternent, Tobias; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The PRIDE (PRoteomics IDEntifications) database is one of the world-leading public repositories of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data and it is a founding member of the ProteomeXchange Consortium of proteomics resources. In the original PRIDE database system, users could access data programmatically by accessing the web services provided by the PRIDE BioMart interface. New REST (REpresentational State Transfer) web services have been developed to serve the most popular functionality provided by BioMart (now discontinued due to data scalability issues) and address the data access requirements of the newly developed PRIDE Archive. Using the API (Application Programming Interface) it is now possible to programmatically query for and retrieve peptide and protein identifications, project and assay metadata and the originally submitted files. Searching and filtering is also possible by metadata information, such as sample details (e.g. species and tissues), instrumentation (mass spectrometer), keywords and other provided annotations. The PRIDE Archive web services were first made available in April 2014. The API has already been adopted by a few applications and standalone tools such as PeptideShaker, PRIDE Inspector, the Unipept web application and the Python-based BioServices package. This application is free and open to all users with no login requirement and can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/ws/archive/. PMID:25904633

  4. Recovery After Prolonged Bed-Rest Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Quach, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery data were analyzed from normal healthy test subjects maintained in the horizontal or head-down body position in well-controlled bed rest (BR) studies in which adherence to the well-designed protocol was monitored. Because recovery data were almost always of secondary importance to the data collected during the BR period, there was little consistency in the recovery experimental designs regarding control factors (e.g., diet or exercise), duration, or timing of data collection. Thus, only about half of the BR studies that provided appropriate data were analyzed here. These recovery data were sorted into two groups: those from BR protocols of less than 37 days, and those from protocols greater than 36 days. There was great disparity in the unchanged responses at the end of BR in these two groups. Likewise with the variables that required more than 40 days for recovery; for example, some immune variables required more than 180 days. Knowledge of the recovery process after BR in healthy people should assist rehabilitation workers in differentiating "healthy" BR recovery responses from those of the infirmity of sick or injured patients; this should result in more appropriate and efficient health care.

  5. Creatine supplementation influences substrate utilization at rest.

    PubMed

    Huso, M Erik; Hampl, Jeffrey S; Johnston, Carol S; Swan, Pamela D

    2002-12-01

    The influence of creatine supplementation on substrate utilization during rest was investigated using a double-blind crossover design. Ten active men participated in 12 wk of weight training and were given creatine and placebo (20 g/day for 4 days, then 2 g/day for 17 days) in two trials separated by a 4-wk washout. Body composition, substrate utilization, and strength were assessed after weeks 2, 5, 9, and 12. Maximal isometric contraction [1 repetition maximum (RM)] leg press increased significantly (P < 0.05) after both treatments, but 1-RM bench press was increased (33 +/- 8 kg, P < 0.05) only after creatine. Total body mass increased (1.6 +/- 0.5 kg, P < 0.05) after creatine but not after placebo. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in fat-free mass were found after creatine and placebo supplementation (1.9 +/- 0.8 and 2.2 +/- 0.7 kg, respectively). Fat mass did not change significantly with creatine but decreased after the placebo trial (-2.4 +/- 0.8 kg, P < 0.05). Carbohydrate oxidation was increased by creatine (8.9 +/- 4.0%, P < 0.05), whereas there was a trend for increased respiratory exchange ratio after creatine supplementation (0.03 +/- 0.01, P = 0.07). Changes in substrate oxidation may influence the inhibition of fat mass loss associated with creatine after weight training.

  6. Rest Mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, Cara E.; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F.; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I.

    2015-01-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest. PMID:25712696

  7. Rest mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Cara E; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I

    2015-05-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest.

  8. Volunteer Work, Religious Commitment, and Resting Pulse Rates.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates. The results also reveal that the relationship between engaging in volunteer work and resting pulse rates improves among study participants who are more deeply committed to religion.

  9. GABAergic effect on resting-state functional connectivity: Dynamics under pharmacological antagonism.

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Fatima A; Singh, Kavita Kaur D/O Ranjit; Yeow, Ling Yun; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang

    2017-01-21

    Resting state functional connectivity MRI measures synchronous activity among brain regions although the mechanisms governing the temporally coherent BOLD signals remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels are correlated with functional connectivity. To understand whether changes in GABA transmission alter functional connectivity, we modulated the GABAergic activity by a GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. Resting and evoked electrophysiology and BOLD signals were measured in isoflurane-anesthetized rats under infusion of low-dose bicuculline or vehicle individually. Both somatosensory BOLD activations and evoked potentials induced by forepaw stimulation were increased significantly under bicuculline compared to vehicle, indicating increased excitability. Gradually elevated resting BOLD correlation within and between the somatosensory and visual cortices, as well as between somatosensory and caudate putamen but not within subcortical areas were found with the infusion of bicuculline. Increased cerebral blood flow was observed throughout the cortical and subcortical areas where the receptor density is high, but it didn't correlate with BOLD connectivity except in the primary somatosensory cortex. Furthermore, resting EEG coherence in the alpha and beta bands exhibited consistent change with the BOLD correlation. The increased cortico-cortical and cortico-striatal connectivity without dependence on the receptor distribution indicate that the functional connectivity may be mediated by long-range projection via the cortical and striatal GABAergic inter-neurons. Our results indicate an important role of the GABAergic system on neural and hemodynamic oscillations, which further supports the neuronal basis of functional connectivity MRI and its correlation with neurotransmission.

  10. Altered resting perfusion and functional connectivity of default mode network in youth with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Kay; Hernandez, Leanna M; Beck-Pancer, Devora; McCarron, Rosemary; Smith, Robert X; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J J

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies can shed light on the neurobiological underpinnings of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies of the resting brain have shown both altered baseline metabolism from PET/SPECT and altered functional connectivity (FC) of intrinsic brain networks based on resting-state fMRI. To date, however, no study has investigated these two physiological parameters of resting brain function jointly, or explored the relationship between these measures and ASD symptom severity. Methods Here, we used pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling with 3D background-suppressed GRASE to assess resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and FC in 17 youth with ASD and 22 matched typically developing (TD) children. Results A pattern of altered resting perfusion was found in ASD versus TD children including frontotemporal hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. We found increased local FC in the anterior module of the default mode network (DMN) accompanied by decreased CBF in the same area. In our cohort, both alterations were associated with greater social impairments as assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-total T scores). While FC was correlated with CBF in TD children, this association between FC and baseline perfusion was disrupted in children with ASD. Furthermore, there was reduced long-range FC between anterior and posterior modules of the DMN in children with ASD. Conclusion Taken together, the findings of this study – the first to jointly assess resting CBF and FC in ASD – highlight new avenues for identifying novel imaging markers of ASD symptomatology. PMID:26445698

  11. The influence of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate for malaria risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of the mosquito and parasite life-history traits that combine to determine malaria transmission intensity are temperature sensitive. In most cases, the process-based models used to estimate malaria risk and inform control and prevention strategies utilize measures of mean outdoor temperature. Evidence suggests, however, that certain malaria vectors can spend large parts of their adult life resting indoors. Presentation of hypothesis If significant proportions of mosquitoes are resting indoors and indoor conditions differ markedly from ambient conditions, simple use of outdoor temperatures will not provide reliable estimates of malaria transmission intensity. To date, few studies have quantified the differential effects of indoor vs outdoor temperatures explicitly, reflecting a lack of proper understanding of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate. Testing the hypothesis Published records from 8 village sites in East Africa revealed temperatures to be warmer indoors than outdoors and to generally show less daily variation. Exploring the effects of these temperatures on malaria parasite development rate suggested indoor-resting mosquitoes could transmit malaria between 0.3 and 22.5 days earlier than outdoor-resting mosquitoes. These differences translate to increases in transmission risk ranging from 5 to approaching 3,000%, relative to predictions based on outdoor temperatures. The pattern appears robust for low- and highland areas, with differences increasing with altitude. Implications of the hypothesis Differences in indoor vs outdoor environments lead to large differences in the limits and the intensity of malaria transmission. This finding highlights a need to better understand mosquito resting behaviour and the associated microclimate, and to broaden assessments of transmission ecology and risk to consider the potentially important role of endophily. PMID:21736735

  12. Oxidative mechanisms at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Ghanassia, Edouard; Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Mercier, Jacques; Raynaud, Eric

    2007-08-01

    Carbohydrates (CHO) and lipids provide the amount of energy required for physical and chemical reactions inside the human body. The various constraints the body has to resolve explain the use of these two substrates, catabolized via distinct pathways to one common final reaction. In the classic model, three main organs/tissues for substrate fluxes (liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle) and one organ regulating main reactions by adaptation of hormonal secretions (endocrine pancreas) are described. From this point of view, the only interactions between CHO and lipid metabolisms are mediated by glycaemic changes via insulin/glucagon ratio (IGR). However, according to recent advances, this concept seems to have a limited validity as it does take into account neither the many other interactions between CHO and lipid metabolism that are likely to occur in addition to the coarse control by IGR, nor the long-term regulation of energy balance, whose description began with the discovery of leptin. Moreover, it does not include the effects of energy expenditure. Therefore, this review focuses on three topics: (i) describe interactions between CHO and lipid metabolism at the level of each tissue and organ implied, via hormonal signaling as well as direct action of nutrients, (ii) integrate fluxes of substrates and signals between those tissues at rest in a global view of the metabolism taking into account short-term and long-term regulating factors and (iii) describe separately, to avoid confusion or extrapolation, the short-term and long-term influence of exercise on these regulation loops.

  13. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2015-01-01

    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills.

  14. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M.; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A.

    2015-01-01

    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills. PMID:26348613

  15. Role of Perfusion at Rest in the Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction Using Vasodilator Stress Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mita B; Mor-Avi, Victor; Kawaji, Keigo; Nathan, Sandeep; Kramer, Christopher M; Lang, Roberto M; Patel, Amit R

    2016-04-01

    In clinical practice, perfusion at rest in vasodilator stress single-photon emission computed tomography is commonly used to confirm myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia and to rule out artifacts. It is unclear whether perfusion at rest carries similar information in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). We sought to determine whether chronic MI is associated with abnormal perfusion at rest on CMR. We compared areas of infarct and remote myocardium in 31 patients who underwent vasodilator stress CMR (1.5 T), had MI confirmed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE scar), and coronary angiography within 6 months. Stress perfusion imaging during gadolinium first pass was followed by reversal with aminophylline (75 to 125 mg), rest perfusion, and LGE imaging. Resting and peak-stress time-intensity curves were used to obtain maximal upslopes (normalized by blood pool upslopes), which were compared between infarcted and remote myocardial regions of interest. At rest, there was no significant difference between the slopes in the regions of interest supplied by arteries with and without stenosis >70% (0.31 ± 0.16 vs 0.26 ± 0.15 1/s), irrespective of LGE scar. However, at peak stress, we found significant differences (0.20 ± 0.11 vs 0.30 ± 0.22 1/s; p <0.05), reflecting the expected stress-induced ischemia. Similarly, at rest, there was no difference between infarcted and remote myocardium (0.27 ± 0.14 vs 0.30 ± 0.17 1/s), irrespective of stenosis, but significant differences were seen during stress (0.21 ± 0.16 vs 0.28 ± 0.18 1/s; p <0.001), reflecting inducible ischemia. In conclusion, abnormalities in myocardial perfusion at rest associated with chronic MI are not reliably detectable on CMR images. Accordingly, unlike single-photon emission computed tomography, normal CMR perfusion at rest should not be used to rule out chronic MI.

  16. A REST-ful interpretation for embedded modular systems based on open architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyke, James

    2016-05-01

    The much-anticipated revolution of the "Internet of things" (IoT) is expected to generate one trillion internet devices within the next 15 years, mostly in the form of simple wireless sensor devices. While this revolution promises to transform silicon markets and drive a number of disruptive changes in society, it is also the case that the protocols, complexity, and security issues of extremely large dynamic, co-mingled networks is still poorly understood. Furthermore, embedded system developers, to include military and aerospace users, have largely ignored the potential (good and bound) of the cloudlike, possibly intermingling networks having variable structure to how future systems might be engineered. In this paper, we consider a new interpretation of IoT inspired modular architecture strategies involving the representational state transfer (REST) model, in which dynamic networks with variable structure employ stateless application programming interface (API) concepts. The power of the method, which extends concepts originally developed for space plug-and-play avionics, is that it allows for the fluid co-mingling of hardware and software in networks whose structure can overlap and evolve. Paradoxically, these systems may have the most stringent determinism and fault-tolerant needs. In this paper we review how RESTful APIs can potentially be used to design, create, test, and deploy systems rapidly while addressing security and referential integrity even when the nodes of many systems might physically co-mingle. We will also explore ways to take advantage of the RESTful paradigm for fault tolerance and what extensions might be necessary to deal with high-performance and determinism.

  17. Task-induced deactivation and the "resting" state.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-15

    Task-induced decreases in blood flow and the widespread use of "resting" baselines produced unexpected and discrepant results in early cognitive imaging studies, especially in language comprehension experiments. Here I describe from a personal perspective some of the events and thought processes leading to the first hypothesis-driven fMRI study of the "resting" state.

  18. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  19. Resting Gamma Power Is Linked to Reading Ability in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Adam; Strait, Dana L.; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Infants who have more power within the gamma frequency range at rest develop better language and cognitive abilities over their first 3 years of life (Benasich et al., 2008). This positive trend may reflect the gradual increase in resting gamma power that peaks at about 4 years (Takano & Ogawa, 1998): infants further along the maturational…

  20. Cognitive Functioning in Long Duration Head-down Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra

    2008-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.

