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Sample records for robot-driven gait orthosis

  1. Effects of robot-driven gait orthosis treadmill training on the autonomic response in rehabilitation-responsive stroke and cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Magagnin, Valentina; Bo, Ivano; Turiel, Maurizio; Fornari, Maurizio; Caiani, Enrico G; Porta, Alberto

    2010-06-01

    Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) assisted with a robotic-driven gait orthosis is utilized in rehabilitation of individuals with lost motor skills. A typical rehabilitation session included: sitting, standing, suspension, robotic-assisted walking at 1.5 and 2.5km/h, respectively with 50% body weight support and recovery. While the effects of robotic-assisted BWSTT on motor performances were deeply studied, the influences on the cardiovascular control are still unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate in stroke (ST) and cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients: (1) the autonomic response during a traditional robotic-assisted BWSTT session of motor rehabilitation; (2) the effects of 30 daily sessions of BWSTT on cardiovascular regulation. The autonomic response was assessed through symbolic analysis of short-term heart rate variability in 11 pathologic subjects (5 ST and 6 CSM patients) whose motor skills were improved as a result of the rehabilitation therapy. Results showed variable individual responses to the rehabilitation session in ST patients at the beginning of the therapy. At the end of the rehabilitation process, the responses of ST patients were less variable and more similar to those previously observed in healthy subjects. CSM patients exhibited an exaggerated vagal response to the fastest walking phase during the first rehabilitative session. This abnormal response was limited after the last rehabilitative session. We conclude that robotic-assisted BWSTT is helpful in restoring cardiovascular control in rehabilitation-responsive ST patients and limiting vagal responses in rehabilitation-responsive CSM patients.

  2. Adaptive impedance control of a robotic orthosis for gait rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahid; Xie, Sheng Q; Jamwal, Prashant K

    2013-06-01

    Intervention of robotic devices in the field of physical gait therapy can help in providing repetitive, systematic, and economically viable training sessions. Interactive or assist-as-needed (AAN) gait training encourages patient voluntary participation in the robotic gait training process which may aid in rapid motor function recovery. In this paper, a lightweight robotic gait training orthosis with two actuated and four passive degrees of freedom (DOFs) is proposed. The actuated DOFs were powered by pneumatic muscle actuators. An AAN gait training paradigm based on adaptive impedance control was developed to provide interactive robotic gait training. The proposed adaptive impedance control scheme adapts the robotic assistance according to the disability level and voluntary participation of human subjects. The robotic orthosis was operated in two gait training modes, namely, inactive mode and active mode, to evaluate the performance of the proposed control scheme. The adaptive impedance control scheme was evaluated on ten neurologically intact subjects. The experimental results demonstrate that an increase in voluntary participation of human subjects resulted in a decrease of the robotic assistance and vice versa. Further clinical evaluations with neurologically impaired subjects are required to establish the therapeutic efficacy of the adaptive-impedance-control-based AAN gait training strategy.

  3. Pneumatic interactive gait rehabilitation orthosis: design and preliminary testing.

    PubMed

    Belforte, G; Eula, G; Appendino, S; Sirolli, S

    2011-02-01

    Motor rehabilitation techniques based on passive movement of the lower limbs have been developed over the past 15 years. Gait training automation is the latest innovation in these techniques. This paper describes the design and development of a pneumatic interactive gait rehabilitation orthosis (PIGRO), as well as the first experimental results obtained with healthy subjects. PIGRO consists of a modular and size-adaptable exoskeleton, pneumatic actuation systems for the six actuated degrees of freedom (DoF), and a control unit. The foot orthosis and ankle actuation can be removed and/or replaced with orthopaedic shoes so as to permit gait rehabilitation while advancing between parallel bars with ground contact and partial body weight support (i.e. not walking in place). Control logic provides closed-loop position control independently on each joint, with position feedback for each joint in real time. Imposed curves are physiological joint angles: it is also possible to choose between activating one or both legs and to modify curves to obtain different gait patterns if required. The paper concludes with a presentation of experimental results for the device's performance.

  4. Gait generation for powered Hip-Ankle-Linkage-Orthosis.

    PubMed

    Jaeryoung Lee; Mizumoto, Ryota; Obinata, Goro; Genda, Eiichi; Stefanov, Dimitar; Aoki, Hirofumi; Yanling Pei

    2015-08-01

    A hip-knee-ankle-foot orthotic system called `HALO'(Hip and Ankle Linked Orthosis) for paraplegic walking has been developed in our previous study. Each ankle joint of the HALO system is linked with a medial single joint via a wire which allows both feet of the orthosis to stay always parallel to the floor during walking and assists swinging the leg. The tests of the HALO system demonstrated that it allows smoother walking and easy don/doff. In order to improve further the characteristics of the previous design, we started a new project called pHALO aiming at further reducing of the energy expenditure during walking. As a difference from the previous solution where ankle joints were restrained, the new solution will incorporate two actuators to control the ankle joints angles. As an intermediate step from the development of the pHALO system, in this study we added to the existing system a feedback PI controller to control the ankle joint angle of the right foot in the push-off phase and conducted an experiment to evaluate the effect of the new design on the walking patterns and energy efficiency. The results showed longer stride length, faster gait speed, smaller variation of the CoG, and less energy consumption.

  5. Ergonomy of paraplegic patients working with a reciprocating gait orthosis.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, M; Canale, I; Felici, F; Macaluso, A; Marchettoni, P; Sproviero, E

    1995-08-01

    A reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO) is, among others, the most widely adopted device to restore the standing and walking capability of paraplegic patients. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the energy demand (VO2), and cardiopulmonary load (HR and VE) imposed on the subject by different working tasks while sitting in a wheelchair or standing using a RGO. In addition, a comparison with the performance of normal subjects was also attempted. The RGO use allowed a dramatic improvement of patients' mobility and reach space in the workplace. A further advantage provided by the use of the RGO was represented by the increased mobility of the subjects with respect to the wheelchair confined situation. The energy demand and the cardiorespiratory load imposed on the subjects by the use of the RGO were not different from those observed both in the same subjects sitting in a wheelchair and in the controls. The energy demand slightly exceeded the values typical of light work and was, thus, compatible with the normal duration of a working day. On the other hand, the cardiac load corresponded to that typical of moderate activity, thus limiting the duration of the working task to 5-8 h. Based on the ergometry test, all of the working activities considered can be classified as aerobic activities, energy demand being under the ventilatory threshold.

  6. Design and simulation of a pneumatic, stored-energy, hybrid orthosis for gait restoration.

    PubMed

    Durfee, William K; Rivard, Adam

    2005-11-01

    Loss of mobility due to lower limb paralysis is a common result of thoracic level spinal cord injury. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore primitive gait in the vicinity of a wheelchair by using electrical stimulation to generate muscle contractions. A new concept for FES-assisted gait is presented that combines electrical stimulation with an orthosis that contains a fluid power system to store and transfer energy during the gait cycle. The energy storage orthosis (ESO) can be driven through a complete gait cycle using only stimulation of the quadriceps muscles. The conceptual design of the ESO was completed and implemented in a dynamic simulation model and in a benchtop prototype for engineering measurements. No studies were conducted with human subjects. The results demonstrate the potential of the ESO concept for a feasible gait-assist system and the validity of the simulation model as a means for designing the system.

  7. Engineering evaluation of the energy-storing orthosis FES gait system.

    PubMed

    Kangude, Abhijit; Burgstahler, Brett; Durfee, William

    2010-01-01

    A system to restore walking in the vicinity of a wheelchair for people with paraplegia resulting from spinal cord injury is under development. The approach combines single channel surface electrical stimulation with an orthosis. The orthosis is spring loaded and contains a pneumatic system that stores energy during knee extension caused by quadriceps stimulation and transfers it to hip joint for hip extension. A laboratory version of the prototype of the gait system has been fabricated and engineering bench tests were performed. The paper presents the design of the wearable prototype and results of bench testing.

  8. Single channel hybrid FES gait system using an energy storing orthosis: preliminary design.

    PubMed

    Kangude, Abhijit; Burgstahler, Brett; Kakastys, Jesse; Durfee, William

    2009-01-01

    A new system for paraplegic gait by electrical stimulation is presented. The system combines electrical stimulation of the paralyzed quadriceps muscle with a hip-knee orthosis. The orthosis is spring-loaded and contains pneumatic components that store and transfer the energy from knee extension caused by quadriceps stimulation to a pneumatic actuator that drives hip motion. In this manner, cyclic hip and knee motion with arbitrary timing can be achieved using a single channel of surface stimulation. Previous work developed a dynamic model and bench top prototype of the energy storing system. Simulation and design prototypes are presented with the eventual goal of developing a wearable version of the complete gait system.

  9. The Effects of Foot Orthosis on the Gait Ability of College Students in Their 20s with Flat Feet

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyo Chul; Park, Kwang Yong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of foot orthosis on the gait ability of college students in their 20s with flat feet. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 college students who had been diagnosed with flat feet. The subjects’ step time, step length, stride time, stride length, and gait velocity were measured using the VICON Motion System (Vicon, Oxford, UK) prior to and while wearing foot orthoses. The resulting data were analyzed using SPSS v. 12.0. [Results] The subject’s step time and stride time significantly decreased for both feet after they began using foot orthosis, and stride length and gait velocity significantly increased in both feet orthosis; however, step length did not significantly increase on either side. [Conclusions] College students with flat feet saw an improvement in elements of their gait while using the foot orthosis. The results of this study verified that students with flat feet might walk more efficiently if they received active gait training via long-term use of foot orthosis. PMID:25364114

  10. Performance of spinal cord injury individuals while standing with the Mohammad Taghi Karimi reciprocal gait orthosis (MTK-RGO).

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Amiri, Pouya; Esrafilian, Amir; Sedigh, Jafar; Fatoye, Francis

    2013-03-01

    Most patients with spinal cord injury use a wheelchair to transfer from place to place, however they need to stand and walk with orthosis to improve their health status. Although many orthoses have been designed for paraplegic patients, they have experienced various problems while in use. A new type of reciprocal gait orthosis was designed in the Bioengineering Unit of Strathclyde University to solve the problems of the available orthoses. Since there was no research undertaken regarding testing of the new orthosis on paraplegic subjects, this study was aimed to evaluate the new orthosis during standing of paraplegic subjects. Five paraplegic patients with lesion level between T12 and L1 and aged matched normal subjects were recruited into this study. The stability of subjects was evaluated during quiet standing and while undertaking hand tasks during standing with the new orthosis and the knee ankle foot orthosis (KAFO). The difference between the performances of paraplegic subjects while standing with both orthoses, and between the function of normal and paraplegic subjects were compared using the paired t test and independent sample t test, respectively. The stability of paraplegic subjects in standing with the new orthosis was better than that of the KAFO orthosis (p < 0.05). Moreover, the force applied on the crutch differed between the orthoses. The functional performance of paraplegic subjects was better with the new orthosis compared with normal subjects. The performance of paraplegic subjects while standing with the new orthosis was better than the KAFO. Therefore, the new orthosis may be useful to improve standing and walking in patients with paraplegia.

  11. Design of a controlled-brake orthosis for FES-aided gait.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, M; Durfee, W K

    1996-03-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a means of restoring gait to individuals with spinal cord injury, but the performance of most FES-aided gait systems is hampered by the rapid muscle fatigue which results from stimulated muscle contraction and the inadequate control of joint torques necessary to produce desired limb trajectories. The controlled-brake orthosis (CBO) addresses these limitations by utilizing FES in combination with a long-leg brace that contains controllable friction brakes at the knees and hips. A laboratory version of the CBO utilizing computer-controlled magnetic particle brakes at the joints was designed and constructed, and preliminary results with a single spinal cord injury (SCI) subject have demonstrated reduced fatigue and more repeatable gait trajectories when compared to FES-aided gait without the brace. Significant work remains to demonstrate the efficacy of the concept across a wide range of SCI subjects and to design a system which meets appropriate user requirements of size, weight, cosmesis, ease of use and cost. The primary purpose of the paper is to detail the design of the CBO.

  12. Comparison of spatiotemporal gait parameters with a spinal orthosis and without a spinal orthosis on level ground and stairs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyeon-Nam; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine the impact on the pattern of walking on both level ground and stairs after restricting the movement of the spine and the trunk of the body by using a spinal orthosis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy males in their 20s were selected as the sample, which was randomly and evenly divided into two groups: (1) the WT group (with a thoracolumbosacral orthosis group) and (2) the WOT group (Without a thoracolumbosacral orthosis group). The spinal orthosis used in this study was a thoracolumbosacral orthosis called a plastic body jacket. [Results] In walking on level ground, step width showed a significant difference, but no statistically significant difference was found between the WT group and the WOT group with respect to the other variables. In walking on stairs, the double stance phase showed a statistically significant difference during stair descent in the WT group compared with the WOT group. [Conclusion] It was proven that wearing a TLSO increased walking stability in the case of walking on level ground and stairs. Hence, it is believed that proper use of a spinal orthosis can play an ancillary role in daily life and therapeutic interventions. PMID:27512285

  13. Comparison of spatiotemporal gait parameters with a spinal orthosis and without a spinal orthosis on level ground and stairs.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyeon-Nam; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Kyoung

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine the impact on the pattern of walking on both level ground and stairs after restricting the movement of the spine and the trunk of the body by using a spinal orthosis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy males in their 20s were selected as the sample, which was randomly and evenly divided into two groups: (1) the WT group (with a thoracolumbosacral orthosis group) and (2) the WOT group (Without a thoracolumbosacral orthosis group). The spinal orthosis used in this study was a thoracolumbosacral orthosis called a plastic body jacket. [Results] In walking on level ground, step width showed a significant difference, but no statistically significant difference was found between the WT group and the WOT group with respect to the other variables. In walking on stairs, the double stance phase showed a statistically significant difference during stair descent in the WT group compared with the WOT group. [Conclusion] It was proven that wearing a TLSO increased walking stability in the case of walking on level ground and stairs. Hence, it is believed that proper use of a spinal orthosis can play an ancillary role in daily life and therapeutic interventions.

  14. Application of a paraplegic gait orthosis in thoracolumbar spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Lang; Yu, Guo-hua; Feng, Zhen; Wang, Wan-song; Sun, Wei-ming; Zhou, Lu; Yan, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Paraplegic gait orthosis has been shown to help paraplegic patients stand and walk, although this method cannot be individualized for patients with different spinal cord injuries and functional recovery of the lower extremities. There is, however, a great need to develop individualized paraplegic orthosis to improve overall quality of life for paraplegic patients. In the present study, 36 spinal cord (below T4) injury patients were equally and randomly divided into control and observation groups. The control group received systematic rehabilitation training, including maintenance of joint range of motion, residual muscle strength training, standing training, balance training, and functional electrical stimulation. The observation group received an individualized paraplegic locomotion brace and functional training according to the various spinal cord injury levels and muscle strength based on comprehensive systematic rehabilitation training. After 3 months of rehabilitation training, the observation group achieved therapeutic locomotion in 8 cases, family-based locomotion in 7 cases, and community-based locomotion in 3 cases. However, locomotion was not achieved in any of the control group patients. These findings suggest that individualized paraplegic braces significantly improve activity of daily living and locomotion in patients with thoracolumbar spinal cord injury. PMID:28197198

  15. Changes of Plantar Pressure and Gait Parameters in Children with Mild Cerebral Palsy Who Used a Customized External Strap Orthosis: A Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Chang, Nai-Jen; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Toe-in gait and crouch gait can make children with mild cerebral palsy fall and suffer improper balance during walking or ambulation training. A customized external strap orthosis for correcting leg alignment was used to resolve this problem. The purpose of this study was to research the immediate effects while wearing the customized external strap orthosis. Pressure platform was used to assess the plantar pressure through static and dynamic assessments and to record the changes in path of pressure trajectory. Motion image analysis system was used to record the gait parameters, which included gait speed, stride length, and cadence. The influence of both wearing and removing the orthosis on the dominant leg of children with mild cerebral palsy was analyzed. Nine children with mild cerebral palsy, who all had a dominant right leg, were recruited. After wearing the orthosis, all gait parameters improved, and foot motion changed in the stance phase of the gait cycle. The path of pressure trajectory closing to the midline was also observed during dynamic assessment. Changes in plantar pressure and path of pressure trajectory were observed and the orthosis device could provide immediate assistance to correct the leg alignment and improve the gait performance in children with mild cerebral palsy.

  16. Changes of Plantar Pressure and Gait Parameters in Children with Mild Cerebral Palsy Who Used a Customized External Strap Orthosis: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Chang, Nai-Jen; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Toe-in gait and crouch gait can make children with mild cerebral palsy fall and suffer improper balance during walking or ambulation training. A customized external strap orthosis for correcting leg alignment was used to resolve this problem. The purpose of this study was to research the immediate effects while wearing the customized external strap orthosis. Pressure platform was used to assess the plantar pressure through static and dynamic assessments and to record the changes in path of pressure trajectory. Motion image analysis system was used to record the gait parameters, which included gait speed, stride length, and cadence. The influence of both wearing and removing the orthosis on the dominant leg of children with mild cerebral palsy was analyzed. Nine children with mild cerebral palsy, who all had a dominant right leg, were recruited. After wearing the orthosis, all gait parameters improved, and foot motion changed in the stance phase of the gait cycle. The path of pressure trajectory closing to the midline was also observed during dynamic assessment. Changes in plantar pressure and path of pressure trajectory were observed and the orthosis device could provide immediate assistance to correct the leg alignment and improve the gait performance in children with mild cerebral palsy. PMID:26640796

  17. Effect of treadmill walking with ankle stretching orthosis on ankle flexibility and gait

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-ki; Kim, Si-hyun; Jeon, In-cheol; Ahn, Sun-hee; Kwon, Oh-yun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinematics of the ankle in the lunge to estabilish effectiveness of an ankle stretching orthosis (ASO) on the ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) of individuals with limited dorsiflexion ROM. [Subjects and Methods] Forty ankles with decreased dorsiflexion ROM of 20 participants were evaluated in this study. After wearing the ASO, participants walked on a treadmill for 15 minutes. Participants walked on the treadmill at a self-selected comfortable speed. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM, maximum dorsiflexion ROM before heel-off, and time to heel-off during the stance phase of gait were measured before and after 15 minutes of treadmill walking with the ASO. The differences in all variables between before and after treadmill walking with ASO were analyzed using the paired t-test. [Results] Ankle active and passive ROM, and dorsiflexion ROM during lunge increased significantly after treadmill walking with ASO. Treadmill walking with the ASO significantly increased the angle of maximal dorsiflexion before heel-off and time to heel-off during the stance phase. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that treadmill walking with the ASO effectively improved ankle flexibility and restored the normal gait pattern of the ankle joint by increasing dorsiflexion ROM, maximal angle of dorsiflexion, and time to heel-off in the stance phase. PMID:25995601

  18. Modeling effects of sagittal-plane hip joint stiffness on reciprocating gait orthosis-assisted gait.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William Brett; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Upright ambulation is believed to improve quality of life for persons with lower-limb paralysis (LLP). However, ambulatory orthoses for persons with LLP, like reciprocating gait orthoses (RGOs), result in a slow, exhausting gait. Increasing the hip joint stiffness of these devices may improve the efficiency of RGO-assisted gait. The small, diverse population of RGO users makes subject recruitment challenging for clinical investigations. Therefore, we developed a lower-limb paralysis simulator (LLPS) that enabled nondisabled persons to exhibit characteristics of RGO-assisted gait, thereby serving as surrogate models for research. For this study, tests were conducted to determine the effects of increased hip joint stiffness on gait of nondisabled persons walking with the LLPS. A motion capture system, force plates, and spirometer were used to measure the hip flexion, crutch ground reaction forces (GRFs), and oxygen consumption of subjects as they walked with four different hip joint stiffness settings. Increasing the hip joint stiffness decreased hip flexion during ambulation but did not appear to affect the crutch GRFs. Walking speed was observed to initially increase with increases in hip joint stiffness, and then decrease. These findings suggest that increasing hip joint stiffness may increase walking speed for RGO users.

  19. Modulation of anticipatory postural adjustments of gait using a portable powered ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Matthew N; MacKinnon, Colum D; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2013-06-01

    Prior to taking a step, properly coordinated anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) are generated to control posture and balance as the body is propelled forward. External cues (audio, visual, somatosensory) have been shown to facilitate gait initiation by improving the magnitude and timing of APAs in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the efficacy of these cueing strategies has been limited by their inability to produce the forces required to generate an appropriate APA. To date, mechanical cueing paradigms have been relatively underexplored. Using healthy young adults, we investigated the use of a portable powered ankle-foot orthosis (PPAFO) to provide a modest torque at the ankle as a mechanical cue to initiate gait. Subjects were instructed to initiate gait in five test conditions: (1) self-initiated in running shoes [baseline-shoe], (2) self-initiated trial in unpowered passive PPAFO [baseline-passive], (3) with acoustic go-cue in passive PPAFO [acoustic-passive], (4) acoustic go-cue and simultaneous mechanical assist from powered PPAFO [acoustic-assist], and (5) mechanical assist cue only [assist]. APA characteristics were quantified using ground reaction force (GRF), center of pressure (COP), and electromyography (EMG) data. Mechanical cueing significantly increased medial-lateral COP and GRF peak amplitude, and decreased GRF time to peak amplitude, COP and GRF onset times, and time to toe off. Mechanical cueing conditions also demonstrated consistent bimodal EMG behaviors across all subjects. Overall, these data suggest that the mechanical assist from the PPAFO can significantly improve APA timing parameters and increase APA force production in healthy young adults.

  20. The influence of an ankle-foot orthosis on the spatiotemporal gait parameters and functional balance in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Bouchalová, Vendula; Houben, Els; Tancsik, Dorine; Schaekers, Lotte; Meuws, Leni; Feys, Peter

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Observational study investigating the influence of various ankle-foot orthoses on the spatiotemporal gait parameters and functional balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen chronic stroke patients participated in this study after providing informed consent. Two groups of patients were differentiated based on the Timed Up and Go Test. Patients were tested in three different conditions: with standard prefabricated ankle-foot orthosis (Maramed), with individualized ankle-foot orthosis (Y-tech), and without any ankle-foot orthrosis. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were obtained by walking on an instrumented walkway (GAITRite®) at usual and fastest speed. Balance was assessed with Timed Up and Go Test, Step Test, and Four Square Step Test. [Results] Maramed and Y-tech significantly improved the spatiotemporal parameters while walking at usual and maximal speed (single support time affected side; double support time affected side and step length unaffected side). The Y-tech in addition improved velocity and cadence. Among the balance tests, only the Timed Up and Go test showed improvements in favor of Maramed and Y-tech. [Conclusion] Patients benefited from wearing orthosis at both usual and maximal speed, irrespective of whether they wore Maramed or Y-tech. Only severe stroke patients benefited from wearing an orthoses compared to mild impaired group. PMID:27313385

  1. Development of body weight support gait training system using pneumatic Mckibben actuators -control of lower extremity orthosis.

    PubMed

    Mat Dzahir, M A; Nobutomo, T; Yamamoto, S I

    2013-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, the control system of lower extremity orthosis for the body weight support gait training system which implements pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) is proposed. The hip and knee joint angles of the gait orthosis system are controlled based on the PAM coordinates information from the simulation. This information provides the contraction data for the mono- and bi-articular PAMs that are arranged as posterior and anterior actuators to simulate the human walking motion. The proposed control system estimates the actuators' contraction as a function of hip and knee joint angles. Based on the contraction model obtained, input pressures for each actuators are measured. The control system are performed at different gait cycles and two PMA settings for the mono- and bi-articular actuators are evaluated in this research. The results showed that the system was able to achieve the maximum muscle moment at the joints, and able to perform the heel contact movement. This explained that the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators worked effectively.

  2. Immediate effects of a controllable knee ankle foot orthosis for functional compensation of gait in patients with proximal leg weakness.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan C; Brunetti, Fernando; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, José L

    2008-01-01

    Application of intermittent control of the knee joint stiffness in a knee ankle foot orthosis (KAFO) during gait is proposed. The approach combines inertial sensors and an actuator system in order to apply compensation in quadriceps weakness with a wearable device. Two methods, segment-angular rotation based and segment-angular velocity based, are analysed for the control of the knee joint state (intermittent stiffness) based on the inertial sensors signals. Protocolled tests are developed with two post-polio syndrome patients (PPS). In this study, the cases of gait with free-swinging leg and safe stance with the orthotic system are presented in terms of quantified kinematics (average peak angle of knee flexion of 50 degrees ) and evidences of reduction of frequent compensations (e.g. leg lateral movement) in post-polio syndrome patients. The results from immediate inspection indicate an important improvement of the gait patterns in two patients with proximal leg weakness by means of compensations applied by the wearable orthosis.

  3. Energy consumption in children with myelomeningocele: a comparison between reciprocating gait orthosis and hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis ambulators.

    PubMed

    Cuddeford, T J; Freeling, R P; Thomas, S S; Aiona, M D; Rex, D; Sirolli, H; Elliott, J; Magnusson, M

    1997-04-01

    This study compared the differences in energy efficiency (energy cost) in children with myelomeningocele ambulating with either reciprocating gait orthoses (RGOs) or hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses (HKAFOs). There were 15 children who ambulated with RGOs and 11 children braced and ambulating in HKAFOs. Velocity was measured in m/s, energy consumption was measured in mL/kg/min, and energy cost (energy consumption/velocity) was measured in mL/kg/m. Children in HKAFOs had a significantly higher energy consumption rate than children in RGOs. However, children who swing through in a HKAFO have a significantly faster velocity than children who ambulate with the RGO using a reciprocating pattern. The increased energy cost in the RGO group is influenced by their slower velocity, just as the decreased energy cost in the HKAFO group is influenced by their increased velocity. Therefore it appears that children in HKAFOs are more energy efficient than children in RGOs.

  4. Detection of Gait Modes Using an Artificial Neural Network during Walking with a Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, for use with a Portable Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis (i.e., PPAFO) that can automatically detect changes in gait modes (level ground, ascent and descent of stairs or ramps), thus allowing for appropriate ankle actuation control during swing phase. An artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm used input signals from an inertial measurement unit and foot switches, that is, vertical velocity and segment angle of the foot. Output from the ANN was filtered and adjusted to generate a final data set used to classify different gait modes. Five healthy male subjects walked with the PPAFO on the right leg for two test scenarios (walking over level ground and up and down stairs or a ramp; three trials per scenario). Success rate was quantified by the number of correctly classified steps with respect to the total number of steps. The results indicated that the proposed algorithm's success rate was high (99.3%, 100%, and 98.3% for level, ascent, and descent modes in the stairs scenario, respectively; 98.9%, 97.8%, and 100% in the ramp scenario). The proposed algorithm continuously detected each step's gait mode with faster timing and higher accuracy compared to a previous algorithm that used a decision tree based on maximizing the reliability of the mode recognition. PMID:28070188

  5. Adaptive control of a variable-impedance ankle-foot orthosis to assist drop-foot gait.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Joaquin A; Herr, Hugh

    2004-03-01

    An active ankle-foot orthoses (AAFO) is presented where the impedance of the orthotic joint is modulated throughout the walking cycle to treat drop-foot gait. During controlled plantar flexion, a biomimetic torsional spring control is applied where orthotic joint stiffness is actively adjusted to minimize forefoot collisions with the ground. Throughout late stance, joint impedance is minimized so as not to impede powered plantar flexion movements, and during the swing phase, a torsional spring-damper control lifts the foot to provide toe clearance. To assess the clinical effects of variable-impedance control, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on two drop-foot participants wearing the AAFO. For each participant, zero, constant, and variable impedance control strategies were evaluated and the results were compared to the mechanics of three age, weight, and height matched normals. We find that actively adjusting joint impedance reduces the occurrence of slap foot allows greater powered plantar flexion and provides for less kinematic difference during swing when compared to normals. These results indicate that a variable-impedance orthosis may have certain clinical benefits for the treatment of drop-foot gait compared to conventional ankle-foot orthoses having zero or constant stiffness joint behaviors.

  6. Stress distribution in the ankle-foot orthosis used to correct pathological gait.

    PubMed

    Chu, T M; Reddy, N P

    1995-11-01

    Abnormal motion of the ankle-foot complex presents a major problem in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. These patients often develop drop foot, a problem involving excessive and uncontrolled plantar flexion. An ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) is prescribed to constrain and inhibit this abnormal motion. The purpose of this investigation was to simulate the drop foot problem to determine the stress distribution in the orthosis. A quasi-static 3-D finite element analysis of the AFO complex was conducted using ADINA. Results confirmed the hypotheses that the maximum peak stress occurs in the neck, heel, and side-arc region of the AFO. However, the neck region of the AFO experienced the largest amount of stress. High stress concentration in the neck region observed in the present analysis is consistent with the common clinical observation that AFOs break down in the neck region.

  7. How Does Ankle-foot Orthosis Stiffness Affect Gait in Patients With Lower Limb Salvage?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-10

    Whitehead, Kelly Rodriguez, Dr Deanna Gates, and Dr Richard Neptune for their contributions to this project. References 1. Baker PA, Hewison SR. Gait...prospective controlled study. Gait Posture. 2006;24:142 151. 13. Faustini MC, Neptune RR, Crawford RH, Stanhope SJ. Manu facture of passive dynamic ankle...Clin Biomech. 1999;14:125 135. 27. Neptune RR, Kautz SA, Zajac FE. Contributions of the individual ankle plantar flexors to support, forward

  8. Longitudinal assessment of oxygen cost and velocity in children with myelomeningocele: comparison of the hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis and the reciprocating gait orthosis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S S; Buckon, C E; Melchionni, J; Magnusson, M; Aiona, M D

    2001-01-01

    Oxygen consumption and cost and velocity were evaluated over time in 23 children with myelomeningocele to determine whether differences exist when children walk with hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses (HKAFOs) versus reciprocating gait orthoses (RGOs). Children using HKAFOs had similar oxygen cost as children using RGOs while achieving a faster velocity. Children walking with HKAFOs into adolescence had a faster velocity and lower oxygen cost than children who discontinued use of their HKAFOs. No significant differences in velocity or oxygen cost were found between children who continued to walk with RGOs and those who discontinued use of their RGOs. Upright ambulation may progress from ambulation with an RGO, when the child's upper extremity strength to mass ratio is low, to an HKAFO when upper extremity strength improves and velocity or keeping up with peers is of concern. Wheelchair mobility should be offered when speed and an energy-efficient method of community mobility are desired.

  9. Change in the Mechanical Energy of the Body Center of Mass in Hemiplegic Gait after Continuous Use of a Plantar Flexion Resistive Ankle-foot Orthosis.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Hirokazu; Sugihara, Shunichi; Kon, Keisuke; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Hayakawa, Yasuyuki; Nosaka, Toshiya; Kimura, Kazuyuki

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in mechanical energy due to continuous use of a plantar flexion resistive ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) of subjects with chronic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 5 hemiplegic patients using AFOs without a plantar flexion resistive function in their daily lives. We analyzed the gait of the subjects using a 3D motion capture system under three conditions: patients' use of their own AFOs; after being fitted with a plantar flexion resistive AFO; and after continuous use of the device. The gait efficiency was determined by calculating the mutual exchange of kinetic and potential energy of the center of mass. [Results] An increased exchange rate of the kinetic and potential energy was found for all subjects. A larger increase of energy exchange was shown on the non-paralyzed side, and after continuous use of the plantar flexion resistive AFO. [Conclusion] We found that continuous use of a plantar flexion resistive AFO increased the rate of mutual exchange between kinetic energy and potential energy. The change in the rate was closely related to the role of the non-paretic side, showing that the subjects needed a certain amount of time to adapt to the plantar flexion resistive AFO.

  10. Oxygen costs using a reciprocating gait orthosis in a paraplegic (T9) patient with a bilateral below-knee amputation: case report.

    PubMed

    Smith, W E; Clark, P F; MacArthur, D; Allatt, R D; Hayes, K C; Cunningham, D A

    1997-02-01

    The Reciprocating Gait Orthosis (RGO) is a useful aid to ambulation for patients with paraplegia. Its use has been described previously though not in conjunction with limb prostheses. We report here the energy costs of ambulation of a patient, disabled by paraplegia at T9 and bilateral below-knee amputations, walking at her preferred rate using an RGO while gas exchange was measured by the Douglas bag method. Oxygen uptake (VO2) rose from 0.198 1 min-1 at rest to 0.582 1 min-1 in the last minute of exercise, representing a VO2 of 14.3 ml kg-1 min-1. During the fourth minute of ambulation, energy consumption was 30.44 J kg-1 s-1 with an energy cost of 4.17 J kg-1 m-1 at a velocity of 0.13 m s-1, Ambulation with this combination of disability is possible with the aid of limb prostheses and an RGO though it is slow and the energy expenditure as consumption per second and cost per metre are high.

  11. Evaluating the Effects of Ankle-Foot Orthosis Mechanical Property Assumptions on Gait Simulation Muscle Force Results.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Amy K; Petrella, Anthony J; Kurz, Max J; Silverman, Anne K

    2017-03-01

    Musculoskeletal modeling and simulation techniques have been used to gain insights into movement disabilities for many populations, such as ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The individuals who can benefit from these techniques are often limited to those who can walk without assistive devices, due to challenges in accurately modeling these devices. Specifically, many children with CP require the use of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) to improve their walking ability, and modeling these devices is important to understand their role in walking mechanics. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of AFO mechanical property assumptions, including rotational stiffness, damping, and equilibrium angle of the ankle and subtalar joints, on the estimation of lower-limb muscle forces during stance for children with CP. We analyzed two walking gait cycles for two children with CP while they were wearing their own prescribed AFOs. We generated 1000-trial Monte Carlo simulations for each of the walking gait cycles, resulting in a total of 4000 walking simulations. We found that AFO mechanical property assumptions influenced the force estimates for all the muscles in the model, with the ankle muscles having the largest resulting variability. Muscle forces were most sensitive to assumptions of AFO ankle and subtalar stiffness, which should therefore be measured when possible. Muscle force estimates were less sensitive to estimates of damping and equilibrium angle. When stiffness measurements are not available, limitations on the accuracy of muscle force estimates for all the muscles in the model, especially the ankle muscles, should be acknowledged.

  12. A data driven model for optimal orthosis selection in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ries, Andrew J; Novacheck, Tom F; Schwartz, Michael H

    2014-09-01

    A statistical orthosis selection model was developed using the Random Forest Algorithm (RFA). The model's performance and potential clinical benefit was evaluated. The model predicts which of five orthosis designs - solid (SAFO), posterior leaf spring (PLS), hinged (HAFO), supra-malleolar (SMO), or foot orthosis (FO) - will provide the best gait outcome for individuals with diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Gait outcome was defined as the change in Gait Deviation Index (GDI) between walking while wearing an orthosis compared to barefoot (ΔGDI=GDIOrthosis-GDIBarefoot). Model development was carried out using retrospective data from 476 individuals who wore one of the five orthosis designs bilaterally. Clinical benefit was estimated by predicting the optimal orthosis and ΔGDI for 1016 individuals (age: 12.6 (6.7) years), 540 of whom did not have an existing orthosis prescription. Among limbs with an orthosis, the model agreed with the prescription only 14% of the time. For 56% of limbs without an orthosis, the model agreed that no orthosis was expected to provide benefit. Using the current standard of care orthosis (i.e. existing orthosis prescriptions), ΔGDI is only +0.4 points on average. Using the orthosis prediction model, average ΔGDI for orthosis users was estimated to improve to +5.6 points. The results of this study suggest that an orthosis selection model derived from the RFA can significantly improve outcomes from orthosis use for the diplegic CP population. Further validation of the model is warranted using data from other centers and a prospective study.

  13. An intrinsically compliant robotic orthosis for treadmill training.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahid; Xie, Sheng Quan; Jamwal, Prashant K; Parsons, John

    2012-12-01

    A new intrinsically compliant robotic orthosis powered by pneumatic muscle actuators (PMA) was developed for treadmill training of neurologically impaired subjects. The robotic orthosis has hip and knee sagittal plane rotations actuated by antagonistic configuration of PMA. The orthosis has passive mechanisms to allow vertical and lateral translations of the trunk and a passive hip abduction/adduction joint. A foot lifter having a passive spring mechanism was used to ensure sufficient foot clearance during swing phase. A trajectory tracking controller was implemented to evaluate the performance of the robotic orthosis on a healthy subject. The results show that the robotic orthosis is able to perform the treadmill training task by providing sufficient torques to achieve physiological gait patterns and a realistic stepping experience. The orthosis is a new addition to the rapidly advancing field of robotic orthoses for treadmill training.

  14. An ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Daniel P; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Hannaford, Blake

    2005-05-01

    We developed a pneumatically powered orthosis for the human ankle joint. The orthosis consisted of a carbon fiber shell, hinge joint, and two artificial pneumatic muscles. One artificial pneumatic muscle provided plantar flexion torque and the second one provided dorsiflexion torque. Computer software adjusted air pressure in each artificial muscle independently so that artificial muscle force was proportional to rectified low-pass-filtered electromyography (EMG) amplitude (i.e., proportional myoelectric control). Tibialis anterior EMG activated the artificial dorsiflexor and soleus EMG activated the artificial plantar flexor. We collected joint kinematic and artificial muscle force data as one healthy participant walked on a treadmill with the orthosis. Peak plantar flexor torque provided by the orthosis was 70 Nm, and peak dorsiflexor torque provided by the orthosis was 38 Nm. The orthosis could be useful for basic science studies on human locomotion or possibly for gait rehabilitation after neurological injury.

  15. An Ankle-Foot Orthosis Powered by Artificial Pneumatic Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Daniel P.; Czerniecki, Joseph M.; Hannaford, Blake

    2005-01-01

    We developed a pneumatically powered orthosis for the human ankle joint. The orthosis consisted of a carbon fiber shell, hinge joint, and two artificial pneumatic muscles. One artificial pneumatic muscle provided plantar flexion torque and the second one provided dorsiflexion torque. Computer software adjusted air pressure in each artificial muscle independently so that artificial muscle force was proportional to rectified low-pass-filtered electromyography (EMG) amplitude (i.e., proportional myoelectric control). Tibialis anterior EMG activated the artificial dorsiflexor and soleus EMG activated the artificial plantar flexor. We collected joint kinematic and artificial muscle force data as one healthy participant walked on a treadmill with the orthosis. Peak plantar flexor torque provided by the orthosis was 70 Nm, and peak dorsiflexor torque provided by the orthosis was 38 Nm. The orthosis could be useful for basic science studies on human locomotion or possibly for gait rehabilitation after neurological injury. PMID:16082019

  16. Ankle-foot orthosis function in low-level myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Hullin, M G; Robb, J E; Loudon, I R

    1992-01-01

    Six children with low-level myelomeningocele underwent gait analysis. All showed excessive ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion when walking barefoot. A rigid thermoplastic ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) improved gait by preventing ankle dorsiflexion and reducing knee flexion. Biomechanically, the AFO caused a reduction in external knee moment by aligning the knee with the ground reaction force. Small changes in the foot-shank angle of the orthosis had profound effects on knee mechanics. Knee hyperextension could be controlled by a rocker sole. Kinetic gait analysis permits understanding of the biomechanical effects of orthoses.

  17. Kinematic effects on gait of a newly designed ankle-foot orthosis with oil damper resistance: a case series of 2 patients with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Sashika, Hironobu; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Yamamoto, Sumiko; Yasui, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    The ankle joint of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) should restrict plantarflexion to prevent foot drop during the swing phase. However, excessive plantarflexion resistance causes excessive knee flexion during the stance phase. Plantarflexion resistive moment should be easily adjustable according to the gait ability of patients with hemiplegia. Because it is difficult to adjust plantarflexion resistive moment exactly, we developed an AFO with an oil damper. It is a small shock absorber that utilizes hydraulic resistance. The oil damper generates a resistive moment to the plantarflexion rotation of the ankle joint at the initial stance phase. The magnitude of the plantarflexion resistive moment at the heel strike can be easily adjusted to accommodate each patient's condition by simply turning an adjustment screw. We used a gait analysis system to compare the gait of 2 hemiplegic patients while they were wearing either the AFO with the oil damper or the AFO with the plantarflexion stop. The AFO with the oil damper achieved sufficient plantarflexion of the ankle and mild flexion of the knee by adjusting a proper plantarflexion resistive moment during initial stance phase, and provided a more comfortable gait than did the AFOs with a plantarflexion stop.

  18. The Effects of Varying Ankle Foot Orthosis Stiffness on Gait in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Who Walk with Excessive Knee Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Kerkum, Yvette L.; Buizer, Annemieke I.; van den Noort, Josien C.; Becher, Jules G.; Harlaar, Jaap; Brehm, Merel-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rigid Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to counteract excessive knee flexion during the stance phase of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). While rigid AFOs may normalize knee kinematics and kinetics effectively, it has the disadvantage of impeding push-off power. A spring-like AFO may enhance push-off power, which may come at the cost of reducing the knee flexion less effectively. Optimizing this trade-off between enhancing push-off power and normalizing knee flexion in stance is expected to maximize gait efficiency. This study investigated the effects of varying AFO stiffness on gait biomechanics and efficiency in children with CP who walk with excessive knee flexion in stance. Fifteen children with spastic CP (11 boys, 10±2 years) were prescribed with a ventral shell spring-hinged AFO (vAFO). The hinge was set into a rigid, or spring-like setting, using both a stiff and flexible performance. At baseline (i.e. shoes-only) and for each vAFO, a 3D-gait analysis and 6-minute walk test with breath-gas analysis were performed at comfortable speed. Lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics were calculated. From the 6-minute walk test, walking speed and the net energy cost were determined. A generalized estimation equation (p<0.05) was used to analyze the effects of different conditions. Compared to shoes-only, all vAFOs improved the knee angle and net moment similarly. Ankle power generation and work were preserved only by the spring-like vAFOs. All vAFOs decreased the net energy cost compared to shoes-only, but no differences were found between vAFOs, showing that the effects of spring-like vAFOs to promote push-off power did not lead to greater reductions in walking energy cost. These findings suggest that, in this specific group of children with spastic CP, the vAFO stiffness that maximizes gait efficiency is primarily determined by its effect on knee kinematics and kinetics rather than by its effect on push-off power. Trial

  19. Locomotor adaptation to a powered ankle-foot orthosis depends on control method

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Stephen M; Gordon, Keith E; Ferris, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    Background We studied human locomotor adaptation to powered ankle-foot orthoses with the intent of identifying differences between two different orthosis control methods. The first orthosis control method used a footswitch to provide bang-bang control (a kinematic control) and the second orthosis control method used a proportional myoelectric signal from the soleus (a physiological control). Both controllers activated an artificial pneumatic muscle providing plantar flexion torque. Methods Subjects walked on a treadmill for two thirty-minute sessions spaced three days apart under either footswitch control (n = 6) or myoelectric control (n = 6). We recorded lower limb electromyography (EMG), joint kinematics, and orthosis kinetics. We compared stance phase EMG amplitudes, correlation of joint angle patterns, and mechanical work performed by the powered orthosis between the two controllers over time. Results During steady state at the end of the second session, subjects using proportional myoelectric control had much lower soleus and gastrocnemius activation than the subjects using footswitch control. The substantial decrease in triceps surae recruitment allowed the proportional myoelectric control subjects to walk with ankle kinematics close to normal and reduce negative work performed by the orthosis. The footswitch control subjects walked with substantially perturbed ankle kinematics and performed more negative work with the orthosis. Conclusion These results provide evidence that the choice of orthosis control method can greatly alter how humans adapt to powered orthosis assistance during walking. Specifically, proportional myoelectric control results in larger reductions in muscle activation and gait kinematics more similar to normal compared to footswitch control. PMID:18154649

  20. Towards more effective robotic gait training for stroke rehabilitation: a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stroke is the most common cause of disability in the developed world and can severely degrade walking function. Robot-driven gait therapy can provide assistance to patients during training and offers a number of advantages over other forms of therapy. These potential benefits do not, however, seem to have been fully realised as of yet in clinical practice. Objectives This review determines ways in which robot-driven gait technology could be improved in order to achieve better outcomes in gait rehabilitation. Methods The literature on gait impairments caused by stroke is reviewed, followed by research detailing the different pathways to recovery. The outcomes of clinical trials investigating robot-driven gait therapy are then examined. Finally, an analysis of the literature focused on the technical features of the robot-based devices is presented. This review thus combines both clinical and technical aspects in order to determine the routes by which robot-driven gait therapy could be further developed. Conclusions Active subject participation in robot-driven gait therapy is vital to many of the potential recovery pathways and is therefore an important feature of gait training. Higher levels of subject participation and challenge could be promoted through designs with a high emphasis on robotic transparency and sufficient degrees of freedom to allow other aspects of gait such as balance to be incorporated. PMID:22953989

  1. A new ankle foot orthosis for running.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David; Moore, Allan; Chandrashekar, Naveen

    2009-09-01

    Traumatic knee injuries in automobile accidents and sports often lead to damage of the peroneal nerve. A lack of control of muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve due to this damage, results in the inability to dorsiflex and evert the foot and to extend the toes. This condition is commonly known as foot drop. Foot drop reduces the stability in the body while walking and running and may also cause injury due to lack of foot clearance during the swing phase of the gait. Traditionally, an ankle foot orthosis (AFO), comprised of a moulded sheet of plastic that conforms around the posterior calf and distally contains all or part of the calcaneous as well as the plantar foot, is used to treat foot drop. The intent of this orthosis is to dorsiflex the foot to provide clearance during the swing phase of walking and running. Traditional AFO results in increased pressures due to a decrease in dorsiflexion range of motion at the ankle and make the orthosis increasingly uncomfortable to wear. Several other existing designs of foot drop AFO suffer from similar inadequacies. To address these issues, a new AFO was developed. The device was successfully used by one person with foot drop without issues for more than one year. This new design conforms to the lower anterior shin and dorsum of the foot using dorsiassist Tamarack ankle joints to allow for greater plantar and dorsiflexion range of motion. While still limiting ankle inversion it does allow for more ankle eversion. This orthosis can be discretely worn inside shoes due to its smaller size, and can be worn for a longer period of time without discomfort.

  2. Joint Contracture Orthosis (JCO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Thomas R.; Parsons, Ken; Krouskop, Thomas; McGee, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an advanced orthosis which is effective in reducing upper and lower limb contractures in significantly less time than currently required with conventional methods. The team that developed the JCO consisted of an engineer, orthotist, therapist, and physician.

  3. Design and functional evaluation of a quasi-passive compliant stance control knee-ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Shamaei, Kamran; Napolitano, Paul C; Dollar, Aaron M

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present the mechanical design, control algorithm, and functional evaluation of a quasi-passive compliant stance control knee-ankle-foot orthosis. The orthosis implements a spring in parallel with the knee joint during the stance phase of the gait and allows free rotation during the swing phase. The design is inspired by the moment-angle analysis of the knee joint revealing that the knee function approximates that of a linear torsional spring in the stance phase of the gait. Our orthosis aims to restore the natural function of a knee that is impaired by injury, stroke, post-polio, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, patellofemoral pain syndrome, osteoarthritis, and others. Compared with state-of-the-art stance control orthoses, which rigidly lock the knee during the stance phase, the described orthosis intends to provide the natural shock absorption function of the knee in order to reduce compensatory movements both in the affected and unaffected limbs. Preliminary testing on three unimpaired subjects showed that compliant support of the knee provided by the orthosis explained here results in higher gait speed as well as more natural kinematic profiles for the lower extremities when compared with rigid support of the knee provided by an advanced commercial stance control orthosis.

  4. An Exotendon Orthosis to Improve Mobility for Military Personnel Recovering from Combat-Related Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    exotendons to assist gait. As Walsh et al. found with their passive exoskeleton , human gait is highly optimized for healthy individuals with many...passive leg exoskeleton for load-carrying augmentation. International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, 2007. 4(3): p. 487-506. 6 5. Walsh, C.J., et...al. Development of a lightweight, underactuated exoskeleton for load-carrying augmentation. 2006. 6. Glaister, B.C., et al. Use of kinetic orthosis

  5. Mechanical performance of artificial pneumatic muscles to power an ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Keith E; Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    We developed a powered ankle-foot orthosis that uses artificial pneumatic muscles to produce active plantar flexor torque. The purpose of this study was to quantify the mechanical performance of the orthosis during human walking. Three subjects walked at a range of speeds wearing ankle-foot orthoses with either one or two artificial muscles working in parallel. The orthosis produced similar total peak plantar flexor torque and network across speeds independent of the number of muscles used. The orthosis generated approximately 57% of the peak ankle plantar flexor torque during stance and performed approximately 70% of the positive plantar flexor work done during normal walking. Artificial muscle bandwidth and force-length properties were the two primary factors limiting torque production. The lack of peak force and work differences between single and double muscle conditions can be explained by force-length properties. Subjects altered their ankle kinematics between conditions resulting in changes in artificial muscle length. In the double muscle condition greater plantar flexion yielded shorter artificial muscles lengths and decreased muscle forces. This finding emphasizes the importance of human testing in the design and development of robotic exoskeleton devices for assisting human movement. The results of this study outline the mechanical performance limitations of an ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles. This orthosis could be valuable for gait rehabilitation and for studies investigating neuromechanical control of human walking.

  6. The influence of walking with an orthosis on bone mineral density by determination of the absolute values of the loads applied on the limb.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-03-01

    Spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord that results in loss of mobility and sensation below the level of injury. Most patients use various types of orthoses to stand and walk. It has been claimed that walking and standing with orthosis reduces bone osteoporosis, improves joint range of motion and decreases muscle spasm. Unfortunately, there are discrepancies regarding the clinical effects of walking and standing on bone mineral density. The aim of this research was to find the absolute values of the loads transmitted by body and orthosis in walking with use of an orthosis. 5 normal subjects were recruited to stand and walk with a new design of reciprocal gait orthosis. The loads transmitted through the orthosis and anatomy was measured by use of strain gauge and motion analysis systems. It has been shown that the loads applied on the anatomy were significantly more than that transmitted through the orthosis. Moreover, the patterns of the forces and moments of the orthosis and body completely differed from each other. As the most part of the loads applied on the complex transmitted by anatomy in walking with an orthosis, walking with orthosis can influence bone mineral density.

  7. Effect of Pneumatic Compressing Powered Orthosis in Stroke Patients: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Sil; Sohn, Min Kyun; Kwak, Soo-Hyun; Choi, Jong Ho; Oh, Ji Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a knee-ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles (PKAFO). Methods Twenty-three hemiplegic patients (age, 59.6±13.7 years) were assessed 19.7±36.6 months after brain lesion. The 10-m walking time was measured as a gait parameter while the individual walked on a treadmill. Walking speed (m/s), step cycle (cycle/s), and step length (m) were also measured on a treadmill with and without PKAFO, and before and after gait training. Clinical parameters measured before and after gait training included Korean version of Modified Bathel Index (K-MBI), manual muscle test (MMT), and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) of hemiplegic ankle. Gait training comprised treadmill walking for 20 minutes, 5 days a week for 3 weeks at a comfortable speed. Results The 10-m walking time, walking speed, step length, and step cycle were significantly greater with PKAFO than without PKAFO, and after gait training (both p<0.05). K-MBI was improved after gait training (p<0.05), but MMT and MAS were not. Conclusion PKAFO may improve gait function in hemiplegic patients. It can be a useful orthosis for gait training in hemiplegic patients. PMID:25932419

  8. Biomechanics of an orthosis-managed cranial cruciate ligament-deficient canine stifle joint predicted by use of a computer model.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina E; Brown, Nathan P; Mich, Patrice M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of an orthosis on biomechanics of a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient canine stifle joint by use of a 3-D quasistatic rigid-body pelvic limb computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to investigate influences of orthosis hinge stiffness (durometer). SAMPLE A previously developed computer simulation model for a healthy 33-kg 5-year-old neutered Golden Retriever. PROCEDURES A custom stifle joint orthosis was implemented in the CrCL-deficient pelvic limb computer simulation model. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation in the orthosis-stabilized stifle joint (baseline scenario; high-durometer hinge]) were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of orthosis hinge stiffness on model outcome measures. RESULTS The orthosis decreased loads placed on the caudal cruciate and lateral collateral ligaments and increased load placed on the medial collateral ligament, compared with loads for the CrCL-intact stifle joint. Ligament loads were decreased in the orthosis-managed CrCL-deficient stifle joint, compared with loads for the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial translation and rotation decreased but were not eliminated after orthosis management. Increased orthosis hinge stiffness reduced tibial translation and rotation, whereas decreased hinge stiffness increased internal tibial rotation, compared with values for the baseline scenario. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Stifle joint biomechanics were improved following orthosis implementation, compared with biomechanics of the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Orthosis hinge stiffness influenced stifle joint biomechanics. An orthosis may be a viable option to stabilize a CrCL-deficient canine stifle joint.

  9. Efficacy of a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low back load during level walking in elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    Katsuhira, Junji; Matsudaira, Ko; Oka, Hiroyuki; Iijima, Shinno; Ito, Akihiro; Yasui, Tadashi; Yozu, Arito

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The effects of lumbosacral and spinal orthoses on low back pain and gait are not exactly clear. We previously developed a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low back load to decrease such load, and confirmed its positive effects during level walking in healthy young adults. Therefore, we aimed to determine the efficacy of this trunk orthosis during level walking in healthy elderly subjects. Methods Fifteen community-dwelling elderly subjects performed level walking at a self-selected speed without an orthosis, with our orthosis, and with a lumbosacral orthosis. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and erector spinae activity was recorded by electromyography. Results When comparing the three conditions, our orthosis showed the following effects: it decreased the peak extension moment, increased the peak flexion moment, decreased the lateral bending angle, increased the peak thoracic extension angle, and had significantly lower erector spinae activity and significantly larger peak pelvic forward tilt angles. Conclusion Our orthosis with joints providing resistive force decreased low back load and modified trunk and pelvis alignments during level walking in healthy elderly people. PMID:27877028

  10. Modification of spastic gait through mechanical damping.

    PubMed

    Maki, B E; Rosen, M J; Simon, S R

    1985-01-01

    The effect of dissipative mechanical loads on spastic gait has been studied, to evaluate the feasibility of using mechanically damped orthoses to effect functional improvements in the gait of spastic patients. This concept is based on a hypothesis citing uninhibited, velocity-dependent stretch reflexes as a possible causal factor in spastic gait abnormalities, such as equinus and back-kneeing. In order to screen potential experimental subjects and to quantify velocity-dependent reflex behaviour, ankle rotation experiments and filmed gait analysis were performed. The results supported the existence of a velocity threshold. Orthosis simulation experiments were performed with one spastic subject, using a wearable, computer-controlled, electromechanical, below-knee orthosis simulator to apply a variety of damping loads to the ankle as the subject walked. Results indicated that appropriate damping can improve local joint kinematics. The damping causes a reduction in muscle stretch velocity which apparently results in reduced spastic reflex activity.

  11. 21 CFR 882.5970 - Cranial orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cranial orthosis. 882.5970 Section 882.5970 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5970 Cranial orthosis. (a) Identification. A cranial orthosis is a device that is intended for medical purposes to apply pressure...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5970 - Cranial orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cranial orthosis. 882.5970 Section 882.5970 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5970 Cranial orthosis. (a) Identification. A cranial orthosis is a device that is intended for medical purposes to apply pressure...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5970 - Cranial orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cranial orthosis. 882.5970 Section 882.5970 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5970 Cranial orthosis. (a) Identification. A cranial orthosis is a device that is intended for medical purposes to apply pressure...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5970 - Cranial orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cranial orthosis. 882.5970 Section 882.5970 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5970 Cranial orthosis. (a) Identification. A cranial orthosis is a device that is intended for medical purposes to apply pressure...

  15. 21 CFR 882.5970 - Cranial orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cranial orthosis. 882.5970 Section 882.5970 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5970 Cranial orthosis. (a) Identification. A cranial orthosis is a device that is intended for medical purposes to apply pressure...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3475 - Limb orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3490 - Truncal orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Truncal orthosis. 890.3490 Section 890.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3490 Truncal orthosis....

  18. 21 CFR 890.3475 - Limb orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3490 - Truncal orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Truncal orthosis. 890.3490 Section 890.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3490 Truncal orthosis....

  20. 21 CFR 890.3490 - Truncal orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Truncal orthosis. 890.3490 Section 890.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3490 Truncal orthosis....

  1. 21 CFR 890.3475 - Limb orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3475 - Limb orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3475 - Limb orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3490 - Truncal orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Truncal orthosis. 890.3490 Section 890.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3490 Truncal orthosis....

  5. 21 CFR 890.3490 - Truncal orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truncal orthosis. 890.3490 Section 890.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3490 Truncal orthosis....

  6. [Feasibility of the construction of a magnetorheological joint for a lower limb orthosis in valve configuration].

    PubMed

    Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Quiñones-Uriostegui, Ivett; Mendoza, Felipe; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2014-07-01

    Ortheses are devices that assist in the function of the limbs, contributing with stability and support to the involved joints. KAFOs (knee-ankle-foot orthosis) are mainly indicated for people with muscular or neural diseases that affect the lower limbs. The actual designs of knee hinges for KAFOs compromise the stability and mobility of the limb. In this work, it was tested the feasibility of a design for a knee hinge for KAFO that should be able to modify its mechanical resistance depending on the gait phase. Orthotics biomechanical criteria and gait biomechanical requirements were considered. It was proposed an electromagnetic system in order to modify the hinge damping. In the future, the system will be interacting with a magnetorheological fluid (MR) which can change its rheological properties when a magnetic field is applied, thus, reaching different damping constants with the designed hinge. The diameter of the internal pipes required for the MR fluid to freely circulate within the orthosis was established. It was observed that the original design of the proposed orthotic hinge is feasible; however, some proposals are presented in order to achieve a better performance of the orthosis.

  7. Influence of orthosis on the foot progression angle in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Danino, Barry; Erel, Snir; Kfir, Meital; Khamis, Sam; Batt, Reuven; Hemo, Yoram; Wientroub, Shlomo; Hayek, Shlomo

    2015-10-01

    We retrospectively assessed the effect of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on the foot progression angle (FPA) of 97 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who had undergone comprehensive computer-based gait analysis both barefoot and with their orthosis, during the same session. The physical examination results and the gait study temporal and kinematic parameters comprise the study data. We focused on the peak FPA reached during stance and swing phases and at mid-stance and mid-swing, and also measured the transverse rotations of the pelvis, the femur and the tibia. AFOs improved gait, as reflected by improved temporal parameters, but they also increased internal rotation of the feet in diplegic CP children by 4.29 degrees for mid-stance, and by 3.72 degrees for mid-swing. The correlation between components of the rotational profile and FPA was significant for the diplegic group. AFOs did not produce any noteworthy differences between walking barefoot and walking with the brace in the hemiplegic group in what concerns FPA. Children with diplegic CP who use AFOs walk with increased internal FPAs in their orthoses. These findings might be explained by anatomical attributes as well as dynamic features during gait.

  8. Clinical evaluation of a new orthosis, the 'walkabout', for restoration of functional standing and short distance mobility in spinal paralysed individuals.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J W; Yeo, J D; Blanch, L; Vare, V; Peterson, K; Brigden, K

    1997-09-01

    The Walkabout orthosis is a relatively new device for assisted standing and mobility in spinal paralysed individuals. The design, with a medially-mounted single-axis hinge joint linking two knee-ankle-foot orthoses, is quite different to other currently available orthoses which have laterally positioned hip joints such as the Reciprocal Gait Orthosis or Hip Guidance Orthosis. Twenty-five spinal cord injured patients were fitted and trained with the Walkabout orthosis and followed up regularly for just under 2 years on average. Sixty percent of all the patients fitted have incorporated use of the Walkabout orthosis into their lifestyles. Maintenance of joint mobility and psychological benefits were the most important outcomes of Walkabout usage. Loss of thoraco-lumbar mobility was found to be a limiting factor in successful use of the Walkabout orthosis in patients without active hip flexion. Patient selection criteria should include demonstrated spinal stability without significant deformity, controlled muscle spasm, less than 5 degrees of hip or knee flexion contracture, achievable neutral ankle position, mobility of the thoraco-lumbar spine into lateral flexion, good upper limb strength, and motivation with realistic expectations.

