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Sample records for robotic partial nephrectomy

  1. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: Superiority over laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Shiroki, Ryoichi; Fukami, Naohiko; Fukaya, Kosuke; Kusaka, Mamoru; Natsume, Takahiro; Ichihara, Takashi; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Nephron-sparing surgery has been proven to positively impact the postoperative quality of life for the treatment of small renal tumors, possibly leading to functional improvements. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is still one of the most demanding procedures in urological surgery. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy sometimes results in extended warm ischemic time and severe complications, such as open conversion, postoperative hemorrhage and urine leakage. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy exploits the advantages offered by the da Vinci Surgical System to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, equipped with 3-D vision and a better degree in the freedom of surgical instruments. The introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System made nephron-sparing surgery, specifically robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, safe with promising results, leading to the shortening of warm ischemic time and a reduction in perioperative complications. Even for complex and challenging tumors, robotic assistance is expected to provide the benefit of minimally-invasive surgery with safe and satisfactory renal function. Warm ischemic time is the modifiable factor during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to affect postoperative kidney function. We analyzed the predictive factors for extended warm ischemic time from our robot-assisted partial nephrectomy series. The surface area of the tumor attached to the kidney parenchyma was shown to significantly affect the extended warm ischemic time during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. In cases with tumor-attached surface area more than 15 cm(2) , we should consider switching robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to open partial nephrectomy under cold ischemia if it is imperative. In Japan, a nationwide prospective study has been carried out to show the superiority of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in improving warm ischemic time and complications. By facilitating robotic technology, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

  2. Robotic Partial Nephrectomy: Expanding Utilization, Advancing Innovation.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Christopher J D; Garbens, Alaina; Chopra, Sameer; Gill, Inderbir S; Satkunasivam, Raj

    2017-04-01

    Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) is gaining increasing prominence for nephron-sparing surgery in the treatment of patients with localized kidney tumors. RPN offers the benefits of minimally invasive surgery with a shorter learning curve compared with its laparoscopic counterpart. While long-term data are awaited, RPN does provide short-term oncologic and functional outcomes comparable to open and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Furthermore, robotic surgery has facilitated technical innovation, including the elimination of warm ischemia, provided minimally invasive alternatives to patients with complex tumors, and importantly, has fuelled increased dissemination of partial nephrectomy surgery among community urologists.

  3. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for complex renal masses.

    PubMed

    Patton, Michael W; Salevitz, Daniel A; Tyson, Mark D; Andrews, Paul E; Ferrigni, Erin N; Nateras, Rafael N; Castle, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether the approach for partial nephrectomy is influenced by tumor complexity and if the introduction of robotic techniques has allowed us to treat more complex tumors minimally invasively. Data from 292 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for renal masses from November 1999 to July 2013 at a tertiary referral center were retrospectively reviewed. Nephrometry scores and perioperative outcomes were stratified based on when robotic techniques were introduced. Mean follow-up time was 2.6 years. Preoperative RENAL nephrometry scores and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. Of the 292 patients, 31.5 % underwent robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, 46.2 % laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and 22.9 % open partial nephrectomy. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy mean nephrometry score was significantly higher than laparoscopic and equivalent to open. Significant perioperative differences were estimated blood loss (p = 0.0001), length of stay (p = 0.0001) and Clavien score (p = 0.0069), all favoring robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. Limitations include retrospective design and single center data. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy is a safe and effective surgical modality that allows for complex renal tumors that were previously reserved for open partial nephrectomy in the pure laparoscopic era to be managed with a minimally invasive approach.

  4. Review of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy in modern practice

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, John; Benway, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial nephrectomy (PN) is currently the standard treatment for T1 renal tumors. Minimally invasive PN offers decreased blood loss, shorter length of stay, rapid convalescence, and improved cosmesis. Due to the challenges inherent in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, its dissemination has been stifled. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) offers an intuitive platform to perform minimally invasive PN. It is one of the fastest growing robotic procedures among all surgical subspecialties. RAPN continues to improve upon the oncological and functional outcomes of renal tumor extirpative therapy. Herein, we describe the surgical technique, outcomes, and complications of RAPN.

  5. Robotic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy: a four-arm approach.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Joseph; Stifelman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Robotic partial nephrectomy is an effective alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. The 3-arm and 4-arm transperitoneal robotic approaches are well described in the literature. However, a retroperitoneal robotic technique has yet to be fully described. We report our technique and initial experience with robotic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy with a novel 4-arm approach. We reviewed our current experience with the robotic retroperitoneal approach. Descriptive statistics on patient characteristics, operative parameters, and oncologic outcomes are reported. A total of 67 robotic-assisted partial nephrectomies were performed by one surgeon between October 2009 and October 2010. The 4-arm retroperitoneal approach was used in 8 patients (12%) with no complications. Median tumor size was 2cm. All were posterior renal tumors, with 5 located in the upper pole. The median operative time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss, and length of stay were 202 minutes, 18 minutes, 100cc, and 2 days, respectively. Pathology indicated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 7 patients with negative margins. The 4-arm robotic approach to retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy is safe, reproducible, and easily used. The fourth arm provides optimal traction on target tissues in key maneuvers and may decrease complications and positive margins secondary to impaired exposure.

  6. Current status of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Komninos, Christos; Tuliao, Patrick; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-10-01

    Robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is increasingly carried out in an attempt to improve the cosmetic outcome of minimally-invasive procedures. However, the actual role of this novel technique remains to be determined. The present article reviews evidence and examines updates of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy outcomes reported in more contemporary studies. A comprehensive online systematic search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses criteria recommendations was carried out in January 2014, identifying data from 2008 to 2014 regarding robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy. The majority of medical evidence to date is based on case reports or retrospective studies. Current studies show that robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is a feasible procedure carried out in an acceptable length of operative time, and resulting in a desirable cosmetic outcome and less postoperative pain. However, comparable studies show that robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy is inferior to the conventional approach, especially with regard to warm ischemia time. Furthermore, the numerous limitations that exist with the utilization of the current commercial single-site devices make robotic laparoendoscopic single-site PN more challenging and more complicated for surgeons compared with conventional procedures. Further significant improvements, along with more studies, are required in order to develop the ideal robotic laparoendoscopic single-site robotic platform and overcome the current limitations. For the time being, robotic laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy procedures could be applicable in patients with low tumor size and complexity, and should not be routinely applied in all cases.

  7. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: current perspectives and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Gagan; Benway, Brian M; Bhayani, Sam B; Zorn, Kevin C

    2009-10-01

    The widespread adoption of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has been curtailed by its technical complexity. With the introduction of robotic technology, there is a potential for a shorter learning curve for minimally invasive nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). Initial published data on robot-assisted partial nephrectomy show promising perioperative outcomes comparable to large LPN series performed by highly experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Intraoperative parameters (operating room time, warm ischemia time, and blood loss) and short-term oncologic results demonstrate that this technique, unlike LPN, has a relatively short learning curve. Economic factors, as well as the necessity of an experienced bedside assistant, present the potential shortcomings of the procedure.

  8. R-LESS partial nephrectomy trifecta outcome is inferior to multiport robotic partial nephrectomy: comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Komninos, Christos; Shin, Tae Young; Tuliao, Patrick; Yoon, Young Eun; Koo, Kyo Chul; Chang, Chien-Hsiang; Kim, Sang Woon; Ha, Ji Yong; Han, Woong Kyu; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-09-01

    Trifecta achievement in partial nephrectomy (PN) is defined as the combination of warm ischemia time ≤ 20 min, negative surgical margins, and no surgical complications. To compare trifecta achievement between robotic, laparoendoscopic, single-site (R-LESS) PN and multiport robotic PN (RPN). Data from 167 patients who underwent RPN from 2006 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Primary outcome measurement was trifecta achievement; secondary outcome was the perioperative and postoperative comparison between groups. The measurements were estimated and analyzed with SPSS v.18 using univariable, multivariable, and subgroup analyses. Eighty-nine patients were treated with RPN and 78 were treated with R-LESS PN. Baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. Trifecta was achieved in 38 patients (42.7%) in the multiport RPN group and 20 patients (25.6%) in the R-LESS PN group (p=0.021). Patients in the R-LESS PN group had longer mean operative time, warm ischemia time, and increased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) percentage change. No significant differences were found between the two groups in days of hospitalization, blood loss, postoperative eGFR, positive surgical margins, and surgical complications. Patients with increased PADUA and RENAL scores, infiltration of the collecting system, and renal sinus involvement had an increased probability of not achieving the trifecta. In regression analysis, the type of procedure and the tumor size could predict trifecta accomplishment (p=0.019 and 0.043, respectively). The retrospective study, the low number of series, and the controversial definition of trifecta were the main limitations. The trifecta was achieved in significantly more patients who underwent multiport RPN than those who underwent R-LESS PN. R-LESS PN could be an alternative option for patients with decreased tumor size, low PADUA and RENAL scores, and without renal sinus or collecting system involvement. In this study, we looked at the

  9. Novel dynamic information integration during da Vinci robotic partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bhayani, Sam B; Snow, Devon C

    2008-07-01

    With the increasing discovery of small renal neoplasms, minimally invasive excisional approaches have become more popular. Robotic partial nephrectomy is an emerging procedure. During robotic renal surgery, the console surgeon often has a need to view images or other data during the surgical dissection. Herein, we describe the preliminary use of integrative surgical imaging in the console surgical view during 20 cases of robotic partial and radical nephrectomy. Integration of this technology, termed Tilepro, allows the surgeon to view data within the robotic console and thus prevents disengagement. The success rate of transmission was 95% and the usefulness of the transmission was 89%. Complications included delayed transmission and cabling issues. This technology is useful in robotic renal surgery and may have benefits in telepresence or other surgical fields.

  10. Is robotic partial nephrectomy convenient for solitary kidney?

    PubMed Central

    Kaouk, Jihad H.; Malkoç, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Nephron sparing surgery (NSS) is the gold standard treatment option for patients with a solitary kidney in order to preserve renal function. Open partial nephrectomy (OPN) has been long considered the standard care for NSS. Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) is being gradually used more commonly even for solitary kidney and complex tumors. There was no difference between RPN and OPN regarding the rate of intraoperative-postoperative complications and positive surgical margin (PSM) (RPN: 7.5%, OPN: 8%) for patients with solitary kidney who underwent partial nephrectomy for small renal masses. Warm ischemia time (WIT) in all of our studies was within the safe range of <25 minutes which is acceptable ischemia time for robotic approaches. More studies are needed in order to evaluate kidney function. In conclusion with increasing experience, solitary kidney tumors can be managed safely with robotic approach. For patients having complex tumors with a potential of WIT >25 minutes, administration of intracorporeal ice slush during surgery may be considered. PMID:27635284

  11. From open to robotic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Rincon Mayans, Anibal; Rioja Zuazu, Jorge; Parra, Raul O

    2013-01-01

    The present study does not establish comparisons of the different techniques (open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery); rather, it analyzes the how, when and why of each of them from a historical perspective. This historical analysis begins in the late XIX century and extends up to the present time. The study examines the principles, the uncertainties regarding the feasibility of the techniques, the failures, the complications, the doubts about whether the right thing is being done, and the success of a surgical treatment which is presently beyond question. The historical account is summarized, since it covers a period of over one hundred years. It is the history written by innovating and inspired men and women who changed the course of the treatment of renal neoplastic disease.

  12. Robotic Partial Nephrectomy with the Da Vinci Xi.

    PubMed

    Kallingal, George J S; Swain, Sanjaya; Darwiche, Fadi; Punnen, Sanoj; Manoharan, Murugesan; Gonzalgo, Mark L; Parekh, Dipen J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The surgical expertise to perform robotic partial nephrectomy is heavily dependent on technology. The Da Vinci Xi (XI) is the latest robotic surgical platform with significant advancements compared to its predecessor. We describe our operative technique and experience with the XI system for robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). Materials and Methods. Patients with clinical T1 renal masses were offered RPN with the XI. We used laser targeting, autopositioning, and a novel "in-line" port placement to perform RPN. Results. 15 patients underwent RPN with the XI. There were no intraoperative complications and no operative conversions. Mean console time was 101.3 minutes (range 44-176 minutes). Mean ischemia time was 17.5 minutes and estimated blood loss was 120 mLs. 12 of 15 patients had renal cell carcinoma. Two patients had oncocytoma and one had benign cystic disease. All patients had negative surgical margins and pathologic T1 disease. Two postoperative complications were encountered, including one patient who developed a pseudoaneurysm and one readmitted for presumed urinary tract infection. Conclusions. RPN with the XI system can be safely performed. Combining our surgical technique with the technological advancements on the XI offers patients acceptable pathologic and perioperative outcomes.

  13. Robotic partial nephrectomy with selective parenchymal compression (Simon clamp).

    PubMed

    Castillo, O A; Rodriguez-Carlin, A; Lopez-Fontana, G; Aleman, E

    2013-01-01

    To present our initial experience using selective renal parenchymal ischemia, without hilar clamping, in robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy. In four patients with T1a renal tumor we performed robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy, using the Simon's clamp (Aesculap). It provides selective parenchymal compression without the need of vascular clamping. All patients had exofitic renal tumors in polar location. Renal parenchymal reconstruction was done as the standard technique. The median age was 49.6 years (42-59), 3 male and 1 female patient. Median operative time was 71,6 minutes (40-120). Mean stimated bleeding was 250 ml (50-400). Average tumor size was 3,25 cm (1,5-5,3). There were no complications and the average hospital stay was 3,5 days (1-7). The pathology was informed as renal cell carcinoma in three patients and one hemorrhagic cyst. The surgical margins were negative. Our preliminary results shows that selective renal parenchymal compression, with the Simon's clamp, provides an alternative to vascular control in selected patients with polar renal tumors. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Robotic partial nephrectomy in the setting of prior abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Petros, Firas G; Patel, Manish N; Kheterpal, Emil; Siddiqui, Sameer; Ross, James; Bhandari, Akshay; Diaz, Mireya; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig G

    2011-08-01

    • To evaluate our experience with robotic partial nephrectomy in patients with previous abdominal surgery and evaluate the effect of previous abdominal surgery on perioperative outcomes. We also describe a technique for intraperitoneal access for patients with prior abdominal surgery utilizing the 8 mm robotic camera for direct-vision trocar placement. • From a prospective cohort of 197 consecutive patients who underwent robotic renal surgery at a single academic institution, a total of 95 patients underwent transperitoneal robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). • Patients with and without previous abdominal surgery were compared. Patients with prior abdominal surgery were subcategorized into two groups: upper midline or ipsilateral upper quadrant scar or lower abdominal, contralateral, or minimally-invasive scar. • Demographic and perioperative variables were compared between the surgery and no surgery groups. Access was obtained using a Veress needle or Hassan technique. • We utilized a technique of direct vision placement of the initial trocar on our 10 most recent cases, using an 8 mm robotic camera placed through the obturator of 12 mm clear-tipped trocar. • Lysis of adhesions was performed as needed to allow for placement of additional robotic ports. • A total of 95 patients underwent transperitoneal RPN, of which 41 (43%) had a history of prior abdominal surgery and six had upper midline or ipsilateral upper quadrant scars. • There were no statistically significant differences between patients with previous abdominal surgery and patients with no previous abdominal surgery in BMI (30.4 vs 29.4 kg/m(2) ), median tumor size (2.5 cm vs 2.3), median total operative time (246 vs 250 min), median warm ischemia time (21 vs 16 min), median EBL (150 vs100 ml), clinical stage, transfusion rate, or complications. • A total of six patients underwent 7 previous upper midline or ipsilateral upper quadrant surgeries, including open cholecystectomy-2 patients

  15. Practice patterns and outcomes of open and minimally invasive partial nephrectomy since the introduction of robotic partial nephrectomy: results from the nationwide inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Sukumar, Shyam; Sammon, Jesse D; Rogers, Craig G; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani

    2014-04-01

    We determined practice patterns and perioperative outcomes of open and minimally invasive partial nephrectomy in the United States since the introduction of a robot-assisted modifier in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We identified all patients with nonmetastatic disease treated with open, laparoscopic or robotic partial nephrectomy in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between October 2008 and December 2010. Utilization rates were assessed by year, patient and hospital characteristics. We evaluated the perioperative outcomes of open vs robotic and open vs laparoscopic partial nephrectomy using binary logistic regression models adjusted for patient and hospital covariates. In a weighted sample of 38,064 partial nephrectomies 66.9%, 23.9% and 9.2% of the procedures were open, robotic and laparoscopic operations, respectively. In 2010 the relative annual increase in open, robotic and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was 7.9%, 45.4% and 6.1%, respectively. Compared to open partial nephrectomy patients treated with minimally invasive partial nephrectomy were less likely to receive blood transfusion (robotic vs laparoscopic OR 0.56, p <0.001 vs OR 0.68, p = 0.016), postoperative complication (OR 0.63, p <0.001 vs OR 0.78, p <0.009) or prolonged length of stay (OR 0.27 vs OR 0.41, each p <0.001). Only patients who underwent the robotic procedure were less likely to experience an intraoperative complication (robotic vs laparoscopic OR 0.69, p = 0.014 vs OR 0.67, p = 0.069). Excess hospital charges were higher after robotic surgery (OR 1.35, p <0.001). The dissemination of robotic surgery for partial nephrectomy in the United States has been rapid and safe. Compared to open partial nephrectomy the robotic procedure had lower odds than laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for most study outcomes except hospital charges. Robotic partial nephrectomy has now supplanted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy as the most common minimally invasive approach for partial nephrectomy. Copyright

  16. Robotic surgery and hemostatic agents in partial nephrectomy: a high rate of success without vascular clamping.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Luca; Morelli, John; Palmeri, Matteo; D'Isidoro, Cristiano; Kauffmann, Emanuele Federico; Tartaglia, Dario; Caprili, Giovanni; Pisano, Roberta; Guadagni, Simone; Di Franco, Gregorio; Di Candio, Giulio; Mosca, Franco

    2015-09-01

    Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy has been proposed as a technique to overcome technical challenges of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. We prospectively collected and analyzed data from 31 patients who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy with systematic use of hemostatic agents, between February 2009 and October 2014. Thirty-three renal tumors were treated in 31 patients. There were no conversions to open surgery, intraoperative complications, or blood transfusions. The mean size of the resected tumors was 27 mm (median 20 mm, range 5-40 mm). Twenty-seven of 33 lesions (82%) did not require vascular clamping and therefore were treated in the absence of ischemia. All margins were negative. The high partial nephrectomy success rate without vascular clamping suggests that robotic nephron-sparing surgery with systematic use of hemostatic agents may be a safe, effective method to completely avoid ischemia in the treatment of selected renal masses.

  17. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Naveed; Petros, Firas; Sukumar, Shyam; Patel, Manish; Bhandari, Akshay; Kaul, Sanjeev; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig

    2011-01-01

    To report our experience with robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) in obese patients compared with a contemporary cohort of nonobese patients. We defined obesity as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2). From June 2004 to September 2009, 97 patients underwent RAPN at our institution, of whom 49 were obese (group 1) and 48 were nonobese (group 2, BMI <30 kg/m(2)). We compared demographics, operative data, complications, and pathological outcomes between these two groups. The average BMI for the obese group was 36.2 kg/m(2) (range 30.3-49) compared with 25.7 kg/m(2) (range 20.5-29.7) for the nonobese group. Median tumor size was 2.5 versus 2.3 cm for obese and nonobese groups, respectively. Obese patients had a larger median estimated blood loss (150 vs.100 mL, p=0.027) and a trend toward a longer median operative time (265 vs. 242.5 minutes, p=0.085) and median warm ischemia time (26.5 vs. 22.5 minutes, p=0.074), but this did not achieve statistical significance. An intraoperative complication occurred in one patient in each group. The postoperative complication rate was not statistically significant between the two groups (8.3% vs. 4.3%, p=0.377). The median hospital stay was 2 days for both groups. RAPN is safe and feasible in obese patients. Obese patients had a higher estimated blood loss and a trend toward greater operative time and warm ischemia time, which did not achieve statistical significance.

  18. Robotic partial nephrectomy with intracorporeal renal hypothermia using ice slush.

    PubMed

    Kaouk, Jihad H; Samarasekera, Dinesh; Krishnan, Jayram; Autorino, Riccardo; Acka, Oktay; Brando, Luis Felipe; Laydner, Humberto; Zargar, Homayoun

    2014-09-01

    To outline our technique for intracorporeal cooling with ice slush during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN), with real-time parenchymal temperature monitoring. Eleven consecutive patients with enhancing solid renal masses suitable for treatment with RPN between September 2013 and January 2014 were included in the analysis. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Preoperative patient characteristics, intraoperative surgical parameters including patient body temperature and ipsilateral kidney temperature with real-time monitoring, and short-term functional outcomes were analyzed. Median age was 55 years (range, 39-75 years) and American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 3 (range, 2-4). Median tumor size was 4 cm (range, 2.3-7.1) and RENAL nephrometry score was 9 (range, 5-11). One patient had a solitary kidney. During cooling, the lowest median renal parenchymal temperature was 17.05°C (range, 11°C-26°C) and cold ischemia time was 27.17 minutes (range, 18-49 minutes). Median time to latest postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate was 12 days (range, 2-30 days). Median glomerular filtration rate preservation was 81% (range, 47.9%-126%). There was one positive margin. There were no postoperative complications, and no patients experienced a prolonged ileus. The limitations of this study include a small number of patients and short-term follow-up. RPN with renal hypothermia using intracorporeal ice slush is technically feasible. Our simplified method of introducing the ice slush was free of complications and highly reproducible. The use of a needle temperature probe allowed us to monitor in real time cooling of the renal parenchyma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaphylactic Shock After Intravenous Administration of Indocyanine Green During Robotic Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Chu, William; Chennamsetty, Avinash; Toroussian, Robert; Lau, Clayton

    2017-05-01

    Indocyanine Green (ICG) is frequently used during urologic robotic procedures and is generally considered to be safe. However, there are reported cases of severe complications from ICG when used for non-urologic purposes. We present the first case to our knowledge of anaphylactic shock in response to intravenous ICG during a robotic partial nephrectomy.