  1. REST regulates oncogenic properties of glioblastoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Mohamed M.; Sathyan, Pratheesh; Singh, Sanjay K.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Marisetty, Anantha L.; Liang, Shoudan; Gumin, Joy; El-Mesallamy, Hala Osman; Suki, Dima; Colman, Howard; Fuller, Gregory N.; Lang, Frederick F.; Majumder, Sadhan

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors are the most common malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Although many GBM tumors are believed to be caused by self-renewing, glioblastoma-derived stem-like cells (GSCs), the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal and other oncogenic properties of GSCs are only now being unraveled. Here we showed that GSCs derived from GBM patient specimens express varying levels of the transcriptional repressor REST, suggesting heterogeneity across different GSC lines. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments indicated that REST maintains self-renewal of GSCs. High REST-expressing GSCs (HR-GSCs) produced tumors histopathologically distinct from those generated by low REST-expressing GSCs (LR-GSCs) in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models. Knockdown of REST in HR-GSCs resulted in increased survival in GSC-transplanted mice and produced tumors with higher apoptotic and lower invasive properties. Conversely, forced expression of exogenous REST in LR-GSCs produced decreased survival in mice and produced tumors with lower apoptotic and higher invasive properties, similar to HR-GSCs. Thus, based on our results, we propose that a novel function of REST is to maintain self-renewal and other oncogenic properties of GSCs and that REST can play a major role in mediating tumorigenicity in GBM. PMID:22228704

  2. Identification of Resting State Networks Involved in Executive Function.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Joanna; McNulty, Jonathan P; Boran, Lorraine; Roche, Richard A P; Delany, David; Bokde, Arun L W

    2016-06-01

    The structural networks in the human brain are consistent across subjects, and this is reflected also in that functional networks across subjects are relatively consistent. These findings are not only present during performance of a goal oriented task but there are also consistent functional networks during resting state. It suggests that goal oriented activation patterns may be a function of component networks identified using resting state. The current study examines the relationship between resting state networks measured and patterns of neural activation elicited during a Stroop task. The association between the Stroop-activated networks and the resting state networks was quantified using spatial linear regression. In addition, we investigated if the degree of spatial association of resting state networks with the Stroop task may predict performance on the Stroop task. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Stroop activated network can be decomposed into a number of resting state networks, which were primarily associated with attention, executive function, visual perception, and the default mode network. The close spatial correspondence between the functional organization of the resting brain and task-evoked patterns supports the relevance of resting state networks in cognitive function.

  3. Nutritional Status in Humans during Long-Duration Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; MatthewsOliver, Susan A.; Dillon, E. Lichar; Fesperman, Vernell

    2006-01-01

    Bed rest is a valuable ground-based model for many of the physiological changes associated with space flight. A series of studies was undertaken to evaluate nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 days of -6 head-down-tilt bed rest. A total of 11 subjects (8 M, 3 F; age 26-55 y) participated in the studies. Blood and urine were collected twice before bed rest and once per month during bed rest. Samples were analyzed in batch at the end of each study. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Markers of bone resorption (such as n-telopeptide excretion, p less than 0.05) increased during bed rest, and 25-OH vitamin D status tended to decline (p=0.06). During bed rest oxidative damage markers, such as superoxide dismutase increased (p less than 0.01) and 8-(OH)-2'-deoxyguanosine tended to increase (p=0.07); whereas total antioxidant capacity decreased (p less than 0.02). Iron status indices showed patterns of increased iron stores, with decreased transferrin receptors (p less than 0.001). Biochemical markers revealed a tendency toward a loss of muscle mass, by lower excretion of creatinine and 3-methyl-histidine during bed rest. All of these changes are very similar to those observed during space flight, and further document the utility of bed rest as a model of space flight.

  4. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  5. Resting State Brain Entropy Alterations in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fuqing; Zhuang, Ying; Gong, Honghan; Zhan, Jie; Grossman, Murray; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Brain entropy (BEN) mapping provides a novel approach to characterize brain temporal dynamics, a key feature of human brain. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), reliable and spatially distributed BEN patterns have been identified in normal brain, suggesting a potential use in clinical populations since temporal brain dynamics and entropy may be altered in disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize BEN in multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of people. Since currently there is no cure for MS, developing treatment or medication that can slow down its progression represents a high research priority, for which validating a brain marker sensitive to disease and the related functional impairments is essential. Because MS can start long time before any measurable symptoms and structural deficits, assessing the dynamic brain activity and correspondingly BEN may provide a critical way to study MS and its progression. Because BEN is new to MS, we aimed to assess BEN alterations in the relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients using a patient versus control design, to examine the correlation of BEN to clinical measurements, and to check the correlation of BEN to structural brain measures which have been more often used in MS studies. As compared to controls, RRMS patients showed increased BEN in motor areas, executive control area, spatial coordinating area, and memory system. Increased BEN was related to greater disease severity as measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and greater tissue damage as indicated by the mean diffusivity. Patients also showed decreased BEN in other places, which was associated with less disability or fatigue, indicating a disease-related BEN re-distribution. Our results suggest BEN as a novel and useful tool for characterizing RRMS. PMID:26727514

  6. Lack of evidence for prescription of antepartum bed rest.

    PubMed

    Maloni, Judith A

    2011-07-01

    Antepartum bed-rest treatment is based on assumptions that it is both effective and safe for mother and fetus. However, research indicates, that bed-rest treatment is ineffective for preventing preterm birth and fetal growth restriction, and for increasing gestational age at birth and infant birthweight. Studies of women treated with pregnancy bed-rest identify numerous side effects, including muscle atrophy, bone loss, weight loss, decreased infant birthweight in singleton gestations and gestational age at birth, and psychosocial problems. Studies conducted by aerospace scientists who have used bed rest as a model for the study of weightlessness in space using nonpregnant individuals report similar results. Antepartum bed-rest treatment should be discontinued until evidence of effectiveness is found.

  7. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Jia; Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Kai

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n=6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n=142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg(-1) in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg(-1) in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P<0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r(2)=0.944, P<0.01) and the industrialized area (r(2)=0.860, P<0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization.

  8. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the

  9. Resting-State Network Topology Differentiates Task Signals across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Alhazmi, Fahd H.; Savalia, Neil K.

    2017-01-01

    Brain network connectivity differs across individuals. For example, older adults exhibit less segregated resting-state subnetworks relative to younger adults (Chan et al., 2014). It has been hypothesized that individual differences in network connectivity impact the recruitment of brain areas during task execution. While recent studies have described the spatial overlap between resting-state functional correlation (RSFC) subnetworks and task-evoked activity, it is unclear whether individual variations in the connectivity pattern of a brain area (topology) relates to its activity during task execution. We report data from 238 cognitively normal participants (humans), sampled across the adult life span (20–89 years), to reveal that RSFC-based network organization systematically relates to the recruitment of brain areas across two functionally distinct tasks (visual and semantic). The functional activity of brain areas (network nodes) were characterized according to their patterns of RSFC: nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in their own functional system (“non-connector” nodes) exhibited greater activity than nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in other systems (“connector” nodes). This “activation selectivity” was specific to those brain systems that were central to each of the tasks. Increasing age was accompanied by less differentiated network topology and a corresponding reduction in activation selectivity (or differentiation) across relevant network nodes. The results provide evidence that connectional topology of brain areas quantified at rest relates to the functional activity of those areas during task. Based on these findings, we propose a novel network-based theory for previous reports of the “dedifferentiation” in brain activity observed in aging. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Similar to other real-world networks, the organization of brain networks impacts their function. As brain network connectivity patterns

  10. CyREST: Turbocharging Cytoscape Access for External Tools via a RESTful API

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Keiichiro; Muetze, Tanja; Kolishovski, Georgi; Shannon, Paul; Demchak, Barry

    2015-01-01

    As bioinformatic workflows become increasingly complex and involve multiple specialized tools, so does the difficulty of reliably reproducing those workflows. Cytoscape is a critical workflow component for executing network visualization, analysis, and publishing tasks, but it can be operated only manually via a point-and-click user interface. Consequently, Cytoscape-oriented tasks are laborious and often error prone, especially with multistep protocols involving many networks. In this paper, we present the new cyREST Cytoscape app and accompanying harmonization libraries. Together, they improve workflow reproducibility and researcher productivity by enabling popular languages (e.g., Python and R, JavaScript, and C#) and tools (e.g., IPython/Jupyter Notebook and RStudio) to directly define and query networks, and perform network analysis, layouts and renderings. We describe cyREST’s API and overall construction, and present Python- and R-based examples that illustrate how Cytoscape can be integrated into large scale data analysis pipelines. cyREST is available in the Cytoscape app store (http://apps.cytoscape.org) where it has been downloaded over 1900 times since its release in late 2014. PMID:26672762

  11. Genetic and Diagnostic Biomarker Development in ASD Toddlers Using Resting State Functional MRI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD!NUMBER:!!!!W81XWH-14-1-0318 ! ! TITLE:!!! Genetic and Diagnostic Biomarker Development in ASD Toddlers Using Resting State...PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) September 2015 Annual 1 Sep 2014 - 31 Aug 2015 Genetic and Diagnostic...functional MRI (fMRI); clinical outcome; genomic; hertitability; genetic control; pleitropy U U U UU 10 USAMRMC Our overarching strategy is to exploit

  12. Biomarkers of Dose and Effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Human controlled exposure studies have generally focused on subjects exposed to ozone (O3) while exercising while exposures in rats have been done at rest. We exposed resting subjects to labeled O3 (18O3, 0.4 ppm, for 2 hr) and compared O3 dose and effects with our...

  13. Lifespan Differences in Cortico-Striatal Resting State Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Mei; Kwak, Youngbin; Peltier, Scott J.; Bernard, Jessica A.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Wiggins, Jillian L.; Jonides, John; Monk, Christopher S.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Distinctive cortico-striatal circuits that serve motor and cognitive functions have been recently mapped based on resting state connectivity. It has been reported that age differences in cortico-striatal connectivity relate to cognitive declines in aging. Moreover, children in their early teens (i.e., youth) already show mature motor network patterns while their cognitive networks are still developing. In the current study, we examined age differences in the frontal-striatal “cognitive” and “motor” circuits in children and adolescence, young adults (YAs), and older adults (OAs). We predicted that the strength of the “cognitive” frontal-striatal circuits would follow an inverted “U” pattern across age; children and OAs would have weaker connectivity than YAs. However, we predicted that the “motor” circuits would show less variation in connectivity strength across the lifespan. We found that most areas in both the “cognitive” and “motor” circuits showed higher connectivity in YAs than children and OAs, suggesting general inverted “U”-shaped changes across the lifespan for both the cognitive and motor frontal-striatal networks. PMID:24575740

  14. Cognition and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Julia M; Barch, Deanna M

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia consistently display deficits in a multitude of cognitive domains, but the neurobiological source of these cognitive impairments remains unclear. By analyzing the functional connectivity of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) data in clinical populations like schizophrenia, research groups have begun elucidating abnormalities in the intrinsic communication between specific brain regions, and assessing relationships between these abnormalities and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Here we review studies that have reported analysis of these brain-behavior relationships. Through this systematic review we found that patients with schizophrenia display abnormalities within and between regions comprising 1) the cortico-cerebellar-striatal-thalamic loop and 2) task-positive and task-negative cortical networks. Importantly, we did not observe unique relationships between specific functional connectivity abnormalities and distinct cognitive domains, suggesting that the observed functional systems may underlie mechanisms that are shared across cognitive abilities, the disturbance of which could contribute to the “generalized” cognitive deficit found in schizophrenia. We also note several areas of methodological change that we believe will strengthen this literature. PMID:26698018

  15. cTBS delivered to the left somatosensory cortex changes its functional connectivity during rest

    PubMed Central

    Valchev, Nikola; Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Renken, Remco J.; Avenanti, Alessio; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) plays a critical role in somatosensation as well as in action performance and social cognition. Although SI has been a major target of experimental and clinical research using non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to date information on the effect of TMS over SI on its resting-state functional connectivity is very scant. Here, we explored whether continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), a repetitive TMS protocol, administered over SI can change the functional connectivity of the brain at rest, as measured using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). In a randomized order on two different days we administered active TMS or sham TMS over the left SI. TMS was delivered off-line before scanning by means of cTBS. The target area was selected previously and individually for each subject as the part of SI activated both when the participant executes and observes actions. Three analytical approaches, both theory driven (partial correlations and seed based whole brain regression) and more data driven (Independent Component Analysis), indicated a reduction in functional connectivity between the stimulated part of SI and several brain regions functionally associated with SI including the dorsal premotor cortex, the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings highlight the impact of cTBS delivered over SI on its functional connectivity at rest. Our data may have implications for experimental and therapeutic applications of cTBS over SI. PMID:25882754

  16. Microstates in Resting-State EEG: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Arjun; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Michel, Christoph M.; Farzan, Faranak

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful method of studying the electrophysiology of the brain with high temporal resolution. Several analytical approaches to extract information from the EEG signal have been proposed. One method, termed microstate analysis, considers the multichannel EEG recording as a series of quasi-stable “microstates” that are each characterized by a unique topography of electric potentials over the entire channel array. Because this technique simultaneously considers signals recorded from all areas of the cortex, it is capable of assessing the function of large-scale brain networks whose disruption is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we first introduce the method of EEG microstate analysis. We then review studies that have discovered significant changes in the resting-state microstate series in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and behavioral states. We discuss the potential utility of this method in detecting neurophysiological impairments in disease and monitoring neurophysiological changes in response to an intervention. Finally, we discuss how the resting-state microstate series may reflect rapid switching among neural networks while the brain is at rest, which could represent activity of resting-state networks described by other neuroimaging modalities. We conclude by commenting on the current and future status of microstate analysis, and suggest that EEG microstates represent a promising neurophysiological tool for understanding and assessing brain network dynamics on a millisecond timescale in health and disease. PMID:25526823

  17. cTBS delivered to the left somatosensory cortex changes its functional connectivity during rest.

    PubMed

    Valchev, Nikola; Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Renken, Remco J; Avenanti, Alessio; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria; Maurits, Natasha M

    2015-07-01

    The primary somatosensory cortex (SI) plays a critical role in somatosensation as well as in action performance and social cognition. Although the SI has been a major target of experimental and clinical research using non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to date information on the effect of TMS over the SI on its resting-state functional connectivity is very scant. Here, we explored whether continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), a repetitive TMS protocol, administered over the SI can change the functional connectivity of the brain at rest, as measured using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). In a randomized order on two different days we administered active TMS or sham TMS over the left SI. TMS was delivered off-line before scanning by means of cTBS. The target area was selected previously and individually for each subject as the part of the SI activated both when the participant executes and observes actions. Three analytical approaches, both theory driven (partial correlations and seed based whole brain regression) and more data driven (Independent Component Analysis), indicated a reduction in functional connectivity between the stimulated part of the SI and several brain regions functionally associated with the SI including the dorsal premotor cortex, the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings highlight the impact of cTBS delivered over the SI on its functional connectivity at rest. Our data may have implications for experimental and therapeutic applications of cTBS over the SI.