  9. A portable powered ankle-foot orthosis for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Shorter, K Alex; Kogler, Géza F; Loth, Eric; Durfee, William K; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2011-01-01

    Innovative technological advancements in the field of orthotics, such as portable powered orthotic systems, could create new treatment modalities to improve the functional out come of rehabilitation. In this article, we present a novel portable powered ankle-foot orthosis (PPAFO) to provide untethered assistance during gait. The PPAFO provides both plantar flexor and dorsiflexor torque assistance by way of a bidirectional pneumatic rotary actuator. The system uses a portable pneumatic power source (compressed carbon dioxide bottle) and embedded electronics to control the actuation of the foot. We collected pilot experimental data from one impaired and three nondisabled subjects to demonstrate design functionality. The impaired subject had bilateral impairment of the lower legs due to cauda equina syndrome. We found that data from nondisabled walkers demonstrated the PPAFO's capability to provide correctly timed plantar flexor and dorsiflexor assistance during gait. Reduced activation of the tibialis anterior during stance and swing was also seen during assisted nondisabled walking trials. An increase in the vertical ground reaction force during the second half of stance was present during assisted trials for the impaired subject. Data from nondisabled walkers demonstrated functionality, and data from an impaired walker demonstrated the ability to provide functional plantar flexor assistance.

  10. Cerebral Palsy Gait, Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    TUGUI, Raluca Dana; ANTONESCU, Dinu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cerebral palsy refers to a lesion on an immature brain, that determines permanent neurological disorders. Knowing the exact cause of the disease does not alter the treatment management. The etiology is 2-2.5/1000 births and the rate is constant in the last 40-50 years because advances in medical technologies have permitted the survival of smaller and premature new born children. Gait analysis has four directions: kinematics (represents body movements analysis without calculating the forces), kinetics (represents body moments and forces), energy consumption (measured by oximetry), and neuromuscular activity (measured by EMG). Gait analysis can observe specific deviations in a patient, allowing us to be more accurate in motor diagnoses and treatment solutions: surgery intervention, botulinum toxin injection, use of orthosis, physical kinetic therapy, oral medications, baclofen pump. PMID:24790675

  11. The influence of new medial linkage orthosis on walking and independence in spinal cord injury patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bani, Monireh Ahmadi; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Farahmand, Farzam; Mousavi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Samadian, Mohammad; Kashani, Reza Vahab; Hutchins, Stephen William

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to overcome the disadvantages of reciprocating gait orthoses (RGOs) and medial linkage orthoses (MLOs), a new design of MLO was developed. Therefore the aim of this study was comparison effect of a new reciprocating MLO and traditional isocentric RGO on gait parameters and functional independence (orthosis donning and doffing time) in spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects to provide more evidence of its efficacy. Four people with motor incomplete SCI participated in this study. Each participant was fitted with an MLO and isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis (IRGO) to enable a comparison of walking speed, cadence and endurance to be performed. There were no statistically significant differences demonstrated in temporal–spatial parameters between the orthotic walking conditions in this study, but walking with the MLO improved the stride length and speed of walking by 28.57 and 40.9% compared with walking with an IRGO as a control condition. Hip flexion occurred predominantly during single-support phases, with negligible motion during double-support phases. The first and second Subjects had hip kinematic pattern more near normal when they walked with medial linkage reciprocal gait orthosis (MLRGO) in comparison with IRGO. There was significant difference between donning and doffing in two conditions (P=0.046) but there was not significant difference between two conditions in standing and sitting although these two conditions improved by new MLO. The new MLO provided a quicker and more independent gait compared with IRGO, in addition the new MLO made it easier for subjects to get from sitting to standing and from standing to sitting. PMID:28053735

  12. A kinematic analysis of the lower limb with regard to restricted spinal motion during gait

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyeon-Nam; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of restricted spinal motion on kinematic changes in the lower extremities using a rigid thoracolumbosacral orthosis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy males in their 20s were selected as the sample, which was randomly and evenly divided into two groups: (1) the WT group (with a thoracolumbosacral orthosis) and (2) the WOT group (without a thoracolumbosacral orthosis). The spinal orthosis used in this study was a thoracolumbosacral orthosis called a plastic body jacket. [Results] The sagittal plane; in the level ground walking measurements, significance differences were found at the H2 (Hip maximum flexion/extension in midstance phase) and K2 (Knee maximum flexion/extension in midstance phase) between the WT group and the WOT group. [Conclusion] It can be concluded that a spinal orthosis is useful in stabilizing the lower extremities during stair gaiting, and that appropriate application of the orthosis plays a supporting role in the activities of daily life and therapeutic intervention. PMID:28210045

  13. A kinematic analysis of the lower limb with regard to restricted spinal motion during gait.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyeon-Nam; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of restricted spinal motion on kinematic changes in the lower extremities using a rigid thoracolumbosacral orthosis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy males in their 20s were selected as the sample, which was randomly and evenly divided into two groups: (1) the WT group (with a thoracolumbosacral orthosis) and (2) the WOT group (without a thoracolumbosacral orthosis). The spinal orthosis used in this study was a thoracolumbosacral orthosis called a plastic body jacket. [Results] The sagittal plane; in the level ground walking measurements, significance differences were found at the H2 (Hip maximum flexion/extension in midstance phase) and K2 (Knee maximum flexion/extension in midstance phase) between the WT group and the WOT group. [Conclusion] It can be concluded that a spinal orthosis is useful in stabilizing the lower extremities during stair gaiting, and that appropriate application of the orthosis plays a supporting role in the activities of daily life and therapeutic intervention.

  14. The Effect of Different Foot Orthosis Inverted Angles on Plantar Pressure in Children with Flexible Flatfeet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunkeun; Ahn, Soyoung; Song, Youngshin; Park, Insik

    2016-01-01

    Although orthotic modification using the inverted technique is available for the treatment of flatfoot, empirical evidence for the biomechanical effects of inverted-angle foot orthoses (FOs) is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different FO inversion angles on plantar pressure during gait in children with flatfoot. Twenty-one children with flexible flatfeet (mean age 9.9 years) were enrolled in this study. The plantar pressures were measured for the rearfoot; medial and lateral midfoot; and medial, central, and lateral forefoot as participants walked on a treadmill while wearing shoes only and shoes with the following 3 orthotic conditions: (i) orthosis with no inverted angle, (ii) orthosis with a 15° inverted angle, and (iii) orthosis with a 30° inverted angle. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc test was used to compare the mean values of each orthotic condition. Compared with the shoe only condition, the peak pressure decreased significantly under the medial forefoot and rearfoot with all FOs (p <0.05). However, no significant differences in the peak pressure under the medial forefoot and rearfoot were observed between the FOs. The peak pressure under the medial midfoot increased significantly with all FOs, and a maximal increase in the peak pressure was obtained with a 30° inverted angle orthosis. Furthermore, the contact area under the medial midfoot and rearfoot increased significantly with all FOs, compared with the shoe only condition (p <0.05). Again, no significant differences were observed between the FOs. For plantar pressure redistribution, a FO with a low inverted angle could be effective, accommodative, and convenient for children with flatfoot. PMID:27458719

  15. The effect of changing plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis on ankle and knee joint angles and moments while walking in patients post stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Singer, Madeline L.; Orendurff, Michael S.; Gao, Fan; Daly, Wayne K.; Foreman, K. Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background The adjustment of plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis is considered important in patients post stroke, but the evidence is still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing the plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis on ankle and knee joint angles and moments in patients post stroke. Methods Gait analysis was performed on 10 subjects post stroke under four different plantarflexion resistive moment conditions using a newly designed articulated ankle-foot orthosis. Data were recorded using a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill in a 3-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Findings The ankle and knee sagittal joint angles and moments were significantly affected by the amount of plantarflexion resistive moment of the ankle-foot orthosis. Increasing the plantarflexion resistive moment of the ankle-foot orthosis induced significant decreases both in the peak ankle plantarflexion angle (P<0.01) and the peak knee extension angle (P<0.05). Also, the increase induced significant increases in the internal dorsiflexion moment of the ankle joint (P<0.01) and significantly decreased the internal flexion moment of the knee joint (P<0.01). Interpretation These results suggest an important link between the kinematic/kinetic parameters of the lower-limb joints and the plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis. A future study should be performed to clarify their relationship further so that the practitioners may be able to use these parameters as objective data to determine an optimal plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis for improved orthotic care in individual patients. PMID:26149007

  16. Can an Ankle-Foot Orthosis Change Hearts and Minds?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Can an Ankle-Foot Orthosis Change Hearts and Minds? Jeanne C. Patzkowski, MD,1 Ryan V. Blanck, CPO,2 Johnny G. Owens, MPT,3 Jason M. Wilken, PhD, MPT...continued functional deficits. Inspired by these patients, efforts at this institution began to provide them with a more dynamic orthosis . Utilizing...techniques and technology resulting from cerebral palsy, stroke, and amputation research, the Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis was created. To

  17. Development and Feasibility Assessment of a Rotational Orthosis for Walking with Arm Swing.

    PubMed

    Fang, Juan; Xie, Qing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Xie, Le

    2017-01-01

    Interlimb neural coupling might underlie human bipedal locomotion, which is reflected in the fact that people swing their arms synchronously with leg movement in normal gait. Therefore, arm swing should be included in gait training to provide coordinated interlimb performance. The present study aimed to develop a Rotational Orthosis for Walking with Arm Swing (ROWAS), and evaluate its feasibility from the perspectives of implementation, acceptability and responsiveness. We developed the mechanical structures of the ROWAS system in SolidWorks, and implemented the concept in a prototype. Normal gait data were used as the reference performance of the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints of the prototype. The ROWAS prototype was tested for function assessment and further evaluated using five able-bodied subjects for user feedback. The ROWAS prototype produced coordinated performance in the upper and lower limbs, with joint profiles similar to those occurring in normal gait. The subjects reported a stronger feeling of walking with arm swing than without. The ROWAS system was deemed feasible according to the formal assessment criteria.

  18. Development and Feasibility Assessment of a Rotational Orthosis for Walking with Arm Swing

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Juan; Xie, Qing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Xie, Le

    2017-01-01

    Interlimb neural coupling might underlie human bipedal locomotion, which is reflected in the fact that people swing their arms synchronously with leg movement in normal gait. Therefore, arm swing should be included in gait training to provide coordinated interlimb performance. The present study aimed to develop a Rotational Orthosis for Walking with Arm Swing (ROWAS), and evaluate its feasibility from the perspectives of implementation, acceptability and responsiveness. We developed the mechanical structures of the ROWAS system in SolidWorks, and implemented the concept in a prototype. Normal gait data were used as the reference performance of the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints of the prototype. The ROWAS prototype was tested for function assessment and further evaluated using five able-bodied subjects for user feedback. The ROWAS prototype produced coordinated performance in the upper and lower limbs, with joint profiles similar to those occurring in normal gait. The subjects reported a stronger feeling of walking with arm swing than without. The ROWAS system was deemed feasible according to the formal assessment criteria. PMID:28203142

  19. a Study on the Structural Stress Analysis of Plastic Ankle Foot Orthosis (afo) Under Dorsiflexion and Plantarflextion Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Shin; Choi, Young-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Kang-Hee

    The ankle foot orthosis (AFO) is used as the gait assistive tool for hemiplegic patients. The structural characteristics of the AFO are applied to the state of the patient. However, the prescription guide for hemiplegic patients is not well established. The purpose of this study is to develop design guide to find out the structural characteristics of polypropylene of AFO used for hemiplegics. In this study, the rigidities of dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the AFO with varied types of ankle widths are investigated and performed by using FEM code.

  20. Hardware Development and Locomotion Control Strategy for an Over-Ground Gait Trainer: NaTUre-Gaits

    PubMed Central

    Low, Kin Huat; Qu, Xingda; Lim, Hup Boon; Hoon, Kay Hiang

    2014-01-01

    Therapist-assisted body weight supported (TABWS) gait rehabilitation was introduced two decades ago. The benefit of TABWS in functional recovery of walking in spinal cord injury and stroke patients has been demonstrated and reported. However, shortage of therapists, labor-intensiveness, and short duration of training are some limitations of this approach. To overcome these deficiencies, robotic-assisted gait rehabilitation systems have been suggested. These systems have gained attentions from researchers and clinical practitioner in recent years. To achieve the same objective, an over-ground gait rehabilitation system, NaTUre-gaits, was developed at the Nanyang Technological University. The design was based on a clinical approach to provide four main features, which are pelvic motion, body weight support, over-ground walking experience, and lower limb assistance. These features can be achieved by three main modules of NaTUre-gaits: 1) pelvic assistance mechanism, mobile platform, and robotic orthosis. Predefined gait patterns are required for a robotic assisted system to follow. In this paper, the gait pattern planning for NaTUre-gaits was accomplished by an individual-specific gait pattern prediction model. The model generates gait patterns that resemble natural gait patterns of the targeted subjects. The features of NaTUre-gaits have been demonstrated by walking trials with several subjects. The trials have been evaluated by therapists and doctors. The results show that 10-m walking trial with a reduction in manpower. The task-specific repetitive training approach and natural walking gait patterns were also successfully achieved. PMID:27170876

  1. Dosimetric evaluation of intrafractional tumor motion by means of a robot driven phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Anne; Wilbert, Juergen; Flentje, Michael

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of intrafractional tumor motion to the accumulated (absorbed) dose. The accumulated dose was determined by means of calculations and measurements with a robot driven motion phantom. Methods: Different motion scenarios and compensation techniques were realized in a phantom study to investigate the influence of motion on image acquisition, dose calculation, and dose measurement. The influence of motion on the accumulated dose was calculated by employing two methods (a model based and a voxel based method). Results: Tumor motion resulted in a blurring of steep dose gradients and a reduction of dose at the periphery of the target. A systematic variation of motion parameters allowed the determination of the main influence parameters on the accumulated dose. The key parameters with the greatest influence on dose were the mean amplitude and the pattern of motion. Investigations on necessary safety margins to compensate for dose reduction have shown that smaller safety margins are sufficient, if the developed concept with optimized margins (OPT concept) was used instead of the standard internal target volume (ITV) concept. Both calculation methods were a reasonable approximation of the measured dose with the voxel based method being in better agreement with the measurements. Conclusions: Further evaluation of available systems and algorithms for dose accumulation are needed to create guidelines for the verification of the accumulated dose.

  2. Overground robot assisted gait trainer for the treatment of drug-resistant freezing of gait in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Pilleri, Manuela; Weis, Luca; Zabeo, Letizia; Koutsikos, Konstantinos; Biundo, Roberta; Facchini, Silvia; Rossi, Simonetta; Masiero, Stefano; Antonini, Angelo

    2015-08-15

    Freezing of Gait (FOG) is a frequent and disabling feature of Parkinson disease (PD). Gait rehabilitation assisted by electromechanical devices, such as training on treadmill associated with sensory cues or assisted by gait orthosis have been shown to improve FOG. Overground robot assisted gait training (RGT) has been recently tested in patients with PD with improvement of several gait parameters. We here evaluated the effectiveness of RGT on FOG severity and gait abnormalities in PD patients. Eighteen patients with FOG resistant to dopaminergic medications were treated with 15 sessions of RGT and underwent an extensive clinical evaluation before and after treatment. The main outcome measures were FOG questionnaire (FOGQ) global score and specific tasks for gait assessment, namely 10 meter walking test (10 MWT), Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and 360° narrow turns (360 NT). Balance was also evaluated through Fear of Falling Efficacy Scale (FFES), assessing self perceived stability and Berg Balance Scale (BBS), for objective examination. After treatment, FOGQ score was significantly reduced (P=0.023). We also found a significant reduction of time needed to complete TUG, 10 MWT, and 360 NT (P=0.009, 0.004 and 0.04, respectively). By contrast the number of steps and the number of freezing episodes recorded at each gait task did not change. FFES and BBS scores also improved, with positive repercussions on performance on daily activity and quality of life. Our results indicate that RGT is a useful strategy for the treatment of drug refractory FOG.

  3. Development of control model for intelligently controllable ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takehito; Tanida, Sousuke; Yasuda, Takashi; Fujikawa, Takamitsu

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an intelligently controllable ankle-foot orthosis (i-AFO). In this paper, we formulated a new control method for the i-AFO. In the method the sensor system of the i-AFO estimates walking speed of user and decide optimal drop speed of foot at the duration between initial contact and foot flat. We conducted the pretest for eight healthy subjects to make a control rule for the drop speed. Then we conducted the modeling test for one patient to make an estimation rule for walking speed. Finally we conducted the evaluation test for the proposed method. Despite the walking speed estimation show errors, the i-AFO successfully controlled the foot motion depending on the gait states.

  4. Motor adaptation during dorsiflexion-assisted walking with a powered orthosis

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    A robotic ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) that provides powered assistance could adjust to varying gait dynamics much better than a rigid AFO. To provide insight into how humans would adapt to a powered AFO, we studied the response of neurologically intact subjects walking with an active dorsiflexion assist orthosis proportionally controlled by tibialis anterior electromyography (EMG). We examined the two mechanical functions of ankle dorsiflexors in gait (power absorption at heel strike and power generation at toe-off) by recruiting two groups of healthy subjects: Group One, called Continuous Control, (n=5) had dorsiflexion assistance both at the initial heel contact and during swing; Group Two, called Swing Control, (n=5) had the assistance only during swing. We hypothesized both groups of subjects would reduce tibialis anterior EMG amplitude with practice walking with the powered dorsiflexion assist. Ten healthy subjects were fitted with custom-made orthoses that included an artificial pneumatic muscle providing dorsiflexor torque. We collected lower body kinematics, EMG, and artificial muscle force while subjects walked on a treadmill for two 30-minute training sessions. We found that subjects walked with increased ankle dorsiflexion by 9 degrees but showed different adaptation responses of the two tibialis anterior EMG bursts. The first EMG burst around heel strike had ~28% lower amplitudes (p<0.05) but the second EMG burst during swing had similar amplitudes. These results provide baseline data of EMG controlled dorsiflexion assist in neurologically intact humans that can be used to guide future studies on neurologically impaired individuals. PMID:18838269

  5. Noninvasive brain-computer interface driven hand orthosis.

    PubMed

    King, Christine E; Wang, Po T; Mizuta, Masato; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Do, An H; Moromugi, Shunji; Nenadic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Neurological conditions, such as stroke, can leave the affected individual with hand motor impairment despite intensive treatments. Novel technologies, such as brain-computer interface (BCI), may be able to restore or augment impaired motor behaviors by engaging relevant cortical areas. Here, we developed and tested an electroencephalogram (EEG) based BCI system for control of hand orthosis. An able-bodied subject performed contralateral hand grasping to achieve continuous online control of the hand orthosis, suggesting that the integration of a noninvasive BCI with a hand orthosis is feasible. The adoption of this technology to stroke survivors may provide a novel neurorehabilitation therapy for hand motor impairment in this population.

  6. Gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Chester, Victoria L; Biden, Edmund N; Tingley, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    Gait analysis, or the study of locomotion, has changed dramatically over the last few decades. Advances in computer technology and data analysis techniques have contributed greatly to the progress of this field. Gait analysis has become a valuable tool in the clinical setting. The ability to objectively quantify motion is essential to our understanding of normal and abnormal movement patterns and the evaluation of treatment effectiveness. This paper will discuss the various experimental and analytical techniques currently used for performing clinical gait analyses at the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.

  7. Design of active orthoses for a robotic gait rehabilitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Parra, A. C.; Broche, L.; Delisle-Rodríguez, D.; Sagaró, R.; Bastos, T.; Frizera-Neto, A.

    2015-09-01

    An active orthosis (AO) is a robotic device that assists both human gait and rehabilitation therapy. This work proposes portable AOs, one for the knee joint and another for the ankle joint. Both AOs will be used to complete a robotic system that improves gait rehabilitation. The requirements for actuator selection, the biomechanical considerations during the AO design, the finite element method, and a control approach based on electroencephalographic and surface electromyographic signals are reviewed. This work contributes to the design of AOs for users with foot drop and knee flexion impairment. However, the potential of the proposed AOs to be part of a robotic gait rehabilitation system that improves the quality of life of stroke survivors requires further investigation.

  8. From swimming to walking with a salamander robot driven by a spinal cord model.

    PubMed

    Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Crespi, Alessandro; Ryczko, Dimitri; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie

    2007-03-09

    The transition from aquatic to terrestrial locomotion was a key development in vertebrate evolution. We present a spinal cord model and its implementation in an amphibious salamander robot that demonstrates how a primitive neural circuit for swimming can be extended by phylogenetically more recent limb oscillatory centers to explain the ability of salamanders to switch between swimming and walking. The model suggests neural mechanisms for modulation of velocity, direction, and type of gait that are relevant for all tetrapods. It predicts that limb oscillatory centers have lower intrinsic frequencies than body oscillatory centers, and we present biological data supporting this.

  9. Development of Meal Assistance Orthosis and Its Controller for Challenged Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, Daisuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    Disable persons, motor functional disorder, can not take meal by their arms. Meal assistance orthosis, which assists to take meal, is developed for them. Meal assistance orthosis is actuated by use of human will which is analized based on EOG˜(Electroocurogram) signal. Besides, control theory for meal assistance orthosis is designed with safety policy. Effectiveness of the proposed meal assistace orthosis is assured by simulation and experimental work on normal person.

  10. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Robin; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Loth, Eric; Kogler, Géza; Manwaring, Scott D; Tyson, Serena N; Shorter, K Alex; Gilmer, Joel N

    2009-01-01

    Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO) to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot) carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1). Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle. PMID:19527526

  11. Design of a gait training device for control of pelvic obliquity.

    PubMed

    Pietrusinski, Maciej; Severini, Giacomo; Cajigas, Iahn; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Bonato, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and testing of a novel device for the control of pelvic obliquity during gait. The device, called the Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer, consists of a single actuator system designed to target secondary gait deviations, such as hip-hiking, affecting the movement of the pelvis. Secondary gait deviations affecting the pelvis are generated in response to primary gait deviations (e.g. limited knee flexion during the swing phase) in stroke survivors and contribute to the overall asymmetrical gait pattern often observed in these patients. The proposed device generates a force field able to affect the obliquity of the pelvis (i.e. the rotation of the pelvis around the anteroposterior axis) by using an impedance controlled single linear actuator acting on a hip orthosis. Tests showed that the RGR Trainer is able to induce changes in pelvic obliquity trajectories (hip-hiking) in healthy subjects. These results suggest that the RGR Trainer is suitable to test the hypothesis that has motivated our efforts toward developing the system, namely that addressing both primary and secondary gait deviations during robotic-assisted gait training may help promote a physiologically-sound gait behavior more effectively than when only primary deviations are addressed.

  12. Therapeutic Experience on Stance Control Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis With Electromagnetically Controlled Knee Joint System in Poliomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Ji, Sang-Goo; Jung, Kang-Jae

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old man with poliomyelitis had been using a conventional, passive knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) with a drop ring lock knee joint for about 40 years. A stance control KAFO (SCKAFO) with an electromagnetically controlled (E-MAG) knee joint system was prescribed. To correct his gait pattern, he also underwent rehabilitation therapy, which included muscle re-education, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, strengthening exercises for the lower extremities, and balance training twice a week for about 4 months. Both before and after rehabilitation, we conducted a gait analysis and assessed the physiological cost index in energy expended during walking in a locked-knee state and while he wore a SCKAFO with E-MAG. When compared with the pre-rehabilitation data, the velocity, step length, stride length, and knee kinematic data were improved after rehabilitation. Although the SCKAFO with E-MAG system facilitated the control of knee motion during ambulation, appropriate rehabilitative therapy was also needed to achieve a normal gait pattern. PMID:27152288

  13. A Comparative Study Between Total Contact Cast and Pressure-Relieving Ankle Foot Orthosis in Diabetic Neuropathic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Ray, Sayantan; Biswas, Dibakar; Baidya, Arjun; Bhattacharjee, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Off-loading of the ulcer area is extremely important for the healing of plantar ulcers. Off-loading with total contact cast (TCC) may be superior to other off-loading strategies studied so far, but practical limitations can dissuade clinicians from using this modality. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of TCC compared with that of a pressure-relieving ankle foot orthosis (PRAFO) in healing of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers and their effect on gait parameters. Methods: Thirty adult diabetic patients attending the foot clinic with neuropathic plantar ulcers irrespective of sex, age, duration and type of diabetes were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 off-loading modalities (TCC and PRAFO). Main outcome measures were ulcer healing after 4 weeks of randomization and effect of each of the modalities on various gait parameters. Results: The percentage reduction of the ulcer surface area at 4 weeks from baseline was 75.75 ± 9.25 with TCC and 34.72 ± 13.07 with PRAFO, which was significantly different (P < .001). The results of this study however, showed that most of the gait parameters were better with PRAFO than with TCC. Conclusions: This study comprehensively evaluated the well known advantages and disadvantages of a removable (PRAFO) and a nonremovable device (TCC) in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcer. Further studies are needed involving larger subjects and using 3D gait analysis to collect more accurate data on gait parameters and wound healing with different off-loading devices. PMID:25452635

  14. Improved gait recognition by gait dynamics normalization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongyi; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2006-06-01

    Potential sources for gait biometrics can be seen to derive from two aspects: gait shape and gait dynamics. We show that improved gait recognition can be achieved after normalization of dynamics and focusing on the shape information. We normalize for gait dynamics using a generic walking model, as captured by a population Hidden Markov Model (pHMM) defined for a set of individuals. The states of this pHMM represent gait stances over one gait cycle and the observations are the silhouettes of the corresponding gait stances. For each sequence, we first use Viterbi decoding of the gait dynamics to arrive at one dynamics-normalized, averaged, gait cycle of fixed length. The distance between two sequences is the distance between the two corresponding dynamics-normalized gait cycles, which we quantify by the sum of the distances between the corresponding gait stances. Distances between two silhouettes from the same generic gait stance are computed in the linear discriminant analysis space so as to maximize the discrimination between persons, while minimizing the variations of the same subject under different conditions. The distance computation is constructed so that it is invariant to dilations and erosions of the silhouettes. This helps us handle variations in silhouette shape that can occur with changing imaging conditions. We present results on three different, publicly available, data sets. First, we consider the HumanlD Gait Challenge data set, which is the largest gait benchmarking data set that is available (122 subjects), exercising five different factors, i.e., viewpoint, shoe, surface, carrying condition, and time. We significantly improve the performance across the hard experiments involving surface change and briefcase carrying conditions. Second, we also show improved performance on the UMD gait data set that exercises time variations for 55 subjects. Third, on the CMU Mobo data set, we show results for matching across different walking speeds. It is worth

  15. Hand orthosis as a writing aid in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Taş, N; Karataş, G K; Sepici, V

    2001-11-01

    Writer's cramp is a focal, task-specific dystonia of the hand and wrist. It primarily affects people who do a significant amount of writing, and causes difficulties in writing. We present five cases with writer's cramp who showed improvement in their writing ability with an applied hand orthosis.

  16. The freedom to heal: nonrigid immobilization by a halo orthosis.

    PubMed

    Genin, Guy M; Rosenberg, Stuart P; Seger, Laura M; Tran, Elizabeth L; Rivet, Dennis J; Leuthardt, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    Halo orthoses present a paradox. On the one hand, the nominally rigid immobilization they provide to the head aims to remove loads on the cervical spine following injury or surgery, and the devices are retightened routinely to maintain this. On the other hand, bone growth and remodeling are well known to require mechanical stressing. How are these competing needs balanced? To understand this trade-off in an effective, commercial halo orthosis, the authors quantified the response of a commercial halo orthosis to physiological loading levels, applied symmetrically about the sagittal plane. They showed for the first time that after a few cycles of loading analogous to a few steps taken by a patient, the support presented by a standard commercial halo orthosis becomes nonlinear. When analyzed through straightforward structural modeling, these data revealed that the nonlinearity permits mild head motion while severely restricting larger motion. These observations are useful because they open the possibility that halo orthosis installation could be optimized to transfer mild spinal loads that support healing while blocking pathological loads.

  17. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for medical purposes to provide whole body support by means of a pressurized suit to help...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for medical purposes to provide whole body support by means of a pressurized suit to help...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for medical purposes to provide whole body support by means of a pressurized suit to help...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3610...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3610...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3050 - Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (a dislocation of the spinal column), and lower back syndrome. (b) Classification. Class II. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis. 888.3050... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3050 Spinal interlaminal...

  3. 21 CFR 888.3050 - Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (a dislocation of the spinal column), and lower back syndrome. (b) Classification. Class II. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis. 888.3050... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3050 Spinal interlaminal...

  4. 21 CFR 888.3050 - Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (a dislocation of the spinal column), and lower back syndrome. (b) Classification. Class II. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis. 888.3050... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3050 Spinal interlaminal...

  5. 21 CFR 888.3050 - Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (a dislocation of the spinal column), and lower back syndrome. (b) Classification. Class II. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis. 888.3050... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3050 Spinal interlaminal...

  6. 21 CFR 888.3050 - Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (a dislocation of the spinal column), and lower back syndrome. (b) Classification. Class II. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis. 888.3050... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3050 Spinal interlaminal...

  7. Experimental Implementation of Underactuated Potential Energy Shaping on a Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ge; Zhu, Hanqi; Elery, Toby; Li, Luwei; Gregg, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional control methodologies of rehabilitation orthoses/exoskeletons aim at replicating normal kinematics and thus fall into the category of kinematic control. This control paradigm depends on pre-defined reference trajectories, which can be difficult to adjust between different locomotor tasks and human subjects. An alternative control category, kinetic control, enforces kinetic goals (e.g., torques or energy) instead of kinematic trajectories, which could provide a flexible learning environment for the user while freeing up therapists to make corrections. We propose that the theory of underactuated potential energy shaping, which falls into the category of kinetic control, could be used to generate virtual body-weight support for stroke gait rehabilitation. After deriving the nonlinear control law and simulating it on a human-like biped model, we implemented this controller on a powered ankle-foot orthosis that was designed specifically for testing torque control strategies. Experimental results with an able-bodied human subject demonstrate the feasibility of the control approach for both positive and negative virtual body-weight augmentation. PMID:27390625

  8. A Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis on Orthotic Gait of Paraplegics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Uno, Yoji

    In this study, we address to quantify the relationship between the significant arm-clutch loading, leg restriction and motor paralysis, and analyze lumbar joint trajectories in the orthotic gait of paraplegic subjects and the ordinary and orthotic gaits of a normal subject using an inverted pendulum model. For the leg restriction, the trajectories are located in front of an equilibrium point of the inverted pendulum, and the loading is higher due to the influence of gravity moment. Comparing the trajectory of paraplegic and normal gait with orthosis in horizontal plane, the trajectory in the paraplegic subjects was rectilinear shape, while that in normal subject was curved in the direction to the equilibrium point. The loading is lower in the curved trajectory than in the straight trajectory because of the trade-off between gravity and inertia. These results suggest that the increase of the distance between the trunk movement and the equilibrium point of the inverted pendulum result in the significant loading due to the leg restriction and motor paralysis in orthotic gait of paraplegics.

  9. A Powered Lower Limb Orthosis for Providing Legged Mobility in Paraplegic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Hugo A.; Farris, Ryan J.; Hartigan, Clare; Clesson, Ismari; Goldfarb, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the development of a powered lower limb orthosis intended to provide legged mobility (with the use of a stability aid, such as forearm crutches) to paraplegic individuals. The orthosis contains electric motors at both hip and both knee joints, which in conjunction with ankle-foot orthoses, provides appropriate joint kinematics for legged locomotion. The paper describes the orthosis and the nature of the controller that enables the SCI patient to command the device, and presents data from preliminary trials that indicate the efficacy of the orthosis and controller in providing legged mobility. PMID:22707874

  10. Reduction of digital plantar pressure by debridement and silicone orthosis.

    PubMed

    Slater, R A; Hershkowitz, I; Ramot, Y; Buchs, A; Rapoport, M J

    2006-12-01

    The lesser digits are frequent sites of elevated plantar pressure and ulceration in the diabetic foot. We sought to determine whether debridement of callus and the wearing of a custom molded digital orthosis could significantly reduce digital plantar pressure. Fourteen patients with distal digital callus were studied. For each patient, the toe with the highest plantar pressure was selected. A computerized pressure mat was used to record the plantar pressure before and after debridement with and without a moldable silicone digital orthosis. Mean peak plantar digital pressures before treatment were 2.80+/-0.7 kg/cm2 for the entire group. The digital orthosis alone reduced plantar pressure to a mean of 1.95+/-0.65 kg/cm2 p < 0.05. Treatment by debridement similarly reduced pressure to 1.99+/-0.76 kg/cm2 p < 0.05. The most effective reduction of pressure for all patients, as well as the most statistically significant, occurred when both treatments were given, with mean peak plantar pressure falling to 1.28+/-0.61 kg/cm2 p < 0.01. Debridement and custom molded digital orthoses alleviate distal digital plantar pressure. Since elevated plantar pressure increases the risk of neuropathic ulceration, these treatments should be considered in the prophylactic care of appropriate patients.

  11. Gait Phase Estimation Based on Noncontact Capacitive Sensing and Adaptive Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Enhao; Manca, Silvia; Yan, Tingfang; Parri, Andrea; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2017-02-23

    This paper presents a novel strategy aiming to acquire an accurate and walking-speed-adaptive estimation of the gait phase through noncontact capacitive sensing and adaptive oscillators (AOs). The capacitive sensing system is designed with two sensing cuffs that can measure the leg muscle shape changes during walking. The system can be dressed above the clothes and free human skin from contacting to electrodes. In order to track the capacitance signals, the gait phase estimator is designed based on the AOs dynamic system due to its ability of synchronizing with quasi-periodic signals. After the implementation of the whole system, we firstly evaluated the off-line estimation performance by experiments with twelve healthy subjects walking on treadmill with changing speeds. The strategy achieved an accurate and consistent gait phase estimation with only one channel of capacitance signal. The average root mean square errors in one stride were 0.19 rad (3.0% of one gait cycle) for constant walking speeds and 0.31 rad (4.9% of one gait cycle) for speed transitions even after the subjects re-wore the sensing cuffs. We then validated our strategy in a real-time gait phase estimation task with three subjects walking with changing speeds. Our study indicates that the strategy based on capacitive sensing and AOs is a promising alternative for the control of exoskeleton/orthosis.

  12. Comparative Effect of Orthosis Design on Functional Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    S , Bell KJ, Davis RB 3rd, DeLuca PA. An evaluation of the posterior leaf spring orthosis using joint kinematics and kinetics. J Pediatr Orthop...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Patzkowski J. C., Blanck R. V., Owens J. G., Wilken J. M., Kirk K. L., Wenke J. C., Hsu J. R...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) United States Army Institute of

  13. Creating a custom fabricated neoprene orthosis for optimal thumb positioning.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Leonard G; Amini, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Neoprene orthoses are used extensively in treating conditions of the hand when flexibility and support are sought. Devices such as these may be prefabricated from Neoprene alone or may include a thermoplastic or metal stay. Neoprene devices can also be custom fabricated by a practitioner in a time effective manner and at low cost. The custom fabricated orthosis described in this article is designed to support the thumb in a position of palmar abduction and opposition while maintaining CMC extension and an adequately open web space to prevent soft tissue contracture.

  14. Simulation of human walking with powered orthosis for designing practical assistive device.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Yoshiho; Nagai, Chikara; Obinata, Goro

    2012-01-01

    To design a powered assistive orthosis for human walking, we have simulated walking motion with an orthosis. The model dynamics of the coupled human-orthosis is represented by a 10-rigid-link system. In this model there exist rotational joints at lumbar, both thighs and both legs for orthosis, and each joints are controlled by a couple of central pattern generators (CPG) which imitates neuronal system in the spinal cord of mammals. The CPG controller modeled by 18 oscillators which have the sensory feedbacks and generates the joint torques to move the skeletal model of the coupled human-orthosis. This means that we use five actuators for controlling orthosis in the both of sagittal and frontal plane. The parameters of the CPG and the connecting gains are optimized by using a genetic algorithm. We have achieved the successful simulation of stable walking against disturbances with this model. The simulation results indicate the possibility of a practical assistive orthosis with five active joints for stable walking.

  15. Comparison of Extension Orthosis Versus Percutaneous Pinning of the Distal Interphalangeal Joint for Closed Mallet Injuries.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Kevin J; Odgers, Ryan A; Ivy, Cynthia C

    2016-05-01

    We compared a static extension orthosis with percutaneous pinning of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) for treatment of closed mallet injuries. After receiving counsel about treatment options, 44 patients (25 women and 19 men; mean age, 57 years) freely chose orthosis and 18 patients (5 women and 13 men; mean age, 51 years) chose pinning. Both the extension orthosis and the pin remained in place for 6 weeks; the pin then was removed, and the care in both groups was transitioned to nighttime orthosis use for an additional 6 weeks. The patients in the pin group were allowed to immediately resume unrestricted activity postoperatively. The mean follow-up was 32 months in the orthosis group and 19 months in the pin group. Final residual extensor lag was better in the pin group (5 vs 10 degrees, P = 0.048). Improvement between the groups was in favor of percutaneous pinning (36 vs 17 degrees, P = 0.001). No correlation was seen between time to treatment (≤14 vs >14 days from injury) and final extensor lag in either group (P = 0.85). The final mean DIPJ flexion was 53 degrees for orthosis and 46 degrees for pinning. Among the patients, 93% of the orthosis group and 100% of the pin group said that they would choose the same treatment again. Both groups had a mean of 5 hand therapy visits during treatment. Two complications occurred in the orthosis group (5%) and 3 (17%) occurred in the pin group. Extension orthotics and pinning are both well-tolerated, effective treatments of mallet injury. The techniques produce satisfactory correction of extensor lag and have high patient satisfaction. Pinning allows better correction of DIPJ extensor lag and results in a smaller degree of final extensor lag. Pinning is more expensive and may result in more DIPJ stiffness (ie, loss of active flexion), but it may be justified in certain patients (eg, medical professionals, food service workers) who would have difficulty working with an orthosis.

  16. SCRIPT passive orthosis: design and technical evaluation of the wrist and hand orthosis for rehabilitation training at home.

    PubMed

    Ates, Serdar; Lobo-Prat, Joan; Lammertse, Piet; van der Kooij, Herman; Stienen, Arno H A

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a new hand and wrist exoskeleton design, the SCRIPT Passive Orthosis (SPO), for the rehabilitation after stroke is presented. The SPO is a wrist, hand, and finger orthosis that assists individuals after stroke that suffer from impairments caused by spasticity and abnormal synergies. These impairments are characterized in the wrist and hand by excessive involuntary flexion torques that make the hand unable to be used for many activities in daily life. The SPO can passively offset these undesired torques, but it cannot actively generate or control movements. The user needs to use voluntary muscle activation to perform movements and thus needs to have some residual muscle control to successfully use the SPO. The SPO offsets the excessive internal flexion by applying external extension torques to the joints of the wrist and fingers. The SPO physically interacts with the users using the forearm shell, the hand plate and the digit caps from the Saebo Flex, but is otherwise a completely novel design. It applies the external extension torques via passive leaf springs and elastic tension cords. The amount of this support can be adjusted to provide more or less offset force to wrist, finger, or thumb extension, manually. The SPO is equipped with sensors that can give a rough estimate of the joint rotations and applied torques, sufficient to make the orthosis interact with our interactive gaming environment. Integrated inertial and gyroscopic sensors provide limited information on the user's forearm posture. The first home-based patient experiences have already let to several issues being resolved, but have also made it clear that many improvement are still to be made.

  17. Efficacy of stepwise application of orthosis and kinesiology tape for treating thumb metacarpophalangeal joint hyperextension injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate on the effects of the stepwise application of orthosis and kinesiology tape on a patient with thumb metacarpophalangeal joint hyperextension injury. [Subject] The patient was a 43-year-old man with severe thumb MCP pain and extremely limited thumb movement. [Methods] Stepwise application of orthosis and kinesiology taping were performed for 3 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively. [Results] After stepwise treatment, the patient was able to power grip, precision pinch, turn a key, and hold a pen without pain. [Conclusion] Stepwise application of thumb orthosis and kinesiology tape is a safe and effective treatment for thumb MCP joint hyperextension injury. PMID:26355325

  18. Efficacy of stepwise application of orthosis and kinesiology tape for treating thumb metacarpophalangeal joint hyperextension injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate on the effects of the stepwise application of orthosis and kinesiology tape on a patient with thumb metacarpophalangeal joint hyperextension injury. [Subject] The patient was a 43-year-old man with severe thumb MCP pain and extremely limited thumb movement. [Methods] Stepwise application of orthosis and kinesiology taping were performed for 3 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively. [Results] After stepwise treatment, the patient was able to power grip, precision pinch, turn a key, and hold a pen without pain. [Conclusion] Stepwise application of thumb orthosis and kinesiology tape is a safe and effective treatment for thumb MCP joint hyperextension injury.

  19. Gait analysis: clinical facts.

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard; Esquenazi, Alberto; Benedetti, Maria G; Desloovere, Kaat

    2016-08-01

    Gait analysis is a well-established tool for the quantitative assessment of gait disturbances providing functional diagnosis, assessment for treatment planning, and monitoring of disease progress. There is a large volume of literature on the research use of gait analysis, but evidence on its clinical routine use supports a favorable cost-benefit ratio in a limited number of conditions. Initially gait analysis was introduced to clinical practice to improve the management of children with cerebral palsy. However, there is good evidence to extend its use to patients with various upper motor neuron diseases, and to lower limb amputation. Thereby, the methodology for properly conducting and interpreting the exam is of paramount relevance. Appropriateness of gait analysis prescription and reliability of data obtained are required in the clinical environment. This paper provides an overview on guidelines for managing a clinical gait analysis service and on the principal clinical domains of its application: cerebral palsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury and lower limb amputation.

  20. A wearable robotic orthosis with a spring-assist actuator.

    PubMed

    Seungmin Jung; Chankyu Kim; Jisu Park; Dongyoub Yu; Jaehwan Park; Junho Choi

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a wearable robotic orthosis with spring-assist actuators, which is designed to assist people who have difficulty in walking. The spring-assist actuator consists of an electrical motor and a spring, which are attached to a rotational axis in parallel to each other. The spring-assist actuator is developed based on the analysis on the stiffness of the knee and hip joints during walking. "COWALK-Mobile," which is a wearable robotic orthosis, is developed using the spring-assist actuators to reduce the required motor torque during walking. The COWALK-Mobile has active hip and knee joints and passive ankle joints to provide assistive torque to the wearer. The required joint torque is generated by the spring as well as the electrical motor, which results in a decrease of maximum required torque for the motor. In order to evaluate the performance of the spring-assist actuator, experiments are carried out. The experiments show that the spring-assist actuators reduced the required motor torque during walking.

  1. Effects of Custom-Made Rigid Foot Orthosis on Pes Planus in Children Over 6 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Bong-Ok; Lim, Jun-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the effects of a custom-made rigid foot orthosis (RFO) in children over six years old with pes planus. Methods The medical records of 39 children (mean age, 10.3±4.09 years) diagnosed with pes planus, fitted with RFOs, and had who more than two consecutive radiological studies were reviewed. The resting calcaneal stance position (RCSP), anteroposterior talocalcaneal angle (APTCA), lateral talocalcaneal angle (LTTCA), the lateral talometatarsal angle (LTTMA), and calcaneal pitch (CP) of both feet were measured to evaluate foot alignment. After diagnosis, children were fitted with a pair of RFOs and recommended to walk with heel strike and reciprocal arm swing to normalize the gait pattern. A follow-up clinical evaluation with radiological measurements was performed after 12-18 months and after 24 months of RFO application. Post-hoc analysis was used to test for significant differences between the radiological indicators and RCSP. Results With RFOs, all radiological indicators changed in the corrective direction except LTTCA. RCSP and CP in the third measurement showed significant improvement in comparison with the second and baseline measurements. Additionally, APTCA and LTTMA revealed improvements at the third measurement versus the baseline measurements. Conclusion This study revealed that radiological indicators improved significantly after 24 months of RFO application. A prospective long-term controlled study with radiographical evaluation is necessary to confirm the therapeutic effects of RFOs and to determine the optimal duration of wear in children with pes planus. PMID:25024961

  2. [Mental activity hand orthosis control using the EEG: a case study].

    PubMed

    Pfurtscheller, G; Müller, G; Korisek, G

    2002-02-01

    A report is given on the realization of a steering mechanism of a hand orthosis for a patient with paraplegia. An EEG-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) was used here for the first time, transferring purely mental activity to a control signal. This means that the patient has the capability to open or close the hand orthosis only by imagination of a movement. At this time, after a training period of about four months, the patient is able to move the hand orthosis with a certainty of almost hundred percent. The restored grasp function was verified by a grasp function test. Results are compared to those obtained using a conventional EMG-controlled orthosis.

  3. Restoration of ankle movements with the ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator: a safe and reliable treatment option for permanent central leg palsy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Klaus Daniel; Polanski, Witold Henryk; Schulz, Anne-Kathrin; Jöbges, Michael; Hoff, Hansjoerg; Schackert, Gabriele; Pinzer, Thomas; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The ActiGait drop foot stimulator is a promising technique for restoration of lost ankle function by an implantable hybrid stimulation system. It allows ankle dorsiflexion by active peroneal nerve stimulation during the swing phase of gait. In this paper the authors report the outcome of the first prospective study on a large number of patients with stroke-related drop foot. METHODS Twenty-seven patients who experienced a stroke and with persisting spastic leg paresis received an implantable ActiGait drop foot stimulator for restoration of ankle movement after successful surface test stimulation. After 3 to 5 weeks, the stimulator was activated, and gait speed, gait endurance, and activation time of the system were evaluated and compared with preoperative gait tests. In addition, patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. RESULTS Postoperative gait speed significantly improved from 33.9 seconds per 20 meters to 17.9 seconds per 20 meters (p < 0.0001), gait endurance from 196 meters in 6 minutes to 401 meters in 6 minutes (p < 0.0001), and activation time from 20.5 seconds to 10.6 seconds on average (p < 0.0001). In 2 patients with nerve injury, surgical repositioning of the electrode cuff became necessary. One patient showed a delayed wound healing, and in another patient the system had to be removed because of a wound infection. Marked improvement in mobility, social participation, and quality of life was confirmed by 89% to 96% of patients. CONCLUSIONS The ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator improves gait speed, endurance, and quality of life in patients with stroke-related drop foot. Regarding gait speed, the ActiGait system appears to be advantageous compared with foot orthosis or surface stimulation devices. Randomized trials with more patients and longer observation periods are needed to prove the long-term benefit of this device.

  4. Pneumatically-Powered Orthosis and Electronic Control System for Stroke Patient Rehabilitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    designed to manipulate the upper extremity of stroke patients suffering from hemiplegia . The orthosis, an aluminum structure built to be strapped onto a...the development of a system designed to manipulate the upper extremity of stroke patients suffering from hemiplegia . The orthosis, an aluminum...benefit from such therapy in varying degrees. Stroke often leaves it’s victim suffering from hemiplegia , paralysis of one half of the body. Current

  5. [Antibiotics and gait disorders].

    PubMed

    Gomez-Porro, P; Vinagre-Aragon, A; Zabala-Goiburu, J A

    2016-12-01

    The neurological toxicity of many antibiotics has been reported in a number of articles and clinical notes. In this review antibiotics are classified according to the physiopathogenic mechanism that can give rise to a gait disorder, taking both clinical and experimental data into account. An exhaustive search was conducted in Google Scholar and PubMed with the aim of finding reviews, articles and clinical cases dealing with gait disorders secondary to different antibiotics. The different antibiotics were separated according to the physiopathogenic mechanism that could cause them to trigger a gait disorder. They were classified into antibiotics capable of producing cerebellar ataxia, vestibular ataxia, sensitive ataxia or an extrapyramidal gait disorder. The main aim was to group all the drugs that can give rise to a gait disorder, in order to facilitate the clinical suspicion and, consequently, the management of patients.

  6. Recognition using gait.

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Mark William

    2007-09-01

    Gait or an individual's manner of walking, is one approach for recognizing people at a distance. Studies in psychophysics and medicine indicate that humans can recognize people by their gait and have found twenty-four different components to gait that taken together make it a unique signature. Besides not requiring close sensor contact, gait also does not necessarily require a cooperative subject. Using video data of people walking in different scenarios and environmental conditions we develop and test an algorithm that uses shape and motion to identify people from their gait. The algorithm uses dynamic time warping to match stored templates against an unknown sequence of silhouettes extracted from a person walking. While results under similar constraints and conditions are very good, the algorithm quickly degrades with varying conditions such as surface and clothing.

  7. Animal Gaits and Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  8. Design optimization of a magnetorheological brake in powered knee orthosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hao; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    Magneto-rheological (MR) fluids have been utilized in devices like orthoses and prostheses to generate controllable braking torque. In this paper, a flat shape rotary MR brake is designed for powered knee orthosis to provide adjustable resistance. Multiple disk structure with interior inner coil is adopted in the MR brake configuration. In order to increase the maximal magnetic flux, a novel internal structure design with smooth transition surface is proposed. Based on this design, a parameterized model of the MR brake is built for geometrical optimization. Multiple factors are considered in the optimization objective: braking torque, weight, and, particularly, average power consumption. The optimization is then performed with Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and the optimal design is obtained among the Pareto-optimal set considering the trade-offs in design objectives.

  9. Experimental evaluation of a portable powered ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Kenneth A; Li, Yifan; Morris, Emily A; Kogler, Géza F; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2011-01-01

    Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) ameliorate the impact of impairments to the lower limb neuromuscular motor system that affect gait. Emerging technologies provide a vision for fully powered, untethered AFOs. The portable powered AFO (PPAFO) provides both plantarflexor and dorsiflexor torque assistance via a bi-directional pneumatic rotary actuator. The system uses a portable pneumatic power source (bottle of compressed CO(2)) and embedded electronics to control foot motion during level walking. Experimental data were collected to demonstrate functionality from two subjects with bilateral impairments to the lower legs. These data demonstrated the PPAFO's ability to provide functional assistance during gait. The stringent design requirements of light weight, small size, high efficiency and low noise make the creation of daily wear assist devices challenging; but once such devices appear, they will present new opportunities for clinical treatment of gait abnormalities.

  10. Voluntary-Driven Elbow Orthosis with Speed-Controlled Tremor Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Herrnstadt, Gil; Menon, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Robotic technology is gradually becoming commonplace in the medical sector and in the service of patients. Medical conditions that have benefited from significant technological development include stroke, for which rehabilitation with robotic devices is administered, and surgery assisted by robots. Robotic devices have also been proposed for assistance of movement disorders. Pathological tremor, among the most common movement disorders, is one such example. In practice, the dissemination and availability of tremor suppression robotic systems has been limited. Devices in the marketplace tend to either be non-ambulatory or to target specific functions, such as eating and drinking. We have developed a one degree-of-freedom (DOF) elbow orthosis that could be worn by an individual with tremor. A speed-controlled, voluntary-driven suppression approach is implemented with the orthosis. Typically tremor suppression methods estimate the tremor component of the signal and produce a canceling counterpart signal. The suggested approach instead estimates the voluntary component of the motion. A controller then actuates the orthosis based on the voluntary signal, while simultaneously rejecting the tremorous motion. In this work, we tested the suppressive orthosis using a one DOF robotic system that simulates the human arm. The suggested suppression approach does not require a model of the human arm. Moreover, the human input along with the orthosis forearm gravitational forces, of non-linear nature, are considered as part of the disturbance to the suppression system. Therefore, the suppression system can be modeled linearly. Nevertheless, the orthosis forearm gravitational forces can be compensated by the suppression system. The electromechanical design of the orthosis is presented, and data from an essential tremor patient is used as the human input. Velocity tracking results demonstrate an RMS error of 0.31 rad/s, and a power spectral density shows a reduction of the tremor

  11. Gait or Walking Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... a device is justified,” says Dr. Aisen. Gait Research & Technology At present, people with walking limitations related to ... independent through physical therapy, exercise, medication, and assistive ... is optimistic that research being done in other conditions, such as spinal ...

  12. Importance of Gait Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... that the prosthetist and therapist remain in close communication when gait train- ing is occurring since any ... of these strategies to get the best outcome. Communication and teamwork between prosthetists and physical thera- pists ...

  13. Symmetrical gait descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  14. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications. PMID:22438763

  15. Gait analysis using wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.

  16. View Invariant Gait Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Richard D.; Goffredo, Michela; Carter, John N.; Nixon, Mark S.

    Recognition by gait is of particular interest since it is the biometric that is available at the lowest resolution, or when other biometrics are (intentionally) obscured. Gait as a biometric has now shown increasing recognition capability. There are many approaches and these show that recognition can achieve excellent performance on current large databases. The majority of these approaches are planar 2D, largely since the early large databases featured subjects walking in a plane normal to the camera view. To extend deployment capability, we need viewpoint invariant gait biometrics. We describe approaches where viewpoint invariance is achieved by 3D approaches or in 2D. In the first group, the identification relies on parameters extracted from the 3D body deformation during walking. These methods use several video cameras and the 3D reconstruction is achieved after a camera calibration process. On the other hand, the 2D gait biometric approaches use a single camera, usually positioned perpendicular to the subject’s walking direction. Because in real surveillance scenarios a system that operates in an unconstrained environment is necessary, many of the recent gait analysis approaches are orientated toward view-invariant gait recognition.

  17. Safety and walking ability of KAFO users with the C-Brace® Orthotronic Mobility System, a new microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis

    PubMed Central

    Pröbsting, Eva; Kannenberg, Andreas; Zacharias, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are clear indications for benefits of stance control orthoses compared to locked knee ankle foot orthoses. However, stance control orthoses still have limited function compared with a sound human leg. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis compared to stance control orthoses and locked knee ankle foot orthoses in activities of daily living. Study design: Survey of lower limb orthosis users before and after fitting of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis. Methods: Thirteen patients with various lower limb pareses completed a baseline survey for their current orthotic device (locked knee ankle foot orthosis or stance control orthosis) and a follow-up for the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with the Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire, a new self-reported outcome measure devised by modifying the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire for use in lower limb orthotics and the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire. Results: The Orthosis Evaluation Questionnaire results demonstrated significant improvements by microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis use in the total score and the domains of ambulation (p = .001), paretic limb health (p = .04), sounds (p = .02), and well-being (p = .01). Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire results showed significant improvements with the microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis with regard to perceived safety and difficulty of activities of daily living. Conclusion: The microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis may facilitate an easier, more physiological, and safer execution of many activities of daily living compared to traditional leg orthosis technologies. Clinical relevance This study compared patient-reported outcomes of a microprocessor stance and swing control orthosis (C-Brace) to those with traditional knee ankle foot orthosis and stance control orthosis

  18. Performance assessment of a brain-computer interface driven hand orthosis.

    PubMed

    King, Christine E; Dave, Kunal R; Wang, Po T; Mizuta, Masato; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Do, An H; Moromugi, Shunji; Nenadic, Zoran

    2014-10-01

    Stroke survivors are typically affected by hand motor impairment. Despite intensive rehabilitation and spontaneous recovery, improvements typically plateau a year after a stroke. Therefore, novel approaches capable of restoring or augmenting lost motor behaviors are needed. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) may offer one such approach by using neurophysiological activity underlying hand movements to control an upper extremity orthosis. To test the performance of such a system, we developed an electroencephalogram-based BCI controlled electrically actuated hand orthosis. Six able-bodied participants voluntarily grasped/relaxed one hand to elicit BCI-mediated closing/opening of the orthosis mounted on the opposite hand. Following a short training/calibration procedure, participants demonstrated real-time, online control of the orthosis by following computer cues. Their performances resulted in an average of 1.15 (standard deviation: 0.85) false alarms and 0.22 (0.36) omissions per minute. Analysis of signals from electrogoniometers mounted on both hands revealed an average correlation between voluntary and BCI-mediated movements of 0.58 (0.13), with all but one online performance being statistically significant. This suggests that a BCI driven hand orthosis is feasible, and therefore should be tested in stroke individuals with hand weakness. If proven viable, this technology may provide a novel approach to the neuro-rehabilitation of hand function after stroke.

  19. Climbing favours the tripod gait over alternative faster insect gaits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdya, Pavan; Thandiackal, Robin; Cherney, Raphael; Asselborn, Thibault; Benton, Richard; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Floreano, Dario

    2017-02-01

    To escape danger or catch prey, running vertebrates rely on dynamic gaits with minimal ground contact. By contrast, most insects use a tripod gait that maintains at least three legs on the ground at any given time. One prevailing hypothesis for this difference in fast locomotor strategies is that tripod locomotion allows insects to rapidly navigate three-dimensional terrain. To test this, we computationally discovered fast locomotor gaits for a model based on Drosophila melanogaster. Indeed, the tripod gait emerges to the exclusion of many other possible gaits when optimizing fast upward climbing with leg adhesion. By contrast, novel two-legged bipod gaits are fastest on flat terrain without adhesion in the model and in a hexapod robot. Intriguingly, when adhesive leg structures in real Drosophila are covered, animals exhibit atypical bipod-like leg coordination. We propose that the requirement to climb vertical terrain may drive the prevalence of the tripod gait over faster alternative gaits with minimal ground contact.

  20. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  1. The Effect of the Cervical Orthosis on Swallowing Physiology and Cervical Spine Motion During Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Mekata, Kojiro; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Matsubayashi, Jun; Toda, Kazukiyo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yasuo

    2016-02-01

    Cervical orthosis is used to immobilize the neck in various disorders such as trauma and post-operation. However, it is still uncertain how cervical orthosis restricts the degree of movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and how they affect swallowing physiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these issues using the Philadelphia(®) Collar. We conducted videofluorography of swallowing in 39 healthy subjects (23 men, 16 women; mean age of 34.3 years) with and without cervical orthosis. To compare the two conditions regarding the cervical spine motion, we determined the angular and positional changes of the occipital bone (C0) and each cervical vertebra (C1-C7) from the oral phase to the pharyngeal phase. Similarly, to compare swallowing physiology, we assessed the start and end times and the durations of soft palate elevation, rapid hyoid anterosuperior movement, epiglottis inversion, closure of the laryngeal vestibule, and pharyngoesophageal segment (PES) opening. Finally, we compared the transit times of contrast agent in the two conditions. The respective extensions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.31°, 0.07°, and 0.05° (mean) with cervical orthosis, and the respective flexions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.98°, 1.42°, and 0.85° (mean) without. These results suggested that cervical orthosis restricted the flexion of C1-C3. Analysis of swallowing physiology revealed that the average durations of hyoid anterosuperior elevation, epiglottic inversion, and PES opening were prolonged by 0.09, 0.19, and 0.05 s, respectively. In conclusion, the cervical orthosis restricted the movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and changed swallowing physiology.