  20. A comparative cost analysis of robot-assisted versus traditional laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hyams, Elias; Pierorazio, Philip; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Ward, Maryann; Allaf, Mohamad

    2012-07-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) is supplanting traditional laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) as the technique of choice for minimally invasive nephron-sparing surgery. This evolution has resulted from potential clinical benefits, as well as proliferation of robotic systems and patient demand for robot-assisted surgery. We sought to quantify the costs associated with the use of robotics for minimally invasive partial nephrectomy. A cost analysis was performed for 20 consecutive robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN) and LPN patients at our institution from 2009 to 2010. Data included actual perioperative and hospitalization costs as well as professional fees. Capital costs were estimated using purchase costs and amortization of two robotic systems from 2001 to 2009, as well as maintenance contract costs. The estimated cost/case was obtained using total robotic surgical volume during this period. Total estimated costs were compared between groups. A separate analysis was performed assuming "ideal" robotic utilization during a comparable period. RALPN had a cost premium of +$1066/case compared with LPN, assuming actual robot utilization from 2001 to 2009. Assuming "ideal" utilization during a comparable period, this premium decreased to +$334; capital costs per case decreased from $1907 to $1175. Tumor size, operative time, and length of stay were comparable between groups. RALPN is associated with a small to moderate cost premium depending on assumptions regarding robotic surgical volume. Saturated utilization of robotic systems decreases attributable capital costs and makes comparison with laparoscopy more favorable. Purported clinical benefits of RPN (eg, decreased warm ischemia time, increased utilization of nephron-sparing surgery) need further study, because these may have cost implications.

  1. The Effect of the Diffusion of the Surgical Robot on the Hospital-level Utilization of Partial Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajan, Ganesh; Taksler, Glen B.; Walter, Dawn; Gross, Cary P.; Sosa, Raul E.; Makarov, Danil V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rapid diffusion of the surgical robot has been controversial because of the technology’s high costs and its disputed marginal benefit. Some, however, have suggested that adoption of the robot may have improved care for patients with renal malignancy by facilitating partial nephrectomy, an underutilized, technically challenging procedure believed to be less morbid than radical nephrectomy. We sought to determine whether institutional acquisition of the robot was associated with increased utilization of partial nephrectomy. Methods We used all payer data from 7 states to identify 21,569 nephrectomies. These patient-level records were aggregated to the hospital-level then merged with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey and publicly available data on timing of robot acquisition. We used a multivariable difference-in-difference model to assess at the hospital-level whether robot acquisition was associated with an increase in the proportion of partial nephrectomy, adjusting for hospital nephrectomy volume, year of surgery, and several additional hospital-level factors. Results In the multivariable-adjusted differences-in-differences model, hospitals acquiring a robot between 2001 and 2004 performed a greater proportion of partial nephrectomy in both 2005 (29.9% increase) and 2008 (34.9% increase). Hospitals acquiring a robot between 2005 and 2008 also demonstrated a greater proportion of partial nephrectomy in 2008 (15.5% increase). In addition, hospital nephrectomy volume and urban location were also significantly associated with increased proportion of partial nephrectomy. Conclusions Hospital acquisition of the surgical robot is associated with greater proportion of partial nephrectomy, an underutilized, guideline-encouraged procedure. This is one of the few studies to suggest robot acquisition is associated with improvement in quality of patient care. PMID:25494234

  2. [Cost comparison of open and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy in treatment of renal tumor].

    PubMed

    Abd El Fattah, V; Chevrot, A; Meusy, A; Mercier, G; Wagner, L; Soustelle, L; Boukaram, M; Thuret, R; Costa, P; Droupy, S

    2016-04-01

    Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy rapidly took on among urologists, even though studies showing its superiority over other techniques are still scarce and its costs hard to evaluate, especially in the French medical system. To evaluate the cost overrun of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy compared to that of open partial nephrectomy. From January 2010 to December 2013, 77 patients underwent a partial nephrectomy, 46 of which by robot-assisted laparoscopy and the remaining 31 by lombotomy. The two groups were similar in composition. Economic data regarding the staff, the consumables and the premises involved have been analyzed. Costs are significantly higher in the NPR group (9253.21 euros vs. 7448.42 euros) due to higher consumable expenses as well as the costs pertaining to the amortization and maintenance of the robot. Yet, that difference tends to diminish as the duration of the experiment increases. No significant difference was found in warm ischemia times, operation duration and renal function a month after the operation. On the other hand, patients from the NPR group spent a significantly smaller amount of time in recovery room (159 minutes vs. 205 minutes, P=0.004), presented fewer complications and were discharged faster (6.1 days vs. 8.1 days, P=0.04). To be profitable for the hospital in the French GHS system, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy must take place in a complex where at least 300 robot-assisted interventions are performed annually, in the framework of a hospitalization lasting four days or less, the use of a single needle holder and no systematic use of a haemostatic agent. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of near infrared fluorescence during robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Dávila, V; Nazmy, M; Kella, N; Palmeros-Rodríguez, M A; Morales-Montor, J G; Pacheco-Gahbler, C

    2016-04-01

    Partial nephrectomy is the treatment of choice for T1a tumours. The open approach is still the standard method. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery offers advantages that are applicable to partial nephrectomy, such as the use of the Firefly® system with near-infrared fluorescence. To demonstrate the implementation of fluorescence in nephron-sparing surgery. This case concerned a 37-year-old female smoker, with obesity. The patient had a right kidney tumour measuring 31 mm, which was found using tomography. She therefore underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, with a warm ischaemia time of 22 minutes and the use of fluorescence with the Firefly® system to guide the resection. There were no complications. The tumour was a pT1aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma, with negative margins. Robot-assisted renal laparoscopic surgery is employed for nephron-sparing surgery, with good oncological and functional results. The combination of the Firefly® technology and intraoperative ultrasound can more accurately delimit the extent of the lesion, increase the negative margins and decrease the ischaemia time. Near-infrared fluorescence in robot-assisted partial nephrectomy is useful for guiding the tumour resection and can potentially improve the oncological and functional results. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and Validation of a Novel Robotic Procedure Specific Simulation Platform: Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hung, Andrew J; Shah, Swar H; Dalag, Leonard; Shin, Daniel; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-08-01

    We developed a novel procedure specific simulation platform for robotic partial nephrectomy. In this study we prospectively evaluate its face, content, construct and concurrent validity. This hybrid platform features augmented reality and virtual reality. Augmented reality involves 3-dimensional robotic partial nephrectomy surgical videos overlaid with virtual instruments to teach surgical anatomy, technical skills and operative steps. Advanced technical skills are assessed with an embedded full virtual reality renorrhaphy task. Participants were classified as novice (no surgical training, 15), intermediate (less than 100 robotic cases, 13) or expert (100 or more robotic cases, 14) and prospectively assessed. Cohort performance was compared with the Kruskal-Wallis test (construct validity). Post-study questionnaire was used to assess the realism of simulation (face validity) and usefulness for training (content validity). Concurrent validity evaluated correlation between virtual reality renorrhaphy task and a live porcine robotic partial nephrectomy performance (Spearman's analysis). Experts rated the augmented reality content as realistic (median 8/10) and helpful for resident/fellow training (8.0-8.2/10). Experts rated the platform highly for teaching anatomy (9/10) and operative steps (8.5/10) but moderately for technical skills (7.5/10). Experts and intermediates outperformed novices (construct validity) in efficiency (p=0.0002) and accuracy (p=0.002). For virtual reality renorrhaphy, experts outperformed intermediates on GEARS metrics (p=0.002). Virtual reality renorrhaphy and in vivo porcine robotic partial nephrectomy performance correlated significantly (r=0.8, p <0.0001) (concurrent validity). This augmented reality simulation platform displayed face, content and construct validity. Performance in the procedure specific virtual reality task correlated highly with a porcine model (concurrent validity). Future efforts will integrate procedure specific

  5. da Vinci-assisted robotic partial nephrectomy: technique and results at a mean of 15 months of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sanjeev; Laungani, Rajesh; Sarle, Richard; Stricker, Hans; Peabody, James; Littleton, Ray; Menon, Mani

    2007-01-01

    Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is gaining acceptance as an alternative to open surgery for small renal tumours, although technical difficulty of intracorporeal suturing and concerns over warm ischemia time are limitations. Previous work has demonstrated that suturing with the robotic system is easier compared with laparoscopy. We believe the robot has an application and we report our initial experience in 10 patients undergoing robotic partial nephrectomy. Ten patients with small exophytic renal masses underwent intraperitoneal robotic partial nephrectomy. Principles of traditional open surgery were followed and intraoperative ultrasound was used to define resection margins. The renal artery was clamped with laparoscopic bulldog clamps and indigo carmine was administered intravenously to detect entry into collecting system. Suture closure and FLOSEAL were used for hemostasis. Frozen sections were obtained in all patients. Seven men and three women, mean age 59 yr, underwent robotic partial nephrectomy. Mean tumour size was 2 cm. Mean console and warm ischemia time were 158 min and 21 min, respectively. The median hospital stay was 1.5 d. Pathology revealed renal cell carcinoma in eight, oncocytoma in one, and lipoma in one. All resection margins were negative. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 28 mo. Robotic partial nephrectomy is a viable alternative to open or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in carefully selected patients with small renal tumours. The advantages of the robotic system must be weighed against its cost. Further studies will determine if reduction in procedure complexity warrants the expense of such technology.

  6. Evaluation of renal function under controlled hypotension in zero ischemia robotic assisted partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Forastiere, Ester; Claroni, Claudia; Sofra, Maria; Torregiani, Giulia; Covotta, Marco; Marchione, Maria Grazia; Giannarelli, Diana; Papalia, Rocco

    2013-01-01

    In partial nephrectomy with hilar clamping every minute of ischemia can impair renal function, thus great importance is having the controlled hypotension as a part of zero ischemia technique. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of hypotensive anesthesia on renal function, in patients undergoing robotic assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) , during surgery and at 3 months follow up. This is a prospective study of 100 patients, ASA 1-2, who underwent zero ischemia RAPN under controlled hypotension (CH) from December 2011 through to May 2013. Serum creatinine, BUN, estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), fractional excretion of sodium (FSE) and technetium Tc 99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTC-MAG-3), renal scintigraphy with effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were evaluated. Mean duration of CH was 50 ± 4 minutes. Acute renal failure wasn't observed in any of the patients. A significant variation of eGFR during the procedure and 24 hours after surgery was observed. No significant variation of BUN and FSE was detected. Comparing preoperative ERPF of the operated kidney with ERPF 3 months after surgery, it decreased by 2%. In patients with normal preoperative renal function CH didn't show any detrimental impact on renal function during and after robotic assisted partial nephrectomy.

  7. Impact of fellowship training on robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: benchmarking perioperative safety and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Abby S; Lee, Bruce; Rawal, Bhupendra; Thiel, David D

    2015-06-01

    To provide perioperative benchmark data for surgeons entering practice from formal robotic training and performing robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RAPN). Perioperative outcomes of the first 100 RAPN from a surgeon entering into practice directly from robotic fellowship training were analyzed. Postoperative complications were categorized by Clavien-Dindo grade. Surgical "trifecta scores" and Margin, Ischemia, and Complication (MIC) scoring were utilized to assess surgical outcomes. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS (version 9.2; SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina). Median age of the cohort was 63 years (22-81 years), and 34 (34.3%) patients were over age 65. Forty-one (41.4%) patients had a BMI > 30. Thirteen (13.1%) had RENAL 10-12 tumors, 22 of which (22.2%) were >4 cm in size. Median warm ischemia time was 17 min, and 13 patients had resection without warm ischemia. Five patients were converted to open partial nephrectomy, and 1 patient was converted to laparoscopic nephrectomy. Twenty-one patients (21.2%) experienced a complication, 6 of whom had a major (Clavien grade 3 or higher) complication with one grade 5 complication. Operating room time decreased with experience, but surgical complications and hospital stay did not change with experience. MIC score of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients was 74.7%, while the surgical trifecta was reached in 71.3 % of RCC patients. Surgeons may enter practice directly from formal robotic training and perform RAPN with perioperative outcomes, surgical complications, surgical trifecta scores, and MIC scoring in line with those the most experienced robotic partial nephrectomists.

  8. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: current status, techniques, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Paurush; Hemal, Ashok K

    2012-02-01

    Open partial nephrectomy for the treatment of small renal masses (SRMs) concerning for renal cell carcinoma has been increasingly utilized with the increased incidental detection of SRMs and the growing recognition of the benefits of renal preservation. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is a minimally invasive technique that achieves comparable oncologic and improved morbidity outcomes when compared to the open procedure. However, LPN is a technically demanding procedure resulting in a long learning curve and a lack of widespread adoption. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) overcomes many of the technical hurdles of the LPN and is now coming to the forefront for the minimally invasive surgical management of SRMs. To date, the short-term oncologic outcomes of RAPN have been comparable to the open operation while providing the improved morbidity outcomes of LPN. Although encouraging, we await the long-term oncologic results of this new and promising procedure. The current bottleneck is an issue of cost and reliance on a patient-side surgeon. Future developments in instrumentation, newer robots, cost reduction, more streamlined training, increased robotic experience, and adoption by more centers will lead to greater benefit for patients with SRMs requiring nephron-sparing surgery. This review will discuss techniques for RAPN and then delve into the current status of RAPN using parameters such as warm ischemia time, blood loss, hospital stay, oncological outcomes, complications, learning curve, and quality of life. There will be an exploration of potential disadvantages associated with RAPN followed by a look at evolving techniques in regard to this groundbreaking procedure.

  9. Robot-assisted laparoscopic versus open partial nephrectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease: A propensity score-matched comparative analysis of surgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Toshio; Kondo, Tsunenori; Tachibana, Hidekazu; Iizuka, Junpei; Omae, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2017-07-01

    To compare surgical outcomes between robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and open partial nephrectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease. Of 550 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between 2012 and 2015, 163 patients with T1-2 renal tumors who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , and underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy or open partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. To minimize selection bias between the two surgical methods, patient variables were adjusted by 1:1 propensity score matching. The present study included 75 patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and 88 undergoing open partial nephrectomy. After propensity score matching, 40 patients were included in each operative group. The mean preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate was 49 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . The mean ischemia time was 21 min in robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (warm ischemia) and 35 min in open partial nephrectomy (cold ischemia). Preservation of the estimated glomerular filtration rate 3-6 months postoperatively was not significantly different between robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and open partial nephrectomy (92% vs 91%, P = 0.9348). Estimated blood loss was significantly lower in the robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy group than in the open partial nephrectomy group (104 vs 185 mL, P = 0.0025). The postoperative length of hospital stay was shorter in the robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy group than in the open partial nephrectomy group (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 complications and a negative surgical margin status were not significantly different between the two groups. In our experience, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and open partial nephrectomy provide similar outcomes in terms of functional preservation and perioperative complications among patients with

  10. An effective visualisation and registration system for image-guided robotic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Philip; Mayer, Erik; Vale, Justin; Cohen, Daniel; Edwards, Eddie; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2012-03-01

    Robotic partial nephrectomy is presently the fastest-growing robotic surgical procedure, and in comparison to traditional techniques it offers reduced tissue trauma and likelihood of post-operative infection, while hastening recovery time and improving cosmesis. It is also an ideal candidate for image guidance technology since soft tissue deformation, while still present, is localised and less problematic compared to other surgical procedures. This work describes the implementation and ongoing development of an effective image guidance system that aims to address some of the remaining challenges in this area. Specific innovations include the introduction of an intuitive, partially automated registration interface, and the use of a hardware platform that makes sophisticated augmented reality overlays practical in real time. Results and examples of image augmentation are presented from both retrospective and live cases. Quantitative analysis of registration error verifies that the proposed registration technique is appropriate for the chosen image guidance targets.

  11. Robot-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy for T1b Tumors: Strict Trifecta Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tufek, Ilter; Doganca, Tunkut; Obek, Can; Argun, Omer Burak; Tuna, Mustafa Bilal; Keskin, Mehmet Selcuk; Kural, Ali Rıza

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: “Trifecta” in partial nephrectomy consists of negative surgical margins, minimal renal function decrease and absence of complications. In the present article, our single-center robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) experience in T1b renal masses is reported in terms of strict Trifecta outcomes. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with a tumor diameter between 4 and 7 cm (stage T1b), who underwent RAPN by a single surgeon. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were recorded and analyzed to evaluate short-term functional and oncologic outcomes. Patients with absence of grade ≥ 2 Clavien-Dindo complications, warm ischemia time (WIT) ≤25 minutes, ≤15% postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decrease and negative surgical margins were reported to achieve strict Trifecta outcomes. P < .05 was indicated statistically significant. Results: A total of 150 patients underwent RAPN, and 50 patients were identified with tumor size between 4 and 7 cm. Mean WIT was 20.8 ± 6.2 minutes and mean estimated blood loss (EBL) was 269 ± 191 mL. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. Eleven patients (22%) had a >15% eGFR decrease after surgery. Nine patients (18%) had WIT longer than 25 minutes. Four patients (8%) had grade ≥2 Clavien-Dindo complications. Twenty-nine (58%) patients had strict Trifecta outcomes. Mean follow-up was 44.2 ± 27.2 months. Tumor recurrence was not observed in any patient. Conclusions: Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for T1b renal masses can be safely performed in experienced hands. Optimal strict Trifecta outcomes and recurrence rates can be achieved. PMID:28352149

  12. The financial impact of robotic technology for partial and radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kates, Max; Ball, Mark W; Patel, Hiten D; Gorin, Michael A; Pierorazio, Phillip M; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2015-03-01

    We sought to evaluate the financial impact of robotic technology for partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) in the state of Maryland. The Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission (HSCRC) documents all acute care hospital charges data. This database was queried for patients who underwent laparoscopic or robot-assisted RN and PN from 2008 to 2012. Total hospital charge, subcharge, and length of stay (LOS) were analyzed separately for RN and PN. Overall, 2834 patients were identified. Of those, 282 were laparoscopic PN (LPN), 1078 robot-assisted PN (RPN), 1098 laparoscopic RN (LRN), and 376 robot-assisted RN (RRN). For PN, the total hospital charge was $19,062 for LPN and $18,255 for RPN (P=0.138), with a charge savings of $807 per case in favor of robotics. For RN, the total hospital charge was $23,391 for RRN and $18,280 for LRN (P=0.004), with a charge premium of $5111 for robotic cases. LOS was shorter for RPN compared with LPN (2.51 vs 2.99 days, P<0.0001) and for RRN compared with LRN (3.52 vs 3.98, P=0.0498). RPN is associated with lower hospital charges than LPN, while RRN is associated with higher hospital charges than LRN. Savings for RPN are driven by decreased room and board charge, while the premium for RRN is driven by higher operating room and supply charges. Because RRN use is increasing, the financial implications of RRN use for routine cases warrants further study.

  13. Robotic partial nephrectomy for caliceal diverticulum: a single-center case series.

    PubMed

    Akca, Oktay; Zargar, Homayoun; Autorino, Riccardo; Brandao, Luis Felipe; Laydner, Humberto; Samarasekera, Dinesh; Krishnan, Jayram; Noble, Mark; Haber, George-Pascal; Kaouk, Jihad H; Stein, Robert J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the role of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) in the management of caliceal diverticula by assessing our single-center outcomes. Between July 2007 and July 2013, 7 of 670 patients underwent RPN procedures as a reason of caliceal diverticula. The indications for RPN in all cases were recurrent urinary tract infection and pain attributed to the diverticulum in addition to failed management by endourologic or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) treatments. One patient with a calcified diverticulum and another with an unsuccessful SWL treatment underwent RPN without further endourologic intervention. The other five patients had a history of unsuccessful percutaneous nephrolithotomy (one case), ureteroscopy (URS) (two cases), and a combination of SWL+URS (two cases). No intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. No patient was readmitted postoperatively. Unique features of the robotic platform facilitate the excision of diverticulum and subsequent kidney reconstruction for this benign, but complex pathology.

  14. Robotic partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinomas with venous tumor thrombus.

    PubMed

    Abaza, Ronney; Angell, Jordan

    2013-06-01

    To describe the first report of robotic partial nephrectomies (RPNs) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with venous tumor thrombus (VTT). Partial nephrectomy for RCC extending into the renal vein has been described in limited fashion, but such a complex procedure has not previously been reported in minimally-invasive fashion. We demonstrate the feasibility of robotic nephron-sparing surgery despite vein thrombi and the results of the initial four highly-selected patients to have undergone this novel procedure. Two patients underwent RPN for RCC with VTT involving intraparenchymal vein branches, and 2 others had VTT involving the main renal vein. Mean patient age was 65 years (range 50-74 years). Mean tumor size was 7.75 cm (range 4.3-12.8 cm) with mean RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness to collecting system, anterior/posterior, and location) nephrometry score of 9.75 (range 8-12). Mean warm ischemia time was 24.2 minutes (range 19-27 minutes) and mean estimated blood loss was 168.8 mL (range 100-300 mL). No patients required transfusion, and there were no intraoperative complications. No patients required conversion to open or standard laparoscopic surgery. All 4 patients were discharged home on the first postoperative day. A single postoperative complication occurred in 1 patient who was readmitted with an ileus that resolved spontaneously. All patients had negative surgical margins. Two patients developed metastatic disease on surveillance imaging. RPN in patients with VTT is safe and feasible in selected patients. Given the risk of metastatic disease in patients with pathologic stage T3a RCC, the role of nephron sparing requires further evaluation such that radical nephrectomy remains the standard of care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of the assistant during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: does experience matter?

    PubMed

    Potretzke, Aaron M; Knight, Brent A; Brockman, John A; Vetter, Joel; Figenshau, Robert S; Bhayani, Sam B; Benway, Brian M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate surgical outcomes with respect to the experience level of the bedside assistant during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. A retrospective review was conducted of a prospectively maintained database of 414 consecutive robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomies performed by experienced robotic surgeons at our institution from April 2011 to September 2014. A senior-level assistant was defined as a resident in his or her post-graduate year (PGY) 4 or 5, or a fellow. Junior-level assistants were considered to be PGY-2, PGY-3, or a nurse first assistant. Multivariate analyses were performed using linear, Poisson, and logistic regression models. There were 115 junior-level cases and 299 senior-level cases. On univariate analysis, the experience level of the assistant had no impact on operative time (168 for junior level vs. 163 min for senior level, p = 0.656). Likewise, there were no differences between the junior- and senior-level groups with regard to warm ischemia time (21.3 vs. 20.9 min, p = 0.843), negative margin status (111/115 (96.5 %) vs. 280/299 (93.6 %), p = 0.340), or postoperative complications (17/115 (14.8 %) vs. 35/299 (11.7 %), p = 0.408). After multivariate analysis, operative time was associated with increased body mass index and tumor size (both p < 0.001), but not with resident experience level (p = 0.051). Estimated blood loss and postoperative complications were also not associated with the PGY of the assistant (p = 0.488 and p = 0.916, respectively). Despite common concern, the PGY status of a physician trainee serving as the bedside assistant does not appear to influence the outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy at a high-volume center.