  18. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  19. Resting state neural networks for visual Chinese word processing in Chinese adults and children.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Liu, Jiangang; Chen, Feiyan; Feng, Lu; Li, Hong; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the resting state neural networks for visual Chinese word processing in Chinese children and adults. Both the functional connectivity (FC) and amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) approaches were used to analyze the fMRI data collected when Chinese participants were not engaged in any specific explicit tasks. We correlated time series extracted from the visual word form area (VWFA) with those in other regions in the brain. We also performed ALFF analysis in the resting state FC networks. The FC results revealed that, regarding the functionally connected brain regions, there exist similar intrinsically organized resting state networks for visual Chinese word processing in adults and children, suggesting that such networks may already be functional after 3-4 years of informal exposure to reading plus 3-4 years formal schooling. The ALFF results revealed that children appear to recruit more neural resources than adults in generally reading-irrelevant brain regions. Differences between child and adult ALFF results suggest that children's intrinsic word processing network during the resting state, though similar in functional connectivity, is still undergoing development. Further exposure to visual words and experience with reading are needed for children to develop a mature intrinsic network for word processing. The developmental course of the intrinsically organized word processing network may parallel that of the explicit word processing network.

  20. Microstates in resting-state EEG: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Arjun; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Michel, Christoph M; Farzan, Faranak

    2015-02-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful method of studying the electrophysiology of the brain with high temporal resolution. Several analytical approaches to extract information from the EEG signal have been proposed. One method, termed microstate analysis, considers the multichannel EEG recording as a series of quasi-stable "microstates" that are each characterized by a unique topography of electric potentials over the entire channel array. Because this technique simultaneously considers signals recorded from all areas of the cortex, it is capable of assessing the function of large-scale brain networks whose disruption is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we first introduce the method of EEG microstate analysis. We then review studies that have discovered significant changes in the resting-state microstate series in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and behavioral states. We discuss the potential utility of this method in detecting neurophysiological impairments in disease and monitoring neurophysiological changes in response to an intervention. Finally, we discuss how the resting-state microstate series may reflect rapid switching among neural networks while the brain is at rest, which could represent activity of resting-state networks described by other neuroimaging modalities. We conclude by commenting on the current and future status of microstate analysis, and suggest that EEG microstates represent a promising neurophysiological tool for understanding and assessing brain network dynamics on a millisecond timescale in health and disease.

  1. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-11-27

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  2. Effects of topiramate use on body composition and resting metabolic rate in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Mehmet; Ucok, Kagan; Demirbas, Hayri; Genc, Abdurrahman; Oruc, Serdar; Karabacak, Hatice; Koyuncu, Gokhan

    2013-02-01

    Topiramate is an anticonvulsant agent effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, which also induces weight reduction by an unknown mechanism. We investigated the effect of topiramate on resting metabolic rate, anthropometric measurements, and body composition in patients with migraine independently from any intention to lose body weight. Forty patients (18-71 years old) with migraine were treated with 100 mg of topiramate/day over a period of 3 months. Anthropometric measurements, body fat proportions and resting metabolic rates of these patients were measured before and after treatment. At the end of 3 months, we detected mean 0.8 kg reduction in body weight and 0.3 kg/m(2) reduction in body mass index (BMI). Waist circumference decreased significantly (p = 0.01). Body fat ratio decreased (p = 0.016). Abdominal skinfold measurements decreased after treatment (p = 0.048); however, no difference was found in other regions (p > 0.05). We did not find a significant difference in resting metabolic rate (p > 0.05).These TPM-treated patients lost weight and had reduction in their mean BMI. It was seen that patients lost weight from body fat tissue and central area. We saw that TPM'S weight-reducing effect was independent from resting metaobolic rate. The weight-reducing effect of TPM may result from changes on the hypothalamus.

  3. Tracer studies to characterize the effects of roadside noise barriers on near-road pollutant dispersion under varying atmospheric stability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Dennis; Clawson, Kirk L.; Carter, Roger G.; Rich, Jason D.; Eckman, Richard M.; Perry, Steven G.; Isakov, Vlad; Heist, David K.

    2010-01-01

    A roadway toxics dispersion study was conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to document the effects on concentrations of roadway emissions behind a roadside sound barrier in various conditions of atmospheric stability. The homogeneous fetch of the INL, controlled emission source, lack of other manmade or natural flow obstructions, and absence of vehicle-generated turbulence reduced the ambiguities in interpretation of the data. Roadway emissions were simulated by the release of an atmospheric tracer (SF 6) from two 54 m long line sources, one for an experiment with a 90 m long noise barrier and one for a control experiment without a barrier. Simultaneous near-surface tracer concentration measurements were made with bag samplers on identical sampling grids downwind from the line sources. An array of six 3-d sonic anemometers was employed to measure the barrier-induced turbulence. Key findings of the study are: (1) the areal extent of higher concentrations and the absolute magnitudes of the concentrations both increased as atmospheric stability increased; (2) a concentration deficit developed in the wake zone of the barrier with respect to concentrations at the same relative locations on the control experiment at all atmospheric stabilities; (3) lateral dispersion was significantly greater on the barrier grid than the non-barrier grid; and (4) the barrier tended to trap high concentrations near the "roadway" (i.e. upwind of the barrier) in low wind speed conditions, especially in stable conditions.

  4. Resting BOLD fluctuations in the primary somatosensory cortex correlate with tactile acuity.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lauren M; Heba, Stefanie; Lenz, Melanie; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Höffken, Oliver; Kalisch, Tobias; Puts, Nicholaas A; Edden, Richard A E; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Sensory perception, including 2-point discrimination (2 ptD), is tightly linked to cortical processing of tactile stimuli in primary somatosensory cortices. While the role of cortical activity in response to a tactile stimulus has been widely investigated, the role of baseline cortical activity is largely unknown. Using resting state fMRI we investigated the relationship between local BOLD fluctuations in the primary somatosensory cortex (the representational field of the hand) and 2 ptD of the corresponding index finger (right and left). Cortical activity was measured using fractional amplitudes of the low frequency BOLD fluctuations (fALFF) and synchronicity using regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the S1 hand region during rest. 2 ptD correlated with higher ReHo values in the representational areas of the contralateral S1 cortex (left hand: p = .028; right hand: p = .049). 2 ptD additionally correlated with higher fALFF in the representational area of the left hand (p = .007) and showed a trend for a significant correlation in the representational area of the right hand (p = .051). Thus, higher BOLD amplitudes and synchronicity at rest, as measures of cortical activity and synchronicity, respectively, are related to better tactile discrimination abilities of the contralateral hand. Our findings extend the relationship seen between spontaneous BOLD fluctuations and sensory perception.

  5. Correspondent Functional Topography of the Human Left Inferior Parietal Lobule at Rest and Under Task Revealed Using Resting-State fMRI and Coactivation Based Parcellation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaojian; Xie, Sangma; Guo, Xin; Becker, Benjamin; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-03-01

    The human left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive functions and is an important node in the default mode network (DMN). Although many previous studies have proposed different parcellation schemes for the LIPL, the detailed functional organization of the LIPL and the exact correspondence between the DMN and LIPL subregions remain unclear. Mounting evidence indicates that spontaneous fluctuations in the brain are strongly associated with cognitive performance at the behavioral level. However, whether a consistent functional topographic organization of the LIPL during rest and under task can be revealed remains unknown. Here, they used resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and task-related coactivation patterns separately to parcellate the LIPL and identified seven subregions. Four subregions were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and three subregions were located in the angular gyrus (AG). The subregion-specific networks and functional characterization revealed that the four anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in sensorimotor processing, movement imagination and inhibitory control, audition perception and speech processing, and social cognition, whereas the three posterior subregions were mainly involved in episodic memory, semantic processing, and spatial cognition. The results revealed a detailed functional organization of the LIPL and suggested that the LIPL is a functionally heterogeneous area. In addition, the present study demonstrated that the functional architecture of the LIPL during rest corresponds with that found in task processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1659-1675, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Parsing the intrinsic networks underlying attention: a resting state study.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Eleonora; De Panfilis, Chiara; Antonucci, Camilla; Capecci, Cinzia; Marchesi, Carlo; Sambataro, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    The attention system functionally modulates brain activity to exert control over thoughts, feelings and actions. Three distinct but mutually interacting components of attention have been hypothesized: alerting, which mediates the maintenance of a state of vigilance toward an upcoming stimulus; orienting, which supports the selection of sensory information, and executive control that is involved in detecting and resolving cognitive conflicts. The performance of tasks probing these components engages fronto-parietal and thalamic regions. Also, general attention has been associated with the activity of resting-state networks (RSNs), which are sets of brain regions with synchronous temporal fluctuations. Importantly, the association between the intrinsic brain activity of RSNs and the efficiency and integration of the specific attentional components remains largely unexplored. For this aim, we recruited twenty healthy volunteers who performed the Attention Network Test-Revised (ANT-R), assessing the alerting, orienting and executive control components as well as their interactions, and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. For each participant RSNs were estimated using double regression. The RSNs spanning across areas previously implicated in attentional processing were correlated with ANT-R scores using multiple regressions. Significant brain behavior correlations emerged between ANT-R scores and RSNs comprising the regions relevant for attentional processing, i.e., left and right prefronto-parietal (PFC-PC), dorsal attentional (DAN), salience (SN), and default mode (DMN) networks. The activity of PFC-PC networks was correlated with alerting in parietal and frontal regions, and with location conflict in the frontal regions. The DAN connectivity was correlated with flanker, location conflict, and their interaction in parietal regions. SN was associated with flanker by location and flanker by orienting interactions in the inferior frontal

  7. Reduction in peak oxygen uptake after prolonged bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that the magnitude of the reduction in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) after bed rest is directly proportional to the level of pre-bed rest peak VO2 is tested. Complete pre and post-bed rest working capacity and body weight data were obtained from studies involving 24 men (19-24 years old) and 8 women (23-34 years old) who underwent bed rest for 14-20 days with no remedial treatments. Results of regression analyses of the present change in post-bed rest peak VO2 on pre-bed rest peak VO2 with 32 subjects show correlation coefficients of -0.03 (NS) for data expressed in 1/min and -0.17 for data expressed in ml/min-kg. In addition, significant correlations are found that support the hypothesis only when peak VO2 data are analyzed separately from studies that utilized the cycle ergometer, particularly with subjects in the supine position, as opposed to data obtained from treadmill peak VO2 tests. It is concluded that orthostatic factors, associated with the upright body position and relatively high levels of physical fitness from endurance training, appear to increase the variability of pre and particularly post-bed rest peak VO2 data, which would lead to rejection of the hypothesis.

  8. Long-duration bed rest as an analog to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hargens, Alan R; Vico, Laurence

    2016-04-15

    Long-duration bed rest is widely employed to simulate the effects of microgravity on various physiological systems, especially for studies of bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. This microgravity analog is also extensively used to develop and test countermeasures to microgravity-altered adaptations to Earth gravity. Initial investigations of bone loss used horizontal bed rest with the view that this model represented the closest approximation to inactivity and minimization of hydrostatic effects, but all Earth-based analogs must contend with the constant force of gravity by adjustment of the G vector. Later concerns about the lack of similarity between headward fluid shifts in space and those with horizontal bed rest encouraged the use of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest as pioneered by Russian investigators. Headward fluid shifts in space may redistribute bone from the legs to the head. At present, HDT bed rest with normal volunteers is the most common analog for microgravity simulation and to test countermeasures for bone loss, muscle and cardiac atrophy, orthostatic intolerance, and reduced muscle strength/exercise capacity. Also, current physiologic countermeasures are focused on long-duration missions such as Mars, so in this review we emphasize HDT bed rest studies with durations of 30 days and longer. However, recent results suggest that the HDT bed rest analog is less representative as an analog for other important physiological problems of long-duration space flight such as fluid shifts, spinal dysfunction and radiation hazards.

  9. Cardiovascular consequences of bed rest: effect on maximal oxygen uptake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1997-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced in healthy individuals confined to bed rest, suggesting it is independent of any disease state. The magnitude of reduction in VO2max is dependent on duration of bed rest and the initial level of aerobic fitness (VO2max), but it appears to be independent of age or gender. Bed rest induces an elevated maximal heart rate which, in turn, is associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, increased sympathetic catecholamine secretion, and greater cardiac beta-receptor sensitivity. Despite the elevation in heart rate, VO2max is reduced primarily from decreased maximal stroke volume and cardiac output. An elevated ejection fraction during exercise following bed rest suggests that the lower stroke volume is not caused by ventricular dysfunction but is primarily the result of decreased venous return associated with lower circulating blood volume, reduced central venous pressure, and higher venous compliance in the lower extremities. VO2max, stroke volume, and cardiac output are further compromised by exercise in the upright posture. The contribution of hypovolemia to reduced cardiac output during exercise following bed rest is supported by the close relationship between the relative magnitude (% delta) and time course of change in blood volume and VO2max during bed rest, and also by the fact that retention of plasma volume is associated with maintenance of VO2max after bed rest. Arteriovenous oxygen difference during maximal exercise is not altered by bed rest, suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may not contribute significantly to the decreased VO2max. However reduction in baseline and maximal muscle blood flow, red blood cell volume, and capillarization in working muscles represent peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to limited oxygen delivery and, subsequently, lowered VO2max. Thus, alterations in cardiac and vascular functions induced by prolonged confinement to bed rest contribute to diminution of maximal oxygen uptake

  10. Feeding and resting postures of wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    PubMed

    Iurck, Maria F; Nowak, Matthew G; Costa, Leny C M; Mendes, Sérgio L; Ford, Susan M; Strier, Karen B

    2013-01-01

    Increased body size in Brachyteles has been regarded as an important evolutionary adaptation that allowed a greater reliance on leaves compared to other more frugivorous Atelidae, but its association with muriqui positional behavior and substrate use is still unknown. Here, we present original data on the feeding and resting postures of the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) and evaluate predictions about the relationships between body size, postural behavior, and substrate use derived from previously published data for other atelids (e.g. Alouatta, Ateles, and Lagothrix). The study was undertaken from August 2002 to July 2003 on a large group of well-habituated muriquis inhabiting the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural - Felíciano Miguel Abdala in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Consistent with our predictions, we found that B. hypoxanthus was highly suspensory during postural feeding (60.9%) and commonly used tail-hind limb suspension/horizontal tripod (38.0%) or tail-forelimb/hind limb suspension (21.4%). However, although tail-suspensory postures permitted the muriquis to use the terminal canopy and small-sized substrates, these areas were also accessed via tail-assisted above-branch postural behaviors involving multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, tail-suspensory postures were found to be frequently associated with large substrates, tree trunks, and the understory. We suggest that Brachyteles' ability to access food resources from all areas of a feeding tree and from tree crowns at different canopy levels may account for their ability to efficiently exploit food resources in seasonal disturbed forest fragments of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest today.