  2. Role of ankle foot orthosis in improving locomotion and functional recovery in patients with stroke: A prospective rehabilitation study

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayan, H.; Gupta, Anupam; Khanna, Meeka; Taly, Arun B.; Thennarasu, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study role of ankle foot orthosis (AFO) in improving locomotion and functional recovery after stroke. Setting: Neurological Rehabilitation Department of a university research tertiary hospital. Patients and Methods: AFO and activity based rehabilitation. Main Outcome Measures: Distance (meters) covered during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and speed (meter/second) during the 10-meter walk test. Functional abilities assessed using Functional Independence Measure (FIM®). Results: Twenty-six patients (21 male) with stroke (mean duration 196.7 days, range 45–360 days) and mean age of 41.6 years (range 18–65 years, standard deviation [SD] 12.5) were included. Fourteen had right hemiplegia. The mean length of stay in the unit was 26.5 days (range 18–45 days, SD 5.5). All patients had equinus deformity with spastic foot drop and were provided with AFO. Walking endurance with 6MWT was 90 m on admission (without AFO). At discharge, it improved to 174 m with AFO and 121 m without AFOs (P < 0.001-with and without AFO at discharge). Walking speed improved from 0.4 m/s (admission) to 0.51 m/s with AFO, P = 0.004 and 0.45 m/s without AFO, P = 0.015) at discharge. Nine patients (34.6%) had clinically important difference-minimal clinically important difference (>0.16 m/s speed gain; >50 m endurance gain) at discharge. The mean FIM® score on admission was 84.3 ± 18.6. At discharge FIM® improved to 101.9 ± 13.7 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Use of AFOs improve gait parameters significantly in only one-third stroke patients in the study when combined with activity-based inpatient-rehabilitation. PMID:27695234

  3. Effects of treadmill inclination on the gait of children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodenbusch, Thayse L M; Ribeiro, Tatiana S; Simão, Camila R; Britto, Heloisa M J S; Tudella, Eloisa; Lindquist, Ana R

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of upward treadmill inclination on the gait of children with Down syndrome (DS). Sixteen children with a mean age 8.43 ± 2.25 years, classified at level I of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and able to walk without personal assistance and/or assistive devices/orthosis were evaluated. Spatial-temporal variables were observed as well as the angular variation of hip, knee and ankle in the sagittal plane, while children walked on the treadmill carried out on 0% and 10% upward inclination. The results showed that children with DS presented changes in spatio-temporal variables (reduced cadence and increased cycle time and swing time) and in angular variables (increased hip, knee and ankle angles at initial contact; increased maximum hip flexion and maximum stance dorsiflexion; and reduced plantarflexion at pre-swing). Treadmill inclination seemed to act positively on the angular and spatio-temporal characteristics of gait in children with DS, demonstrating a possible benefit from the use of this type of surface in the gait rehabilitation of this population.

  4. Does robot-assisted gait rehabilitation improve balance in stroke patients? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Swinnen, Eva; Beckwée, David; Meeusen, Romain; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the improvements in balance after robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) in stroke patients. Two databases were searched: PubMed and Web of Knowledge. The most important key words are "stroke," "RAGT," "balance," "Lokomat," and "gait trainer." Studies were included if stroke patients were involved in RAGT protocols, and balance was determined as an outcome measurement. The articles were checked for methodological quality by 2 reviewers (Cohen's κ = 0.72). Nine studies were included (7 true experimental and 2 pre-experimental studies; methodological quality score, 56%-81%). In total, 229 subacute or chronic stroke patients (70.5% male) were involved in RAGT (3 to 5 times per week, 3 to 10 weeks, 12 to 25 sessions). In 5 studies, the gait trainer was used; in 2, the Lokomat was used; in 1 study, a single-joint wearable knee orthosis was used; and in 1 study, the AutoAmbulator was used. Eight studies compared RAGT with other gait rehabilitation methods. Significant improvements (no to large effect sizes, Cohen's d = 0.01 to 3.01) in balance scores measured with the Berg Balance Scale, the Tinetti test, postural sway tests, and the Timed Up and Go test were found after RAGT. No significant differences in balance between the intervention and control groups were reported. RAGT can lead to improvements in balance in stroke patients; however, it is not clear whether the improvements are greater compared with those associated with other gait rehabilitation methods. Because a limited number of studies are available, more specific research (eg, randomized controlled trials with larger, specific populations) is necessary to draw stronger conclusions.

  5. Analysis, design and development of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic knee-ankle-foot orthosis prototype for myopathic patients.

    PubMed

    Granata, C; De Lollis, A; Campo, G; Piancastelli, L; Merlini, L

    1990-01-01

    A traditional knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) for myopathic patients has been studied for the assessment of loads and fatigue resistance. Starting from this basis a thermoplastic matrix carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite (CFRP) KAFO has been developed in order to reduce the weight. A finite-element simulation programme for deformation analysis was used to compare the behaviour of conventional and CFRP orthosis. There were no breakages either of the prototype or of its parts. The CFRP orthosis allows a weight reduction of more than 40 per cent.

  6. A new powered orthosis with hip and ankle linkage for paraplegics walking.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Chikara; Hisada, Shinnosuke; Obinata, Goro; Genda, Eiichi

    2013-06-01

    Several types of hip-knee-ankle-foot orthotic systems have been proposed for paraplegic walking during these decades. Hip and ankle linked orthosis (HALO) is compact one in those orthoses, which seeks to achieve a smoother-movement and user-easiness on its don/doff in paraplegic walking. The idea of HALO is to link two ankle joints with medial single joint via wires so that the orthosis keeps both feet always parallel to the floor while walking and assist the swinging of the leg. So as to reduce the consumption energy of HALO walking, we have introduced two actuators to control the ankle-joints angles in this paper. The actuators placed at hip joint in HALO allow the orthosis to have more degree-of-freedom and are able to provide a propulsive force the coupled user-orthosis system. The results of preliminary experiments with normal subjects show that the users can walk smoother and the proposed orthotic system will be able to reduce the users' consumption energy while walking.

  7. The influence of dynamic orthosis training on upper extremity function after stroke: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Rocha, Daniel Neves; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Pinotti, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the use of a dynamic orthosis on upper extremity function in chronic stroke patients. A case series approach was utilized, with provision of a training program (3x/week, 50 minutes/session for 8 weeks) and employment of a dynamic orthosis. Six volunteers with persistent hemiparesis due to a single, unilateral stroke performed task-oriented movements with the aid of a dynamic orthosis. Tests were administered before and after training. Functional capacity was assessed using the TEMPA (Test d'Évaluation des Membres Supérieurs de Personnes Âgées) test. The Wilcoxon test was used for pre-training and post-training comparisons of TEMPA scores. The volunteers showed significant improvement of upper extremity function in the performance of a bilateral task (p = 0.01) and three unilateral tasks (p = 0.04). This pilot study suggests that the dynamic orthosis associated with the performance of functional tasks can have positive outcomes regarding the improvement of functional capacity of upper extremity.

  8. Three dimensional design, simulation and optimization of a novel, universal diabetic foot offloading orthosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumar, Chand; Ramachandran, K. I.

    2016-09-01

    Leg amputation is a major consequence of aggregated foot ulceration in diabetic patients. A common sense based treatment approach for diabetic foot ulceration is foot offloading where the patient is required to wear a foot offloading orthosis during the entire treatment course. Removable walker is an excellent foot offloading modality compared to the golden standard solution - total contact cast and felt padding. Commercially available foot offloaders are generally customized with huge cost and less patient compliance. This work suggests an optimized 3D model of a new type light weight removable foot offloading orthosis for diabetic patients. The device has simple adjustable features which make this suitable for wide range of patients with weight of 35 to 74 kg and height of 137 to 180 cm. Foot plate of this orthosis is unisexual, with a size adjustability of (US size) 6 to 10. Materials like Aluminum alloy 6061-T6, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polyurethane acted as the key player in reducing weight of the device to 0.804 kg. Static analysis of this device indicated that maximum stress developed in this device under a load of 1000 N is only 37.8 MPa, with a small deflection of 0.150 cm and factor of safety of 3.28, keeping the safety limits, whereas dynamic analysis results assures the load bearing capacity of this device. Thus, the proposed device can be safely used as an orthosis for offloading diabetic ulcerated foot.

  9. A Robotic Exoskeleton for Treatment of Crouch Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Design and Initial Application.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Zachary; Damiano, Diane; Park, Hyung-Soon; Gravunder, Andrew; Bulea, Thomas

    2016-07-27

    Crouch gait, a pathological pattern of walking characterized by excessive knee flexion, is one of the most common gait disorders observed in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Effective treatment of crouch during childhood is critical to maintain mobility into adulthood, yet current interventions do not adequately alleviate crouch in most individuals. Powered exoskeletons provide an untapped opportunity for intervention. The multiple contributors to crouch, including spasticity, contracture, muscle weakness, and poor motor control make design and control of such devices challenging in this population. To our knowledge, no evidence exists regarding the feasibility or efficacy of utilizing motorized assistance to alleviate knee flexion in crouch gait. Here, we present the design of and first results from a powered exoskeleton for extension assistance as a treatment for crouch gait in children with CP. Our exoskeleton, based on the architecture of a knee-ankle-foot orthosis, is lightweight (3.2 kg) and modular. On board sensors enable knee extension assistance to be provided during distinct phases of the gait cycle. We tested our device on one 6 year old male participant with spastic diplegia from CP. Our results show that the powered exoskeleton improved knee extension during stance by 18.1° while total knee range of motion improved 21.0°. Importantly, we observed no significant decrease in knee extensor muscle activity, indicating the user did not rely solely on the exoskeleton to extend the limb. These results establish the initial feasibility of robotic exoskeletons for treatment of crouch and provide impetus for continued investigation of these devices with the aim of deployment for long term gait training in this population.

  10. Design and performance characterization of a hand orthosis prototype to aid activities of daily living in a post-stroke population.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Benjamin W; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a hand orthosis prototype intended to assist persons with hand paresis, as a result of stroke, perform activities of daily living. Among its attributes, the orthosis is characterized by a low mass and small profile, while still offering the power assistance of a robotic exoskeleton. Experimental characterization of the orthosis is presented, including its mass, envelope dimensions, motion bandwidth, and joint torque characteristics.

  11. The effect of a powered ankle foot orthosis on walking in a stroke subject: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Pourghasem, Ali; Takamjani, Ismail Ebrahimi; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Kamali, Mohammad; Jannesari, Mohammad; Salafian, Iman

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Standing and walking are impaired in stroke patients. Therefore, assisted devices are required to restore their walking abilities. The ankle foot orthosis with an external powered source is a new type of orthosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a powered ankle foot orthosis compared with unpowered orthoses in a stroke patient. [Subjects and Methods] A single stroke subject participated in this study. The subject was fitted with three types of ankle foot orthosis (powered, posterior leg spring, and carbon ankle foot orthoses). He was asked to walk with and without the three types of orthoses, and kinetic and kinematic parameters were measured. [Results] The results of the study showed that the moments applied on the ankle, knee, and hip joints increased while walking with the powered ankle foot orthosis. [Conclusion] As the powered ankle foot orthosis influences the moments of the ankle, knee, and hip joints, it can increase the standing and walking abilities of stroke patients more than other available orthoses. Therefore, it is recommended to be used in rehabilitation programs for stroke patients. PMID:27942156

  12. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0870 TITLE: Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool...Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0870 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Rajankumar...produce a computer-based Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool to aid in the training of clinicians at military treatment facilities providing care for

  13. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    study is to produce a computer-based Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool to aid in the training of clinicians at military treatment facilities...providing care for wounded service members. In Phase I of the effort, significant work was completed at the University of Iowa Center for Computer- Aided ...Gait Training Tool Introduction The objective of our study is to produce a computer-based Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool (APGTT) to aid in

  14. Gait and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach.

  15. Climbing favours the tripod gait over alternative faster insect gaits

    PubMed Central

    Ramdya, Pavan; Thandiackal, Robin; Cherney, Raphael; Asselborn, Thibault; Benton, Richard; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Floreano, Dario

    2017-01-01

    To escape danger or catch prey, running vertebrates rely on dynamic gaits with minimal ground contact. By contrast, most insects use a tripod gait that maintains at least three legs on the ground at any given time. One prevailing hypothesis for this difference in fast locomotor strategies is that tripod locomotion allows insects to rapidly navigate three-dimensional terrain. To test this, we computationally discovered fast locomotor gaits for a model based on Drosophila melanogaster. Indeed, the tripod gait emerges to the exclusion of many other possible gaits when optimizing fast upward climbing with leg adhesion. By contrast, novel two-legged bipod gaits are fastest on flat terrain without adhesion in the model and in a hexapod robot. Intriguingly, when adhesive leg structures in real Drosophila are covered, animals exhibit atypical bipod-like leg coordination. We propose that the requirement to climb vertical terrain may drive the prevalence of the tripod gait over faster alternative gaits with minimal ground contact. PMID:28211509

  16. Robotic-assisted gait training improves walking abilities in diplegic children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Wallard, L; Dietrich, G; Kerlirzin, Y; Bredin, J

    2017-02-02

    The robotic-assisted gait training therapy (RAGT), based on intensity and repetition of movement, presents beneficial effects on recovery and improvement of postural and locomotor functions of the patient. This study sought to highlight the effect of this RAGT on the dynamic equilibrium control during walking in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) by analyzing the different postural strategies of the fullbody (upper/lower body) before and after this RAGT in order to generate forward motion while maintaining balance. Data were collected by a motion analysis system (Vicon(®) - Oxford Metrics). Thirty children with bilateral spastic CP were evaluated using a full-body marker set which allows assessing both the lower and upper limb kinematics. The children were divided into two groups in such a way as to obtain a randomized controlled population: i) a group of fourteen children (Treated Group) underwent 20 sessions of RAGT using the driven gait orthosis Lokomat(®)Pediatric (Hocoma) compared to ii) a group of sixteen children without sessions of Lokomat(®)Pediatric (Control Group) receiving only daily physiotherapy. Significant improvements are observed between the TG pre- and post-test values of i) the kinematic data of the full-body in the sagittal and frontal planes and ii) the Gross Motor Function Measure test (D and E). This study shows the usefulness of this RAGT mainly in the balance control in gait. Indeed, the Treated Group use new dynamic strategies of gait that are especially characterized by a more appropriate control of the upper body associated with an improvement of the lower limbs kinematics.

  17. The effects of rocker sole and SACH heel on kinematics in gait.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Su, Fong-Chin

    2004-10-01

    The rocker sole and solid-ankle cushion-heel (SACH) heels are the most commonly prescribed external shoe modification. Only a limited number of scientific evidence exists to support these interventions in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rocker soles and SACH heels on kinematics during gait. In this study, we investigated the gait parameters during level walking, stair climbing and stair descending in healthy volunteers and assessed the effects of the modified shoes on the motion of the forefoot and hindfoot compared with the traditional shoes. Eleven normal subjects participated in this study. A six-camera motion analysis system was used to capture motion trajectories. The three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of the markers were used to calculate the angles of flexion-extension, valgus-varus, and internal-external rotation at the hindfoot and forefoot joints in a gait cycle by the custom software for foot kinematic analysis. The results showed that the rocker soles offer several advantages from the viewpoint of gait kinematics. The forefoot joint excursion in sagittal plane while wearing rocker shoes was significantly less than that while wearing traditional shoes during level walking, stair climbing and stair descending. It means that they could mimic the action of the forefoot joint, aid in roll off, and simulate forefoot dorsiflexion. Since the bony structures mechanically link the forefoot joint and hindfoot joint to a triplanar axis of motion, they could be used whenever there is minimal or no motion at the forefoot joint or hindfoot joint, because of, for example, fusion, fracture, cast immobilization, orthosis design, pain, or arthritis.

  18. Expressing gait-line symmetry in able-bodied gait

    PubMed Central

    Jeleń, Piotr; Wit, Andrzej; Dudziński, Krzysztof; Nolan, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Background Gait-lines, or the co-ordinates of the progression of the point of application of the vertical ground reaction force, are a commonly reported parameter in most in-sole measuring systems. However, little is known about what is considered a "normal" or "abnormal" gait-line pattern or level of asymmetry. Furthermore, no reference databases on healthy young populations are available for this parameter. Thus the aim of this study is to provide such reference data in order to allow this tool to be better used in gait analysis. Methods Vertical ground reaction force data during several continuous gait cycles were collected using a Computer Dyno Graphy in-sole system® for 77 healthy young able-bodied subjects. A curve (termed gait-line) was obtained from the co-ordinates of the progression of the point of application of the force. An Asymmetry Coefficient Curve (AsC) was calculated between the mean gait-lines for the left and right foot for each subject. AsC limits of ± 1.96 and 3 standard deviations (SD) from the mean were then calculated. Gait-line data from 5 individual subjects displaying pathological gait due to disorders relating to the discopathy of the lumbar spine (three with considerable plantarflexor weakness, two with considerable dorsiflexor weakness) were compared to the AsC results from the able-bodied group. Results The ± 1.96 SD limit suggested that non-pathological gait falls within 12–16% asymmetry for gait-lines. Those exhibiting pathological gait fell outside both the ± 1.96 and ± 3SD limits at several points during stance. The subjects exhibiting considerable plantarflexor weakness all fell outside the ± 1.96SD limit from 30–50% of foot length to toe-off while those exhibiting considerable dorsiflexor weakness fell outside the ± 1.96SD limit between initial contact to 25–40% of foot length, and then surpassed the ± 3SD limit after 55–80% of foot length. Conclusion This analysis of gait-line asymmetry provides a reference

  19. Design of a controlled-energy-dissipation orthosis (CEDO) for functional suppression of intention tremors.

    PubMed

    Rosen, M J; Arnold, A S; Baiges, I J; Aisen, M L; Eglowstein, S R

    1995-02-01

    Conventional neurological practice is generally not successful in restoring independent upper extremity function to people with disabiling tremors. The authors have been investigating an orthotic approach, the application of energy-dissipating loads to affected limbs, to allow voluntary intent to be expressed while attenuating tremor. CEDO 1 is a prototype Controlled-Energy-Dissipation Orthosis, which permits the 3 degrees of freedom (dof) needed for table-top activities. It mounts to the user's chair or table and applies velocity-proportional resistance to his/her forearm by means of computer-controlled magnetic particle brakes. The design incorporates a stiff linkage transmission to the elbow brake of the orthosis, allowing it to be fixed in the frame of reference. This eliminates its inertia from the moving linkage and provides virtually direct drive in all 3 dof. Initial experimental results show selective clinically significant tremor reduction during experimental tracking tasks.

  20. The "baseball cap orthosis": a simple solution for dropped head syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fast, Avital; Thomas, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a well-recognized condition characterized by gradual sagging of the head. At the extreme, the condition may lead to a "chin on chest deformity" where the chin rests on the chest wall and the patient is unable to look straight ahead. Dropped head syndrome tends to develop in patients with severe weakness of the neck extensors. Various neuromuscular disorders and surgical procedures may compromise the stability of the cervical spine and lead to this disorder. The condition may severely compromise the patient's quality of life and result in significant disability. A simple device-the "baseball cap orthosis"-was developed to help patients maintain their head in the upright position. Two patients with DHS who were provided with the baseball cap orthosis are presented.

  1. Unilateral compression neuropathy of the hypoglossal nerve due to head suspension orthosis in mitochondriopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Hess, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    An 85-year-old woman with multisystem mitochondriopathy experienced tension headache, cervical pain, torque head-posture, and vertigo since 1980 for which she was continuously wearing a head-suspension-orthosis- since 1990. Since 1996 she developed severe left-sided weakness and wasting of the tongue. Needle-EMG of the left genioglossus muscle revealed abnormal spontaneous activity and reduced interference-pattern. No morphological alterations in the anatomical course of the hypoglossal nerve were found. Severe, unilateral weakness and wasting of the tongue was interpreted due to chronic compression of the hypoglossal nerve by long-standing use of a head-suspension-orthosis for cervical pain from cervical muscle weakness and resulting spinal degeneration.

  2. Contributions to the understanding of gait control.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Erik Bruun

    2014-04-01

    foot to the ground with the heel first. Moreover, they have to increase flexion of the hip joint during the swing phase because the foot hangs in a plantar flexed position. It was shown that the ankle joint plantar flexor moment increased in the healthy leg and that the knee joint extensor moment increased significantly in both the affected and the healthy leg. The latter is most likely due to the patients trying to avoid an asymmetrical gait pattern. It is recommended to use an orthosis with drop-foot patients in order to keep the ankle joint dorsiflexed prior to touchdown, otherwise bone-on-bone forces in both knee joints will increase and probably lead to osteoarthritis. The hip joint moment varies less between individuals. However, both during walking and running an unexplained hip joint flexor moment is present during the last half of the stance phase. The moment appears to oppose the speed of progression and it has been suggested that it serves to balance the upper body. This was investigated in a group of healthy subjects who were asked to walk with their upper body in a reclined, inclined and normal position, respectively. It was shown that the hip joint flexor moment was similar in the reclined and the normal position but lower when walking in the inclined position and it can be concluded that the upper body is not balanced by hip joint flexor muscles but rather by accelerations of the pelvis and activity in abdominal and back muscles. These experiments also showed that the trailing leg is brought forward during the swing phase without activity in the flexor muscles about the hip joint. This was verified by the absence of EMG activity in the iliacus muscle measured by intramuscular wire electrodes. Instead the strong ligaments restricting hip joint extension are stretched during the first half of the swing phase thereby storing elastic energy, which is released during the last half of the stance phase and accelerating the leg into the swing phase. This is

  3. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP) with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE) process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer) is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities. PMID:27594781

  4. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process.

    PubMed

    Baronio, Gabriele; Harran, Sami; Signoroni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP) with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE) process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer) is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities.

  5. Three-dimensional finite element stress analysis of the polypropylene, ankle-foot orthosis: static analysis.

    PubMed

    Chu, T M; Reddy, N P; Padovan, J

    1995-07-01

    An asymmetric 3-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) together with the ankle-foot complex was developed using the computer aided design (CAD) program PATRAN. Static analysis of normal and pathological motions of the ankle-foot complex such as the "drop-foot" problem were conducted using the FEM program ADINA. A total of 313 three dimensional solid elements and 10 truss elements were used. Heel strike and toe-off condition were simulated. Results revealed that the peak compressive stress (1.6 MPa) in the AFO model occurred in the heel regions of the AFO and the maximum tensile stress (0.8 MPa) occurred in the neck region of the AFO during toe-off. Parametric analyses revealed that the model was sensitive to the elastic moduli of the AFO and of the soft tissue, but was relatively insensitive to the ligament stiffness. The results confirmed the hypothesis that peak stresses in the orthosis occur in the heal and neck regions of the orthosis.

  6. Effects of acceleration on gait measures in three horse gaits.

    PubMed

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Zarski, Lila; Aerts, Peter; Clayton, Hilary

    2015-05-01

    Animals switch gaits according to locomotor speed. In terrestrial locomotion, gaits have been defined according to footfall patterns or differences in center of mass (COM) motion, which characterizes mechanisms that are more general and more predictive than footfall patterns. This has generated different variables designed primarily to evaluate steady-speed locomotion, which is easier to standardize in laboratory conditions. However, in the ecology of an animal, steady-state conditions are rare and the ability to accelerate, decelerate and turn is essential. Currently, there are no data available that have tested whether COM variables can be used in accelerative or decelerative conditions. This study used a data set of kinematics and kinetics of horses using three gaits (walk, trot, canter) to evaluate the effects of acceleration (both positive and negative) on commonly used gait descriptors. The goal was to identify variables that distinguish between gaits both at steady state and during acceleration/deceleration. These variables will either be unaffected by acceleration or affected by it in a predictable way. Congruity, phase shift and COM velocity angle did not distinguish between gaits when the dataset included trials in unsteady conditions. Work (positive and negative) and energy recovery distinguished between gaits and showed a clear relationship with acceleration. Hodographs are interesting graphical representations to study COM mechanics, but they are descriptive rather than quantitative. Force angle, collision angle and collision fraction showed a U-shaped relationship with acceleration and seem promising tools for future research in unsteady conditions.

  7. Experimental and computational analysis of composite ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dequan; He, Tao; Dailey, Michael; Smith, Kirk E; Silva, Matthew J; Sinacore, David R; Mueller, Michael J; Hastings, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fiber (CF) ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) can improve gait by increasing ankle plantar-flexor power and improving plantar-flexor ankle joint moment and energy efficiency compared with posterior leaf spring AFOs made of thermoplastic. However, fabricating a CF AFO to optimize the performance of the individual user may require multiple AFOs and expensive fabrication costs. Finite element analysis (FEA) models were developed to predict the mechanical behavior of AFOs in this study. Three AFOs, two made of CF composite material and one made of thermoplastic material, were fabricated and then mechanically tested to produce force-displacement data. The FEA models were validated by comparing model predictions with mechanical testing data performed under the same loading and boundary conditions. The actual mechanical testing demonstrated that CF performs better than thermoplastic. The simulation results showed that FEA models produced accurate predictions for both types of orthoses. The relative error of the energy return ratio predicted by the CF AFO FEA model developed in this study is less than 3%. We conclude that highly accurate FEA models will allow orthotists to improve CF AFO fabrication without wasting resources (time and money) on trial and error fabrications that are expensive and do not consistently improve AFO and user performance.

  8. GaitKeeper: A System for Measuring Canine Gait.

    PubMed

    Ladha, Cassim; O'Sullivan, Jack; Belshaw, Zoe; Asher, Lucy

    2017-02-08

    It is understood gait has the potential to be used as a window into neurodegenerative disorders, identify markers of subclinical pathology, inform diagnostic algorithms of disease progression and measure the efficacy of interventions. Dogs' gaits are frequently assessed in a veterinary setting to detect signs of lameness. Despite this, a reliable, affordable and objective method to assess lameness in dogs is lacking. Most described canine lameness assessments are subjective, unvalidated and at high risk of bias. This means reliable, early detection of canine gait abnormalities is challenging, which may have detrimental implications for dogs' welfare. In this paper, we draw from approaches and technologies used in human movement science and describe a system for objectively measuring temporal gait characteristics in dogs (step-time, swing-time, stance-time). Asymmetries and variabilities in these characteristics are of known clinical significance when assessing lameness but presently may only be assessed on coarse scales or under highly instrumented environments. The system consists an inertial measurement unit, containing a 3-axis accelerometer and gyroscope coupled with a standardized walking course. The measurement unit is attached to each leg of the dog under assessment before it is walked around the course. The data by the measurement unit is then processed to identify steps and subsequently, micro-gait characteristics. This method has been tested on a cohort of 19 healthy dogs of various breeds ranging in height from 34.2 cm to 84.9 cm. We report the system as capable of making precise step delineations with detections of initial and final contact times of foot-to-floor to a mean precision of 0.011 s and 0.048 s, respectively. Results are based on analysis of 12,678 foot falls and we report a sensitivity, positive predictive value and F-score of 0.81, 0.83 and 0.82 respectively. To investigate the effect of gait on system performance, the approach was tested

  9. One- or Two-Legged Standing: What Is the More Suitable Protocol to Assess the Postural Effects of the Rigid Ankle Orthosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rougier, Patrice; Genthon, Nicolas; Gallois-Montbrun, Thibault; Brugiere, Steve; Bouvat, Eric

    2009-01-01

    To highlight the capacity of one- and two-legged standing protocols when assessing postural behavior induced by a rigid ankle orthosis, 14 healthy individuals stood upright barefoot and wore either an elastic stocking on the preferred leg or a rigid orthosis with or without additional taping in one- or two-legged (TL) conditions. Traditional…

  10. Design and construction of custom-made neoprene thumb carpo-metacarpal orthosis with thermoplastic stabilization for first carpo-metacarpal joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bani, Monireh Ahmadi; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Curran, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with first carpo-metacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) often experience pain and difficulty with functional activities. Thus, designing orthotics to improve function and decrease pain is common practice. These therapists designed an orthosis using a combination of neoprene and thermoplastic materials to create a soft orthosis that provides support to the first CMC joint - Victoria Priganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT.

  11. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis.

  12. A Newly Designed Tennis Elbow Orthosis With a Traditional Tennis Elbow Strap in Patients With Lateral Epicondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Saremi, Hossein; Chamani, Vahid; Vahab-Kashani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of pain and upper limb dysfunction. The use of counterforce straps for treatment of lateral epicondylitis is widespread. This kind of orthosis can be modified to have a greater effect on relieving pain by reducing tension on the origin of the extensor pronator muscles. Objectives To determine the immediate effects of a newly designed orthosis on pain and grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Materials and Methods Twelve participants (six men and six women) were recruited (mean age = 41 ± 6.7 years) and evaluated for pain and grip strength in three sessions. A 48-hour break was taken between each session. The first session was without any orthosis, the second session was with the new modified tennis elbow orthosis, and the third session was with a conventional tennis elbow strap. Results Both counterforce straps were effective. However, significantly more improvement was observed in pain and grip strength after using the newly modified orthosis (P < 0.05). Conclusions The newly designed strap reduces pain more effectively and improves grip strength by causing greater localized pressure on two regions with different force applications (two component vectors versus one). PMID:28180116

  13. Powered orthosis and attachable power-assist device with Hydraulic Bilateral Servo System.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kengo; Saito, Yukio; Oshima, Toru; Higashihara, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the developments and control strategies of exoskeleton-type robot systems for the application of an upper limb powered orthosis and an attachable power-assist device for care-givers. Hydraulic Bilateral Servo System, which consist of a computer controlled motor, parallel connected hydraulic actuators, position sensors, and pressure sensors, are installed in the system to derive the joint motion of the exoskeleton arm. The types of hydraulic component structure and the control strategy are discussed in relation to the design philosophy and target joints motions.

  14. Gait disturbances in dystrophic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Thomas G; Kale, Ajit; Amende, Ivo; Tang, Wenlong; McCue, Scott; Bhagavan, Hemmi N; VanDongen, Case G

    2011-01-01

    The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient hamster is an excellent model to study muscular dystrophy. Gait disturbances, important clinically, have not been described in this animal model. We applied ventral plane videography (DigiGait) to analyze gait in BIO TO-2 dystrophic and BIO F1B control hamsters walking on a transparent treadmill belt. Stride length was ∼13% shorter (P < .05) in TO-2 hamsters at 9 months of age compared to F1B hamsters. Hindlimb propulsion duration, an indicator of muscle strength, was shorter in 9-month-old TO-2 (247 ± 8 ms) compared to F1B hamsters (272 ± 11 ms; P < .05). Braking duration, reflecting generation of ground reaction forces, was delayed in 9-month-old TO-2 (147 ± 6 ms) compared to F1B hamsters (126 ± 8 ms; P < .05). Hindpaw eversion, evidence of muscle weakness, was greater in 9-month-old TO-2 than in F1B hamsters (17.7 ± 1.2° versus 8.7 ± 1.6°; P < .05). Incline and decline walking aggravated gait disturbances in TO-2 hamsters at 3 months of age. Several gait deficits were apparent in TO-2 hamsters at 1 month of age. Quantitative gait analysis demonstrates that dystrophic TO-2 hamsters recapitulate functional aspects of human muscular dystrophy. Early detection of gait abnormalities in a convenient animal model may accelerate the development of therapies for muscular dystrophy.

  15. Differences in implementation of gait analysis recommendations based on affiliation with a gait laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wren, Tishya A L; Elihu, Koorosh J; Mansour, Shaun; Rethlefsen, Susan A; Ryan, Deirdre D; Smith, Michelle L; Kay, Robert M

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the extent to which gait analysis recommendations are followed by orthopedic surgeons with varying degrees of affiliation with the gait laboratory. Surgical data were retrospectively examined for 95 patients with cerebral palsy who underwent lower extremity orthopedic surgery following gait analysis. Thirty-three patients were referred by two surgeons directly affiliated with the gait laboratory (direct affiliation), 44 were referred by five surgeons from the same institution but not directly affiliated with the gait laboratory (institutional affiliation), and 18 were referred by 10 surgeons from other institutions (no affiliation). Data on specific surgeries were collected from the gait analysis referral, gait analysis report, and operative notes. Adherence to the gait analysis recommendations was calculated by dividing the number of procedures where the surgery followed the gait analysis recommendation (numerator) by the total number of procedures initially planned, recommended by gait analysis, or done (denominator). Adherence with the gait analysis recommendations was 97%, 94%, and 77% for the direct, institutional, and no affiliation groups, respectively. Procedures recommended for additions to the surgical plan were added 98%, 87%, and 77% of the time. Procedures recommended for elimination were dropped 100%, 89%, and 88% of the time. Of 81 patients who had specific surgical plans prior to gait analysis, changes were implemented in 84% (68/81) following gait analysis recommendations. Gait analysis influences the treatment decisions of surgeons regardless of affiliation with the gait laboratory, although the influence is stronger for surgeons who practice within the same institution as the gait laboratory.

  16. Stability in skipping gaits

    PubMed Central

    Blickhan, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway. We used a bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum to model and to describe the dynamics of skipping. The subjects displayed higher peak ground reaction forces and leg stiffness in the first landing leg (trailing leg) compared to the second landing leg (leading leg). In numerical simulations, we found that skipping is stable across an amazing speed range from skipping on the spot to fast running speeds. Higher leg stiffness in the trailing leg permits longer strides at same system energy. However, this strategy is at the same time less robust to sudden drop perturbations than skipping with a stiffer leading leg. A slightly higher stiffness in the leading leg is most robust, but might be costlier. PMID:28018651

  17. Stability in skipping gaits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2016-11-01

    As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway. We used a bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum to model and to describe the dynamics of skipping. The subjects displayed higher peak ground reaction forces and leg stiffness in the first landing leg (trailing leg) compared to the second landing leg (leading leg). In numerical simulations, we found that skipping is stable across an amazing speed range from skipping on the spot to fast running speeds. Higher leg stiffness in the trailing leg permits longer strides at same system energy. However, this strategy is at the same time less robust to sudden drop perturbations than skipping with a stiffer leading leg. A slightly higher stiffness in the leading leg is most robust, but might be costlier.

  18. Stability in skipping gaits.

    PubMed

    Andrada, Emanuel; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2016-11-01

    As an alternative to walking and running, humans are able to skip. However, adult humans avoid it. This fact seems to be related to the higher energetic costs associated with skipping. Still, children, some birds, lemurs and lizards use skipping gaits during daily locomotion. We combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations to test whether stability and robustness motivate this choice. Parameters for modelling were obtained from 10 male subjects. They locomoted using unilateral skipping along a 12 m runway. We used a bipedal spring loaded inverted pendulum to model and to describe the dynamics of skipping. The subjects displayed higher peak ground reaction forces and leg stiffness in the first landing leg (trailing leg) compared to the second landing leg (leading leg). In numerical simulations, we found that skipping is stable across an amazing speed range from skipping on the spot to fast running speeds. Higher leg stiffness in the trailing leg permits longer strides at same system energy. However, this strategy is at the same time less robust to sudden drop perturbations than skipping with a stiffer leading leg. A slightly higher stiffness in the leading leg is most robust, but might be costlier.

  19. GaitKeeper: A System for Measuring Canine Gait

    PubMed Central

    Ladha, Cassim; O’Sullivan, Jack; Belshaw, Zoe; Asher, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    It is understood gait has the potential to be used as a window into neurodegenerative disorders, identify markers of subclinical pathology, inform diagnostic algorithms of disease progression and measure the efficacy of interventions. Dogs’ gaits are frequently assessed in a veterinary setting to detect signs of lameness. Despite this, a reliable, affordable and objective method to assess lameness in dogs is lacking. Most described canine lameness assessments are subjective, unvalidated and at high risk of bias. This means reliable, early detection of canine gait abnormalities is challenging, which may have detrimental implications for dogs’ welfare. In this paper, we draw from approaches and technologies used in human movement science and describe a system for objectively measuring temporal gait characteristics in dogs (step-time, swing-time, stance-time). Asymmetries and variabilities in these characteristics are of known clinical significance when assessing lameness but presently may only be assessed on coarse scales or under highly instrumented environments. The system consists an inertial measurement unit, containing a 3-axis accelerometer and gyroscope coupled with a standardized walking course. The measurement unit is attached to each leg of the dog under assessment before it is walked around the course. The data by the measurement unit is then processed to identify steps and subsequently, micro-gait characteristics. This method has been tested on a cohort of 19 healthy dogs of various breeds ranging in height from 34.2 cm to 84.9 cm. We report the system as capable of making precise step delineations with detections of initial and final contact times of foot-to-floor to a mean precision of 0.011 s and 0.048 s, respectively. Results are based on analysis of 12,678 foot falls and we report a sensitivity, positive predictive value and F-score of 0.81, 0.83 and 0.82 respectively. To investigate the effect of gait on system performance, the approach was

  20. Gait analysis in forensic medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Peter K.; Simonsen, Erik B.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2007-01-01

    We have combined the basic human ability to recognize other individuals with functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge, in order to analyze the gait of perpetrators as recorded on surveillance video. The perpetrators are then compared with similar analyses of suspects. At present we give a statement to the police as to whether the perpetrator has a characteristic gait pattern compared to normal gait, and if a suspect has a comparable gait pattern. We have found agreements such as: limping, varus instability in the knee at heel strike, larger lateral flexion of the spinal column to one side than the other, inverted ankle during stance, pronounced sagittal head-movements, and marked head-shoulder posture. Based on these characteristic features, we state whether suspect and perpetrator could have the same identity but it is not possible to positively identify the perpetrator. Nevertheless, we have been involved in several cases where the court has found that this type of gait analysis, especially combined with photogrammetry, was a valuable tool. The primary requisites are surveillance cameras recording with sufficient frequency, ideally about 15 Hz, which are positioned in frontal and preferably also in profile view.

  1. The Influence of a Prefabricated Foot Orthosis on Lower Extremity Mechanics During Running in Individuals With Varying Dynamic Foot Motion.

    PubMed

    Almonroeder, Thomas G; Benson, Lauren C; O'Connor, Kristian M

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, cross-sectional. Background Orthotic prescription is often based on the premise that the mechanical effects will be more prominent in individuals with greater calcaneal eversion. Objective To compare the effects of a prefabricated foot orthosis on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics between recreational athletes with high and low calcaneal eversion during running. Methods Thirty-one recreational athletes were included in this study. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected while running with and without a foot orthosis. Participants were grouped based on the degree of calcaneal eversion during the running trials relative to a standing trial (dynamic foot motion). The effects of the orthosis on the frontal and transverse plane angles and moments of the hip and knee were compared between the 10 participants with the greatest and least amount of dynamic foot motion. Results There were no significant interactions (group by orthotic condition) for any of the kinematic or kinetic variables of interest. Conclusion The effects of an orthosis on the mechanics of the hip and knee do not appear to be dependent on an individual's dynamic foot motion. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):749-755. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6253.

  2. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of the pyramidal tract can predict the need for orthosis in hemiplegic patients with hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Shinichiro; Osawa, Aiko; Nishio, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshitake; Kigawa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Hidetaka

    2013-10-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate motor functions in stroke patients. The aim of this study was to clarify whether imaging can be used to predict orthotic needs in patients with hemiplegia. We studied 25 patients (age range, 16-78 years) with intracerebral hemorrhages (putamen 15, thalamus 7, frontal subcortex 3). Diffusion tensor MR imaging was undertaken on admission at rehabilitation hospital for stroke patients. The fractional anisotropy (FA) value of the pyramidal tract was calculated. We compared the FA value in the ROI of the cerebral peduncle with the necessity for orthosis at discharge from the rehabilitation hospital. As a result, the FA values of the affected side in patients who needed orthosis at discharge were lower than those in patients who did not need orthosis. There was no significant difference in the FA values of the unaffected side. We concluded that the need for orthosis in patients with hemiplegia after stroke rehabilitation could be predicted using the diffusion tensor MR images of corticospinal tractography.

  3. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trong-Nguyen; Huynh, Huu-Hung; Meunier, Jean

    2016-10-26

    Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton) in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  4. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trong-Nguyen; Huynh, Huu-Hung; Meunier, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton) in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%. PMID:27792181

  5. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  6. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  7. Design and evaluation of a hybrid passive and active gravity neutral orthosis (GNO).

    PubMed

    Koo, Benjamin; Montes, Jacqueline; Gamarnik, Viktor; Yeager, Keith; Marra, Jonathan; Dunaway, Sally; Montgomery, Megan; De Vivo, Darryl C; Strauss, Nancy; Konofagou, Elisa; Kaufmann, Petra; Morrison, Barclay

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular diseases (NMD), including Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), result in progressive muscular weakness that often leaves patients functionally dependent on caregivers for many activities of daily living (ADL) such as eating, bathing, grooming (touching the face and head), reaching (grabbing for objects), and dressing. In severe cases, patients are unable to perform even the simplest of activities from exploring their 3D space to touching their own face. The ability to move and initiate age appropriate tasks, such as playing and exploration, are considered to be of vital importance to both their physical and cognitive development. Therefore, to improve quality of life and reduce dependence on caregivers in children and young adults with NMD, we designed, built and evaluated an assistive, active orthosis to support arm function. The goal of this project is the development and evaluation of a mechanical arm orthosis to both encourage and assist functional arm movement while providing the user a sense of independence and control over one's own body.

  8. The smart Peano fluidic muscle: a low profile flexible orthosis actuator that feels pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, Allan J.; Anderson, Iain A.; Xie, Shane Q.

    2015-03-01

    Robotic orthoses have the potential to provide effective rehabilitation while overcoming the availability and cost constraints of therapists. These orthoses must be characterized by the naturally safe, reliable, and controlled motion of a human therapist's muscles. Such characteristics are only possible in the natural kingdom through the pain sensing realized by the interaction of an intelligent nervous system and muscles' embedded sensing organs. McKibben fluidic muscles or pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) are a popular orthosis actuator because of their inherent compliance, high force, and muscle-like load-displacement characteristics. However, the circular cross-section of PMA increases their profile. PMA are also notoriously unreliable and difficult to control, lacking the intelligent pain sensing systems of their biological muscle counterparts. Here the Peano fluidic muscle, a new low profile yet high-force soft actuator is introduced. This muscle is smart, featuring bioinspired embedded pressure and soft capacitive strain sensors. Given this pressure and strain feedback, experimental validation shows that a lumped parameter model based on the muscle geometry and material parameters can be used to predict its force for quasistatic motion with an average error of 10 - 15N. Combining this with a force threshold pain sensing algorithm sets a precedent for flexible orthosis actuation that uses embedded sensors to prevent damage to the actuator and its environment.

  9. OrthoJacket: an active FES-hybrid orthosis for the paralysed upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Schill, Oliver; Wiegand, Roland; Schmitz, Bastian; Matthies, Richard; Eck, Ute; Pylatiuk, Christian; Reischl, Markus; Schulz, Stefan; Rupp, Rüdiger

    2011-02-01

    The loss of the grasp function in cervical spinal cord injured (SCI) patients leads to life-long dependency on caregivers and to a tremendous decrease of the quality of life. This article introduces the novel non-invasive modular hybrid neuro-orthosis OrthoJacket for the restoration of the restricted or completely lost hand and arm functions in high tetraplegic SCI individuals. The primary goal of the wearable orthosis is to improve the paralysed upper extremity function and, thus, to enhance a patient's independence in activities of daily living. The system combines the advantage of orthotics in mechanically stabilising joints together with the possibilities of functional electrical stimulation for activation of paralysed muscles. In patients with limited capacity, for force generation, flexible fluidic actuators are used to support the movement. Thus, the system is not only intended for functional restoration but also for training. Several sensor systems together with an intelligent signal processing allow for automatic adaptation to the anatomical and neurological individualities of SCI patients. The integration of novel user interfaces based on residual muscle activities and detection of movement intentions by real-time data mining methods will enable the user to autonomously control the system in a natural and cooperative way.

  10. Nonstandard Gaits in Unsteady Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Michael; Rowley, Clarence

    2016-11-01

    Marine biology has long inspired the design and engineering of underwater vehicles. The literature examining the kinematics and dynamics of fishes, ranging from undulatory anguilliform swimmers to oscillatory ostraciiform ones, is vast. Past numerical studies of these organisms have principally focused on gaits characterized by sinusoidal pitching and heaving motions. It is conceivable that more sophisticated gaits could perform better in some respects, for example as measured by thrust generation or by cost of transport. This work uses an unsteady boundary-element method to numerically investigate the hydrodynamics and propulsive efficiency of high-Reynolds-number swimmers whose gaits are encoded by Fourier series or by Jacobi elliptic functions. Numerical results are presented with an emphasis on identifying particular wake structures and modes of motion that are associated with optimal swimming. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research through MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.

  11. Biomechanics of Gait during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. During pregnancy women experience several changes in the body's physiology, morphology, and hormonal system. These changes may affect the balance and body stability and can cause discomfort and pain. The adaptations of the musculoskeletal system due to morphological changes during pregnancy are not fully understood. Few studies clarify the biomechanical changes of gait that occur during pregnancy and in postpartum period. Purposes. The purpose of this review was to analyze the available evidence on the biomechanical adaptations of gait that occur throughout pregnancy and in postpartum period, specifically with regard to the temporal, spatial, kinematic, and kinetic parameters of gait. Methods. Three databases were searched and 9 studies with a follow-up design were retrieved for analysis. Results. Most studies performed temporal, spatial, and kinematic analysis. Only three studies performed kinetic analysis. Conclusion. The adaptation strategies to the anatomical and physiological changes throughout pregnancy are still unclear, particularly in a longitudinal perspective and regarding kinetic parameters. PMID:25587566

  12. Impaired Foot Plantar Flexor Muscle Performance in Individuals With Plantar Heel Pain and Association With Foot Orthosis Use.

    PubMed

    McClinton, Shane; Collazo, Christopher; Vincent, Ebonie; Vardaxis, Vassilios

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Plantar heel pain is one of the most common foot and ankle conditions seen in clinical practice, and many individuals continue to have persisting or recurrent pain after treatment. Impaired foot plantar flexor muscle performance is a factor that may contribute to limited treatment success, but reliable methods to identify impairments in individuals with plantar heel pain are needed. In addition, foot orthoses are commonly used to treat this condition, but the implications of orthosis use on muscle performance have not been assessed. Objectives To assess ankle plantar flexor and toe flexor muscle performance in individuals with plantar heel pain using clinically feasible measures and to examine the relationship between muscle performance and duration of foot orthosis use. Methods The rocker-board plantar flexion test (RBPFT) and modified paper grip test for the great toe (mPGTGT) and lesser toes (mPGTLT) were used to assess foot plantar flexor muscle performance in 27 individuals with plantar heel pain and compared to 27 individuals without foot pain who were matched according to age, sex, and body mass. Pain ratings were obtained before and during testing, and self-reported duration of foot orthosis use was recorded. Results Compared to the control group, individuals with plantar heel pain demonstrated lower performance on the RBPFT (P = .001), the mPGTGT (P = .022), and the mPGTLT (P = .037). Longer duration of foot orthosis use was moderately correlated to lower performance on the RBPFT (r = -0.52, P = .02), the mPGTGT (r = -0.54, P = .01), and the mPGTLT (r = -0.43, P = .03). Conclusion Ankle plantar flexor and toe flexor muscle performance was impaired in individuals with plantar heel pain and associated with longer duration of self-reported foot orthosis use. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):681-688. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6482.

  13. A new shoulder orthosis for paralysis of the trapezius muscle after radical neck dissection: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kizilay, Ahmet; Kalcioglu, M Tayyar; Saydam, Levent; Ersoy, Yuksel

    2006-05-01

    Despite recent advances using more conservative approaches, standard classical radical neck dissection is still one of the most frequently performed procedures in head and neck cancer patients who have advanced metastatic neck disease. The trapezius muscle paralysis following division of the spinal accessory nerve results in severe pain and cosmetic disturbance related to malalignment of the shoulder joint. The objective of this study is to report our results with a newly developed orthosis to prevent and correct shoulder dysfunction following standard radical neck dissection. Thirty-four patients who underwent standard radical neck dissection as a part of their surgical treatment from 1997-2002 were rehabilitated by the shoulder orthosis. Beginning 2 weeks after surgery, the patients were allowed to use their orthosis. By using a standard questionnaire, the pain and activity scores were recorded at the 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months postoperatively. Six patients were excluded from the study, of whom two succumbed to their disease and four discontinued the use of the orthosis. Of 28 patients included in the study, 20 (72%) were completely pain free within 3 months following the surgery. Four patients (14%) noted their pain level as tolerable, and four patients (14%) reported no considerable gain in the pain threshold and/or physical activity levels. Despite the fact that the active abduction range increased only 5 to 20 degrees , the relief of pain and improved malalignment of the scapula and consequently clavicle and humerus led to functional gains, which increased the patients' endurance. At the end of the study, 23 patients (82%) were able to return to their previous jobs or activity levels. Current preliminary reports suggest that this orthosis can be recommended to prevent significant disability in patients with trapezius palsy due to ablative cancer surgery or other reasons.

  14. [Gait Analysis in Patients with Hip Disorders].

    PubMed

    Urbášek, K; Poul, J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the evaluation of both conservative and surgical therapy cannot do without gait analysis. Orthopaedic textbooks, with some exceptions, deal in great detail with a thorough clinical examination of the patient but gait assessment is mentioned only marginally. More attention is paid to gait analysis in rehabilitation medicine. Motion and gait analysis laboratories equipped with optoelectronic cameras and force platforms were first developed for cerebral palsy children. Recently, several studies have been published on the use of these methods in disorders of hip and knee joints or spine diseases. Key words: gait analysis, hip joint.

  15. The effects of ankle-foot orthoses on the ankle and knee in persons with myelomeningocele: an evaluation using three-dimensional gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J D; Ounpuu, S; Davis, R B; DeLuca, P A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on gait patterns in patients with low-level myelomeningocele and to identify any abnormal gait patterns that may lead to future knee instability and pain. A total of 28 children (26 L4-level sides, 18 L5-level sides, and 10 S1-2-level sides) underwent a three-dimensional gait analysis when ambulating barefoot and with AFOs. Results show significant improvements in sagittal plane function with reductions in excessive ankle dorsiflexion, increases in peak plantar flexor moment, and reductions in crouch and knee extensor moment in the L4 and L5 groups. The only improvement in the S1-2 group was a reduction in excessive dorsiflexion, but there was a reduction in power generation at the ankle. The S1-2 group had normal transverse plane knee motion in stance during barefoot walking that increased significantly (p < 0.01) with the AFO. Both the L5 and L4 groups showed greater-than-normal transverse plane knee motion in stance during barefoot walking that also increased significantly (p < 0.01) with the AFO. The results suggest that excessive knee transverse plane rotation may contribute to knee instability more than coronal plane abnormalities. The AFO in S1-2-level patients may be more detrimental for the knee than barefoot walking.

  16. Nonlinear dynamical model of human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Bruce J.; Scafetta, Nicola

    2003-05-01

    We present a nonlinear dynamical model of the human gait control system in a variety of gait regimes. The stride-interval time series in normal human gait is characterized by slightly multifractal fluctuations. The fractal nature of the fluctuations becomes more pronounced under both an increase and decrease in the average gait. Moreover, the long-range memory in these fluctuations is lost when the gait is keyed on a metronome. Human locomotion is controlled by a network of neurons capable of producing a correlated syncopated output. The central nervous system is coupled to the motocontrol system, and together they control the locomotion of the gait cycle itself. The metronomic gait is simulated by a forced nonlinear oscillator with a periodic external force associated with the conscious act of walking in a particular way.

  17. Development Aspects of a Robotised Gait Trainer for Neurological Rehabilitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    of the robotised gait training machine. Keywords - gait rehabilitation, gait trainer, gait analysis , robot, compliance control I. INTRODUCTION...pp. 423-428, 2000. [6] D.A. Winter, Biomechanics and motor control of human movement, 2 nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, 1990. [7] J. Perry, Gait Analysis , Slack

  18. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%.

  19. Biomechanical evaluation of wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Yoon-Ghil; Lee, Bum-Suk; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2013-01-01

    The wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis (WDFHO) is a device used to restore hand function in persons with tetraplegic spinal cord injury by furnishing three-point prehension. We assessed the effectiveness and biomechanical properties of the WDFHO in 24 persons with cervical 6 or 7 tetraplegia who have severely impaired hand function. This study introduces a mechanical operating model to assess the efficiency of the WDFHO. Experimental results showed that pinch force increased significantly (p < 0.001) after using the WDFHO and was found to positively correlate with the strength of wrist extensor muscles (r = 0.41, p < 0.001). However, when the strength of the wrist extensors acting on the WDFHO was greater, the reciprocal wrist and finger motion that generates three-point prehension was less effective (r = 0.79, p < 0.001). Reliable and valid biomechanical evaluation of the WDFHO could improve our understanding of its biomechanics.

  20. Evaluation of a controlled-energy-dissipation orthosis for tremor suppression.

    PubMed

    Arnold, A S; Rosen, M J; Aisen, M L

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the CEDO 1, a prototype Controlled Energy-Dissipating Orthosis for persons disabled by pathological intention tremor. Conventional neurological practice is generally unsuccessful in restoring independent upper extremity function to persons with debilitating tremors. The CEDO 1 was built to determine whether an alternative approach to tremor management, namely the application of velocity-dependent resistive loads to tremorous limbs, is a feasible means of attenuating intention tremor without degrading purposeful movement. The CEDO 1 mounts to a wheelchair or table, permits the three degrees of freedom needed for 'table-top' activities, and generates resistive loads by means of computer-controlled magnetic particle brakes whose torques are transmitted to the user's forearm via a stiff low-inertia linkage. In this investigation, five tremor-disabled and five able-bodied subjects were given computer-mediated pursuit tracking tasks in two degrees of freedom to verify that damping loads applied by the CEDO 1 do selectively attenuate upperextremity intention tremor. Experiments were also done to determine the range of damping loads needed in a tremor-suppressing orthosis and whether non-linear (velocity-squared) loads offer any advantages over linear (viscous) loads. Subjectively, all disabled subjects offered positive remarks on the effect of damping. Objectively, data from four of the five disabled subjects, processed using spectral analysis techniques, demonstrated that linear and non-linear damping loads can selectively reduce subjects' tremors by statistically significant amounts (P values <0.001). These results have allowed design specifications for tremor-suppressing orthoses to be refined, and planning for the CEDO 2 -a functionally improved version of the CEDO 1-is underway.

  1. Biofeedback for robotic gait rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Lünenburger, Lars; Colombo, Gery; Riener, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Background Development and increasing acceptance of rehabilitation robots as well as advances in technology allow new forms of therapy for patients with neurological disorders. Robot-assisted gait therapy can increase the training duration and the intensity for the patients while reducing the physical strain for the therapist. Optimal training effects during gait therapy generally depend on appropriate feedback about performance. Compared to manual treadmill therapy, there is a loss of physical interaction between therapist and patient with robotic gait retraining. Thus, it is difficult for the therapist to assess the necessary feedback and instructions. The aim of this study was to define a biofeedback system for a gait training robot and test its usability in subjects without neurological disorders. Methods To provide an overview of biofeedback and motivation methods applied in gait rehabilitation, previous publications and results from our own research are reviewed. A biofeedback method is presented showing how a rehabilitation robot can assess the patients' performance and deliver augmented feedback. For validation, three subjects without neurological disorders walked in a rehabilitation robot for treadmill training. Several training parameters, such as body weight support and treadmill speed, were varied to assess the robustness of the biofeedback calculation to confounding factors. Results The biofeedback values correlated well with the different activity levels of the subjects. Changes in body weight support and treadmill velocity had a minor effect on the biofeedback values. The synchronization of the robot and the treadmill affected the biofeedback values describing the stance phase. Conclusion Robot-aided assessment and feedback can extend and improve robot-aided training devices. The presented method estimates the patients' gait performance with the use of the robot's existing sensors, and displays the resulting biofeedback values to the patients and

  2. Human-Robot Interaction: Does Robotic Guidance Force Affect Gait-Related Brain Dynamics during Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking?

    PubMed Central

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Swinnen, Eva; Fernandez Tellez, Helio; Michielsen, Marc; Kerckhofs, Eric; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine optimal training parameters for robot-assisted treadmill walking, it is essential to understand how a robotic device interacts with its wearer, and thus, how parameter settings of the device affect locomotor control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different levels of guidance force during robot-assisted treadmill walking on cortical activity. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at 2 km.h-1 on a treadmill with and without assistance of the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis. Event-related spectral perturbations and changes in power spectral density were investigated during unassisted treadmill walking as well as during robot-assisted treadmill walking at 30%, 60% and 100% guidance force (with 0% body weight support). Clustering of independent components revealed three clusters of activity in the sensorimotor cortex during treadmill walking and robot-assisted treadmill walking in healthy subjects. These clusters demonstrated gait-related spectral modulations in the mu, beta and low gamma bands over the sensorimotor cortex related to specific phases of the gait cycle. Moreover, mu and beta rhythms were suppressed in the right primary sensory cortex during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking with 100% guidance force, indicating significantly larger involvement of the sensorimotor area during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking. Only marginal differences in the spectral power of the mu, beta and low gamma bands could be identified between robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force. From these results it can be concluded that a high level of guidance force (i.e., 100% guidance force) and thus a less active participation during locomotion should be avoided during robot-assisted treadmill walking. This will optimize the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex which is known to be crucial for motor learning. PMID:26485148

  3. Human-Robot Interaction: Does Robotic Guidance Force Affect Gait-Related Brain Dynamics during Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking?

    PubMed

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Swinnen, Eva; Fernandez Tellez, Helio; Michielsen, Marc; Kerckhofs, Eric; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine optimal training parameters for robot-assisted treadmill walking, it is essential to understand how a robotic device interacts with its wearer, and thus, how parameter settings of the device affect locomotor control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different levels of guidance force during robot-assisted treadmill walking on cortical activity. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at 2 km.h-1 on a treadmill with and without assistance of the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis. Event-related spectral perturbations and changes in power spectral density were investigated during unassisted treadmill walking as well as during robot-assisted treadmill walking at 30%, 60% and 100% guidance force (with 0% body weight support). Clustering of independent components revealed three clusters of activity in the sensorimotor cortex during treadmill walking and robot-assisted treadmill walking in healthy subjects. These clusters demonstrated gait-related spectral modulations in the mu, beta and low gamma bands over the sensorimotor cortex related to specific phases of the gait cycle. Moreover, mu and beta rhythms were suppressed in the right primary sensory cortex during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking with 100% guidance force, indicating significantly larger involvement of the sensorimotor area during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking. Only marginal differences in the spectral power of the mu, beta and low gamma bands could be identified between robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force. From these results it can be concluded that a high level of guidance force (i.e., 100% guidance force) and thus a less active participation during locomotion should be avoided during robot-assisted treadmill walking. This will optimize the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex which is known to be crucial for motor learning.

  4. Lever arm dysfunction in cerebral palsy gait.

    PubMed

    Theologis, Tim

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal structures act as lever arms during walking. Muscle activity and the ground reaction against gravity exert forces on the skeleton, which generate torque (moments) around joints. These lead to the sequence of movements which form normal human gait. Skeletal deformities in cerebral palsy (CP) affect the function of bones as lever arms and compromise gait. Lever arm dysfunction should be carefully considered when contemplating treatment to improve gait in children with CP.

  5. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    capture sequences was provided by MPL to CCAD and OGAL. CCAD’s work focused on imposing these sequences on the SantosTM digital human avatar . An...capture sequences was provided by MPL to CCAD and OGAL. CCAD’s work focused on imposing these sequences on the Santos digital human avatar . An initial...levels of the patients. In addition, the differences in ability to detect variations in gait conditions for skinned avatar vs. line-skeletal avatar

  6. The Pathomechanics Of Calcaneal Gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, David H.; Cooper, Les

    1980-07-01

    The data acquisition system employed in our laboratory includes optical, electronic and computer subsystems. Three movie camera freeze the motion for analysis. The film is displayed on a motion analyzer, and the body segment positions are recorded in a three dimensional coordinate system with Graf/pen sonic digitizer. The angular rotations are calculated by computer and automatically plotted. The force plate provides measurements of vertical force, foreaft shear, medial-lateral shear, torque, and center of pressure. Electromyograms are superimposed upon gait movies to permit measurement of muscle phasic activity. The Hycam movie camera si-multaneously films (through separate lens) the subject and oscilloscope. Movement measurements, electromyograms, and floor reaction forces provide the data base for analysis. From a study of the gait changes in five normal subjects following tibial nerve block, and from additional studies of patients with paralysis of the ankle plantar flexors, the pathomechanics of calcaneal gait can be described. Inability to transfer weight to the forward part of the foot produces ankle instability and reduction of contralateral step length. Excessive drop of the center of mass necessitates com-pensatory increased lift energy output through the sound limb to restore the height of the center of mass. Excessive stance phase ankle dorsiflexion produces knee instability requiring prolonged quadriceps muscle phasic activity.