  16. Laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy with controlled hypotensive anesthesia to avoid hilar clamping: feasibility, safety and perioperative functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Simone, Giuseppe; Ferriero, Mariaconsiglia; Costantini, Manuela; Guaglianone, Salvatore; Forastiere, Ester; Gallucci, Michele

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic and robotic assisted partial nephrectomy with controlled hypotensive anesthesia to avoid hilar clamping and eliminate renal ischemia. A total of 60 patients with renal tumors who were candidates for nephron sparing surgery and had no contraindication to hypotensive anesthesia underwent partial nephrectomy without hilar clamping and with controlled hypotension during tumor excision. A total of 40 laparoscopic partial nephrectomies and 20 robotic assisted partial nephrectomies were done. All patients who were candidates for laparoscopic or robotic assisted partial nephrectomy regardless of tumor site, size or growth pattern were included in study. The surgical field was assessed for bleeding and visibility using a numerical rating scale. Median tumor size was 3.6 cm (range 1.8 to 10), median operative time was 2 hours (range 1 to 3.5), median blood loss was 200 ml (range 30 to 700 ml) and median hospital stay was 3 days (range 3 to 8). All margins were negative. The median duration of controlled hypotension with a median mean arterial pressure of 65 mm Hg (range 55 to 70) was 14 minutes (range 7 to 16). No patient required intraoperative transfusion but 4 (6.6%) required transfusion postoperatively. Complications developed postoperatively in 3 patients, ie port site bleeding, hemorrhage and hematoma, respectively. Median preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine was 0.9 and 1.10 mg/dl, respectively. The median preoperative and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate was 87.20 and 75.60 ml/minute/1.73 m2, respectively. Controlled hypotension allowed laparoscopic and robotic assisted partial nephrectomy to be done without renal hilar clamping. All procedures were completed safely and perioperative outcomes are encouraging. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Robotic assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy using contrast‐enhanced ultrasound scan to map renal blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Motiwala, Aamir; Eves, Susannah; Gray, Rob; Thomas, Asha; Meiers, Isabelle; Sharif, Haytham; Motiwala, Hanif; Laniado, Marc; Karim, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The paper describes novel real‐time ‘in situ mapping’ and ‘sequential occlusion angiography’ to facilitate selective ischaemia robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) using intraoperative contrast enhanced ultrasound scan (CEUS). Materials and methods Data were collected and assessed for 60 patients (61 tumours) between 2009 and 2013. 31 (50.8%) tumours underwent ‘Global Ischaemia’, 27 (44.3%) underwent ‘Selective Ischaemia’ and 3 (4.9%) were removed ‘Off Clamp Zero Ischaemia’. Demographics, operative variables, complications, renal pathology and outcomes were assessed. Results Median PADUA score was 9 (range 7–10). The mean warm ischaemia time in selective ischaemia was less and statistically significant than in global ischaemia (17.1 and 21.4, respectively). Mean operative time was 163 min. Postoperative complications (n = 10) included three (5%) Clavien grade 3 or above. Malignancy was demonstrated in 47 (77%) with negative margin in 43 (91.5%) and positive margin in four (8.5%). Long‐term decrease in eGFR post selective ischaemia robotic partial nephrectomy was less compared with global ischaemia (four and eight, respectively) but not statistically significant. Conclusions This technique is safe, feasible and cost‐effective with comparable perioperative outcomes. The technical aspects elucidate the role of intraoperative CEUS to facilitate and ascertain selective ischaemia. Further work is required to demonstrate long‐term oncological outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26948671

  18. The impact of body mass index on surgical outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Isac, Wahib E; Autorino, Riccardo; Hillyer, Shahab P; Hernandez, Adrian V; Stein, Robert J; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4. "What's known on the subject?" and "What does the study add?" Obesity is associated with higher incidence of renal cell carcinoma. Laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) was shown to be technically feasible in the obese population. In the present study we evaluated the impact of obesity on outcome of RPN, in a large cohort of patients. In the present study, obese patients had a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score and larger tumour size. We evaluated obesity as a categorical and a continuous variable, and we adjusted for confounding factors. We categorized obesity based according to the WHO classification of obesity. We described our technical modifications to overcome difficulties that can be encountered during the surgery. Obese patients had a higher estimated blood loss, but no difference in blood transfusion rate, operation duration or warm ischaemia time. • To assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the surgical outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). • Medical charts of 250 consecutive patients who underwent RPN at our institution between 2006 and 2010 were reviewed. • Patients were categorized based on their BMI into four groups per international classification of obesity into: normal (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-29.9), obese (30-39.9) and morbidly obese (≥ 40). • Preoperative characteristics as well as perioperative and postoperative outcomes were analysed and compared between the groups. • Of the 250 patients, 43 (17.2% of the entire cohort) were non-obese, 104 (41.6%) were overweight, 75 (30%) were obese, and 28 (11.2%) were morbidly obese. • Groups were similar in terms of age, gender, history of previous surgery and nephrometry score (P = 0.5). • Patients with higher BMI had a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (median 3 for obese and morbidly obese groups vs 2 for non-obese groups; P = 0.002) and tumour size (median

  19. Stone Formation from Nonabsorbable Clip Migration into the Collecting System after Robot-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ziho; Reilly, Christopher E.; Moore, Blake W.; Mydlo, Jack H.; Lee, David I.; Eun, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case in which a Weck Hem-o-lok clip (Teleflex, Research Triangle Park, USA) migrated into the collecting system and acted as a nidus for stone formation in a patient after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. The patient presented 2 years postoperatively with left-sided renal colic. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a 10 millimeter renal calculus in the left middle pole. After using laser lithotripsy to fragment the overlying renal stone, a Weck Hem-o-lok clip was found to be embedded in the collecting system. A laser fiber through a flexible ureteroscope was used to successfully dislodge the clip from the renal parenchyma, and a stone basket was used to extract the clip. PMID:24778893

  20. Cost comparison of open and robotic partial nephrectomy using a short postoperative pathway.

    PubMed

    Mano, Roy; Schulman, Ariel; Hakimi, A Ari; Sternberg, Itay A; Bernstein, Melanie; Bochner, Bernard H; Coleman, Jonathan A; Russo, Paul

    2015-03-01

    To compare immediate perioperative direct costs of open partial nephrectomy (OPN) and robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN), managed under a common care pathway. Retrospective review of detailed institutional cost data for patients treated with OPN and RPN during 2011 was conducted. Cost and clinical data of OPN and RPN were compared for all patients and for patients stratified by length of stay (LOS), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), and RENAL nephrometry scores. The study cohort included 190 OPN and 63 RPN cases. OPN was associated with higher ASA scores (P <.001), shorter operative times (P = .014), and higher estimated blood loss (P <.001). Median (interquartile range) LOS was 2 days (2-3 days) for OPN compared with 1 day (1-2 days) for RPN (P <.001). Median perioperative cost of OPN was lower than that of RPN with a difference of $3091 (P <.001). Although hospitalization costs were higher in OPN, surgical costs were higher in RPN ($854 and $3695 difference in median costs, respectively; P <.001 for both). The total cost of OPN for patients with an above-average LOS remained lower than that of RPN ($2680 difference in median costs; P = .001). RPN costs remained significantly higher when stratifying patients by their ASA and RENAL nephrometry scores. Despite the shorter hospital LOS associated with RPN, the immediate perioperative cost of OPN was lower than that of RPN for patients managed under a common care pathway, mainly due to high robotic purchase and maintenance costs. In light of the current health care debate, such financial disincentives may compromise the sustainability of advances in medical technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost analysis of robot-assisted laparoscopic versus hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, James E; Goyal, Ravi K; Raynor, Mathew C; Nielsen, Matthew E; Pruthi, Raj S; Brown, Paul M; Wallen, Eric M

    2012-08-01

    To perform a cost comparison of three approaches to partial nephrectomy (PN): Open (OPN), hand-assisted laparoscopic (HALPN), and robot-assisted (RAPN). We retrospectively evaluated cost and clinical data from patients undergoing OPN, HALPN, and RAPN from 2007 to 2010 (n=89). Baseline demographic data, patient comorbidities, R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score, and perioperative outcomes were assessed. Costs and subcosts from the operating room (OR) and hospital were evaluated using nonparametric statistical analyses. Patient demographics and tumor characteristics were similar between HALPN and RAPN, while OPN patients had more comorbidities and more difficult-to-resect tumors. Thus, HALPN and RAPN were directly compared, while OPNs were excluded from the analysis. No difference was found in overall costs between HALPN and RAPN ($13,560 vs $13,439, P=0.29). OR costs were higher for RAPN ($7276 vs $5708, P=0.0001) because of the higher robotic capital and reusable equipment costs that outweighed higher disposable costs in the HALPN group. OR time-related costs were similar between groups. RAPN patients had a shorter length of stay (LOS), which decreased postoperative hospital costs ($4371 vs $5984, P=0.002). No difference in overall cost was found between RAPN and HALPN. Robot allocation, OR equipment use, and LOS are important determinants of total cost. Further study regarding recovery and quality of life may reveal added benefits to minimally invasive approaches and increase use of nephron-sparing surgery.

  2. A multimodal imaging framework for enhanced robot-assisted partial nephrectomy guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halter, Ryan J.; Wu, Xiaotian; Hartov, Alex; Seigne, John; Khan, Shadab

    2015-03-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomies (RALPN) are performed to treat patients with locally confined renal carcinoma. There are well-documented benefits to performing partial (opposed to radical) kidney resections and to using robot-assisted laparoscopic (opposed to open) approaches. However, there are challenges in identifying tumor margins and critical benign structures including blood vessels and collecting systems during current RALPN procedures. The primary objective of this effort is to couple multiple image and data streams together to augment visual information currently provided to surgeons performing RALPN and ultimately ensure complete tumor resection and minimal damage to functional structures (i.e. renal vasculature and collecting systems). To meet this challenge we have developed a framework and performed initial feasibility experiments to couple pre-operative high-resolution anatomic images with intraoperative MRI, ultrasound (US) and optical-based surface mapping and kidney tracking. With these registered images and data streams, we aim to overlay the high-resolution contrast-enhanced anatomic (CT or MR) images onto the surgeon's view screen for enhanced guidance. To date we have integrated the following components of our framework: 1) a method for tracking an intraoperative US probe to extract the kidney surface and a set of embedded kidney markers, 2) a method for co-registering intraoperative US scans with pre-operative MR scans, and 3) a method for deforming pre-op scans to match intraoperative scans. These components have been evaluated through phantom studies to demonstrate protocol feasibility.

  3. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: evaluation of learning curve for an experienced renal surgeon.

    PubMed

    Haseebuddin, Mohammed; Benway, Brian M; Cabello, Jose M; Bhayani, Sam B

    2010-01-01

    The learning curve for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) has not been extensively studied. We therefore evaluated the learning curve of RAPN for a fellowship-trained laparoscopic surgeon with extensive prior experience with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). We also examined the potential effect of tumor size on the learning curve. We prospectively evaluated 38 consecutive patients undergoing RAPN by a single surgeon (S.B.B.). Sixteen patients had tumors <2 cm, and 22 patients had tumors >2 cm. Warm ischemia times and overall operative times were recorded as indices of learning progression. Average operative time for tumors <2 cm was 131.9 minutes (115.3-148.5 minutes) and for tumors >2 cm was 145.8 minutes (131.1-160.5 minutes). The difference between the operative times for tumors <2 and >2 cm was not statistically significant (p = 0.23). Average warm ischemia time for tumors <2 cm was 21 minutes (16.9-25.1 minutes) and for tumors >2 cm was 24.7 minutes (21.3-28.1 minutes). This difference was also not statistically significant (p = 0.20). Defined by the overall operative time, the learning curve for RAPN was 16 cases, and by ischemic time, the learning curve was 26 cases. Tumor size did not have an effect on the learning curve. The learning curve for RAPN is short for surgeons already experienced with LPN. The learning curve for portions performed under warm ischemia is slightly longer, implying that the critical portions of the procedure require more experience to become facile. Tumor size does not appear to have a significant impact on the learning curve for surgeons experienced with LPN.

  4. Early Experience in Da Vinci Robot-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy: An Australian Single Centre Series

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Francis; Savdie, Richard; Chopra, Sam; Yuen, Carlo; Brenner, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) technique in an Australian setting. Methods. Between November 2010 and July 2014, a total of 76 patients underwent 77 RAPN procedures using the Da Vinci Surgical System© at our institution. 58 of these procedures were performed primarily by the senior author (PB) and are described in this case series. Results. Median operative time was 4 hours (range 1.5–6) and median warm ischaemic time (WIT) was 8 minutes (range 0–30) including 11 cases with zero ischaemic time. All surgical margins were clear with the exception of one patient who had egress of intravascular microscopic tumour outside the capsule to the point of the resection margin. Complications were identified in 9 patients (15.8%). Major complications included conversion to open surgery due to significant venous bleeding (n = 1), reperfusion injury (n = 1), gluteal compartment syndrome (n = 1), DVT/PE (n = 1), and readmission for haematuria (n = 1). Conclusion. This series demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the RAPN technique in an Australian setting when performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeons in a dedicated high volume robotic centre. PMID:26167299

  5. Partial nephrectomy in a patient with dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Farber, Nicholas J; Dubin, Justin; Parihar, Jaspreet; Han, Chris; Lasser, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    We describe the case of a 50-year-old male with achondroplastic dwarfism who presents with a renal mass in his left kidney concerning for renal cell carcinoma. The patient successfully underwent a robotic partial nephrectomy, which revealed a T1a renal cell carcinoma. The tumor was excised successfully without any intraoperative complications demonstrating that a robotic partial nephrectomy is technically both safe and effective in patients with achondroplastic dwarfism.

  6. Intraoperative presentation of Bochdalek's hernia in an adult during robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy: An uncommon situation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cindolo, Luca; Berardinelli, Francesco; Manzi, Arianna; Spagnuolo, Francesca; Fabbri, Elisa; Castellan, Pietro; Petrini, Flavia; Schips, Luigi

    2016-01-14

    Bochdalek's diaphragmatic hernia (BDH) is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that usually present during the neonatal period and rarely remain silent until adulthood. We present a 45-year-old-female case with diagnosis of double left kidney tumor prepared for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN). During the preoperative procedure she had a reduction of inspiratory volumes and increased pulmonary pressures: the robotic camera revealed the incidental presence of the left diaphragmatic defect. We report a simultaneous nephron sparing surgery (NSS) and left posterolateral BDH correction done by the da Vinci Surgical Robot (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA).

  7. A single overnight stay is possible for most patients undergoing robotic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Abaza, Ronney; Shah, Ketul

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate establishment of overnight stay only as sufficient after robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). Stated benefits of minimally invasive surgery include reduced hospitalization, but published hospital stays after laparoscopic or robotic partial nephrectomy are not significantly less than with open surgery. We developed a clinical pathway targeting discharge on postoperative day (POD) 1 after RPN of any complexity. We reviewed all RPNs by a single surgeon since instituting our clinical pathway, including ambulation and diet the night of surgery, avoidance of intravenous narcotics and drains, and catheter removal on POD 1 before discharge. Targeted discharge was not modified regardless of RPN complexity. A total of 150 consecutive patients underwent 160 RPNs with 35 hilar tumors and 26 with segmental, and 33 with no artery clamping. Three had solitary kidneys, and 8 underwent multiple (range, 2-4) RPNs. Mean patient age was 57 years (range, 22-89 years), and body mass index was 32 kg/m(2) (range, 18-54 kg/m(2)). Mean tumor size was 3.6 cm (range, 1.0-11.0; median, 3.2 cm), and the RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness to collecting system, anterior/posterior, and location) nephrometry score was 8 (range, 4-12; median, 8). Mean warm ischemia time was 12.1 minutes (range, 0-30.0 minutes). Mean preoperative and discharge creatinine were 0.9 mg/dL (range, 0.43-2.79 mg/dL) and 1.13 mg/dL (range, 0.56-2.93 mg/dL). All patients ambulated on POD 0. One patient required one dose of intravenous narcotic. Mean length of stay was 1.1 days, with 145 (97%) discharged on POD 1, of which only 4 (2.7%) were readmitted within 30 days. Discharge on POD 1 is feasible in most RPN patients regardless of complexity. Readmission rate was low, indicating that longer admissions may not prevent complications when patients meeting discharge criteria go home on POD 1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy without renal ischaemia for tumours larger than 4 cm: perioperative and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Simone, Giuseppe; Ferriero, Mariaconsiglia; Guaglianone, Salvatore; Costantini, Manuela; Giannarelli, Diana; Maini, Carlo Ludovico; Forastiere, Ester; Gallucci, Michele

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility, safety and functional outcomes of zero ischaemia laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy with controlled hypotension for renal tumours larger than 4 cm. We evaluated 121 consecutive patients with American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) scores 1-2 who underwent laparoscopic (n = 70) or robotic (n = 51) partial nephrectomy with controlled hypotension with either tumour size ≤4 cm (group 1, n = 78) or tumour size >4 cm (group 2, n = 43) performed by a single surgeon from December 2010 to December 2011. Operative data, complications, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rates and effective renal plasma flow calculated from 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine renal scintigraphy were compared. Differences between groups were evaluated by the Chi-square test and the Student's t test. A significant difference in mean intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications was found between the two groups: 168 ml (range: 10-600 ml in group 1) and 205 ml (range: 90-700 ml in group 2); p = 0.005, and 6.4 % versus 18.6 %; p = 0.004, respectively. The mean percentage decrease of ERPF of the operated kidney was 1.8 % in group 1 and 4.1 % in group 2. Laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy with controlled hypotension for tumours >4 cm in ASA 1-2 patients was feasible with significant higher intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications compared to smaller renal masses. The benefits of avoiding hilar clamping to preserve kidney function seem excellent.

  9. Single institutional cost analysis of 325 robotic, laparoscopic, and open partial nephrectomies.

    PubMed

    Laydner, Humberto; Isac, Wahib; Autorino, Riccardo; Kassab, Ahmad; Yakoubi, Rachid; Hillyer, Shahab; Khalifeh, Ali; Campbell, Steven C; Fergany, Amr; Simmons, Matthew; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2013-03-01

    To compare costs associated with partial nephrectomy (PN) using robotic, laparoscopic (LPN), and open (OPN) approaches. An Investigational Review Board-approved prospectively maintained database was reviewed for 325 patients who underwent PN at our institution from January 2009 to December 2010. Costs for each surgical technique were itemized, including hospitalization, operating room (OR), anesthesia, medication, laboratory and pathology, professional fees, and blood bank. Continuous variables were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests, and categoric variables were analyzed with χ(2) and Fisher exact tests. Median costs of RPN were higher than LPN ($632, P = .005), but not significantly higher than OPN ($313, P = .14). The major cause of this difference was OR instrumentation and supplies. OR costs for LPN and OPN were equivalent (P = .11). The cost associated with anesthesia was significantly lower for RPN and LPN than for OPN (P = .002). RPN and LPN had lower hospitalization costs than OPN (P <.0001), which was largely due to the shorter hospital stay (P <.0001) and lower laboratory cost (P <.0001). Pharmacy costs and blood bank costs were not significantly different among groups (P = .09 and P = .48, respectively). RPN had higher operating room costs than LPN and OPN, primarily due to instrumentation and supplies. This higher cost was offset by decreased cost of hospitalization in compared with the OPN group. Modification of practices aimed at lowering RPN instrumentation and supply costs may enable cost equivalence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of Urine Dipstick Proteinuria and Postoperative Renal Function Following Robotic Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Krane, Louis S; Heavner, Matthew G; Peyton, Charles; Rague, James T; Hemal, Ashok K

    2016-05-01

    In patients with normal estimated renal function before robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN), there is still a risk for de Novo chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the role of dipstick spot proteinuria in risk stratifying patients for CKD progression. From our prospectively maintained, institutional review board-approved database of patients undergoing RPN, we queried those with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 and bilateral functional units. We assessed proteinuria through dipstick (trace or above) on voided urine in preoperative urologic appointment <3 weeks before RPN. Proteinuric patients were compared with the remainder of the cohort with parametric comparisons for continuous and chi-squared analysis for categoric variables. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed assessing the risk of de Novo CKD stage III development, estimated by the CKD-EPI equation. We found 269 patients with eGFR >60 preoperatively, of whom 57 (21%) had proteinuria preoperatively. In univariate analysis, these patients were more likely to be diabetic (p = 0.023) and to be on an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (p = 0.001) but had similar age (p = 0.13), body mass index (p = 0.09), and tumor size (p = 0.56) with similar rates of hypertension (p = 0.07). At a median 16 months, controlling for confounding variables, preoperative proteinuria on urinary dipstick was associated with a 2.3× (95% confidence interval 1.03-4.95) increased risk of de Novo CKD stage III progression. Patients with proteinuria preoperatively, despite a normal eGFR, likely have intrinsic medicorenal disease. These patients should be counseled preoperatively that they have a higher risk of CKD progression following RPN.

  11. Margin and complication rates in clampless partial nephrectomy: a comparison of open, laparoscopic and robotic surgeries.

    PubMed

    Mearini, Luigi; Nunzi, Elisabetta; Vianello, Alberto; Di Biase, Manuel; Porena, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    In performing partial nephrectomy (PN), surgeons focus on complete removal of tumor, preservation of renal function, the absence of major perioperative complications, expressed by the formula margin, ischemia and complication (MIC). The aim of current study was to perform a single-institution comparison of clampless open (OPN), laparoscopic (LPN) or robot-assisted (RAPN) PN as well as to evaluate pre-, intra- and postoperative factors that may influence achievement of ideal MIC. All consecutive clampless OPN, LPN or RAPN performed by experienced surgeons between 2006 and 2015 were included in the analysis. MIC was defined as negative surgical margin plus zero-ischemia plus absence of any grade ≥3 complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to predict the MIC. Odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. 80 patients underwent OPN, 66 LPN and 31 RAPN, and both groups had similar characteristics. The MIC rate was 67.5, 86.3 and 83.3 % in the OPN, LPN and RAPN groups, respectively (p = 0.016). At logistic regression analysis, surgical approach (p = 0.03) and operative time (p = 0.008) were independent predictors of the MIC rate. When stratified according to the surgical approach, preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical classification (PADUA) score, LPN, RAPN and operative time were independent predictors of MIC rate (p = 0.0488, p = 0.0494, p = 0.0479 and p = 0.0108, respectively). Clampless LPN and RAPN have an efficacy and safety profile that is on par with OPN, offering the additional benefits of a reduced operative time, blood loss, on demand ischemia and rate of high-grade complications.