  11. Effect of exercise on the pseudodiabetes of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of intensive isotonic exercise and isometric exercise (with its low metabolic rate) during bed rest on plasma insulin and glucose tolerance test was investigated. The subjects were seven healthy men, 19 to 22 years in age, 166 to 188 cm in height, and 62.40 to 103.80 kg in weight; maximal oxygen uptakes ranged from 3.36 to 4.38 liters/min. It appears that bed-rest-induced glucose intolerance is diminished with increasing energy expenditure during both bed rest and recovery.

  12. Molecular biomarkers monitoring human skeletal muscle fibres and microvasculature following long-term bed rest with and without countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Salanova, M; Schiffl, G; Püttmann, B; Schoser, B G; Blottner, D

    2008-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms of human skeletal muscle adaptation to disuse are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the morphological and biochemical changes of the lower limb soleus and vastus lateralis muscles following 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest in women with and without exercise countermeasure using molecular biomarkers monitoring functional cell compartments. Muscle biopsies were taken before (pre) and after bed rest (post) from a bed rest-only and a bed rest exercise group (n = 8, each). NOS1 and NOS3/PECAM, markers of myofibre ‘activity’ and capillary density, and MuRF1 (E3 ubiquitin-ligase), a marker of proteolysis, were documented by confocal immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses. Morphometrical parameters (myofibre cross-sectional area, type I/II distribution) were largely preserved in muscles from the exercise group with a robust trend for type II hypertrophy in vastus lateralis. In the bed rest-only group, the relative NOS1 immunostaining intensity was decreased at type I and II myofibre membranes, while the bed rest plus exercise group compensated for this loss particularly in soleus. In the microvascular network, NOS3 expression and the capillary-to-fibre ratio were both increased in the exercise group. Elevated MuRF1 immunosignals found in subgroups of atrophic myofibres probably reflected accelerated proteolysis. Immunoblots revealed overexpression of the MuRF1 protein in the soleus of the bed rest-only group (> 35% vs. pre). We conclude that exercise countermeasure during bed rest affected both NOS/NO signalling and proteolysis in female skeletal muscle. Maintenance of NO signalling mechanisms and normal protein turnover by exercise countermeasure may be crucial steps to attenuate human skeletal muscle atrophy and to maintain cell function following chronic disuse. PMID:18221329

  13. Attitude Control System Design for Fast Rest-to-Rest Attitude Maneuver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.-I.; Bando, N.; Hashimoto, T.; Murata, Y.; Mochizuki, N.; Nakamura, T.; Kamiya, T.; Ogura, N.; Maeda, K.

    2009-08-01

    The VSOP-2 project is a new space VLBI (very long baseline interferometer) radio astronomy mission, proposed to inherit the fruitful success of the VSOP mission with the HALCA satellite. One of the most important advances of VSOP-2 is the use of higher observation frequency, which requires fast alternating observation of a target and calibrator in order to remove the phase changes caused by the atmosphere. Typically, both sources must be observed within 60 sec, and this switching must be carried out over many hours. ``ASTRO-G" is a satellite planned for this VSOP-2 project, and one of technical challenges is to achieve such fast rest-to-rest maneuvers, and the proper hardware must be selected to account for this fast attitude maneuver. The controlled momentum gyro (CMG) is an actuator that provides high torque with small power consumption, and the fiber optical gyro is a sensor able to measure the high angular velocity with excellent accuracy. This paper first describes these components for attitude control. Another challenge of the ASTRO-G's attitude control system is to design the switching for the flexible mode of the satellite structure, containing a large deployable reflector and a large solar panel. These produce resonances with fast switching and these must be attenuated. To achieve high agility in a flexible satellite, the controller design is crucial. One design feature is a novel robust input shaper named ``nil mode exciting profiler". Another feature is the feedback controller design. The paper describes these features and other potential problems with fast switching..

  14. The effect of resting condition on resting-state fMRI reliability and consistency: a comparison between resting with eyes open, closed, and fixated.

    PubMed

    Patriat, Rémi; Molloy, Erin K; Meier, Timothy B; Kirk, Gregory R; Nair, Veena A; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek; Birn, Rasmus M

    2013-09-01

    Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been demonstrated to have moderate to high reliability and produces consistent patterns of connectivity across a wide variety of subjects, sites, and scanners. However, there is no one agreed upon method to acquire rs-fMRI data. Some sites instruct their subjects, or patients, to lie still with their eyes closed, while other sites instruct their subjects to keep their eyes open or even fixating on a cross during scanning. Several studies have compared those three resting conditions based on connectivity strength. In our study, we assess differences in metrics of test-retest reliability (using an intraclass correlation coefficient), and consistency of the rank-order of connections within a subject and the ranks of subjects for a particular connection from one session to another (using Kendall's W tests). Twenty-five healthy subjects were scanned at three different time points for each resting condition, twice the same day and another time two to three months later. Resting-state functional connectivity measures were evaluated in motor, visual, auditory, attention, and default-mode networks, and compared between the different resting conditions. Of the networks examined, only the auditory network resulted in significantly higher connectivity in the eyes closed condition compared to the other two conditions. No significant between-condition differences in connectivity strength were found in default mode, attention, visual, and motor networks. Overall, the differences in reliability and consistency between different resting conditions were relatively small in effect size but results were found to be significant. Across all within-network connections, and within default-mode, attention, and auditory networks statistically significant greater reliability was found when the subjects were lying with their eyes fixated on a cross. In contrast, primary visual network connectivity was most reliable when subjects had their eyes open (and not

  15. The Semantic Network at Work and Rest: Differential Connectivity of Anterior Temporal Lobe Subregions

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca L.; Hoffman, Paul; Pobric, Gorana

    2016-01-01

    The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) makes a critical contribution to semantic cognition. However, the functional connectivity of the ATL and the functional network underlying semantic cognition has not been elucidated. In addition, subregions of the ATL have distinct functional properties and thus the potential differential connectivity between these subregions requires investigation. We explored these aims using both resting-state and active semantic task data in humans in combination with a dual-echo gradient echo planar imaging (EPI) paradigm designed to ensure signal throughout the ATL. In the resting-state analysis, the ventral ATL (vATL) and anterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) were shown to connect to areas responsible for multimodal semantic cognition, including bilateral ATL, inferior frontal gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, posterior MTG, and medial temporal lobes. In contrast, the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG)/superior temporal sulcus was connected to a distinct set of auditory and language-related areas, including bilateral STG, precentral and postcentral gyri, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, posterior temporal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal gyri. Complementary analyses of functional connectivity during an active semantic task were performed using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. The PPI analysis highlighted the same semantic regions suggesting a core semantic network active during rest and task states. This supports the necessity for semantic cognition in internal processes occurring during rest. The PPI analysis showed additional connectivity of the vATL to regions of occipital and frontal cortex. These areas strongly overlap with regions found to be sensitive to executively demanding, controlled semantic processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous studies have shown that semantic cognition depends on subregions of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL). However, the network of regions

  16. Functional connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei at rest

    PubMed Central

    Beliveau, Vincent; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Greve, Douglas N.; Fisher, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter critically involved in a broad range of brain functions and implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses including major depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. Despite being widely distributed throughout the brain, there is limited knowledge on the contribution of 5-HT to intrinsic brain activity. The dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei are the source of most serotonergic neurons projecting throughout the brain and thus provide a compelling target for a seed-based probe of resting-state activity related to 5-HT. Here we implemented a novel multimodal neuroimaging approach for investigating resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between DR and MR and cortical, subcortical and cerebellar target areas. Using [11C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET) images of the brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT) combined with structural MRI from 49 healthy volunteers, we delineated DR and MR and performed a seed-based resting-state FC analysis. The DR and MR seeds produced largely similar FC maps: significant positive FC with brain regions involved in cognitive and emotion processing including anterior cingulate, amygdala, insula, hippocampus, thalamus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Significant negative FC was observed within pre- and postcentral gyri for the DR but not for the MR seed. We observed a significant association between DR and MR FC and regional 5-HTT binding. Our results provide evidence for a resting-state network related to DR and MR and comprising regions receiving serotonergic innervation and centrally involved in 5-HT related behaviors including emotion, cognition and reward processing. These findings provide a novel advance in estimating resting-state FC related to 5-HT signaling, which can benefit our understanding of its role in behavior and neuropsychiatric illnesses. PMID:25963733

  17. Functional connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei at rest.

    PubMed

    Beliveau, Vincent; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M; Greve, Douglas N; Fisher, Patrick M

    2015-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter critically involved in a broad range of brain functions and implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses including major depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. Despite being widely distributed throughout the brain, there is limited knowledge on the contribution of 5-HT to intrinsic brain activity. The dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei are the source of most serotonergic neurons projecting throughout the brain and thus provide a compelling target for a seed-based probe of resting-state activity related to 5-HT. Here we implemented a novel multimodal neuroimaging approach for investigating resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between DR and MR and cortical, subcortical and cerebellar target areas. Using [(11)C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET) images of the brain serotonin transporter (5-HTT) combined with structural MRI from 49 healthy volunteers, we delineated DR and MR and performed a seed-based resting-state FC analysis. The DR and MR seeds produced largely similar FC maps: significant positive FC with brain regions involved in cognitive and emotion processing including anterior cingulate, amygdala, insula, hippocampus, thalamus, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Significant negative FC was observed within pre- and postcentral gyri for the DR but not for the MR seed. We observed a significant association between DR and MR FC and regional 5-HTT binding. Our results provide evidence for a resting-state network related to DR and MR and comprising regions receiving serotonergic innervation and centrally involved in 5-HT related behaviors including emotion, cognition and reward processing. These findings provide a novel advance in estimating resting-state FC related to 5-HT signaling, which can benefit our understanding of its role in behavior and neuropsychiatric illnesses.

  18. Female thermal sensitivity to hot and cold during rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Gerrett, Nicola; Ouzzahra, Yacine; Redortier, Bernard; Voelcker, Thomas; Havenith, George

    2015-12-01

    Regional differences in thermal sensation to a hot or cold stimulus are often limited to male participants, in a rested state and cover minimal locations. Therefore, magnitude sensation to both a hot and cold stimulus were investigated during rest and exercise in 8 females (age: 20.4 ± 1.4 years, mass: 61.7 ± 4.0 kg, height: 166.9 ± 5.4 cm, VO2max: 36.8 ± 4.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Using a repeated measures cross over design, participants rested in a stable environment (22.3 ± 0.9°C, 37.7 ± 5.5% RH) whilst a thermal probe (25 cm(2)), set at either 40°C or 20°C, was applied in a balanced order to 29 locations across the body. Participants reported their thermal sensation after 10s of application. Following this, participants cycled at 50% VO2max for 20 min and then 30% VO2max whilst the sensitivity test was repeated. Females experienced significantly stronger magnitude sensations to the cold than the hot stimulus (5.5 ± 1.7 and 4.3 ± 1.3, p<0.05, respectively). A significant effect of location was found during the cold stimulation (p<0.05). Thermal sensation was greatest at the head then the torso and declined towards the extremities. No significant effect of location was found in response to the hot stimulation and the pattern across the body was more homogenous. In comparison to rest, exercise caused a significant overall reduction in thermal sensation (5.2 ± 1.5 and 4.6 ± 1.7, respectively, p<0.05). Body maps were produced for both stimuli during rest and exercise, which highlight sensitive areas across the body.

  19. FEATURE A, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, SOUTH SIDE, REST MOSTLY COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE A, TYPE 1 PILLBOX, SOUTH SIDE, REST MOSTLY COVERED BY VEGETATION AND SAND, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Shore Pillbox Complex-Type 1 Pillbox, Along shoreline, seaward of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. [Changing in process that involves rest scales of nursing assistant].

    PubMed

    Keretzky, Kátia Bica; Vargas, Adriano Silveira; do Nascimento, Márcia Elaine Costa; Echer, Isabel Cristina; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2009-12-01

    Describe the implantation of a new process of management of the nursing assistant rest scale of a hospitalization unit of a universitarian hospital. It is presented the reality before the proposal, when the rests were distributed along the week; the reasons that took to the proposition of the new method and the working of the new scale, with rests in weekends and holidays. Among the benefits already seen include: bigger number of professionals working during the days of bigger work flow; more time of leisure of the workers with their families; bigger personal integration and professional of the group; scales organized for a year, which allows the employee plan his vacation, rests and studies; and bigger satisfaction with the work, with the new scale being considered a professional conquest.

  1. CONTEXT VIEW FROM POWER PLANT TOP FLOOR AT REST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW FROM POWER PLANT TOP FLOOR AT REST OF CLEVELAND TERMINAL. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. 14. Missile thrusters, missile resting on ring, shock absorber attachments ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Missile thrusters, missile resting on ring, shock absorber attachments at three points - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  3. Resting-state brain networks: literature review and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Rosazza, Cristina; Minati, Ludovico

    2011-10-01

    This review focuses on resting-state functional connectivity, a functional MRI technique which allows the study of spontaneous brain activity generated under resting conditions. This approach is useful to explore the brain's functional organization and to examine if it is altered in neurological or psychiatric diseases. Resting-state functional connectivity has revealed a number of networks which are consistently found in healthy subjects and represent specific patterns of synchronous activity. In this review, we examine the behavioral, physiological and neurological evidences relevant to this coherent brain activity and, in particular, to each network. The investigation of functional connectivity appears promising from a clinical perspective, considering the amount of evidence regarding the importance of spontaneous activity and that resting-state paradigms are inherently simple to implement. We also discuss some examples of existing clinical applications, such as in Alzheimer's disease, and emerging possibilities such as in pre-operative mapping and disorders of consciousness.