  7. Mixed gaits in small avian terrestrial locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Andrada, Emanuel; Haase, Daniel; Sutedja, Yefta; Nyakatura, John A.; M. Kilbourne, Brandon; Denzler, Joachim; Fischer, Martin S.; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have historically categorized gaits discretely (e.g. regular gaits such as walking, running). However, previous results suggest that animals such as birds might mix or regularly or stochastically switch between gaits while maintaining a steady locomotor speed. Here, we combined a novel and completely automated large-scale study (over one million frames) on motions of the center of mass in several bird species (quail, oystercatcher, northern lapwing, pigeon, and avocet) with numerical simulations. The birds studied do not strictly prefer walking mechanics at lower speeds or running mechanics at higher speeds. Moreover, our results clearly display that the birds in our study employ mixed gaits (such as one step walking followed by one step using running mechanics) more often than walking and, surprisingly, maybe as often as grounded running. Using a bio-inspired model based on parameters obtained from real quails, we found two types of stable mixed gaits. In the first, both legs exhibit different gait mechanics, whereas in the second, legs gradually alternate from one gait mechanics into the other. Interestingly, mixed gaits parameters mostly overlap those of grounded running. Thus, perturbations or changes in the state induce a switch from grounded running to mixed gaits or vice versa. PMID:26333477

  8. Gait recognition based on integral outline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Guan; Fang, Lv

    2017-02-01

    Biometric identification technology replaces traditional security technology, which has become a trend, and gait recognition also has become a hot spot of research because its feature is difficult to imitate and theft. This paper presents a gait recognition system based on integral outline of human body. The system has three important aspects: the preprocessing of gait image, feature extraction and classification. Finally, using a method of polling to evaluate the performance of the system, and summarizing the problems existing in the gait recognition and the direction of development in the future.

  9. Mixed gaits in small avian terrestrial locomotion.

    PubMed

    Andrada, Emanuel; Haase, Daniel; Sutedja, Yefta; Nyakatura, John A; Kilbourne, Brandon M; Denzler, Joachim; Fischer, Martin S; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2015-09-03

    Scientists have historically categorized gaits discretely (e.g. regular gaits such as walking, running). However, previous results suggest that animals such as birds might mix or regularly or stochastically switch between gaits while maintaining a steady locomotor speed. Here, we combined a novel and completely automated large-scale study (over one million frames) on motions of the center of mass in several bird species (quail, oystercatcher, northern lapwing, pigeon, and avocet) with numerical simulations. The birds studied do not strictly prefer walking mechanics at lower speeds or running mechanics at higher speeds. Moreover, our results clearly display that the birds in our study employ mixed gaits (such as one step walking followed by one step using running mechanics) more often than walking and, surprisingly, maybe as often as grounded running. Using a bio-inspired model based on parameters obtained from real quails, we found two types of stable mixed gaits. In the first, both legs exhibit different gait mechanics, whereas in the second, legs gradually alternate from one gait mechanics into the other. Interestingly, mixed gaits parameters mostly overlap those of grounded running. Thus, perturbations or changes in the state induce a switch from grounded running to mixed gaits or vice versa.

  10. Optics in gait analysis and anthropometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Moreno, Alejandra Alicia

    2013-11-01

    Since antiquity, human gait has been studied to understand human movement, the kind of gait, in some cases, can cause musculoskeletal disorders or other health problems; in addition, also from antiquity, anthropometry has been important for the design of human items such as workspaces, tools, garments, among others. Nowadays, thanks to the development of optics and electronics, more accurate studies of gait and anthropometry can be developed. This work will describe the most important parameters for gait analysis, anthropometry and the optical systems used.

  11. Gait-related cerebral alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Anke H; Leunissen, Inge; Bakker, Maaike; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Helmich, Rick C; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait is a common, debilitating feature of Parkinson's disease. We have studied gait planning in patients with freezing of gait, using motor imagery of walking in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach exploits the large neural overlap that exists between planning and imagining a movement. In addition, it avoids confounds introduced by brain responses to altered motor performance and somatosensory feedback during actual freezing episodes. We included 24 patients with Parkinson's disease: 12 patients with freezing of gait, 12 matched patients without freezing of gait and 21 matched healthy controls. Subjects performed two previously validated tasks--motor imagery of gait and a visual imagery control task. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, we quantified imagery performance by measuring the time required to imagine walking on paths of different widths and lengths. In addition, we used voxel-based morphometry to test whether between-group differences in imagery-related activity were related to structural differences. Imagery times indicated that patients with freezing of gait, patients without freezing of gait and controls engaged in motor imagery of gait, with matched task performance. During motor imagery of gait, patients with freezing of gait showed more activity than patients without freezing of gait in the mesencephalic locomotor region. Patients with freezing of gait also tended to have decreased responses in mesial frontal and posterior parietal regions. Furthermore, patients with freezing of gait had grey matter atrophy in a small portion of the mesencephalic locomotor region. The gait-related hyperactivity of the mesencephalic locomotor region correlated with clinical parameters (freezing of gait severity and disease duration), but not with the degree of atrophy. These results indicate that patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait have structural and functional alterations in the

  12. Development of a "Neuro-orthosis" for the control of wrist movements in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, U; Ozkan, M; Ozdogan, A H

    2007-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common, painful condition. Treatment is indicated when the symptoms of the disease interferes with the usual daily activities. The use of orthoses is advocated in the treatment of mild and moderate CTS. The rationale for using neutral wrist orthoses lies on the relation of the disease with the increased intracarpal pressure. It was demonstrated that the intracarpal pressure is minimum when the wrist is in neutral position. In spite of their proven therapeutic effects, long-term or improper use of static orthoses may lead to unwanted side effects such as muscle atrophy and discomfort during forceful activities. To overcome the problems caused by a static neutral wrist orthosis, a prototype control system was developed to control the wrist movements via electrical stimulation. At this control system, wrist movements in two planes are controlled by means of electrical stimulation of the antagonistic muscles. The effect of the new control system on hand function and dexterity was compared with those obtained with rigid orthosis and no orthosis.

  13. Characteristics of the muscle activities of the elderly for various pressures in the pneumatic actuator of lower limb orthosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyong; Yu, Chang-Ho; Kwon, Tae-Kyu; Hong, Chul-Un; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2005-12-01

    There developed a lower limb orthosis with a pneumatic rubber actuator, which can assist and improve the muscular activities in the lower limb of the elderly. For this purpose, the characteristics of the lower limbs muscle activities for various pressures in the pneumatic actuator for the lower limb orthosis was investigated. To find out the characteristics of the muscle activities for various pneumatic pressures, it analyzed the flexing and extending movement of the knees, and measured the lower limbs muscular power. The subjects wearing the lower limbs orthosis were instructed to perform flexing and extending movement of the knees. The variation in the air pressure of the pneumatic actuator was varies from one kgf/cm2 to four kgf/cm2. The muscular power was measured by monitoring electromyogram using MP100 (BIOPAC Systems, Inc.) and detailed three-dimensional motions of the lower limbs were collected by APAS 3D Motion Analysis system. Through this study, it expected to find the most suitable air pressure for the improvement of the muscular power of the aged.

  14. Clinical application of carbon fibre reinforced plastic leg orthosis for polio survivors and its advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Hachisuka, K; Makino, K; Wada, F; Saeki, S; Yoshimoto, N; Arai, M

    2006-08-01

    A prospective study was carried out on the clinical application and features of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic leg orthosis (carbon orthosis) for polio survivors. The subjects comprised 9 polio survivors, and 11 carbon knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) were prescribed, fabricated, and checked out at the authors' post-polio clinic. Walking was classified based on the functional ambulatory category, and the features of walking with a carbon orthosis were self-evaluated by using a visual analogue scale. The period from modelling a cast to completion was 55 +/- 25 days; the weight of a carbon KAFO was 27.8% lighter than that of the ordinary KAFO; the standard carbon KAFO was 50% more expensive than the ordinary KAFO. The carbon KAFO remained undamaged for at least 2 years. It improved the scores in the functional ambulation categories, but there was no difference between walking with an ordinary and with a carbon KAFO. The self-evaluation of walking with a carbon KAFO revealed that the subjects using a carbon KAFO were satisfied with their carbon KAFO. The carbon KAFO is lightweight, durable, slim and smart, and is positively indicated for polio survivors.

  15. Development of an orthosis for walking assistance using pneumatic artificial muscle: a quantitative assessment of the effect of assistance.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, T; Takanaka, K; Nakamura, T; Osumi, H

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, there is an increase in the number of people that require support during walking as a result of a decrease in the leg muscle strength accompanying aging. An important index for evaluating walking ability is step length. A key cause for a decrease in step length is the loss of muscle strength in the legs. Many researchers have designed and developed orthoses for walking assistance. In this study, we advanced the design of an orthosis for walking assistance that assists the forward swing of the leg to increase step length. We employed a pneumatic artificial muscle as the actuator so that flexible assistance with low rigidity can be achieved. To evaluate the performance of the system, we measured the effect of assistance quantitatively. In this study, we constructed a prototype of the orthosis and measure EMG and step length on fitting it to a healthy subject so as to determine the effect of assistance, noting the increase in the obtained step length. Although there was an increase in EMG stemming from the need to maintain body balance during the stance phase, we observed that the EMG of the sartorius muscle, which helps swing the leg forward, decreased, and the strength of the semitendinosus muscle, which restrains the leg against over-assistance, did not increase but decreased. Our experiments showed that the assistance force provided by the developed orthosis is not adequate for the intended task, and the development of a mechanism that provides appropriate assistance is required in the future.

  16. Application of the Gillette Gait Index, Gait Deviation Index and Gait Profile Score to multiple clinical pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    McMulkin, Mark L; MacWilliams, Bruce A

    2015-02-01

    Gait indices are now commonly used to assess overall pathology and outcomes from studies with instrumented gait analyses. There are differences in how these indices are calculated and therefore inherent differences in their sensitivities to detect changes or differences between groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the three most commonly used gait indices, Gillette Gait Index (GGI), Gait Deviation Index (GDI), and Gait Profile Score (GPS), comparing the statistical sensitivity and the ability to make meaningful interpretations of the clinical results. In addition, the GDI*, a log transformed and scaled version of the GPS score which closely matches the GDI was examined. For seven previous or ongoing studies representing varying gait pathologies seen in clinical laboratories, the GGI, GDI, and GPS/GDI* were calculated retrospectively. The GDI and GPS/GDI* proved to be the most sensitive measures in assessing differences pre/post-treatment or from a control population. A power analysis revealed the GDI and GDI* to be the most sensitive statistical measures (lowest sample sizes required). Subjectively, the GDI and GDI* interpretation seemed to be the most intuitive measure for assessing clinical changes. However, the gait variable sub-scores of the GPS determined several statistical differences which were not previously noted and was the only index tool for quantifying the relative contributions of specific joints or planes of motion. The GGI did not offer any advantages over the other two indices.

  17. Underwater gait analysis in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Daniele; Pavan, Davide; Morris, Meg; Guiotto, Annamaria; Iansek, Robert; Fortuna, Sofia; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Sawacha, Zimi

    2017-02-01

    Although hydrotherapy is one of the physical therapies adopted to optimize gait rehabilitation in people with Parkinson disease, the quantitative measurement of gait-related outcomes has not been provided yet. This work aims to document the gait improvements in a group of parkinsonians after a hydrotherapy program through 2D and 3D underwater and on land gait analysis. Thirty-four parkinsonians and twenty-two controls were enrolled, divided into two different cohorts. In the first one, 2 groups of patients underwent underwater or land based walking training; controls underwent underwater walking training. Hence pre-treatment 2D underwater and on land gait analysis were performed, together with post-treatment on land gait analysis. Considering that current literature documented a reduced movement amplitude in parkinsonians across all lower limb joints in all movement planes, 3D underwater and on land gait analysis were performed on a second cohort of subjects (10 parkinsonians and 10 controls) who underwent underwater gait training. Baseline land 2D and 3D gait analysis in parkinsonians showed shorter stride length and slower speed than controls, in agreement with previous findings. Comparison between underwater and on land gait analysis showed reduction in stride length, cadence and speed on both parkinsonians and controls. Although patients who underwent underwater treatment exhibited significant changes on spatiotemporal parameters and sagittal plane lower limb kinematics, 3D gait analysis documented a significant (p<0.05) improvement in all movement planes. These data deserve attention for research directions promoting the optimal recovery and maintenance of walking ability.

  18. Comparison of Upright Gait with Supine Bungee-Cord Gait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boda, Wanda L.; Hargens, Alan R.; Campbell, J. A.; Yang, C.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Running on a treadmill with bungee-cord resistance is currently used on the Russian space station MIR as a countermeasure for the loss of bone and muscular strength which occurs during spaceflight. However, it is unknown whether ground reaction force (GRF) at the feet using bungee-cord resistance is similar to that which occurs during upright walking and running on Earth. We hypothesized-that the DRAMs generated during upright walking and running are greater than the DRAMs generated during supine bungee-cord gait. Eleven healthy subjects walked (4.8 +/- 0.13 km/h, mean +/- SE) and ran (9.1 +/- 0.51 km/h) during upright and supine bungee-cord exercise on an active treadmill. Subjects exercised for 3 min in each condition using a resistance of 1 body weight calibrated during an initial, stationary standing position. Data were sampled at a frequency of 500Hz and the mean of 3 trials was analyzed for each condition. A repeated measures analysis of variance tested significance between the conditions. Peak DRAMs during upright walking were significantly greater (1084.9 +/- 111.4 N) than during supine bungee-cord walking (770.3 +/- 59.8 N; p less than 0.05). Peak GRFs were also significantly greater for upright running (1548.3 +/- 135.4 N) than for supine bungee-cord running (1099.5 +/- 158.46 N). Analysis of GRF curves indicated that forces decreased throughout the stance phase for bungee-cord gait but not during upright gait. These results indicate that bungee-cord exercise may not create sufficient loads at the feet to counteract the loss of bone and muscular strength that occurs during long-duration exposure to microgravity.

  19. Gait Analysis by High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Andre; van Dongen, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Human walking is a complicated motion. Movement scientists have developed various research methods to study gait. This article describes how a high school student collected and analysed high quality gait data in much the same way that movement scientists do, via the recording and measurement of motions with a video analysis tool and via…

  20. Diabetic Foot Biomechanics and Gait Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, James S.; Najafi, Bijan

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot complications represent significant morbidity and precede most of the lower extremity amputations performed. Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes shown to affect gait. Glycosylation of soft tissues can also affect gait. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the changes in gait for persons with diabetes and highlight the effects of glycosylation on soft tissues at the foot–ground interface. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EBSCOhost® on-line databases were searched for articles pertaining to diabetes and gait. Bibliographies from relevant manuscripts were also searched. Findings Patients with diabetes frequently exhibit a conservative gait strategy where there is slower walking speed, wider base of gait, and prolonged double support time. Glycosylation affects are observed in the lower extremities. Initially, skin thickness decreases and skin hardness increases; tendons thicken; muscles atrophy and exhibit activation delays; bones become less dense; joints have limited mobility; and fat pads are less thick, demonstrate fibrotic atrophy, migrate distally, and may be stiffer. Interpretation In conclusion, there do appear to be gait changes in patients with diabetes. These changes, coupled with local soft tissue changes from advanced glycosylated end products, also alter a patient’s gait, putting them at risk of foot ulceration. Better elucidation of these changes throughout the entire spectrum of diabetes disease can help design better treatments and potentially reduce the unnecessarily high prevalence of foot ulcers and amputation. PMID:20663446

  1. Research on gait-based human identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Youguo

    Gait recognition refers to automatic identification of individual based on his/her style of walking. This paper proposes a gait recognition method based on Continuous Hidden Markov Model with Mixture of Gaussians(G-CHMM). First, we initialize a Gaussian mix model for training image sequence with K-means algorithm, then train the HMM parameters using a Baum-Welch algorithm. These gait feature sequences can be trained and obtain a Continuous HMM for every person, therefore, the 7 key frames and the obtained HMM can represent each person's gait sequence. Finally, the recognition is achieved by Front algorithm. The experiments made on CASIA gait databases obtain comparatively high correction identification ratio and comparatively strong robustness for variety of bodily angle.

  2. Comparative study of conventional hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses versus reciprocating-gait orthoses for children with high-level paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Katz, D E; Haideri, N; Song, K; Wyrick, P

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated eight children with thoracic or high lumbar-level paraparesis for metabolic performance while ambulating with custom fabricated thermoplastic hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses (HKAFOs) and reciprocating-gait orthoses (RGOs). Seven of the eight children had myelomeningocele. Each patient was tested in both systems at self-selected speeds in a crossover study design. At self-selected speeds, the level of exercise intensity for both thoracic and high-lumbar patients with either orthosis was lower than that for normal children. The average metabolic cost of walking in the RGO was twice that of normal children, as compared with six times normal in HKAFOs. For the four thoracic-level patients, there was a significantly higher oxygen cost of ambulation in using HKAFOs versus RGOs. No significant difference in metabolic performance was found for the high-lumbar patients. Velocity of ambulation was faster in the RGOs than in the HKAFOs. For thoracic-level patients, our data suggest that an RGO will provide a faster, more energy-efficient gait than a statically locked HKAFO. For high-lumbar patients, no significant difference was found between the two orthoses. Seven of eight children preferred the RGO over the HKAFO.

  3. Use of a bivalved polypropylene orthosis in the postoperative management of idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R S; Price, C T; Riddick, M F

    1984-05-01

    Forty-four consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated by posterior spinal fusion and Harrington rod instrumentation were immobilized after surgery with bivalved polypropylene orthoses. Immediate ambulation was allowed, and the patients wore the orthoses for a mean of 5.9 months. Brace removal was permitted with the patient recumbent for sponge bathing. These patients were followed up for a mean of 2.1 years (range, 1.0-4.3 years). The average final correction for all curves was 45%. The average loss of correction was 2.4 degrees (5.3%). Combined distraction and compression instrumentation was found to improve final correction in all curves by 3 degrees (6.2%) as compared with distraction instrumentation alone. There were no pseudarthroses and no rod breakage. Patients enjoyed the benefits of improved personal hygiene, pleasing cosmetic appearance, and increased life-style flexibility, especially swimming, which was not possible with the conventional Risser plaster cast. Use of the polypropylene orthosis offers significant advantages as compared with previous methods of postoperative management: it not only provides consistently good results but is enthusiastically accepted by patients as well.

  4. Development of an assistive motorized hip orthosis: kinematics analysis and mechanical design.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jeremy; Bouri, Mohamed; Ortlieb, Amalric; Bleuler, Hannes; Clavel, Reymond

    2013-06-01

    With the increase of life expectancy, a higher number of elderly need assistance to maintain their mobility and their independance. The hip joint is crucial for walking and is problematic for a large number of aged people. In this paper we present a novel design of a motorized hip orthosis to assist elderly people while walking, stair climbing and during the sit-to-stand transistions. The kinematics was developed based on biomechanics considerations. To be able to achieve a large assistance rate, velocity and torques of the hip joint were studied from the literature. In order to fit with these requirements, an amplification mechanism inspired by excavators was developed and implemented. Comfort considerations were also taken into account and a custom interface was designed with the collaboration of a professional orthopaedic technician. First tests with the prototype showed that the workspace is sufficient for walking, for stair climbing as well as for sit-to-stand transitions. The assistance rate can go up to 30% for a 70 kg subject during walking at a cadence of 100 steps/min. The comfort is guaranteed despite the important weight (4.3 kg) of this first prototype.

  5. Gait transitions in simulated reduced gravity.

    PubMed

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Labini, Francesca Sylos; Cappellini, Germana; Macellari, Velio; McIntyre, Joseph; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Gravity has a strong effect on gait and the speed of gait transitions. A gait has been defined as a pattern of locomotion that changes discontinuously at the transition to another gait. On Earth, during gradual speed changes, humans exhibit a sudden discontinuous switch from walking to running at a specific speed. To study the effects of altered gravity on both the stance and swing legs, we developed a novel unloading exoskeleton that allows a person to step in simulated reduced gravity by tilting the body relative to the vertical. Using different simulation techniques, we confirmed that at lower gravity levels the transition speed is slower (in accordance with the previously reported Froude number ∼0.5). Surprisingly, however, we found that at lower levels of simulated gravity the transition between walking and running was generally gradual, without any noticeable abrupt change in gait parameters. This was associated with a significant prolongation of the swing phase, whose duration became virtually equal to that of stance in the vicinity of the walk-run transition speed, and with a gradual shift from inverted-pendulum gait (walking) to bouncing gait (running).

  6. Biomechanics and analysis of running gait.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sheila A; Bhat, Krishna P

    2005-08-01

    Physical activity, including running, is important to general health by way of prevention of chronic illnesses and their precursors. To keep runners healthy, it is paramount that one has sound knowledge of the biomechanics of running and assessment of running gait. More so, improving performance in competitive runners is based in sound training and rehabilitation practices that are rooted firmly in biomechanical principles. This article summarized the biomechanics of running and the means with which one can evaluate running gait. The gait assessment techniques for collecting and analyzing kinetic and kinematic data can provide insights into injury prevention and treatment and performance enhancement.

  7. Robust Gait Recognition by Integrating Inertial and RGBD Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zou, Qin; Ni, Lihao; Wang, Qian; Li, Qingquan; Wang, Song

    2017-03-29

    Gait has been considered as a promising and unique biometric for person identification. Traditionally, gait data are collected using either color sensors, such as a CCD camera, depth sensors, such as a Microsoft Kinect, or inertial sensors, such as an accelerometer. However, a single type of sensors may only capture part of the dynamic gait features and make the gait recognition sensitive to complex covariate conditions, leading to fragile gait-based person identification systems. In this paper, we propose to combine all three types of sensors for gait data collection and gait recognition, which can be used for important identification applications, such as identity recognition to access a restricted building or area. We propose two new algorithms, namely EigenGait and TrajGait, to extract gait features from the inertial data and the RGBD (color and depth) data, respectively. Specifically, EigenGait extracts general gait dynamics from the accelerometer readings in the eigenspace and TrajGait extracts more detailed subdynamics by analyzing 3-D dense trajectories. Finally, both extracted features are fed into a supervised classifier for gait recognition and person identification. Experiments on 50 subjects, with comparisons to several other state-of-the-art gait-recognition approaches, show that the proposed approach can achieve higher recognition accuracy and robustness.

  8. Variations in kinematics during clinical gait analysis in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Bonnyaud, Céline; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-temporal and kinematic joint parameters were analyzed during 3 groups of consecutive gait trials (1-3, 4-6 and 7-9). Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables from the joint kinematic waveforms and to identify the parts of the gait cycle which changed during the gait analysis session. The results showed that i) spontaneous gait velocity and the other spatio-temporal parameters significantly increased, and ii) gait variability decreased, over the last 6 gait trials compared to the first 3, for hemiplegic patients but not healthy subjects. Principal component analysis revealed changes in the sagittal waveforms of the hip, knee and ankle for hemiplegic patients after the first 3 gait trials. These results suggest that at the beginning of the gait analysis session, stroke patients exhibited phase of adaptation,characterized by a "cautious gait" but no fatigue was observed.

  9. Gait recognition based on Gabor wavelets and modified gait energy image for human identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Deng-Yuan; Lin, Ta-Wei; Hu, Wu-Chih; Cheng, Chih-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a method for recognizing human identity using gait features based on Gabor wavelets and modified gait energy images (GEIs). Identity recognition by gait generally involves gait representation, extraction, and classification. In this work, a modified GEI convolved with an ensemble of Gabor wavelets is proposed as a gait feature. Principal component analysis is then used to project the Gabor-wavelet-based gait features into a lower-dimension feature space for subsequent classification. Finally, support vector machine classifiers based on a radial basis function kernel are trained and utilized to recognize human identity. The major contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) the consideration of the shadow effect to yield a more complete segmentation of gait silhouettes; (2) the utilization of motion estimation to track people when walkers overlap; and (3) the derivation of modified GEIs to extract more useful gait information. Extensive performance evaluation shows a great improvement of recognition accuracy due to the use of shadow removal, motion estimation, and gait representation using the modified GEIs and Gabor wavelets.

  10. Control of a pneumatic power active lower-limb orthosis with filter-based iterative learning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chia-En; Chen, Jian-Shiang

    2014-05-01

    A filter-based iterative learning control (FILC) scheme is developed in this paper, which consists in a proportional-derivative (PD) feedback controller and a feedforward filter. Moreover, based on two-dimensional system theory, the stability of the FILC system is proven. The design criteria for a wavelet transform filter (WTF) - chosen as the feedforward filter - and the PD feedback controller are also given. Finally, using a pneumatic power active lower-limb orthosis (PPALO) as the controlled plant, the wavelet-based iterative learning control (WILC) implementation and the orchestration of a trajectory tracking control simulation are given in detail and the overall tracking performance is validated.

  11. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    or unclothed  avatars ,  stick figures, or even skeletal models to support their analyses. The system will also allow trainees to  isolate specific...CCAD’s work focused on imposing these sequences on the Santos digital  human  avatar . An initial user interface for the training application was also...ability to detect variations in gait conditions for  skinned  avatar  vs. line‐skeletal  avatar , concurrent (side‐by‐side) image representation vs

  12. Toward understanding the limits of gait recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zongyi; Malave, Laura; Osuntogun, Adebola; Sudhakar, Preksha; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2004-08-01

    Most state of the art video-based gait recognition algorithms start from binary silhouettes. These silhouettes, defined as foreground regions, are usually detected by background subtraction methods, which results in holes or missed parts due to similarity of foreground and background color, and boundary errors due to video compression artifacts. Errors in low-level representation make it hard to understand the effect of certain conditions, such as surface and time, on gait recognition. In this paper, we present a part-level, manual silhouette database consisting of 71 subjects, over one gait cycle, with differences in surface, shoe-type, carrying condition, and time. We have a total of about 11,000 manual silhouette frames. The purpose of this manual silhouette database is twofold. First, this is a resource that we make available at http://www.GaitChallenge.org for use by the gait community to test and design better silhouette detection algorithms. These silhouettes can also be used to learn gait dynamics. Second, using the baseline gait recognition algorithm, which was specified along with the HumanID Gait Challenge problem, we show that performance from manual silhouettes is similar and only sometimes better than that from automated silhouettes detected by statistical background subtraction. Low performances when comparing sequences with differences in walking surfaces and time-variation are not fully explained by silhouette quality. We also study the recognition power in each body part and show that recognition based on just the legs is equal to that from the whole silhouette. There is also significant recognition power in the head and torso shape.

  13. Altered vision destabilizes gait in older persons.

    PubMed

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Hesseberg, Karin; Sletvold, Olav

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of dim light and four experimentally induced changes in vision on gait speed and footfall and trunk parameters in older persons walking on level ground. Using a quasi-experimental design, gait characteristics were assessed in full light, dim light, and in dim light combined with manipulations resulting in reduced depth vision, double vision, blurred vision, and tunnel vision, respectively. A convenience sample of 24 home-dwelling older women and men (mean age 78.5 years, SD 3.4) with normal vision for their age and able to walk at least 10 m without assistance participated. Outcome measures were gait speed and spatial and temporal parameters of footfall and trunk acceleration, derived from an electronic gait mat and accelerometers. Dim light alone had no effect. Vision manipulations combined with dim light had effect on most footfall parameters but few trunk parameters. The largest effects were found regarding double and tunnel vision. Men increased and women decreased gait speed following manipulations (p=0.017), with gender differences also in stride velocity variability (p=0.017) and inter-stride medio-lateral trunk acceleration variability (p=0.014). Gender effects were related to differences in body height and physical functioning. Results indicate that visual problems lead to a more cautious and unstable gait pattern even under relatively simple conditions. This points to the importance of assessing vision in older persons and correcting visual impairments where possible.

  14. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Taborri, Juri; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments. PMID:26751449

  15. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Snekkenes, Einar

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration) of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion) under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  16. Evaluating a novel cervical orthosis, the Sheffield Support Snood, in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease with neck weakness.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Susan; Reed, Heath; Clarke, Zoë; Judge, Simon; Heron, Nicola; Mccarthy, Avril; Langley, Joe; Stanton, Andrew; Wells, Oliver; Squire, Gill; Quinn, Ann; Strong, Mark; Shaw, Pamela J; Mcdermott, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Current practice and guidelines recommend the use of neck orthoses for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to compensate for neck weakness and to provide surrogate neck control. However, available options are frequently described by patients as restrictive and unsuitable and there was a need for a new device that addressed the needs of people with ALS. This project utilized a co-design process to develop a new neck orthosis that was more flexible yet supportive. Following development of a prototype device, a mixed methods cohort study was undertaken with patients and carers, in order to evaluate the new orthosis. Twenty-six patients were recruited to the study, with 20 of these completing all phases of data collection. Participants described the impact of neck weakness on their life and limitations of existing supports. Evaluation of the new orthosis identified key beneficial features: notably, increased support while providing a greater range of movement, flexibility of use, and improved appearance and comfort. In conclusion, the results of this evaluation highlight the value of this alternative option for people with ALS, and potentially other patient groups who require a neck orthosis.

  17. Gait dynamics in Parkinson's disease: common and distinct behavior among stride length, gait variability, and fractal-like scaling.

    PubMed

    Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2009-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, debilitating neurodegenerative disease. Gait disturbances are a frequent cause of disability and impairment for patients with PD. This article provides a brief introduction to PD and describes the gait changes typically seen in patients with this disease. A major focus of this report is an update on the study of the fractal properties of gait in PD, the relationship between this feature of gait and stride length and gait variability, and the effects of different experimental conditions on these three gait properties. Implications of these findings are also briefly described. This update highlights the idea that while stride length, gait variability, and fractal scaling of gait are all impaired in PD, distinct mechanisms likely contribute to and are responsible for the regulation of these disparate gait properties.

  18. Gait dynamics in Parkinson's disease: Common and distinct behavior among stride length, gait variability, and fractal-like scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2009-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, debilitating neurodegenerative disease. Gait disturbances are a frequent cause of disability and impairment for patients with PD. This article provides a brief introduction to PD and describes the gait changes typically seen in patients with this disease. A major focus of this report is an update on the study of the fractal properties of gait in PD, the relationship between this feature of gait and stride length and gait variability, and the effects of different experimental conditions on these three gait properties. Implications of these findings are also briefly described. This update highlights the idea that while stride length, gait variability, and fractal scaling of gait are all impaired in PD, distinct mechanisms likely contribute to and are responsible for the regulation of these disparate gait properties.

  19. Changes in Post-Stroke Gait Biomechanics Induced by One Session of Gait Training.

    PubMed

    Kesar, T M; Reisman, D S; Higginson, J S; Awad, L N; Binder-Macleod, S A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether one session of targeted locomotor training can induce measurable improvements in the post-stroke gait impairments. Thirteen individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis participated in one locomotor training session combining fast treadmill training and functional electrical stimulation (FES) of ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscles. Three dimensional gait analysis was performed to assess within-session changes (after versus before training) in gait biomechanics at the subject's self-selected speed without FES. Our results showed that one session of locomotor training resulted in significant improvements in peak anterior ground reaction force (AGRF) and AGRF integral for the paretic leg. Additionally, individual subject data showed that a majority of study participants demonstrated improvements in the primary outcome variables following the training session. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that a single session of intense, targeted post-stroke locomotor retraining can induce significant improvements in post-stroke gait biomechanics. We posit that the within-session changes induced by a single exposure to gait training can be used to predict whether an individual is responsive to a particular gait intervention, and aid with the development of individualized gait retraining strategies. Future studies are needed to determine whether these single-session improvements in biomechanics are accompanied by short-term changes in corticospinal excitability, and whether single-session responses can serve as predictors for the longer-term effects of the intervention with other targeted gait interventions.

  20. Modulation of gait coordination by subthalamic stimulation improves freezing of gait.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Alfonso; Herzog, Jan; Seifert, Elena; Stolze, Henning; Falk, Daniela; Reese, René; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther

    2011-04-01

    The effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gait coordination and freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which modulation of symmetry and coordination between legs by subthalamic deep brain stimulation alters the frequency and duration of freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease. We recruited 13 post-subthalamic deep brain stimulation patients with Parkinson's disease with off freezing of gait and evaluated them in the following 4 conditions: subthalamic deep brain stimulation on (ON) and stimulation off (OFF), 50% reduction of stimulation voltage for the leg with shorter step length (worse side reduction) and for the leg with longer step length (better side reduction). Gait analysis was performed on a treadmill and recorded by an optoelectronic analysis system. We measured frequency and duration of freezing of gait episodes. Bilateral coordination of gait was assessed by the Phase Coordination Index, quantifying the ability to generate antiphase stepping. From the OFF to the ON state, freezing of gait improved in frequency (2.0 ± 0.4 to 1.4 ± 0.5 episodes) and duration (12.2 ± 2.6 to 2.6 ± 0.8 seconds; P = .005). Compared with the ON state, only better side reduction further reduced freezing of gait frequency (0.2 ± 0.2) and duration of episodes (0.2 ± 0.2 seconds; P = .03); worse side reduction did not change frequency (1.3 ± 0.4) but increased freezing of gait duration (5.2 ± 2.1 seconds). The better side reduction-associated improvements were accompanied by normalization of gait coordination, as measured by phase coordination index (16.5% ± 6.0%), which was significantly lower than in the other 3 conditions. Reduction of stimulation voltage in the side contralateral to the leg with longer step length improves frequency and duration of freezing of gait through normalization of gait symmetry and coordination in subthalamic deep brain

  1. Intra-individual gait pattern variability in specific situations: Implications for forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Oliver; Dillinger, Steffen; Marschall, Franz

    2016-07-01

    In this study, inter- and intra-individual gait pattern differences are examined in various gait situations by means of phase diagrams of the extremity angles (cyclograms). 8 test subjects walked along a walking distance of 6m under different conditions three times each: barefoot, wearing sneakers, wearing combat boots, after muscular fatigue, and wearing a full-face motorcycle helmet restricting vision. The joint angles of foot, knee, and hip were recorded in the sagittal plane. The coupling of movements was represented by time-adjusted cyclograms, and the inter- and intra-individual differences were captured by calculating the similarity between different gait patterns. Gait pattern variability was often greater between the defined test situations than between the individual test subjects. The results have been interpreted considering neurophysiological regulation mechanisms. Footwear, masking, and fatigue were interpreted as disturbance parameters, each being a cause for gait pattern variability and complicating the inference of identity of persons in video recordings.

  2. A Validated Smartphone-Based Assessment of Gait and Gait Variability in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Robert J.; Ng, Yee Sien; Zhu, Shenggao; Tan, Dawn M.; Anderson, Boyd; Schlaug, Gottfried; Wang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Background A well-established connection exists between increased gait variability and greater fall likelihood in Parkinson’s disease (PD); however, a portable, validated means of quantifying gait variability (and testing the efficacy of any intervention) remains lacking. Furthermore, although rhythmic auditory cueing continues to receive attention as a promising gait therapy for PD, its widespread delivery remains bottlenecked. The present paper describes a smartphone-based mobile application (“SmartMOVE”) to address both needs. Methods The accuracy of smartphone-based gait analysis (utilizing the smartphone’s built-in tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope to calculate successive step times and step lengths) was validated against two heel contact–based measurement devices: heel-mounted footswitch sensors (to capture step times) and an instrumented pressure sensor mat (to capture step lengths). 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls walked along a 26-m path during self-paced and metronome-cued conditions, with all three devices recording simultaneously. Results Four outcome measures of gait and gait variability were calculated. Mixed-factorial analysis of variance revealed several instances in which between-group differences (e.g., increased gait variability in PD patients relative to healthy controls) yielded medium-to-large effect sizes (eta-squared values), and cueing-mediated changes (e.g., decreased gait variability when PD patients walked with auditory cues) yielded small-to-medium effect sizes—while at the same time, device-related measurement error yielded small-to-negligible effect sizes. Conclusion These findings highlight specific opportunities for smartphone-based gait analysis to serve as an alternative to conventional gait analysis methods (e.g., footswitch systems or sensor-embedded walkways), particularly when those methods are cost-prohibitive, cumbersome, or inconvenient. PMID:26517720

  3. Modeling and simulation of normal and hemiparetic gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengas, Lely A.; Camargo, Esperanza; Sanchez, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Gait is the collective term for the two types of bipedal locomotion, walking and running. This paper is focused on walking. The analysis of human gait is of interest to many different disciplines, including biomechanics, human-movement science, rehabilitation and medicine in general. Here we present a new model that is capable of reproducing the properties of walking, normal and pathological. The aim of this paper is to establish the biomechanical principles that underlie human walking by using Lagrange method. The constraint forces of Rayleigh dissipation function, through which to consider the effect on the tissues in the gait, are included. Depending on the value of the factor present in the Rayleigh dissipation function, both normal and pathological gait can be simulated. First of all, we apply it in the normal gait and then in the permanent hemiparetic gait. Anthropometric data of adult person are used by simulation, and it is possible to use anthropometric data for children but is necessary to consider existing table of anthropometric data. Validation of these models includes simulations of passive dynamic gait that walk on level ground. The dynamic walking approach provides a new perspective of gait analysis, focusing on the kinematics and kinetics of gait. There have been studies and simulations to show normal human gait, but few of them have focused on abnormal, especially hemiparetic gait. Quantitative comparisons of the model predictions with gait measurements show that the model can reproduce the significant characteristics of normal gait.

  4. On the imitation of CP gait patterns by healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Rezgui, Taysir; Megrot, Fabrice; Fradet, Laetitia; Marin, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    The comparison of gait imitated by healthy subjects with real pathological CP gaits is expected to contribute to a better distinction between primary deviations directly induced by neurological troubles and secondary compensatory deviations in relation with the biomechanics of the pathological gait. However, the ability of healthy subjects for imitating typical CP gaits such as "jump" or "crouch" gaits still remains to be determined. The present study proposes to investigate healthy subjects imitating these typical CP gait patterns. 10 healthy adult subjects performed three types of gait: one "normal" and two imitated "jump" and "crouch" gaits. Kinematics and kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle were computed in the sagittal plane. Rectified normalized EMG was also analysed. Our data were compared with reference data. For the statistical analysis, the coefficient of multicorrelation has been used. It has been demonstrated that healthy subjects were able to voluntarily modify their gait pattern with a high level of intra-session and inter-subject reproducibility as quantified by a CMC values higher than 0.76 for all parameters. The comparison with literature reference data showed that healthy subjects not could perfectly reproduce a CP gait, however could only simulate the main characteristics of "crouch" and "jump" gaits pattern. As a perspective, pathological gaits imitated by healthy subjects could be used as valuable additional material to analyse the relationship between a voluntarily modified posture and the altered muscle activation to explore a new paradigm on pathological gait pattern analysis and musculoskeletal modelling.

  5. Neuroimaging of Freezing of Gait

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Alfonso; Herman, Talia; Tessitore, Alessandro; Strafella, Antonio P.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional brain imaging techniques appear ideally suited to explore the pathophysiology of freezing of gait (FOG). In the last two decades, techniques based on magnetic resonance or nuclear medicine imaging have found a number of structural changes and functional disconnections between subcortical and cortical regions of the locomotor network in patients with FOG. FOG seems to be related in part to disruptions in the “executive-attention” network along with regional tissue loss including the premotor area, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, the parietal and occipital areas involved in visuospatial functions of the right hemisphere. Several subcortical structures have been also involved in the etiology of FOG, principally the caudate nucleus and the locomotor centers in the brainstem. Maladaptive neural compensation may present transiently in the presence of acute conflicting motor, cognitive or emotional stimulus processing, thus causing acute network overload and resulting in episodic impairment of stepping. In this review we will summarize the state of the art of neuroimaging research for FOG. We will also discuss the limitations of current approaches and delineate the next steps of neuroimaging research to unravel the pathophysiology of this mysterious motor phenomenon. PMID:25757831

  6. Gait synchronization in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David M.; Bau, Haim H.

    2014-01-01

    Collective motion is observed in swarms of swimmers of various sizes, ranging from self-propelled nanoparticles to fish. The mechanisms that govern interactions among individuals are debated, and vary from one species to another. Although the interactions among relatively large animals, such as fish, are controlled by their nervous systems, the interactions among microorganisms, which lack nervous systems, are controlled through physical and chemical pathways. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanism of collective movements in microscopic organisms with nervous systems. To attempt to remedy this, we studied collective swimming behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a microorganism with a compact nervous system. We evaluated the contributions of hydrodynamic forces, contact forces, and mechanosensory input to the interactions among individuals. We devised an experiment to examine pair interactions as a function of the distance between the animals and observed that gait synchronization occurred only when the animals were in close proximity, independent of genes required for mechanosensation. Our measurements and simulations indicate that steric hindrance is the dominant factor responsible for motion synchronization in C. elegans, and that hydrodynamic interactions and genotype do not play a significant role. We infer that a similar mechanism may apply to other microscopic swimming organisms and self-propelled particles. PMID:24778261

  7. Gait rehabilitation machines based on programmable footplates

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Henning; Werner, Cordula; Bernhardt, Rolf; Hesse, Stefan; Krüger, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Background Gait restoration is an integral part of rehabilitation of brain lesioned patients. Modern concepts favour a task-specific repetitive approach, i.e. who wants to regain walking has to walk, while tone-inhibiting and gait preparatory manoeuvres had dominated therapy before. Following the first mobilization out of the bed, the wheelchair-bound patient should have the possibility to practise complex gait cycles as soon as possible. Steps in this direction were treadmill training with partial body weight support and most recently gait machines enabling the repetitive training of even surface gait and even of stair climbing. Results With treadmill training harness-secured and partially relieved wheelchair-mobilised patients could practise up to 1000 steps per session for the first time. Controlled trials in stroke and SCI patients, however, failed to show a superior result when compared to walking exercise on the floor. Most likely explanation was the effort for the therapists, e.g. manually setting the paretic limbs during the swing phase resulting in a too little gait intensity. The next steps were gait machines, either consisting of a powered exoskeleton and a treadmill (Lokomat, AutoAmbulator) or an electromechanical solution with the harness secured patient placed on movable foot plates (Gait Trainer GT I). For the latter, a large multi-centre trial with 155 non-ambulatory stroke patients (DEGAS) revealed a superior gait ability and competence in basic activities of living in the experimental group. The HapticWalker continued the end effector concept of movable foot plates, now fully programmable and equipped with 6 DOF force sensors. This device for the first time enables training of arbitrary walking situations, hence not only the simulation of floor walking but also for example of stair climbing and perturbations. Conclusion Locomotor therapy is a fascinating new tool in rehabilitation, which is in line with modern principles of motor relearning

  8. Predisability And Gait Patterns In Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Joe; Xue, Xiaonan

    2010-01-01

    Presence of performance inconsistency during repeated assessments of gait may reflect underlying subclinical disease, and help shed light on the earliest stages of disablement. We studied inter-session fluctuations on three selected gait measures (velocity, stride length, and stride length variability) during normal pace walking as well as during a cognitively demanding ‘walking while talking’ condition using a repeated measurement burst design (six sessions within a 2-week period) in 71 nondisabled and nondemented community residing older adults, 40 with predisability (does activities of daily living unassisted but with difficulty). Subjects with predisability had slower gait velocity and shorter stride length on both the normal and walking while talking conditions at baseline compared to nondisabled subjects. However, there was no significant pattern of fluctuations across the six sessions on the three selected gait variables comparing the two groups during normal walking as well as on the walking while talking conditions. Our findings support consistency of gait measurements during the earliest stages of disability. PMID:21050762

  9. Gait information flow indicates complex motor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dirk; Kletzin, Ulf; Adler, Daniela; Adler, Steffen; Meissner, Winfried; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2005-08-01

    Gait-related back movements require coordination of multiple extremities including the flexible trunk. Ageing and chronic back pain influence these adjustments. These complex coordinations can advantageously be quantified by information theoretically based communication measures such as the gait information flow (GIF). Nine back pain patients (aged 61+/-10 yr) and 12 controls (aged 38+/-10 yr) were investigated during normal walking across a distance of 300 m. The back movements were measured as distances between characteristic points (cervical spine CS, thoracic spine TS, lumbar spine LS) by the sonoSens Monitor, a system for mobile motion analysis. Gait information flow and regularity indices (RI1: short prediction horizon of 100 ms, RI2: longer prediction horizon of walking period) were assessed as communication characteristics. All indices were non-parametrically tested for group differences. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed by bivariate logistic regression models. We found regularity indices systematically dependent on measurement points, information flow horizon and groups. In the patients RI1 was increased, but RI2 was decreased in comparison to the control group. These results quantitatively characterize the altered complex communication in the patients. We conclude that ageing and/or chronic back pain related dysfunctions of gait can advantageously be monitored by gait information flow characteristics of back movements measured as distances between characteristics points at the back surface.

  10. The asymmetric gait toenail unit sign.

    PubMed

    Zaias, Nardo; Rebell, Gerbert; Casal, German; Appel, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to resolve a diagnostic problem and report toenail unit changes attributable to shoe friction that resemble onychomycosis, but that are fungus-negative, and identify common skeletal causes in patients with an asymmetric walking gait. X-ray and clinical feet inspections were performed to evaluate skeletal components that change normal foot biodynamics. Forty-nine patients, all dermatophyte-negative, were reviewed. All patients were those seen in our private practice who demonstrated skeletal and toenail unit abnormalities such as onycholysis, nail bed keratosis resembling distal subungual onychomycosis, nail plate surface abnormalities, distal toe skin keratosis, a diagnostic nail plate shape, as well as several skeletal abnormalities. The clinical abnormalities of the asymmetric gait syndrome include onycholysis, nail bed keratosis, nail plate surface abnormalities, and a diagnostic nail plate shape. By the patient's history, the skeletal findings that were present worsened with age and, in many patients, they were familial. Onychomycosis does not lead to an asymmetric gait nail problem, asymmetric gait toenail does not favor dermatophyte infection, and not all nail dystrophies are the result of an asymmetric walking gait.

  11. Scrunching: a novel escape gait in planarians.

    PubMed

    Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Mickolajczyk, Keith J; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2015-09-10

    The ability to escape a predator or other life-threatening situations is central to animal survival. Different species have evolved unique strategies under anatomical and environmental constraints. In this study, we describe a novel musculature-driven escape gait in planarians, 'scrunching', which is quantitatively different from other planarian gaits, such as gliding and peristalsis. We show that scrunching is a conserved gait among different flatworm species, underlying its importance as an escape mechanism. We further demonstrate that it can be induced by a variety of physical stimuli, including amputation, high temperature, electric shock and low pH. We discuss the functional basis for scrunching as the preferential gait when gliding is impaired due to a disruption of mucus production. Finally, we show that the key mechanical features of scrunching are adequately captured by a simple biomechanical model that is solely based on experimental data from traction force microscopy and tissue rheology without fit parameters. Together, our results form a complete description of this novel form of planarian locomotion. Because scrunching has distinct dynamics, this gait can serve as a robust behavioral readout for studies of motor neuron and muscular functions in planarians and in particular the restoration of these functions during regeneration.

  12. Multidirectional transparent support for overground gait training.

    PubMed

    Vallery, H; Lutz, P; von Zitzewitz, J; Rauter, G; Fritschi, M; Everarts, C; Ronsse, R; Curt, A; Bolliger, M

    2013-06-01

    Gait and balance training is an essential ingredient for locomotor rehabilitation of patients with neurological impairments. Robotic overhead support systems may help these patients train, for example by relieving them of part of their body weight. However, there are only very few systems that provide support during overground gait, and these suffer from limited degrees of freedom and/or undesired interaction forces due to uncompensated robot dynamics, namely inertia. Here, we suggest a novel mechanical concept that is based on cable robot technology and that allows three-dimensional gait training while reducing apparent robot dynamics to a minimum. The solution does not suffer from the conventional drawback of cable robots, which is a limited workspace. Instead, displaceable deflection units follow the human subject above a large walking area. These deflection units are not actuated, instead they are implicitly displaced by means of the forces in the cables they deflect. This leads to an underactuated design, because the deflection units cannot be moved arbitrarily. However, the design still allows accurate control of a three-dimensional force vector acting on a human subject during gait. We describe the mechanical concept, the control concept, and we show first experimental results obtained with the device, including the force control performance during robot-supported overground gait of five human subjects without motor impairments.

  13. Scrunching: a novel escape gait in planarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Mickolajczyk, Keith J.; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2015-10-01

    The ability to escape a predator or other life-threatening situations is central to animal survival. Different species have evolved unique strategies under anatomical and environmental constraints. In this study, we describe a novel musculature-driven escape gait in planarians, ‘scrunching’, which is quantitatively different from other planarian gaits, such as gliding and peristalsis. We show that scrunching is a conserved gait among different flatworm species, underlying its importance as an escape mechanism. We further demonstrate that it can be induced by a variety of physical stimuli, including amputation, high temperature, electric shock and low pH. We discuss the functional basis for scrunching as the preferential gait when gliding is impaired due to a disruption of mucus production. Finally, we show that the key mechanical features of scrunching are adequately captured by a simple biomechanical model that is solely based on experimental data from traction force microscopy and tissue rheology without fit parameters. Together, our results form a complete description of this novel form of planarian locomotion. Because scrunching has distinct dynamics, this gait can serve as a robust behavioral readout for studies of motor neuron and muscular functions in planarians and in particular the restoration of these functions during regeneration.

  14. Computational intelligent gait-phase detection system to identify pathological gait.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Chathuri M; Senanayake, S M N Arosha

    2010-09-01

    An intelligent gait-phase detection algorithm based on kinematic and kinetic parameters is presented in this paper. The gait parameters do not vary distinctly for each gait phase; therefore, it is complex to differentiate gait phases with respect to a threshold value. To overcome this intricacy, the concept of fuzzy logic was applied to detect gait phases with respect to fuzzy membership values. A real-time data-acquisition system was developed consisting of four force-sensitive resistors and two inertial sensors to obtain foot-pressure patterns and knee flexion/extension angle, respectively. The detected gait phases could be further analyzed to identify abnormality occurrences, and hence, is applicable to determine accurate timing for feedback. The large amount of data required for quality gait analysis necessitates the utilization of information technology to store, manage, and extract required information. Therefore, a software application was developed for real-time acquisition of sensor data, data processing, database management, and a user-friendly graphical-user interface as a tool to simplify the task of clinicians. The experiments carried out to validate the proposed system are presented along with the results analysis for normal and pathological walking patterns.

  15. Afferent control of human stance and gait: evidence for blocking of group I afferents during gait.

    PubMed

    Dietz, V; Quintern, J; Berger, W

    1985-01-01

    The cerebral potentials (c.p.) evoked by electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve during stance and in the various phases of gait of normal subjects were compared with the c.p. and leg muscle e.m.g. responses evoked by perturbations of stance and gait. Over the whole step cycle of gait the c.p. evoked by an electrical stimulus were of smaller amplitude (3 microV and 9 microV, respectively) than that seen in the stance condition, and appeared with a longer latency (mean times to first positive peak: 63 and 43 ms, respectively). When the electrical stimulus was applied during stance after ischaemic blockade of group I afferents, the c.p. were similar to those evoked during gait. The c.p. evoked by perturbations were larger in amplitude than those produced by the electrical stimulus, but similar in latencies in both gait and stance (mean 26 microV and 40 microV; 65 ms and 42 ms, respectively) and configurations. The large gastrocnemius e.m.g. responses evoked by the stance and gait perturbations arose with a latency of 65 to 70 ms. Only in the stance condition was a smaller, shorter latency (40 ms) response seen. It is concluded that during gait the signals of group I afferents are blocked at both segmental and supraspinal levels which was tested by tibial nerve stimulation. It is suggested that the e.m.g. responses induced in the leg by gait perturbations are evoked by group II afferents and mediated via a spinal pathway. The c.p. evoked during gait most probably reflect the processing of this group II input by supraspinal motor centres for the coordination of widespread arm and trunk muscle activation, necessary to restablish body equilibrium.

  16. Human Odometry Verifies the Symmetry Perspective on Bipedal Gaits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turvey, M. T.; Harrison, Steven J.; Frank, Till D.; Carello, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Bipedal gaits have been classified on the basis of the group symmetry of the minimal network of identical differential equations (alias "cells") required to model them. Primary gaits are characterized by dihedral symmetry, whereas secondary gaits are characterized by a lower, cyclic symmetry. This fact was used in a test of human…

  17. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running

    PubMed Central

    Hoerzer, Stefan; Federolf, Peter A.; Maurer, Christian; Baltich, Jennifer; Nigg, Benno M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a) to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI) that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b) to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy). Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation) was significantly lower (p = 0.041) than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5). This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback. PMID:26488484

  18. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running.

    PubMed

    Hoerzer, Stefan; Federolf, Peter A; Maurer, Christian; Baltich, Jennifer; Nigg, Benno M

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a) to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI) that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b) to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy). Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation) was significantly lower (p = 0.041) than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5). This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback.

  19. A stochastic model of human gait dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; M. Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Ch. Ivanov, Plamen; Eugene Stanley, H.

    2002-12-01

    We present a stochastic model of gait rhythm dynamics, based on transitions between different “neural centers”, that reproduces distinctive statistical properties of normal human walking. By tuning one model parameter, the transition (hopping) range, the model can describe alterations in gait dynamics from childhood to adulthood-including a decrease in the correlation and volatility exponents with maturation. The model also generates time series with multifractal spectra whose broadness depends only on this parameter. Moreover, we find that the volatility exponent increases monotonically as a function of the width of the multifractal spectrum, suggesting the possibility of a change in multifractality with maturation.

  20. Periodic gaits for the CMU ambler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahalingam, Swaminathan; Dwivedi, Suren N.

    1989-01-01

    The configuration of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler, a six legged autonomous walking vehicle for exploring Mars, enables the recovery of a trailing leg past the leading leg to reduce the energy expenditure in terrain interactions. Gaits developed for this unprecedented configuration are described. A stability criterion was developed which ensures stability of the vehicle in the event of failure of any one of the supporting legs. Periodic gaits developed for the Ambler utilize the Ambler's unique abilities, and continuously satisfy the stability criterion.

  1. Gait analysis by high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André; van Dongen, Caroline

    2008-05-01

    Human walking is a complicated motion. Movement scientists have developed various research methods to study gait. This article describes how a high school student collected and analysed high quality gait data in much the same way that movement scientists do, via the recording and measurement of motions with a video analysis tool and via electromyography, i.e., the measurement of muscle activity. Physics, biology, and mathematics come together in this practical investigation work at a rather high level. It shows that science learning at school can resemble science practice in research laboratories, provided that students have adequate tools.

  2. Parkinson's disease classification using gait analysis via deterministic learning.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Liu, Fenglin; Wang, Qinghui; Wang, Ying; Ma, Limin; Zhang, Yu

    2016-10-28

    Gait analysis plays an important role in maintaining the well-being of human mobility and health care, and is a valuable tool for obtaining quantitative information on motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, we propose a method to classify (diagnose) patients with PD and healthy control subjects using gait analysis via deterministic learning theory. The classification approach consists of two phases: a training phase and a classification phase. In the training phase, gait characteristics represented by the gait dynamics are derived from the vertical ground reaction forces under the usual and self-selected paces of the subjects. The gait dynamics underlying gait patterns of healthy controls and PD patients are locally accurately approximated by radial basis function (RBF) neural networks. The obtained knowledge of approximated gait dynamics is stored in constant RBF networks. The gait patterns of healthy controls and PD patients constitute a training set. In the classification phase, a bank of dynamical estimators is constructed for all the training gait patterns. Prior knowledge of gait dynamics represented by the constant RBF networks is embedded in the estimators. By comparing the set of estimators with a test gait pattern of a certain PD patient to be classified (diagnosed), a set of classification errors are generated. The average L1 norms of the errors are taken as the classification measure between the dynamics of the training gait patterns and the dynamics of the test PD gait pattern according to the smallest error principle. When the gait patterns of 93 PD patients and 73 healthy controls are classified with five-fold cross-validation method, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the results are 96.39%, 96.77% and 95.89%, respectively. Based on the results, it may be claimed that the features and the classifiers used in the present study could effectively separate the gait patterns between the groups of PD patients and healthy

  3. Gait analysis in lower-limb amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Esquenazi, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Gait analysis combined with sound clinical judgment plays an important role in elucidating the factors involved in the pathologic prosthetic gait and the selection and effects of available interventions to optimize it. Detailed clinical evaluation of walking contributes to the analysis of the prosthetic gait, but evaluation in the gait laboratory using kinetic and kinematic data is often necessary to quantify and identify the particular contributions of the variables impacting the gait with confidence and assess the results of such intervention. The same approach can be considered when selecting prosthetic components and assessing leg length in this patient population.

  4. Fluctuation and synchronization of gait intervals and gait force profiles distinguish stages of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Ronny; Plotnik, Meir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of Parkinson's disease (PD) on the long-term fluctuation and phase synchronization properties of gait timing (series of interstride intervals) as well as gait force profiles (series characterizing the morphological changes between the steps). We find that the fluctuations in the gait timing are significantly larger for PD patients and early PD patients, who were not treated yet with medication, compared to age-matched healthy controls. Simultaneously, the long-term correlations and the phase synchronization of right and left leg are significantly reduced in both types of PD patients. Surprisingly, long-term correlations of the gait force profiles are relatively weak for treated PD patients and healthy controls, while they are significantly larger for early PD patients. The results support the idea that timing and morphology of recordings obtained from a complex system can contain complementary information. PMID:18163154

  5. Fluctuation and synchronization of gait intervals and gait force profiles distinguish stages of Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Ronny; Plotnik, Meir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2007-09-01

    We study the effects of Parkinson's disease (PD) on the long-term fluctuation and phase synchronization properties of gait timing (series of interstride intervals) as well as gait force profiles (series characterizing the morphological changes between the steps). We find that the fluctuations in the gait timing are significantly larger for PD patients and early PD patients, who were not treated yet with medication, compared to age-matched healthy controls. Simultaneously, the long-term correlations and the phase synchronization of right and left leg are significantly reduced in both types of PD patients. Surprisingly, long-term correlations of the gait force profiles are relatively weak for treated PD patients and healthy controls, while they are significantly larger for early PD patients. The results support the idea that timing and morphology of recordings obtained from a complex system can contain complementary information.

  6. Estimates of gastrocnemius muscle length during simulated pathological gait.

    PubMed

    Rao, Smita; Dietz, Fred; Yack, H John

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare estimates of gastrocnemius muscle length (GML) obtained using a segmented versus straight-line model in children. Kinematic data were acquired on eleven typically developing children as they walked under the following conditions: normal gait, crouch gait, equinus gait, and crouch with equinus gait. Maximum and minimum GML, and GML change were calculated using two models: straight-line and segmented. A two-way RMANOVA was used to compare GML characteristics. Results indicated that maximum GML and GML change during simulated pathological gait patterns were influenced by model used to calculate gastrocnemius muscle length (interaction: P = .004 and P = .026). Maximum GML was lower in the simulated gait patterns compared with normal gait (P < .001). Maximum GML was higher with the segmented model compared with the straight-line model (P = .030). Using either model, GML change in equinus gait and crouch with equinus gait was lower compared with normal gait (P < .001). Overall, minimum GML estimated with the segmented model was higher compared with the straight-line model (P < .01). The key findings of our study indicate that GML is significantly affected by both gait pattern and method of estimation. The GML estimates tended to be lower with the straight-line model versus the segmented model.

  7. [Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Gait Analysis in Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed

    Putzhammer, Albert; Heindl, Bernhard; Müller, Jürgen; Broll, Karin; Pfeiff, Liane; Perfahl, Maria; Hess, Linda; Koch, Horst

    2003-05-01

    Schizophrenic disorders as well as neuroleptic treatment can affect locomotion. The study assessed the influence of neuroleptic treatment on human gait via ultrasonic topometric gait analysis. In a control sample the test system proved high test-retest-reliability. Spatial and temporal gait parameters were assessed in schizophrenic patients without neuroleptic treatment (n = 12) and under treatment with conventional neuroleptics (n = 14) and re-assessed after treatment change to the atypical neuroleptic olanzapine in a repeated measures design. After switch from conventional neuroleptics to olanzapine patients showed an increase of gait velocity (p gait is affected by conventional neuroleptic treatment. The degree of impairment can be objectively measured by testing spatio-temporal and kinematic gait parameters via three-dimensional ultrasonic gait analysis.