  12. Robotic partial nephrectomy - Evaluation of the impact of case mix on the procedural learning curve.

    PubMed

    Roman, A; Ahmed, K; Challacombe, B

    2016-05-01

    Although Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) is an emerging technique for the management of small renal masses, this approach is technically demanding. To date, there is limited data on the nature and progression of the learning curve in RPN. To analyse the impact of case mix on the RPN LC and to model the learning curve. The records of the first 100 RPN performed, were analysed at our institution that were carried out by a single surgeon (B.C) (June 2010-December 2013). Cases were split based on their Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) score into the following groups: 6-7, 8-9 and >10. Using a split group (20 patients in each group) and incremental analysis, the mean, the curve of best fit and R(2) values were calculated for each group. Of 100 patients (F:28, M:72), the mean age was 56.4 ± 11.9 years. The number of patients in each PADUA score groups: 6-7, 8-9 and >10 were 61, 32 and 7 respectively. An increase in incidence of more complex cases throughout the cohort was evident within the 8-9 group (2010: 1 case, 2013: 16 cases). The learning process did not significantly affect the proxies used to assess surgical proficiency in this study (operative time and warm ischaemia time). Case difficulty is an important parameter that should be considered when evaluating procedural learning curves. There is not one well fitting model that can be used to model the learning curve. With increasing experience, clinicians tend to operate on more difficult cases. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy without using ureteral stent: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Burak; Coşkuner, Enis Rauf; Yalçın, Veli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To share our results of robotic assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) we performed without using ureteral stent in a single center from Turkey. Material and methods Medical records of consecutive 45 patients (34 men and 11 women) who underwent RAPN for kidney lesions between March 2011 and December 2014 were retrieved, and evaluated. All the procedures were performed by a transperitoneal approach without using ureteral stent prior to surgery. Renal artery clamping was used in all cases and intraoperative ultrasonography was used in 2 cases. Results Patients undergoing RAPN had a mean tumor size of 4.42 cm (2–8) and a mean renal nephrometry score of 5.82 (4–11). The mean estimated blood loss was 250 mL (150–450 ml) and the mean operative time was 195 minutes (150–300). There was no statistical difference between the preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine levels at the first follow-up visit (0.9 vs. 0.95, p=0.087). Surgical margin positivity was not detected in any patient, and the mean surgical margin distance was calculated as 0.4 mm (0.2–10). In only 1 patient disease recurrence was detected at the 21st month of the the follow-up period, and no distant metastases was reported in our patients at a mean follow-up of 10 months (3–36 mos). Our complication rate was 11.1% and according to the Clavien system complications were as; grade 2 (3 patients), grade 3a (1 patient) and grade 3b (1 patient). Conclusion With appropriately selected patients and adequate surgical experience, RAPN performed without using ureteral stent is a safe and feasible method for localized renal tumors. PMID:27011873

  14. Can selective arterial clamping with fluorescence imaging preserve kidney function during robotic partial nephrectomy?

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Wysock, James S.; Borofsky, Michael S.; Marien, Tracy P.; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Stifelman, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare renal functional outcomes in robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) with selective arterial clamping guided by near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging to a matched cohort of patients who underwent RPN without selective arterial clamping and NIRF imaging. Methods From April 2011 to December 2012, NIRF imaging-enhanced RPN with selective clamping was utilized in 42 cases. Functional outcomes of successful cases were compared with a cohort of patients, matched by tumor size, preoperative eGFR, functional kidney status, age, sex, body mass index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score, who underwent RPN without selective clamping and NIRF imaging. Results In matched-pair analysis, selective clamping with NIRF was associated with superior kidney function at discharge, as demonstrated by postoperative eGFR (78.2 vs 68.5 ml/min per 1.73m2; P=0.04), absolute reduction of eGFR (−2.5 vs −14.0 ml/min per 1.73m2; P<0.01) and percent change in eGFR (−1.9% vs −16.8%, P<0.01). Similar trends were noted at three month follow up but these differences became non-significant (P[eGFR]=0.07], P[absolute reduction of eGFR]=0.10, and P[percent change in eGFR]=0.07). In the selective clamping group, a total of four perioperative complications occurred in three patients, all of which were Clavien I-III. Conclusion Utilization of NIRF imaging was associated with improved short-term renal functional outcomes when compared to RPN without selective arterial clamping and NIRF imaging. With this effect attenuated at later follow-up, randomized prospective studies and long-term assessment of kidney-specific functional outcomes are needed to further assess the benefits of this technology. PMID:24909960

  15. Simultaneous Retroperitoneal Robotic Partial Nephrectomy and Hepatectomy for Synchronous Renal-Cell Carcinoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Cirrhotic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Khaa Hoo; Huang, Steven Kuan-Hua; Yen, Chia-Sheng; Tian, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The development of laparoscopic and robotic surgeries represents the modern era with the objective of improving patient outcomes; this surgical method is widespread in urology and general surgery. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic/robotic surgery is common in urologic surgery, but not in liver surgery. Tumors located in the posterosuperior aspect of the liver are difficult to access using a transperitoneal approach, and control of bleeding can also be difficult, especially in patients with cirrhosis. Case Presentation: Herein, we present a 66-year-old man who had a cirrhotic liver with concurrent renal and hepatic tumors. The renal tumor was located at the upper pole of the right kidney and the liver tumor was located at the liver dome (segment VII); the patient underwent simultaneous robotic hepatectomy and partial nephrectomy with a retroperitoneal approach. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first case involving a retroperitoneal approach for a simultaneous robotic hepatectomy and partial nephrectomy; this method was feasible and safe. We hope this approach serves as an alternative surgical method for patients with synchronous renal and posterior segment liver tumors. PMID:27868101

  16. Hand-assisted laparoscopic versus robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: comparison of short-term outcomes and cost.

    PubMed

    Elsamra, Sammy E; Leone, Andrew R; Lasser, Michael S; Thavaseelan, Simone; Golijanin, Dragan; Haleblian, George E; Pareek, Gyan

    2013-02-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) have become standard for the surgical management of small renal masses (SRMs). However, no studies have evaluated the short-term outcomes or cost of RALPN as compared with hand-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (HALPN) in a standardized fashion. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent HALPN or RALPN from 2006 to 2010 were assessed for patient age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, radiographic tumor size, nephrometry (radius, endo/exophytic, nearness to collecting system, anterior/posterior, lines of polarity [RENAL]) scores, operative and room times, hospital length of stay (LOS), estimated blood loss (EBL), requirement of hilar vessel clamping, warm ischemia time (WIT), pre- and postprocedural creatinine and hemoglobin levels, and complications. Total costs of the procedures were estimated based on operating room component (operative staff time, anesthesia, and supply) and hospital stay cost (room and board, pharmacy). A robotic premium cost, estimated based on the yearly overall cost of the da Vinci S surgical system divided by the annual number of cases, was included in the RALPN cost. Cost figures were obtained from hospital administration and applied to the mean HALPN and RALPN patient. Forty-seven patients underwent HALPN since 2006 and 21 patients underwent RALPN since 2008. ASA, BMI, EBL, tumor size, nephrometry score, positive margin rate, change in creatinine, change in hemoglobin, morphine equivalents used, and complication rate were all similar in both groups (p>0.05). Room time and operative time were significantly shorter for the HALPN cohort (p=0.001) whereas LOS was significantly shorter in the RALPN cohort (p=0.019). Despite the shorter LOS, RALPN was associated with a $1165 increased cost, mainly due to increased operating room time and premium cost of the robot. While early in our

  17. Renal cavernous hemangioma: robot-assisted partial nephrectomy with selective warm ischemia. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, G; Codacci Pisanelli, M; Patriti, A; Biancafarina, A

    2015-01-01

    Renal hemangioma is a relatively rare benign tumor with a wide range of clinical and radiological presentation, not easy to differentiate preoperatively from a renal cancer. Due to its benign nature complete surgical resection is the recommended therapy and is considered curative. A 73-year old male patient followed-up for a lung carcinoma and a chronic renal failure underwent a CT scan showing a 35-mm mass of the inferior pole of the left kidney. The patient underwent robot-assisted partial nephrectomy with left inferior pole selective warm ischemia. The outcome was favorable and no repercussions on the renal reserve were observed postoperatively. Histopathological characteristics of the surgical specimen were consistent with renal cavernous hemangioma. A robot-assisted operation allows the fine dissection required to carry out a bloodless nephron-sparing surgery without a complete warm ischemia. The use of robot could be noteworthy for nephron-sparing surgery in cases of concomitant chronic renal failure.

  18. Can selective arterial clamping with fluorescence imaging preserve kidney function during robotic partial nephrectomy?

    PubMed

    McClintock, Tyler R; Bjurlin, Marc A; Wysock, James S; Borofsky, Michael S; Marien, Tracy P; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Stifelman, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    To compare renal functional outcomes in robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) with selective arterial clamping guided by near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging to a matched cohort of patients who underwent RPN without selective arterial clamping and NIRF imaging. From April 2011 to December 2012, NIRF imaging-enhanced RPN with selective clamping was used in 42 cases. Functional outcomes of successful cases were compared with a cohort of patients, matched by tumor size, preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), functional kidney status, age, sex, body mass index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score, who underwent RPN without selective clamping and NIRF imaging. In matched-pair analysis, selective clamping with NIRF was associated with superior kidney function at discharge, as demonstrated by postoperative eGFR (78.2 vs 68.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P = .04), absolute reduction of eGFR (-2.5 vs -14.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P <.01), and percent change in eGFR (-1.9% vs -16.8%; P <.01). Similar trends were noted at 3 month follow-up, but these differences became nonsignificant (P[eGFR] = .07; P[absolute reduction of eGFR] = .10; and P[percent change in eGFR] = .07). In the selective clamping group, a total of 4 perioperative complications occurred in 3 patients, all of which were Clavien grade I-III. Use of NIRF imaging was associated with improved short-term renal functional outcomes when compared with RPN without selective arterial clamping and NIRF imaging. With this effect attenuated at later follow-up, randomized prospective studies and long-term assessment of kidney-specific functional outcomes are needed to further assess the benefits of this technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-year analysis for predicting renal function and contralateral hypertrophy after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: A three-dimensional segmentation technology study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Keun; Jang, Yujin; Lee, Jaeseon; Hong, Helen; Kim, Ki Hong; Shin, Tae Young; Jung, Dae Chul; Choi, Young Deuk; Rha, Koon Ho

    2015-12-01

    To analyze long-term changes in both kidneys, and to predict renal function and contralateral hypertrophy after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. A total of 62 patients underwent robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, and renal parenchymal volume was calculated using three-dimensional semi-automatic segmentation technology. Patients were evaluated within 1 month preoperatively, and postoperatively at 6 months, 1 year and continued up to 2-year follow up. Linear regression models were used to identify the factors predicting variables that correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate changes and contralateral hypertrophy 2 years after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. The median global estimated glomerular filtration rate changes were -10.4%, -11.9%, and -2.4% at 6 months, 1 and 2 years post-robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, respectively. The ipsilateral kidney median parenchymal volume changes were -24%, -24.4%, and -21% at 6 months, 1 and 2 years post-robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, respectively. The contralateral renal volume changes were 2.3%, 9.6% and 12.9%, respectively. On multivariable linear analysis, preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate was the best predictive factor for global estimated glomerular filtration rate change on 2 years post-robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (B -0.452; 95% confidence interval -0.84 to -0.14; P = 0.021), whereas the parenchymal volume loss rate (B -0.43; 95% confidence interval -0.89 to -0.15; P = 0.017) and tumor size (B 5.154; 95% confidence interval -0.11 to 9.98; P = 0.041) were the significant predictive factors for the degree of contralateral renal hypertrophy on 2 years post-robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. Preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate significantly affects post-robot-assisted partial nephrectomy renal function. Renal mass size and renal parenchyma volume loss correlates with compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral kidney. Contralateral hypertrophy

  20. Evaluation of renal mass biopsy risk stratification algorithm for robotic partial nephrectomy--could a biopsy have guided management?

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Haider; Bhayani, Sam; Stifelman, Michael; Kaouk, Jihad; Allaf, Mohamad; Marshall, Susan; Zargar, Homayoun; Ball, Mark W; Larson, Jeffrey; Rogers, Craig

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated a published biopsy directed small renal mass management algorithm using a large cohort of patients who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy for tumors 4 cm or smaller. A simplified algorithm of biopsy directed small renal mass management previously reported using risk stratified biopsies was applied to 1,175 robotic partial nephrectomy cases from 5 academic centers. A theoretical assumption was made of perfect biopsies that were feasible for all patients and had 100% concordance to final pathology. Pathology risk groups were benign, favorable, unfavorable and intermediate. The algorithm assigned favorable or intermediate tumors smaller than 2 cm to active surveillance and unfavorable or intermediate 2 to 4 cm tumors to treatment. Higher surgical risk patients were defined as ASA® 3 or greater and age 70 years or older. Patients were assigned to the pathology risk groups of benign (23%), favorable (13%), intermediate (51%) and unfavorable (12%). Patients were also assigned to the management groups of benign pathology (275, 23%), active surveillance (336, 29%) and treatment (564, 48%). Most of the 611 (52%) patients in the benign or active surveillance groups were low surgical risk and had safe treatment (2.6% high grade complications). A biopsy may not have been feasible or accurate in some tumors that were anterior (378, 32%), hilar (93, 7.9%) or less than 2 cm (379, 32%). Of 129 (11%) high surgical risk patients the biopsy algorithm assigned 70 (54%) to benign or active surveillance groups. The theoretical application of a biopsy driven, risk stratified small renal mass management algorithm to a large robotic partial nephrectomy database suggests that about half of the patients might have avoided surgery. Despite the obvious limitations of a theoretical assumption of all patients receiving a perfect biopsy, the data support the emerging role of renal mass biopsies to guide management, particularly in high surgical risk patients. Copyright

  1. The future of partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Malthouse, Theo; Kasivisvanathan, Veeru; Raison, Nicholas; Lam, Wayne; Challacombe, Ben

    2016-12-01

    Innovation in recent times has accelerated due to factors such as the globalization of communication; but there are also more barriers/safeguards in place than ever before as we strive to streamline this process. From the first planned partial nephrectomy completed in 1887, it took over a century to become recommended practice for small renal tumours. At present, identified areas for improvement/innovation are 1) to preserve renal parenchyma, 2) to optimise pre-operative eGFR and 3) to reduce global warm ischaemia time. All 3 of these, are statistically significant predictors of post-operative renal function. Urologists, have a proud history of embracing innovation & have experimented with different clamping techniques of the renal vasculature, image guidance in robotics, renal hypothermia, lasers and new robots under development. The DaVinci model may soon no longer have a monopoly on this market, as it loses its stranglehold with novel technology emerging including added features, such as haptic feedback with reduced costs. As ever, our predictions of the future may well fall wide of the mark, but in order to progress, one must open the mind to the possibilities that already exist, as evolution of existing technology often appears to be a revolution in hindsight.

  2. Off-clamp robot-assisted partial nephrectomy does not benefit short-term renal function: a matched cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barrett G; Potretzke, Aaron M; Du, Kefu; Vetter, Joel; Figenshau, R Sherburne

    2017-08-31

    In the interest of renal functional preservation, partial nephrectomy has supplanted radical nephrectomy as the preferred treatment for T1 renal masses. This procedure usually involves the induction of renal warm ischemia by clamping the hilar vessels prior to tumor excision. Performing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) "off-clamp" can theoretically prevent renal functional loss associated with warm ischemia. We describe our institutional experience and compare perioperative and renal functional outcomes using a propensity score matched cohort. We conducted a retrospective comparison from a prospectively maintained database of all patients who underwent RAPN from 2009 to 2015. Of those patients, 143 underwent off-clamp RAPN. Fifty off-clamp RAPN patients were propensity score matched with fifty clamped RAPN patients based on renal function, tumor size, and R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score. The cohorts were compared across demographics, operative information, perioperative outcomes, and renal functional outcomes. For all off-clamp RAPN patients, mean nephrometry score was 7.1, mean estimated blood loss (EBL) was 236.9 mL, perioperative complication rate was 7.7%, and mean decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 7.1% at a median follow-up of 9.2 months. In the propensity score matched cohorts, off-clamp RAPN resulted in a shorter mean operative time (172.0 versus 196.0 min, p = 0.025) and a lower mean EBL (179.7 versus 283.2 mL, p = 0.046). A lower complication rate of 6.0% in the off-clamp group compared with 20.0% in the clamped group approached significance (p = 0.071). Mean preoperative eGFR was similar in both cohorts. Importantly, there was no significant difference in decrease in eGFR between the clamped cohort (9.8%) and off-clamp cohort (11.9%) at a median follow-up of 9.0 months (p = 0.620). Off-clamp RAPN did not result in improved renal functional preservation in our experience. Surprisingly, the off-clamp cohort

  3. Comparison of Renal Function between Robot-Assisted and Open Partial Nephrectomy as Determined by Tc 99m-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We compared postoperative renal function impairment between patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) and those undergoing open partial nephrectomy (OPN) by using Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scintigraphy. Patients who underwent partial nephrectomy by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2013 were eligible and were matched by propensity score, based on age, tumor size, exophytic properties of tumor, and location relative to the polar lines. Of the 403 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy, 114 (28%) underwent RAPN and 289 (72%) underwent OPN. Mean follow-up duration was 35.2 months. Following propensity matching, there were no significant differences between the two groups in tumor exophytic properties (P = 0.818) or nephrometry score (P = 0.527). Renal ischemic time (24.4 minutes vs. 17.8 minutes, P < 0.001) was significantly longer in the RAPN group than in the OPN group, while the other characteristics were similar. Multivariate analysis showed that greater preoperative renal unit function (P = 0.011) and nephrometry score (P = 0.041) were independently correlated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The operative method did not correlate with renal function impairment (P = 0.704). Postoperative renal function impairment was similar between patients who underwent OPN and those who underwent RAPN, despite RAPN having a longer ischemic time. PMID:27134496

  4. Comparison of Renal Function between Robot-Assisted and Open Partial Nephrectomy as Determined by Tc 99m-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanwoo; Kwon, Taekmin; Yoo, Sangjun; Jung, Jaeyoon; Lee, Chunwoo; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2016-05-01

    We compared postoperative renal function impairment between patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) and those undergoing open partial nephrectomy (OPN) by using Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scintigraphy. Patients who underwent partial nephrectomy by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2013 were eligible and were matched by propensity score, based on age, tumor size, exophytic properties of tumor, and location relative to the polar lines. Of the 403 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy, 114 (28%) underwent RAPN and 289 (72%) underwent OPN. Mean follow-up duration was 35.2 months. Following propensity matching, there were no significant differences between the two groups in tumor exophytic properties (P = 0.818) or nephrometry score (P = 0.527). Renal ischemic time (24.4 minutes vs. 17.8 minutes, P < 0.001) was significantly longer in the RAPN group than in the OPN group, while the other characteristics were similar. Multivariate analysis showed that greater preoperative renal unit function (P = 0.011) and nephrometry score (P = 0.041) were independently correlated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The operative method did not correlate with renal function impairment (P = 0.704). Postoperative renal function impairment was similar between patients who underwent OPN and those who underwent RAPN, despite RAPN having a longer ischemic time.

  5. Image-Guided Embolization Coil Placement for Identification of an Endophytic, Isoechoic Renal Mass During Robotic Partial Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Forauer, Andrew; Seigne, John D.; Hyams, Elias S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intraoperative ultrasonography has proven to be a useful tool for tumor identification during robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN). However, its utility is limited in renal tumors that are completely endophytic and isoechoic in nature. We present a novel approach to intraoperative tumor identification using preoperative percutaneous intratumoral embolization coil placement that may be utilized in the management of such cases. Case Presentation: A 42-year-old Caucasian male was referred with an incidentally discovered right renal mass that was posterior and completely endophytic. He desired a RALPN; however, preoperative renal ultrasound demonstrated an isoechoic lesion. Thus, the patient underwent preoperative image-guided placement of an embolization coil within the tumor. This facilitated identification of the tumor intraoperatively using intracorporeal ultrasound centered on the coil and enabled resection with negative margins. Conclusion: Utilizing a novel approach analogous to preoperative localization of other solid malignancies, such as breast cancer, we were able to effectively identify and resect an isoechoic renal mass during RALPN. PMID:27579392

  6. Da Vinci Xi and Si platforms have equivalent perioperative outcomes during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Abdel Raheem, Ali; Sheikh, Abulhasan; Kim, Dae Keun; Alatawi, Atalla; Alabdulaali, Ibrahim; Han, Woong Kyu; Choi, Young Deuk; Rha, Koon Ho

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the perioperative outcomes of da Vinci Xi to Si during robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) and to discuss the feasibility of our novel port placement scheme for the da Vinci Xi platform, to overcome the existing kinetic and technical difficulties we faced with the linear port placement in patients with a small body habitus. A retrospective data analysis of patients who underwent RPN using da Vinci Xi (n = 18) was carried out. The outcomes of the Xi group were compared with the Si group (n = 18) selected using a case-matched methodology. For da Vinci Xi, we applied the universal linear port placement in 12 patients and our modified port placement in the remaining 6 patients. The Xi group had a shorter mean docking time of 17.8 ± 2.6 min compared to the Si group of 20.5 ± 2.1 min (p = 0.002); otherwise, no significant difference was present with regard to the remaining perioperative variables (p > 0.05). The modified Xi port placement had a shorter mean console time of 70.8 ± 9.7 min compared to the universal linear port placement of 89.3 ± 17.2 min (p = 0.03). Moreover, it provided a broader field of vision with excellent robotic arms movement, minimizing collisions and allowing an easier and comfortable surgical assist. Da Vinci Xi appears to be feasible and safe during RPN with similar outcomes to Si. The novel Xi port placement makes surgery easier in patients with low BMI.

  7. [Perioperative Outcomes in Correlation to the Learning Curve for Robotic Assisted Partial Nephrectomy: The First 109 Cases of our Clinic].