  4. 54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. View of footbridge from Wings Rest Pond looking from the east (similar to HALS no. LA-1-24) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  5. 52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View of "grandpappy" tree with Wings Rest Pond in background looking from the northeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-22) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  6. 53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. View of Wings Rest Pond with reflection of "grandpappy" looking from the southwest (similar to HALS no. LA-1-23) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  7. 8. West side of north end of bridge resting on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. West side of north end of bridge resting on approach abutment. Oblique detail view northeast (from below roadbed level, beside bridge). 150 mm lens. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

  8. Detail of three trusses resting on one column at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of three trusses resting on one column at the junction of the roundhouse and care repair shop looking south. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Auxiliary Buildings, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Resting energy expenditure is not influenced by classical music

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Ebba; Helgegren, Hannah; Slinde, Frode

    2005-01-01

    Obesity shows an increasing prevalence worldwide and a decrease in energy expenditure has been suggested to be one of the risk factors for developing obesity. An increase in resting energy expenditure would have a great impact on total energy expenditure. This study shows that classical music do not influence resting energy expenditure compared to complete silence. Further studies should be performed including other genres of music and other types of stress-inductors than music. PMID:16135245

  10. Resting Heart Rate and Aortic Stiffness in Normotensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jeongok G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Large-artery stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is considered the gold standard measure of arterial stiffness. A resting heart rate is an easily measured vital sign that is also associated with CVD morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have reported the significant relationship of a resting heart rate with arterial stiffness as measured by cfPWV only in hypertensive subjects; their relationship in nonhypertensive subjects remains unknown. The present study, therefore, examined their relationship in normotensive subjects. Subjects and Methods In 102 healthy Korean Americans between ages 20 and 60 years, their resting heart rate was measured by an automated blood pressure measuring device after a 10 minute rest in the supine position. Arterial stiffness was measured by cfPWV using the SphygmoCor device. Results The mean resting heart rate of participants (mean age, 39.64 years; 59% women) was 61.91 bpm (standard deviation [SD], 9.62 bpm) and mean the cfPWV was 6.99 (SD, 1.14) m/s. A multiple regression analysis showed that a resting heart rate is a significant predictor of cfPWV after controlling for age, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure. For one bpm increase of resting heart rate, cfPWV increased approximately 0.02 m/s. Conclusion Our results suggest that a higher resting heart rate is independently associated with increased arterial stiffness as measured by cfPWV in normotensive adults. Arterial stiffness may explain the prognostic role of an individual's heart rate in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:27826343

  11. Interaction Effects of BDNF and COMT Genes on Resting-State Brain Activity and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Chunhui; Xia, Mingrui; Wu, Karen; Chen, Chuansheng; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Wang, Wenjing; He, Yong; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes have been found to interactively influence working memory (WM) as well as brain activation during WM tasks. However, whether the two genes have interactive effects on resting-state activities of the brain and whether these spontaneous activations correlate with WM are still unknown. This study included behavioral data from WM tasks and genetic data (COMT rs4680 and BDNF Val66Met) from 417 healthy Chinese adults and resting-state fMRI data from 298 of them. Significant interactive effects of BDNF and COMT were found for WM performance as well as for resting-state regional homogeneity (ReHo) in WM-related brain areas, including the left medial frontal gyrus (lMeFG), left superior frontal gyrus (lSFG), right superior and medial frontal gyrus (rSMFG), right medial orbitofrontal gyrus (rMOFG), right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG), precuneus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left superior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule. Simple effects analyses showed that compared to other genotypes, subjects with COMT-VV/BDNF-VV had higher WM and lower ReHo in all five frontal brain areas. The results supported the hypothesis that COMT and BDNF polymorphisms influence WM performance and spontaneous brain activity (i.e., ReHo). PMID:27853425

  12. Effect of extracellular osmolality on cell volume and resting metabolism in mammalian skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Antolic, AnaMaria; Harrison, Rosemarie; Farlinger, Chris; Cermak, Naomi M; Peters, Sandra J; LeBlanc, Paul; Roy, Brian D

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to establish an in vitro mammalian skeletal muscle model to study acute alterations in resting skeletal muscle cell volume. Isolated, whole muscles [soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)] were dissected from Long-Evans rats and incubated for 60 min in Sigma medium 199 (1 g of resting tension, bubbled with 95% O(2)-5% O(2), 30 +/- 2 degrees C, and pH 7.4). Medium osmolality was altered to simulate hyposmotic (190 +/- 10 mmol/kg) or hyperosmotic conditions (400 +/- 10 mmol/kg), whereas an isosmotic condition (290 +/- 10 mmol/kg) served as a control. After incubation, relative water content of the muscle decreased with hyperosmotic and increased with hyposmotic condition in both muscle types (P < 0.05). The cross-sectional area of soleus type I and type II fibers increased (P < 0.05) in hyposmotic, whereas hyperosmotic exposure led to no detectable changes. The EDL type II fiber area decreased in the hyperosmotic condition and increased after hyposmotic exposure, whereas no change was observed in EDL type I fibers. Furthermore, exposure to the hyperosmotic condition in both muscle types resulted in decreased muscle ATP and phosphocreatine (P < 0.05) contents and increased creatine and lactate contents (P < 0.05) compared with control and hyposmotic conditions. This isolated skeletal muscle model proved viable and demonstrated that altering extracellular osmolality could cause acute alterations in muscle water content and resting muscle metabolism.

  13. Decreased resting-state connections within the visuospatial attention-related network in advanced aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Li, Chunlin; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Zhihan; Kurata, Tomoko; Ohno, Seiichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Abe, Koji; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-06-15

    Advanced aging is accompanied by a decline in visuospatial attention. Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated dysfunction in specific brain areas related to visuospatial attention. However, it is still unclear how the functional connectivity between brain regions causes the decline of visuospatial attention. Here, we combined task and rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the age-dependent alterations of resting-state functional connectivity within the task-related network. Twenty-three young subjects and nineteen elderly subjects participated in this study, and a modified Posner paradigm was used to define the region of interest (ROI). Our results showed that a marked reduction in the number of connections occurred with age, but this effect was not uniform throughout the brain: while there was a significant loss of communication in the anterior portion of the brain and between the anterior and posterior cerebral cortices, communication in the posterior portion of the brain was preserved. Moreover, the older adults exhibited weakened resting-state functional connectivity between the supplementary motor area and left anterior insular cortex. These findings suggest that, the disrupted functional connectivity of the brain network for visuospatial attention that occurs during normal aging may underlie the decline in cognitive performance.

  14. Independent component analysis of EEG dipole source localization in resting and action state of brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almurshedi, Ahmed; Ismail, Abd Khamim

    2015-04-01

    EEG source localization was studied in order to determine the location of the brain sources that are responsible for the measured potentials at the scalp electrodes using EEGLAB with Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithm. Neuron source locations are responsible in generating current dipoles in different states of brain through the measured potentials. The current dipole sources localization are measured by fitting an equivalent current dipole model using a non-linear optimization technique with the implementation of standardized boundary element head model. To fit dipole models to ICA components in an EEGLAB dataset, ICA decomposition is performed and appropriate components to be fitted are selected. The topographical scalp distributions of delta, theta, alpha, and beta power spectrum and cross coherence of EEG signals are observed. In close eyes condition it shows that during resting and action states of brain, alpha band was activated from occipital (O1, O2) and partial (P3, P4) area. Therefore, parieto-occipital area of brain are active in both resting and action state of brain. However cross coherence tells that there is more coherence between right and left hemisphere in action state of brain than that in the resting state. The preliminary result indicates that these potentials arise from the same generators in the brain.

  15. Functional connectivity in resting state as a phonemic fluency ability measure.

    PubMed

    Miró-Padilla, Anna; Bueichekú, Elisenda; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Ávila, César

    2017-03-01

    There is some evidence that functional connectivity (FC) measures obtained at rest may reflect individual differences in cognitive capabilities. We tested this possibility by using the FAS test as a measure of phonemic fluency. Seed regions of the main brain areas involved in this task were extracted from meta-analysis results (Wagner et al., 2014) and used for pairwise resting-state FC analysis. Ninety-three undergraduates completed the FAS test outside the scanner. A correlation analysis was conducted between the F-A-S scores (behavioral testing) and the pairwise FC pattern of verbal fluency regions of interest. Results showed that the higher FC between the thalamus and the cerebellum, and the lower FCs between the left inferior frontal gyrus and the right insula and between the supplementary motor area and the right insula were associated with better performance on the FAS test. Regression analyses revealed that the first two FCs contributed independently to this better phonemic fluency, reflecting a more general attentional factor (FC between thalamus and cerebellum) and a more specific fluency factor (FC between the left inferior frontal gyrus and the right insula). The results support the Spontaneous Trait Reactivation hypothesis, which explains how resting-state derived measures may reflect individual differences in cognitive abilities.

  16. Pelvic muscles during rest: responses to pelvic muscle exercise.

    PubMed

    Griffin, C; Dougherty, M C; Yarandi, H

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study pelvic muscle changes in the resting phase between voluntary contractions (during pelvic muscle assessment) and in response to pelvic muscle exercise (PME) through secondary analysis of data. The sample consisted of healthy women (N = 38) aged 35 to 54. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference in resting pressure within each assessment (F = 2.92, p < .04). A significant difference in resting pressures within subjects was found (F = 3.54, p < .02). Within-subject variance suggests exercises performed without a warmup may result in incomplete relaxation prior to contraction. Significant change between baseline and Level 1 of the graded PME program suggests slow relaxation of untrained muscles. Increases in resting pressure at Levels 3 and 4 may be a more accurate reflection of muscle hypertrophy. The results of this research indicate that care should be taken in establishing the point from which changes during contractions are measured. It is recommended that the resting pressure be used. Exercise continued for more than 3 or 4 weeks accounts for nearly all strength gains and explains the increases in resting pressure at PME Levels 3 and 4.

  17. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Jean; Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J J

    2015-11-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function.

  18. Mutations in the transcriptional repressor REST predispose to Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Hanks, Sandra; Karlin, Kristen L; Zachariou, Anna; Perdeaux, Elizabeth R; Ruark, Elise; Shaw, Chad A; Renwick, Alexander; Ramsay, Emma; Yost, Shawn; Elliott, Anna; Birch, Jillian; Capra, Michael; Gray, Juliet; Hale, Juliet; Kingston, Judith; Levitt, Gill; McLean, Thomas; Sheridan, Eamonn; Renwick, Anthony; Seal, Sheila; Stiller, Charles; Sebire, Neil; Westbrook, Thomas F; Rahman, Nazneen

    2015-12-01

    Wilms tumor is the most common childhood renal cancer. To identify mutations that predispose to Wilms tumor, we are conducting exome sequencing studies. Here we describe 11 different inactivating mutations in the REST gene (encoding RE1-silencing transcription factor) in four familial Wilms tumor pedigrees and nine non-familial cases. Notably, no similar mutations were identified in the ICR1000 control series (13/558 versus 0/993; P < 0.0001) or in the ExAC series (13/558 versus 0/61,312; P < 0.0001). We identified a second mutational event in two tumors, suggesting that REST may act as a tumor-suppressor gene in Wilms tumor pathogenesis. REST is a zinc-finger transcription factor that functions in cellular differentiation and embryonic development. Notably, ten of 11 mutations clustered within the portion of REST encoding the DNA-binding domain, and functional analyses showed that these mutations compromise REST transcriptional repression. These data establish REST as a Wilms tumor predisposition gene accounting for ∼2% of Wilms tumor.

  19. Regulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity after bed rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawelczyk, J. A.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning reduces orthostatic tolerance. To determine whether changes in autonomic function might produce this effect, we developed stimulus-response curves relating limb vascular resistance, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) with seven subjects before and after 18 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest. Both lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -15 and -30 mmHg) and rapid saline infusion (15 and 30 ml/kg body wt) were used to produce a wide variation in PCWP. Orthostatic tolerance was assessed with graded LBNP to presyncope. Bed rest reduced LBNP tolerance from 23.9 +/- 2.1 to 21.2 +/- 1.5 min, respectively (means +/- SE, P = 0.02). The MSNA-PCWP relationship was unchanged after bed rest, though at any stage of the LBNP protocol PCWP was lower, and MSNA was greater. Thus bed rest deconditioning produced hypovolemia, causing a shift in operating point on the stimulus-response curve. The relationship between limb vascular resistance and MSNA was not significantly altered after bed rest. We conclude that bed rest deconditioning does not alter reflex control of MSNA, but may produce orthostatic intolerance through a combination of hypovolemia and cardiac atrophy.

  20. Altered Resting State in Diabetic Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cauda, Franco; Sacco, Katiuscia; Duca, Sergio; Cocito, Dario; D'Agata, Federico; Geminiani, Giuliano C.; Canavero, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background The spontaneous component of neuropathic pain (NP) has not been explored sufficiently with neuroimaging techniques, given the difficulty to coax out the brain components that sustain background ongoing pain. Here, we address for the first time the correlates of this component in an fMRI study of a group of eight patients suffering from diabetic neuropathic pain and eight healthy control subjects. Specifically, we studied the functional connectivity that is associated with spontaneous neuropathic pain with spatial independent component analysis (sICA). Principal Findings Functional connectivity analyses revealed a cortical network consisting of two anti-correlated patterns: one includes the left fusiform gyrus, the left lingual gyrus, the left inferior temporal gyrus, the right inferior occipital gyrus, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally, the pre and postcentral gyrus bilaterally, in which its activity is correlated negatively with pain and positively with the controls; the other includes the left precuneus, dorsolateral prefrontal, frontopolar cortex (both bilaterally), right superior frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, thalami, both insulae, inferior parietal lobuli, right mammillary body, and a small area in the left brainstem, in which its activity is correlated positively with pain and negatively with the controls. Furthermore, a power spectra analyses revealed group differences in the frequency bands wherein the sICA signal was decomposed: patients' spectra are shifted towards higher frequencies. Conclusion In conclusion, we have characterized here for the first time a functional network of brain areas that mark the spontaneous component of NP. Pain is the result of aberrant default mode functional connectivity. PMID:19229326

  1. Reconnaissance Assessment of the Potential for Roadside Dry Wells to Affect Water Quality on the Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Senter, Craig A.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2009-01-01