  8. Basic gait analysis based on continuous wave radar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun

    2012-09-01

    A gait analysis method based on continuous wave (CW) radar is proposed in this paper. Time-frequency analysis is used to analyze the radar micro-Doppler echo from walking humans, and the relationships between the time-frequency spectrogram and human biological gait are discussed. The methods for extracting the gait parameters from the spectrogram are studied in depth and experiments on more than twenty subjects have been performed to acquire the radar gait data. The gait parameters are calculated and compared. The gait difference between men and women are presented based on the experimental data and extracted features. Gait analysis based on CW radar will provide a new method for clinical diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Wireless accelerometer iPod application for quantifying gait characteristics.

    PubMed

    LeMoyne, Robert; Mastroianni, Timothy; Grundfest, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The capability to quantify gait characteristics through a wireless accelerometer iPod application in an effectively autonomous environment may alleviate the progressive strain on highly specific medical resources. The iPod consists of the inherent attributes imperative for robust gait quantification, such as a three dimensional accelerometer, data storage, flexible software, and the capacity for wireless transmission of the gait data through email. Based on the synthesis of the integral components of the iPod, a wireless accelerometer iPod application for quantifying gait characteristics has been tested and evaluated in an essentially autonomous environment. The quantified gait acceleration waveforms were wirelessly transmitted using email for postprocessing. The site for the gait experiment occurred in a remote location relative to the location where the postprocessing was conducted. The wireless accelerometer iPod application for quantifying gait characteristics demonstrated sufficient accuracy and consistency.

  10. Gait identification from invisible shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Yumi; Uchino, Koji; Kurazume, Ryo; Stoica, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    This paper introduces a person identification system that uses as input the shadow images of a walking person, as projected by multiple lights(in this application invisible/infrared lights); the system uses a database of examples of shadows images of a number of people who walk. While it is accepted that personal identification has a higher correct classification rate if views from multiple cameras are used, most systems use only one camera, mainly because (i) Installation in real-world environments is easier, less cameras and no need to synchronize cameras, (ii) Computational cost is reduced. In the proposed system, we obtain the advantages of multiple viewpoints with a single camera and additional light sources. More specific, we install multiple infrared lights to project shadows of a subject on the ground and a camera with an infrared transmitting filter mounted in the ceiling inside of a building. Shadow areas, which are projections of one's body on the ground by multiple lights, can be considered as body areas captured from different viewpoints; thus, the proposed system is able to capture multiple projections of the body from a single camera. We explored in other papers the use of sunproduced shadow for identification of people walking freely in the outdoor. In this paper the application scenario is a system installed at the airport in the areas that precedes the immigration checkpoint. Japan already has health monitoring cameras focused on approaching individuals, to determine their health condition; the here described system would also be installed in such a controlled area with restricted walk corridors of walk and controlled lighting. Gait is a remote biometrics and can provide early warning; on another hand it can be used as corroborating evidence in a multi-modal biometrics system. A database of images including shadows for a set of 28 walking people was collected, and the features extracted from shadow areas by affine moment invariants, after which

  11. Primary and secondary gait deviations of stroke survivors and their association with gait performance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Sik; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Gim, Seon-Young; Kim, Woo-Ram; Tack, Gye-Rae; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chun, Sung-Kuk; Kim, Jin-Wook; Mun, Kyung-Ryoul

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Stroke survivors exhibit abnormal pelvic motion and significantly deteriorated gait performance. Although the gait of stroke survivors has been evaluated at the primary level pertaining to ankle, knee, and hip motions, secondary deviations involving the pelvic motions are strongly related to the primary level. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the kinematic differences of the primary and secondary joints and to identify mechanism differences that alter the gait performance of stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Five healthy subjects and five stroke survivors were recruited. All the subjects were instructed to walk at a self-selected speed. The joint kinematics and gait parameters were calculated. [Results] For the stroke survivors, the range of motion of the primary-joint motions were significantly reduced, and the secondary-joint motions were significantly increased. Additionally, for the healthy subjects, the primary joint kinematics were the main factors ensuring gait performance, whereas for the stoke survivors, the secondary-joint motions were the main factors. [Conclusion] The results indicate that while increasing the range of motion of primary-joint movements is the main target to achieve, there is a strong need to constrain and support pelvic motions in order to improve the outcome of gait rehabilitation. PMID:27799710

  12. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control.

    PubMed

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  13. Orthotic devices and gait in polio patients.

    PubMed

    Genêt, F; Schnitzler, A; Mathieu, S; Autret, K; Théfenne, L; Dizien, O; Maldjian, A

    2010-02-01

    Polio survivors are aging and facing multiple pathologies. With age, walking becomes more difficult, partly due to locomotor deficits but also as a result of weight gain, osteoarticular degeneration, pain, cardiorespiratory problems or even post polio syndrome (PPS). These additional complications increase the risk of falls in this population where the risk of fractures is already quite high. The key joint is the knee. The muscles stabilizing this joint are often weak and patients develop compensatory gait strategies, which could be harmful to the locomotor system at medium or long term. Classically, knee recurvatum is used to lock the knee during weight bearing; however, if it exceeds 10 degrees , the knee becomes unstable and walking is unsafe. Thus, regular medical monitoring is necessary. Orthoses play an important role in the therapeutic care of polio survivors. The aim is usually to secure the knee, preventing excessive recurvatum while respecting the patient's own gait. Orthoses must be light and pressure-free if they are to be tolerated and therefore effective. Other joints present fewer problems and orthoses are rarely indicated just for them. The main issue lies in the prior evaluation of treatments' impact. Some deformities may be helpful for the patients' gait and, therefore, corrections may worsen their gait, especially if a realignment of segments is attempted. It is therefore essential to carefully pre-assess any change brought to the orthoses as well as proper indications for corrective surgery. In addition, it is essential for the patient to be monitored by a specialized team.

  14. The gait of unilateral transfemoral amputees.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, A M; Schrama, J; Fidler, V; Eisma, W H

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the gait of persons with a unilateral transfemoral amputation by means of a questionnaire, gait analysis and measurement of energy expenditure, and to find correlations among the variables studied. The study included 29 transfemoral amputees amputated for other reasons than a chronic vascular disease. The patients were assessed using the following methods: 1) A questionnaire rating the walking distance and walking difficulty in different circumstances. 2) Gait analysis measuring temporal variables and goniometry of hips and knees. 3) Measurement of energy expenditure during sitting and walking. Scores on the questionnaire showed a correlation with socket design, a negative correlation with age and energy expenditure, and a positive correlation with fast speed. The gait of transfemoral amputees was asymmetrical as far as temporal variables were concerned, and for most amputees also for the range of motion of hip and knee. The walking speed of the amputees was lower than that of non-amputees and showed a positive correlation with hip extension-flexion range of motion and a negative correlation with age and stride time. The energy expenditure of the amputees during ambulation was higher than that of non-amputees, and seemed to correlate with residual limb length and the hip abduction-adduction range of motion.

  15. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    PubMed Central

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling. PMID:28122432

  16. Automated Gait Analysis Through Hues and Areas (AGATHA): A Method to Characterize the Spatiotemporal Pattern of Rat Gait.

    PubMed

    Kloefkorn, Heidi E; Pettengill, Travis R; Turner, Sara M F; Streeter, Kristi A; Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J; Fuller, David D; Allen, Kyle D

    2017-03-01

    While rodent gait analysis can quantify the behavioral consequences of disease, significant methodological differences exist between analysis platforms and little validation has been performed to understand or mitigate these sources of variance. By providing the algorithms used to quantify gait, open-source gait analysis software can be validated and used to explore methodological differences. Our group is introducing, for the first time, a fully-automated, open-source method for the characterization of rodent spatiotemporal gait patterns, termed Automated Gait Analysis Through Hues and Areas (AGATHA). This study describes how AGATHA identifies gait events, validates AGATHA relative to manual digitization methods, and utilizes AGATHA to detect gait compensations in orthopaedic and spinal cord injury models. To validate AGATHA against manual digitization, results from videos of rodent gait, recorded at 1000 frames per second (fps), were compared. To assess one common source of variance (the effects of video frame rate), these 1000 fps videos were re-sampled to mimic several lower fps and compared again. While spatial variables were indistinguishable between AGATHA and manual digitization, low video frame rates resulted in temporal errors for both methods. At frame rates over 125 fps, AGATHA achieved a comparable accuracy and precision to manual digitization for all gait variables. Moreover, AGATHA detected unique gait changes in each injury model. These data demonstrate AGATHA is an accurate and precise platform for the analysis of rodent spatiotemporal gait patterns.

  17. The comparison of Neoprene palumbo and Genu direxa stable orthosis effects on pain and activity of daily living in patients with patellofemoral syndrome: a randomized blinded clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mohammad Sadegh; Dehghan, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common disorders of the knee. Conservative approaches, as well as surgery, can decrease pain and the syndrome’s progress effectively. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of neoprene palumbo orthosis (NPO) and Genu direxa stable orthosis (GDSO) on pain and the activities of daily living (ADL). Methods Thirty patients (males, ages 18 to 40) participated in this randomized blinded clinical trial. All of them were diagnosed with patella femoral pain syndrome. The participants were divided randomly into two groups of 15, with one group using neoprene palumbo (intervention group) and the other group using Genu direxa stable orthoses (control group). Using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), pain intensity and activities of daily living (ADL) and joint stiffness were analyzed before treatment and after three weeks of treatment. Data were analyzed using paired samples t-test and independent samples t-test. Results Both orthoses reduced the patients’ pain. Both group showed meaningful improvement in pain reduction and ADL increase after using orthosis in each group. In comparing the variables, no significant differences were found between pain severity and ADL (p = 0.592, p = 0.887). In both groups, the mean of pain severity was different before, during, and after using orthosis (p < 0.05). Conclusion The results of this study indicated that Neoprene palumbo and genudirexa stable orthoses improved the signs of patello femoral pain syndrome, including pain intensity and ADL. PMID:26516437

  18. Dart-Splint: An innovative orthosis that can be integrated into a scapho-lunate and palmar midcarpal instability re-education protocol.

    PubMed

    Braidotti, Federica; Atzei, Andrea; Fairplay, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The Authors describe a novel hinged orthosis that permits selective midcarpal mobilization along the plane of the dart throwing motion. This orthotic device can be used to assist rehabilitation protocols aimed to limit radiocarpal joint mobility and scapho-lunate ligament overload and to accelerate wrist functional recovery after ligamentous injuries around the proximal carpal row. - VictoriaW. Priganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor.

  19. Early Functional Postoperative Therapy of Distal Radius Fracture with a Dynamic Orthosis: Results of a Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Stuby, Fabian M.; Döbele, Stefan; Schäffer, Susanne-Dorothea; Mueller, Simon; Ateschrang, Atesch

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study was conducted according to GCP criteria as a prospective randomized cross-over study. The primary goal of the study was to determine clinical findings and patient satisfaction with postoperative treatment. 29 patients with a distal radius fracture that was surgically stabilized from volar and who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a 12-month period. Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis applied postoperatively in the operating theatre to achieve postoperative immobilization. After one week all patients were crossed over to the complementary device maintaining the immobilization until end of week 2. After week 2 both groups were allowed to exercise wrist mobility with a physiotherapist, in the orthosis group the device was deblocked, thus allowing limited wrist mobility. After week 4 the devices were removed in both groups. Follow-up exams were performed after postoperative weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12. Results and Discussion Results were determined after week 1 and 2 using SF 36 and a personally compiled questionnaire; after weeks 4 and 12 with a clinical check-up, calculation of ROM and the DASH Score. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in ROM for volar flexion after 4 weeks, but no significant differences in DASH Score, duration of disability or x-ray findings. With regard to satisfaction with comfort and hygiene, patients were significantly more satisfied with the dynamic orthosis, and 23 of the 29 patients would prefer the flexible vacuum orthosis in future. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00006097 PMID:25822197

  20. Evaluation of the magnitude of hip joint deformation in subjects with avascular necrosis of the hip joint during walking with and without Scottish Rite orthosis.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadi, Ali; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; McGarry, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    The femoral head in subjects with leg calve perthes disease (LCPD) is generally considerably deformed. It is debatable whether this deformation is due to an increase in applied loads, a decrease in bone mineral density or a change in containment of articular surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of these factors on deformation of the femoral head. Two subjects with LCPD participated in this study. Subject motion and the forces applied on the affected leg were recorded using a motion analysis system (Qualsis(TM)) and a Kistler force plate. OpenSim software was used to determine joint contact force of the hip joint whilst walking with and without a Scottish Rite orthosis. 3D Models of hip joints of both subjects were produced by Mimics software. The deformation of femoral bone was determined by Abaqus. Mean values of the force applied on the leg increased while walking with the orthosis. There was no difference between bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral bone of normal and LCPD sides (p-value>0.05) and no difference between hip joint contact force of normal and LCPD sides. Hip joint containment appeared to decrease follow the use of the orthosis. It can be concluded that the deformation of femoral head in LCPD may not be due to change in BMD or applied load. Although the Scottish Rite orthosis is used mostly to increase hip joint containment, it appears to reduce hip joint contact area. It is recommended that a similar study is conducted using a higher number of subjects.

  1. Precision orthotics: optimising ankle foot orthoses to improve gait in patients with neuromuscular diseases; protocol of the PROOF-AFO study, a prospective intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Nollet, Frans; Harlaar, Jaap; Brehm, Merel-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In patients with neuromuscular disorders and subsequent calf muscle weakness, metabolic walking energy cost (EC) is nearly always increased, which may restrict walking activity in daily life. To reduce walking EC, a spring-like ankle-foot-orthosis (AFO) can be prescribed. However, the reduction in EC that can be obtained from these AFOs is stiffness dependent, and it is unknown which AFO stiffness would optimally support calf muscle weakness. The PROOF-AFO study aims to determine the effectiveness of stiffness-optimised AFOs on reducing walking EC, and improving gait biomechanics and walking speed in patients with calf muscle weakness, compared to standard, non-optimised AFOs. A second aim is to build a model to predict optimal AFO stiffness. Methods and analysis A prospective intervention study will be conducted. In total, 37 patients with calf muscle weakness who already use an AFO will be recruited. At study entry, participants will receive a new custom-made spring-like AFO of which the stiffness can be varied. For each patient, walking EC (primary outcome), gait biomechanics and walking speed (secondary outcomes) will be assessed for five stiffness configurations and the patient's own (standard) AFO. On the basis of walking EC and gait biomechanics outcomes, the optimal AFO stiffness will be determined. After wearing this optimal AFO for 3 months, walking EC, gait biomechanics and walking speed will be assessed again and compared to the standard AFO. Ethics and dissemination The Medical Ethics Committee of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam has approved the study protocol. The study is registered at the Dutch trial register (NTR 5170). The PROOF-AFO study is the first to compare stiffness-optimised AFOs with usual care AFOs in patients with calf muscle weakness. The results will also provide insight into factors that influence optimal AFO stiffness in these patients. The results are necessary for improving orthotic treatment and will be

  2. Gait-Based Human Recognition by Classification of Cyclostationary Processes on Nonlinear Shape Manifolds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    IDENTIFICATION USING GAIT ANALYSIS In this section we present a statistical framework for per- forming gait analysis and its use in human recognition. Human gait...EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 5.1 Experimental Setup As an application of gait analysis , we used a night-vision or infrared, (IR) video camera to observe human gait. In

  3. Gait in 5-year-old children with idiopathic clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait. PMID:27331243

  4. Kinematic Analysis Quantifies Gait Abnormalities Associated with Lameness in Broiler Chickens and Identifies Evolutionary Gait Differences

    PubMed Central

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Weeks, Claire A.; Colborne, G. Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  5. The golden ratio of gait harmony: repetitive proportions of repetitive gait phases.

    PubMed

    Iosa, Marco; Fusco, Augusto; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number φ known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with φ, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from φ (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.

  6. The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases

    PubMed Central

    Iosa, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Morone, Giovanni; Caltagirone, Carlo; Paolucci, Stefano; Peppe, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number ϕ known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with ϕ, the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (F = 0.870, P = 0.422, repeated measure analysis of variance) or from ϕ (P = 0.670, 0.820, 0.422, resp., t-tests). The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait. PMID:23862161

  7. Changes in Gait Variability From First Steps to Adulthood: Normative Data for the Gait Variability Index.

    PubMed

    Gouelle, Arnaud; Leroux, Julien; Bredin, Jonathan; Mégrot, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    The process of learning to walk is ongoing throughout childhood. The Gait Variability Index (GVI; A. Gouelle et al., 2013) has been proposed to quantify the variability of spatiotemporal parameters (STP) during gait. The authors' aim was to evaluate the GVI and STP of healthy children and teenagers to (a) determine changes in the GVI with age and to derive normal values in children and (b) to evaluate the influence of STP on the GVI. A total of 140 typically developing children from 1 to 17 years old were categorized into 7 groups of 20 based on age. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were recorded using an electronic walkway. GVI increased and STP changed with age. In the children-teenagers group, the GVI was positively related to step length, speed, and negatively to cadence. Following normalization by lower limb length, correlations were no longer significant. In contrast, raw base of support was not correlated with the GVI but normalized base of support was. A multiple linear regression showed that only age had a direct impact on the GVI, indicating that gait continues to change after 6-7 years. These changes were only demonstrated by the GVI, highlighting its usefulness for the evaluation of gait in young populations.

  8. Gait analysis in prosthetics: opinions, ideas and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Rietman, J S; Postema, K; Geertzen, J H B

    2002-04-01

    A review was performed of the literature of the last eleven years (1990-2000) with the topic: "clinical use of instrumented gait analysis in patients wearing a prosthesis of the lower limb". To this end a literature search was performed in Embase, Medline and Recal. Forty-five (45) articles were identified for study from which 34 were reviewed. The reviews were divided into five subtopics: 1) adaptive strategies in gait (12 studies); 2) the influence of different parts of the prosthesis on gait (12 studies); 3) pressure measurements in the socket in gait studies (4 studies); 4) the influence of the mass of the prostheses on gait (5 studies); 5) energy considerations in gait (2 studies). A considerable part of the studies concerned the adaptive strategies of the amputee in walking and running and the evaluation of different prosthetic feet. All aspects and outcomes were reviewed concerning the clinical relevance.

  9. Estimated ground reaction force in normal and pathological gait.

    PubMed

    Winiarski, Sławomir; Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    In clinical gait analysis, ground reaction force (GRF) is the gait parameter which can validate the state of disorder of the patient's movement. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibilities of employing the GRF derived from kinematics of the center of gravity (COG) in the study of dynamics of human gait. Gait data was collected for healthy able-bodied men and women and patients after ACL reconstruction who use larger lateral COG excursions during gait. Reasonable agreement between methods was found in fore-aft and vertical directions, where the methods differed by an average of less than 10% in either direction. Based on model predictions of the body's COG trajectory during walking, algorithms were developed to determine spatio-temporal gait parameters related to GRF characteristics. The suitability of calculating ground reaction forces using COG displacement in a patient population is questioned.

  10. Autonomous Evolution of Dynamic Gaits with Two Quadruped Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.; Takamura, Seichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Fujita, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    A challenging task that must be accomplished for every legged robot is creating the walking and running behaviors needed for it to move. In this paper we describe our system for autonomously evolving dynamic gaits on two of Sony's quadruped robots. Our evolutionary algorithm runs on board the robot and uses the robot's sensors to compute the quality of a gait without assistance from the experimenter. First we show the evolution of a pace and trot gait on the OPEN-R prototype robot. With the fastest gait, the robot moves at over 10/min/min., which is more than forty body-lengths/min. While these first gaits are somewhat sensitive to the robot and environment in which they are evolved, we then show the evolution of robust dynamic gaits, one of which is used on the ERS-110, the first consumer version of AIBO.

  11. Stability of an underactuated bipedal gait.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S; Sangwan, V; Taneja, A; Seth, B

    2007-01-01

    A self-excited biped walking mechanism consisting of two legs that are connected in series at the hip joint through a servomotor is studied as a cyclic system with collisions. A torque proportional to angle between the shank of the swinging leg and the vertical is seen to sustain a gait. Each leg has a thigh and a shank connected at a passive knee joint that has a knee stopper restricting hyperextension similar to the human knee. A mathematical model for the dynamics of the system including the impact equations is used to analyse the stability of the system through examination of phase plane plots. Attractor lines along which the system approaches stability have been identified. A leg length for optimal stability has been identified. The biological basis for the proposed system has been identified by comparison with human gait.

  12. A polynomial function of gait performance.

    PubMed

    Giaquinto, Salvatore; Galli, Manuela; Nolfe, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical data processing method is presented that represents a further step in gait analysis. The proposed polynomial regression analysis is reliable in assessing differences in the same patient and even on the same day. The program also calculates the confidence interval of the whole curve. The procedure was applied to normal subjects in order to collect normative data. When a new subject is tested, the polynomial function obtained is graphically superimposed on control data. Should the new curve fall within the limits described by normative data, it is considered to be equivalent. The procedure can be applied to the same subject, either normal or pathological, for retesting kinematic characteristics. The gait cycle is analyzed as a whole, not point-by-point. Ten normal subjects and two patients, one with recent- and the other with late-onset hemiplegia, were tested. Multiple baseline evaluation is recommended before the start of a rehabilitation program.

  13. Locomotion gaits of a rotating cylinder pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rees, Wim M.; Novati, Guido; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-11-01

    Using 2D numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we demonstrate that a simple pair of rotating cylinders can display a range of locomotion patterns of biological and engineering interest. Steadily counter-rotating the cylinders causes the pair to move akin to a vortex dipole for low rotation rates, but as the rotational velocity is increased the direction of motion reverses. Unsteady rotations lead to different locomotion gaits that resemble jellyfish (for in-phase rotations) and undulating swimmers (for out-of-phase rotations). The small number of parameters for this simple system allows us to systematically map the phase space of these gaits, and allows us to understand the underlying physical mechanisms using a minimal model with implications for biological locomotion and engineered analogs.

  14. Neglected Alkaptonuric Patient Presenting with Steppage Gait

    PubMed Central

    Mirzashahi, Babak; Tafakhori, Abbas; Najafi, Arvin; Farzan, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Even though intervertebral disc degeneration can be found in the natural course of alkaptonuria, detection of the disease by black disc color change in a patient without any other presentation of alkaptonuria is an exceptionally rare condition. We have reported a very rare case of alkaptonuria presented with low back pain and steppage gait in a 51-year-old male with a complaint of chronic low-back pain and steppage gait who was operated on for prolapsed lumbar disc herniation. Intraoperatively his lumbar disk was discovered to be black. The alkaptonuria diagnosis was considered after histopathological examination of the black disc material and elevated urinary concentration of homogentisic acid confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this presentation has not been reported previously in literature. PMID:27200402

  15. Extraction and Classification of Human Gait Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Hu; Tan, Wooi-Haw; Tong, Hau-Lee; Abdullah, Junaidi; Komiya, Ryoichi

    In this paper, a new approach is proposed for extracting human gait features from a walking human based on the silhouette images. The approach consists of six stages: clearing the background noise of image by morphological opening; measuring of the width and height of the human silhouette; dividing the enhanced human silhouette into six body segments based on anatomical knowledge; applying morphological skeleton to obtain the body skeleton; applying Hough transform to obtain the joint angles from the body segment skeletons; and measuring the distance between the bottom of right leg and left leg from the body segment skeletons. The angles of joints, step-size together with the height and width of the human silhouette are collected and used for gait analysis. The experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed system is feasible and achieved satisfactory results.

  16. Treatment of gait ignition failure with ropinirole.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Oram, Alexis N; Stewart, Jonathan T; Bero, Kim; Hoffmann, Michael W

    2014-10-01

    Gait ignition failure (GIF) is a syndrome characterized by hesitation or inability to initiate gait from a static position. It may occur in a variety of conditions, including normal pressure hydrocephalus, subcortical vascular disease, parkinsonian syndromes and a variety of focal lesions. Previous information on the treatment of GIF has been primarily anecdotal, but there have been a few reports of response to dopamine agonists. We report a 63-year-old man with anoxic encephalopathy who developed GIF nine years after the initial anoxic insult. The patient's GIF responded robustly, albeit transiently, to ropinirole. MRI was unrevealing, but a positron emission tomography scan showed hypometabolism in the deep frontal ACA/MCA watershed area; this may have disconnected the basal ganglia from the motor cortex and/or interrupted dopaminergic mesocortical transmission. Our understanding of the pathophysiology and the treatment of GIF remains limited, but there may be at least a limited therapeutic role for dopamine agonists.

  17. Treatment of Gait Ignition Failure with Ropinirole

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Oram, Alexis N.; Stewart, Jonathan T.; Bero, Kim; Hoffmann, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Gait ignition failure (GIF) is a syndrome characterized by hesitation or inability to initiate gait from a static position. It may occur in a variety of conditions, including normal pressure hydrocephalus, subcortical vascular disease, parkinsonian syndromes and a variety of focal lesions. Previous information on the treatment of GIF has been primarily anecdotal, but there have been a few reports of response to dopamine agonists. We report a 63-year-old man with anoxic encephalopathy who developed GIF nine years after the initial anoxic insult. The patient’s GIF responded robustly, albeit transiently, to ropinirole. MRI was unrevealing, but a positron emission tomography scan showed hypometabolism in the deep frontal ACA/MCA watershed area; this may have disconnected the basal ganglia from the motor cortex and/or interrupted dopaminergic mesocortical transmission. Our understanding of the pathophysiology and the treatment of GIF remains limited, but there may be at least a limited therapeutic role for dopamine agonists. PMID:25360234

  18. Effects of conventional overground gait training and a gait trainer with partial body weight support on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of both conventional overground gait training (CGT) and a gait trainer with partial body weight support (GTBWS) on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with hemiparesis following chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were alternately assigned to one of two treatment groups, and both groups underwent CGT and GTBWS. [Results] The functional ambulation classification on the affected side improved significantly in the CGT and GTBWS groups. Walking speed also improved significantly in both groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the GTBWS in company with CGT may be, in part, an effective method of gait training for restoring gait ability in patients after a stroke. PMID:26157272

  19. Gait patterns associated with thyroid function: The Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Bano, Arjola; Chaker, Layal; Darweesh, Sirwan K. L.; Korevaar, Tim I. M.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H.; van der Geest, Jos N.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Peeters, Robin P.

    2016-01-01

    Gait is an important health indicator and poor gait is strongly associated with disability and risk of falls. Thyroid dysfunction is suggested as a potential determinant of gait deterioration, but this has not been explored in a population-based study. We therefore investigated the association of thyroid function with gait patterns in 2645 participants from the Rotterdam Study with data available on TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), FT4 (free thyroxine) and gait, without known thyroid disease or dementia. The primary outcome was Global gait (standardized Z-score), while secondary outcomes included gait domains (Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace, Base of support, Tandem, Turning) and velocity. Gait was assessed by electronic walkway. Multivariable regression models revealed an inverted U-shaped association of TSH (p < 0.001), but no association of FT4 concentrations with Global gait (p = 0.2). TSH levels were positively associated with Base of support (p = 0.01) and followed an inverted U-shaped curve with Tandem (p = 0.002) and velocity (p = 0.02). Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism were associated with worse Global gait than euthyroidism (β = −0.61; CI = −1.03, −0.18; p = 0.004 and β = −0.13; CI = −0.26, −0.00; p = 0.04, respectively). In euthyroid participants, higher thyroid function was associated with worse gait patterns. In conclusion, both low and high thyroid function are associated with alterations in Global gait, Tandem, Base of support and velocity. PMID:27966590

  20. Evaluating alternative gait strategies using evolutionary robotics.

    PubMed

    Sellers, William I; Dennis, Louise A; W -J, Wang; Crompton, Robin H

    2004-05-01

    Evolutionary robotics is a branch of artificial intelligence concerned with the automatic generation of autonomous robots. Usually the form of the robot is predefined and various computational techniques are used to control the machine's behaviour. One aspect is the spontaneous generation of walking in legged robots and this can be used to investigate the mechanical requirements for efficient walking in bipeds. This paper demonstrates a bipedal simulator that spontaneously generates walking and running gaits. The model can be customized to represent a range of hominoid morphologies and used to predict performance parameters such as preferred speed and metabolic energy cost. Because it does not require any motion capture data it is particularly suitable for investigating locomotion in fossil animals. The predictions for modern humans are highly accurate in terms of energy cost for a given speed and thus the values predicted for other bipeds are likely to be good estimates. To illustrate this the cost of transport is calculated for Australopithecus afarensis. The model allows the degree of maximum extension at the knee to be varied causing the model to adopt walking gaits varying from chimpanzee-like to human-like. The energy costs associated with these gait choices can thus be calculated and this information used to evaluate possible locomotor strategies in early hominids.

  1. Gait recognition and walking exercise intensity estimation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Liu, Yu-Ting; Yu, Chu; Jan, Gene Eu; Hsiao, Bo-Tang

    2014-04-04

    Cardiovascular patients consult doctors for advice regarding regular exercise, whereas obese patients must self-manage their weight. Because a system for permanently monitoring and tracking patients' exercise intensities and workouts is necessary, a system for recognizing gait and estimating walking exercise intensity was proposed. For gait recognition analysis, αβ filters were used to improve the recognition of athletic attitude. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was used to filter the noise of patients' attitude to acquire the Fourier transform energy spectrum. Linear discriminant analysis was then applied to this energy spectrum for training and recognition. When the gait or motion was recognized, the walking exercise intensity was estimated. In addition, this study addressed the correlation between inertia and exercise intensity by using the residual function of the EMD and quadratic approximation to filter the effect of the baseline drift integral of the acceleration sensor. The increase in the determination coefficient of the regression equation from 0.55 to 0.81 proved that the accuracy of the method for estimating walking exercise intensity proposed by Kurihara was improved in this study.

  2. Gait patterns for crime fighting: statistical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulovská, Kateřina; Bělašková, Silvie; Adámek, Milan

    2013-10-01

    The criminality is omnipresent during the human history. Modern technology brings novel opportunities for identification of a perpetrator. One of these opportunities is an analysis of video recordings, which may be taken during the crime itself or before/after the crime. The video analysis can be classed as identification analyses, respectively identification of a person via externals. The bipedal locomotion focuses on human movement on the basis of their anatomical-physiological features. Nowadays, the human gait is tested by many laboratories to learn whether the identification via bipedal locomotion is possible or not. The aim of our study is to use 2D components out of 3D data from the VICON Mocap system for deep statistical analyses. This paper introduces recent results of a fundamental study focused on various gait patterns during different conditions. The study contains data from 12 participants. Curves obtained from these measurements were sorted, averaged and statistically tested to estimate the stability and distinctiveness of this biometrics. Results show satisfactory distinctness of some chosen points, while some do not embody significant difference. However, results presented in this paper are of initial phase of further deeper and more exacting analyses of gait patterns under different conditions.

  3. Gait Signal Analysis with Similarity Measure

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungsoo

    2014-01-01

    Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons. PMID:25110724

  4. Managing variability in the summary and comparison of gait data

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tom; Young, Scott; Redekop, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Variability in quantitative gait data arises from many potential sources, including natural temporal dynamics of neuromotor control, pathologies of the neurological or musculoskeletal systems, the effects of aging, as well as variations in the external environment, assistive devices, instrumentation or data collection methodologies. In light of this variability, unidimensional, cycle-based gait variables such as stride period should be viewed as random variables and prototypical single-cycle kinematic or kinetic curves ought to be considered as random functions of time. Within this framework, we exemplify some practical solutions to a number of commonly encountered analytical challenges in dealing with gait variability. On the topic of univariate gait variables, robust estimation is proposed as a means of coping with contaminated gait data, and the summary of non-normally distributed gait data is demonstrated by way of empirical examples. On the summary of gait curves, we discuss methods to manage undesirable phase variation and non-robust spread estimates. To overcome the limitations of conventional comparisons among curve landmarks or parameters, we propose as a viable alternative, the combination of curve registration, robust estimation, and formal statistical testing of curves as coherent units. On the basis of these discussions, we provide heuristic guidelines for the summary of gait variables and the comparison of gait curves. PMID:16053523

  5. Hölder exponent spectra for human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, N.; Griffin, L.; West, B. J.

    2003-10-01

    The stride interval time series in normal human gait is not strictly constant, but fluctuates from step to step in a complex manner. More precisely, it has been shown that the control process for human gait is a fractal random phenomenon, that is, one with a long-term memory. Herein we study the Hölder exponent spectra for the slow, normal and fast gaits of 10 young healthy men in both free and metronomically triggered conditions and establish that the stride interval time series is more complex than a monofractal phenomenon. A slightly multifractal and non-stationary time series under the three different gait conditions emerges.

  6. Enhanced data consistency of a portable gait measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsien-I.; Chiang, Y. P.

    2013-11-01

    A gait measurement system is a useful tool for rehabilitation applications. Such a system is used to conduct gait experiments in large workplaces such as laboratories where gait measurement equipment can be permanently installed. However, a gait measurement system should be portable if it is to be used in clinics or community centers for aged people. In a portable gait measurement system, the workspace is limited and landmarks on a subject may not be visible to the cameras during experiments. Thus, we propose a virtual-marker function to obtain positions of unseen landmarks for maintaining data consistency. This work develops a portable clinical gait measurement system consisting of lightweight motion capture devices, force plates, and a walkway assembled from plywood boards. We evaluated the portable clinic gait system with 11 normal subjects in three consecutive days in a limited experimental space. Results of gait analysis based on the verification of within-day and between-day coefficients of multiple correlations show that the proposed portable gait system is reliable.

  7. Reliability of gait in multiple sclerosis over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Klaren, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Gait impairment is ubiquitous in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is often characterized by alterations in spatiotemporal parameters of gait. There is limited information concerning reliability of spatiotemporal gait parameters over clinical timescales (e.g. 6 months). The current report provides novel evidence that gait parameters of 74 ambulatory persons with MS with mild-to-moderate disability are reliable over 6-months (ICC's for overall sample range from 0.56 to 0.91) in the absence of any intervention above and beyond standard care. Such data can inform clinical decision-making and power analyses for designing RCTs (i.e., sample size estimates) involving persons with MS.

  8. Detection of abnormalities in a human gait using smart shoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Bae, Joonbum; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2008-03-01

    Health monitoring systems require a means for detecting and quantifying abnormalities from measured signals. In this paper, a new method for detecting abnormalities in a human gait is proposed for an improved gait monitoring system for patients with walking problems. In the previous work, we introduced a fuzzy logic algorithm for detecting phases in a human gait based on four foot pressure sensors for each of the right and left foot. The fuzzy logic algorithm detects the gait phases smoothly and continuously, and retains all information obtained from sensors. In this paper, a higher level algorithm for detecting abnormalities in the gait phases obtained from the fuzzy logic is discussed. In the proposed algorithm, two major abnormalities are detected 1) when the sensors measure improper foot pressure patterns, and 2) when the human does not follow a natural sequence of gait phases. For mathematical realization of the algorithm, the gait phases are dealt with by a vector analysis method. The proposed detection algorithm is verified by experiments on abnormal gaits as well as normal gaits. The experiment makes use of the Smart Shoes that embeds four bladders filled with air, the pressure changes in which are detected by pressure transducers.

  9. Crouched gait in myelomeningocele: a comparison between the degree of knee flexion contracture in the clinical examination and during gait.

    PubMed

    Moen, Todd; Gryfakis, Nicholas; Dias, Luciano; Lemke, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate, in patients with low lumbar and sacral level myelomeningocele who have knee flexion contractures, whether there are significant differences between the degree of knee flexion contracture measured clinically and the degree of actual knee flexion during gait, measured by computerized gait analysis. Patients were divided into two groups, those who walked with ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) alone and those who walked with AFOs and crutches. In both groups, the patient's knee flexion contractures were measured clinically, and the degree of knee flexion was measured dynamically at two representative points in the gait cycle. In both groups and at both points of the gait cycle, the degree of knee flexion during gait was significantly greater than the degree of clinical knee flexion contracture. This should be taken into account when evaluating the crouch gait of children with myelomeningocele and planning the proper treatment.

  10. Impact of ankle-foot-orthosis on frontal plane behaviors post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Theresa Hayes; Dhaher, Yasin Y

    2009-10-01

    Abnormal within and across-joint synergistic behaviors have been reported in the lower limb post stroke. It is unknown, however, whether these impairments limit adaptive movement strategies in response to imposed kinematic constraints. In this context, the goal of this pilot study was to examine changes to three-dimensional swing phase kinematics of the paretic hip, knee, and ankle joints and pelvis induced by AFO use in subjects with chronic stroke. Overground gait analysis was performed on 9 ambulating hemiplegic subjects with and without their AFOs. Both the toeoff and peak ankle dorsiflexion angles were significantly decreased in the no AFO condition. Likewise, the peak and toeoff swing phase pelvic obliquity angles significantly increased when the AFO was removed (6.47 degrees (2.0 SD) vs. 8.16 degrees (2.8 SD), paired t-tests, p=0.03 and 0.8 degrees (3.1 SD) vs. 2.9 degrees (1.1 SD), paired t-test, p=0.02, respectively). These behaviors were consistent across subjects (7 of 9 subjects). The hip frontal plane, and hip and knee sagittal plane kinematics were unaffected by removal of the AFO. Finally, the minimum toe clearance was not affected by the removal of the AFO (1.39 cm+/-0.62 SD vs. 1.27 cm+/-0.47 SD, p>0.05). Taken together, these findings suggest that pelvic obliquity is the primary compensatory degree of freedom utilized to achieve toe clearance in response to impaired dorsiflexion in the stroke population. We propose that this degree of freedom is exploited as it is not constrained by synergistic torque coupling of the lower limb.

  11. Gait patterns comparison of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy to those of control subjects considering the effect of gait velocity.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Nathaly; Gravel, Denis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Houde, Sylvie; Gagnon, Denis

    2010-07-01

    3D analysis of the gait of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was the topic of only a few studies and none of these considered the effect of gait velocity on the gait parameters of children with DMD. Gait parameters of 11 children with DMD were compared to those of 14 control children while considering the effect of gait velocity using 3D biomechanical analysis. Kinematic and kinetic gait parameters were measured using an Optotrak motion analysis system and AMTI force plates embedded in the floor. The data profiles of children with DMD walking at natural gait velocity were compared to those of the control children who walked at both natural and slow gait velocities. When both groups walked at similar velocity, children with DMD had higher cadence and shorter step length. They demonstrated a lower hip extension moment as well as a minimal or absent knee extension moment. At the ankle, a dorsiflexion moment was absent at heel strike due to the anterior location of the center of pressure. The magnitude of the medio-lateral ground reaction force was higher in children with DMD. Despite this increase, the hip abductor moment was lower. Hip power generation was also observed at the mid-stance in DMD children. These results suggest that most of the modifications observed are strategies used by children with DMD to cope with possible muscle weakness in order to provide support, propulsion and balance of the body during gait.

  12. Effect of Posture Training with Weighted Kypho-Orthosis (WKO) on Improving Balance in Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Pournajaf, Safura; Vahab Kashani, Reza; Sadeghi, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the effect of weighted kypho-orthosis (WKO) on improving balance in women with osteoporosis. In this nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, 31 patients with osteoporosis were included. The patients were assigned to two groups: (1) control group who received 4-week home-based daily exercise program including weight bearing, back strengthening, and balance exercises and (2) intervention group (WKO) who performed aforementioned exercises and wore WKO for one hour twice a day. Patients were assessed using clinical balance tests (timed up and go test, functional reach test, and unilateral balance test) before and 4 weeks after start of treatment. Results. Functional reach and timed up and go test were improved significantly in both groups compared to baseline. The improvement in intervention group was more significant in comparison to control group (P < 0.05). Discussion. Posture training with WKO together with exercise program improved two clinical balance tests in women with osteoporosis. Conclusion. Posture training support (PTS) applied as WKO together with back extension exercises can be prescribed as an intervention in elderly women in order to reduce the risk of falling. PMID:24734180

  13. [The influence of locomotor treatment using robotic body-weight-supported treadmill training on rehabilitation outcome of patients suffering from neurological disorders].

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Isabella; Meiner, Zeev

    2013-03-01

    Regaining one's ability to walk is of great importance for neurological patients and is a major goal of all rehabilitation programs. Treating neurological patients in the acute phase after the event is technically difficult because of their motor weakness and balance disturbances. Based on studies in spinalized animals, a novel locomotor training that incorporates high repetitions of task-oriented practice by the use of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) was developed to overcome these obstacles. The use of BWSTT enables early initiation of gait training, integration of weightbearing activities, stepping and balance by the use of a task-specific approach, and a symmetrical gait pattern. However, despite the theoretical potential of BWSTT to become an invaluable therapeutic tool, its effect on walking outcomes was disappointing when compared with conventional training of the same duration. To facilitate the deLivery of BWSTT, a motorized robotic driven gait orthosis (RBWSTT) was recently developed. It has many advantages over the conventional method, including less effort for the physiotherapists, longer session duration, more physiological and reproducible gait patterns, and the possibility of measuring a patient's performances. Several studies have been conducted using RBWSTT in patients after stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases. Although some of the results were encouraging, there is still uncertainty regarding proper patient selection, timing and protocol for RBWTT treatment following neurological diseases. More large randomized controlled studies are needed in order to answer these questions.

  14. Quantitative Gait Measurement With Pulse-Doppler Radar for Passive In-Home Gait Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%–18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment. PMID:24771566

  15. Quantitative gait measurement with pulse-Doppler radar for passive in-home gait assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%-18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment.

  16. The use of laboratory gait analysis for understanding gait deterioration in people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo; Khan, Fary; Lee, Peter Vs; Galea, Mary P

    2016-12-01

    Laboratory gait analysis or three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA), which uses motion capture, force plates and electromyography (EMG), has allowed a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of gait deterioration in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). This review will summarize the current knowledge on multiple sclerosis (MS)-related changes in kinematics (angles), kinetics (forces) and electromyographic (muscle activation) patterns and how these measures can be used as markers of disease progression. We will also discuss the potential causes of slower walking in PwMS and the implications for 3DGA. Finally, we will describe new technologies and methods that will increase precision and clinical utilization of 3DGA in PwMS. Overall, 3DGA studies have shown that functionality of the ankle joint is the most affected during walking and that compensatory actions to maintain a functional speed may be insufficient in PwMS. However, altered gait patterns may be a strategy to increase stability as balance is also affected in PwMS.

  17. Inertial Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sprager, Sebastijan; Juric, Matjaz B.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inertial sensors have become widely used in the research of wearable gait analysis due to several factors, such as being easy-to-use and low-cost. Considering the fact that each individual has a unique way of walking, inertial sensors can be applied to the problem of gait recognition where assessed gait can be interpreted as a biometric trait. Thus, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has a great potential to play an important role in many security-related applications. Since inertial sensors are included in smart devices that are nowadays present at every step, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has become very attractive and emerging field of research that has provided many interesting discoveries recently. This paper provides a thorough and systematic review of current state-of-the-art in this field of research. Review procedure has revealed that the latest advanced inertial sensor-based gait recognition approaches are able to sufficiently recognise the users when relying on inertial data obtained during gait by single commercially available smart device in controlled circumstances, including fixed placement and small variations in gait. Furthermore, these approaches have also revealed considerable breakthrough by realistic use in uncontrolled circumstances, showing great potential for their further development and wide applicability. PMID:26340634

  18. Instrumenting gait with an accelerometer: A system and algorithm examination

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, A.; Del Din, S.; Barry, G.; Mathers, J.C.; Rochester, L.

    2015-01-01

    Gait is an important clinical assessment tool since changes in gait may reflect changes in general health. Measurement of gait is a complex process which has been restricted to the laboratory until relatively recently. The application of an inexpensive body worn sensor with appropriate gait algorithms (BWM) is an attractive alternative and offers the potential to assess gait in any setting. In this study we investigated the use of a low-cost BWM, compared to laboratory reference using a robust testing protocol in both younger and older adults. We observed that the BWM is a valid tool for estimating total step count and mean spatio-temporal gait characteristics however agreement for variability and asymmetry results was poor. We conducted a detailed investigation to explain the poor agreement between systems and determined it was due to inherent differences between the systems rather than inability of the sensor to measure the gait characteristics. The results highlight caution in the choice of reference system for validation studies. The BWM used in this study has the potential to gather longitudinal (real-world) spatio-temporal gait data that could be readily used in large lifestyle-based intervention studies, but further refinement of the algorithm(s) is required. PMID:25749552

  19. Dependence of gait parameters on height in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Valentina; Nascimbeni, Alberto; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura; Knaflitz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In clinical gait analysis is fundamental to have access to normative data, to be used as a reference in the interpretation of pathological walking. In a paediatric population this may be complicated by the dependence of gait parameters on child growth. The aim of this work is to provide the correlations of spatial-temporal gait parameters with children's height. We obtained the regression lines of cadence, double support, and gait phases, with respect to height, from a sample of 85 normally typically developing children aged 6 to 11. Our analysis of gait phases was not limited to the traditional analysis of stance and swing, but rather focused on the sub-phases of stance - heel contact, flat foot contact, push off - which proved to be an innovative approach to gait analysis. Heel contact decreased, flat foot contact increased and push off remained essentially unchanged with respect to children's height. These results may be useful in the interpretation of gait data in developing children, and the regression lines obtained may be used to normalize their gait parameters.

  20. Inertial Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sprager, Sebastijan; Juric, Matjaz B

    2015-09-02

    With the recent development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inertial sensors have become widely used in the research of wearable gait analysis due to several factors, such as being easy-to-use and low-cost. Considering the fact that each individual has a unique way of walking, inertial sensors can be applied to the problem of gait recognition where assessed gait can be interpreted as a biometric trait. Thus, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has a great potential to play an important role in many security-related applications. Since inertial sensors are included in smart devices that are nowadays present at every step, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has become very attractive and emerging field of research that has provided many interesting discoveries recently. This paper provides a thorough and systematic review of current state-of-the-art in this field of research. Review procedure has revealed that the latest advanced inertial sensor-based gait recognition approaches are able to sufficiently recognise the users when relying on inertial data obtained during gait by single commercially available smart device in controlled circumstances, including fixed placement and small variations in gait. Furthermore, these approaches have also revealed considerable breakthrough by realistic use in uncontrolled circumstances, showing great potential for their further development and wide applicability.

  1. DRAG: a database for recognition and analasys of gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchi, Prem; Hiremagalur, Raghu Ram V.; Huang, Helen; Carhart, Michael; He, Jiping; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2003-11-01

    A novel approach is proposed for creating a standardized and comprehensive database for gait analysis. The field of gait analysis is gaining increasing attention for applications such as visual surveillance, human-computer interfaces, and gait recognition and rehabilitation. Numerous algorithms have been developed for analyzing and processing gait data; however, a standard database for their systematic evaluation does not exist. Instead, existing gait databases consist of subsets of kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic activity recordings by different investigators, at separate laboratories, and under varying conditions. Thus, the existing databases are neither homogenous nor sufficiently populated to statistically validate the algorithms. In this paper, a methodology for creating a database is presented, which can be used as a common ground to test the performance of algorithms that rely upon external marker data, ground reaction loading data, and/or video images. The database consists of: (1) synchronized motion-capture data (3D marker data) obtained using external markers, (2) computed joint angles, and (3) ground reaction loading acquired with plantar pressure insoles. This database could be easily expanded to include synchronized video, which will facilitate further development of video-based algorithms for motion tracking. This eventually could lead to the realization of markerless gait tracking. Such a system would have extensive applications in gait recognition, as well as gait rehabilitation. The entire database (marker, angle, and force data) will be placed in the public domain, and made available for downloads over the World Wide Web.

  2. Inter-Trial Gait Variability Reduction Using Continous Curve Registration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    curves. This is an important consideration. Using multivariate analysis in able-bodied gait analysis , Vardaxis et al. [11] have shown that subjects...examination of data from gait analysis of persons with stroke. Phys Ther 1998; 78: 814-28. [3] Eng JJ and Winter DA. Kinetic analysis of the lower limb

  3. Technological Advances in Interventions to Enhance Post-Stroke Gait

    PubMed Central

    Sheffler, Lynne R.; Chae, John

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis This article provides a comprehensive review of specific rehabilitation interventions used to enhance hemiparetic gait following stroke. Neurologic rehabilitation interventions may be either therapeutic resulting in enhanced motor recovery or compensatory whereby assistance or substitution for neurological deficits results in improved functional performance. Included in this review are lower extremity functional electrical stimulation (FES), body-weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT), and lower extremity robotic-assisted gait training. These post-stroke gait training therapies are predicated on activity-dependent neuroplasticity which is the concept that cortical reorganization following central nervous system injury may be induced by repetitive, skilled, and cognitively engaging active movement. All three interventions have been trialed extensively in both research and clinical settings to demonstrate a positive effect on various gait parameters and measures of walking performance. However, more evidence is necessary to determine if specific technology-enhanced gait training methods are superior to conventional gait training methods. This review provides an overview of evidence-based research which supports the efficacy of these three interventions to improve gait, as well as provide perspective on future developments to enhance post-stroke gait in neurologic rehabilitation. PMID:23598265

  4. Translation into Arabic of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology 2.0 and validation in orthosis users.

    PubMed

    Bakhsh, Hadeel; Franchignoni, Franco; Ferriero, Giorgio; Giordano, Andrea; Demers, Louise

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of patient satisfaction with the orthosis is a key point for clinical practice and research, requiring the availability of questionnaires with robust psychometric properties. The aim of this study was the translation into Arabic and Rasch validation of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology (A-QUEST 2.0), one of the few standardized instruments appropriate for assessment of patient satisfaction with the orthosis. The translation was carried out in accordance with guideline recommendations. The translated version was administered to a convenience sample of 100 individuals with various health conditions using orthosis (59% men, mean age 36 years). Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, followed by Rasch analysis for each of the two subscales, that is satisfaction with the Device (eight items) and with Services (four items). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis verified the bidimensionality of A-QUEST 2.0. Rasch criteria for the functioning of rating scale categories were fulfilled for both subscales. All items except one showed an adequate fit to the Rasch model. The person separation reliability for A-QUEST 2.0_Device was 2.19 and Cronbach's α 0.83; A-QUEST 2.0_Services separation reliability was 2.79 and Cronbach's α was 0.89. Thus, the two subscales could define a hierarchy of persons along each measured construct with at least three different levels of satisfaction. This Rasch validation of A-QUEST 2.0, in patients with various types of orthoses, provides additional evidence of the psychometric properties (and particularly the internal construct validity) of the questionnaire, and provides insights for further improving its metric quality.

  5. Is adult gait less susceptible than paediatric gait to hip joint centre regression equation error?

    PubMed

    Kiernan, D; Hosking, J; O'Brien, T

    2016-03-01

    Hip joint centre (HJC) regression equation error during paediatric gait has recently been shown to have clinical significance. In relation to adult gait, it has been inferred that comparable errors with children in absolute HJC position may in fact result in less significant kinematic and kinetic error. This study investigated the clinical agreement of three commonly used regression equation sets (Bell et al., Davis et al. and Orthotrak) for adult subjects against the equations of Harrington et al. The relationship between HJC position error and subject size was also investigated for the Davis et al. set. Full 3-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 12 healthy adult subjects with data for each set compared to Harrington et al. The Gait Profile Score, Gait Variable Score and GDI-kinetic were used to assess clinical significance while differences in HJC position between the Davis and Harrington sets were compared to leg length and subject height using regression analysis. A number of statistically significant differences were present in absolute HJC position. However, all sets fell below the clinically significant thresholds (GPS <1.6°, GDI-Kinetic <3.6 points). Linear regression revealed a statistically significant relationship for both increasing leg length and increasing subject height with decreasing error in anterior/posterior and superior/inferior directions. Results confirm a negligible clinical error for adult subjects suggesting that any of the examined sets could be used interchangeably. Decreasing error with both increasing leg length and increasing subject height suggests that the Davis set should be used cautiously on smaller subjects.

  6. Gait Analysis Methods for Rodent Models of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Brittany Y.; Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Allen, Kyle D.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) primarily seek treatment due to pain and disability, yet the primary endpoints for rodent OA models tend to be histological measures of joint destruction. The discrepancy between clinical and preclinical evaluations is problematic, given that radiographic evidence of OA in humans does not always correlate to the severity of patient-reported symptoms. Recent advances in behavioral analyses have provided new methods to evaluate disease sequelae in rodents. Of particular relevance to rodent OA models are methods to assess rodent gait. While obvious differences exist between quadrupedal and bipedal gait sequences, the gait abnormalities seen in humans and in rodent OA models reflect similar compensatory behaviors that protect an injured limb from loading. The purpose of this review is to describe these compensations and current methods used to assess rodent gait characteristics, while detailing important considerations for the selection of gait analysis methods in rodent OA models. PMID:25160712

  7. A Grassmann graph embedding framework for gait analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connie, Tee; Goh, Michael Kah Ong; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin

    2014-12-01

    Gait recognition is important in a wide range of monitoring and surveillance applications. Gait information has often been used as evidence when other biometrics is indiscernible in the surveillance footage. Building on recent advances of the subspace-based approaches, we consider the problem of gait recognition on the Grassmann manifold. We show that by embedding the manifold into reproducing kernel Hilbert space and applying the mechanics of graph embedding on such manifold, significant performance improvement can be obtained. In this work, the gait recognition problem is studied in a unified way applicable for both supervised and unsupervised configurations. Sparse representation is further incorporated in the learning mechanism to adaptively harness the local structure of the data. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can tolerate variations in appearance for gait identification effectively.

  8. Gait analysis methods for rodent models of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Brittany Y; Kloefkorn, Heidi E; Allen, Kyle D

    2014-10-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) primarily seek treatment due to pain and disability, yet the primary endpoints for rodent OA models tend to be histological measures of joint destruction. The discrepancy between clinical and preclinical evaluations is problematic, given that radiographic evidence of OA in humans does not always correlate to the severity of patient-reported symptoms. Recent advances in behavioral analyses have provided new methods to evaluate disease sequelae in rodents. Of particular relevance to rodent OA models are methods to assess rodent gait. While obvious differences exist between quadrupedal and bipedal gait sequences, the gait abnormalities seen in humans and in rodent OA models reflect similar compensatory behaviors that protect an injured limb from loading. The purpose of this review is to describe these compensations and current methods used to assess rodent gait characteristics, while detailing important considerations for the selection of gait analysis methods in rodent OA models.

  9. [A modular method for automated evaluation of gait analysis data].

    PubMed

    Loose, T; Malberg, H; Mikut, R; Dieterle, J; Schablowski, M; Wolf, S; Abel, R; Döderlein, L; Rupp, R

    2002-01-01

    A modular methodology for automated gait data evaluation: The aim of Instrumented Gait Analysis is to measure data such as joint kinematics or kinetics during gait in a quantitative way. The data evaluation for clinical purposes is often performed by experienced physicians (diagnosis of specific motion dysfunction, planning and validation of therapy). Due to subjective evaluation and complexity of the pathologies, there exists no objective, standardized data analysis method for these tasks. This article covers the development of a modular, computer-based methodology to quantify the degree of pathological gait in comparison to normal behavior, as well as to automatically search for interpretable gait abnormalities and to visualize the results. The outcomes are demonstrated with two different patient groups.

  10. Summary measures for clinical gait analysis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela

    2014-04-01

    Instrumented 3D-gait analysis (3D-GA) is an important method used to obtain information that is crucial for establishing the level of functional limitation due to pathology, observing its evolution over time and evaluating rehabilitative intervention effects. However, a typical 3D-GA evaluation produces a vast amount of data, and despite its objectivity, its use is complicated, and the data interpretation is difficult. It is even more difficult to obtain an overview on patient cohorts for a comparison. Moreover, there is a growing awareness of the need for a concise index, specifically, a single measure of the 'quality' of a particular gait pattern. Several gait summary measures, which have been used in conjunction with 3D-GA, have been proposed to objectify clinical impression, quantify the degree of gait deviation from normal, stratify the severity of pathology, document the changes in gait patterns over time and evaluate interventions.

  11. Connectivity of the pedunculopontine nucleus in parkinsonian freezing of gait.

    PubMed

    Schweder, Patrick M; Hansen, Peter C; Green, Alex L; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Stein, John; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2010-10-06

    Parkinson's disease (PD) may involve sudden unintended arrests in gait or failure to initiate gait, known as gait freezing. Deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been found to be an effective therapy for this phenomenon. In this study, we characterized the connectivity of the PPN freezing of gait (FOG) patients, compared with non-FOG PD and healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging techniques. Differences in PPN connectivity profiles of the study groups were shown in the cerebellum and pons. The PPN showed connectivity with the cerebellum in controls and non-FOG PD. FOG patients showed absence of cerebellar connectivity, and increased visibility of the decussation of corticopontine fibres in the anterior pons. The findings suggest that corticopontine projections, which cross at the pons are increased in gait freezing, highlighting the importance and role of corticopontine-cerebellar pathways in the pathophysiology of this phenomenon.

  12. Gait dynamics in Parkinson’s disease: Common and distinct behavior among stride length, gait variability, and fractal-like scaling

    PubMed Central

    Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common, debilitating neurodegenerative disease. Gait disturbances are a frequent cause of disability and impairment for patients with PD. This article provides a brief introduction to PD and describes the gait changes typically seen in patients with this disease. A major focus of this report is an update on the study of the fractal properties of gait in PD, the relationship between this feature of gait and stride length and gait variability, and the effects of different experimental conditions on these three gait properties. Implications of these findings are also briefly described. This update highlights the idea that while stride length, gait variability, and fractal scaling of gait are all impaired in PD, distinct mechanisms likely contribute to and are responsible for the regulation of these disparate gait properties. PMID:19566273

  13. Powered lower limb orthoses for gait rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Daniel P.; Sawicki, Gregory S.; Domingo, Antoinette

    2006-01-01

    Bodyweight supported treadmill training has become a prominent gait rehabilitation method in leading rehabilitation centers. This type of locomotor training has many functional benefits but the labor costs are considerable. To reduce therapist effort, several groups have developed large robotic devices for assisting treadmill stepping. A complementary approach that has not been adequately explored is to use powered lower limb orthoses for locomotor training. Recent advances in robotic technology have made lightweight powered orthoses feasible and practical. An advantage to using powered orthoses as rehabilitation aids is they allow practice starting, turning, stopping, and avoiding obstacles during overground walking. PMID:16568153

  14. Gait analysis and validation using voxel data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Stone, Erik; Dai, Wenqing; Skubic, Marjorie; Keller, James

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for extracting gait parameters including walking speed, step time and step length from a three-dimensional voxel reconstruction, which is built from two calibrated camera views. These parameters are validated with a GAITRite Electronic mat and a Vicon motion capture system. Experiments were conducted in which subjects walked across the GAITRite mat at various speeds while the Vicon cameras recorded the motion of reflective markers attached to subjects' shoes, and our two calibrated cameras captured the images. Excellent agreements were found for walking speed. Step time and step length were also found to have good agreement given the limitation of frame rate and voxel resolution.

  15. Crowd-Sourced Amputee Gait Data: A Feasibility Study Using YouTube Videos of Unilateral Trans-Femoral Gait

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, James; Gunarathne, Nuwan; Howard, David; Kenney, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Collecting large datasets of amputee gait data is notoriously difficult. Additionally, collecting data on less prevalent amputations or on gait activities other than level walking and running on hard surfaces is rarely attempted. However, with the wealth of user-generated content on the Internet, the scope for collecting amputee gait data from alternative sources other than traditional gait labs is intriguing. Here we investigate the potential of YouTube videos to provide gait data on amputee walking. We use an example dataset of trans-femoral amputees level walking at self-selected speeds to collect temporal gait parameters and calculate gait asymmetry. We compare our YouTube data with typical literature values, and show that our methodology produces results that are highly comparable to data collected in a traditional manner. The similarity between the results of our novel methodology and literature values lends confidence to our technique. Nevertheless, clear challenges with the collection and interpretation of crowd-sourced gait data remain, including long term access to datasets, and a lack of validity and reliability studies in this area. PMID:27764226

  16. DMRT3 is associated with gait type in Mangalarga Marchador horses, but does not control gait ability.

    PubMed

    Patterson, L; Staiger, E A; Brooks, S A

    2015-04-01

    The Mangalarga Marchador (MM) is a Brazilian horse breed known for a uniquely smooth gait. A recent publication described a mutation in the DMRT3 gene that the authors claim controls the ability to perform lateral patterned gaits (Andersson et al. 2012). We tested 81 MM samples for the DMRT3 mutation using extracted DNA from hair bulbs using a novel RFLP. Horses were phenotypically categorized by their gait type (batida or picada), as recorded by the Brazilian Mangalarga Marchador Breeders Association (ABCCMM). Statistical analysis using the plink toolset (Purcell, 2007) revealed significant association between gait type and the DMRT3 mutation (P = 2.3e-22). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests that selective pressure for gait type is altering allele frequencies in this breed (P = 1.00e-5). These results indicate that this polymorphism may be useful for genotype-assisted selection for gait type within this breed. As both batida and picada MM horses can perform lateral gaits, the DMRT3 mutation is not the only locus responsible for the lateral gait pattern.