    PubMed

    Cordier, J; Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Hampel, C; Thüroff, J W; Brenner, W; Roos, F C

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to conventional laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, the approach of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) shows a steep learning curve with shorter warm ischaemia times (WIT) and comparable postoperative outcomes. Therefore RAPN is considered a good minimally-invasive surgical procedure for patients presenting with a renal cell carcinoma in clinical stage cT1a. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the perioperative outcomes of our patients after RAPN and to illustrate the learning curve based on characteristic perioperative parameters such as WIT. The data of 109 patients treated by RAPN in our clinic between January 2010 and April 2015 were retrospectively analysed regarding perioperative, laboratory and oncological outcomes. Postoperative complications until 30 days after surgery were documented. We analysed the data of the largest patient population treated by a single urologist, comparing WIT, operating time, blood loss and decline of the glomerular filtration rate between the first and the second 30 consecutive cases. Mean WIT was 18.4 min (SD±10.2), mean operating time was 199 min (SD±20), and mean estimated blood loss was 657 millilitres (SD±715 ml). Mean loss of GFR was reported to be 4.99 mg/dl/1.73 m (2) (SD±15.44). 83 (76%) malignant lesions were removed. 11 patients (10%) had a R1 resection, one patient had a R2 resection and in 2 cases the resection status was Rx. 22% of patients developed postoperative complications. Intraoperative complications were documented in 2 cases. According to the Clavien-Dindo Classification, 6% of patients had grade 1 and 2 complications and 13% developed grade 3 and 4 complications. WIT was significantly lower after 30 consecutive cases treated by one urologist. Regarding operating time, GFR or blood loss no significant correlation was found. Our data is in line with the surgical outcomes described in the literature. RAPN is a safe surgical technique with a steep learning curve. In our

  8. Health resource use after robot-assisted surgery vs open and conventional laparoscopic techniques in oncology: analysis of English secondary care data for radical prostatectomy and partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David; Camp, Charlotte; O'Hara, Jamie; Adshead, Jim

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate postoperative health resource utilisation and secondary care costs for radical prostatectomy and partial nephrectomy in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England, via a comparison of robot-assisted, conventional laparoscopic and open surgical approaches. We retrospectively analysed the secondary care records of 23 735 patients who underwent robot-assisted (RARP, n = 8 016), laparoscopic (LRP, n = 6 776) or open radical prostatectomy (ORP, n = 8 943). We further analysed 2 173 patients who underwent robot-assisted (RAPN, n = 365), laparoscopic (LPN, n = 792) or open partial nephrectomy (OPN, n = 1 016). Postoperative inpatient admissions, hospital bed-days, excess bed-days and outpatient appointments at 360 and 1 080 days after surgery were reviewed. Patients in the RARP group required significantly fewer inpatient admissions, hospital bed-days and excess bed-days at 360 and 1 080 days than patients undergoing ORP. Patients undergoing ORP had a significantly higher number of outpatient appointments at 1 080 days. The corresponding total costs were significantly lower for patients in the RARP group at 360 days (£1679 vs £2031 for ORP; P < 0.001) and at 1 080 days (£3461 vs £4208 for ORP; P < 0.001). In partial nephrectomy, Patients in the RAPN group required significantly fewer inpatient admissions and hospital bed-days at 360 days compared with those in the OPN group; no significant differences were observed in outcomes at 1 080 days. The corresponding total costs were lower for patients in the RAPN group at 360 days (£779 vs £1242 for OPN, P = 0.843) and at 1 080 days (£2122 vs £2889 for ORP; P = 0.570). For both procedure types, resource utilisation and costs for laparoscopic surgeries lay at the approximate midpoint of those for robot-assisted and open surgeries. Our analysis provides compelling evidence to suggest that RARP leads to reduced long-term health resource utilisation and downstream cost savings compared with traditional

  9. Robotic partial nephrectomy for renal tumours in obese patients: Perioperative outcomes in a multi-institutional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Newaj; Dalela, Deepansh; Barod, Ravi; Larson, Jeff; Johnson, Michael; Mass, Alon; Zargar, Homayoun; Allaf, Mohamad; Bhayani, Sam; Stifelman, Michael; Kaouk, Jihad; Rogers, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to evaluate the association of obesity with surgical outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) using a large, multicentre database. Methods: We identified 1836 patients who underwent RPN from five academic centres from 2006–2014. A total of 806 patients were obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2). Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared between obese and non-obese patients. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the association of obesity on RPN outcomes. Results: A total of 806 (44%) patients were obese with median BMI of 33.8kg/m2. Compared to non-obese patients, obese patients had greater median tumour size (2.9 vs. 2.5cm, p<0.001), mean RENAL nephrometry score (7.3 vs. 7.1, p=0.04), median operating time (176 vs. 165 min, p=0.002), and median estimated blood loss (EBL, 150 vs. 100 ml, p=0.002), but no difference in complications. Obesity was not an independent predictor of operative time or EBL on regression analysis. Among obese patients, males had a greater EBL (150 vs. 100 ml, p<0.001), operative time (180 vs. 166 min, p<0.001) and warm ischemia time (WIT, 20 vs. 18, p=0.001), and male sex was an independent predictor of these outcomes on regression analysis. Conclusions: In this large, multicentre study on RPN, obesity was not associated with increased complications and was not an independent predictor of operating time or blood loss. However, in obese patients, male gender was an independent predictor of greater EBL, operative time, and WIT. Our results indicate that obesity alone should not preclude consideration for RPN. PMID:26788235

  10. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy in 95 consecutive patients: Oncological and functional outcomes at 3 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Castillo, O A; Rodríguez-Carlin, A; Borgna, V

    2016-05-01

    We present the oncological and functional results from a series of 43 patients with renal tumours, treated consecutively with robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN). Between 2010 and 2014, we performed 95 RPNs. To assess the results, we included only those patients (n=43) who had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. A descriptive analysis was conducted of the demographic characteristics and perioperative variables. We employed Kaplan-Meier curves to assess overall survival, cancer-specific survival and recurrence-free survival. The patients' mean age was 53.1±13.5 years. The mean preoperative tumour size was 3.7±2.3cm. The mean surgical time was 102.2±37.1min. The mean ischemia time was 21.27±7.74minutes, with a median intraoperative bleeding volume of 150mL (IQR, 87.5-425). There was a 7% rate of postoperative complications (Clavien≥III). There was no mortality. The average Fürhman grade was 2.5±0.56. There were no positive surgical margins or local recurrences. The median follow-up was 38±8 months, with an overal survival, recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific survival of 100% at 3 years of follow-up. The recurrence-free survival was 92,3% at 48 months of follow-up. The mean preoperative glomerular filtration rate was 91.04±28.17mL/min/1.73m(2), and the postoperative rate was 89.9±27.69mL/min/1.73m(2), with a nonsignificant reduction (P=.74). The functional and oncological results of our series confirm the safety and efficacy of RPN. RPN offers optimal preservation of renal function and oncological control in the medium term. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Renal damage caused by warm ischaemia during laparoscopic and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: an assessment using Tc 99m-DTPA glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Duck; Park, Jong Wook; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Hong Seok; Jeong, Byong Chang; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Seo, Seong Il

    2010-12-01

    Few studies assessing the functional change of each kidney following warm ischaemia after partial nephrectomy are available. Our aim was to identify the effects of the warm ischaemic time (WIT) on renal function after partial nephrectomy under the pneumoperitoneum. Forty-four consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) or robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) from June 2008 to May 2009 for a single cT1 renal tumour were included in this prospective protocol. Technetium Tc 99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc 99m-DTPA) renal scintigraphy was used to determine the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of both kidneys and each kidney individually. Tc 99m-DTPA GFR was performed preoperatively and 3 mo postoperatively. In addition, we analysed Tc 99m-DTPA scintigraphy GFR regionally in the healthy areas of the affected kidney. Patients with WIT > 28 min had a significantly greater decrease in the GFR of the affected kidney (p = 0.031). The GFR of the affected kidney showed a significant decrease perioperatively (46.4 ± 14.3 to 37.9 ± 11.9 ml/min per 1.73 m²; p = 0.003). The functional change of the nonaffected kidney showed an increasing trend (47.5 ± 13.8 to 51.4 ± 14.3 ml/min per 1.73 m²), although it was not statistically significant (p=0.103). Regional Tc 99m-DTPA GFR of both affected kidney and nonaffected kidney showed no significant differences perioperatively (6.3 ± 1.8 to 6.1 ± 1.9 ml/min per 1.73 m²; p = 0.641; 6.6 ± 1.9 to 7.1 ± 2.0 ml/min per 1.73 m² ; p = 0.200). On multivariate analysis, preoperative GFR, resected volume of marginal healthy tissue, and WIT were independent predictors for functional reduction of the affected kidney (p < 0.05). The study was limited by small numbers and short follow-up periods. Stationary overall renal function after LPN or RAPN is masked possibly by functional compensation of the contralateral healthy kidney. The damage of the affected kidney estimated by scintigraphy occurs

  12. [Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: technique and outcomes].

    PubMed

    Colombo, J R; Gill, I S

    2006-05-01

    The indication of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has evolved considerably, and the technique is approaching established status at our institution. Over the past 5 years, the senior author has performed more than 450 laparoscopic partial nephrectomies at the Cleveland Clinic. Herein we present our current technique, review contemporary data and oncological outcomes of LPN.

  13. Outlining the limits of partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Satkunasivam, Raj; Kundavaram, Chandan; Liang, Gangning

    2015-01-01

    Amongst nephron-sparing modalities, partial nephrectomy (PN) is the standard of care in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Despite the increasing utilization of PN, particularly propagated by robot-assisted, minimally invasive approaches for small renal masses (SRMs), the limits of PN appear to be also evolving. In this review, we sought to address the tumour stage beyond which PN may be oncologically perilous. While the evidence supports PN in the treatment of tumours < pT2a, PN may have a role in advanced or metastatic RCC. Other scenarios wherein PN has limited utility are also explored, including anatomical or surgical factors that dictate the difficulty of the case, such as prior renal surgery. Lastly, we discuss the emerging role of molecular biomarkers, specifically epigenetics, to aid in the risk stratification of SRMs and to select tumours optimally suited for PN. PMID:26236649

  14. The clinical application of the sliding loop technique for renorrhaphy during robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Surgical technique and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Young Ju; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Jeong, Chang Wook

    2015-11-01

    To report the initial clinical outcomes of the newly devised sliding loop technique (SLT) used for renorrhaphy in patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) for small renal mass. We reviewed the surgical videos and medical charts of 31 patients who had undergone RALPN with the SLT renorrhaphy performed by two surgeons (CWJ and CK) between January 2014 and October 2014. SLT renorrhaphy was performed after tumor excision and renal parenchymal defect repair. Assessed outcomes included renorrhaphy time (RT), warm ischemic time, perioperative complications, and perioperative renal function change. RT was defined as interval from the end of bed suture to the renal artery declamping. In all patients, sliding loop renorrhaphy was successfully conducted without conversions to radical nephrectomy or open approaches. Mean renorrhaphy and warm ischemic time were 9.0 and 22.6 minutes, respectively. After completing renorrhaphy, there were no adverse events such as dehiscence of approximated renal parenchyma, renal parenchymal tearing, or significant bleeding. Furthermore, no postoperative complications or significant renal function decline were observed as of the last follow-up for all patients. The limitations of this study include the small volume case series, the retrospective nature of the study, and the heterogeneity of surgeons. From our initial clinical experience, SLT may be an efficient and safe renorrhaphy method in real clinical practice. Further large scale, prospective, long-term follow-up, and direct comparative studies with other techniques are required to confirm the clinical applicability of SLT.

  15. Using a Harmonic Scalpel "Drilling and Clamping" Method to Implement Zero Ischemic Robotic-assisted Partial Nephrectomy: An Observation Case Report Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chen-Pang; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Chen, Chien-Lun; Chang, Phei-Lang; Tsui, Ke-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) has gradually become a popular minimally invasive nephron-sparing surgical option for small renal tumors. Ischemic injury should be minimized because it impacts renal function outcomes following partial nephrectomy. Herein, the authors detail the technique and present initial perioperative outcomes of our novel harmonic scalpel "drilling and clamping" method to implement zero-ischemic RAPN. The authors prospectively collected baseline and perioperative data of patients who underwent zero ischemic RAPN performed by our harmonic scalpel "drilling and clamping" method. From April 2012 to December 2014, a total of 19 consecutive zero ischemic RAPN procedures were performed by a single surgeon. For 18 of the 19 patients, RAPN using our harmonic scalpel "Drilling and Clamping" method was successfully completed without the need for hilar clamping. The median tumor size was 3.4 cm (range: 1.8-6.2); operative time was 3.2 hours (range: 1.9-4.5); blood loss was 100 mL (range: 30-950); and postoperative hospital stay was 4 days (3-26). One patient required intraoperative blood transfusion. Two patients had intra or postoperative complications: 1 was converted to traditional laparotomy because of massive bleeding, whereas another had postoperative stress ulcer. Pathology confirmed renal cell carcinoma in 13 patients (63.2%), angiomyolipoma in 6 patients: (31.5%), and oncocytoma in 1 patient (5.3%). Mean pre- and postoperative serum creatinine (0.82 mg/dL and 0.85 mg/dL, respectively), estimated glomerular filtration rate (84.12 and 82.18, respectively), and hemoglobin (13.27 g/dL and 12.71 g/dL, respectively) were comparable. The authors present a novel zero-ischemic technique for RAPN. They believe that this technique is feasible and reproducible.

  16. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: six degrees of haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Louie, Michael K; Deane, Leslie A; Kaplan, Adam G; Lee, Hak J; Box, Geoffrey N; Abraham, Jose Benito A; Borin, James F; Khan, Farhan; McDougall, Elspeth M; Clayman, Ralph V

    2011-05-01

    • To describe six steps for haemostasis and collecting system closure ('six degrees of haemostasis') that are reproducible and that minimize the two most concerning complications of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: haemorrhage and urine leakage. • A retrospective study of 23 consecutive laparoscopic partial nephrectomy cases performed by a single surgeon between 2005 and 2008 using the 'six degrees of haemostasis' was carried out. • There were no cases of intraoperative, postoperative or delayed bleeding. • There were no cases of urine leakage. • The 'six degrees of haemostasis' technique for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy described in the present study provides a reliable and reproducible method to reassure the surgeon of haemostasis and provide a decreased risk of urine leakage. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  17. The clinical application of the sliding loop technique for renorrhaphy during robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Surgical technique and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Young Ju; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the initial clinical outcomes of the newly devised sliding loop technique (SLT) used for renorrhaphy in patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) for small renal mass. Materials and Methods We reviewed the surgical videos and medical charts of 31 patients who had undergone RALPN with the SLT renorrhaphy performed by two surgeons (CWJ and CK) between January 2014 and October 2014. SLT renorrhaphy was performed after tumor excision and renal parenchymal defect repair. Assessed outcomes included renorrhaphy time (RT), warm ischemic time, perioperative complications, and perioperative renal function change. RT was defined as interval from the end of bed suture to the renal artery declamping. Results In all patients, sliding loop renorrhaphy was successfully conducted without conversions to radical nephrectomy or open approaches. Mean renorrhaphy and warm ischemic time were 9.0 and 22.6 minutes, respectively. After completing renorrhaphy, there were no adverse events such as dehiscence of approximated renal parenchyma, renal parenchymal tearing, or significant bleeding. Furthermore, no postoperative complications or significant renal function decline were observed as of the last follow-up for all patients. The limitations of this study include the small volume case series, the retrospective nature of the study, and the heterogeneity of surgeons. Conclusions From our initial clinical experience, SLT may be an efficient and safe renorrhaphy method in real clinical practice. Further large scale, prospective, long-term follow-up, and direct comparative studies with other techniques are required to confirm the clinical applicability of SLT. PMID:26568794

  18. Are we ready for day-case partial nephrectomy?

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Payan, Anne; Bensadoun, Henri; Cornelis, François; Pierquet, Grégory; Pasticier, Gilles; Robert, Grégoire; Capon, Grégoire; Ravaud, Alain; Ferriere, Jean-Marie

    2016-06-01

    Fast-track and day-case surgeries are gaining more and more importance. Their development was eased by the diffusion of minimal invasive surgical strategies and the consequential morbidity reduction. In the field of kidney cancer, seven cases of ambulatory radical nephrectomy were previously reported in the international literature. Regarding robotic partial nephrectomy (PN), short postoperative pathways resulting in patients' discharge on postoperative day 1 were shown to be safe and feasible. We report our initial experience of robot-assisted PN discharged on postoperative day zero and discuss the criteria for adequate patient selection. Indeed, outpatient PN will obviously not be suitable for all patients, and careful selection will be mandatory. Both specific baseline patient's factors and postoperative events will have to be recognized for the first ones and prevented for the second ones. Safety, patient satisfaction, cost efficiency, and reproducibility will be the key factors to assess and promote day-case PN.

  19. Utility of patient-specific silicone renal models for planning and rehearsal of complex tumour resections prior to robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    von Rundstedt, Friedrich-Carl; Scovell, Jason M; Agrawal, Smriti; Zaneveld, Jacques; Link, Richard E

    2017-04-01

    To describe our experience using patient-specific tissue-like kidney models created with advanced three-dimensional (3D)-printing technology for preoperative planning and surgical rehearsal prior to robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN). A feasibility study of 10 patients with solid renal masses who underwent RALPN after preoperative rehearsal using 3D-print kidney models. A single surgeon performed all surgical rehearsals and procedures. Using standard preoperative imaging and 3D reconstruction, we generated pre-surgical models using a silicone-based material. All surgical rehearsals were performed using the da Vinci(®) robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) before the actual procedure. To determine construct validity, we compared resection times between the model and actual tumour in a patient-specific manner. Using 3D laser scanning in the operating room, we quantified and compared the shape and tumour volume resected for each model and patient tumour. We generated patient-specific models for 10 patients with complex tumour anatomy. R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores were between 7 and 11, with a mean maximal tumour diameter of 40.6 mm. The mean resection times between model and patient (6:58 vs 8:22 min, P = 0.162) and tumour volumes between the computer model, excised model, and excised tumour (38.88 vs 38.50 vs 41.79 mm(3) , P = 0.98) were not significantly different. We have developed a patient-specific pre-surgical simulation protocol for RALPN. We demonstrated construct validity and provided accurate representation of enucleation time and resected tissue volume. This simulation platform can assist in surgical decision-making, provide preoperative rehearsals, and improve surgical training. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Predicting outcomes in partial nephrectomy: is the renal score useful?

    PubMed Central

    Matos, André Costa; Dall´Oglio, Marcos F.; Colombo, José Roberto; Crippa, Alexandre; Juveniz, João A. Q.; Argolo, Felipe Coelho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction and Objective The R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry system (RNS) has been validated in multiple open, laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy series. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry system in predicting perioperative outcomes in surgical treatment of kidney tumors <7.0cm in a prospective model. Materials and Methods Seventy-one patients were selected and included in this prospective study. We evaluate the accuracy of RNS in predicting perioperative outcomes (WIT, OT, EBL, LOS, conversion, complications and surgical margins) in partial nephrectomy using ROC curves, univariate and multivariate analyses. R.E.N.A.L. was divided in 3 groups: low complexity (LC), medium complexity (MC) and high complexity (HC). Results No patients in LC group had WIT >20 min, versus 41.4% and 64.3% MC and HC groups respectively (p=0.03); AUC=0.643 (p=0.07). RNS was associated with convertion rate (LC:28.6% ; MC:47.6%; HC:77.3%, p=0.02). Patients with RNS <8 were most often subjected to partial nephrectomy (93% x 72%, p=0.03) and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (56.8% x 28%, p=0.02), AUC=0.715 (p=0.002). The RNS was also associated with operative time. Patients with a score >8 had 6.06 times greater chance of having a surgery duration >180 min. (p=0.017), AUC=0.63 (p=0.059). R.E.N.A.L. score did not correlate with EBL, complications (Clavien >3), LOS or positive surgical margin. Conclusion R.E.N.A.L. score was a good method in predicting surgical access route and type of nephrectomy. Also was associated with OT and WIT, but with weak accuracy. Although, RNS was not associated with Clavien >3, EBL, LOS or positive surgical margin. PMID:28266814

  1. Predicting outcomes in partial nephrectomy: is the renal score useful?

    PubMed

    Matos, André Costa; Dall'Oglio, Marcos F; Colombo, José Roberto; Crippa, Alexandre; Juveniz, João A Q; Argolo, Felipe Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry system (RNS) has been validated in multiple open, laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy series. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry system in predicting perioperative outcomes in surgical treatment of kidney tumors <7.0cm in a prospective model. Seventy-one patients were selected and included in this prospective study. We evaluate the accuracy of RNS in predicting perioperative outcomes (WIT, OT, EBL, LOS, conversion, complications and surgical margins) in partial nephrectomy using ROC curves, univariate and multivariate analyses. R.E.N.A.L. was divided in 3 groups: low complexity (LC), medium complexity (MC) and high complexity (HC). No patients in LC group had WIT >20 min, versus 41.4% and 64.3% MC and HC groups respectively (p=0.03); AUC=0.643 (p=0.07). RNS was associated with convertion rate (LC:28.6% ; MC:47.6%; HC:77.3%, p=0.02). Patients with RNS <8 were most often subjected to partial nephrectomy (93% x 72%, p=0.03) and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (56.8% x 28%, p=0.02), AUC=0.715 (p=0.002). The RNS was also associated with operative time. Patients with a score >8 had 6.06 times greater chance of having a surgery duration >180 min. (p=0.017), AUC=0.63 (p=0.059). R.E.N.A.L. score did not correlate with EBL, complications (Clavien >3), LOS or positive surgical margin. R.E.N.A.L. score was a good method in predicting surgical access route and type of nephrectomy. Also was associated with OT and WIT, but with weak accuracy. Although, RNS was not associated with Clavien >3, EBL, LOS or positive surgical margin. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  2. Open partial nephrectomy: ancient art or currently available technique?

    PubMed

    Seveso, Mauro; Grizzi, Fabio; Bozzini, Giorgio; Mandressi, Alberto; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Taverna, Gianluigi

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 3 % of adult solid tumors, with the highest incidence between 50 and 70 years of age. Nephron-sparing surgery was initially reserved to patients with small renal masses detected in anatomically or functionally solitary kidney or in the presence of multiple bilateral tumors or hereditary forms of RCC, which posed a high risk of developing a tumor in the contralateral kidney. Nowadays, partial nephrectomy (PN) has grown up to an established approach for the treatment of small renal masses. In patients with T1a-staged RCCs, PN has proven to be associated with better survival, long-term renal function preservation with lower dialysis need or renal transplantation. Currently, most of the kidney masses are incidentally detected, up to 40 %, with smaller size due to the widespread use of imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. Here we review the role of open PN in the management of small renal masses particularly focusing on indications, oncological outcomes and comparison with laparoscopic and robotic PN. Recent studies demonstrate that PN confers better survival, oncologic equivalence and lower risk of severe chronic kidney disease compared to radical nephrectomy becoming then the gold-standard surgical technique, even if increasingly challenged by laparoscopic and/or robot-assisted partial nephrectomy which in the hands of experts seems to achieve comparable outcome results albeit with slightly higher complication rate.