    The County of Hawai'i Department of Public Works (DPW) uses dry wells to dispose of stormwater runoff from roads. Recently, concern has been raised that water entering the dry wells may transport contaminants to groundwater and affect the quality of receiving waters. The DPW operates 2,052 dry wells. Compiling an inventory of these dry wells and sorting it on the basis of presence or absence of urbanization in the drainage area, distance between the bottom of the dry well and the water table, and proximity to receiving waters helps identify the dry wells having greatest potential to affect the quality of receiving waters so that future studies or mitigation efforts can focus on a smaller number of dry wells. The drainage areas of some DPW dry wells encompass urbanized areas, which could be a source of contaminants. Some dry wells penetrate close to or through the water table, eliminating or substantially reducing opportunities for contaminant attenuation between the ground surface and water table. Dry wells that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, penetrate to near the water table, and are near the coast have the highest potential to affect the quality of coastal waters (this study did not consider specific sections of coastline that may be of greater concern than others). Some DPW dry wells, including a few that have drainage areas that encompass urbanization, lie within the areas contributing recharge (ACR) to drinking-water wells. Numerical groundwater modeling studies by previous investigators indicate that water infiltrating those dry wells could eventually be pumped at drinking-water wells. Dry wells that have a high potential for affecting coastal receiving waters or drinking-water wells can be the focus of studies to further understand the effect of the dry wells on the quality of receiving waters. Possible study approaches include sampling for contaminants at the dry well and receiving water, injecting and monitoring the movement of tracers

  2. Different resting-state functional connectivity alterations in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  3. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA. PMID:25506057

  4. Neural correlates of verbal creativity: differences in resting-state functional connectivity associated with expertise in creative writing

    PubMed Central

    Lotze, Martin; Erhard, Katharina; Neumann, Nicola; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Langner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural characteristics of verbal creativity as assessed by word generation tasks have been recently identified, but differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rFC) between experts and non-experts in creative writing have not been reported yet. Previous electroencephalography (EEG) coherence measures during rest demonstrated a decreased cooperation between brain areas in association with creative thinking ability. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare 20 experts in creative writing and 23 age-matched non-experts with respect to rFC strengths within a brain network previously found to be associated with creative writing. Decreased rFC for experts was found between areas 44 of both hemispheres. Increased rFC for experts was observed between right hemispheric caudate and intraparietal sulcus. Correlation analysis of verbal creativity indices (VCIs) with rFC values in the expert group revealed predominantly negative associations, particularly of rFC between left area 44 and left temporal pole. Overall, our data support previous findings of reduced connectivity between interhemispheric areas and increased right-hemispheric connectivity during rest in highly verbally creative individuals. PMID:25076885

  5. Resting-State Functional MR Imaging for Determining Language Laterality in Intractable Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Douw, Linda; Leveroni, Catherine L; Buchbinder, Bradley R; Greve, Douglas N; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To measure the accuracy of resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in determining hemispheric language dominance in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsies against the results of an intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and all subjects gave signed informed consent. Data in 23 patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy were retrospectively analyzed. All 23 patients were candidates for epilepsy surgery and underwent both IAP and resting-state functional MR imaging as part of presurgical evaluation. Language dominance was determined from functional MR imaging data by calculating a laterality index (LI) after using independent component analysis. The accuracy of this method was assessed against that of IAP by using a variety of thresholds. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using leave-one-out cross validation. Spatial maps of language components were qualitatively compared among each hemispheric language dominance group. Results Measurement of hemispheric language dominance with resting-state functional MR imaging was highly concordant with IAP results, with up to 96% (22 of 23) accuracy, 96% (22 of 23) sensitivity, and 96% (22 of 23) specificity. Composite language component maps in patients with typical language laterality consistently included classic language areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus, the posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the inferior parietal lobule, while those of patients with atypical language laterality also included non-classical language areas such as the superior and middle frontal gyri, the insula, and the occipital cortex. Conclusion Resting-state functional MR imaging can be used to measure language laterality in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  6. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-03-24

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation with a

  7. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    SciTech Connect

    Lustbader, Jason Aaron; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory J.; Yeakel, Skip; Adelman, Steven; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-04-05

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation with a

  8. Resting state functional connectivity changes induced by prior brain state are not network specific.

    PubMed

    Tailby, Chris; Masterton, Richard A J; Huang, Jenny Y; Jackson, Graeme D; Abbott, David F

    2015-02-01

    Resting state functional connectivity (rFC) is used to identify functionally related brain areas without requiring subjects to perform specific tasks. Previous work suggests that prior brain state, as determined by the activity engaged in immediately prior to collection of resting state data, can influence the networks recovered by rFC analyses. We determined the prevalence and network specificity of rFC changes induced by manipulations of prior state (including an unstructured (unconstrained) state, and language and motor tasks). Three blocks of rest data (one after each of the specified prior states) were acquired on each of 25 subjects. We hypothesised that prior state induced changes in rFC would be greatest within the networks most actively recruited by that prior state. Changes in rFC were greatest following the motor task and, contrary to our hypothesis, were not network specific. This was demonstrated by comparing (1) the timecourses within a set of ROIs selected on the basis of task-related de/activation, and (2) seed-based whole brain voxel-wise connectivity maps, seeded from local maxima in the task-related de/activation maps. Changes in connectivity strength tended to manifest as increases in rFC relative to that in the unstructured rest state, with change maps resembling partially complete maps of the primary sensory cortices and the cognitive control network. The majority of rFC changes occurred in areas moderately (but not weakly) connected to the seeds. Constrained prior states were associated with lower across-participant variance in rFC. This systematic investigation of the effect of prior brain state on rFC indicates that the rFC changes induced by prior brain state occur both in brain networks related to that brain activity and in networks nominally unrelated to that brain activity.

  9. The role of resting cysts in Alexandrium minutum population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Marta; Solé, Jordi; Anglès, Sílvia; Garcés, Esther

    2010-02-01

    The role of resting cysts on the development of Alexandrium minutum blooms in a typical Mediterranean semi-enclosed water body (Arenys de Mar Harbor, NW Mediterranean) was studied by means of matrix and dynamic population models. We used a series of scenarios, constrained when possible by experimentally measured parameters to test whether excystment and encystment fluxes and changes in the dormancy period had a major effect on bloom intensity and duration. The results of the simulations highlighted the importance of knowing not only the magnitude and variability of growth and life-cycle transition rates, but also those of loss rates (both in the water column and in the sediment) due to physical or biological factors. Given the maximum encystment rates determined for A. minutum in the study area (0.01 d -1), this process contributed to reduce the peak concentrations of vegetative cells but did not have a dominant effect on bloom termination. Excystment fluxes could contribute to enhance population densities of vegetative cells during times or low or negative net growth rate and during the initial phases of a bloom, but once exponential growth had started, additional excystment had negligible effect on bloom magnitude. However, even if cysts did not contribute to larger blooms, they could represent a safety mechanism for reintroduction of the species when the vegetative cell population went extinct due to unfavorable environmental conditions. Increasing the dormancy time exposed newly formed cysts to a longer period of losses in the sediment that reduced the concentration of excystment-ready sediment cysts and decreased excystment fluxes. More complex models will be needed to explore the implications of different life-cycle strategies in a wider natural ecological context.

  10. Cardio-ventilatory coupling in young healthy resting subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Thomas E.; Jacono, Frank J.; Loparo, Kenneth A.; Yeganeh, Amir; Fishman, Mikkel; Wilson, Christopher G.; Strohl, Kingman P.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, cardio-ventilatory coupling (CVC) refers to the statistical relationship between the onset of either inspiration (I) or expiration (E) and the timing of heartbeats (R-waves) before and after these respiratory events. CVC was assessed in healthy, young (<45 yr), resting, supine subjects (n = 19). Four intervals were analyzed: time from I-onset to both the prior R-wave (R-to-I) and the following R-wave (I-to-R), as well as time from E-onset to both the prior R-wave (R-to-E) and following R-wave (E-to-R). The degree of coupling was quantified in terms of transformed relative Shannon entropy (tRSE), and χ2 tests based on histograms of interval times from 200 breaths. Subjects were studied twice, from 5 to 27 days apart, and the test-retest reliability of CVC measures was computed. Several factors pointed to the relative importance of the R-to-I interval compared with other intervals. Coupling was significantly stronger for the R-to-I interval, coupling reliability was largest for the R-to-I interval, and only tRSE for the R-to-I interval was correlated with height, weight, and body surface area. The high test-retest reliability for CVC in the R-to-I interval provides support for the hypothesis that CVC strength is a subject trait. Across subjects, a peak ∼138 ms prior to I-onset was characteristic of CVC in the R-to-I interval, although individual subjects also had earlier peaks (longer R-to-I intervals). CVC for the R-to-I interval was unrelated to two separate measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), suggesting that these two forms of coupling (CVC and RSA) are independent. PMID:22267392

  11. Traffic-related metal(loid) status and uptake by dominant plants growing naturally in roadside soils in the Tibetan plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yili; Wang, Zhaofeng; Ding, Mingjun; Jiang, Yinghui; Xie, Zhenglei

    2016-12-15

    To understand traffic-related metal(loid) status and uptake by dominant plants growing naturally in roadside soils in the Tibetan plateau, China, aboveground parts and root samples of three dominant plant species (Kalidium slenderbranch, Stipa purpurea, Kobresia pygmaea) were collected along the Qinghai-Tibet highway, and were analyzed for concentrations of traffic-related metal(loid)s such as chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and lead (Pb). The results indicated that concentrations of metal(loid)s in plant tissues varied greatly among plant species and sites. Tissue distribution of metal(loid)s was significantly related to distance and demonstrated variability as an exponential function of traffic proximity. It was deduced that Cd in Kalidium slenderbranch and Cu and Zn in S. purpurea were mainly derived from soil; Kalidium slenderbranch and Kobresia pygmaea absorbed Zn, and S. purpurea absorbed Cd, mainly through stomata, from atmospheric deposition; enrichments of Pb and As in S. purpurea presented similar characteristics to those of Cd and Pb in Kobresia pygmaea and were affected by both soil and atmospheric deposition. After excluding the effects of the traffic, the highest value obtained for metal(loid)-translocation capacity (7.51 for translocation factor, TF) was observed for S. purpurea collected from Tuotuohe, while the lowest value for metal(loid)-uptake capacity (0.015 for bioaccumulation factor, BF) was for Kalidium slenderbranch collected from Golmud. The three plant species showed limited soil-to-root transfer of metal(loid)s, possibly due to the high soil pH along the Qinghai-Tibet highway, but demonstrated great potential for metal(loid) transfer from roots to aboveground parts.

  12. What goes on in the resting-state? A qualitative glimpse into resting-state experience in the scanner

    PubMed Central

    Hurlburt, Russell T.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The brain’s resting-state has attracted considerable interest in recent years, but currently little is known either about typical experience during the resting-state or about whether there are inter-individual differences in resting-state phenomenology. We used descriptive experience sampling (DES) in an attempt to apprehend high fidelity glimpses of the inner experience of five participants in an extended fMRI study. Results showed that the inner experiences and the neural activation patterns (as quantified by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations analysis) of the five participants were largely consistent across time, suggesting that our extended-duration scanner sessions were broadly similar to typical resting-state sessions. However, there were very large individual differences in inner phenomena, suggesting that the resting-state itself may differ substantially from one participant to the next. We describe these individual differences in experiential characteristics and display some typical moments of resting-state experience. We also show that retrospective characterizations of phenomena can often be very different from moment-by-moment reports. We discuss implications for the assessment of inner experience in neuroimaging studies more generally, concluding that it may be possible to use fMRI to investigate neural correlates of phenomena apprehended in high fidelity. PMID:26500590

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: Levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kumar, Bhupander

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in settled dust collected from informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workshops and nearby highways in the urban centers and roadside dust from the suburban industrial belt of Chennai city in India. Further dust samples were subjected to a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX) to characterize the shape, size and elemental composition of the dust particles. Geomean of total PCB concentration followed the following order: informal e-waste metal recovery workshops (53ngg(-1))>e-waste dismantling sites (3.6ngg(-1))>nearby highways (1.7ngg(-1))>suburban industrial roadsides (1.6ngg(-1)). In e-waste workshops, tetra, penta and hexa-PCB homologs contributed two third of Σ26PCB concentration. Informal e-waste recycling workshops contributed more than 80% concentration of all the PCB congeners loaded in the first principal component. Predominance of dioxin like PCBs, PCB-l14, -118 and -126 in the e-waste metal recovery sites were presumably due to combustion and pyrolytic processes performed during recycling of electrical components. According to the morphology and elemental composition, settled dust from e-waste workshops were irregular particles heavily embedded with toxic metals and industrial roadside dust were distinct angular particles. FESEM revealed that average particle size (in Ferret diameter) increased in the following order: e-waste recycling workshops (0.5μm)

  14. Cardiovascular Adaptations to Long Duration Head Down Tilt Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Meck, Janice V.; Martin, David S.; Freeman-Perez, Sondra A.; Riberio, Christine; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Waters, Wendy W.

    2007-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension is a recognized risk for crewmembers returning from space. Numerous cardiovascular mechanisms have been proposed to account for this problem including vascular and cardiac dysfunction. We studied arterial and cardiac function in 6-degree head-down tilt bed rest, which is the most widely accepted ground-based analog of spaceflight. Eleven subjects are included in this study (8 men and 3 women). Data analysis was limited to the first 49 days, and compared to pre-bed rest baseline data. Using ultrasound, data was collected on arterial diameters and flows at baseline and during reactive hyperemia and following administration of nitroglycerin. Echocardiography was used to acquire information regarding systolic and diastolic function as well as ventricular mass and diameter. Plasma volumes were significantly decreased by 7 days of bed rest and stayed down through 49 days. There were no differences in reactive hyperemic response in the arm at any time point. However, the hyperemic response in the leg was significantly increased at day 49. Arterial responses to nitroglycerin did not change over the duration of bed rest (day effect) in either the arm or leg, but there was a significant difference between the arm and the leg responses. There was a marked decrease in anterior tibial intimal-medial thickness at days 21, 35 and 49. Several cardiac functional parameters including IVRT, Mitral e-wave, ejection time, velocity of circumferential shortening and myocardial performance index were significantly changed following 49 days of bed rest. These data show that some cardiovascular measures change during bed rest, while others do not. Further study is needed to determine if these measures can provide any insight into the effects of bed rest, or spaceflight, on human cardiovascular performance.