  17. Wearable Device-Based Gait Recognition Using Angle Embedded Gait Dynamic Images and a Convolutional Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yongjia; Zhou, Suiping

    2017-01-01

    The widespread installation of inertial sensors in smartphones and other wearable devices provides a valuable opportunity to identify people by analyzing their gait patterns, for either cooperative or non-cooperative circumstances. However, it is still a challenging task to reliably extract discriminative features for gait recognition with noisy and complex data sequences collected from casually worn wearable devices like smartphones. To cope with this problem, we propose a novel image-based gait recognition approach using the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) without the need to manually extract discriminative features. The CNN’s input image, which is encoded straightforwardly from the inertial sensor data sequences, is called Angle Embedded Gait Dynamic Image (AE-GDI). AE-GDI is a new two-dimensional representation of gait dynamics, which is invariant to rotation and translation. The performance of the proposed approach in gait authentication and gait labeling is evaluated using two datasets: (1) the McGill University dataset, which is collected under realistic conditions; and (2) the Osaka University dataset with the largest number of subjects. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves competitive recognition accuracy over existing approaches and provides an effective parametric solution for identification among a large number of subjects by gait patterns. PMID:28264503

  18. Probabilistic Gait Classification in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Bayesian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gestel, Leen; De Laet, Tinne; Di Lello, Enrico; Bruyninckx, Herman; Molenaers, Guy; Van Campenhout, Anja; Aertbelien, Erwin; Schwartz, Mike; Wambacq, Hans; De Cock, Paul; Desloovere, Kaat

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) generates a wealth of highly variable data. Gait classifications help to reduce, simplify and interpret this vast amount of 3DGA data and thereby assist and facilitate clinical decision making in the treatment of CP. CP gait is often a mix of several clinically accepted distinct gait patterns. Therefore,…

  19. Gait analysis methods for rodent models of arthritic disorders: reviews and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lakes, E H; Allen, K D

    2016-11-01

    Gait analysis is a useful tool to understand behavioral changes in preclinical arthritis models. While observational scoring and spatiotemporal gait parameters are the most widely performed gait analyses in rodents, commercially available systems can now provide quantitative assessments of spatiotemporal patterns. However, inconsistencies remain between testing platforms, and laboratories often select different gait pattern descriptors to report in the literature. Rodent gait can also be described through kinetic and kinematic analyses, but systems to analyze rodent kinetics and kinematics are typically custom made and often require sensitive, custom equipment. While the use of rodent gait analysis rapidly expands, it is important to remember that, while rodent gait analysis is a relatively modern behavioral assay, the study of quadrupedal gait is not new. Nearly all gait parameters are correlated, and a collection of gait parameters is needed to understand a compensatory gait pattern used by the animal. As such, a change in a single gait parameter is unlikely to tell the full biomechanical story; and to effectively use gait analysis, one must consider how multiple different parameters contribute to an altered gait pattern. The goal of this article is to review rodent gait analysis techniques and provide recommendations on how to use these technologies in rodent arthritis models, including discussions on the strengths and limitations of observational scoring, spatiotemporal, kinetic, and kinematic measures. Recognizing rodent gait analysis is an evolving tool, we also provide technical recommendations we hope will improve the utility of these analyses in the future.

  20. Gait Patterns in Twins with Cerebral Palsy: Similarities and Development over Time after Multilevel Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Dreher, Thomas; Heitzmann, Daniel W. W.; Wolf, Sebastian I.

    2013-01-01

    To examine gait patterns and gait quality, 7 twins with cerebral palsy were measured preoperatively and after surgical intervention. The aim was to study differences and/or similarities in gait between twins, the influence of personal characteristics and birth conditions, and to describe the development of gait over time after single event…

  1. Gait Patterns in Hemiplegic Children with Cerebral Palsy: Comparison of Right and Left Hemiplegia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitatively the gait strategy of the right and left hemiplegic children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) using gait analysis. The gait strategy of 28 right hemiparetic CP (RHG) and 23 left hemiparetic CP (LHG) was compared using gait analysis (spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters) and considering the hemiplegic…

  2. Effects of robot-assisted gait training on the balance and gait of chronic stroke patients: focus on dependent ambulators.

    PubMed

    Cho, Duk Youn; Park, Si-Woon; Lee, Min Jin; Park, Dae Sung; Kim, Eun Joo

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effect of robot-assisted gait training on the balance and gait ability of stroke patients who were dependent ambulators. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients participated in this study. The participants were allocated to either group 1, which received robot-assisted gait training for 4 weeks followed by conventional physical therapy for 4 weeks, or group 2, which received the same treatments in the reverse order. Robot-assisted gait training was conducted for 30 min, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale, Modified Functional Reach Test, Functional Ambulation Category, Modified Ashworth Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index, and Modified Barthel Index were assessed before and after treatment. To confirm the characteristics of patients who showed a significant increase in Berg Balance Scale after robot-assisted gait training as compared with physical therapy, subgroup analysis was conducted. [Results] Only lateral reaching and the Functional Ambulation Category were significantly increased following robot-assisted gait training. Subscale analyses identified 3 patient subgroups that responded well to robot-assisted gait training: a subgroup with hemiplegia, a subgroup in which the guidance force needed to be decreased to needed to be decreased to ≤45%, and a subgroup in which weight bearing was decreased to ≤21%. [Conclusion] The present study showed that robot-assisted gait training is not only effective in improving balance and gait performance but also improves trunk balance and motor skills required by high-severity stroke patients to perform activities daily living. Moreover, subscale analyses identified subgroups that responded well to robot-assisted gait training.

  3. Effects of robot-assisted gait training on the balance and gait of chronic stroke patients: focus on dependent ambulators

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Duk Youn; Park, Si-Woon; Lee, Min Jin; Park, Dae Sung; Kim, Eun Joo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effect of robot-assisted gait training on the balance and gait ability of stroke patients who were dependent ambulators. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients participated in this study. The participants were allocated to either group 1, which received robot-assisted gait training for 4 weeks followed by conventional physical therapy for 4 weeks, or group 2, which received the same treatments in the reverse order. Robot-assisted gait training was conducted for 30 min, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale, Modified Functional Reach Test, Functional Ambulation Category, Modified Ashworth Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index, and Modified Barthel Index were assessed before and after treatment. To confirm the characteristics of patients who showed a significant increase in Berg Balance Scale after robot-assisted gait training as compared with physical therapy, subgroup analysis was conducted. [Results] Only lateral reaching and the Functional Ambulation Category were significantly increased following robot-assisted gait training. Subscale analyses identified 3 patient subgroups that responded well to robot-assisted gait training: a subgroup with hemiplegia, a subgroup in which the guidance force needed to be decreased to needed to be decreased to ≤45%, and a subgroup in which weight bearing was decreased to ≤21%. [Conclusion] The present study showed that robot-assisted gait training is not only effective in improving balance and gait performance but also improves trunk balance and motor skills required by high-severity stroke patients to perform activities daily living. Moreover, subscale analyses identified subgroups that responded well to robot-assisted gait training. PMID:26644642

  4. Turtle mimetic soft robot with two swimming gaits.

    PubMed

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Kim, Min-Soo; Rodrigue, Hugo; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Shim, Jae-Eul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Chu, Won-Shik; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-05-04

    This paper presents a biomimetic turtle flipper actuator consisting of a shape memory alloy composite structure for implementation in a turtle-inspired autonomous underwater vehicle. Based on the analysis of the Chelonia mydas, the flipper actuator was divided into three segments containing a scaffold structure fabricated using a 3D printer. According to the filament stacking sequence of the scaffold structure in the actuator, different actuating motions can be realized and three different types of scaffold structures were proposed to replicate the motion of the different segments of the flipper of the Chelonia mydas. This flipper actuator can mimic the continuous deformation of the forelimb of Chelonia mydas which could not be realized in previous motor based robot. This actuator can also produce two distinct motions that correspond to the two different swimming gaits of the Chelonia mydas, which are the routine and vigorous swimming gaits, by changing the applied current sequence of the SMA wires embedded in the flipper actuator. The generated thrust and the swimming efficiency in each swimming gait of the flipper actuator were measured and the results show that the vigorous gait has a higher thrust but a relatively lower swimming efficiency than the routine gait. The flipper actuator was implemented in a biomimetic turtle robot, and its average swimming speed in the routine and vigorous gaits were measured with the vigorous gait being capable of reaching a maximum speed of 11.5 mm s(-1).

  5. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  6. Assessment of gait after bilateral hip replacement. Case study.

    PubMed

    Winiarski, Sławomir; Aleksandrowicz, Krzysztof; Jarząb, Sławomir; Pozowski, Andrzej; Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective methods of treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis (HOA). In many cases pathological gait patterns persist despite properly conducted surgery and disturb the normal wear of the artificial joint surfaces. The aim of the study was to conduct functional and biomechanical assessment of gait in a patient after bilateral THA due to severe degenerative changes in the hip. The assessment focused on the gait parameters which significantly deviate from a normal gait pattern at various stages of treatment. Physiotherapeutic assessment of the patient included measurements of the range of motion in lower limb joints, the Timed Up and Go test, and pain assessment. Biomechanical assessment involved measurements of spatiotemporal gait parameters and the dynamic range of motion using BTS Smart-E motion analysis system. Although clinical examinations after both the first and second procedure suggested recovery of the patient's physical function, biomechanical assessment of her gait after the second procedure indicated the presence of deviations from a normal gait pattern. Secondary to a limited range of internal/external hip rotation, extension, and abduction, corresponding indices were still in the pathological range.

  7. Gait deviations in children with autism spectrum disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Kindregan, Deirdre; Gallagher, Louise; Gormley, John

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords "gait" and "autism," and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.

  8. Toward Pervasive Gait Analysis With Wearable Sensors: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanshan; Lach, John; Lo, Benny; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2016-11-01

    After decades of evolution, measuring instruments for quantitative gait analysis have become an important clinical tool for assessing pathologies manifested by gait abnormalities. However, such instruments tend to be expensive and require expert operation and maintenance besides their high cost, thus limiting them to only a small number of specialized centers. Consequently, gait analysis in most clinics today still relies on observation-based assessment. Recent advances in wearable sensors, especially inertial body sensors, have opened up a promising future for gait analysis. Not only can these sensors be more easily adopted in clinical diagnosis and treatment procedures than their current counterparts, but they can also monitor gait continuously outside clinics - hence providing seamless patient analysis from clinics to free-living environments. The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of current techniques for quantitative gait analysis and to propose key metrics for evaluating both existing and emerging methods for qualifying the gait features extracted from wearable sensors. It aims to highlight key advances in this rapidly evolving research field and outline potential future directions for both research and clinical applications.

  9. Gait variability and basal ganglia disorders: stride-to-stride variations of gait cycle timing in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Firtion, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The basal ganglia are thought to play an important role in regulating motor programs involved in gait and in the fluidity and sequencing of movement. We postulated that the ability to maintain a steady gait, with low stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing and its subphases, would be diminished with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). To test this hypothesis, we obtained quantitative measures of stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing in subjects with PD (n = 15), HD (n = 20), and disease-free controls (n = 16). All measures of gait variability were significantly increased in PD and HD. In subjects with PD and HD, gait variability measures were two and three times that observed in control subjects, respectively. The degree of gait variability correlated with disease severity. In contrast, gait speed was significantly lower in PD, but not in HD, and average gait cycle duration and the time spent in many subphases of the gait cycle were similar in control subjects, HD subjects, and PD subjects. These findings are consistent with a differential control of gait variability, speed, and average gait cycle timing that may have implications for understanding the role of the basal ganglia in locomotor control and for quantitatively assessing gait in clinical settings.

  10. Identity Recognition Algorithm Using Improved Gabor Feature Selection of Gait Energy Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, LIANG; Ling-yao, JIA; Dong-cheng, SHI

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an effective gait recognition approach based on Gabor features of gait energy image. In this paper, the kernel Fisher analysis combined with kernel matrix is proposed to select dominant features. The nearest neighbor classifier based on whitened cosine distance is used to discriminate different gait patterns. The approach proposed is tested on the CASIA and USF gait databases. The results show that our approach outperforms other state of gait recognition approaches in terms of recognition accuracy and robustness.

  11. Stepping strategies for regulating gait adaptability and stability.

    PubMed

    Hak, Laura; Houdijk, Han; Steenbrink, Frans; Mert, Agali; van der Wurff, Peter; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2013-03-15

    Besides a stable gait pattern, gait in daily life requires the capability to adapt this pattern in response to environmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the anticipatory strategies used by able-bodied people to attain an adaptive gait pattern, and how these strategies interact with strategies used to maintain gait stability. Ten healthy subjects walked in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation ENvironment (CAREN). To provoke an adaptive gait pattern, subjects had to hit virtual targets, with markers guided by their knees, while walking on a self-paced treadmill. The effects of walking with and without this task on walking speed, step length, step frequency, step width and the margins of stability (MoS) were assessed. Furthermore, these trials were performed with and without additional continuous ML platform translations. When an adaptive gait pattern was required, subjects decreased step length (p<0.01), tended to increase step width (p=0.074), and decreased walking speed while maintaining similar step frequency compared to unconstrained walking. These adaptations resulted in the preservation of equal MoS between trials, despite the disturbing influence of the gait adaptability task. When the gait adaptability task was combined with the balance perturbation subjects further decreased step length, as evidenced by a significant interaction between both manipulations (p=0.012). In conclusion, able-bodied people reduce step length and increase step width during walking conditions requiring a high level of both stability and adaptability. Although an increase in step frequency has previously been found to enhance stability, a faster movement, which would coincide with a higher step frequency, hampers accuracy and may consequently limit gait adaptability.

  12. Successful antibiotic treatment for subdural empyema and seizure due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a complication of halo orthosis usage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hioki, Akira; Miyamoto, Kei; Inoue, Toshiyuki; Hosoe, Hideo; Shinoda, Jun; Iwama, Toru; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2012-11-01

    Halo orthosis is used for cervical spine fixation after spinal surgery or injury. Although superficial infection at pin sites occurs frequently, intracranial development of infection, including brain abscesses, is very rare. We experienced subdural empyema due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) caused by intracranial penetration of halo pins. A 38-year-old woman with a 4-year history of rheumatoid arthritis experienced severe myelopathy due to atlanto-axial dislocation and vertical subluxation. Reduction and immobilization using a halo vest resulted in neurologic improvement; she later underwent occipital bone to C2 fusion using posterior instrumentation. Three months after halo orthosis fixation, she complained of a headache, experienced a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, and became unconscious for 10 min. Computed tomography revealed pneumoencephalus, and Gd-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed edema, enhancement of the overlying dura in the left partial lobe, and subdural and subarachnoidal empyema. Following removal of the halo vest, there was a purulent discharge from the left-posterior pin site. Culture of the discharge was positive for MRSA. The patient was treated with intravenous vancomycin for 2 weeks, followed by cefozopran hydrochloride for 4 weeks. Her symptoms improved, and additional surgery was not required. At latest follow-up, 10 years after the seizure, she is neurologically stable without any recurrence of the infection.

  13. Ambulatory Function and Perception of Confidence in Persons with Stroke with a Custom-Made Hinged versus a Standard Ankle Foot Orthosis.

    PubMed

    Slijper, Angélique; Danielsson, Anna; Willén, Carin

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to compare walking with an individually designed dynamic hinged ankle foot orthosis (DAFO) and a standard carbon composite ankle foot orthosis (C-AFO). Methods. Twelve participants, mean age 56 years (range 26-72), with hemiparesis due to stroke were included in the study. During the six-minute walk test (6MW), walking velocity, the Physiological Cost Index (PCI), and the degree of experienced exertion were measured with a DAFO and C-AFO, respectively, followed by a Stairs Test velocity and perceived confidence was rated. Results. The mean differences in favor for the DAFO were in 6MW 24.3 m (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.90, 43.76), PCI -0.09 beats/m (95% CI -0.27, 0.95), velocity 0.04 m/s (95% CI -0.01, 0.097), and in the Stairs Test -11.8 s (95% CI -19.05, -4.48). All participants except one perceived the degree of experienced exertion lower and felt more confident when walking with the DAFO. Conclusions. Wearing a DAFO resulted in longer walking distance and faster stair climbing compared to walking with a C-AFO. Eleven of twelve participants felt more confident with the DAFO, which may be more important than speed and distance and the most important reason for prescribing an AFO.

  14. Energy consumption and gait analysis in children with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Galli, M; Crivellini, M; Fazzi, E; Motta, F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, in children with different levels of myelomeningocele (MMC), the gait pattern and energy cost of walking with and without ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs). We found that each MMC level was characterised by recognisable gait patterns and that the abnormalities closely reflected the muscle deficits present. Furthermore, the study also introduces new indices for evaluating the energy cost of locomotion and demonstrates that the energy required for walking is increased in children with MMC compared with non disabled children. With respect to barefoot conditions, the use of AFOs leads to an improvement in gait and reduced energy consumption.

  15. Effects of Aging on Arm Swing during Gait: The Role of Gait Speed and Dual Tasking.

    PubMed

    Mirelman, Anat; Bernad-Elazari, Hagar; Nobel, Tomer; Thaler, Avner; Peruzzi, Agnese; Plotnik, Meir; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Healthy walking is characterized by pronounced arm swing and axial rotation. Aging effects on gait speed, stride length and stride time variability have been previously reported, however, less is known about aging effects on arm swing and axial rotation and their relationship to age-associated gait changes during usual walking and during more challenging conditions like dual tasking. Sixty healthy adults between the ages of 30-77 were included in this study designed to address this gap. Lightweight body fixed sensors were placed on each wrist and lower back. Participants walked under 3 walking conditions each of 1 minute: 1) comfortable speed, 2) walking while serially subtracting 3's (Dual Task), 3) walking at fast speed. Aging effects on arm swing amplitude, range, symmetry, jerk and axial rotation amplitude and jerk were compared between decades of age (30-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-77 years). As expected, older adults walked slower (p = 0.03) and with increased stride variability (p = 0.02). Arm swing amplitude decreased with age under all conditions (p = 0.04). In the oldest group, arm swing decreased during dual task and increased during the fast walking condition (p<0.0001). Similarly, arm swing asymmetry increased during the dual task in the older groups (p<0.004), but not in the younger groups (p = 0.67). Significant differences between groups and within conditions were observed in arm swing jerk (p<0.02), axial rotation amplitude (p<0.02) and axial jerk (p<0.001). Gait speed, arm swing amplitude of the dominant arm, arm swing asymmetry and axial rotation jerk were all independent predictors of age in a multivariate model. These findings suggest that the effects of gait speed and dual tasking on arm swing and axial rotation during walking are altered among healthy older adults. Follow-up work is needed to examine if these effects contribute to reduced stability in aging.

  16. A robust real-time gait event detection using wireless gyroscope and its application on normal and altered gaits.

    PubMed

    Gouwanda, Darwin; Gopalai, Alpha Agape

    2015-02-01

    Gait events detection allows clinicians and biomechanics researchers to determine timing of gait events, to estimate duration of stance phase and swing phase and to segment gait data. It also aids biomedical engineers to improve the design of orthoses and FES (functional electrical stimulation) systems. In recent years, researchers have resorted to using gyroscopes to determine heel-strike (HS) and toe-off (TO) events in gait cycles. However, these methods are subjected to significant delays when implemented in real-time gait monitoring devices, orthoses, and FES systems. Therefore, the work presented in this paper proposes a method that addresses these delays, to ensure real-time gait event detection. The proposed algorithm combines the use of heuristics and zero-crossing method to identify HS and TO. Experiments involving: (1) normal walking; (2) walking with knee brace; and (3) walking with ankle brace for overground walking and treadmill walking were designed to verify and validate the identified HS and TO. The performance of the proposed method was compared against the established gait detection algorithms. It was observed that the proposed method produced detection rate that was comparable to earlier reported methods and recorded reduced time delays, at an average of 100 ms.

  17. The effect of gait training with shoe inserts on the improvement of pain and gait in sacroiliac joint patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung-Yun; Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current research was to identify how gait training with shoe inserts affects the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint dysfunction patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly selected and assigned to be either the experimental group (gait training with shoe insert group) or control group. Each group consisted of 15 patients. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, and foot pressure in a standing position and during gait was measured with a Gateview AFA-50 system (Alpus, Seoul, Republic of Korea). A paired sample t-test was used to compare the pain and gait of the sacroiliac joint before and after the intervention. Correlation between pain and walking after gait training with shoe inserts was examined by Pearson test. The level of significance was set at α=0.05. [Results] It was found that application of the intervention to the experimental group resulted in a significant decrease in sacroiliac joint pain. It was also found that there was a significant correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and dynamic asymmetric index (r= 0.796) and that there was a negative correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and forefoot/rear foot peak pressure ratio (r=-0.728). [Conclusion] The results of our analysis lead us to conclude that the intervention with shoe inserts had a significant influence on the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint patients.

  18. The effect of Tai Chi exercise on gait initiation and gait performance in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Amano, Shinichi; Nocera, Joe R; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Juncos, Jorge L; Gregor, Robert J; Waddell, Dwight E; Wolf, Steven L; Hass, Chris J

    2013-11-01

    Gait dysfunction and postural instability are two debilitating symptoms in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). Tai Chi exercise has recently gained attention as an attractive intervention for persons with PD because of its known potential to reduce falls and improve postural control, walking abilities, and safety at a low cost. The purpose of this report is to investigate the effect of Tai Chi exercise on dynamic postural control during gait initiation and gait performance in persons with idiopathic PD, and to determine whether these benefits could be replicated in two different environments, as complementary projects. In these two separate projects, a total of 45 participants with PD were randomly assigned to either a Tai Chi group or a control group. The Tai Chi groups in both projects completed a 16-week Tai Chi exercise session, while the control groups consisted of either a placebo (i.e., Qi-Gong) or non-exercise group. Tai Chi did not significantly improve Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III score, selected gait initiation parameters or gait performance in either project. Combined results from both projects suggest that 16 weeks of class-based Tai Chi were ineffective in improving either gait initiation, gait performance, or reducing parkinsonian disability in this subset of persons with PD. Thus the use of short-term Tai Chi exercise should require further study before being considered a valuable therapeutic intervention for these domains in PD.

  19. Motion based markerless gait analysis using standard events of gait and ensemble Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Vishnoi, Nalini; Mitra, Anish; Duric, Zoran; Gerber, Naomi Lynn

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to gait analysis using ensemble Kalman filtering which permits markerless determination of segmental movement. We use image flow analysis to reliably compute temporal and kinematic measures including the translational velocity of the torso and rotational velocities of the lower leg segments. Detecting the instances where velocity changes direction also determines the standard events of a gait cycle (double-support, toe-off, mid-swing and heel-strike). In order to determine the kinematics of lower limbs, we model the synergies between the lower limb motions (thigh-shank, shank-foot) by building a nonlinear dynamical system using CMUs 3D motion capture database. This information is fed into the ensemble Kalman Filter framework to estimate the unobserved limb (upper leg and foot) motion from the measured lower leg rotational velocity. Our approach does not require calibrated cameras or special markers to capture movement. We have tested our method on different gait sequences collected from the sagttal plane and presented the estimated kinematics overlaid on the original image frames. We have also validated our approach by manually labeling the videos and comparing our results against them.

  20. 1st International Symposium on Gait and Balance in MS: Gait and Balance Measures in the Evaluation of People with MS

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Michelle; Wagner, Joanne; Zackowski, Kathleen; Spain, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Gait and balance measures have particular potential as outcome measures in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) because, of the many hallmarks of MS disability, gait and balance dysfunction are present throughout the course of the disease, impact many aspects of a person's life, and progress over time. To highlight the importance and relevance of gait and balance measures in MS, explore novel measurements of gait and balance in MS, and discuss how gait, balance, and fall measures can best be used and developed in clinical and research settings, the 1st International Symposium on Gait and Balance in Multiple Sclerosis was held in Portland, Oregon, USA on October 1, 2011. This meeting brought together nearly 100 neurologists, physiatrists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, nurses, engineers, and others to discuss the current status and recent advances in the measurement of gait and balance in MS. Presentations focused on clinician-administered, self-administered, and instrumented measures of gait, balance, and falls in MS. PMID:22762000

  1. Brain Activity during Mental Imagery of Gait Versus Gait-Like Plantar Stimulation: A Novel Combined Functional MRI Paradigm to Better Understand Cerebral Gait Control.

    PubMed

    Labriffe, Matthieu; Annweiler, Cédric; Amirova, Liubov E; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Ter Minassian, Aram; Leiber, Louis-Marie; Beauchet, Olivier; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Dinomais, Mickaël

    2017-01-01

    Human locomotion is a complex sensorimotor behavior whose central control remains difficult to explore using neuroimaging method due to technical constraints, notably the impossibility to walk with a scanner on the head and/or to walk for real inside current scanners. The aim of this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study was to analyze interactions between two paradigms to investigate the brain gait control network: (1) mental imagery of gait, and (2) passive mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot with the Korvit boots. The Korvit stimulator was used through two different modes, namely an organized ("gait like") sequence and a destructured (chaotic) pattern. Eighteen right-handed young healthy volunteers were recruited (mean age, 27 ± 4.7 years). Mental imagery activated a broad neuronal network including the supplementary motor area-proper (SMA-proper), pre-SMA, the dorsal premotor cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, and precuneus/superior parietal areas. The mechanical plantar stimulation activated the primary sensorimotor cortex and secondary somatosensory cortex bilaterally. The paradigms generated statistically common areas of activity, notably bilateral SMA-proper and right pre-SMA, highlighting the potential key role of SMA in gait control. There was no difference between the organized and chaotic Korvit sequences, highlighting the difficulty of developing a walking-specific plantar stimulation paradigm. In conclusion, this combined-fMRI paradigm combining mental imagery and gait-like plantar stimulation provides complementary information regarding gait-related brain activity and appears useful for the assessment of high-level gait control.

  2. Brain Activity during Mental Imagery of Gait Versus Gait-Like Plantar Stimulation: A Novel Combined Functional MRI Paradigm to Better Understand Cerebral Gait Control

    PubMed Central

    Labriffe, Matthieu; Annweiler, Cédric; Amirova, Liubov E.; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Ter Minassian, Aram; Leiber, Louis-Marie; Beauchet, Olivier; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Dinomais, Mickaël

    2017-01-01

    Human locomotion is a complex sensorimotor behavior whose central control remains difficult to explore using neuroimaging method due to technical constraints, notably the impossibility to walk with a scanner on the head and/or to walk for real inside current scanners. The aim of this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study was to analyze interactions between two paradigms to investigate the brain gait control network: (1) mental imagery of gait, and (2) passive mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot with the Korvit boots. The Korvit stimulator was used through two different modes, namely an organized (“gait like”) sequence and a destructured (chaotic) pattern. Eighteen right-handed young healthy volunteers were recruited (mean age, 27 ± 4.7 years). Mental imagery activated a broad neuronal network including the supplementary motor area-proper (SMA-proper), pre-SMA, the dorsal premotor cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, and precuneus/superior parietal areas. The mechanical plantar stimulation activated the primary sensorimotor cortex and secondary somatosensory cortex bilaterally. The paradigms generated statistically common areas of activity, notably bilateral SMA-proper and right pre-SMA, highlighting the potential key role of SMA in gait control. There was no difference between the organized and chaotic Korvit sequences, highlighting the difficulty of developing a walking-specific plantar stimulation paradigm. In conclusion, this combined-fMRI paradigm combining mental imagery and gait-like plantar stimulation provides complementary information regarding gait-related brain activity and appears useful for the assessment of high-level gait control. PMID:28321186

  3. Understanding the complexity of human gait dynamics.

    PubMed

    Scafetta, Nicola; Marchi, Damiano; West, Bruce J

    2009-06-01

    Time series of human gait stride intervals exhibit fractal and multifractal properties under several conditions. Records from subjects walking at normal, slow, and fast pace speed are analyzed to determine changes in the fractal scalings as a function of the stress condition of the system. Records from subjects with different age from children to elderly and patients suffering from neurodegenerative disease are analyzed to determine changes in the fractal scalings as a function of the physical maturation or degeneration of the system. A supercentral pattern generator model is presented to simulate the above two properties that are typically found in dynamical network performance: that is, how a dynamical network responds to stress and to evolution.

  4. Understanding the complexity of human gait dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, Nicola; Marchi, Damiano; West, Bruce J.

    2009-06-01

    Time series of human gait stride intervals exhibit fractal and multifractal properties under several conditions. Records from subjects walking at normal, slow, and fast pace speed are analyzed to determine changes in the fractal scalings as a function of the stress condition of the system. Records from subjects with different age from children to elderly and patients suffering from neurodegenerative disease are analyzed to determine changes in the fractal scalings as a function of the physical maturation or degeneration of the system. A supercentral pattern generator model is presented to simulate the above two properties that are typically found in dynamical network performance: that is, how a dynamical network responds to stress and to evolution.

  5. On using gait in forensic biometrics.

    PubMed

    Bouchrika, Imed; Goffredo, Michaela; Carter, John; Nixon, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Given the continuing advances in gait biometrics, it appears prudent to investigate the translation of these techniques for forensic use. We address the question as to the confidence that might be given between any two such measurements. We use the locations of ankle, knee, and hip to derive a measure of the match between walking subjects in image sequences. The Instantaneous Posture Match algorithm, using Harr templates, kinematics, and anthropomorphic knowledge is used to determine their location. This is demonstrated using real CCTV recorded at Gatwick International Airport, laboratory images from the multiview CASIA-B data set, and an example of real scene of crime video. To access the measurement confidence, we study the mean intra- and inter-match scores as a function of database size. These measures converge to constant and separate values, indicating that the match measure derived from individual comparisons is considerably smaller than the average match measure from a population.

  6. Fractal and Multifractal Analysis of Human Gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; del Río Correa, J. L.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2003-09-01

    We carried out a fractal and multifractal analysis of human gait time series of young and old individuals, and adults with three illnesses that affect the march: The Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We obtained cumulative plots of events, the correlation function, the Hurst exponent and the Higuchi's fractal dimension of these time series and found that these fractal markers could be a factor to characterize the march, since we obtained different values of these quantities for youths and adults and they are different also for healthy and ill persons and the most anomalous values belong to ill persons. In other physiological signals there is complexity lost related with the age and the illness, in the case of the march the opposite occurs. The multifractal analysis could be also a useful tool to understand the dynamics of these and other complex systems.

  7. [Gait disorders in Parkinson disease. Clinical description, analysis of posture, initiation of stabilized gait].

    PubMed

    Kemoun, G; Defebvre, L

    2001-03-10

    A WELL INFORMED DESCRIPTION: The parkinsonian posture is generally described as a stooped one. At the beginning of the disease, the gait troubles remain moderate; gradually the gait is composed of small steps without a wide base; the patient tends to run after his centre of gravity by accelerating the step (festination phenomenon). Difficulties occurs for starting up (delay of gait initiation), for about-turn or for clearing obstacles. Kinetic jammings and standing around (freezing) can last several seconds and be responsible for falls. POSTURAL INSTABILITY, A MAJOR SYMPTOM IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE: This symptom is little improved by therapies and is responsible for serious disability. Postural instability induces a disequilibrium and is partially due to a simultaneous antagonist muscles contraction and to the impossibility of modifying postural responses to changing support conditions. The passive viscoelastic properties of muscles and tendons constitute a first line of defence against the disequilibrium and contribute to postural stability in the case of medium disturbances. Automatic and voluntary postural responses which come into play in the case of major disturbances can also be impaired (delay or defect of the responses). GAIT INITIATION FAILURE ARE FREQUENT: They result from an increase of the postural phase and a decrease of the propulsion forces, depending on a deficit of the postural anticipation mechanisms and also the sequential organization and the integration of two different motor programs, postural and locomotor. They can be controlled partially with sensory stimuli, notably visual inputs. DATA CONCERNING STABILIZED WALKING AND ITS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY REMAINS TO BE CLARIFIED: Spatial and temporal parameters are impaired: speed, step length and swing phase are reduced, while cadence increases to compensate these troubles. These modifications are the consequence of an incapacity to produce internal marks to generate regular steps. When the parkinsonian

  8. Predicting postoperative gait in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Galarraga C, Omar A; Vigneron, Vincent; Dorizzi, Bernadette; Khouri, Néjib; Desailly, Eric

    2016-11-09

    In this work, postoperative lower limb kinematics are predicted with respect to preoperative kinematics, physical examination and surgery data. Data of 115 children with cerebral palsy that have undergone single-event multilevel surgery were considered. Preoperative data dimension was reduced utilizing principal component analysis. Then, multiple linear regressions with 80% confidence intervals were performed between postoperative kinematics and bilateral preoperative kinematics, 36 physical examination variables and combinations of 9 different surgical procedures. The mean prediction errors on test vary from 4° (pelvic obliquity and hip adduction) to 10° (hip rotation and foot progression), depending on the kinematic angle. The unilateral mean sizes of the confidence intervals vary from 5° to 15°. Frontal plane angles are predicted with the lowest errors, however the same performance is achieved when considering the postoperative average signals. Sagittal plane angles are better predicted than transverse plane angles, with statistical differences with respect to the average postoperative kinematics for both plane's angles except for ankle dorsiflexion. The mean prediction errors are smaller than the variability of gait parameters in cerebral palsy. The performance of the system is independent of the preoperative state severity of the patient. Even if the system is not yet accurate enough to define a surgery plan, it shows an unbiased estimation of the most likely outcome, which can be useful for both the clinician and the patient. More patients' data are necessary for improving the precision of the model in order to predict the kinematic outcome of a large number of possible surgeries and gait patterns.

  9. A wireless gait analysis system by digital textile sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Ming; Chou, Chun-Mei; Hu, Jwu-Sheng; Hung, Shu-Hui; Yang, Chang-Hwa; Wu, Chih-Chung; Hsu, Ming-Yang; Yang, Tsi-Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of spatio-temporal gait analysis based upon digital textile sensors. Digitized legs and feet patterns of healthy subjects and their relations with spatio-temporal gait parameters were analyzed. In the first experiment, spatio-temporal gait parameters were determined during over ground walking. In the second experiment, predicted running, backward walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs parameters were determined. From the results of the experiments, it is concluded that, for healthy subjects, the duration of subsequent stride cycles and left/right steps, the estimations of step length, cadence, walking speed, central of pressure and central of mass trajectory, can be obtained by analyzing the digital signals from the textile sensors on pants and socks. These parameters are easily displayed in several different graphs allowing the user to view the parameters during gait. Finally, the digital data are easily to analyze the feature of activity recognition.

  10. Freezing of gait: a practical approach to management.

    PubMed

    Nonnekes, Jorik; Snijders, Anke H; Nutt, John G; Deuschl, Günter; Giladi, Nir; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2015-07-01

    Freezing of gait is a common and disabling symptom in patients with parkinsonism, characterised by sudden and brief episodes of inability to produce effective forward stepping. These episodes typically occur during gait initiation or turning. Treatment is important because freezing of gait is a major risk factor for falls in parkinsonism, and a source of disability to patients. Various treatment approaches exist, including pharmacological and surgical options, as well as physiotherapy and occupational therapy, but evidence is inconclusive for many approaches, and clear treatment protocols are not available. To address this gap, we review medical and non-medical treatment strategies for freezing of gait and present a practical algorithm for the management of this disorder, based on a combination of evidence, when available, and clinical experience of the authors. Further research is needed to formally establish the merits of our proposed treatment protocol.

  11. Interpolation function for approximating knee joint behavior in human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth-Taşcǎu, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan

    2013-10-01

    Starting from the importance of analyzing the kinematic data of the lower limb in gait movement, especially the angular variation of the knee joint, the paper propose an approximation function that can be used for processing the correlation among a multitude of knee cycles. The approximation of the raw knee data was done by Lagrange polynomial interpolation on a signal acquired using Zebris Gait Analysis System. The signal used in approximation belongs to a typical subject extracted from a lot of ten investigated subjects, but the function domain of definition belongs to the entire group. The study of the knee joint kinematics plays an important role in understanding the kinematics of the gait, this articulation having the largest range of motion in whole joints, in gait. The study does not propose to find an approximation function for the adduction-abduction movement of the knee, this being considered a residual movement comparing to the flexion-extension.

  12. Low Power Shoe Integrated Intelligent Wireless Gait Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Y.; Mazalan, M.; Bakar, N. A.; Anuar, A. F.; Zainol, M. Z.; Hamzah, F.

    2014-04-01

    Gait analysis measurement is a method to assess and identify gait events and the measurements of dynamic, motion and pressure parameters involving the lowest part of the body. This significant analysis is widely used in sports, rehabilitation as well as other health diagnostic towards improving the quality of life. This paper presents a new system empowered by Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU), ultrasonic sensors, piezoceramic sensors array, XBee wireless modules and Arduino processing unit. This research focuses on the design and development of a low power ultra-portable shoe integrated wireless intelligent gait measurement using MEMS and recent microelectronic devices for foot clearance, orientation, error correction, gait events and pressure measurement system. It is developed to be cheap, low power, wireless, real time and suitable for real life in-door and out-door environment.

  13. Skeletal and Clinical Effects of Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0611 TITLE: Skeletal and Clinical Effects of Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paolo Bonato, PhD...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Skeletal and Clinical Effects of Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0611 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography data and with clinical measures (e.g. biomarkers of inflammation such as C-reactive

  14. Gait Trainer for Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    teachers. Keywords - Gait Trainer, Celebral Force Measurement, Biofeedback T I. INTRODU Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a phys brain damage. Cerebral...means a palsy refers to faulty links betw nerves. Generally brain damage is variety of causes before and durin birth. Some of the variety causes...carbon monoxide poisoning, smok and tumors of the brain. W The University GAIT TRAINER FOR CHILDREN ITH SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY Oğuzhan URHAN, Hasan

  15. Gait Patterns in Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis

    PubMed Central

    Ranavolo, Alberto; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Martino, Giovanni; Leonardi, Luca; Conte, Carmela; Varrecchia, Tiwana; Draicchio, Francesco; Coppola, Gianluca; Casali, Carlo; Pierelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Background Spastic gait is a key feature in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis, but the gait characterization and the relationship between the gait impairment and clinical characteristics have not been investigated. Objectives To describe the gait patterns in hereditary spastic paraparesis and to identify subgroups of patients according to specific kinematic features of walking. Methods We evaluated fifty patients by computerized gait analysis and compared them to healthy participants. We computed time-distance parameters of walking and the range of angular motion at hip, knee, and ankle joints, and at the trunk and pelvis. Lower limb joint moments and muscle co-activation values were also evaluated. Results We identified three distinct subgroups of patients based on the range of motion values. Subgroup one was characterized by reduced hip, knee, and ankle joint range of motion. These patients were the most severely affected from a clinical standpoint, had the highest spasticity, and walked at the slowest speed. Subgroup three was characterized by an increased hip joint range of motion, but knee and ankle joint range of motion values close to control values. These patients were the most mildly affected and had the highest walking speed. Finally, subgroup two showed reduced knee and ankle joint range of motion, and hip range of motion values close to control values. Disease severity and gait speed in subgroup two were between those of subgroups one and three. Conclusions We identified three distinctive gait patterns in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis that correlated robustly with clinical data. Distinguishing specific features in the gait patterns of these patients may help tailor pharmacological and rehabilitative treatments and may help evaluate therapeutic effects over time. PMID:27732632

  16. Investigation of factors impacting mobility and gait in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; McNeely, Marie E; Campbell, Meghan C; Duncan, Ryan P; Earhart, Gammon M

    2016-10-01

    Mobility and gait limitations are major issues for people with Parkinson disease (PD). Identification of factors that contribute to these impairments may inform treatment and intervention strategies. In this study we investigated factors that predict mobility and gait impairment in PD. Participants with mild to moderate PD and without dementia (n=114) were tested in one session 'off' medication. Mobility measures included the 6-Minute Walk test and Timed-Up-and-Go. Gait velocity was collected in four conditions: forward preferred speed, forward dual task, forward fast as possible and backward walking. The predictors analyzed were age, gender, disease severity, balance, balance confidence, fall history, self-reported physical activity, and executive function. Multiple regression models were used to assess the relationships between predictors and outcomes. The predictors, in different combinations for each outcome measure, explained 55.7% to 66.9% of variability for mobility and 39.5% to 52.8% for gait velocity. Balance was the most relevant factor (explaining up to 54.1% of variance in mobility and up to 45.6% in gait velocity). Balance confidence contributed to a lesser extent (2.0% to 8.2% of variance) in all models. Age explained a small percentage of variance in mobility and gait velocity (up to 2.9%). Executive function explained 3.0% of variance during forward walking only. The strong predictive relationships between balance deficits and mobility and gait impairment suggest targeting balance deficits may be particularly important for improving mobility and gait in people with PD, regardless of an individual's age, disease severity, fall history, or other demographic features.

  17. Use of gait sandals for measuring rearfoot and shank motion during running.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Andrew; Wheat, Jonathan; Milner, Clare E

    2010-05-01

    Gait sandals may be used as an alternative to shoes in gait analysis. However, their similarity to running shoes remains unclear. This study aimed to compare rearfoot and shank kinematics between barefoot, running shoes and gait sandal conditions during running. We hypothesised that gait sandals would more closely replicate the kinematics seen when wearing running shoes than when barefoot. Rearfoot and shank kinematics were measured in 14 male participants as they ran in three footwear conditions (barefoot, gait sandals and running shoes) at 3.5m/s. Both barefoot and gait sandals resulted in greater peak rearfoot eversion compared to running shoes. Gait sandals were similar to running shoes for all other variables. These findings suggest that gait sandals can be used in place of running shoes during gait analysis to study rearfoot and shank kinematics.

  18. A reinforcement learning approach to gait training improves retention

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Christopher J.; Manczurowsky, Julia; Yen, Sheng-Che

    2015-01-01

    Many gait training programs are based on supervised learning principles: an individual is guided towards a desired gait pattern with directional error feedback. While this results in rapid adaptation, improvements quickly disappear. This study tested the hypothesis that a reinforcement learning approach improves retention and transfer of a new gait pattern. The results of a pilot study and larger experiment are presented. Healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either a supervised group, who received explicit instructions and directional error feedback while they learned a new gait pattern on a treadmill, or a reinforcement group, who was only shown whether they were close to or far from the desired gait. Subjects practiced for 10 min, followed by immediate and overnight retention and over-ground transfer tests. The pilot study showed that subjects could learn a new gait pattern under a reinforcement learning paradigm. The larger experiment, which had twice as many subjects (16 in each group) showed that the reinforcement group had better overnight retention than the supervised group (a 32% vs. 120% error increase, respectively), but there were no differences for over-ground transfer. These results suggest that encouraging participants to find rewarding actions through self-guided exploration is beneficial for retention. PMID:26379524

  19. A reinforcement learning approach to gait training improves retention.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Christopher J; Manczurowsky, Julia; Yen, Sheng-Che

    2015-01-01

    Many gait training programs are based on supervised learning principles: an individual is guided towards a desired gait pattern with directional error feedback. While this results in rapid adaptation, improvements quickly disappear. This study tested the hypothesis that a reinforcement learning approach improves retention and transfer of a new gait pattern. The results of a pilot study and larger experiment are presented. Healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either a supervised group, who received explicit instructions and directional error feedback while they learned a new gait pattern on a treadmill, or a reinforcement group, who was only shown whether they were close to or far from the desired gait. Subjects practiced for 10 min, followed by immediate and overnight retention and over-ground transfer tests. The pilot study showed that subjects could learn a new gait pattern under a reinforcement learning paradigm. The larger experiment, which had twice as many subjects (16 in each group) showed that the reinforcement group had better overnight retention than the supervised group (a 32% vs. 120% error increase, respectively), but there were no differences for over-ground transfer. These results suggest that encouraging participants to find rewarding actions through self-guided exploration is beneficial for retention.

  20. FreeWalker: a smart insole for longitudinal gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baitong; Rajput, Kuldeep Singh; Tam, Wing-Kin; Tung, Anthony K H; Yang, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    Gait analysis is an important diagnostic measure to investigate the pattern of walking. Traditional gait analysis is generally carried out in a gait lab, with equipped force and body tracking sensors, which needs a trained medical professional to interpret the results. This procedure is tedious, expensive, and unreliable and makes it difficult to track the progress across multiple visits. In this paper, we present a smart insole called FreeWalker, which provides quantitative gait analysis outside the confinement of traditional lab, at low- cost. The insole consists of eight pressure sensors and two motion tracking sensors, i.e. 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope. This enables measurement of under-foot pressure distribution and motion sequences in real-time. The insole is enabled with onboard SD card as well as wireless data transmission, which help in continuous gait-cycle analysis. The data is then sent to a gateway, for analysis and interpretation of data, using a user interface where gait features are graphically displayed. We also present validation result of a subject's left foot, who was asked to perform a specific task. Experiment results show that we could achieve a data-sampling rate of over 1 KHz, transmitting data up to a distance of 20 meter and maintain a battery life of around 24 hours. Taking advantage of these features, FreeWalker can be used in various applications, like medical diagnosis, rehabilitation, sports and entertainment.

  1. Validity of the Kinect for Gait Assessment: A Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Shmuel; Yogev Seligmann, Galit

    2016-01-01

    Gait analysis may enhance clinical practice. However, its use is limited due to the need for expensive equipment which is not always available in clinical settings. Recent evidence suggests that Microsoft Kinect may provide a low cost gait analysis method. The purpose of this report is to critically evaluate the literature describing the concurrent validity of using the Kinect as a gait analysis instrument. An online search of PubMed, CINAHL, and ProQuest databases was performed. Included were studies in which walking was assessed with the Kinect and another gold standard device, and consisted of at least one numerical finding of spatiotemporal or kinematic measures. Our search identified 366 papers, from which 12 relevant studies were retrieved. The results demonstrate that the Kinect is valid only for some spatiotemporal gait parameters. Although the kinematic parameters measured by the Kinect followed the trend of the joint trajectories, they showed poor validity and large errors. In conclusion, the Kinect may have the potential to be used as a tool for measuring spatiotemporal aspects of gait, yet standardized methods should be established, and future examinations with both healthy subjects and clinical participants are required in order to integrate the Kinect as a clinical gait analysis tool. PMID:26861323

  2. Gait analysis and cerebral volumes in Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rigoldi, C; Galli, M; Condoluci, C; Carducci, F; Onorati, P; Albertini, G

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look for a relationship between cerebral volumes computed using a voxel-based morphometry algorithm and walking patterns in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS), in order to investigate the origin of the motor problems in these subjects with a view to developing appropriate rehabilitation programmes. Nine children with DS underwent a gait analysis (GA) protocol that used a 3D motion analysis system, force plates and a video system, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analysis of GA graphs allowed a series of parameters to be defined and computed in order to quantify gait patterns. By combining some of the parameters it was possible to obtain a 3D description of gait in terms of distance from normal values. Finally, the results of cerebral volume analysis were compared with the gait patterns found. A strong relationship emerged between cerebellar vermis volume reduction and quality of gait and also between grey matter volume reduction of some cerebral areas and asymmetrical gait. An evaluation of high-level motor deficits, reflected in a lack or partial lack of proximal functions, is important in order to define a correct rehabilitation programme.

  3. A Multiple Regression Approach to Normalization of Spatiotemporal Gait Features.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul; Lythgo, Noel; Hass, Chris J; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C

    2016-04-01

    Normalization of gait data is performed to reduce the effects of intersubject variations due to physical characteristics. This study reports a multiple regression normalization approach for spatiotemporal gait data that takes into account intersubject variations in self-selected walking speed and physical properties including age, height, body mass, and sex. Spatiotemporal gait data including stride length, cadence, stance time, double support time, and stride time were obtained from healthy subjects including 782 children, 71 adults, 29 elderly subjects, and 28 elderly Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations, a detrending method, and a multiple regression approach. After normalization using dimensionless equations and the detrending method, weak to moderate correlations between walking speed, physical properties, and spatiotemporal gait features were observed (0.01 < |r| < 0.88), whereas normalization using the multiple regression method reduced these correlations to weak values (|r| <0.29). Data normalization using dimensionless equations and detrending resulted in significant differences in stride length and double support time of PD patients; however the multiple regression approach revealed significant differences in these features as well as in cadence, stance time, and stride time. The proposed multiple regression normalization may be useful in machine learning, gait classification, and clinical evaluation of pathological gait patterns.

  4. Cerebral correlates of motor imagery of normal and precision gait.

    PubMed

    Bakker, M; De Lange, F P; Helmich, R C; Scheeringa, R; Bloem, B R; Toni, I

    2008-07-01

    We have examined the cerebral structures involved in motor imagery of normal and precision gait (i.e., gait requiring precise foot placement and increased postural control). We recorded cerebral activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects imagined walking along paths of two different widths (broad, narrow) that required either normal gait, or exact foot placement and increased postural control. We used a matched visual imagery (VI) task to assess the motor specificity of the effects, and monitored task performance by recording imagery times, eye movements, and electromyography during scanning. In addition, we assessed the effector specificity of MI of gait by comparing our results with those of a previous study on MI of hand movements. We found that imagery times were longer for the narrow path during MI, but not during VI, suggesting that MI was sensitive to the constraints imposed by a narrow walking path. Moreover, MI of precision gait resulted in increased cerebral activity and effective connectivity within a network involving the superior parietal lobules, the dorsal precentral gyri, and the right middle occipital gyrus. Finally, the cerebral responses to MI of gait were contiguous to but spatially distinct from regions involved in MI of hand movements. These results emphasize the role of cortical structures outside primary motor regions in imagining locomotion movements when accurate foot positioning and increased postural control is required.

  5. Temporal and spatial organization of gait-related electrocortical potentials.

    PubMed

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-07-10

    To advance gait rehabilitation research it is of great importance to understand the supraspinal control of walking. In this study, the temporal and spatial characteristics of averaged electrocortical activity during treadmill walking in healthy subjects was assessed. Electroencephalography data were recorded from 32 scalp locations, averaged across trials, and related to phases of the gait cycle based on the detection of left heel strike. A characteristic temporal pattern of positive and negative potentials, similar to movement-related cortical potentials, and related to the gait cycle was observed over the cortical leg representation area. Source localization analysis revealed that mainly the primary somatosensory, somatosensory association, primary motor and cingulate cortex were activated during walking. The negative peaks of the gait-related cortical potential were associated with activity predominantly in the cingulate and prefrontal cortex, while the primary motor, primary somatosensory and somatosensory association cortex were mainly active during the positive peaks. This study identified gait-related cortical potentials during walking. The results indicate a widely distributed cortical network involved in gait control.

  6. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kindregan, Deirdre; Gallagher, Louise; Gormley, John

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning. PMID:25922766

  7. Validity of the Kinect for Gait Assessment: A Focused Review.

    PubMed

    Springer, Shmuel; Yogev Seligmann, Galit

    2016-02-04

    Gait analysis may enhance clinical practice. However, its use is limited due to the need for expensive equipment which is not always available in clinical settings. Recent evidence suggests that Microsoft Kinect may provide a low cost gait analysis method. The purpose of this report is to critically evaluate the literature describing the concurrent validity of using the Kinect as a gait analysis instrument. An online search of PubMed, CINAHL, and ProQuest databases was performed. Included were studies in which walking was assessed with the Kinect and another gold standard device, and consisted of at least one numerical finding of spatiotemporal or kinematic measures. Our search identified 366 papers, from which 12 relevant studies were retrieved. The results demonstrate that the Kinect is valid only for some spatiotemporal gait parameters. Although the kinematic parameters measured by the Kinect followed the trend of the joint trajectories, they showed poor validity and large errors. In conclusion, the Kinect may have the potential to be used as a tool for measuring spatiotemporal aspects of gait, yet standardized methods should be established, and future examinations with both healthy subjects and clinical participants are required in order to integrate the Kinect as a clinical gait analysis tool.

  8. Visual analysis of the effects of load carriage on gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittman, Michael G.; Ward, James M.; Flynn, Patrick J.

    2005-03-01

    As early as the 1970's it was determined that gait, or the "manner of walking" is an identifying feature of a human being. Since then, extensive research has been done in the field of computer vision to determine how accurately a subject can be identified by gait characteristics. This has necessarily led to the study of how various data collection conditions, such as terrain type, varying camera angles, or a carried briefcase, may affect the identifying features of gait. However, little or no research has been done to question whether such conditions may be inferred from gait analysis. For example, is it possible to determine characteristics of the walking surface simply by looking at statistics derived from the subject's gait? The question to be addressed is whether significant concealed weight distributed on the subject's torso can be discovered through analysis of his gait. Individual trends in subjects in response to increasing concealed weight will be explored, with the objective of finding universal trends that would have obvious security purposes.

  9. Efficacy of clinical gait analysis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wren, Tishya A L; Gorton, George E; Ounpuu, Sylvia; Tucker, Carole A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate and summarize the current evidence base related to the clinical efficacy of gait analysis. A literature review was conducted to identify references related to human gait analysis published between January 2000 and September 2009 plus relevant older references. The references were assessed independently by four reviewers using a hierarchical model of efficacy adapted for gait analysis, and final scores were agreed upon by at least three of the four reviewers. 1528 references were identified relating to human instrumented gait analysis. Of these, 116 original articles addressed technical accuracy efficacy, 89 addressed diagnostic accuracy efficacy, 11 addressed diagnostic thinking and treatment efficacy, seven addressed patient outcomes efficacy, and one addressed societal efficacy, with some of the articles addressing multiple levels of efficacy. This body of literature provides strong evidence for the technical, diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic thinking and treatment efficacy of gait analysis. The existing evidence also indicates efficacy at the higher levels of patient outcomes and societal cost-effectiveness, but this evidence is more sparse and does not include any randomized controlled trials. Thus, the current evidence supports the clinical efficacy of gait analysis, particularly at the lower levels of efficacy, but additional research is needed to strengthen the evidence base at the higher levels of efficacy.

  10. Knee Joint Dysfunctions That Influence Gait in Cerebrovascular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Greve, Julia Maria D’Andrea

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There is still no consensus among different specialists on the subject of kinematic variation during the hemiparetic gait, including the main changes that take place during the gait cycle and whether the gait velocity changes the patterns of joint mobility. One of the most frequently discussed joints is the knee. OBJECTIVES This study aims to evaluate the variables found in the angular kinematics of knee joint, and to describe the alterations found in the hemiparetic gait resulting from cerebrovascular injury. METHODS This study included 66 adult patients of both genders with a diagnosis of either right or left hemiparesis resulting from ischemic cerebrovascular injury. All the participants underwent three-dimensional gait evaluation, an the angular kinematics of the joint knee were selected for analysis. RESULTS The results were distributed into four groups formed based on the median of the gait speed and the side of hemiparesis. CONCLUSIONS The relevant clinical characteristics included the important mechanisms of loading response in the stance, knee hyperextension in single stance, and reduction of the peak flexion and movement amplitude of the knee in the swing phase. These mechanisms should be taken into account when choosing the best treatment. We believe that the findings presented here may aid in preventing the occurrence of the problems found, and also in identifying the origin of these problems. PMID:18719753

  11. Gait Analysis and the Cumulative Gait Index (CGI): Translational Tools to Assess Impairments Exhibited by Rats with Olivocerebellar Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, C.S.; Philpot, R.M.; Engberg, M.E.; Johns, B.E.; Kim, S.H.; Wecker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Deviations from ‘normal’ locomotion exhibited by humans and laboratory animals may be determined using automated systems that capture both temporal and spatial gait parameters. Although many measures generated by these systems are unrelated and independent, some may be related and dependent, representing redundant assessments of function. To investigate this possibility, a treadmill-based system was used to capture gait parameters from normal and ataxic rats, and a multivariate analysis was conducted to determine deviations from normal. Rats were trained on the treadmill at two speeds, and gait parameters were generated prior to and following lesions of the olivocerebellar pathway. Control (non-lesioned) animals exhibited stable hindlimb gait parameters across assessments at each speed. Lesioned animals exhibited alterations in multiple hindlimb gait parameters, characterized by significant increases in stride frequency, braking duration, stance width, step angle, and paw angle and decreases in stride, stance, swing and propulsion durations, stride length and paw area. A principal component analysis of initial hindlimb measures indicated 3 uncorrelated factors mediating performance, termed rhythmicity, thrust and contact. Deviation in the performance of each animal from the group mean was determined for each factor and values summed to yield the Cumulative Gait Index (CGI), a single value reflecting variation within the group. The CGI for lesioned animals increased 2.3-fold relative to unlesioned animals. This study characterizes gait alterations in laboratory rats rendered ataxic by destruction of the climbing fiber pathway innervating Purkinje cells and demonstrates that a single index can be used to describe overall gait impairments. PMID:25116252

  12. Novel characterization of gait impairments in people with multiple sclerosis by means of the gait profile score.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Coghe, Giancarlo; Atzeni, Claudia; Corona, Federica; Pilloni, Giuseppina; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Cocco, Eleonora; Galli, Manuela

    2014-10-15

    The assessment of gait abnormalities in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) represents a key factor in evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatments. Despite the availability of sophisticated equipment to objectively evaluate the kinematic aspects of gait, there are still some difficulties in processing the large and complex amount of data they produce in the daily clinical routine. On the basis of the above-mentioned considerations we propose a novel characterization of gait kinematics in individuals with MS, based on a single measure (gait profile score, GPS) obtained from a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of gait performed using an opto-electronic system. We also investigated the correlation between GPS and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) values. Thirty-four patients suffering from relapsing-remitting MS (13 female, 21 male, mean age 46.7 years) with an EDSS score of ≤6 underwent a gait analysis from which the GPS index was calculated. Their results were compared with those of a control group of healthy age- and gender-matched subjects. The GPS of individuals with MS was found significantly higher with respect to controls (9.12° vs. 5.67°, p<0.001) as the result of kinematic differences in gait patterns referring to pelvic tilt and rotation, hip flexion-extension and rotation, knee flexion-extension and ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexion. A moderate correlation was also found between the EDSS score of the participants and their GPS values (r = 0.63, p < 0.001). The GPS index thus appears suitable to represent gait deviations from physiological patterns in individuals affected by MS and potentially useful in assessing the outcomes related both to rehabilitation programs and pharmacologic/physical therapies.

  13. Extraction of human gait signatures: an inverse kinematic approach using Groebner basis theory applied to gait cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barki, Anum; Kendricks, Kimberly; Tuttle, Ronald F.; Bunker, David J.; Borel, Christoph C.

    2013-05-01

    This research highlights the results obtained from applying the method of inverse kinematics, using Groebner basis theory, to the human gait cycle to extract and identify lower extremity gait signatures. The increased threat from suicide bombers and the force protection issues of today have motivated a team at Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) to research pattern recognition in the human gait cycle. The purpose of this research is to identify gait signatures of human subjects and distinguish between subjects carrying a load to those subjects without a load. These signatures were investigated via a model of the lower extremities based on motion capture observations, in particular, foot placement and the joint angles for subjects affected by carrying extra load on the body. The human gait cycle was captured and analyzed using a developed toolkit consisting of an inverse kinematic motion model of the lower extremity and a graphical user interface. Hip, knee, and ankle angles were analyzed to identify gait angle variance and range of motion. Female subjects exhibited the most knee angle variance and produced a proportional correlation between knee flexion and load carriage.