  3. Possible Detrimental Effects of Clamping Main Versus Segmental Renal Arteries for the Achievement of Renal Global Ischemia During Robot-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Akca, Oktay; Zargar, Homayoun; Attalla, Kyrollis; Brandao, Luis Felipe; Laydner, Humberto; Krishnan, Jayram; Stein, Robert J; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2015-07-01

    To determine the impacts of clamping the main renal artery vs individually clamping presegmental or segmental arteries at the time of global renal ischemia on the surgical and functional outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). Patients who underwent RAPN at our center from 2009 to September 2013 were assessed for details of intraoperative renal arterial anatomy. Cases were divided into two groups according to the type of global renal ischemia: Group 1 consisted of cases where one main renal artery (or hilum) was clamped; group 2 included cases where multiple arteries or multiple branches of arteries were individually clamped. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, perioperative data, functional outcomes (as well as pathology findings) were assessed for both groups. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed for identifying factors predicting early (at day 3) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) preservation postoperatively. Group 1 and group 2 included 468 and 111 patients, respectively. Estimated blood loss and warm ischemia time (WIT) were comparable between the two groups. A higher proportion of combined arterial and venous clamping was observed in group 1 (76.2% vs 52.3%; P=0.0001). On postoperative day 3, eGFR preservation was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.87). On multivariable analysis, WIT and preoperative eGFR remained the only significant predictors of early eGFR preservation. The number of arterial vessels clamped during the procedure or simultaneous arterial/vein clamping were not predictors of early eGFR preservation. Perioperative outcomes of RAPN are not influenced by clamping the main renal artery compared with clamping multiple branches of the renal artery for achievement of global renal ischemia. WIT and baseline eGFR were confirmed to be significant predictors of postoperative renal function preservation after RAPN.

  4. Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: step-by-step contemporary technique and surgical outcomes at a single high-volume institution.

    PubMed

    Kaouk, Jihad H; Khalifeh, Ali; Hillyer, Shahab; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Stein, Robert J; Autorino, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Robotic technology is being increasingly adopted in urologic surgery. To describe a contemporary surgical technique and report cumulative surgical outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) at our tertiary care institution. Medical charts of consecutive patients who underwent RALPN between June 2006 and November 2011 were reviewed from a prospectively maintained, institutional review board-approved database. The main steps of our current surgical technique are described in this video tutorial: patient positioning and trocar placement; bowel mobilization; hilar dissection; tumor identification and demarcation; clamping of the hilum; tumor excision; renorraphy; hilar unclamping; and tumor retrieval. Patients' characteristics and main surgical outcomes were analyzed. A total of 400 patients (mean age: 58.5 yr, mean body mass index: 30.7 kg/m(2)) were included in this analysis. Mean renal tumor size was 3.17 cm (standard deviation [SD]: 1.64) and mean RENAL score was 7.2 (SD: 2). Six patients (1.5%) presented with a solitary kidney. Mean total operative time was 190.3 min (SD: 57), and mean warm ischemia time was 19.2 min (SD: 10.72). In 36 cases (9%), an unclamped hilum technique was used. After a mean follow-up of 12.4 mo (SD: 12.2), there was a decline of -9.2 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (SD: 26.56) in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Most renal masses were malignant (74.5%), and the overall mean tumor size was 3.05 cm (SD: 1.66). Renal cell carcinoma with a clear cell histology represented the most frequent malignant diagnosis (64.4% of cases). A positive margin was observed in nine cases (2.25%). A total of 11 intraoperative complications (2.7%) occurred, and a conversion to open or laparoscopic PN was required in six cases (1.5%). A postoperative complication occurred in 61 cases (15.3%), the majority of them being low grade. The standardization of each surgical step has allowed for optimization of RALPN and ultimately improved its outcomes

  5. Augmented reality partial nephrectomy: examining the current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Mayer, Erik K; Marcus, Hani J; Cundy, Thomas P; Pratt, Philip J; Darzi, Ara W; Vale, Justin A

    2014-02-01

    A minimal access approach to partial nephrectomy has historically been under-utilized, but is now becoming more popular with the growth of robot-assisted laparoscopy. One of the criticisms of minimal access partial nephrectomy is the loss of haptic feedback. Augmented reality operating environments are forecast to play a major enabling role in the future of minimal access partial nephrectomy by integrating enhanced visual information to supplement this loss of haptic sensation. In this article, we systematically examine the current status of augmented reality in partial nephrectomy by identifying existing research challenges and exploring future agendas for this technology to achieve wider clinical translation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An Ultrasonic Clamp for Bloodless Partial Nephrectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Bouchoux, Guillaume; Murat, François Joseph; Birer, Alain; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean Yves; Cathignol, Dominique

    2007-05-01

    Maximum conservation of the kidney is preferable through partial nephrectomy for patients at risk of disease recurrence of renal cancers. Haemostatic tools are needed in order to achieve bloodless surgery and reduce post surgery morbidity. Two piezo-ceramic transducers operating at a frequency of 4 MHz were mounted on each arm of a clamp. When used for coagulation purposes, two transducers situated on opposite arms of the clamp were driven simultaneously. Heat delivery was optimized as each transducers mirrored back to targeted tissues the wave generated by the opposite transducer. Real-time treatment monitoring with an echo-based technique was also envisaged with this clamp. Therapy was periodically interrupted so one transducer could generate a pulse. The echo returning from the opposite transducer was treated. Coagulation necroses were obtained in vitro on substantial thicknesses (23-38mm) of pig liver over exposure durations ranging from 30s to 130s, and with acoustic intensities of less than 15W/cm2 per transducer. Both kidneys of two pigs were treated in vivo with the clamp (14.5W/cm2 for 90s), and the partial nephrectomies performed proved to be bloodless. In vitro and in vivo, wide transfixing lesions corresponded to an echo energy decrease superior to -10dB and parabolic form of the time of flight versus treatment time. In conclusion, this ultrasound clamp has proven to be an excellent mean for achieving monitored haemostasis in kidney.

  7. Zero ischemia laparoscopic partial thulium laser nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Arun Z; Smyth, Lisa; Hennessey, Derek; O'Kelly, Fardod; Moran, Diarmaid; Lynch, Thomas H

    2013-11-01

    Laser technology presents a promising alternative to achieve tumor excision and renal hemostasis with or without hilar occlusion, yet its use in partial nephrectomy has not been significantly evaluated. We prospectively evaluated the thulium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in our institution over a 1-year period. We used the thulium laser with a wavelength of 2013 nm in the infrared spectrum. Data were recorded prospectively. Tumor size, preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical classification (PADUA) score, operative time, warm ischemia time (WIT), and perioperative and postoperative morbidity were recorded. Blood loss, preoperative and postoperative creatinine level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were also collected. A total of 15 patients underwent consecutive LPN. The mean tumour diameter was 2.85 (1.5-4). The mean PADUA score was 6.8 (6-9). The mean total operative time was 168 minutes (128-306 min). Mean blood loss was 341 mL (0-800 mL). Date of discharge was 3.2 days postoperatively (2-8 days). The renal vessels were not clamped, resulting in a WIT of 0 minutes in all cases. There was no statistical significant increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in eGFR postoperatively. Histologically, the majority of lesions (13/15 patients) were renal-cell carcinoma stage pT1a. In all cases, base margins had negative results for tumor. The 2013-nm thulium laser system offers excellent hemostasis and precise resection capability of the renal cortex during LPN of small partially exophytic renal tumors. Our series showed excellent perioperative functional and pathologic outcomes, including minimal blood loss, zero ischemia, negative tumor margins, and preservation of renal function.

  8. Increased use of antihypertensive medications after partial nephrectomy vs. radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Ryan; Singla, Nirmish; Krabbe, Laura-Maria; Woldu, Solomon; Chen, Gong; Rew, Charles; Tachibana, Isamu; Lotan, Yair; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Margulis, Vitaly

    2017-07-15

    A prospective study of partial vs. radical nephrectomy demonstrated worse overall survival in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy which appeared to be driven by cardiovascular outcomes. We sought to determine if the blood pressures or use of antihypertensive medications differed between patients who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. A tertiary-referral institutional renal mass database was queried for patients between 2006 and 2012 undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy. Serial blood pressure follow-up, clinicopathologic variables, and changes in medications were collected. Patients were excluded for inadequate data, noncurative-intent surgery, noncancer surgical indication, and absence of medication information. Time-dependent hemodynamic changes were compared by split-plot analysis of variance and addition to antihypertensive regimen was studied as time-to-event survival analyses with Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional hazards model. A final cohort of 264 partial nephrectomy and 130 radical nephrectomy cases were identified. Patients undergoing partial nephrectomy were younger, more likely to have T1 tumors, and had lower preoperative creatinine (P<0.001 for all). No differences were noted on postoperative hemodynamics (P>0.05). Significantly more patients who underwent partial nephrectomy added antihypertensive medications postoperatively (P≤0.001) and surgical treatment remained as a significant independent predictor on Cox regression (hazard ratio = 2.51, P = 0.002). Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study and potential for unidentified confounders. Hemodynamic parameters after radical or partial nephrectomy may be different. The etiology of this observation, is currently unexplored. Additional prospective mechanistic investigations are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Post partial nephrectomy surveillance imaging: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Lorenzo; Gorin, Michael A; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2015-04-01

    To ensure the early detection of recurrent disease, all patients should undergo routine surveillance following partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. In order to optimize resource allocation and avoid unnecessary radiation exposure, the frequency and duration of surveillance should be tailored to the individual patient's risk of cancer recurrence. The evidence for surveillance after partial nephrectomy is presented reviewing the current literature on prognostic models and proposed surveillance protocols based on the timing and patterns of renal cell carcinoma recurrence. In addition, we review recent guidelines on post partial nephrectomy surveillance as well as the literature on novel imaging techniques that may aid in early disease discovery.

  10. Percutaneous Cryoablation vs Partial Nephrectomy: Cost Comparison of T1a Tumors.

    PubMed

    Chehab, Monzer; Friedlander, Joshua A; Handel, Jeremy; Vartanian, Stephen; Krishnan, Anant; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver; Korman, Howard; Seifman, Brian; Ciacci, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    To compare cost of percutaneous cryoablation vs open and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy of T1a renal masses from the hospital perspective. We retrospectively compared cost, clinical and tumor data of 37 percutaneous cryoablations to 26 open and 102 robot-assisted partial nephrectomies. Total cost was the sum of direct and indirect cost of procedural and periprocedural variables. Clinical data included demographics, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), hospitalization time, complication rate, ICU admission rate, and 30-day readmission rates. Tumor data included size, RENAL nephrometry score, and malignancy rate. Student's t-test was used for continuous variables and Fisher's exact or chi-square tests for categorical data. Mean total cost was lower for percutaneous cryoablation than open or robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: $6067 vs $11392 or $11830 (p<0.0001) with lower cost of procedure room: $1516 vs $3272 or $3254 (p<0.0001), room and board: $95 vs $1907 or $1106 (p<0.0001), anesthesia: $684 vs $1223 or $1468 (p<0.0001), and laboratory/pathology fees: $205 vs $804 or $720 (p<0.0001). Supply and device cost was higher than open: $2596 vs $1352 (p<0.0001), but lower than robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: $3207 (p=0.002). Mean hospitalization times were lower for percutaneous cryoablation (p<0.0001), while age and CCI were higher (p<0.0001). No differences in tumor size, nephrometry score, malignancy rate complication, ICU, or 30-day readmission rates were observed. Percutaneous cryoablation can be performed at significantly lower cost than open and robotic partial nephrectomies for similar masses.

  11. Survival benefit of partial nephrectomy: Reconciling experimental and observational data.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hung-Jui

    2015-12-01

    Given recent epidemiological and practice trends, small kidney cancers are poised to become a focus of modern-day surgical care provided by urologists and urologic oncologists. For the past decade, partial nephrectomy has been viewed as preferable to radical nephrectomy for the treatment of many patients with early-stage kidney cancer, partly because observational studies suggest a survival benefit with nephron sparing. More recently, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 30904--a phase 3 randomized control trial--demonstrated better survival for patients treated with radical vs. partial nephrectomy. Shortly thereafter, an instrumental variable analysis reported a survival advantage with partial nephrectomy. Although seemingly contradictory, these studies are potentially reconcilable when considering methodological differences and other empiric work.

  12. PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores correlate with perioperative outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: analysis of the Vattikuti Global Quality Initiative in Robotic Urologic Surgery (GQI-RUS) database.

    PubMed

    Schiavina, Riccardo; Novara, Giacomo; Borghesi, Marco; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Moon, Daniel A; Porpiglia, Francesco; Challacombe, Benjamin J; Dasgupta, Prokar; Brunocilla, Eugenio; La Manna, Gaetano; Volpe, Alessandro; Verma, Hema; Martorana, Giuseppe; Mottrie, Alexandre

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate and compare the correlations between Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) and R.E.N.A.L. [Radius (tumour size as maximal diameter), Exophytic/endophytic properties of the tumour, Nearness of tumour deepest portion to the collecting system or sinus, Anterior (a)/posterior (p) descriptor and the Location relative to the polar line] nephrometry scores and perioperative outcomes and postoperative complications in a multicentre, international series of patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) for masses suspicious for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We retrospectively evaluated the clinical records of patients who underwent RAPN between 2010 and 2013 for clinical N0M0 renal tumours in four international centres that completed all the data required for the Vattikuti Global Quality Initiative in Robotic Urologic Surgery (GQI-RUS) database. All patients underwent preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to define the clinical stage and anatomical characteristics of the tumours. PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. scores were retrospectively assessed in each centre. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the correlations between age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index, clinical tumour size, PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. complexity group categories and warm ischaemia time (WIT) of >20 min, urinary calyceal system closure, and grade of postoperative complications. Overall, 277 patients were evaluated. The median (interquartile range) tumour size was 33.0 (22.0-43.0) mm. The median PADUA and R.E.N.A.L. scores were eight and seven, respectively; 112 (40.4%), 86 (31.0%) and 79 (28.5%) patients were classified in the low-, intermediate- or high-complexity group according to PADUA score, while 118 (42.5%), 139 (50.1%) and 20 (7.2%) were classified in the low-, intermediate- or high-complexity group according to R.E.N.A.L. score, respectively. Both nephrometry tools significantly correlated with

  13. Renal Preservation and Partial Nephrectomy: Patient and Surgical Factors.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Lorenzo; Desai, Mihir M; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Porpiglia, Francesco; Van Poppel, Hendrik

    2016-12-15

    Optimization of the partial nephrectomy (PN) procedure in terms of preservation of functional outcomes is of special importance. To review the most important patient and surgical factors that may influence the three elements that ultimately define the preservation of renal function (RF) after PN: preoperative RF, quantity of parenchyma preserved, and nephron recovery from ischemic insult. A nonsystematic review of the literature was conducted. Relevant databases were searched for studies providing data on surgical, patient, and tumour factors predictive of RF preservation after PN. Many renal cell carcinoma patients have low RF at baseline or are at risk of rapid progression of chronic kidney disease. A glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of ≤45ml/min/1.73m(2) after PN is associated with higher risk of a 50% drop in GFR or dialysis. Greater tumor size and complexity are nonmodifiable factors that predict worse postoperative RF, longer warm ischemia time (IT), and greater healthy parenchymal volume loss (HPVL). Global renal ischemic injury can be minimized using off-clamp or selective minimal renal ischemia techniques that vary from simple regional ischemia to more complex techniques such as tertiary or higher-order renal arterial branch clamping. However, the quality and quantity of parenchymal mass preserved are the main predictors of RF after PN, and IT seems to have a secondary role, as long as warm IT is limited or ischemia is hypothermic. HPVL is minimized using enucleation techniques (oncologically equivalent to traditional PN for low-grade tumors in retrospective studies) and reduction of the parenchyma incorporated in renorrhaphy. Evidence on the comparative effectiveness of the various PN surgical approaches (open, laparoscopic, robotic, and thermoablation) in terms of functional outcomes is characterized by low overall quality. Efforts should be made to optimize the modifiable surgical factors identified for maximum RF preservation after PN. The low

  14. Interventional Management of Renal Bleeding after Partial Nephrectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Clemens Westphalen, Kerstin; Fuchs, Heiko; Oesterwitz, Helmut; Hierholzer, Johannes

    2007-09-15

    Objective. Partial nephrectomy (PN) has emerged as a serious alternative to nephrectomy in oncologic therapy of renal tumours. While complications are rare in general, renal hemorrhage may occur und necessitate angiographic embolization. In this retrospective study, we evaluate the clinical, imaging and procedural findings of seven interventions in five patients with renal hemorrhage after PN. In four out of five patients (80%) the bleeding could be treated successfully by embolotherapy. Conclusion. Angiographic embolization in patients with renal hemorrhage after PN is feasible and has a high success rate. The procedure might facilitate avoidance of nephrectomy.

  15. Ex-vivo partial nephrectomy after living donor nephrectomy: Surgical technique for expanding kidney donor pool

    PubMed Central

    Nyame, Yaw A.; Babbar, Paurush; Aboumohamed, Ahmed A.; Mori, Ryan L.; Flechner, Stuart M.; Modlin, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    Renal transplantation has profound improvements in mortality, morbidity, and overall quality of life compared to renal replacement therapy. This report aims to illustrate the use of ex-vivo partial nephrectomy in a patient with a renal angiomyolipoma prior to living donor transplantation. The surgical outcomes of the donor nephrectomy and recipient transplantation are reported with 2 years of follow-up. Both the donor and recipient are healthy and without any significant comorbidities. In conclusion, urologic techniques such as partial nephrectomy can be used to expand the living donor pool in carefully selected and well informed transplant recipients. Our experience demonstrated a safe and positive outcome for both the recipient and donor, and is consistent with other reported outcomes in the literature. PMID:28216945

  16. Decline in renal function after partial nephrectomy: etiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Mir, Maria C; Ercole, Cesar; Takagi, Toshio; Zhang, Zhiling; Velet, Lily; Remer, Erick M; Demirjian, Sevag; Campbell, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    Partial nephrectomy is the reference standard for the management of small renal tumors and is commonly used for localized kidney cancer. A primary goal of partial nephrectomy is to preserve as much renal function as possible. New baseline glomerular filtration rate after partial nephrectomy can have prognostic significance with respect to long-term outcomes. Recent studies provide an increased understanding of the factors that determine functional outcomes after partial nephrectomy as well as preventive measures to minimize functional decline. We review these advances, highlight ongoing controversies and stimulate further research. A comprehensive literature review consistent with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria was performed from January 2006 to April 2014 using PubMed®, Cochrane and Ovid Medline. Key words included partial nephrectomy, renal function, warm ischemia, hypothermia, nephron mass, parenchymal volume, surgical approaches to partial nephrectomy, preoperative and intraoperative imaging, enucleation, hemostatic agents and energy based resection. Relevant reviews were also examined as well as their cited references. An additional Google Scholar search was conducted to broaden the scope of the review. Only English language articles were included in the analysis. The primary outcomes of interest were the new baseline level of function after early postoperative recovery, percent decline in function, potential etiologies and preventive measures. Decline in function after partial nephrectomy averages approximately 20% in the operated kidney, and can be due to incomplete recovery from the ischemic insult or loss of nephron mass related to parenchymal excision or collateral damage during reconstruction. Compensatory hypertrophy in the contralateral kidney after partial nephrectomy in adults is marginal and decline in global renal function for patients with 2 kidneys averages about 10%, although there is

  17. Open partial nephrectomy in renal cell cancer - Essential or obsolete?

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, Eleni; O'Brien, Timothy; Fernando, Archana

    2016-12-01

    Since the first partial nephrectomy was first conducted 131 years ago, the procedure has evolved into the gold standard treatment for small renal masses. Over the past decade, with the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, open partial nephrectomy still retains a valuable role in the treatment of complex tumours in challenging clinical situations (e.g. hereditary renal cancer or single kidneys), and enables surgeons to push the boundaries of nephron-sparing surgery. In this article, we consider the origin of the procedure and how it has evolved over the past century, the surgical techniques involved, and the oncological and functional outcomes.

  18. Ex vivo ultrasound control of resection margins during partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, Arnaud; Cerantola, Yannick; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Lhermitte, Benoît; Bensadoun, Henri; Jichlinski, Patrice

    2011-12-01

    Surgery remains the treatment of choice for localized renal neoplasms. While radical nephrectomy was long considered the gold standard, partial nephrectomy has equivalent oncological results for small tumors. The role of negative surgical margins continues to be debated. Intraoperative frozen section analysis is expensive and time-consuming. We assessed the feasibility of intraoperative ex vivo ultrasound of resection margins in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy and its correlation with margin status on definitive pathological evaluation. A study was done at 2 institutions from February 2008 to March 2011. Patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for T1-T2 renal tumors were included in analysis. Partial nephrectomy was done by a standardized minimal healthy tissue margin technique. After resection the specimen was kept in saline and tumor margin status was immediately determined by ex vivo ultrasound. Sequential images were obtained to evaluate the whole tumor pseudocapsule. Results were compared with margin status on definitive pathological evaluation. A total of 19 men and 14 women with a mean ± SD age of 62 ± 11 years were included in analysis. Intraoperative ex vivo ultrasound revealed negative surgical margins in 30 cases and positive margins in 2 while it could not be done in 1. Final pathological results revealed negative margins in all except 1 case. Ultrasound sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively. Median ultrasound duration was 1 minute. Mean tumor and margin size was 3.6 ± 2.2 cm and 1.5 ± 0.7 mm, respectively. Intraoperative ex vivo ultrasound of resection margins in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy is feasible and efficient. Large sample studies are needed to confirm its promising accuracy to determine margin status. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prospective study on laser-assisted laparascopic partial nephrectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Hennig, Georg; Zilinberg, Katja; Khoder, Wael Y.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Developments in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) opened a demand for surgical tools compatible with laparoscopic manipulations to make laser assisted technique safe, feasible and reproducible. Warm ischemia and bleeding during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy place technical constraints on surgeons. Therefore it was the aim to develop a safe and effective laser assisted partial nephrectomy technique without need for ischemia. Patients and methods: A diode laser emitting light at 1318nm in cw mode was coupled into a bare fibre (core diameter 600 μm) thus able to transfer up to 100W to the tissue. After dry lab experience, a total of 10 patients suffering from kidney malformations underwent laparoscopic/retroperitoneoscopic partial nephrectomy. Clinically, postoperative renal function and serum c-reactive protein (CRP) were monitored. Laser induced coagulation depth and effects on resection margins were evaluated. Demographic, clinical and follow-up data are presented. Using a commercial available fibre guidance instrument for lanringeal intervention, the demands on an innovative laser fibre guidance instrument for the laser assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LLPN) are summarized. Results: Overall, all laparascopic intervention were succesfull and could be performed without conversion to open surgery. Mean operative time and mean blood loss were comparable to conventional open and laparascopic approaches. Laser assisted resection of the kidney tissue took max 15min. After extirpation of the tumours all patients showed clinical favourable outcome during follow up period. Tumour sizes were measured to be up 5cm in diameter. The depth of the coagulation on the removed tissue ranged between <1 to 2mm without effect on histopathological evaluation of tumours or resection margin. As the surface of the remaining kidney surface was laser assisted coagulated after removal. The sealing of the surface was induced by a slightly larger coagulation

  20. Open surgical partial nephrectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Macari, David; Faerber, Gary J; Hafez, Khaled S; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Montie, James E; Wood, David P; Wolf, J Stuart

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to determine the ability of partial nephrectomy to prevent end-stage renal disease and tumor recurrence or progression in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Retrospectively, eight patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma were identified and their medical records reviewed. All patients had imperative indications for nephron sparing, and diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma not adequately amenable to endoscopic management. Although three patients suffered acute tubular necrosis, only one required postoperative hemodialysis. During the follow-up period 25% (2/8) developed end-stage renal disease, including the one patient who had received postoperative hemodialysis. Recurrences occurred in five of seven patients with adequate oncological surveillance. Recurrences were successfully treated endoscopically in 80% (4/5) patients, and one patient had metastases. Of the eight patients, four have died. Death occurred 4 months, 1 year, 1.2 years and 3.5 years after partial nephrectomy. Of these patients, one succumbed to metastatic disease; the exact cause of death is unknown in the other three, but there was no documentation of metastatic cancer. The mean duration of follow up in the remaining four patients, all without evidence of metastatic urothelial cancer, is 71 months (range 22-108 months). In summary, partial nephrectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma in patients with imperative indications averts end-stage renal disease in most patients, and appears to be associated with acceptable disease-specific survival. Partial nephrectomy is a sparingly used option in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma refractory to endoscopic management who have imperative indications for nephron sparing.