  15. Characterization of optimal resting tension in human pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Azar; Bennett, Robert T; Chaudhry, Mubarak A; Qadri, Syed S; Cowen, Mike; Morice, Alyn H; Loubani, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the optimum resting tension (ORT) for in vitro human pulmonary artery (PA) ring preparations. METHODS Pulmonary arteries were dissected from disease free sections of the resected lung in the operating theatre and tissue samples were directly sent to the laboratory in Krebs-Henseleit solution (Krebs). The pulmonary arteries were then cut into 2 mm long rings. PA rings were mounted in 25 mL organ baths or 8 mL myograph chambers containing Krebs compound (37 °C, bubbled with 21% O2: 5% CO2) to measure changes in isometric tension. The resting tension was set at 1-gram force (gf) with vessels being left static to equilibrate for duration of one hour. Baseline contractile reactions to 40 mmol/L KCl were obtained from a resting tension of 1 gf. Contractile reactions to 40 mmol/L KCl were then obtained from stepwise increases in resting tension (1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 gf). RESULTS Twenty PA rings of internal diameter between 2-4 mm were prepared from 4 patients. In human PA rings incrementing the tension during rest stance by 0.6 gf, up to 1.6 gf significantly augmented the 40 mmol/L KCl stimulated tension. Further enhancement of active tension by 0.4 gf, up to 2.0 gf mitigate the 40 mmol/L KCl stimulated reaction. Both Myograph and the organ bath demonstrated identical conclusions, supporting that the radial optimal resting tension for human PA ring was 1.61 g. CONCLUSION The radial optimal resting tension in our experiment is 1.61 gf (15.78 mN) for human PA rings. PMID:27721938

  16. Resting Heart Rate Variability Among Professional Baseball Starting Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Cornell, David J; Paxson, Jeffrey L; Caplinger, Roger A; Seligman, Joshua R; Davis, Nicholas A; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2017-03-01

    Cornell, DJ, Paxson, JL, Caplinger, RA, Seligman, JR, Davis, NA, and Ebersole, KT. Resting heart rate variability among professional baseball starting pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 575-581, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in resting heart rate variability (HRV) across a 5-day pitching rotation schedule among professional baseball starting pitchers. The HRV data were collected daily among 8 Single-A level professional baseball starting pitchers (mean ± SD, age = 21.9 ± 1.3 years; height = 185.4 ± 3.6 cm; weight = 85.2 ± 7.5 kg) throughout the entire baseball season with the participant quietly lying supine for 10 minutes. The HRV was quantified by calculating the natural log of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences (lnRMSSD) during the middle 5 minutes of each R-R series data file. A split-plot repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the influence of pitching rotation day on resting lnRMSSD. A statistically significant main effect of rotation day was identified (F4,706 = 3.139, p = 0.029). Follow-up pairwise analyses indicated that resting lnRMSSD on day 2 was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than all other rotation days. In addition, a statistically significant main effect of pitcher was also identified (F7,706 = 83.388, p < 0.001). These results suggest that professional baseball starting pitchers display altered autonomic nervous system function 1 day after completing a normally scheduled start, as day 2 resting HRV was significantly lower than all other rotation days. In addition, the season average resting lnRMSSD varied among participants, implying that single-subject analysis of resting measures of HRV may be more appropriate when monitoring cumulative workload among this cohort population of athletes.

  17. Blood volume responses of men and women to bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, S. M.; Turner, C.; Steinmann, L.; Driscoll, T.; Alfrey, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews a series of studies that indicate that estrogens play an important role in blood volume regulation. The first study illustrates that the plasma volume (PV) of ambulatory women fluctuates during the menstrual cycle, increasing during periods of elevated estrogens. In the second study, it was shown that exogenous and endogenous elevations in blood estrogens attenuate the decrease in PV during bed rest. In the third study, the hypothesis was tested that women, who naturally have a higher blood estrogen content compared with men, will have a smaller loss of PV during bed rest. Ten men and ten women underwent a 13-day, 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Plasma volume and red cell mass (RCM) were measured before and after bed rest using 125I and 51Cr labeling, respectively. Before bed rest, the men and women had similar blood volume (BV) and PV (mL/kg body weight), but the women had a smaller (P < .01) RCM (22.2 +/- 0.9 versus 26.2 +/- 0.8 mL/kg, mean +/- SE). During bed rest, the decrease in RCM (mL/kg) was similar in men and women. However, the decrease in BV was greater in men (8.0 +/- 0.8 mL/kg versus 5.8 +/- 0.8 mL/kg), because of a greater reduction in PV (6.3 +/- 0.6 mL/kg versus 4.1 +/- 0.6 mL/kg). Because the decline in BV has been proposed to contribute to the cardiovascular deconditioning after bed rest, it is possible that women may experience less cardiac and circulatory strain on reambulation.

  18. Feasibility Study of a Lunar Analog Bed Rest Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Platts, Steven H.; Yarbough, Patrice; Buccello-Stout, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The lunar analog bed rest model utilized a modified hospital bed. The modifications included mounting the mattress on a sled that rolled on bearings to provide freedom of movement. The weight of the sled was off-loaded using a counterweight system to insure that 1/6 body weight was applied along the long axis (z-axis) of the body. Force was verified through use of a force plate mounted at the foot of the bed. A seating assembly was added to the bed to permit periods of sitting. Subjects alternated between standing and sitting positions throughout the day. A total of 35% of the day was spent in the standing position and 65% was spent sitting. In an effort to achieve physiologic fluid shifts expected for a 1/6 G environment, subjects wore compression stockings and performed unloaded foot and ankle exercises. Eight subjects (3 females and 5 males) participated in this study. Subjects spent 13 days in the pre-bed rest phase, 6 days in bed rest and 3 days post bed rest. Subjects consumed a standardized diet throughout the study. To determine feasibility, measures of subject comfort, force and plasma volume were collected. Subject comfort was assessed using a Likert scale. Subjects were asked to assess level of comfort (0-100) for 11 body regions and provide an overall rating. Results indicated minimal to no discomfort as most subjects reported scores of zero. Force measures were performed for each standing position and were validated against subject s calculated 1/6 body weight (r(sup 2) = 0.993). The carbon monoxide rebreathing technique was used to assess plasma volume during pre-bed rest and on the last day of bed rest. Plasma volume results indicated a significant decrease (p = 0.001) from pre to post bed rest values. Subjects lost on average 8.3% (sd = 6.1%) during the

  19. Effects of eugenol on resting tension of rat atria.

    PubMed

    Olivoto, R R; Damiani, C E N; Kassouf Silva, I; Lofrano-Alves, M S; Oliveira, M A; Fogaça, R T H

    2014-04-01

    In cardiac and skeletal muscle, eugenol (μM range) blocks excitation-contraction coupling. In skeletal muscle, however, larger doses of eugenol (mM range) induce calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The effects of eugenol are therefore dependent on its concentration. In this study, we evaluated the effects of eugenol on the contractility of isolated, quiescent atrial trabeculae from male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=131) and measured atrial ATP content. Eugenol (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 mM) increased resting tension in a dose-dependent manner. Ryanodine [100 µM; a specific ryanodine receptor (RyR) blocker] and procaine (30 mM; a nonspecific RyR blocker) did not block the increased resting tension induced by eugenol regardless of whether extracellular calcium was present. The myosin-specific inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), however, reversed the increase in resting tension induced by eugenol. In Triton-skinned atrial trabeculae, in which all membranes were solubilized, eugenol did not change resting tension, maximum force produced, or the force vs pCa relationship (pCa=-log [Ca2+]). Given that eugenol reduced ATP concentration, the increase in resting tension observed in this study may have resulted from cooperative activation of cardiac thin filaments by strongly attached cross-bridges (rigor state).

  20. Resting metabolic rate varies by race and by sleep duration

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2015-01-01

    Objective Short sleep duration is a significant risk factor for weight gain, particularly in African Americans and men. Increased caloric intake underlies this relationship but it remains unclear whether decreased energy expenditure is a contributory factor. The current study assessed the impact of sleep restriction and recovery sleep on energy expenditure in African American and Caucasian men and women. Methods Healthy adults participated in a controlled laboratory study. After two baseline sleep nights, subjects were randomized to an experimental (n=36; 4h sleep/night for 5 nights followed by 1 night 12h recovery sleep) or control condition (n=11; 10h sleep/night). Resting metabolic rate and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry in the morning after overnight fasting. Results Resting metabolic rate—the largest component of energy expenditure—decreased after sleep restriction (−2.6%, p=0.032) and returned to baseline levels after recovery sleep. No changes in resting metabolic rate were observed in control subjects. Relative to Caucasians (n=14), African Americans (n=22) exhibited comparable daily caloric intake but a lower resting metabolic rate (p=0.043) and higher respiratory quotient (p=0.013) regardless of sleep duration. Conclusions Sleep restriction decreased morning resting metabolic rate in healthy adults, suggesting that sleep loss leads to metabolic changes aimed at conserving energy. PMID:26538305

  1. The REST remodeling complex protects genomic integrity during embryonic neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nechiporuk, Tamilla; McGann, James; Mullendorff, Karin; Hsieh, Jenny; Wurst, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas; Mandel, Gail

    2016-01-01

    The timely transition from neural progenitor to post-mitotic neuron requires down-regulation and loss of the neuronal transcriptional repressor, REST. Here, we have used mice containing a gene trap in the Rest gene, eliminating transcription from all coding exons, to remove REST prematurely from neural progenitors. We find that catastrophic DNA damage occurs during S-phase of the cell cycle, with long-term consequences including abnormal chromosome separation, apoptosis, and smaller brains. Persistent effects are evident by latent appearance of proneural glioblastoma in adult mice deleted additionally for the tumor suppressor p53 protein (p53). A previous line of mice deleted for REST in progenitors by conventional gene targeting does not exhibit these phenotypes, likely due to a remaining C-terminal peptide that still binds chromatin and recruits co-repressors. Our results suggest that REST-mediated chromatin remodeling is required in neural progenitors for proper S-phase dynamics, as part of its well-established role in repressing neuronal genes until terminal differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09584.001 PMID:26745185

  2. Line bisection task performance and resting EEG alpha power.

    PubMed

    Ciçek, Metehan; Nalçaci, Erhan; Kalaycioglu, Canan

    2003-06-01

    Neurologically normal subjects generally err to the left of veridical center when performing a line bisection task, a phenomenon termed "pseudoneglect." We hypothesized that resting electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha oscillations may show relationships with attentional mechanisms and give some clues about the underlying mechanisms of pseudoneglect. We recorded resting EEGs of 41 subjects and tested them with a paper-pencil line bisection task. Our results showed that line bisection scores of men (n=18) were less biased and their performance was higher compared to those of women (n=20), but these differences only approached significance. The eyes open resting EEG alpha power of women was significantly and positively correlated with their line bisection performance. In general, significant relationships were related to the left hand performance when the lines were presented in the left hemispace. Greater resting alpha power was correlated with lower absolute bisection score or, in other words, higher bisection performance. Greater alpha power also correlated with diminished leftward bisection bias (or reduced pseudo-neglect). The resting EEG alpha of men was weakly associated with bisection performance. Results discussed in terms of Kinsbourne's activation-orientation theory and Basar's view on brain oscillations.

  3. Non-Coding RNAs in Neural Networks, REST-Assured

    PubMed Central

    Rossbach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the nervous system, several key steps in cellular complexity and development are regulated by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor (REST/NRSF). REST recruits gene regulatory complexes to regulatory sequences, among them the repressor element-1/neuron-restrictive silencer element, and mediates developmental stage-specific gene expression or repression, chromatin (re-)organization or silencing for protein-coding genes as well as for several ncRNAs like microRNAs, short interfering RNAs or long ncRNAs. NcRNAs are far from being just transcriptional noise and are involved in chromatin accessibility, transcription and post-transcriptional processing, trafficking, or RNA editing. REST and its cofactor CoREST are both highly regulated through various ncRNAs. The importance of the correct regulation within the ncRNA network, the ncRNAome, is demonstrated when it comes to a deregulation of REST and/or ncRNAs associated with molecular pathophysiology underlying diverse disorders including neurodegenerative diseases or brain tumors. PMID:22303307

  4. The Effect of CardioWaves Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure, Resting Heart Rate, and Mind-Body Wellness

    PubMed Central

    NIELSON, CAMILLA M.; LOCKHART, BARBARA D.; HAGER, RONALD L.; GEORGE, JAMES D.; EGGETT, DENNIS L.; STEFFEN, PATRICK R.; MITCHELL, ULRIKE H.; BAILEY, BRUCE W.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study to examine the effects of CardioWaves interval training (CWIT) and continuous training (CT) on resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness. Fifty-two normotensive (blood pressure <120/80 mmHg), pre-hypertensive (120–139/80–89 mmHg), and hypertensive (>140/90 mmHg) participants were randomly assigned and equally divided between the CWIT and CT groups. Both groups participated in the assigned exercise protocol 30 minutes per day, four days per week for eight weeks. Resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness were measured pre- and post-intervention. A total of 47 participants (15 females and 32 males) were included in the analysis. The CWIT group had a non-significant trend of reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) while the CT group had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.01) and total SBP (p = 0.01) and a non-significant decrease in DBP. With both groups combined, the female participants had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.002), asleep SBP (p = 0.01), total SBP (p = 0.003), awake DBP (p = 0.02), and total DBP (p = 0.05). The male participants had an increase in SBP and DBP with total DBP showing a statistically significant increase (p = 0.05). Neither group had a consistent change in resting heart rate. Both groups showed improved mind-body wellness. CWIT and CT reduced resting blood pressure, with CT having a greater effect. Resting heart rate did not change in either group. Additionally, both CWIT and CT improved mind-body wellness. PMID:27182421

  5. The Effect of CardioWaves Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure, Resting Heart Rate, and Mind-Body Wellness.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Camilla M; Lockhart, Barbara D; Hager, Ronald L; George, James D; Eggett, Dennis L; Steffen, Patrick R; Mitchell, Ulrike H; Bailey, Bruce W

    An experimental study to examine the effects of CardioWaves interval training (CWIT) and continuous training (CT) on resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness. Fifty-two normotensive (blood pressure <120/80 mmHg), pre-hypertensive (120-139/80-89 mmHg), and hypertensive (>140/90 mmHg) participants were randomly assigned and equally divided between the CWIT and CT groups. Both groups participated in the assigned exercise protocol 30 minutes per day, four days per week for eight weeks. Resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness were measured pre- and post-intervention. A total of 47 participants (15 females and 32 males) were included in the analysis. The CWIT group had a non-significant trend of reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) while the CT group had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.01) and total SBP (p = 0.01) and a non-significant decrease in DBP. With both groups combined, the female participants had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.002), asleep SBP (p = 0.01), total SBP (p = 0.003), awake DBP (p = 0.02), and total DBP (p = 0.05). The male participants had an increase in SBP and DBP with total DBP showing a statistically significant increase (p = 0.05). Neither group had a consistent change in resting heart rate. Both groups showed improved mind-body wellness. CWIT and CT reduced resting blood pressure, with CT having a greater effect. Resting heart rate did not change in either group. Additionally, both CWIT and CT improved mind-body wellness.