  14. The mental representation of the human gait in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stöckel, Tino; Jacksteit, Robert; Behrens, Martin; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    The link between mental representation (MREP) structures and motor performance has been evidenced for a great variety of movement skills, but not for the human gait. Therefore the present study sought to investigate the cognitive memory structures underlying the human gait in young and older adults. In a first experiment, gait parameters at comfortable gait speed (OptoGait) were compared with gait-specific MREPs (structural dimensional analysis of MREP; SDA-M) in 36 young adults. Participants were divided into a slow- and fast-walking group. The proven relationship between gait speed and executive functions such as working memory led to the hypothesis that gait pattern and MREP differ between slow- and fast-walking adults. In a second experiment, gait performance and MREPs were compared between 24 young (27.9 years) and 24 elderly (60.1 years) participants. As age-related declines in gait performance occur from the seventh decade of life onward, we hypothesized that gait parameters would not be affected until the age of 60 years accompanied by unchanged MREP. Data of experiment one revealed that gait parameters and MREPs differed significantly between slow and fast walkers. Notably, eleven previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries were documented for the slow walkers but only two injuries and one disorder for fast walkers. Experiment two revealed no age-related differences in gait parameters or MREPs between healthy young and older adults. In conclusion, the differences in gait parameters associated with lower comfortable gait speeds are reflected by differences in MREPs, whereby SDA-M data indicate that the single limb support phase may serve as a critical functional period. These differences probably resulted from previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries. Our data further indicate that the human gait and its MREP are stable until the age of 60. SDA-M may be considered as a valuable clinical tool for diagnosis of gait abnormalities and monitoring of

  15. Gait patterns in twins with cerebral palsy: similarities and development over time after multilevel surgery.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, Stefan; Dreher, Thomas; Heitzmann, Daniel W W; Wolf, Sebastian I

    2013-05-01

    To examine gait patterns and gait quality, 7 twins with cerebral palsy were measured preoperatively and after surgical intervention. The aim was to study differences and/or similarities in gait between twins, the influence of personal characteristics and birth conditions, and to describe the development of gait over time after single event multilevel surgery. A standardized clinical exam and a three-dimensional gait analysis were performed. Gait patterns were classified according to Sutherland and Davids, and the Gillette Gait Index was calculated as a global measure of the gait impairment. Next to subject characteristics at time of first measurement, and at time of birth, birth conditions were collected. Gait patterns were determined as crouch gait in 13 legs, as stiff gait in 6 legs and as jump gait in 8 legs. One leg showed a normal gait pattern. The knee flexion-extension angle correlated most constant with the knee flexion-extension angle of the contralateral leg (range 0.91-0.99). Correlations with the legs of the sibling showed variable correlations (range 0.44-0.99); with all other legs medium to high correlations of 0.73-0.91 were found. The Gillette Gait Index was found to initially decrease after surgical intervention. Similar correlations were found between twins or between legs for the gait pattern expressed by the knee flexion-extension angle, and the Gillette Gait Index improved after surgery. It seems that gait quality in twins with cerebral palsy is characterized predominantly by the traumatic disorder: genetic dispositions and personal characteristics only play a negligible role.

  16. Gait Phase Recognition for Lower-Limb Exoskeleton with Only Joint Angular Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Du-Xin; Wu, Xinyu; Du, Wenbin; Wang, Can; Xu, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Gait phase is widely used for gait trajectory generation, gait control and gait evaluation on lower-limb exoskeletons. So far, a variety of methods have been developed to identify the gait phase for lower-limb exoskeletons. Angular sensors on lower-limb exoskeletons are essential for joint closed-loop controlling; however, other types of sensors, such as plantar pressure, attitude or inertial measurement unit, are not indispensable.Therefore, to make full use of existing sensors, we propose a novel gait phase recognition method for lower-limb exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors. The method consists of two procedures. Firstly, the gait deviation distances during walking are calculated and classified by Fisher’s linear discriminant method, and one gait cycle is divided into eight gait phases. The validity of the classification results is also verified based on large gait samples. Secondly, we build a gait phase recognition model based on multilayer perceptron and train it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result of cross-validation shows that the model has a 94.45% average correct rate of set (CRS) and an 87.22% average correct rate of phase (CRP) on the testing set, and it can predict the gait phase accurately. The novel method avoids installing additional sensors on the exoskeleton or human body and simplifies the sensory system of the lower-limb exoskeleton. PMID:27690023

  17. Gait Phase Recognition for Lower-Limb Exoskeleton with Only Joint Angular Sensors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Du-Xin; Wu, Xinyu; Du, Wenbin; Wang, Can; Xu, Tiantian

    2016-09-27

    Gait phase is widely used for gait trajectory generation, gait control and gait evaluation on lower-limb exoskeletons. So far, a variety of methods have been developed to identify the gait phase for lower-limb exoskeletons. Angular sensors on lower-limb exoskeletons are essential for joint closed-loop controlling; however, other types of sensors, such as plantar pressure, attitude or inertial measurement unit, are not indispensable.Therefore, to make full use of existing sensors, we propose a novel gait phase recognition method for lower-limb exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors. The method consists of two procedures. Firstly, the gait deviation distances during walking are calculated and classified by Fisher's linear discriminant method, and one gait cycle is divided into eight gait phases. The validity of the classification results is also verified based on large gait samples. Secondly, we build a gait phase recognition model based on multilayer perceptron and train it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result of cross-validation shows that the model has a 94.45% average correct rate of set (CRS) and an 87.22% average correct rate of phase (CRP) on the testing set, and it can predict the gait phase accurately. The novel method avoids installing additional sensors on the exoskeleton or human body and simplifies the sensory system of the lower-limb exoskeleton.

  18. General tensor discriminant analysis and gabor features for gait recognition.

    PubMed

    Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong; Maybank, Stephen J

    2007-10-01

    The traditional image representations are not suited to conventional classification methods, such as the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), because of the under sample problem (USP): the dimensionality of the feature space is much higher than the number of training samples. Motivated by the successes of the two dimensional LDA (2DLDA) for face recognition, we develop a general tensor discriminant analysis (GTDA) as a preprocessing step for LDA. The benefits of GTDA compared with existing preprocessing methods, e.g., principal component analysis (PCA) and 2DLDA, include 1) the USP is reduced in subsequent classification by, for example, LDA; 2) the discriminative information in the training tensors is preserved; and 3) GTDA provides stable recognition rates because the alternating projection optimization algorithm to obtain a solution of GTDA converges, while that of 2DLDA does not. We use human gait recognition to validate the proposed GTDA. The averaged gait images are utilized for gait representation. Given the popularity of Gabor function based image decompositions for image understanding and object recognition, we develop three different Gabor function based image representations: 1) the GaborD representation is the sum of Gabor filter responses over directions, 2) GaborS is the sum of Gabor filter responses over scales, and 3) GaborSD is the sum of Gabor filter responses over scales and directions. The GaborD, GaborS and GaborSD representations are applied to the problem of recognizing people from their averaged gait images.A large number of experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness (recognition rate) of gait recognition based on first obtaining a Gabor, GaborD, GaborS or GaborSD image representation, then using GDTA to extract features and finally using LDA for classification. The proposed methods achieved good performance for gait recognition based on image sequences from the USF HumanID Database. Experimental comparisons are made with nine

  19. Does anxiety cause freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Ellard, Colin G; Almeida, Quincy J

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers) and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freezers) were instructed to walk in two virtual environments: (i) across a plank that was located on the ground (LOW), (ii) across a plank above a deep pit (HIGH). Multiple synchronized motion capture cameras updated participants' movement through the virtual environment in real-time, while their gait was recorded. Anxiety levels were evaluated after each trial using self-assessment manikins. Freezers performed the experiment on two separate occasions (in their ON and OFF state). Freezers reported higher levels of anxiety compared to Non-Freezers (p < 0.001) and all patients reported greater levels of anxiety when walking across the HIGH plank compared to the LOW (p < 0.001). Freezers experienced significantly more freezing of gait episodes (p = 0.013) and spent a significantly greater percentage of each trial frozen (p = 0.005) when crossing the HIGH plank. This finding was even more pronounced when comparing Freezers in their OFF state. Freezers also had greater step length variability in the HIGH compared to the LOW condition, while the step length variability in Non-Freezers did not change. In conclusion, this was the first study to directly compare freezing of gait in anxious and non-anxious situations. These results present strong evidence that anxiety is an important mechanism underlying freezing of gait and supports the notion that the limbic system may have a profound contribution to freezing in PD.

  20. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system for construction of spinal orthosis for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, M S

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinal orthoses are commonly prescribed to patients with moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) for prevention of further curve deterioration. In conventional manufacturing method, plaster bandages are used to obtain the patient's body contour and then the plaster cast is rectified manually. With computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system, a series of automated processes from body scanning to digital rectification and milling of the positive model can be performed in a fast and accurate fashion. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the application of CAD/CAM system to the construction of spinal orthosis for patients with AIS. Based on evidence within the literature, CAD/CAM method can achieve similar clinical outcomes but with higher efficiency than the conventional fabrication method. Therefore, CAD/CAM method should be considered a substitute to the conventional method in fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with AIS.

  1. Positive force feedback in bouncing gaits?

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Hartmut; Seyfarth, Andre; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    During bouncing gaits (running, hopping, trotting), passive compliant structures (e.g. tendons, ligaments) store and release part of the stride energy. Here, active muscles must provide the required force to withstand the developing tendon strain and to compensate for the inevitable energy losses. This requires an appropriate control of muscle activation. In this study, for hopping, the potential involvement of afferent information from muscle receptors (muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs) is investigated using a two-segment leg model with one extensor muscle. It is found that: (i) positive feedbacks of muscle-fibre length and muscle force can result in periodic bouncing; (ii) positive force feedback (F+) stabilizes bouncing patterns within a large range of stride energies (maximum hopping height of 16.3 cm, almost twofold higher than the length feedback); and (iii) when employing this reflex scheme, for moderate hopping heights (up to 8.8 cm), an overall elastic leg behaviour is predicted (hopping frequency of 1.4-3 Hz, leg stiffness of 9-27 kN m(-1)). Furthermore, F+ could stabilize running. It is suggested that, during the stance phase of bouncing tasks, the reflex-generated motor control based on feedbacks might be an efficient and reliable alternative to central motor commands. PMID:14561282

  2. Finger movement improves ankle control for gait initiation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, K; Kamata, N; Iwata, A; Minamida, F; Abe, K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of finger movement on ankle control for gait initiation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD patients). The subjects were 13 PD patients and 6 age-matched healthy adults. The subjects moved fingers before or after gait initiation, or initiated gait without finger movement. Ankle joint movement in the stance leg was recorded to estimate the duration of ankle dorsiflexion (DIF duration), which reflects the degree of disturbance in ankle control for gait initiation in PD patients. In the PD patients with prolonged D/F duration, finger movement that preceded gait initiation shortened the D/F duration, but in the PD patients without prolonged D/F duration and in healthy subjects, the effect was not found. Accordingly, finger movement that precedes gait initiation improves ankle control for gait initiation in PD patients who suffer disturbance in ankle control for gait initiation.

  3. Use of osteopathic manipulative treatment to manage compensated trendelenburg gait caused by sacroiliac somatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gilliss, Adam C; Swanson, Randel L; Janora, Deanna; Venkataraman, Venkat

    2010-02-01

    Gait dysfunctions are commonly encountered in the primary care setting. Compensated Trendelenburg gait is a gait dysfunction that was originally described in patients with weakness of ipsilateral hip abduction. This condition is thought to result from neuronal injury or myopathy. No treatment modalities currently exist for compensated Trendelenburg gait. The authors present a case in which osteopathic manipulative treatment may have improved a Trendelenburg gait dysfunction in a man aged 65 years with multiple sclerosis. Evidence of this improvement was obtained with the GaitMat II system for measuring numerous gait parameters. Based on the results reported in the present case, the authors propose that compensated Trendelenburg gait may arise from somatic dysfunction and may be corrected by osteopathic manipulative treatment.

  4. Effect of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Gait in Parkinsonian Patients with and without Freezing of Gait

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Pablo; Cudeiro, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) rises in prevalence when the effect of medications decays. It is known that auditory rhythmic stimulation improves gait in patients without FOG (PD-FOG), but its putative effect on patients with FOG (PD+FOG) at the end of dose has not been evaluated yet. This work evaluates the effect of auditory rhythmic stimulation on PD+FOG at the end of dose. 10 PD+FOG and 9 PD-FOG patients both at the end of dose periods, and 10 healthy controls were asked to perform several walking tasks. Tasks were performed in the presence and absence of auditory sensory stimulation. All PD+FOG suffered FOG during the task. The presence of auditory rhythmic stimulation (10% above preferred walking cadence) led PD+FOG to significantly reduce FOG. Velocity and cadence were increased, and turn time reduced in all groups. We conclude that auditory stimulation at the frequency proposed may be useful to avoid freezing episodes in PD+FOG. PMID:20339591

  5. Combined robotic-aided gait training and 3D gait analysis provide objective treatment and assessment of gait in children and adolescents with Acquired Hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Erika; Beretta, Elena; Altomonte, Daniele; Formica, Francesca; Strazzer, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a fully objective rehabilitative and assessment process of the gait abilities in children suffering from Acquired Hemiplegia (AH), we studied the combined employment of robotic-aided gait training (RAGT) and 3D-Gait Analysis (GA). A group of 12 patients with AH underwent 20 sessions of RAGT in addition to traditional manual physical therapy (PT). All the patients were evaluated before and after the training by using the Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM), the Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), and the 6 Minutes Walk Test. They also received GA before and after RAGT+PT. Finally, results were compared with those obtained from a control group of 3 AH children who underwent PT only. After the training, the GMFM and FAQ showed significant improvement in patients receiving RAGT+PT. GA highlighted significant improvement in stance symmetry and step length of the affected limb. Moreover, pelvic tilt increased, and hip kinematics on the sagittal plane revealed statistically significant increase in the range of motion during the hip flex-extension. Our data suggest that the combined program RAGT+PT induces improvements in functional activities and gait pattern in children with AH, and it demonstrates that the combined employment of RAGT and 3D-GA ensures a fully objective rehabilitative program.

  6. Effects of Gait Speed of Femoroacetabular Joint Forces

    PubMed Central

    Irmischer, Bobbie S.; Sievert, Zachary A.

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in hip joint loading have been associated with diseases such as arthritis and osteoporosis. Understanding the relationship between gait speed and hip joint loading in healthy hips may illuminate changes in gait mechanics as walking speed deviates from preferred. The purpose of this study was to quantify hip joint loading during the gait cycle and identify differences with varying speed using musculoskeletal modeling. Ten, healthy, physically active individuals performed walking trials at their preferred speed, 10% faster, and 10% slower. Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data were collected and used to estimate hip joint force via a musculoskeletal model. Vertical ground reaction forces, hip joint force planar components, and the resultant hip joint force were compared between speeds. There were significant increases in vertical ground reaction forces and hip joint forces as walking speed increased. Furthermore, the musculoskeletal modeling approach employed yielded hip joint forces that were comparable to previous simulation studies and in vivo measurements and was able to detect changes in hip loading due to small deviations in gait speed. Applying this approach to pathological and aging populations could identify specific areas within the gait cycle where force discrepancies may occur which could help focus management of care. PMID:28260849

  7. Secure and privacy enhanced gait authentication on smart phone.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thang; Choi, Deokjai

    2014-01-01

    Smart environments established by the development of mobile technology have brought vast benefits to human being. However, authentication mechanisms on portable smart devices, particularly conventional biometric based approaches, still remain security and privacy concerns. These traditional systems are mostly based on pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms, wherein original biometric templates or extracted features are stored under unconcealed form for performing matching with a new biometric sample in the authentication phase. In this paper, we propose a novel gait based authentication using biometric cryptosystem to enhance the system security and user privacy on the smart phone. Extracted gait features are merely used to biometrically encrypt a cryptographic key which is acted as the authentication factor. Gait signals are acquired by using an inertial sensor named accelerometer in the mobile device and error correcting codes are adopted to deal with the natural variation of gait measurements. We evaluate our proposed system on a dataset consisting of gait samples of 34 volunteers. We achieved the lowest false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) of 3.92% and 11.76%, respectively, in terms of key length of 50 bits.

  8. An adaptive gyroscope-based algorithm for temporal gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Denise; O'Neill, Ross; O'Donovan, Karol J; Burns, Adrian; Caulfield, Brian

    2010-12-01

    Body-worn kinematic sensors have been widely proposed as the optimal solution for portable, low cost, ambulatory monitoring of gait. This study aims to evaluate an adaptive gyroscope-based algorithm for automated temporal gait analysis using body-worn wireless gyroscopes. Gyroscope data from nine healthy adult subjects performing four walks at four different speeds were then compared against data acquired simultaneously using two force plates and an optical motion capture system. Data from a poliomyelitis patient, exhibiting pathological gait walking with and without the aid of a crutch, were also compared to the force plate. Results show that the mean true error between the adaptive gyroscope algorithm and force plate was -4.5 ± 14.4 ms and 43.4 ± 6.0 ms for IC and TC points, respectively, in healthy subjects. Similarly, the mean true error when data from the polio patient were compared against the force plate was -75.61 ± 27.53 ms and 99.20 ± 46.00 ms for IC and TC points, respectively. A comparison of the present algorithm against temporal gait parameters derived from an optical motion analysis system showed good agreement for nine healthy subjects at four speeds. These results show that the algorithm reported here could constitute the basis of a robust, portable, low-cost system for ambulatory monitoring of gait.

  9. Muscle Activation during Gait in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Vuillerot, Carole; Tiffreau, Vincent; Peudenier, Sylviane; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Pereon, Yann; Leboeuf, Fabien; Delporte, Ludovic; Delpierre, Yannick; Gross, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs) of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (HS), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS) muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity. PMID:27622734

  10. Secure and Privacy Enhanced Gait Authentication on Smart Phone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Deokjai

    2014-01-01

    Smart environments established by the development of mobile technology have brought vast benefits to human being. However, authentication mechanisms on portable smart devices, particularly conventional biometric based approaches, still remain security and privacy concerns. These traditional systems are mostly based on pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms, wherein original biometric templates or extracted features are stored under unconcealed form for performing matching with a new biometric sample in the authentication phase. In this paper, we propose a novel gait based authentication using biometric cryptosystem to enhance the system security and user privacy on the smart phone. Extracted gait features are merely used to biometrically encrypt a cryptographic key which is acted as the authentication factor. Gait signals are acquired by using an inertial sensor named accelerometer in the mobile device and error correcting codes are adopted to deal with the natural variation of gait measurements. We evaluate our proposed system on a dataset consisting of gait samples of 34 volunteers. We achieved the lowest false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) of 3.92% and 11.76%, respectively, in terms of key length of 50 bits. PMID:24955403

  11. Gait analysis of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Aenon; Park, Junhyuck; Lee, Seungwon

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate ability and muscle activities of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compare them with those of healthy ones. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen female patients with TKA due to advanced degenerative arthritis of the measured on knee joint and 19 healthy elderly females participated. Tibiofemoral angles of TKA patients were using a gait analysis system anterioposterior X-rays of the weight-bearing knee. The knee flexion angle and gait parameters were measured. Muscle activities and prolongation time were EMG system. The gait of the treated limb of each participant was evaluated in three consecutive trials at fast speed and comfortable speed. [Results] The knee flexion angle %stance phase, stride length, step length, speed, cadence, and gait cycle significantly decreased at both the fast speed and comfortable speeds, and the onset and duration time of rectus femoris activity was significantly increased at the comfortable speed in the TKA group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, elderly women who received TKA showed decreased gait ability and muscle activity compared to the healthy elderly women.

  12. Emotion recognition using Kinect motion capture data of human gaits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shun; Cui, Liqing; Zhu, Changye; Li, Baobin

    2016-01-01

    Automatic emotion recognition is of great value in many applications, however, to fully display the application value of emotion recognition, more portable, non-intrusive, inexpensive technologies need to be developed. Human gaits could reflect the walker’s emotional state, and could be an information source for emotion recognition. This paper proposed a novel method to recognize emotional state through human gaits by using Microsoft Kinect, a low-cost, portable, camera-based sensor. Fifty-nine participants’ gaits under neutral state, induced anger and induced happiness were recorded by two Kinect cameras, and the original data were processed through joint selection, coordinate system transformation, sliding window gauss filtering, differential operation, and data segmentation. Features of gait patterns were extracted from 3-dimentional coordinates of 14 main body joints by Fourier transformation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The classifiers NaiveBayes, RandomForests, LibSVM and SMO (Sequential Minimal Optimization) were trained and evaluated, and the accuracy of recognizing anger and happiness from neutral state achieved 80.5% and 75.4%. Although the results of distinguishing angry and happiness states were not ideal in current study, it showed the feasibility of automatically recognizing emotional states from gaits, with the characteristics meeting the application requirements. PMID:27672492

  13. Analysis of foot load during ballet dancers' gait.

    PubMed

    Prochazkova, Marketa; Tepla, Lucie; Svoboda, Zdenek; Janura, Miroslav; Cieslarová, Miloslava

    2014-01-01

    Ballet is an art that puts extreme demands on the dancer's musculoskeletal system and therefore significantly affects motor behavior of the dancers. The aim of our research was to compare plantar pressure distribution during stance phase of gait between a group of professional ballet dancers and non-dancers. Thirteen professional dancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 24.1 ± 3.8 years) and 13 nondancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 26.1 ± 5.3 years) participated in this study. Foot pressure analysis during gait was collected using a 2 m pressure plate. The participants were instructed to walk across the platform at a self-selected pace barefoot. Three gait cycles were necessary for the data analysis. The results revealed higher (p < 0.05) pressure peaks in medial edge of forefoot during gait for dancers in comparison with nondancers. Furthermore, differences in total foot loading and foot loading duration of rearfoot was higher (p < 0.05) in dancers as well. We can attribute these differences to long-term and intensive dancing exercises that can change the dancer's gait stereotype.

  14. Robust Gait-Based Person Identification against Walking Speed Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqmar, Muhammad Rasyid; Shinoda, Koichi; Furui, Sadaoki

    Variations in walking speed have a strong impact on gait-based person identification. We propose a method that is robust against walking-speed variations. It is based on a combination of cubic higher-order local auto-correlation (CHLAC), gait silhouette-based principal component analysis (GSP), and a statistical framework using hidden Markov models (HMMs). The CHLAC features capture the within-phase spatio-temporal characteristics of each individual, the GSP features retain more shape/phase information for better gait sequence alignment, and the HMMs classify the ID of each gait even when walking speed changes nonlinearly. We compared the performance of our method with other conventional methods using five different databases, SOTON, USF-NIST, CMU-MoBo, TokyoTech A and TokyoTech B. The proposed method was equal to or better than the others when the speed did not change greatly, and it was significantly better when the speed varied across and within a gait sequence.

  15. Emotion recognition using Kinect motion capture data of human gaits.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun; Cui, Liqing; Zhu, Changye; Li, Baobin; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Tingshao

    2016-01-01

    Automatic emotion recognition is of great value in many applications, however, to fully display the application value of emotion recognition, more portable, non-intrusive, inexpensive technologies need to be developed. Human gaits could reflect the walker's emotional state, and could be an information source for emotion recognition. This paper proposed a novel method to recognize emotional state through human gaits by using Microsoft Kinect, a low-cost, portable, camera-based sensor. Fifty-nine participants' gaits under neutral state, induced anger and induced happiness were recorded by two Kinect cameras, and the original data were processed through joint selection, coordinate system transformation, sliding window gauss filtering, differential operation, and data segmentation. Features of gait patterns were extracted from 3-dimentional coordinates of 14 main body joints by Fourier transformation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The classifiers NaiveBayes, RandomForests, LibSVM and SMO (Sequential Minimal Optimization) were trained and evaluated, and the accuracy of recognizing anger and happiness from neutral state achieved 80.5% and 75.4%. Although the results of distinguishing angry and happiness states were not ideal in current study, it showed the feasibility of automatically recognizing emotional states from gaits, with the characteristics meeting the application requirements.

  16. Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Lertratanakul, A.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Peterson, A. L.; Kaliton, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder marked by loss of motoneurons. We hypothesized that subjects with ALS would have an altered gait rhythm, with an increase in both the magnitude of the stride-to-stride fluctuations and perturbations in the fluctuation dynamics. To test for this locomotor instability, we quantitatively compared the gait rhythm of subjects with ALS with that of normal controls and with that of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), pathologies of the basal ganglia. Subjects walked for 5 min at their usual pace wearing an ankle-worn recorder that enabled determination of the duration of each stride and of stride-to-stride fluctuations. We found that the gait of patients with ALS is less steady and more temporally disorganized compared with that of healthy controls. In addition, advanced ALS, HD, and PD were associated with certain common, as well as apparently distinct, features of altered stride dynamics. Thus stride-to-stride control of gait rhythm is apparently compromised with ALS. Moreover, a matrix of markers based on gait dynamics may be useful in characterizing certain pathologies of motor control and, possibly, in quantitatively monitoring disease progression and evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  17. A comparative collision-based analysis of human gait.

    PubMed

    Lee, David V; Comanescu, Tudor N; Butcher, Michael T; Bertram, John E A

    2013-11-22

    This study compares human walking and running, and places them within the context of other mammalian gaits. We use a collision-based approach to analyse the fundamental dynamics of the centre of mass (CoM) according to three angles derived from the instantaneous force and velocity vectors. These dimensionless angles permit comparisons across gait, species and size. The collision angle Φ, which is equivalent to the dimensionless mechanical cost of transport CoTmech, is found to be three times greater during running than walking of humans. This threefold difference is consistent with previous studies of walking versus trotting of quadrupeds, albeit tends to be greater in the gaits of humans and hopping bipeds than in quadrupeds. Plotting the collision angle Φ together with the angles of the CoM force vector Θ and velocity vector Λ results in the functional grouping of bipedal and quadrupedal gaits according to their CoM dynamics-walking, galloping and ambling are distinguished as separate gaits that employ collision reduction, whereas trotting, running and hopping employ little collision reduction and represent more of a continuum that is influenced by dimensionless speed. Comparable with quadrupedal mammals, collision fraction (the ratio of actual to potential collision) is 0.51 during walking and 0.89 during running, indicating substantial collision reduction during walking, but not running, of humans.

  18. Quality of Life and Gait in Elderly Group

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Carlos Kazuo; Teixeira, Jacqueline Pitanga; Alves, Lucas Vieira; Oliveira, Priscila Feliciano; Raposo, Oscar Felipe Falcão

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The process of aging could lead to seniors being more prone to falls, which affects their quality of life. Objective  The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between quality of life and gait in the elderly. Methods  We used World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-Brief) Brazilian version and the Dynamic Gait Index to assess fifty-six volunteers from the northeast of Brazil. Ages ranged from 60 to 85 years. Results  The Dynamic Gait Index, which indicates the probability of falls, resulted in 36.3% of the sample presenting abnormal results. There was correlation between domain 2 (psychological) and domain 4 (environment) with domain 1(Physical) and domain 3 (Social); a negative correlation between age and Domain 2; correlation between Question 1 (How would you rate your quality of life?) and domains 1, 2, and 4 and no correlation between questions 1 and 2 (How satisfied are you with your health?). Question 2 was correlated with all of the domains. There was negative association between question 1 and falls, and a slight correlation between the Dynamic Gait Index scores and Question 1. Conclusion  The self-perception of the study group about their quality of life was either good or very good, even though a considerable percentage of individuals had suffered falls or reported gait disturbances. PMID:27413405

  19. Gait analysis of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Aenon; Park, Junhyuck; Lee, Seungwon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate ability and muscle activities of elderly women after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compare them with those of healthy ones. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen female patients with TKA due to advanced degenerative arthritis of the measured on knee joint and 19 healthy elderly females participated. Tibiofemoral angles of TKA patients were using a gait analysis system anterioposterior X-rays of the weight-bearing knee. The knee flexion angle and gait parameters were measured. Muscle activities and prolongation time were EMG system. The gait of the treated limb of each participant was evaluated in three consecutive trials at fast speed and comfortable speed. [Results] The knee flexion angle %stance phase, stride length, step length, speed, cadence, and gait cycle significantly decreased at both the fast speed and comfortable speeds, and the onset and duration time of rectus femoris activity was significantly increased at the comfortable speed in the TKA group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, elderly women who received TKA showed decreased gait ability and muscle activity compared to the healthy elderly women. PMID:25931687

  20. Perception of gait patterns that deviate from normal and symmetric biped locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Handžić, Ismet; Reed, Kyle B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the range of gait patterns that are perceived as healthy and human-like with the goal of understanding how much asymmetry is allowable in a gait pattern before other people start to notice a gait impairment. Specifically, this study explores if certain abnormal walking patterns can be dismissed as unimpaired or not uncanny. Altering gait biomechanics is generally done in the fields of prosthetics and rehabilitation, however the perception of gait is often neglected. Although a certain gait can be functional, it may not be considered as normal by observers. On the other hand, an abnormally perceived gait may be more practical or necessary in some situations, such as limping after an injury or stroke and when wearing a prosthesis. This research will help to find the balance between the form and function of gait. Gait patterns are synthetically created using a passive dynamic walker (PDW) model that allows gait patterns to be systematically changed without the confounding influence from human sensorimotor feedback during walking. This standardized method allows the perception of specific changes in gait to be studied. The PDW model was used to produce walking patterns that showed a degree of abnormality in gait cadence, knee height, step length, and swing time created by changing the foot roll-over-shape, knee damping, knee location, and leg masses. The gait patterns were shown to participants who rated them according to separate scales of impairment and uncanniness. The results indicate that some pathological and asymmetric gait patterns are perceived as unimpaired and normal. Step time and step length asymmetries less than 5%, small knee location differences, and gait cadence changes of 25% do not result in a change in perception. The results also show that the parameters of a pathologically or uncanny perceived gait can be beneficially altered by increasing other independent parameters, in some sense masking the initial pathology. PMID:25774144

  1. Validation of a Footwear-Based Gait Analysis System With Action-Related Feedback.

    PubMed

    Minto, Simone; Zanotto, Damiano; Boggs, Emily Marie; Rosati, Giulio; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative gait analysis enables clinicians to evaluate patient mobility and to diagnose neuromuscular disorders. The clinical application of gait analysis is currently limited by the high operating costs of gait laboratories. The use of instrumented footwear that performs out of the lab measurements on subjects' walking patterns is a promising way to overcome this limitation. Besides serving as assessment tools, such devices can also act as retraining tools that help regulate a patient's gait with acoustic or vibrotactile stimuli.

  2. Perception of gait patterns that deviate from normal and symmetric biped locomotion.

    PubMed

    Handžić, Ismet; Reed, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the range of gait patterns that are perceived as healthy and human-like with the goal of understanding how much asymmetry is allowable in a gait pattern before other people start to notice a gait impairment. Specifically, this study explores if certain abnormal walking patterns can be dismissed as unimpaired or not uncanny. Altering gait biomechanics is generally done in the fields of prosthetics and rehabilitation, however the perception of gait is often neglected. Although a certain gait can be functional, it may not be considered as normal by observers. On the other hand, an abnormally perceived gait may be more practical or necessary in some situations, such as limping after an injury or stroke and when wearing a prosthesis. This research will help to find the balance between the form and function of gait. Gait patterns are synthetically created using a passive dynamic walker (PDW) model that allows gait patterns to be systematically changed without the confounding influence from human sensorimotor feedback during walking. This standardized method allows the perception of specific changes in gait to be studied. The PDW model was used to produce walking patterns that showed a degree of abnormality in gait cadence, knee height, step length, and swing time created by changing the foot roll-over-shape, knee damping, knee location, and leg masses. The gait patterns were shown to participants who rated them according to separate scales of impairment and uncanniness. The results indicate that some pathological and asymmetric gait patterns are perceived as unimpaired and normal. Step time and step length asymmetries less than 5%, small knee location differences, and gait cadence changes of 25% do not result in a change in perception. The results also show that the parameters of a pathologically or uncanny perceived gait can be beneficially altered by increasing other independent parameters, in some sense masking the initial pathology.

  3. A Review of Balance and Gait Capacities in Relation to Falls in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enkelaar, Lotte; Smulders, Ellen; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Limitations in mobility are common in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). As balance and gait capacities are key aspects of mobility, the prevalence of balance and gait problems is also expected to be high in this population. The objective of this study was to critically review the available literature on balance and gait characteristics…

  4. Gait variability in people with neurological disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yaejin; Sung, JongHun; An, Ruopeng; Hernandez, Manuel E; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-06-01

    There has been growing evidence showing gait variability provides unique information about gait characteristics in neurological disorders. This study systemically reviewed and quantitatively synthesized (via meta-analysis) existing evidence on gait variability in various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cerebellar ataxia (CA), Huntington's disease (HD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Keyword search were conducted in PubMed, Web of science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane Library. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled effect size for gait variability for each neurological group. Meta-regression was performed to compare gait variability across multiple groups with neurological diseases. Gait variability of 777 patients with AD, ALS, CA, HD, MS, or PD participating in 25 studies was included in meta-analysis. All pathological groups had increased amount of gait variability and loss of fractal structure of gait dynamics compared to healthy controls, and gait variability differentiated distinctive neurological conditions. The HD groups had the highest alterations in gait variability among all pathological groups, whereas the PD, AD and MS groups had the lowest. Interventions that aim to improve gait function in patients with neurological disorders should consider the heterogeneous relationship between gait variability and neurological conditions.

  5. Gait Pattern Differences between Children with Mild Scoliosis and Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of asymmetrical body posture alone, i.e., the effects seen in children with mild scoliosis, vs. the effects of body posture control impairment, i.e., those seen in children with unilateral cerebral palsy on gait patterns. Three-dimensional instrumented gait analysis (3DGA) was conducted in 45 children with hemiplegia and 51 children with mild scoliosis. All the children were able to walk without assistance devices. A set of 35 selected spatiotemporal gait and kinematics parameters were evaluated when subjects walked on a treadmill. A cluster analysis revealed 3 different gait patterns: a scoliotic gait pattern and 2 different hemiplegic gait patterns. The results showed that the discrepancy in gait patterns was not simply a lower limb kinematic deviation in the sagittal plane, as expected. Additional altered kinematics, such as pelvic misorientation in the coronal plane in both the stance and swing phases and inadequate stance phase hip ad/abduction, which resulted from postural pattern features, were distinguished between the 3 gait patterns. Our study provides evidence for a strong correlation between postural and gait patterns in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Information on differences in gait patterns may be used to improve the guidelines for early therapy for children with hemiplegia before abnormal gait patterns are fully established. The gait pathology characteristic of scoliotic children is a potential new direction for treating scoliosis that complements the standard posture and walking control therapy exercises with the use of biofeedback. PMID:25089908

  6. Gait pattern in myotonic dystrophy (Steinert disease): a kinematic, kinetic and EMG evaluation using 3D gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Crugnola, Veronica; Priano, Lorenzo; Menegoni, Francesco; Trotti, Claudio; Milano, Eva; Mauro, Alessandro

    2012-03-15

    We investigated the gait pattern of 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy (Steinert disease; 4 females, 6 males; age: 41.5+7.6 years), compared to 20 healthy controls, through manual muscle test and gait analysis, in terms of kinematic, kinetic and EMG data. In most of patients (80%) distal muscle groups were weaker than proximal ones. Weakness at lower limbs was in general moderate to severe and MRC values evidenced a significant correlation between tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis (R=0.91). An overall observation of gait pattern in patients when compared to controls showed that most spatio-temporal parameters (velocity, step length and cadence) were significantly different. As concerns kinematics, patients' pelvic tilt was globally in a higher position than control group, with reduced hip extension ability in stance phase and limited range of motion; 60% of the limbs revealed knee hyperextension during midstance and ankle joints showed a quite physiological position at initial contact and higher dorsiflexion during stance phase if compared to healthy individuals. Kinetic plots evidenced higher hip power during loading response and lower ankle power generation in terminal stance. The main EMG abnormalities were seen in tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis muscles. In this study gait analysis gives objective and quantitative information about the gait pattern and the deviations due to the muscular situation of these patients; these results are important from a clinical point of view and suggest that rehabilitation programs for them should take these findings into account.

  7. Effect of Task Specific Exercises, Gait Training, and Visual Biofeedback on Equinovarus Gait among Individuals with Stroke: Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Khallaf, Mohamed Elsayed; Gabr, Ahmed Maher; Fayed, Eman Elsayed

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Equinovarus foot is a common sign after stroke. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback on correcting equinovarus gait among individuals with stroke. Subjects and Methods. Sixteen subjects with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to two equal groups (G1 and G2). All the patients were at stage 4 of motor recovery of foot according to Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment without any cognitive dysfunction. E-med pedography was used to measure contact time, as well as force underneath hind and forefoot during walking. Outcome measures were collected before randomization, one week after the last session, and four weeks later. Participants in G1 received task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback and a traditional physical therapy program was applied for participants in G2 for 8 weeks. Results. Significant improvement was observed among G1 patients (P ≤ 0.05) which lasts one month after therapy termination. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between measurements of the participants in G2. Between groups comparison also revealed a significant improvement in G1 with long lasting effect. Conclusion. The results of this study showed a positive long lasting effect of the task specific exercises, gait training, and visual biofeedback on equinovarus gait pattern among individuals with stroke. PMID:25538853

  8. Gait apraxia after bilateral supplementary motor area lesion

    PubMed Central

    Della, S; Francescani, A; Spinnler, H

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed at addressing the issue of the precise nature of gait apraxia and the cerebral dysfunction responsible for it. Methods: The case of a patient, affected by a bilateral infarction limited to a portion of the anterior cerebral artery territory is reported. The patient's ability to walk was formally assessed by means of a new standardised test. Results: Due to an anomaly within the anterior cerebral artery system, the patient's lesion was centred on the supplementary motor regions of both hemispheres. He presented with clear signs of gait apraxia that could not be accounted for by paresis or other neurological deficits. No signs of any other form of apraxia were detected. Conclusions: The clinical profile of the patient and the analysis of 49 cases from previous literature suggest that gait apraxia should be considered a clinical entity in its own right and lesions to the supplementary motor areas are responsible for it. PMID:11784830

  9. Ultrasonic Measurement of Dynamic Muscle Behavior for Poststroke Hemiparetic Gait

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Shi, Wenxiu; Wang, Jun; Xiang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the hemiparesis status for a poststroke patient is still challenging. This study aims to measure and investigate the dynamic muscle behavior in poststroke hemiparetic gait using ultrasonography. Twelve hemiparetic patients walked on a treadmill, and EMG, joint angle, and ultrasonography were simultaneously recorded for the gastrocnemius medialis muscle. Pennation angle was automatically extracted from ultrasonography using a tracking algorithm reported previously. The characteristics of EMG, joint angle, and pennation angle in gait cycle were calculated for both (affected and unaffected) sides of lower limbs. The results suggest that pennation angle could work as an important morphological index to continuous muscle contraction. The change pattern of pennation angle between the affected and unaffected sides is different from that of EMG. These findings indicate that morphological parameter extracted from ultrasonography can provide different information from that provided by EMG for hemiparetic gait. PMID:28232945

  10. Underwater treadmill training and gait ability in the normal adult

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Lee, Si-A

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Our working hypothesis is that underwater treadmill training improves normal people’s gait ability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five healthy subjects with no orthopedic history of lower extremity were recruited. Gait training is performed using an underwater treadmill (HydroTrack® Underwater Treadmill System, Conray, Inc., Phoenix, AZ, USA), for twenty minutes per session, five sessions a week for four weeks. The water temperature was set at about 33 °C and the depth was fixed to reach between the subjects’ xiphoid process and the navel. [Results] After the intervention, step length, velocity, and cadence increased significantly. [Conclusion] This study conducted underwater treadmill training with normal people, with positive effects on gait ability. PMID:28210041

  11. Criteria for dynamic similarity in bouncing gaits.

    PubMed

    Bullimore, Sharon R; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2008-01-21

    Animals of different sizes tend to move in a dynamically similar manner when travelling at speeds corresponding to equal values of a dimensionless parameter (DP) called the Froude number. Consequently, the Froude number has been widely used for defining equivalent speeds and predicting speeds of locomotion by extinct species and on other planets. However, experiments using simulated reduced gravity have demonstrated that equality of the Froude number does not guarantee dynamic similarity. This has cast doubt upon the usefulness of the Froude number in locomotion research. Here we use dimensional analysis of the planar spring-mass model, combined with Buckingham's Pi-Theorem, to demonstrate that four DPs must be equal for dynamic similarity in bouncing gaits such as trotting, hopping and bipedal running. This can be reduced to three DPs by applying the constraint of maintaining a constant average speed of locomotion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that all of these DPs are important for predicting dynamic similarity. We show that the reason humans do not run in a dynamically similar manner at equal Froude number in different levels of simulated reduced gravity is that dimensionless leg stiffness decreases as gravity increases. The reason that the Froude number can predict dynamic similarity in Earth gravity is that dimensionless leg stiffness and dimensionless vertical landing speed are both independent of size. In conclusion, although equal Froude number is not sufficient for dynamic similarity, it is a necessary condition. Therefore, to detect fundamental differences in locomotion, animals of different sizes should be compared at equal Froude number, so that they can be as close to dynamic similarity as possible. More generally, the concept of dynamic similarity provides a powerful framework within which similarities and differences in locomotion can be interpreted.

  12. Relationship of regional brain β-amyloid to gait speed

    PubMed Central

    Payoux, Pierre; Djilali, Adel; Delrieu, Julien; Hoogendijk, Emiel O.; Rolland, Yves; Cesari, Matteo; Weiner, Michael W.; Andrieu, Sandrine; Vellas, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vivo the relationship of regional brain β-amyloid (Aβ) to gait speed in a group of elderly individuals at high risk for dementia. Methods: Cross-sectional associations between brain Aβ as measured with [18F]florbetapir PET and gait speed were examined in 128 elderly participants. Subjects ranged from healthy to mildly cognitively impaired enrolled in the control arm of the multidomain intervention in the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). Nearly all participants presented spontaneous memory complaints. Regional [18F]florbetapir (AV45) standardized uptake volume ratios were obtained via semiautomated quantitative analysis using the cerebellum as reference region. Gait speed was measured by timing participants while they walked 4 meters. Associations were explored with linear regression, correcting for age, sex, education, body mass index (BMI), and APOE genotype. Results: We found a significant association between Aβ in the posterior and anterior putamen, occipital cortex, precuneus, and anterior cingulate and slow gait speed (all corrected p < 0.05). A multivariate model emphasized the locations of the posterior putamen and the precuneus. Aβ burden explained up to 9% of the variance in gait speed, and significantly improved regression models already containing demographic variables, BMI, and APOE status. Conclusions: The present PET study confirms, in vivo, previous postmortem evidence showing an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and gait speed, and provides additional evidence on potential regional effects of brain Aβ on motor function. More research is needed to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying these regional associations, which may involve motor and sensorimotor circuits hitherto largely neglected in the pathophysiology of AD. PMID:26643548

  13. The effect of trunk flexion on able-bodied gait.

    PubMed

    Saha, Devjani; Gard, Steven; Fatone, Stefania

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the effect of sagittal trunk posture on the gait of able-bodied subjects. Understanding the effect of trunk posture on gait is of clinical interest since alterations in trunk posture often occur with age or in the presence of spinal pathologies, such as lumbar flatback. Gait analysis was conducted on 14 adults walking at self-selected slow, normal, and fast walking speeds while maintaining three trunk postures: upright, and with 25+/-7 degrees and 50+/-7 degrees of trunk flexion from the vertical. During trunk-flexed gait, subjects adopted a crouch posture characterized by sustained knee flexion during stance and an increase in ankle dorsiflexion and hip flexion angles. During stance, these kinematic adaptations produced a posterior shift in the positions of the trunk and pelvis, which helped to offset the anterior shift in the trunk mass that occurred with trunk flexion. In this way, kinematic adaptations may have been used to maintain balance by shifting the body's center of mass to a position similar to that of upright walking. These changes in lower limb joint kinematics created a phase lag in the position of the hip joint center relative to that of the ankle joint center in the sagittal plane. Alterations in the sagittal alignment of the hip and ankle joint positions were associated with a phase lag in the vertical position, velocity, and acceleration of the body's center of mass (BCOM) relative to upright walking. Since the vertical ground reaction force (GRF(v)) is proportional to the vertical acceleration of the BCOM, significant changes were also seen in the GRF(v) during trunk-flexed gait. In summary, kinematic adaptations necessary to maintain dynamic balance altered the trajectory and acceleration of the BCOM in the vertical direction, which was reflected in the GRF(v). The results of this study may help clinicians better understand the nature and impact of compensatory mechanisms in patients who exhibit trunk-flexed postures during

  14. A motor cortex excitability and gait analysis on Parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Vacherot, François; Attarian, Shahram; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Azulay, Jean-Philippe

    2010-12-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) parameters were recorded in a lower limb muscle and correlated with the gait parameters of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with and without dopamine substitution treatment (DST) and 10 control subjects. Single and paired-pulse TMS were recorded in the tibialis anterior muscle (TA). Gait analysis was performed using a 3D motion analysis system. Parkinsonian patients (PP) did not differ from the control subjects (CS) in terms of relaxed motor threshold, active motor threshold (AMT), cortical silent period (CSP), motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and area, or paired-pulse TMS with short interstimulus intervals (ISI). At longer ISIs, paired-pulse TMS showed that the amplitudes of the conditioned MEPs were lower in untreated PP than in CS. DST partially compensated for this difference. Gait analysis showed that the gait of PP undergoing no treatment was slower and the stride length shorter than normal. Both of these parameters improved under DST, however. Analysis of data obtained on all the subjects combined showed that both of the latter parameters were correlated with the paired-pulse MEP amplitude and area at longer ISIs. In PP, the cortical areas responsible for the lower limb movements seem to undergo intracortical facilitation (ICF) impairments, whereas the intracortical inhibition process is normal. The ICF level was found to be associated to the stride length and the velocity. The fact that only these two gait parameters were found to be dopa responsive indicates that dopaminergic treatment may improve gait disorders by restoring the ICF.

  15. Amantadine improves gait in PD patients with STN stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hiu-Fai; Kukkle, Prashanth L; Merello, Marcelo; Lim, Shen-Yang; Poon, Yu-Yan; Moro, Elena

    2013-03-01

    In advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), axial symptoms such as speech, gait, and balance impairment often become levodopa-unresponsive and they are difficult to manage, even in patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). We anecdotally observed that oral administration of amantadine was very effective in treating both residual and stimulation-induced axial symptoms after bilateral STN-DBS in one PD patient. Therefore, we conducted a prospective multicenter observational study to evaluate the effects of amantadine on speech, gait and balance in PD patients with STN-DBS and incomplete axial benefit. Primary outcomes were changes in speech (UPDRS III, item 18), gait (item 29) and postural stability (item 30) with amantadine treatment compared to baseline. Secondary outcome was the patients' subjective scoring of axial symptoms with amantadine compared to baseline. Forty-six PD patients with STN-DBS were enrolled in the study and followed for 10.35 ± 8.21 months (median: 9.00; range: 1-31). The mean daily dose of amantadine was 273.44 ± 47.49 mg. Gait scores significantly improved (from 1.51 ± 0.89 to 1.11 ± 0.92, P = 0.015) with amantadine treatment, whereas postural stability and speech scores were similar before and after treatment. Thirty-five (76.1%) patients reported subjective improvement in speech, gait or balance with amantadine, whereas thirty (65.2%) patients reported improvement in gait and balance. In conclusion, our data suggest that amantadine may have new beneficial effects on axial symptoms in PD patients with STN-DBS.

  16. Stability and Harmony of Gait in Patients with Subacute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Iosa, Marco; Bini, Fabiano; Marinozzi, Franco; Fusco, Augusto; Morone, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Martino Cinnera, Alex; Bonnì, Sonia; Paolucci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Stroke affects many gait features, such as gait stability, symmetry, and harmony. However, it is still unclear which of these features are directly altered by primary damage, and which are affected by the reduced walking speed. The aim of this study was to analyze the above gait features in patients with subacute stroke with respect to the values observed in age- and speed-matched healthy subjects. A wearable triaxial accelerometer and an optoelectronic device were used for assessing the upright gait stability, symmetry of trunk movements, and harmonic structure of gait phases by means of the root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration of the trunk, harmonic ratio (HR), and gait ratios (GRs), respectively. For healthy subjects, results showed that RMS acceleration increased with speed, HR peaked at a comfortable speed, and GRs tended towards the theoretical value of the golden ratio for speeds >1 m/s. At matched speed conditions, patients showed higher instabilities in the latero-lateral axis (p = 0.001) and reduced symmetry of trunk movements (p = 0.002). Different from healthy subjects, antero-posterior and latero-lateral acceleration harmonics were coupled in patients (R = 0.507, p = 0.023). Conversely, GRs were not more altered in patients than in slow-walking healthy subjects. In conclusion, patients with stroke showed some characteristics similar to those of the elderly when the latter subjects walk slowly, and some altered characteristics, such as increased latero-lateral instabilities coupled with movements performed along the antero-posterior axis.

  17. Gait planning for a quadruped robot with one faulty actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xianbao; Gao, Feng; Qi, Chenkun; Tian, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    Fault tolerance is essential for quadruped robots when they work in remote areas or hazardous environments. Many fault-tolerant gaits planning method proposed in the past decade constrained more degrees of freedom(DOFs) of a robot than necessary. Thus a novel method to realize the fault-tolerant walking is proposed. The mobility of the robot is analyzed first by using the screw theory. The result shows that the translation of the center of body(CoB) can be kept with one faulty actuator if the rotations of the body are controlled. Thus the DOFs of the robot body are divided into two parts: the translation of the CoB and the rotation of the body. The kinematic model of the whole robot is built, the algorithm is developed to actively control the body orientations at the velocity level so that the planned CoB trajectory can be realized in spite of the constraint of the faulty actuator. This gait has a similar generation sequence with the normal gait and can be applied to the robot at any position. Simulations and experiments of the fault-tolerant gait with one faulty actuator are carried out. The CoB errors and the body rotation angles are measured. Comparing to the traditional fault-tolerant gait they can be reduced by at least 50%. A fault-tolerant gait planning algorithm is presented, which not only realizes the walking of a quadruped robot with a faulty actuator, but also efficiently improves the walking performances by taking full advantage of the remaining operational actuators according to the results of the simulations and experiments.

  18. Gait status 17-26 years after selective dorsal rhizotomy.

    PubMed

    Langerak, Nelleke G; Tam, Nicholas; Vaughan, Christopher L; Fieggen, A Graham; Schwartz, Michael H

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to use three-dimensional gait analysis to describe the gait status of adults with spastic diplegia who underwent selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) in childhood. Outcome measures were the gait deviation index (GDI), non-dimensional temporal-distance parameters, and kinematics of the lower limbs. A total of 31 adults with spastic diplegia who had previously undergone SDR were eligible and participated in current study (SDR group). These participants had a median age of 26.8 years (range 21-44 years) with a mean time between surgery and assessment of 21.2±2.9 years (range 17-26 years). For comparison purposes, 43 typically developed adults also participated (CONTROL group), with a median age of 28.3 years (range 21-45 years). More than 17 years after SDR 58% of the SDR group showed improved GMFCS levels, while none of them deteriorated. The participants in the SDR group walked with a mild crouch gait, although there was a loading response, adequate swing-phase knee flexion, adequate swing-phase plantarflexion, reasonable speed and cadence. The gait status of the SDR group more than 17 years after SDR was similar to what has been reported in short-term follow-up studies, as well as our earlier 20 year follow-up study that did not include 3D gait analysis. Appropriate orthopaedic intervention was required in 61% of the study cohort. Whether the types and numbers of orthopaedic interventions are positively affected by SDR remains an open question. Further studies examining this question are warranted. In addition, long-term follow-up studies focused on other interventions would also be of clinical relevance.

  19. Gait post-stroke: Pathophysiology and rehabilitation strategies.

    PubMed

    Beyaert, C; Vasa, R; Frykberg, G E

    2015-11-01

    We reviewed neural control and biomechanical description of gait in both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects. In addition, we reviewed most of the gait rehabilitation strategies currently in use or in development and observed their principles in relation to recent pathophysiology of post-stroke gait. In both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects, motor control is organized on a task-oriented basis using a common set of a few muscle modules to simultaneously achieve body support, balance control, and forward progression during gait. Hemiparesis following stroke is due to disruption of descending neural pathways, usually with no direct lesion of the brainstem and cerebellar structures involved in motor automatic processes. Post-stroke, improvements of motor activities including standing and locomotion are variable but are typically characterized by a common postural behaviour which involves the unaffected side more for body support and balance control, likely in response to initial muscle weakness of the affected side. Various rehabilitation strategies are regularly used or in development, targeting muscle activity, postural and gait tasks, using more or less high-technology equipment. Reduced walking speed often improves with time and with various rehabilitation strategies, but asymmetric postural behaviour during standing and walking is often reinforced, maintained, or only transitorily decreased. This asymmetric compensatory postural behaviour appears to be robust, driven by support and balance tasks maintaining the predominant use of the unaffected side over the initially impaired affected side. Based on these elements, stroke rehabilitation including affected muscle strengthening and often stretching would first need to correct the postural asymmetric pattern by exploiting postural automatic processes in various particular motor tasks secondarily beneficial to gait.

  20. Gait improvement surgery in ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Terjesen, Terje; Lofterød, Bjørn; Skaaret, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Instrumented 3-D gait analyses (GA) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) have shown improved gait function 1 year postoperatively. Using GA, we assessed the outcome after 5 years and evaluated parental satisfaction with the surgery and the need for additional surgery. Patients and methods 34 ambulatory children with spastic diplegia had preoperative GA. Based on this GA, the children underwent 195 orthopedic procedures on their lower limbs at a mean age of 11.6 (6–19) years. On average, 5.7 (1–11) procedures per child were performed. Outcome measures were evaluation of gait quality using the gait profile score (GPS) and selected kinematic parameters, functional level using the functional mobility scale (FMS), and the degree of parental satisfaction. Results The mean GPS improved from 20.7° (95% CI: 19–23) preoperatively to 15.4° (95% CI: 14–17) 5 years postoperatively. There was no significant change in GPS between 1 and 5 years. The individual kinematic parameters at the ankle, knee, and hip improved statistically significantly, as did gait function (FMS). The mean parental satisfaction, on a scale from 0 to 10, was 7.7 (2–10) points. There was a need for additional surgical procedures in 14 children; this was more frequent in those who had the index operation at an early age. Interpretation The main finding was that orthopedic surgery based on preoperative GA gave marked improvements in gait function and quality, which were stable over a 5-year period. Nevertheless, additional orthopedic procedures were necessary in almost half of the children and further follow-up with GA for more than 1 year postoperatively is recommended in children with risk factors for such surgery. PMID:25637100

  1. Gait development during lifespan in subjects with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    In this work we studied and evaluated the effects of aging in a group of individuals with Down syndrome, using gait analysis as tool of investigation. 32 individuals suffering from Down syndrome (DS) were enrolled in this study as group of pathological participants. The control group (CG) was composed by 36 healthy subjects (10 children, 15 teenagers and 16 adults) in order to evidence the differences between the normal and the pathological gait evolution in age-matched comparisons. The assessment consisted of 3D gait analysis: all pathological participants performed gait analysis in a longitudinal examination, from childhood to adulthood. Participants with DS evidenced how the delay in cognitive aspects and the typical orthopedic features of DS, as ligament laxity, led to the development of different motor strategies. During childhood, for both the considered populations, we found large variability in the gait indexes, but after this age a split in gait development was evidenced: the participants with DS developed a strategy focused on the reduction of the degrees of freedom, increasing the dispersion of generated power in the frontal plane, while in healthy participants the strategy was focused on the use of all the degrees of freedom, in order to reach the effectiveness of the gesture and finalize their movements in sagittal progression. The present study reinforces the idea that early intervention aimed to improve muscle tone, in order to supply for the excessive ligament laxity and to improve motor coordination, could represent a real goal for a more effective movement and for the prevention of compensatory strategies that increase energy cost.

  2. Detection of gait cycles in treadmill walking using a Kinect.

    PubMed

    Auvinet, Edouard; Multon, Franck; Aubin, Carl-Eric; Meunier, Jean; Raison, Maxime

    2015-02-01

    Treadmill walking is commonly used to analyze several gait cycles in a limited space. Depth cameras, such as the low-cost and easy-to-use Kinect sensor, look promising for gait analysis on a treadmill for routine outpatient clinics. However, gait analysis is based on accurately detecting gait events (such as heel-strike) by tracking the feet which may be incorrectly recognized with Kinect. Indeed depth images could lead to confusion between the ground and the feet around the contact phase. To tackle this problem we assume that heel-strike events could be indirectly estimated by searching for extreme values of the distance between knee joints along the walking longitudinal axis. To evaluate this assumption, the motion of 11 healthy subjects walking on a treadmill was recorded using both an optoelectronic system and Kinect. The measures were compared to reference heel-strike events obtained with vertical foot velocity. When using the optoelectronic system to assess knee joints, heel-strike estimation errors were very small (29±18ms) leading to small cycle durations errors (0±15ms). To locate knees in depth map (Kinect), we used anthropometrical data to select the body point located at a constant height where the knee should be based on a reference posture. This Kinect approach gave heel-strike errors of 17±24ms (mean cycle duration error: 0±12ms). Using this same anthropometric methodology with optoelectronic data, the heel-strike error was 12±12ms (mean cycle duration error: 0±11ms). Compared to previous studies using Kinect, heel-strike and gait cycles were more accurately estimated, which could improve clinical gait analysis with such sensor.

  3. Effect of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Hemiplegic Gait Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Chong, Hyun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on both kinematic and temporospatial gait patterns in patients with hemiplegia. Materials and Methods Eighteen hemiplegic patients diagnosed with either cerebral palsy or stroke participated in this study. All participants underwent the 4-week gait training with RAS. The treatment was performed for 30 minutes per each session, three sessions per week. RAS was provided with rhythmic beats using a chord progression on a keyboard. Kinematic and temporospatial data were collected and analyzed using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Results Gait training with RAS significantly improved both proximal and distal joint kinematic patterns in hip adduction, knee flexion, and ankle plantar flexion, enhancing the gait deviation index (GDI) as well as ameliorating temporal asymmetry of the stance and swing phases in patients with hemiplegia. Stroke patients with previous walking experience demonstrated significant kinematic improvement in knee flexion in mid-swing and ankle dorsiflexion in terminal stance. Among stroke patients, subacute patients showed a significantly increased GDI score compared with chronic patients. In addition, household ambulators showed a significant effect on reducing anterior tilt of the pelvis with an enhanced GDI score, while community ambulators significantly increased knee flexion in mid-swing phase and ankle dorsiflexion in terminal stance phase. Conclusion Gait training with RAS has beneficial effects on both kinematic and temporospatial patterns in patients with hemiplegia, providing not only clinical implications of locomotor rehabilitation with goal-oriented external feedback using RAS but also differential effects according to ambulatory function. PMID:26446657

  4. The effect of crutches, an orthosis TheraTogs, and no walking aids on the recovery of gait in a patient with delayed healing post hip fracture: A case report.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Clare; Sieben, Judith M; Scheidhauer, Heike; Romkes, Jacqueline; Suica, Zorica; de Bie, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated rehabilitation following hip fracture and joint replacement, including early unrestricted weight-bearing and muscle strengthening, has gained importance in hastening functional recovery and hospital discharge. The influence of walking aids on these parameters is sparsely investigated. In this case report, we document the effect of walking with crutches; an orthotic garment and strapping system, TheraTogs; and no walking aids over 3-4-week periods on walking speed, trunk sway, and muscle activity measured with electromyography (EMG). The patient was a 49-year-old female showing delayed healing following a conservatively treated avulsion fracture of the greater trochanter 12 weeks previously with a 14-year history of total hip arthroplasty. EMG analysis showed muscle activity increased with TheraTogs and decreased with crutches compared with walking with no aids. Walking speed improved at a faster rate in the TheraTogs phase than in the crutches phase and reduced in no-walking-aids phase. Mean speed (SD) for each phase was: crutches 1.11 (0.08) m/s, TheraTogs 1.35 (0.11) m/s, and no-aids 1.19 (0.14) m/s. Trunk sway increased in the crutch and no-aids phases, and became more stable in the TheraTogs phase. In this patient, function and recovery rate of all measured parameters increased more in the TheraTogs phase than the crutches or no-aids phase. This may be because muscle activity was facilitated enabling active support of recovering structures.