  1. Impact of warm versus cold ischemia on renal function following partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Eggener, Scott E; Clark, Melanie A; Shikanov, Sergey; Smith, Benjamin; Kaag, Matthew; Russo, Paul; Wheat, Jeffrey C; Wolf, J Stuart; Matin, Surena F; Huang, William C; Harel, Miriam; Cambio, Joseph; Shalhav, Arieh L; Raman, Jay D

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated renal function following partial nephrectomy with cold ischemia (CI) versus warm ischemia (WI). Data were collected from 1,396 patients at six institutions who underwent partial nephrectomy for a renal mass with normal contralateral kidney to evaluate percent change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 3-18 months. A multivariate linear regression model tested the association of percent change GFR with clinical, operative, and pathologic factors. A total of 874 patients (63 %) underwent PN with CI and 522 (37 %) with WI. All patients undergoing laparoscopic and robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (n = 443) had WI, whereas 92 % of open partial nephrectomy patients (n = 953) had CI. The CI group had a lower mean baseline GFR (72 vs. 80 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), longer median ischemia time (33 vs. 29 min), and larger mean tumor size (3.2 vs. 2.9 cm) with more advanced pathologic stage (T1b-T3: 25 vs. 16 %) (all p values <0.001). Patients with CI and WI demonstrated 12.3 and 10.1 % reductions in renal function from baseline, respectively (p = 0.067). Increasing age, female gender, and increasing tumor size were associated with reduction in renal function (all p values <0.001). Neither renal hypothermia nor operative technique independently predicted reduced renal function. Sensitivity analyses limited to ischemia time >30 min, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2), or tumors >4 cm did not significantly alter the findings. Increasing age, female gender, and larger tumor size independently predict a decrease in renal function following partial nephrectomy with a normal contralateral kidney. Within the limitations of a non-randomized comparison, including lack of parenchymal preservation percentage, neither surgical approach (open or laparoscopic) nor presence of hypothermia appears to be associated with long-term renal function.

  2. Predictive factors of hemorrhagic complications after partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Fardoun, T; Chaste, D; Oger, E; Mathieu, R; Peyronnet, B; Rioux-Leclercq, N; Verhoest, G; Patard, J J; Bensalah, K

    2014-01-01

    To identify the predictive factors of hemorrhagic complications (HC) in a contemporary cohort of patients who underwent partial nephrectomy (PN). Records of 199 consecutive patients who underwent PN between 2008 and 2012 at our institution were retrospectively analyzed. HC was defined as a hematoma requiring transfusion, an arterio-veinous fistula, a false aneurysm or a post-operative decrease of hemoglobin >3 g/dl. Patients with or without HC were compared using Wilcoxon and Fisher exact tests for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. We performed a univariate and multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model using the occurrence of an HC as the dependent variable. 54% of the patients were male with a median age of 61 (22-86) years. Median BMI was 26 (18-47) kg/m(2). Surgery was done open, laparoscopically or with robotic assistance in 106, 54 and 39 cases, respectively. Global complication rate was 40% including 21.6% HC. There were more complex tumors (75.6% vs. 66.5%, p = 0.04) and median length of stay was increased (11 days compared to 7 days, p < 0.0001) in case of a HC. In univariate analysis, imperative indication (p = 0.08), RENAL score (p = 0.07), operating time (p = 0.07) and operative blood loss > 250 ml (p = 0.002) were statistically relevant. In multivariate analysis, only operative blood loss >250 ml was identified as a predictive factor of HC (p = 0.0007). Patients who underwent a procedure with estimated blood loss >250 ml should be carefully monitored in the postoperative course. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy sources for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy--critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Mauricio; Moinzadeh, Alireza; Colombo, Jose R; Favorito, Luciano A; Sampaio, Francisco J; Gill, Inderbir S

    2007-01-01

    Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has emerged as a viable alternative for the conventional open nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). So far, an adequate renal parenchymal cutting and hemostasis, as well as caliceal repair remains technically challenging. Numerous investigators have developed techniques using different energy sources to simplify the technically demanding LPN. Herein we review these energy sources, discussing perceived advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

  4. Adaptive functional change of the contralateral kidney after partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Young; Yoo, Sangjun; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab; Song, Cheryn; Hong, Bumsik; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2017-08-01

    Partial nephrectomy aims to maintain renal function by nephron sparing; however, functional changes in the contralateral kidney remain unknown. We evaluate the functional change in the contralateral kidney using a diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) renal scan and determine factors predicting contralateral kidney function after partial nephrectomy. A total of 699 patients underwent partial nephrectomy, with a DTPA scan before and after surgery to assess the separate function of each kidney. Patients were divided into three groups according to initial contralateral glomerular filtration rate (GFR; group 1: <30 ml·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2), group 2: 30-45 ml·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2), and group 3: ≥45 ml·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2)). Multiple-regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with increased GFR of the contralateral kidney over a 4-yr postoperative period. Patients in group 1 had a higher mean age and hypertension history, worse American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and larger tumor size than in the other two groups. The ipsilateral GFR changes at 4 yr after partial nephrectomy were -18.9, -3.6, and 3.9% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, whereas the contralateral GFR changes were 10.8, 25.7, and 38.8%. Age [β: -0.105, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.213; -0.011, P < 0.05] and preoperative contralateral GFR (β: -0.256, 95% CI: -0.332; -0.050, P < 0.01) were significant predictive factors for increased GFR of the contralateral kidney after 4 yr. The contralateral kidney compensated for the functional loss of the ipsilateral kidney. The increase of GFR in contralateral kidney is more prominent in younger patients with decreased contralateral renal function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of renovascular-tumor anatomy to facilitate zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Ukimura, Osamu; Nakamoto, Masahiko; Gill, Inderbir S

    2012-01-01

    Zero-ischemia robotic and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, a novel concept, eliminates ischemia to the tumor-free normal kidney. Anatomic microdissection of tertiary/higher-order tumor-specific arteries is performed to selectively devascularize only the tumor, maintaining normal perfusion of the remaining kidney. A thorough understanding of renovascular tumor anatomy is essential. Based on 0.5-mm-slice thickness computed tomography scans, we developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique that fuses three key anatomic aspects: surface-rendered tumor, semitransparent kidney, and extra- and intrarenal arterial anatomy. Four central completely intrarenal hilar masses underwent 3D reconstruction for surgical navigation during zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy. Negative surgical margins were obtained in all four cases, with no intraoperative complications or transfusions. For these challenging laparoscopically invisible masses, 3D image navigation precisely identified tumor-specific arterial branches, thus facilitating zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy without hilar cross clamping. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diode laser supported partial nephrectomy in laparoscopic surgery: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Hennig, Georg; Zillinberg, Katja; Khoder, Wael Y.

    2011-07-01

    Introduction: Warm ischemia and bleeding during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy place technical constraints on surgeons. Therefore it was the aim to develop a safe and effective laser assisted partial nephrectomy technique without need for ischemia. Patients and methods: A diode laser emitting light at 1318nm in cw mode was coupled into a bare fibre (core diameter 600 μm) thus able to transfer up to 100W to the tissue. After dry lab experience, a total of 8 patients suffering from kidney malformations underwent laparoscopic/retroperitoneoscopic partial nephrectomy. Clinically, postoperative renal function and serum c-reactive protein (CRP) were monitored. Laser induced coagulation depth and effects on resection margins were evaluated. Demographic, clinical and follow-up data are presented. Results: Overall interventions, the mean operative time was 116,5 minutes (range 60-175min) with mean blood loss of 238ml (range 50-600ml) while laser assisted resection of the kidney tissue took max 15min. After extirpation of the tumours all patients showed clinical favourable outcome during follow up period. The tumour size was measured to be 1.8 to 5cm. With respect to clinical safety and due to blood loos, two warm ischemia (19 and 24min) must be performed. Immediate postoperative serum creatinine and CRP were elevated within 0.1 to 0.6 mg/dl (mean 0.18 mg/dl) and 2.1-10 mg/dl (mean 6.24 mg/dl), respectively. The depth of the coagulation on the removed tissue ranged between <1 to 2mm without effect on histopathological evaluation of tumours or resection margin. As the surface of the remaining kidney surface was laser assisted coagulated after removal. The sealing of the surface was induced by a slightly larger coagulation margin, but could not measured so far. Conclusion: This prospective in-vivo feasibility study shows that 1318nm-diode laser assisted partial nephrectomy seems to be a safe and promising medical technique which could be provided either during open surgery

  7. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: An experience in 227 cases.

    PubMed

    Castillo, O A; López-Fontana, G; Vidal-Mora, I; Alemán, E; Aranguren, G

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate our long-term experience with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and to review the literature. We performed a retrospective chart review, evaluating 227 consecutives laparoscopic partial nephrectomies performed between June 1995 and June 2010. Perioperative were recorded along with clinical a oncological outcomes. Mean age was 56.4 years (18-87) and clinical stages were T1a, T1b and T2 in 90.74% (206/227), 7.48% (17/227) and 1.76% (4/227), respectively. Median blood loss was 250 mL (10-1800). The mean operative time was 108.42 minutes (30-240) and median warm ischemia time was 25 minutes (10-60). The intraoperative complication rate was 2.64% (6/227), 5 (2.2%) secondary to bleeding. The postoperative complication rate was 5.72% (13/227) and bleeding is also the most frequent in 3% (7/227) of the cases. According to the Clavien classification, 1.32% (3/227), 0.88% (2/227) and 3.52% (8/227) were grade I, II and IIIb, respectively. The mean hospital stay was 3.66 days (1-12). Clear cell carcinoma was the most common histological finding in 74.6% (150 patients). TNM clasification was T1a, T1b y T2 in 90.74% (206/227), 7.48% (17/227) and 1,76% (4/227), respectively. No conversion or mortality was reported. Positive surgical margins were found in 4 patients (2.7%), with no local recurrence after long-term follow-up. At a mean follow up of 27 months, one patient had port site and peritoneal recurrence. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is a safe and viable alternative to open partial nephrectomy, providing equivalent oncologic outcomes and comparable morbidity to the traditional approach in experienced centers. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in clinical cases (N=17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorovich, Oleg; Zabrodina, Natalia; Galljamov, Eduard; Yankovskaya, Inna; Kochiev, David; Lukashev, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    A pulsed Nd:YAG laser approved for clinical use in Russian Federation was used for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy(LPN). Patients with T1N0M0 (N=17) cancer underwent laser LPN during 2006-2009 for removal tumor sized from 2.0 to 3.9 cm. Successful laser LPN was performed without ischemia in all cases. Bleeding during laser LPN was substantially reduced due to laser coagulation of tissue. Currently all patients are under medical supervision with no recurrence of tumor. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser showed safety and efficacy of LPN in humans.

  9. Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy With Potassium-titanyl-phosphate Laser Versus Conventional Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy: An Animal Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Jorge; Morcillo, Esther; Novalbos, José P; Sánchez-Hurtado, Miguel A; Soria, Federico; Pérez-Duarte, Francisco; Díaz-Güemes Martín-Portugüés, Idoia; Laguna, Maria Pilar; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel; Rodríguez-Rubio Cortadellas, Federico

    2017-01-01

    To explore the feasibility, safety, and short-term results of potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (KTP-LPN) vs conventional laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (C-LPN). Thirty large white female pigs were randomized to KTP-LPN or C-LPN. Laparoscopic radical right nephrectomy was performed, and an artificial renal tumor was placed in the left kidney in 3 locations. A week later, 15 pigs underwent C-LPN and 15 underwent KTP-LPN. All C-LPNs were performed with renal ischemia. A 120-W setting was used, without arterial clamping in the KTP-LPN group. Follow-up was done at day 1, week 3, and week 6. Retrograde pyelography was performed at 6 weeks, followed by animal sacrifice and necropsy. All KTP-LPNs were performed without hilar clamping. C-LPNs were performed with hilar clamping, closing of the collecting system, and renorraphy. In the KTP laser group, 2 pigs died due to urinary fistula in the first week after surgery. In the C-LPN group, 1 pig died due to myocardial infarction and another due to malignant hyperthermia. Hemoglobin and hematocrit recovery were lower at 6 weeks in the KTP-LPN group. Renal function 24 hours after surgery was worse in the KTP-LPN group but recovered at 3 weeks and 6 weeks. No differences were observed in surgical margins. The necropsy showed no differences. Limitations of the study are the impossibility to analyze the collecting tissue sealing by the KTP, and the potential renal toxicity of the KTP laser. Although KTP-LPN is feasible and safe in the animal model, further studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Partial nephrectomy margin imaging using structured illumination microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Tulman, David B; Sholl, Andrew B; Mandava, Sree H; Maddox, Michael M; Lee, Benjamin R; Brown, J Quincy

    2017-08-21

    Partial nephrectomy (PN) is the recommended procedure over radical nephrectomy (RN) for patients with renal masses < 4 cm in diameter (Stage T1a). Patients with > 4 cm renal masses can also be treated with PN, but have a higher risk for positive surgical margins. Positive surgical margins (PSM), when present, are indicative of poor clinical outcomes. The current gold-standard histopathology method is not well-suited for the identification of PSM intra-operatively due to processing time and destructive nature. Here, video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) was investigated as a potential tool for PSM detection during PN. A clinical image atlas assembled from ex vivo renal biopsies provided diagnostically useful images of benign and malignant kidney, similar to permanent histopathology. VR-SIM was then used to image entire parenchymal margins of tumor resection covering up to >1,800× more margin surface area than standard histology. Aided by the image atlas, the study pathologist correctly classified all parenchymal margins as negative for PSM with VR-SIM, compared to standard post-operative pathology. The ability to evaluate large surgical margins in a short timeframe with VR-SIM may allow it to be used intra-operatively as a "safety net" for PSM detection, allowing more patients to undergo PN over RN. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Renal tumour anatomical characteristics and functional outcome after partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Nisen, Harry; Heimonen, Petri; Kenttä, Lauri; Visapää, Harri; Nisen, Jessica; Taari, Kimmo

    2015-06-01

    Anatomical features of renal tumours may be useful in predicting glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after partial nephrectomy. In this study, anatomical classification systems (ACSs) were compared to predict changes in renal function after surgery. A group of 294 patients with T1 renal tumours receiving partial nephrectomy between January 2006 and June 2013 were identified from the institutional kidney tumour database. Preoperative images from computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging were reviewed to assess diameter, PADUA (preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical) classification score, RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties of the tumour, nearness of tumour deepest portion to the collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior descriptor and location relative to polar lines) nephrometry score, centrality index (C index) and renal tumour invasion index (RTII). GFR was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation preoperatively and 3 months after operation. Linear and logistic regression were applied as statistical methods. Mean tumour diameter was 3.0 ± 2.2 cm (range 1.0-7.0 cm). GFR was 85 ± 22 ml/min/1.73 m² before the operation and 77 ± 21 ml/min/1.73 m² (-8% change) 3 months after the operation. In univariate linear regression, the percentage change in GFR was weakly but statistically significantly associated with surgical approach (p = 0.04), indication for nephron sparing (p = 0.02), preoperative GFR (p < 0.001), PADUA (p = 0.02), RENAL (p = 0.01) and RTII (p = 0.003). In multivariate logistic regression analysis among patients with tumours 3 cm or larger, PADUA (odds ratio 1.55, p = 0.021) and RTII (odds ratio 3.87, p = 0.037) predicted at least a 20% reduction in GFR. Renal tumour ACSs may be clinically useful in predicting changes in renal function after partial nephrectomy in patients with larger tumours. The performance of RTII is equal to that of other ACSs in predicting changes in GFR.

  12. Is laparoscopic partial nephrectomy already the gold standard for small renal masses?.

    PubMed

    Power, Nicholas E; Silberstein, Jonathan L; Touijer, Karim

    2013-01-01

    To examine the role of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in the management of small renal masses. We searched MEDLINE (through March 2012) using PubMed, the Cochrane Central Search Library (though March 2012), and Web of Science (through March 2012). We retrieved citations using the text terms "small renal mass," "laparoscopic," "partial nephrectomy,"and "radical nephrectomy." We limited the search to articles in the English language, to T1a renal tumors, and expanded the search using the related articles function. We also performed hand searches of references identified in electronically abstracted articles. There is a paucity of well conducted clinical trials to elucidate laparoscopic partial nephrectomy's role. A number of assumptions had to be made to complete the review. Other than possibly less operative blood loss, less operative time, less inpatient stay time, and less cost, there was insufficient evidence to support laparoscopic partial nephrectomy over other modalities. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy appears to have a higher rate of radical nephrectomy conversion. There is insufficient evidence to clearly state that laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is the gold standard in the management of small renal masses. If this skill is part of a surgeon's armamentarium, it is certainly not inferior to other modalities, and may offer some benefit to patients.

  13. Making sense of postoperative CT imaging following laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Lall, C G; Patel, H P; Fujimoto, S; Sandhu, S; Sundaram, C; Landman, J

    2012-07-01

    The increasing popularity of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) necessitates radiologists to become familiar with the operative techniques as well as normal and abnormal postoperative findings. Due to the varying presentation of abnormal changes following LPN and their similarities with other disease entities, radiologists should be cognizant of common pitfalls to avoid inadvertent misdiagnosis. A few common pitfalls discussed in this paper are the identification of laparoscopic port placement issues, recognizing a myriad of post-surgical materials, differentiating haemostatic materials from postoperative abscess and infection, non-absorbable suture material mimicking rim calcifications, as well as hints for differentiating exuberant granulation tissue from tumour recurrence. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of complications after partial nephrectomy by RENAL nephrometry score

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, R; Parker, RA; Weston, J; Burgess, NA; Ho, ETS; Mills, RD; Rochester, MA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Discussing and planning the appropriate management for suspicious renal masses can be challenging. With the development of nephrometry scoring methods, we aimed to evaluate the ability of the RENAL nephrometry score to predict both the incidence of postoperative complications and the change in renal function after a partial nephrectomy. Methods This was a retrospective study including 128 consecutive patients who underwent a partial nephrectomy (open and laparoscopic) for renal lesions in a tertiary UK referral centre. Univariate and multivariate ordinal regression models were used to identify associations between Clavien–Dindo classification and explanatory variables. The Kendall rank correlation coefficient was used to examine an association between RENAL nephrometry score and a drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) following surgery. Results An increase in the RENAL nephrometry score of one point resulted in greater odds of being in a higher Clavien–Dindo classification after controlling for RENAL suffix and type of surgical procedure (odds ratio [OR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.64, p=0.043). Furthermore, a patient with the RENAL suffix ‘p’ (ie posterior location of tumour) had increased odds of developing more serious complications (OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.07–6.30, p=0.042). A correlation was shown between RENAL nephrometry score and postoperative drop in eGFR (Kendall’s tau coefficient -0.24, p=0.004). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study that has shown the predictive ability of the RENAL nephrometry scoring system in a UK cohort both in terms of postoperative complications and change in renal function. PMID:25198982

  15. Intraoperative ultrasound control of surgical margins during partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Feras M; Chahwan, Charles K; Le Gal, Sophie G; Guleryuz, Kerem M; Tillou, Xavier P; Doerfler, Arnaud P

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a simple and fast technique to ensure negative surgical margins on partial nephrectomies, while correlating margin statuses with the final pathology report. This study was conducted for patients undergoing partial nephrectomy (PN) with T1-T2 renal tumors from January 2010 to the end of December 2015. Before tumor removal, intraoperative ultrasound (US) localization was performed. After tumor removal and before performing hemostasis of the kidney, the specimens were placed in a saline solution and a US was performed to evaluate if the tumor's capsule were intact, and then compared to the final pathology results. In 177 PN(s) (147 open procedures and 30 laparoscopic procedures) were performed on 147 patients. Arterial clamping was done for 32 patients and the mean warm ischemia time was 19 ± 6 min. The mean US examination time was 41 ± 7 s. The US analysis of surgical margins was negative in 172 cases, positive in four, and in only one case it was not possible to conclude. The final pathology results revealed one false positive surgical margin and one false negative surgical margin, while all other margins were in concert with US results. The mean tumor size was 3.53 ± 1.43 cm, and the mean surgical margin was 2.8 ± 1.5 mm. The intraoperative US control of resection margins in PN is a simple, efficient, and effective method for ensuring negative surgical margins with a small increase in warm ischemia time and can be conducted by the operating urologist.

  16. Intraoperative ultrasound control of surgical margins during partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Feras M.; Chahwan, Charles K.; Le Gal, Sophie G.; Guleryuz, Kerem M.; Tillou, Xavier P.; Doerfler, Arnaud P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate a simple and fast technique to ensure negative surgical margins on partial nephrectomies, while correlating margin statuses with the final pathology report. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted for patients undergoing partial nephrectomy (PN) with T1–T2 renal tumors from January 2010 to the end of December 2015. Before tumor removal, intraoperative ultrasound (US) localization was performed. After tumor removal and before performing hemostasis of the kidney, the specimens were placed in a saline solution and a US was performed to evaluate if the tumor's capsule were intact, and then compared to the final pathology results. Results: In 177 PN(s) (147 open procedures and 30 laparoscopic procedures) were performed on 147 patients. Arterial clamping was done for 32 patients and the mean warm ischemia time was 19 ± 6 min. The mean US examination time was 41 ± 7 s. The US analysis of surgical margins was negative in 172 cases, positive in four, and in only one case it was not possible to conclude. The final pathology results revealed one false positive surgical margin and one false negative surgical margin, while all other margins were in concert with US results. The mean tumor size was 3.53 ± 1.43 cm, and the mean surgical margin was 2.8 ± 1.5 mm. Conclusions: The intraoperative US control of resection margins in PN is a simple, efficient, and effective method for ensuring negative surgical margins with a small increase in warm ischemia time and can be conducted by the operating urologist. PMID:28057986

  17. Role of partial nephrectomy as cytoreduction in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Karam, J A; Babaian, K N; Tannir, N M; Matin, S F; Wood, C G

    2015-06-01

    In this review, we describe the role, feasibility and safety of partial nephrectomy in the setting of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Partial nephrectomy is currently the preferred therapeutic modality in patients with localized renal tumors, while radical cytoreductive nephrectomy is the standard of care for appropriately selected patients with metastatic disease. Several studies have shown the prognostic value of percentage tumor removed when cytoreductive nephrectomy is done. This concept of percentage tumor removal and the associated benefit should also be applied when considering patients for cytoreductive partial nephrectomy; however, the potential adverse events after partial nephrectomy should be kept in mind, as these, when they occur, could delay time to starting systemic therapy. Several small retrospective studies have shown the feasibility of this approach in carefully selected patient groups. In well-selected patients with metastatic disease and primary tumors that are amenable to nephron sparing approaches, partial nephrectomy could offer an alternative to radical nephrectomy, with manageable adverse events, and good renal functional outcomes. Preserving renal function in this population could allow these patients to participate in clinical trial that they otherwise might not qualify for.