  6. Physiological responses of women to simulated weightlessness: A review of the first female bed-rest study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.; Winter, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Subjects were exposed to centrifugation, to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), and to exericse stress both before and after bed rest. Areas studied were centrifugation tolerance, fluid electrolyte changes and hematology, tolerance to LBNP, physical working capacity, biochemistries, blood fibrinolytic activity, female metabolic and hormonal responses, circadian alterations, and gynecology. Results were compared with the responses observed in similarly bed-rested male subjects. The bed-rested females showed deconditioning responses similar to those of the males, although with some differences. Results indicate that women are capable of coping with exposure to weightlessness and, moreover, that they may be more sensitive subjects for evaluating countermeasures to weightlessness and developing criteria for assessing applicants for shuttle voyages.

  7. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Huan; Gao, Zhangfeng; Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng; Li, Zhi

    2015-08-07

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST.

  8. Effect of tolperisone on the resting brain and on evoked responses, an phMRI BOLD study.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Pál; Gajári, Dávid; Deli, Levente; Gőcze, Krisztina Zsedrovitsné; Pozsgay, Zsófia; Tihanyi, Károly

    2013-10-01

    Tolperisone is a voltage gated sodium channel blocker, centrally acting muscle relaxant drug, with a very advantageous side effect profile. Like other sodium channel blockers, it has weak affinity to the resting state and high affinity to the open/inactivated state of the channel. In this paper, its effect on BOLD responses in rat brain were elucidated both on the resting brain and paw stimulation evoked BOLD responses. Tolperisone did not exert any visible effect on resting brain, but strongly inhibited the paw stimulation evoked BOLD responses, showing somewhat higher efficacy in brain areas involved in pain sensation. This finding is in a good agreement with its sodium channel blocking profile. In the resting brain, most of the channels are in resting state. Electric train stimuli of the paw results in over activated neurons, where most sodium channels are in open or inactivated state. These data suggest that the very advantageous profile of tolperisone can be explained by its selective action on open or inactivated sodium channels of over-activated neurons in various brain regions rather than by a selective effect in the spinal cord as suggested previously.

  9. Atypical laterality of resting gamma oscillations in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Christina R; Villalobos, Michele E; Schultz, Robert T; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age and intelligence quotient matched typically developing controls. We found a decrease in resting gamma power at right lateral electrodes in ASD. We further explored associations between gamma and ASD severity as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and found a negative correlation between SRS and gamma power. We believe that our findings give further support of gamma oscillations as a potential biomarker for ASD.

  10. Thyroid and adrenal cortical rhythmicity during bed rest.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Leach, C. S.; Winget, C. M.; Rambaut, P. C.; Mack, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of prolonged bed rest on adrenocortical and thyroid function were assessed in eight healthy males, aged 20-40 years, who were submitted to bed rest for 56 days on a 14L:10D regimen (lights-on, 9:00 AM). Four of these subjects exercised three times daily throughout the experiment. Circulating cortisol, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine, concentrations were determined in blood samples drawn at four hourly intervals for 48-hr periods before, 10, 20, 30, 42, and 54 days during, and 10 days post-bed rest. Significant fluctuations in the circulating levels of all three hormones occurred with peaks at 7:30 AM. The suggestion is advanced that thyroid rhythms may be posture dependent.

  11. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional networks in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Rau, Chi-Lun; Li, Yu-Mei; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus plays a key role in filtering or gating information and has extensive interconnectivity with other brain regions. Recent studies provide evidence of thalamus abnormality in schizophrenia, but the resting functional networks of the thalamus in schizophrenia is still unclear. We characterize the thalamic resting-state networks (RSNs) in 72 patients with schizophrenia and 73 healthy controls, using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation. In comparison with controls, patients exhibited enhance thalamic connectivity with bilateral precentral gyrus, dorsal medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and lingual gyrus. Reduced thalamic connectivity in schizophrenia was found in bilateral superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingualte cortex, inferior parietal lobe, and cerebellum. Our findings question the “disconnectivity model” of schizophrenia by showing the over-connected thalamic network during resting state in schizophrenia and highlight the thalamus as a key hub in the schizophrenic network abnormality. PMID:25762911

  12. Resting-state functional connectivity of the default mode network associated with happiness.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yangmei; Kong, Feng; Qi, Senqing; You, Xuqun; Huang, Xiting

    2016-03-01

    Happiness refers to people's cognitive and affective evaluation of their life. Why are some people happier than others? One reason might be that unhappy people are prone to ruminate more than happy people. The default mode network (DMN) is normally active during rest and is implicated in rumination. We hypothesized that unhappiness may be associated with increased default-mode functional connectivity during rest, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The hyperconnectivity of these areas may be associated with higher levels of rumination. One hundred forty-eight healthy participants underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. A group-independent component analysis identified the DMNs. Results indicated increased functional connectivity in the DMN was associated with lower levels of happiness. Specifically, relative to happy people, unhappy people exhibited greater functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex (bilateral MPFC), posterior medial cortex regions (bilateral PCC) and posterior parietal cortex (left IPL). Moreover, the increased functional connectivity of the MPFC, PCC and IPL, correlated positively with the inclination to ruminate. These results highlight the important role of the DMN in the neural correlates of happiness, and suggest that rumination may play an important role in people's perceived happiness.

  13. Effects of multitasking-training on gray matter structure and resting state neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-01

    Multitasking (MT) constitutes engaging in two or more cognitive activities at the same time. MT-training improves performance on untrained MT tasks and alters the functional activity of the brain during MT. However, the effects of MT-training on neural mechanisms beyond MT-related functions are not known. We investigated the effects of 4 weeks of MT-training on regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and functional connectivity during rest (resting-FC) in young human adults. MT-training was associated with increased rGMV in three prefrontal cortical regions (left lateral rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and left inferior frontal junction), the left posterior parietal cortex, and the left temporal and lateral occipital areas as well as decreased resting-FC between the right DLPFC and an anatomical cluster around the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our findings suggest that participation in MT-training is as a whole associated with task-irrelevant plasticity (i.e., neural changes are not limited to certain specific task conditions) in regions and the network that are assumed to play roles in MT as well as diverse higher-order cognitive functions. We could not dissociate the effects of each task component and the diverse cognitive processes involved in MT because of the nature of the study, and these remain to be investigated.

  14. Electrical impedance measurements in the arm and the leg during a thirty day bed rest study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardus, David; Jaweed, Mazher; McTaggart, Wesley

    1995-01-01

    The need to detect, follow, and understand the effects of gravity on body fluid distribution is a constant stimulus to the quest for new techniques in this area of research. One of these techniques is electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). Although not new, this is a technique whose applications to biomedical research are fairly recent. What is new is the development of instrumentation that has made practical the use of impedance spectroscopy in the biomedical setting, particularly in studies involving human subjects. The purpose of this paper is to report impedance spectroscopy observations made on a subject who was submitted to bed rest for a period of thirty days. These observations were made as part of a study on muscle atrophy during a thirty day head down bed rest. Since bed rest studies are very costly in human and financial terms, and technically difficult to realize, we felt that even though the present study deals only with a single case it was worthy of reporting because it illustrates kinds of questions impedance spectroscopy may help to answer in microgravity research.

  15. EEG Resting-State Brain Topological Reorganization as a Function of Age.

    PubMed

    Petti, Manuela; Toppi, Jlenia; Babiloni, Fabio; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Astolfi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Resting state connectivity has been increasingly studied to investigate the effects of aging on the brain. A reduced organization in the communication between brain areas was demonstrated by combining a variety of different imaging technologies (fMRI, EEG, and MEG) and graph theory. In this paper, we propose a methodology to get new insights into resting state connectivity and its variations with age, by combining advanced techniques of effective connectivity estimation, graph theoretical approach, and classification by SVM method. We analyzed high density EEG signals recorded at rest from 71 healthy subjects (age: 20-63 years). Weighted and directed connectivity was computed by means of Partial Directed Coherence based on a General Linear Kalman filter approach. To keep the information collected by the estimator, weighted and directed graph indices were extracted from the resulting networks. A relation between brain network properties and age of the subject was found, indicating a tendency of the network to randomly organize increasing with age. This result is also confirmed dividing the whole population into two subgroups according to the age (young and middle-aged adults): significant differences exist in terms of network organization measures. Classification of the subjects by means of such indices returns an accuracy greater than 80%.

  16. Resting-State Time-Varying Analysis Reveals Aberrant Variations of Functional Connectivity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Xie, Yuanwei; Zheng, Fang; Liu, Guangyao; Chen, Xuejiao; Zheng, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies based on time-varying functional connectivity have unveiled brain states diversity in some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. However, time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have been rarely performed on the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Hence, we performed time-varying connectivity analysis on resting-state fMRI data to investigate brain states mutation in ASD children. ASD showed an imbalance of connectivity state and aberrant ratio of connectivity with different strengths in the whole brain network, and decreased connectivity associated precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus with medial prefrontal gyrus in default mode network. As compared to typical development children, weak relevance condition (the strength of a large number of connectivities in the state was less than means minus standard deviation of all connection strength) was maintained for a longer time between brain areas of ASD children, and ratios of weak connectivity in brain states varied dramatically in the ASD. In the ASD, the abnormal brain state might be related to repetitive behaviors and stereotypical interests, and macroscopically reflect disruption of gamma-aminobutyric acid at the cellular level. The detection of brain states based on time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI might be conducive for diagnosis and early intervention of ASD before obvious clinical symptoms. PMID:27695408

  17. Resting State fMRI Functional Connectivity Analysis Using Dynamic Time Warping

    PubMed Central

    Meszlényi, Regina J.; Hermann, Petra; Buza, Krisztian; Gál, Viktor; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Traditional resting-state network concept is based on calculating linear dependence of spontaneous low frequency fluctuations of the BOLD signals of different brain areas, which assumes temporally stable zero-lag synchrony across regions. However, growing amount of experimental findings suggest that functional connectivity exhibits dynamic changes and a complex time-lag structure, which cannot be captured by the static zero-lag correlation analysis. Here we propose a new approach applying Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance to evaluate functional connectivity strength that accounts for non-stationarity and phase-lags between the observed signals. Using simulated fMRI data we found that DTW captures dynamic interactions and it is less sensitive to linearly combined global noise in the data as compared to traditional correlation analysis. We tested our method using resting-state fMRI data from repeated measurements of an individual subject and showed that DTW analysis results in more stable connectivity patterns by reducing the within-subject variability and increasing robustness for preprocessing strategies. Classification results on a public dataset revealed a superior sensitivity of the DTW analysis to group differences by showing that DTW based classifiers outperform the zero-lag correlation and maximal lag cross-correlation based classifiers significantly. Our findings suggest that analysing resting-state functional connectivity using DTW provides an efficient new way for characterizing functional networks. PMID:28261052

  18. Resting-state functional connectivity of the default mode network associated with happiness

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yangmei; Kong, Feng; Qi, Senqing; You, Xuqun

    2016-01-01

    Happiness refers to people’s cognitive and affective evaluation of their life. Why are some people happier than others? One reason might be that unhappy people are prone to ruminate more than happy people. The default mode network (DMN) is normally active during rest and is implicated in rumination. We hypothesized that unhappiness may be associated with increased default-mode functional connectivity during rest, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The hyperconnectivity of these areas may be associated with higher levels of rumination. One hundred forty-eight healthy participants underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. A group-independent component analysis identified the DMNs. Results indicated increased functional connectivity in the DMN was associated with lower levels of happiness. Specifically, relative to happy people, unhappy people exhibited greater functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex (bilateral MPFC), posterior medial cortex regions (bilateral PCC) and posterior parietal cortex (left IPL). Moreover, the increased functional connectivity of the MPFC, PCC and IPL, correlated positively with the inclination to ruminate. These results highlight the important role of the DMN in the neural correlates of happiness, and suggest that rumination may play an important role in people’s perceived happiness. PMID:26500289

  19. Resting states affect spontaneous BOLD oscillations in sensory and paralimbic cortex.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Mark; Larson-Prior, Linda; Nolan, Tracy S; Vaishnavi, S Neil; Raichle, Marcus E; d'Avossa, Giovanni

    2008-08-01

    The brain exhibits spontaneous neural activity that depends on the behavioral state of the organism. We asked whether the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal reflects these modulations. BOLD was measured under three steady-state conditions: while subjects kept their eyes closed, kept their eyes open, or while fixating. The BOLD spectral density was calculated across brain voxels and subjects. Visual, sensory-motor, auditory, and retrosplenial cortex showed modulations of the BOLD spectral density by resting state type. All modulated regions showed greater spontaneous BOLD oscillations in the eyes closed than the eyes open or fixation conditions, suggesting that the differences were endogenously driven. Next, we examined the pattern of correlations between regions whose ongoing BOLD signal was modulated by resting state type. Regional neuronal correlations were estimated using an analytic procedure from the comparison of BOLD-BOLD covariances in the fixation and eyes closed conditions. Most regions were highly correlated with one another, with the exception of the primary visual cortices, which showed low correlations with the other regions. In conclusion, changes in resting state were associated with synchronous modulations of spontaneous BOLD oscillations in cortical sensory areas driven by two spatially overlapping, but temporally uncorrelated signals.

  20. Resting-State Time-Varying Analysis Reveals Aberrant Variations of Functional Connectivity in Autism.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Xie, Yuanwei; Zheng, Fang; Liu, Guangyao; Chen, Xuejiao; Zheng, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies based on time-varying functional connectivity have unveiled brain states diversity in some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. However, time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have been rarely performed on the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Hence, we performed time-varying connectivity analysis on resting-state fMRI data to investigate brain states mutation in ASD children. ASD showed an imbalance of connectivity state and aberrant ratio of connectivity with different strengths in the whole brain network, and decreased connectivity associated precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus with medial prefrontal gyrus in default mode network. As compared to typical development children, weak relevance condition (the strength of a large number of connectivities in the state was less than means minus standard deviation of all connection strength) was maintained for a longer time between brain areas of ASD children, and ratios of weak connectivity in brain states varied dramatically in the ASD. In the ASD, the abnormal brain state might be related to repetitive behaviors and stereotypical interests, and macroscopically reflect disruption of gamma-aminobutyric acid at the cellular level. The detection of brain states based on time-varying functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI might be conducive for diagnosis and early intervention of ASD before obvious clinical symptoms.