  5. External validity of post-stroke interventional gait rehabilitation studies.

    PubMed

    Kafri, Michal; Dickstein, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Gait rehabilitation is a major component of stroke rehabilitation, and is supported by extensive research. The objective of this review was to examine the external validity of intervention studies aimed at improving gait in individuals post-stroke. To that end, two aspects of these studies were assessed: subjects' exclusion criteria and the ecological validity of the intervention, as manifested by the intervention's technological complexity and delivery setting. Additionally, we examined whether the target population as inferred from the titles/abstracts is broader than the population actually represented by the reported samples.

  6. Implementing gait pattern control and transition for legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhijun; Rocha, Marlon V.; Lima, Priscila M. V.; Karamanoglu, Mehmet; França, Felipe M. G.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a generalised central pattern generator (CPG) model is formulated to generate a full range of gait patterns for a hexapod insect. To this end, a recurrent neuronal network module, as the building block for rhythmic patterns, is proposed to extend the concept of oscillatory building blocks (OBB) for constructing a CPG model. The model is able to make transitions between different gait patterns by simply adjusting one model parameter. Simulation results are further presented to show the effectiveness and performance of the CPG network.

  7. Automatic enrollment for gait-based person re-identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortells, Javier; Martín-Félez, Raúl; Mollineda, Ramón A.

    2015-02-01

    Automatic enrollment involves a critical decision-making process within people re-identification context. However, this process has been traditionally undervalued. This paper studies the problem of automatic person enrollment from a realistic perspective relying on gait analysis. Experiments simulating random flows of people with considerable appearance variations between different observations of a person have been conducted, modeling both short- and longterm scenarios. Promising results based on ROC analysis show that automatically enrolling people by their gait is affordable with high success rates.

  8. Flexible sliding frame for gait enhancing mechatronic system (GEMS).

    PubMed

    Younbaek Lee; Byungjung Choi; Jongwon Lee; Minhyung Lee; Se-Gon Roh; Jeonghun Kim; Hyundo Choi; Yong-Jae Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel flexible sliding thigh frame for a gait enhancing mechatronic system. With its two-layered unique structure, the frame is flexible in certain locations and directions, and stiff at certain other locations, so that it can fît well to the wearer's thigh and transmit the assisting torque without joint loading. The paper describes the basic mechanics of this 3D flexible frame and its stiffness characteristics. We implemented the 3D flexible frame on a gait enhancing mechatronic system and conducted experiments. The performance of the proposed mechanism is verified by simulation and experiments.

  9. Critical Appraisal of Evidence for Improving Gait Speed in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has not yet compared the treatment effects of dalfampridine with traditional rehabilitation of gait impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the evidence for dalfampridine and gait training for increasing gait speed in people with MS. Methods: A systematic search of the research literature was conducted. Consideration was given to only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. For selection of gait training studies, only studies involving task-specific gait training interventions and measuring treatment effects on gait speed were considered. Results: Treatment effects on gait speed were extracted from four studies examining the efficacy of dalfampridine and six gait training RCTs. Overall mean increase in gait speed with dalfampridine was 0.07 m/s (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04–0.09 m/s) compared to 0.06 m/s (95% CI, 0.02–0.10 m/s) for gait training. Among dalfampridine responders (38% of participants in RCTs), the mean increase in gait speed was 0.16 m/s (95% CI, 0.13–0.18 m/s). Mean increases for individual gait training interventions ranged from 0.01 to 0.39 m/s; however, CIs were wide due to small sample sizes. Conclusions: Current evidence is insufficient to conclude whether dalfampridine or gait training is superior for improving gait speed in people with MS. These findings should be viewed cautiously due to differences in study populations and small sample sizes in gait training studies. Both treatment approaches provide only short-lived improvements. Head-to-head comparison trials and studies combining both treatment modalities are needed. PMID:27252597

  10. Music and metronome cues produce different effects on gait spatiotemporal measures but not gait variability in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Wittwer, Joanne E; Webster, Kate E; Hill, Keith

    2013-02-01

    Rhythmic auditory cues including music and metronome beats have been used, sometimes interchangeably, to improve disordered gait arising from a range of clinical conditions. There has been limited investigation into whether there are optimal cue types. Different cue types have produced inconsistent effects across groups which differed in both age and clinical condition. The possible effect of normal ageing on response to different cue types has not been reported for gait. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of both rhythmic music and metronome cues on gait spatiotemporal measures (including variability) in healthy older people. Twelve women and seven men (>65 years) walked on an instrumented walkway at comfortable pace and then in time to each of rhythmic music and metronome cues at comfortable pace stepping frequency. Music but not metronome cues produced a significant increase in group mean gait velocity of 4.6 cm/s, due mostly to a significant increase in group mean stride length of 3.1cm. Both cue types produced a significant but small increase in cadence of 1 step/min. Mean spatio-temporal variability was low at baseline and did not increase with either cue type suggesting cues did not disrupt gait timing. Study findings suggest music and metronome cues may not be used interchangeably and cue type as well as frequency should be considered when evaluating effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait. Further work is required to determine whether optimal cue types and frequencies to improve walking in different clinical groups can be identified.

  11. A review of analytical techniques for gait data. Part 1: Fuzzy, statistical and fractal methods.

    PubMed

    Chau, T

    2001-02-01

    In recent years, several new approaches to gait data analysis have been explored, including fuzzy systems, multivariate statistical techniques and fractal dynamics. Through a critical survey of recent gait studies, this paper reviews the potential of these methods to strengthen the gait laboratory's analytical arsenal. It is found that time-honoured multivariate statistical methods are the most widely applied and understood. Although initially promising, fuzzy and fractal analyses of gait data remain largely unknown and their full potential is yet to be realized. The trend towards fusing multiple techniques in a given analysis means that additional research into the application of these two methods will benefit gait data analysis.

  12. Gait disorder as a predictor of spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing M.; Meng, Zhaoxiang; Yin, Zhenglu

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether gait dysfunction is a predictor of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice. Methods A total of 100 12-month-old male mice that had no obvious abnormal motor ability and whose Morris water maze performances were not significantly different from those of two-month-old male mice were selected for the study. The selected aged mice were then divided into abnormal or normal gait groups according to the results from the quantitative gait assessment. Gaits of aged mice were defined as abnormal when the values of quantitative gait parameters were two standard deviations (SD) lower or higher than those of 2-month-old male mice. Gait parameters included stride length, variability of stride length, base of support, cadence, and average speed. After nine months, mice exhibiting severe spatial learning and memory impairment were separated from mice with mild or no cognitive dysfunction. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in the abnormal and normal gait groups was tested by a chi-square test and the correlation between gait dysfunction and decline in cognitive function was tested using a diagnostic test. Results The 12-month-old aged mice were divided into a normal gait group (n = 75) and an abnormal gait group (n = 25). Nine months later, three mice in the normal gait group and two mice in the abnormal gait group had died. The remaining mice were subjected to the Morris water maze again, and 17 out of 23 mice in the abnormal gait group had developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment, including six with stride length deficits, 15 with coefficient of variation (CV) in stride length, two with base of support (BOS) deficits, five with cadence dysfunction, and six with average speed deficits. In contrast, only 15 out of 72 mice in the normal gait group developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment was significantly higher in

  13. Gait Strategy in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type: A Kinematic and Kinetic Evaluation Using 3D Gait Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Castori, Marco; Celletti, Claudia; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the gait patterns of adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT) hypermobility type, using Gait Analysis. We quantified the gait strategy in 12 JHS/EDS-HT adults individuals (age: 43.08 + 6.78 years) compared to 20 healthy controls (age: 37.23 plus or minus 8.91 years), in…

  14. Controlled locomotion of robots driven by a vibrating surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbanhowar, Paul; Lynch, Kevin M.

    Robots typically derive their powers of movement from onboard actuators and power sources, but other scenarios are possible where the external environment provides part or all of the necessary forcing and control. I will discuss details of a system where the ``robots'' are just planar solid objects and the requisite driving forces originate from frictional sliding-interactions with a periodically oscillated and nominally horizontal surface. For the robots to move, the temporal symmetry of the frictional forces must be broken, which is achieved here by modulating the normal force using vertical acceleration of the surface. Independent of the initial conditions and vibration waveform, a sliding locomotor reaches a unique velocity limit cycle at a given position. Its resulting motion can be described in terms of velocity fields which specify the robot's cycle-averaged velocity as a function of position. Velocity fields with non-zero spatial divergence can be generated by combining translational and rotational surface motions; this allows the simultaneous and open-loop collection, dispersal, and transport of multiple robots. Fields and field sequences can simultaneously move multiple robots between arbitrary positions and, potentially, along arbitrary trajectories. Supported by NSF CMMI #0700537.

  15. Numerical and experimental investigation of the structural behavior of a carbon fiber reinforced ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Stier, Bertram; Simon, Jaan-Willem; Reese, Stefanie

    2015-05-01

    Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are designed to enhance the gait function of individuals with motor impairments. Recent AFOs are often made of laminated composites due to their high stiffness and low density. Since the performance of AFO is primarily influenced by their structural stiffness, the investigation of the mechanical response is very important for the design. The aim of this paper is to present a three dimensional multi-scale structural analysis methodology to speed up the design process of AFO. The multi-scale modeling procedure was applied such that the intrinsic micro-structure of the fiber reinforced laminates could be taken into account. In particular, representative volume elements were used on the micro-scale, where fiber and matrix were treated separately, and on the textile scale of the woven structure. For the validation of this methodology, experimental data were generated using digital image correlation (DIC) measurements. Finally, the structural behavior of the whole AFO was predicted numerically for a specific loading scenario and compared with experimental results. It was shown that the proposed numerical multi-scale scheme is well suited for the prediction of the structural behavior of AFOs, validated by the comparison of local strain fields as well as the global force-displacement curves.

  16. Accelerometer based analysis of gait initiation failure in advanced juvenile parkinsonism: a single subject study

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Mitsuaki; Mashimo, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study used an accelerometer placed close to the center of gravity to quantitatively investigate whether unexpected gait initiation aggravates start hesitation (freezing of gait in gait initiation). [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 53-year-old female who had been suffering from juvenile parkinsonism since she was aged 21 years. An alternating-treatment design was used to compare acceleration characteristics under two gait initiation conditions, which were 1) deliberate gait initiation and 2) gait initiation on a sudden “go” verbal command (sudden gait initiation), in the “on” state of the medication cycle. [Results] In six out of eight sessions, a combination of reduced peak positive anterior accelerations and large power percentage in the high frequency band was consistently observed in the sudden gait initiation compared with deliberate gait initiation. In the other two sessions, although a large acceleration just after the “go” signal was observed, subsequent acceleration signals were blocked by sudden gait initiation. [Conclusion] The results suggest that, even in the “on” state, start hesitation is apparent without increased reliance on frontal cortical attentional mechanisms to compensate for impaired automaticity. In advanced juvenile parkinsonism, sudden gait initiation may be an effective paradigm as a provoking test for start hesitation. PMID:27942160

  17. Objective Biomarkers of Balance and Gait for Parkinson’s Disease using Body-worn Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Horak, Fay B; Mancini, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Balance and gait impairments characterize progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD), predict fall risk, and are important contributors to reduced quality of life. Advances in technology of small, body-worn inertial sensors have made it possible to develop quick, objective measures of balance and gait impairments in the clinic for research trials and clinical practice. Objective balance and gait metrics may eventually provide useful biomarkers for PD. In fact, objective balance and gait measures are already being used as surrogate end-points for demonstrating clinical efficacy of new treatments, in place of counting falls from diaries, using stop-watch measures of gait speed, or clinical balance rating scales. This review summarizes the types of objective measures available from body-worn sensors. We organize the metrics based on the neural control system for mobility affected by PD: postural stability in stance, postural responses, gait initiation, gait (temporal-spatial lower and upper body coordination and dynamic equilibrium), postural transitions, and freezing of gait. However, the explosion of metrics derived by wearable sensors during prescribed balance and gait tasks that are abnormal in people with PD do not yet qualify as behavioral biomarkers because many balance and gait impairments observed in PD are not specific to the disease, nor shown to be related to specific pathophysiologic biomarkers. In the future, the most useful balance and gait biomarkers for PD will be those that are sensitive and specific for early PD and related to the underlying disease process. PMID:24132842

  18. The relationship between clinical measurements and gait analysis data in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Domagalska, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej; Syczewska, Małgorzata; Pietraszek, Stanisław; Kidoń, Zenon; Onik, Grzegorz

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity is a common impairment that interferes with motor function (particularly gait pattern) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Gait analysis and clinical measurements are equally important in evaluating and treating gait disorders in children with CP. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the spasticity of lower extremity muscles and deviations from the normal gait pattern in children with CP. Thirty-six children with spastic CP (18 with spastic hemiplegia [HS] and 18 with spastic diplegia [DS]), ranging in age from 7 to 12 years, participated in the study. The children were classified as level I (n=24) or level II (n=12) according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System. Spasticity levels were evaluated with the Dynamic Evaluation of Range of Motion (DAROM) using the accelerometer-based system, and gait patterns were evaluated with a three dimensional gait analysis using the Zebris system (Isny, Germany). The Gillette Gait Index (GGI) was calculated from the gait data. The results show that gait pathology in children with CP does not depend on the static and dynamic contractures of hip and knee flexors. Although significant correlations were observed for a few clinical measures with the gait data (GGI), the correlation coefficients were low. Only the spasticity of rectus femoris showed a fair to moderate correlation with GGI. In conclusion, the results indicate the independence of the clinical evaluation and gait pattern and support the view that both factors provide important information about the functional problems of children with CP.

  19. Objective biomarkers of balance and gait for Parkinson's disease using body-worn sensors.

    PubMed

    Horak, Fay B; Mancini, Martina

    2013-09-15

    Balance and gait impairments characterize the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), predict the risk of falling, and are important contributors to reduced quality of life. Advances in technology of small, body-worn, inertial sensors have made it possible to develop quick, objective measures of balance and gait impairments in the clinic for research trials and clinical practice. Objective balance and gait metrics may eventually provide useful biomarkers for PD. In fact, objective balance and gait measures are already being used as surrogate endpoints for demonstrating clinical efficacy of new treatments, in place of counting falls from diaries, using stop-watch measures of gait speed, or clinical balance rating scales. This review summarizes the types of objective measures available from body-worn sensors. The metrics are organized based on the neural control system for mobility affected by PD: postural stability in stance, postural responses, gait initiation, gait (temporal-spatial lower and upper body coordination and dynamic equilibrium), postural transitions, and freezing of gait. However, the explosion of metrics derived by wearable sensors during prescribed balance and gait tasks, which are abnormal in individuals with PD, do not yet qualify as behavioral biomarkers, because many balance and gait impairments observed in PD are not specific to the disease, nor have they been related to specific pathophysiologic biomarkers. In the future, the most useful balance and gait biomarkers for PD will be those that are sensitive and specific for early PD and are related to the underlying disease process.

  20. Gait Training Interventions for Lower Extremity Amputees: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Highsmith, M Jason; Andrews, Casey R; Millman, Claire; Fuller, Ashley; Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Lewis, Katherine L; Bradley, Rachel C; Orriola, John J

    2016-09-01

    Lower extremity (LE) amputation patients who use prostheses have gait asymmetries and altered limb loading and movement strategies when ambulating. Subsequent secondary conditions are believed to be associated with gait deviations and lead to long-term complications that impact function and quality of life as a result. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of evidence supporting gait training interventions and to formulate evidence statements to guide practice and research related to therapeutic gait training for lower extremity amputees. A systematic review of three databases was conducted followed by evaluation of evidence and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES). Eighteen manuscripts were included in the review, which covered two areas of gait training interventions: 1) overground and 2) treadmill-based. Eight EESs were synthesized. Four addressed overground gait training, one covered treadmill training, and three statements addressed both forms of therapy. Due to the gait asymmetries, altered biomechanics, and related secondary consequences associated with LE amputation, gait training interventions are needed along with study of their efficacy. Overground training with verbal or other auditory, manual, and psychological awareness interventions was found to be effective at improving gait. Similarly, treadmill-based training was found to be effective: 1) as a supplement to overground training; 2) independently when augmented with visual feedback and/or body weight support; or 3) as part of a home exercise plan. Gait training approaches studied improved multiple areas of gait, including sagittal and coronal biomechanics, spatiotemporal measures, and distance walked.

  1. Rehabilitation procedures in the management of gait disorders in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, M; Dimitrova, E; Nicolli, F; Modenese, A; Serina, A; Waldner, A; Tinazzi, M; Squintani, G; Smania, N; Geroin, C

    2015-10-01

    Gait disorders are common and very disabling in elderly people, leading to an increase of risk of falling and reductions in quality of life. So far, many clinical classifications of gait disorders in the elderly population have been proposed. Here we suggest a novel categorization of gait disorders in elderly people, which takes into account the several resources required during gait. The biomechanical constraints, movement and sensory strategies, orientation in space, control of dynamics and cognitive processing are essential to perform safely gait. Moreover, the strictly connection between gait and balance has been discussed. According to this perspective, a literature search was performed including studies investigating the rehabilitation procedures in the management of balance and gait disorders in elderly people. Training aimed at improving muscle strength and flexibility, movement strategies, sensorimotor integration and sensory reweighting processes, balance in static and dynamic conditions and cognitive strategies have been proposed as possible therapeutic approaches in elderly people affected by gait disorders. Moreover, the role of new technological devices in improving balance and gait control has been also described. A multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach is fundamental for the management of gait disorders in elderly people. Rehabilitation procedures should take into consideration all the potential constraints involved in gait disorders in order to select the most appropriate intervention.

  2. [3-D ultrasound-assisted gait analysis of schizophrenic patients. Comparison between conventional neuroleptics and olanzapine].

    PubMed

    Putzhammer, Albert; Heindl, Bernhard; Müller, Jürgen; Broll, Karin; Pfeiff, Liane; Perfahl, Maria; Hess, Linda; Koch, Horst

    2003-05-01

    Schizophrenic disorders as well as neuroleptic treatment can affect locomotion. The study assessed the influence of neuroleptic treatment on human gait via ultrasonic topometric gait analysis. In a control sample the test system proved high test-retest-reliability. Spatial and temporal gait parameters were assessed in schizophrenic patients without neuroleptic treatment (n = 12) and under treatment with conventional neuroleptics (n = 14) and re-assessed after treatment change to the atypical neuroleptic olanzapine in a repeated measures design. After switch from conventional neuroleptics to olanzapine patients showed an increase of gait velocity (p < or = 0.01) and step length (p < or = 0.01) whereas the cadence remained stable. Significant differences between the untreated state and treatment with olanzapine were not detectable. We conclude that bipedal gait is affected by conventional neuroleptic treatment. The degree of impairment can be objectively measured by testing spatio-temporal and kinematic gait parameters via three-dimensional ultrasonic gait analysis.

  3. Pendulum test measure correlates with gait parameters in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lotfian, M; Mirbagheri, M M; Kharazi, M R; Dadashi, F; Nourian, R; Irani, A; Mirbagheri, A

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) usually suffer from different impairments including gait impairment and spasticity. Spastic hypertonia is a defining feature of spasticity and manifests as a mechanical abnormality. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between spastic hypertonia and gait impairments in spastic children with CP, addressing an important controversial issue. Spastic hypertonia was quantified using the pendulum test. The gait impairments were evaluated using the motion capture system in a gait laboratory. Our results showed significant correlations among gait parameters; i.e. walking speed, step length, and the pendulum test measures. This indicates that neuromuscular abnormalities are associated with spasticity and may contribute to gait impairments. The clinical implication is that the impaired gait in children with CP may be improved with the treatment of neuromuscular abnormalities.

  4. Models of central pattern generators for quadruped locomotion. II. Secondary gaits.

    PubMed

    Buono, P L

    2001-04-01

    We continue the analysis of the network of symmetrically coupled cells modeling central pattern generators (CPG) for quadruped locomotion proposed by Golubitsky, Stewart, Buono and Collins by studying secondary gaits. Secondary gaits are modeled by output signals from the CPG where each cell emits one of two different output signals along with exact phase shifts. Examples of secondary gaits are transverse gallop, rotary gallop, and canter. We classify secondary gaits that bifurcate when the Poincaré map of a primary gait has a real eigenvalue crossing the unit circle. In particular, we show that periodic solutions modeling transverse gallop and rotary gallop bifurcate from primary gaits. Moreover, we find gaits from period-doubling bifurcations and analyze plausible footfall patterns. Numerical simulations are performed using the Morris-Lecar equations as cell dynamics.

  5. Feasibility of nurses measuring gait speed in older community-dwelling Emergency Department patients.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Paula W; Evans, Dian Dowling; Clevenger, Carolyn K; Ardisson, Michelle; Hwang, Ula

    Gait speed assessment is a rapid, simple and objective measure for predicting risk of unfavorable outcomes which may provide better prognostic and reliable information than existing geriatric ED (Emergency Department) screening tools. This descriptive pilot project was designed to determine feasibility of implementing gait speed screening into routine nursing practice by objectively identifying patients with sub-optimal gait speeds. Participants included community-dwelling adults 65 years and older with plans for discharge following ED treatment. Patients with a gait speed <1.0 m/s were identified as "high-risk" for an adverse event, and referred to the ED social worker for individualized resources prior to discharge. Thirty-five patients were screened and nurse initiated gait speed screens were completed 60% of the time. This project demonstrates ED gait speed screening may be feasible. Implications for practice should consider incorporating gait speed screening into routine nursing assessment to improve provider ED decision-making and disposition planning.

  6. Effect of walking speed on gait sub phase durations.

    PubMed

    Hebenstreit, Felix; Leibold, Andreas; Krinner, Sebastian; Welsch, Götz; Lochmann, Matthias; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-10-01

    Gait phase durations are important spatiotemporal parameters in different contexts such as discrimination between healthy and pathological gait and monitoring of treatment outcomes after interventions. Although gait phases strongly depend on walking speed, the influence of different speeds has rarely been investigated in literature. In this work, we examined the durations of the stance sub phases and the swing phase for 12 different walking speeds ranging from 0.6 to 1.7 m/s in 21 healthy subjects using infrared cinematography and an instrumented treadmill. We separated the stance phase into loading response, mid stance, terminal stance and pre-swing phase and we performed regression modeling of all phase durations with speed to determine general trends. With an increasing speed of 0.1m/s, stance duration decreased while swing duration increased by 0.3%. All distinct stance sub phases changed significantly with speed. These findings suggest the importance of including all distinct gait sub phases in spatiotemporal analyses, especially when different walking speeds are involved.

  7. Statistical Removal of Shadow for Applications to Gait Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    methods. “Human movement analysis aims at gathering quantitative information about the mechanics of the musculo -skeletal system during the execution of...basic walking pattern, but their gaits are influence[d] by functions of their entire musculo -skeletal structure” (Post, 2006:1). The individuality of

  8. Muscle length and lengthening velocity in voluntary crouch gait.

    PubMed

    van der Krogt, Marjolein M; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Harlaar, Jaap

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how origin-insertion length and lengthening velocity of hamstring and psoas muscle change as a result of crouch gait. The second purpose was to study the effect of changes in walking speed, in crouch, on muscle lengths and velocities. Eight healthy female subjects walked on a treadmill both normally and in crouch. In the crouch condition, subjects walked at three different walking speeds. 3D kinematic data were collected and muscle lengths and velocities were calculated using musculoskeletal modeling. It was found that voluntary walking in crouch resulted in shorter psoas length compared to normal, but not in shorter hamstrings length. Moreover, crouch gait did not result in slower muscle lengthening velocities compared to normal gait. These results do not support the role of hamstrings shortness or spasticity in causing crouch gait. Decreasing walking speed clearly reduced muscle lengths and lengthening velocities. Therefore, patients with short or spastic muscles are more likely to respond by walking slower than by walking in crouch. Also, differences in walking speed should be avoided as a confounding factor when comparing patient groups with controls.

  9. Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Edelberg, H. K.; Mitchell, S. L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of gait unsteadiness are increased in community-dwelling elderly fallers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five community-dwelling elderly subjects older than 70 years of age who were capable of ambulating independently for 6 minutes were categorized as fallers (age, 82.2 +/- 4.9 yrs [mean +/- SD]; n = 18) and nonfallers (age, 76.5 +/- 4.0 yrs; n = 17) based on history; 22 young (age, 24.6 +/- 1.9 yrs), healthy subjects also participated as a second reference group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stride-to-stride variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of stride time, stance time, swing time, and percent stance time measured during a 6-minute walk. RESULTS: All measures of gait variability were significantly greater in the elderly fallers compared with both the elderly nonfallers and the young subjects (p < .0002). In contrast, walking speed of the elderly fallers was similar to that of the nonfallers. There were little or no differences in the variability measures of the elderly nonfallers compared with the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Stride-to-stride temporal variations of gait are relatively unchanged in community-dwelling elderly nonfallers, but are significantly increased in elderly fallers. Quantitative measurement of gait unsteadiness may be useful in assessing fall risk in the elderly.

  10. Gait biomechanics in the era of data science.

    PubMed

    Ferber, Reed; Osis, Sean T; Hicks, Jennifer L; Delp, Scott L

    2016-12-08

    Data science has transformed fields such as computer vision and economics. The ability of modern data science methods to extract insights from large, complex, heterogeneous, and noisy datasets is beginning to provide a powerful complement to the traditional approaches of experimental motion capture and biomechanical modeling. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on how data science methods can be incorporated into our field to advance our understanding of gait biomechanics and improve treatment planning procedures. We provide examples of how data science approaches have been applied to biomechanical data. We then discuss the challenges that remain for effectively using data science approaches in clinical gait analysis and gait biomechanics research, including the need for new tools, better infrastructure and incentives for sharing data, and education across the disciplines of biomechanics and data science. By addressing these challenges, we can revolutionize treatment planning and biomechanics research by capitalizing on the wealth of knowledge gained by gait researchers over the past decades and the vast, but often siloed, data that are collected in clinical and research laboratories around the world.

  11. A Feasibility Study of View-independent Gait Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    in silhouette can be adjusted using an affine transformation. Kale et al (2003) took this approach, using the overall direction of motion and camera...Symposium on Image Analysis & Interpretation, 180-185. Kale A, Chowdhury A K R & Chellappa R (2003), "Towards a View Invariant Gait Recognition

  12. Automatic Gait Recognition for Human ID at a Distance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    subsidiary developments not just of new computer vision techniques but also of approaches for spatiotemporal image analysis, particularly targeted...remit of the analysis of human motion by computer vision techniques and due to the capability of gait as a biometric, as demonstrated by the results...Identification, Computer Vision , Image Processing, Spatiotemporal Image Analysis, Database, Covariate Factors, Evaluation Table of Contents: Summary

  13. Investigation on gait time series by means of factorial moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huijie; Zhao, Fangcui; Zhuo, Yizhong; Wu, Xizhen; Li, Zhuxia

    2002-09-01

    By means of factorial moments (FM), the fractal structures embedded in gait time series are investigated. Intermittency is found in records for healthy objects. And this kind of intermittency is much sensitive to disease or outside influences. It is found that FM is an effective tool to deal with this kind of time series.

  14. Gait variability in community dwelling adults with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Webster, Kate E; Merory, John R; Wittwer, Joanne E

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that measures of gait variability are associated with falling in older adults. However, few studies have measured gait variability in people with Alzheimer disease, despite the high incidence of falls in Alzheimer disease. The purpose of this study was to compare gait variability of community-dwelling older adults with Alzheimer disease and control subjects at various walking speeds. Ten subjects with mild-moderate Alzheimer disease and ten matched control subjects underwent gait analysis using an electronic walkway. Participants were required to walk at self-selected slow, preferred, and fast speeds. Stride length and step width variability were determined using the coefficient of variation. Results showed that stride length variability was significantly greater in the Alzheimer disease group compared with the control group at all speeds. In both groups, increases in walking speed were significantly correlated with decreases in stride length variability. Step width variability was significantly reduced in the Alzheimer disease group compared with the control group at slow speed only. In conclusion, there is an increase in stride length variability in Alzheimer disease at all walking speeds that may contribute to the increased incidence of falls in Alzheimer disease.

  15. Gait analysis in rats with peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, P; Matloub, H S; Sanger, J R; Narini, P

    2001-02-01

    Rats are commonly used to study peripheral nerve repair and grafting. The traditional footprint method to assess functional recovery is messy, indirect, and not useful when contractures develop in the animal model. The aim of the present study was to establish an accurate, reproducible, but simple, method to assess dynamic limb function. The basic quantitative aspects of a normal gait were characterized from 59 recorded walks in 23 rats. The video was digitized and analyzed frame by frame on a personal computer. Seven parameters of the gait were assessed: (1) walking speed; (2) stance phase, swing phase and right to left stance/swing ratio; (3) step length and step length ratio; (4) ankle angles at terminal stance and midswing; (5) tail height; (6) midline deviation; and (7) tail deviation. These gait parameters were then applied to groups of animals with sciatic (group S), tibial (group T), and peroneal (group P) nerve injuries. A discriminant analysis was performed to analyze each parameter and to compute a functional score. We found that the video gait analysis was superior to the footprint method and believe it will be very useful in future studies on peripheral nerve injury.

  16. Therapeutic electrical stimulation for spasticity: quantitative gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Pease, W S

    1998-01-01

    Improvement in motor function following electrical stimulation is related to strengthening of the stimulated spastic muscle and inhibition of the antagonist. A 26-year-old man with familial spastic paraparesis presented with gait dysfunction and bilateral lower limb spastic muscle tone. Clinically, muscle strength and sensation were normal. He was considered appropriate for a trial of therapeutic electrical stimulation following failed trials of physical therapy and baclofen. No other treatment was used concurrent with the electrical stimulation. Before treatment, quantitative gait analysis revealed 63% of normal velocity and a crouched gait pattern, associated with excessive electromyographic activity in the hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles. Based on these findings, bilateral stimulation of the quadriceps and anterior compartment musculature was performed two to three times per week for three months. Repeat gait analysis was conducted three weeks after the cessation of stimulation treatment. A 27% increase in velocity was noted associated with an increase in both cadence and right step length. Right hip and bilateral knee stance motion returned to normal (rather than "crouched"). No change in the timing of dynamic electromyographic activity was seen. These findings suggest a role for the use of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation of spasticity. The specific mechanism of this improvement remains uncertain.

  17. Development and consistency of gait in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Clarke, K A; Still, J

    2001-05-01

    Mouse models of human disease may display developmental abnormalities or adult onset of the condition. Since many diseases are accompanied by gait disturbances, knowledge of normal gait development in the mouse and its adult characteristics might be valuable as standards against which to appraise disease progression and the efficacy of putative therapies. Assessment of the gait of mice from postnatal day (pnd) 13 to postnatal week (pnw) 80 was undertaken utilising video techniques to examine velocity, stride, stance and swing times and between pnw 29 and 80 using load cells for analysis of the vertical reaction force (P(z)) associated with limb placements. Some adult features are apparent by pnd 13, but in the hindlimb (HL) particularly, the adult pattern of relationships between stride, stance and swing are not established. Adult characteristics of forelimb (FL) deployment develop earlier than those of HL while the systems controlling HL stance develop earlier than those regulating its swing. All the features measured, however, such as the shorter stance and longer swing of FL compared to HL, are established in their adult form by pnd 24 and maintained throughout adult life. In healthy mice at pnw 80, there was no deviation from the adult pattern of gait in which P(z) transmitted via FL exceeds that via HL by around 5%. We did not detect any significant change in any other variable or in their relationships.

  18. Modelling gait transition in two-legged animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Carla M. A.; Santos, Alexandra P.

    2011-12-01

    The study of locomotor patterns has been a major research goal in the last decades. Understanding how intralimb and interlimb coordination works out so well in animals' locomotion is a hard and challenging task. Many models have been proposed to model animal's rhythms. These models have also been applied to the control of rhythmic movements of adaptive legged robots, namely biped, quadruped and other designs. In this paper we study gait transition in a central pattern generator (CPG) model for bipeds, the 4-cells model. This model is proposed by Golubitsky, Stewart, Buono and Collins and is studied further by Pinto and Golubitsky. We briefly resume the work done by Pinto and Golubitsky. We compute numerically gait transition in the 4-cells CPG model for bipeds. We use Morris-Lecar equations and Wilson-Cowan equations as the internal dynamics for each cell. We also consider two types of coupling between the cells: diffusive and synaptic. We obtain secondary gaits by bifurcation of primary gaits, by varying the coupling strengths. Nevertheless, some bifurcating branches could not be obtained, emphasizing the fact that despite analytically those bifurcations exist, finding them is a hard task and requires variation of other parameters of the equations. We note that the type of coupling did not influence the results.

  19. Android Platform for Realtime Gait Tracking Using Inertial Measurement Units.

    PubMed

    Aqueveque, Pablo; Sobarzo, Sergio; Saavedra, Francisco; Maldonado, Claudio; Gómez, Britam

    2016-06-13

    One of the most important movements performed by the humans is gait. Biomechanical Gait analysis is usually by optical capture systems. However, such systems are expensive and sensitive to light and obstacles. In order to reduce those costs a system based on Inertial Measurements Units (IMU) is proposed. IMU are a good option to make movement analisys indoor with a low post-processing data, allowing to connect those systems to an Android platform. The design is based on two elements: a) The IMU sensors and the b) Android device. The IMU sensor is simple, small (35 x 35 mm), portable and autonomous (7.8 hrs). A resolution of 0.01° in their measurements is obtained, and sends data via Bluetooth link. The Android application works for Android 4.2 or higher, and it is compatible with Bluetooth devices 2.0 or higher. Three IMU sensors send data to a Tablet wirelessly, in order to evaluate the angles evolution for each joint of the leg (hip, knee and ankle). This information is used to calculate gait index and evaluate the gait quality online during the physical therapist is working with the patient.

  20. Improved kinect-based spatiotemporal and kinematic treadmill gait assessment.

    PubMed

    Eltoukhy, Moataz; Oh, Jeonghoon; Kuenze, Christopher; Signorile, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    A cost-effective, clinician friendly gait assessment tool that can automatically track patients' anatomical landmarks can provide practitioners with important information that is useful in prescribing rehabilitative and preventive therapies. This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Microsoft Kinect v2 as a potential inexpensive gait analysis tool. Ten healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.3 and 1.6m·s(-1), as spatiotemporal parameters and kinematics were extracted concurrently using the Kinect and three-dimensional motion analysis. Spatiotemporal measures included step length and width, step and stride times, vertical and mediolateral pelvis motion, and foot swing velocity. Kinematic outcomes included hip, knee, and ankle joint angles in the sagittal plane. The absolute agreement and relative consistency between the two systems were assessed using interclass correlations coefficients (ICC2,1), while reproducibility between systems was established using Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient (rc). Comparison of ensemble curves and associated 90% confidence intervals (CI90) of the hip, knee, and ankle joint angles were performed to investigate if the Kinect sensor could consistently and accurately assess lower extremity joint motion throughout the gait cycle. Results showed that the Kinect v2 sensor has the potential to be an effective clinical assessment tool for sagittal plane knee and hip joint kinematics, as well as some spatiotemporal temporal variables including pelvis displacement and step characteristics during the gait cycle.

  1. Gait Development during Lifespan in Subjects with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    In this work we studied and evaluated the effects of aging in a group of individuals with Down syndrome, using gait analysis as tool of investigation. 32 individuals suffering from Down syndrome (DS) were enrolled in this study as group of pathological participants. The control group (CG) was composed by 36 healthy subjects (10 children, 15…

  2. Android Platform for Realtime Gait Tracking Using Inertial Measurement Units

    PubMed Central

    Aqueveque, Pablo; Sobarzo, Sergio; Saavedra, Francisco; Maldonado, Claudio; Gómez, Britam

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important movements performed by the humans is gait. Biomechanical Gait analysis is usually by optical capture systems. However, such systems are expensive and sensitive to light and obstacles. In order to reduce those costs a system based on Inertial Measurements Units (IMU) is proposed. IMU are a good option to make movement analisys indoor with a low post-processing data, allowing to connect those systems to an Android platform. The design is based on two elements: a) The IMU sensors and the b) Android device. The IMU sensor is simple, small (35 x 35 mm), portable and autonomous (7.8 hrs). A resolution of 0.01° in their measurements is obtained, and sends data via Bluetooth link. The Android application works for Android 4.2 or higher, and it is compatible with Bluetooth devices 2.0 or higher. Three IMU sensors send data to a Tablet wirelessly, in order to evaluate the angles evolution for each joint of the leg (hip, knee and ankle). This information is used to calculate gait index and evaluate the gait quality online during the physical therapist is working with the patient. PMID:27990241

  3. Gait analysis in hip viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, L

    2013-10-31

    Hip is a site very commonly affected by osteoarthritis and the intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid in the management of osteoarthritic pain is increasingly used. However, the debate about its usefulness is still ongoing, as not all results of clinical trials confirm its effectiveness. In order to achieve the best outcome, clinical assessment and treatment choices should be based on subjective outcome, pathological and mechanical findings that should be integrated with qualitative analysis of human movement. After viscosupplementation, clinical trials often evaluate as endpoint subjective outcomes (i.e. pain visual analogic scale) and static imaging such as radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In our clinical practice we use gait analysis as part of rehabilitation protocol to measure performance, enhancement and changes of several biomechanical factors. Taking advantage of available resources (BTS Bioengineering gait analysis Elite System) we studied a patient's gait after ultrasound guided hip injections for viscosupplementation. He showed an early clinical and biomechanical improvement during walking after a single intra articular injection of hyaluronic acid. Gait analysis parameters obtained suggest that the pre-treatment slower speed may be caused by antalgic walking patterns, the need for pain control and muscle weakness. After hip viscosupplementation, the joint displayed different temporal, kinetic and kinematic parameters associated with improved pain patterns.

  4. Reflex Control of Robotic Gait Using Human Walking Data

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, Catherine A.; Meng, Lin; Conway, Bernard A.; Porr, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Control of human walking is not thoroughly understood, which has implications in developing suitable strategies for the retraining of a functional gait following neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Bipedal robots allow us to investigate simple elements of the complex nervous system to quantify their contribution to motor control. RunBot is a bipedal robot which operates through reflexes without using central pattern generators or trajectory planning algorithms. Ground contact information from the feet is used to activate motors in the legs, generating a gait cycle visually similar to that of humans. Rather than developing a more complicated biologically realistic neural system to control the robot's stepping, we have instead further simplified our model by measuring the correlation between heel contact and leg muscle activity (EMG) in human subjects during walking and from this data created filter functions transferring the sensory data into motor actions. Adaptive filtering was used to identify the unknown transfer functions which translate the contact information into muscle activation signals. Our results show a causal relationship between ground contact information from the heel and EMG, which allows us to create a minimal, linear, analogue control system for controlling walking. The derived transfer functions were applied to RunBot II as a proof of concept. The gait cycle produced was stable and controlled, which is a positive indication that the transfer functions have potential for use in the control of assistive devices for the retraining of an efficient and effective gait with potential applications in SCI rehabilitation. PMID:25347544

  5. Prevention of Potential Falls of Elderly Healthy Women: Gait Asymmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Jung-suk; Kim, Sukwon

    2014-01-01

    The study attempted to see if exercise training would alleviate gait asymmetry between nondominant and dominant legs, thus, eliminate the likelihood of slips. The present study provided 18 older adults exercise training for eight weeks and evaluated kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in both legs. Participants were randomly assigned to…

  6. Monitoring gait in multiple sclerosis with novel wearable motion sensors

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Ryan S.; Seagers, Kirsten; Motl, Robert W.; Sheth, Nirav; Wright, John A.; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Sosnoff, Jacob J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobility impairment is common in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and there is a need to assess mobility in remote settings. Here, we apply a novel wireless, skin-mounted, and conformal inertial sensor (BioStampRC, MC10 Inc.) to examine gait characteristics of PwMS under controlled conditions. We determine the accuracy and precision of BioStampRC in measuring gait kinematics by comparing to contemporary research-grade measurement devices. Methods A total of 45 PwMS, who presented with diverse walking impairment (Mild MS = 15, Moderate MS = 15, Severe MS = 15), and 15 healthy control subjects participated in the study. Participants completed a series of clinical walking tests. During the tests participants were instrumented with BioStampRC and MTx (Xsens, Inc.) sensors on their shanks, as well as an activity monitor GT3X (Actigraph, Inc.) on their non-dominant hip. Shank angular velocity was simultaneously measured with the inertial sensors. Step number and temporal gait parameters were calculated from the data recorded by each sensor. Visual inspection and the MTx served as the reference standards for computing the step number and temporal parameters, respectively. Accuracy (error) and precision (variance of error) was assessed based on absolute and relative metrics. Temporal parameters were compared across groups using ANOVA. Results Mean accuracy±precision for the BioStampRC was 2±2 steps error for step number, 6±9ms error for stride time and 6±7ms error for step time (0.6–2.6% relative error). Swing time had the least accuracy±precision (25±19ms error, 5±4% relative error) among the parameters. GT3X had the least accuracy±precision (8±14% relative error) in step number estimate among the devices. Both MTx and BioStampRC detected significantly distinct gait characteristics between PwMS with different disability levels (p<0.01). Conclusion BioStampRC sensors accurately and precisely measure gait parameters in PwMS across diverse walking

  7. Gait Speed Predicts Incident Disability: A Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.; Rosano, Caterina; Rubin, Susan M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Harris, Tamara; Ensrud, Kristine; Orwoll, Eric; Lee, Christine G.; Chandler, Julie M.; Newman, Anne B.; Cauley, Jane A.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Functional independence with aging is an important goal for individuals and society. Simple prognostic indicators can inform health promotion and care planning, but evidence is limited by heterogeneity in measures of function. Methods. We performed a pooled analysis of data from seven studies of 27,220 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 or older with baseline gait speed, followed for disability and mortality. Outcomes were incident inability or dependence on another person in bathing or dressing; and difficulty walking ¼ – ½ mile or climbing 10 steps within 3 years. Results. Participants with faster baseline gait had lower rates of incident disability. In subgroups (defined by 0.2 m/s-wide intervals from <0.4 to ≥1.4 m/s) with increasingly greater gait speed, 3-year rates of bathing or dressing dependence trended from 10% to 1% in men, and from 15% to 1% in women, while mobility difficulty trended from 47% to 4% in men and 40% to 6% in women. The age-adjusted relative risk ratio per 0.1 m/s greater speed for bathing or dressing dependence in men was 0.68 (0.57–0.81) and in women: 0.74 (0.66–0.82); for mobility difficulty, men: 0.75 (0.68–0.82), women: 0.73 (0.67–0.80). Results were similar for combined disability and mortality. Effects were largely consistent across subgroups based on age, gender, race, body mass index, prior hospitalization, and selected chronic conditions. In the presence of multiple other risk factors for disability, gait speed significantly increased the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve. Conclusion. In older adults, gait speed predicts 3 year incidence of bathing or dressing dependence, mobility difficulty, and a composite outcome of disability and mortality. PMID:26297942

  8. Footwear and Foam Surface Alter Gait Initiation of Typical Subjects.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Sacco, Isabel de Camargo Neves; Nora, Fernanda Grazielle da Silva Azevedo; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Lobo da Costa, Paula Hentschel

    2015-01-01

    Gait initiation is the task commonly used to investigate the anticipatory postural adjustments necessary to begin a new gait cycle from the standing position. In this study, we analyzed whether and how foot-floor interface characteristics influence the gait initiation process. For this purpose, 25 undergraduate students were evaluated while performing a gait initiation task in three experimental conditions: barefoot on a hard surface (barefoot condition), barefoot on a soft surface (foam condition), and shod on a hard surface (shod condition). Two force plates were used to acquire ground reaction forces and moments for each foot separately. A statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis was performed in COP time series. We compared the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) resultant center of pressure (COP) paths and average velocities, the force peaks under the right and left foot, and the COP integral x force impulse for three different phases: the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) phase (Phase 1), the swing-foot unloading phase (Phase 2), and the support-foot unloading phase (Phase 3). In Phase 1, significantly smaller ML COP paths and velocities were found for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. Significantly smaller ML COP paths were also found in Phase 2 for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. In Phase 3, increased AP COP velocities were found for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. SPM analysis revealed significant differences for vector COP time series in the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. The foam condition limited the impulse-generating capacity of COP shift and produced smaller ML force peaks, resulting in limitations to body-weight transfer from the swing to the support foot. The results suggest that footwear and a soft surface affect COP and impose certain features of gait initiation, especially in the ML direction of

  9. Footwear and Foam Surface Alter Gait Initiation of Typical Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Sacco, Isabel de Camargo Neves; Nora, Fernanda Grazielle da Silva Azevedo; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Lobo da Costa, Paula Hentschel

    2015-01-01

    Gait initiation is the task commonly used to investigate the anticipatory postural adjustments necessary to begin a new gait cycle from the standing position. In this study, we analyzed whether and how foot-floor interface characteristics influence the gait initiation process. For this purpose, 25 undergraduate students were evaluated while performing a gait initiation task in three experimental conditions: barefoot on a hard surface (barefoot condition), barefoot on a soft surface (foam condition), and shod on a hard surface (shod condition). Two force plates were used to acquire ground reaction forces and moments for each foot separately. A statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis was performed in COP time series. We compared the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) resultant center of pressure (COP) paths and average velocities, the force peaks under the right and left foot, and the COP integral x force impulse for three different phases: the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) phase (Phase 1), the swing-foot unloading phase (Phase 2), and the support-foot unloading phase (Phase 3). In Phase 1, significantly smaller ML COP paths and velocities were found for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. Significantly smaller ML COP paths were also found in Phase 2 for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. In Phase 3, increased AP COP velocities were found for the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. SPM analysis revealed significant differences for vector COP time series in the shod condition compared to the barefoot and foam conditions. The foam condition limited the impulse-generating capacity of COP shift and produced smaller ML force peaks, resulting in limitations to body-weight transfer from the swing to the support foot. The results suggest that footwear and a soft surface affect COP and impose certain features of gait initiation, especially in the ML direction of

  10. Intensive Gait Training for Older Adults with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Glass, Natalie A.; Teran-Yengle, Patricia; Singh, Bhupinder; Wallace, Robert B.; Yack, H. John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether individualized gait training is more effective than usual care for reducing mobility disability and pain in individuals with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Adults age ≥60 with symptomatic knee OA and mobility limitations were randomized to physical therapist-directed gait training on an instrumented treadmill, with biofeedback individualized to optimize knee movements, biweekly for 3 months or usual care (control). Mobility disability was defined by LLFDI Basic Lower Limb Function score (primary); limitations by timed 400m walk, chair-stand, and stair-climb tests at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months; and symptoms by the Knee Injury/Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Analyses used longitudinal mixed models. Results There were no significant inter-group differences between the 35 gait-training (74.3% women; age 69.7±8.2 years) and 21 control (57.1% women; age 68.9±6.5 years) participants at baseline. At 3 months, gait-training participants had greater improvement in mobility disability (4.3±1.7; p=0.0162) and symptoms (8.6±4.1; p=0.0420). However, there were neither intergroup differences detected for pain, 400m walk, chair-stand or stair-climb times at 3 months nor for any outcomes at 6 or 12 months. Conclusions Compared with usual care, individualized gait-training resulted in immediate improvements in mobility disability and knee symptoms in adults with symptomatic knee OA, but these effects were not sustained. PMID:25768068

  11. A force measuring treadmill in clinical gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Dierick, Frédéric; Penta, Massimo; Renaut, David; Detrembleur, Christine

    2004-12-01

    This preliminary study presents the development and testing of an instrumented treadmill device measuring the ground reaction forces (GRFs) and the feasibility of using this force measuring treadmill (FMT) in clinical gait analysis. A commercially available treadmill was modified and fitted out with three-dimensional strain-gauge force transducers. Tests of linearity, centre of pressure position (CoP), cross talk, natural frequency, background noises, and belt speed were undertaken in order to assess the performance of the FMT. In addition, the GRFs and segmental kinematics were recorded while healthy subjects and patients walked on the FMT, in order to compute the net ankle joint moments and the body centre of mass (CMb) kinematics and mechanics. The preliminary results of technical tests were satisfactory with an error less than 10% and dynamic tests in healthy subjects corresponded to the literature. The results of patients were clearly disturbed, demonstrating the ability of the FMT to discriminate pathological gaits from normal ones. We concluded that the GRFs measurements obtained from the FMT seem valid and the clinical assessment of net joint moments and CMb kinematics and mechanics seem feasible. The FMT could be useful device for clinical research and routine gait analysis since it allows gaining some extra room and quickly collecting the GRFs during a large number of successive gait cycles and over a wide range of steady-state gait speeds. However, more work is needed in this area in order to confirm the present results, collect reference data and validate the methodology across pathologies.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of the major determinants of human gait.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chung; Gfoehler, Margit; Pandy, Marcus G

    2014-04-11

    Accurate knowledge of the isolated contributions of joint movements to the three-dimensional displacement of the center of mass (COM) is fundamental for understanding the kinematics of normal walking and for improving the treatment of gait disabilities. Saunders et al. (1953) identified six kinematic mechanisms to explain the efficient progression of the whole-body COM in the sagittal, transverse, and coronal planes. These mechanisms, referred to as the major determinants of gait, were pelvic rotation, pelvic list, stance knee flexion, foot and knee mechanisms, and hip adduction. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively assess the contribution of each major gait determinant to the anteroposterior, vertical, and mediolateral displacements of the COM over one gait cycle. The contribution of each gait determinant was found by applying the concept of an 'influence coefficient', wherein the partial derivative of the COM displacement with respect to a prescribed determinant was calculated. The analysis was based on three-dimensional measurements of joint angular displacements obtained from 23 healthy young adults walking at slow, normal and fast speeds. We found that hip flexion, stance knee flexion, and ankle-foot interaction (comprised of ankle plantarflexion, toe flexion and the displacement of the center of pressure) are the major determinants of the displacements of the COM in the sagittal plane, while hip adduction and pelvic list contribute most significantly to the mediolateral displacement of the COM in the coronal plane. Pelvic rotation and pelvic list contribute little to the vertical displacement of the COM at all walking speeds. Pelvic tilt, hip rotation, subtalar inversion, and back extension, abduction and rotation make negligible contributions to the displacements of the COM in all three anatomical planes.

  13. Gait variability and motor control in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Alkjaer, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C; Dalsgaard, Helle; Simonsen, Erik B; Petersen, Nicolas C; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2015-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that impairs walking ability and function. We compared the temporal gait variability and motor control in people with knee OA with healthy controls. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that the temporal gait variability would reflect a more stereotypic pattern in people with knee OA compared with healthy age-matched subjects. To assess the gait variability the temporal structure of the ankle and knee joint kinematics was quantified by the largest Lyapunov exponent and the stride time fluctuations were quantified by sample entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis. The motor control was assessed by the soleus (SO) Hoffmann (H)-reflex modulation and muscle co-activation during walking. The results showed no statistically significant mean group differences in any of the gait variability measures or muscle co-activation levels. The SO H-reflex amplitude was significantly higher in the knee OA group around heel strike when compared with the controls. The mean group difference in the H-reflex in the initial part of the stance phase (control-knee OA) was -6.6% Mmax (95% CI: -10.4 to -2.7, p=0.041). The present OA group reported relatively small impact of their disease. These results suggest that the OA group in general sustained a normal gait pattern with natural variability but with suggestions of facilitated SO H-reflex in the swing to stance phase transition. We speculate that the difference in SO H-reflex modulation reflects that the OA group increased the excitability of the soleus stretch reflex as a preparatory mechanism to avoid sudden collapse of the knee joint which is not uncommon in knee OA.

  14. Gait analysis in a mouse model resembling Leigh disease.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Ria; Russel, Frans G; Smeitink, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Leigh disease (LD) is one of the clinical phenotypes of mitochondrial OXPHOS disorders and also known as sub-acute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy. The disease has an incidence of 1 in 77,000 live births. Symptoms typically begin early in life and prognosis for LD patients is poor. Currently, no clinically effective treatments are available. Suitable animal and cellular models are necessary for the understanding of the neuropathology and the development of successful new therapeutic strategies. In this study we used the Ndufs4 knockout (Ndufs4(-/-)) mouse, a model of mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Ndusf4(-/-) mice exhibit progressive neurodegeneration, which closely resemble the human LD phenotype. When dissecting behavioral abnormalities in animal models it is of great importance to apply translational tools that are clinically relevant. To distinguish gait abnormalities in patients, simple walking tests can be assessed, but in animals this is not easy. This study is the first to demonstrate automated CatWalk gait analysis in the Ndufs4(-/-) mouse model. Marked differences were noted between Ndufs4(-/-) and control mice in dynamic, static, coordination and support parameters. Variation of walking speed was significantly increased in Ndufs4(-/-) mice, suggesting hampered and uncoordinated gait. Furthermore, decreased regularity index, increased base of support and changes in support were noted in the Ndufs4(-/-) mice. Here, we report the ability of the CatWalk system to sensitively assess gait abnormalities in Ndufs4(-/-) mice. This objective gait analysis can be of great value for intervention and drug efficacy studies in animal models for mitochondrial disease.

  15. Computer algorithms to characterize individual subject EMG profiles during gait.

    PubMed

    Bogey, R A; Barnes, L A; Perry, J

    1992-09-01

    Three methods of precisely determining onset and cessation times of gait EMG were investigated. Subjects were 24 normal adults and 32 individuals with gait pathologies. Soleus muscle EMG during free speed level walking was obtained with fine wires, and was normalized by manual muscle test (%MMT). Linear envelopes were generated from the rectified, integrated EMG at each percent gait cycle (%GC) of each stride in individual gait trials. Three methods were used to generate EMG profiles for each tested subject. The ensemble average (EAV) was determined for each subject from the mean relative intensity of the linear envelopes. Low relative intensity or short duration EMG was removed from the ensemble average to create the intensity filtered average (IFA). The packet analysis method (PAC) created an EMG profile from the linear envelopes in successive strides whose respective centroid %GC locations were within +/- 15%GC of each other. Control values for onset and cessation times of individual gait trials were calculated after spurious outliers were removed. Mean onset and cessation times across subjects for control values and the experimental methods (EAV, IFA, and PAC) were calculated. Dunnett's test (p less than .05) was performed to compare control and experimental groups in patient and normal trials. EAV differed from control values for onsets (p less than .01), cessations (p less than .01), and durations (p less than .01) in both normal and patient trials. IFA and PAC had no significant differences from control value means. IFA was selected for clinical use as automatic analysis could be performed on all trials and a minimum number of decision rules were needed.

  16. Improved gait adjustments after gait adaptability training are associated with reduced attentional demands in persons with stroke.

    PubMed

    van Ooijen, Mariëlle W; Heeren, Anita; Smulders, Katrijn; Geurts, Alexander C H; Janssen, Thomas W J; Beek, Peter J; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Roerdink, Melvyn

    2015-03-01

    After stroke, the ability to make step adjustments during walking is reduced and requires more attention, which may cause problems during community walking. The C-Mill is an innovative treadmill augmented with visual context (e.g., obstacles and stepping targets), which was designed specifically to practice gait adaptability. The objective of this study was to determine whether C-Mill gait adaptability training can help to improve gait adjustments and associated attentional demands. Sixteen community-ambulating persons in the chronic stage of stroke (age: 54.8 ± 10.8 years) received ten sessions of C-Mill training within 5-6 weeks. Prior to and after the intervention period, participants performed an obstacle-avoidance task with and without a secondary attention-demanding auditory Stroop task to assess their ability to make gait adjustments (i.e., obstacle-avoidance success rates) as well as the associated attentional demands (i.e., Stroop success rates, stratified for pre-crossing, crossing, and post-crossing strides). Obstacle-avoidance success rates improved after C-Mill training from 52.4 ± 16.3 % at pretest to 77.0 ± 16.4 % at posttest (p < 0.001). This improvement was accompanied by greater Stroop success rates during the obstacle-crossing stride only (pretest: 62.9 ± 24.9 %, posttest: 77.5 ± 20.4 %, p = 0.006). The observed improvements in obstacle-avoidance success rates and Stroop success rates were strongly correlated (r = 0.68, p = 0.015). The ability to make gait adjustments and the associated attentional demands can be successfully targeted in persons with stroke using C-Mill training, which suggests that its underlying assumptions regarding motor control are appropriate. This study lends support and guidance for designing a randomized controlled trial to further examine the potential of C-Mill training for improving safe community ambulation after stroke.

  17. Gait variability is altered in older adults when listening to auditory stimuli with differing temporal structures.

    PubMed

    Kaipust, Jeffrey P; McGrath, Denise; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2013-08-01

    Gait variability in the context of a deterministic dynamical system may be quantified using nonlinear time series analyses that characterize the complexity of the system. Pathological gait exhibits altered gait variability. It can be either too periodic and predictable, or too random and disordered, as is the case with aging. While gait therapies often focus on restoration of linear measures such as gait speed or stride length, we propose that the goal of gait therapy should be to restore optimal gait variability, which exhibits chaotic fluctuations and is the balance between predictability and complexity. In this context, our purpose was to investigate how listening to different auditory stimuli affects gait variability. Twenty-seven young and 27 elderly subjects walked on a treadmill for 5 min while listening to white noise, a chaotic rhythm, a metronome, and with no auditory stimulus. Stride length, step width, and stride intervals were calculated for all conditions. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was then performed on these time series. A quadratic trend analysis determined that an idealized inverted-U shape described the relationship between gait variability and the structure of the auditory stimuli for the elderly group, but not for the young group. This proof-of-concept study shows that the gait of older adults may be manipulated using auditory stimuli. Future work will investigate which structures of auditory stimuli lead to improvements in functional status in older adults.

  18. Accelerometry-based gait analysis, an additional objective approach to screen subjects at risk for falling.

    PubMed

    Senden, R; Savelberg, H H C M; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C; Meijer, K

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether the Tinetti scale, as a subjective measure for fall risk, is associated with objectively measured gait characteristics. It is studied whether gait parameters are different for groups that are stratified for fall risk using the Tinetti scale. Moreover, the discriminative power of gait parameters to classify elderly according to the Tinetti scale is investigated. Gait of 50 elderly with a Tinneti>24 and 50 elderly with a Tinetti≤24 was analyzed using acceleration-based gait analysis. Validated algorithms were used to derive spatio-temporal gait parameters, harmonic ratio, inter-stride amplitude variability and root mean square (RMS) from the accelerometer data. Clear differences in gait were found between the groups. All gait parameters correlated with the Tinetti scale (r-range: 0.20-0.73). Only walking speed, step length and RMS showed moderate to strong correlations and high discriminative power to classify elderly according to the Tinetti scale. It is concluded that subtle gait changes that have previously been related to fall risk are not captured by the subjective assessment. It is therefore worthwhile to include objective gait assessment in fall risk screening.

  19. Muscle contracture emulating system for studying artificially induced pathological gait in intact individuals.

    PubMed

    Olensek, Andrej; Matjacic, Zlatko; Bajd, Tadej

    2005-11-01

    When studying pathological gait it is important to correctly identify primary gait anomalies originating from damage to the central nervous and musculoskeletal system and separate them from compensatory changes of gait pattern, which is often challenging due to the lack of knowledge related to biomechanics of pathological gait. A mechanical system consisting of specially designed trousers, special shoe arrangement, and elastic ropes attached to selected locations on the trousers and shoes is proposed to allow emulation of muscle contractures of soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS) muscles and both SOL-GAS. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and compare gait variability as recorded in normal gait and when being constrained with the proposed system. Six neurologically and orthopedically intact volunteers walked along a 7-m walkway while gait kinematics and kinetics were recorded using VICON motion analysis system and two AMTI forceplates. Statistical analysis of coefficient of variation of kinematics and k