  18. Trends in renal cancer surgery and patient provider characteristics associated with partial nephrectomy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael P; Lin, Daniel W

    2007-01-01

    Many renal tumors are amenable to either partial or total nephrectomy, but little is known about the relative frequency that these procedures are performed in the United States. We describe recent temporal trends in surgery for renal neoplasm and identified factors associated with partial nephrectomy. Data from the 1998 through 2002 National Inpatient Sample was analyzed to identify adult patients discharged after renal cancer surgery. The frequency of partial and total nephrectomy in the United States was estimated, and multivariate regression was used to examine patient and provider factors associated with partial nephrectomy. The number of nephrectomies performed for tumor in the United States increased yearly, with an estimated 23,375 total nephrectomies and 4272 partial nephrectomies performed in 2002. The ratio of partial nephrectomies to total nephrectomies also increased (P < 0.001), with partial nephrectomy representing 15.5% of all nephrectomies in 2002. In the multivariate analysis, patient and provider factors significantly associated with undergoing partial nephrectomy included female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.94), age (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.30-0.49 comparing age older than 79 to younger than 40 years), teaching hospital status (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.34-1.76), annual hospital nephrectomy volume (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.62-2.39 comparing highest to lowest quartiles), annual surgeon nephrectomy volume (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 2.12-3.20 comparing highest to lowest quartiles), and private insurance/health maintenance organization coverage (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.40 compared to Medicare). The total number of nephrectomies and the proportion of partial nephrectomies performed in the United States increased yearly from 1998 to 2002. Male sex, hospital teaching status, higher hospital and surgeon volume, and insurance status are associated with receiving partial nephrectomy.

  19. Does robotic assistance confer an economic benefit during laparoscopic radical nephrectomy?

    PubMed

    Yang, David Y; Monn, M Francesca; Bahler, Clinton D; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2014-09-01

    While robotic assisted radical nephrectomy is safe with outcomes and complication rates comparable to those of the pure laparoscopic approach, there is little evidence of an economic or clinical benefit. From the 2009 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database we identified patients 18 years old or older who underwent radical nephrectomy for primary renal malignancy. Robotic assisted and laparoscopic techniques were noted. Patients treated with the open technique and those with evidence of metastatic disease were excluded from analysis. Descriptive statistics were performed using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests, and the Student t-test. Multiple linear regression was done to examine factors associated with increased hospital costs and charges. We identified 24,312 radical nephrectomy cases for study inclusion, of which 7,787 (32%) were performed robotically. There was no demographic difference between robotic assisted and pure laparoscopic radical nephrectomy cases. Median total charges were $47,036 vs $38,068 for robotic assisted vs laparoscopic surgery (p <0.001). Median total hospital costs for robotic assisted surgery were $15,149 compared to $11,735 for laparoscopic surgery (p <0.001). There was no difference in perioperative complications or the incidence of death. Compared to the laparoscopic approach robotic assistance conferred an estimated $4,565 and $11,267 increase in hospital costs and charges, respectively, when adjusted for adapted Charlson comorbidity index score, perioperative complications and length of stay (p <0.001). Robotic assisted radical nephrectomy results in increased medical expense without improving patient morbidity. Assuming surgeon proficiency with pure laparoscopy, robotic technology should be reserved primarily for complex surgeries requiring reconstruction. Traditional laparoscopic techniques should continue to be used for routine radical nephrectomy. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research

  20. Survival after partial and radical nephrectomy for high-risk disease: A propensity-matched comparison

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Matthew J.; Zhu, Hui; Kim, Simon; Abouassaly, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Increasingly, partial nephrectomy has been applied to high-risk disease without evidence that its survival benefits can be extrapolated to this entity. We aimed to compare overall survival after partial vs. radical nephrectomy in patients with high-risk renal cell carcinoma. Methods: Using the National Cancer Data Base, we identified patients who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy for high-risk disease between 2003 and 2006. High-risk disease was defined as the presence of adverse pathological features within the primary tumour, namely high-grade or unfavourable histology, T3 stage, or both. After matching the partial and radical nephrectomy groups based on propensity scores, 1680, 276, and 76 patients with high-grade or unfavourable histology, T3 stage, or both adverse pathologic features, respectively, were available for analysis. Five-year overall survival was compared after partial vs. radical nephrectomy for each high-risk cohort using the Kaplan-Meier and log rank tests. Results: Partial nephrectomy was associated with a statistically significant improvement in five-year overall survival compared to radical nephrectomy for small tumours (median size 3.0 cm; interquartile range 2.1–4.5 cm) with high-grade or unfavourable histology (87% vs. 81%; p<0.01) or with pT3a stage (82% vs. 71%; p<0.01). For patients concomitantly harbouring both adverse pathologic features, no difference in survival was detected (p=0.21). Conclusions: Partial nephrectomy is associated with survival benefits in patients with adverse pathologic features, suggesting that renal preservation is not only safe, but also potentially beneficial for high-risk disease. Due to inherent selection bias associated with partial nephrectomy use, prospective validation of these findings is needed. PMID:27695581

  1. Self-assessment of surgical technique leads to reduction of positive surgical margins in partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Igor; Feuerstein, Michael A; Feustel, Paul; Kaufman, Ronald P

    2015-03-01

    The background of the study was to examine potential causes for a positive surgical margin (PSM) and develop strategies to improve surgical outcomes. A retrospective review of consecutive partial nephrectomy cases for renal cell carcinoma was performed. We divided the patients into 2 groups. The first group consisted of the first 67 renal tumors in 65 patients that underwent our early surgical technique. The second group consisted of the next 45 renal tumors in 39 patients that underwent the revised surgical technique which included wider resections and robotically controlled ultrasound. Our primary outcome was margin status and secondary outcome was disease recurrence. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors that resulted in a PSM. Positive margins were detected in 19 out of 67 (28 %) renal tumors in the early technique group compared to 1 out of 45 (2 %) positive margins in the revised technique group (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only technique modification (OR 0.04, p = 0.003) and larger tumor size (OR 0.41, p = 0.01) were significant predictors of a lower rate of PSM. Smaller tumors were more common in robotic assisted partial nephrectomies which had a higher rate of PSM on univariate analysis (OR 3.51, p = 0.04). Only one patient with a PSM experienced a systemic disease recurrence. In our experience, self-assessment and technique modification resulted in a dramatic PSM improvement. Smaller tumors were associated with PSM. It is important for all surgeons to periodically look at their own surgical outcomes and modify their surgical technique accordingly.

  2. A 3D-elastography-guided system for laparoscopic partial nephrectomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolka, Philipp J.; Keil, Matthias; Sakas, Georgios; McVeigh, Elliot; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Taylor, Russell H.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2010-02-01

    We present an image-guided intervention system based on tracked 3D elasticity imaging (EI) to provide a novel interventional modality for registration with pre-operative CT. The system can be integrated in both laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomies scenarios, where this new use of EI makes exact intra-operative execution of pre-operative planning possible. Quick acquisition and registration of 3D-B-Mode and 3D-EI volume data allows intra-operative registration with CT and thus with pre-defined target and critical regions (e.g. tumors and vasculature). Their real-time location information is then overlaid onto a tracked endoscopic video stream to help the surgeon avoid vessel damage and still completely resect tumors including safety boundaries. The presented system promises to increase the success rate for partial nephrectomies and potentially for a wide range of other laparoscopic and robotic soft tissue interventions. This is enabled by the three components of robust real-time elastography, fast 3D-EI/CT registration, and intra-operative tracking. With high quality, robust strain imaging (through a combination of parallelized 2D-EI, optimal frame pair selection, and optimized palpation motions), kidney tumors that were previously unregistrable or sometimes even considered isoechoic with conventional B-mode ultrasound can now be imaged reliably in interventional settings. Furthermore, this allows the transformation of planning CT data of kidney ROIs to the intra-operative setting with a markerless mutual-information-based registration, using EM sensors for intraoperative motion tracking. Overall, we present a complete procedure and its development, including new phantom models - both ex vivo and synthetic - to validate image-guided technology and training, tracked elasticity imaging, real-time EI frame selection, registration of CT with EI, and finally a real-time, distributed software architecture. Together, the system allows the surgeon to concentrate

  3. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: effect of warm ischemia on serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Bhayani, Sam B; Rha, Koon H; Pinto, Peter A; Ong, Albert M; Allaf, Mohamad E; Trock, Bruce J; Jarrett, Thomas W; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2004-10-01

    Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has been shown to be a safe and effective option for small renal tumors. However, limited data are available regarding the effect of warm ischemic time on postoperative renal function. We assessed the effect of variable durations of warm ischemia on long-term renal function in patients undergoing LPN. A total of 118 patients with a single, unilateral, sporadic renal tumor and normal contralateral kidney underwent LPN from August 1998 to November 2002. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on warm ischemic time, namely group 1-no renal occlusion in 42, group 2-warm ischemia less than 30 minutes in 48 and group 3-warm ischemia greater than 30 minutes in 28. All 3 groups were assessed for changes in serum creatinine 6 months after LPN. Additionally, renal remnants were examined with cross-sectional imaging. At a median followup of 28 months (range 6 to 56) median creatinine had not statistically increased postoperatively. None of the 118 patients progressed to renal insufficiency or required dialysis after LPN. Based on postoperative serum creatinine warm ischemia time up to 55 minutes does not significantly influence long-term renal function after LPN. Thus, during LPN efforts to minimize warm ischemia are important but they should not jeopardize cancer control, hemostasis or collecting system closure.

  4. American Confederation of Urology (CAU) experience in minimally invasive partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Secin, Fernando P; Castillo, Octavio A; Rozanec, José J; Featherston, Marcelo; Holst, Pablo; Milfont, José Cocisfran Alves; García Marchiñena, Patricio; Jurado Navarro, Alberto; Autrán, Anamaría; Rovegno, Agustín R; Faba, Oscar Rodríguez; Palou, Joan; Teixeira Dubeux, Victor; Nuñez Bragayrac, Luciano; Sotelo, Rene; Zequi, Stenio; Guimarães, Gustavo Cardoso; Álvarez-Maestro, Mario; Martínez-Piñeiro, Luis; Villoldo, Gustavo; Villaronga, Alberto; Abreu Clavijo, Diego; Decia, Ricardo; Frota, Rodrigo; Vidal-Mora, Ivar; Finkelstein, Diana; Monzó Gardiner, Juan I; Schatloff, Oscar; Hernández-Porrás, Andres; Santaella-Torres, Félix; Quesada, Emilio T; Sánchez-Salas, Rodolfo; Dávila, Hugo; Mavric, Humberto Villavicencio

    2017-01-01

    To describe the perioperative and oncology outcomes in a series of laparoscopic or robotic partial nephrectomies (PN) for renal tumors treated in diverse institutions of Hispanic America from the beginning of their minimally invasive (MI) PN experience through December 2014. Seventeen institutions participated in the CAU generated a MI PN database. We estimated proportions, medians, 95 % confidence intervals, Kaplan-Meier curves, multivariate logistic and Cox regression analyses. Clavien-Dindo classification was used. We evaluated 1501 laparoscopic (98 %) or robotic (2 %) PNs. Median age: 58 years. Median surgical time, warm ischemia and intraoperative bleeding were 150, 20 min and 200 cc. 81 % of the lesions were malignant, with clear cell histology being 65 % of the total. Median maximum tumor diameter is 2.7 cm, positive margin is 8.2 %, and median hospitalization is 3 days. One or more postoperative complication was recorded in 19.8 % of the patients: Clavien 1: 5.6 %; Clavien 2: 8.4 %; Clavien 3A: 1.5 %; Clavien 3B: 3.2 %; Clavien 4A: 1 %; Clavien 4B: 0.1 %; Clavien 5: 0 %. Bleeding was the main cause of a reoperation (5.5 %), conversion to radical nephrectomy (3 %) or open partial nephrectomy (6 %). Transfusion rate is 10 %. In multivariate analysis, RENAL nephrometry score was the only variable associated with complications (OR 1.1; 95 % CI 1.02-1.2; p = 0.02). Nineteen patients presented disease progression or died of disease in a median follow-up of 1.37 years. The 5-year progression or kidney cancer mortality-free rate was 94 % (95 % CI 90, 97). Positive margins (HR 4.98; 95 % CI 1.3-19; p = 0.02) and females (HR 5.6; 95 % CI 1.7-19; p = 0.005) were associated with disease progression or kidney cancer mortality after adjusting for maximum tumor diameter. Laparoscopic PN in these centers of Hispanic America seem to have acceptable perioperative complications and short-term oncologic outcomes.

  5. Partial nephrectomy after previous radio frequency ablation: the National Cancer Institute experience.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Keith J; Hooper, H Brooks; Linehan, W Marston; Pinto, Peter A; Wood, Bradford J; Bratslavsky, Gennady

    2009-11-01

    Development of new renal tumors or recurrence after radio frequency ablation not amendable for repeat ablation presents a difficult therapeutic dilemma. We report on the outcomes of partial nephrectomy on kidneys previously treated with radio frequency ablation. We performed a chart review of 13 patients who underwent 16 attempted partial nephrectomies following radio frequency ablation. Hospital records and operative reports were reviewed for demographic data, perioperative data and outcomes. The outcomes of the present series were compared to historical controls of published studies in similar patient populations. No cases were converted to radical nephrectomy. Median time from radio frequency ablation to surgery was 2.75 years (range 1 to 7.1). A median of 7 tumors (range 2 to 40) were removed with a median estimated blood loss of 1,500 ml (range 500 to 3,500) and a median operative time of 7.8 hours (range 5 to 10.7). Operative notes commented on the presence of severe fibrosis in the operative field in 12 of 16 cases (75%). There was a modest but statistically significant decrease in renal function. Partial nephrectomy after radio frequency ablation had a higher reoperation rate compared to other series of primary or repeat partial nephrectomies but had the lowest rate of vascular or visceral injuries. Partial nephrectomy on kidneys previously treated with radio frequency ablation is a technically challenging but feasible procedure. Residual or metachronous disease after radio frequency ablation may be salvaged with partial nephrectomy with a modest decrease in renal function. A trend toward a higher chance of reoperation and urine leak after partial nephrectomy after radio frequency ablation may be useful information for the planning and discussion of treatment decisions.

  6. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy of Patient With Nutcracker Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Barman, Naman; Palese, Michael

    2016-05-17

    We report the case of a 30-year-old male patient undergoing a robotic-assisted laparoscopic left donor nephrectomy, where compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery and aorta was noted on magnetic resonance angiography before the operation. The patient was diagnosed with nutcracker phenomenon and was noted to be asymptomatic at that time. This is the first reported case to date of a patient with nutcracker phenomenon who underwent a robotic-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. This article also reviews the current literature on nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome.

  7. CT detection of fat retention in the bladder after partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kazaoka, Junichi; Kusakabe, Masashi; Ottomo, Taro; Akahane, Masaaki

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the frequency of fat retention in the bladder using postoperative computed tomography (CT) and the associated imaging or clinical findings in patients who underwent renal tumor surgery. We retrospectively reviewed postoperative CT images from 123 patients who underwent surgery for renal tumors (92 patients after partial nephrectomy and 31 after total nephrectomy). Furthermore, we evaluated preoperative tumor characteristics per an established standardized nephrometry scoring system (the R.E.N.A.L Nephrometry Score) for patients with partial nephrectomy. We also investigated whether collecting system repair occurred during surgery. Fat retention in the bladder was found in 5 patients (5.4%) after partial nephrectomy, but was not observed in any patients after total nephrectomy. No fat retention was seen immediately after partial nephrectomy (4-8 days), but occurred 2-15 months after the surgery. Subsequently, intravesical fat retention disappeared in 3 patients (8, 24, and 16 months later), and it persisted from 19-22 months after surgery in the remaining 2 patients. Collecting system repair occurred in 25 patients (27%) with partial nephrectomy. There was no statistically significant association between fat retention in the bladder and intraoperative collecting system repair (p = 0.12). The association with intravesical fat retention was not significant for either tumor size, distance to the collecting system, or the R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry Score. Fat retention in the bladder after partial nephrectomy can be observed using CT, although it is relatively rare. It is clinically asymptomatic and disappears spontaneously in most cases.

  8. A Mathematical Method to Calculate Tumor Contact Surface Area: An Effective Parameter to Predict Renal Function after Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Po-Fan; Wang, Yu-De; Huang, Chi-Ping; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Yang, Che-Rei; Chen, Guang-Heng; Chang, Chao-Hsiang

    2016-07-01

    We proposed a mathematical formula to calculate contact surface area between a tumor and renal parenchyma. We examined the applicability of using contact surface area to predict renal function after partial nephrectomy. We performed this retrospective study in patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between January 2012 and December 2014. Based on abdominopelvic computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, we calculated the contact surface area using the formula (2*π*radius*depth) developed by integral calculus. We then evaluated the correlation between contact surface area and perioperative parameters, and compared contact surface area and R.E.N.A.L. (Radius/Exophytic/endophytic/Nearness to collecting system/Anterior/Location) score in predicting a reduction in renal function. Overall 35, 26 and 45 patients underwent partial nephrectomy with open, laparoscopic and robotic approaches, respectively. Mean ± SD contact surface area was 30.7±26.1 cm(2) and median (IQR) R.E.N.A.L. score was 7 (2.25). Spearman correlation analysis showed that contact surface area was significantly associated with estimated blood loss (p=0.04), operative time (p=0.04) and percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (p <0.001). On multivariate analysis contact surface area and R.E.N.A.L. score independently affected percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (p <0.001 and p=0.03, respectively). On ROC curve analysis contact surface area was a better independent predictor of a greater than 10% change in estimated glomerular filtration rate compared to R.E.N.A.L. score (AUC 0.86 vs 0.69). Using this simple mathematical method, contact surface area was associated with surgical outcomes. Compared to R.E.N.A.L. score, contact surface area was a better predictor of functional change after partial nephrectomy. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Excised Parenchymal Mass During Partial Nephrectomy: Functional Implications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen; Zhang, Zhiling; Zhao, Juping; Wu, Jitao; Suk-Ouichai, Chalairat; Aguilar Palacios, Diego; Caraballo Antonio, Elvis; Babbar, Sanam; Remer, Erick M; Li, Jianbo; Isharwal, Sudhir; Zabell, Joseph; Campbell, Steven C

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate whether excised parenchymal mass (EPM) during partial nephrectomy (PN) correlates with functional decline and can serve as a surrogate for functional outcomes. All 215 patients managed with PN for unifocal renal mass with necessary studies to determine EPM and percent glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and parenchymal mass preserved (both global and specific to the operated kidney) were analyzed. EPM was estimated from the pathologic specimen by subtracting the tumor mass from the specimen mass, with both calculated using the elliptical formula. Vascularized parenchymal mass preserved was measured from computed tomography scans obtained <2 months prior and 3-12 months after surgery. All functional analyses were required to be within the same time frames, and patients with a contralateral kidney were also required to have nuclear renal scans. The median tumor size was 3.5 cm and the median R.E.N.A.L. was 7. Warm and cold ischemia were utilized in 123 and 92 patients, respectively (median ischemia time = 23 minutes). The median global GFR preserved was 89%, the median total parenchymal mass preserved was 93%, and the median estimated EPM was 16 cm(3). Whereas percent parenchymal mass preserved correlated strongly with global and ipsilateral GFR preserved (both P < .001), EPM failed to correlate with functional outcomes on both univariable and multivariable analyses. Our data suggest that parenchymal mass preserved with standard PN by experienced surgeons associates strongly with function preserved, whereas EPM fails to correlate with functional outcomes. Further study of the functional impact of EPM in other circumstances will be required, such as enucleation or PN performed by less-experienced surgeons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Recovery From Extended Warm Ischemia Associated With Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiling; Zhao, Juping; Velet, Lily; Ercole, Cesar E; Remer, Erick M; Mir, Carme M; Li, Jianbo; Takagi, Toshio; Demirjian, Sevag; Campbell, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of extended warm ischemia on incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and ultimate functional recovery after partial nephrectomy (PN), incorporating rigorous control for loss of parenchymal mass, and embedded within comparison to cohorts of patients managed with hypothermia or limited warm ischemia. From 2007 to 2014, 277 patients managed with PN had appropriate studies to evaluate changes in function/mass specifically within the operated kidney. Recovery from ischemia was defined as %function saved/%parenchymal mass saved. AKI was based on global renal function and defined as a ≥1.5-fold increase in serum creatinine above the preoperative level. Hypothermia was utilized in 112 patients (median = 27 minutes) and warm ischemia in 165 (median = 21 minutes). AKI strongly correlated with solitary kidney (P < .001) and duration (P < .001) but not type (P = .49) of ischemia. Median recovery from ischemia in the operated kidney was 100% (interquartile range [IQR] = 88%-109%) for cold ischemia, with 6 (5%) noted to have <80% recovery from ischemia. For the warm ischemia group, median recovery from ischemia was 91% (IQR = 82%-101%, P < .001 compared with hypothermia), and 34 (21%) had recovery from ischemia <80% (P < .001). For warm ischemia subgrouped by duration <25 minutes (n = 114), 25-35 minutes (n = 35), and >35 minutes (n = 16), median recovery from ischemia was 92% (IQR = 86%-100%), 90% (IQR = 78%-104%), and 91% (IQR = 80%-96%), respectively (P = .77). Our results suggest that AKI after PN correlates with duration but not with type of ischemia. However, subsequent recovery, which ultimately defines the new baseline glomerular filtration rate, is most reliable with hypothermia. However, most patients undergoing PN with warm ischemia still recover relatively strongly from ischemia, even if extended to 35-45 minutes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ketorolac: safe and effective analgesia for the management of renal cortical tumors with partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Diblasio, Christopher J; Snyder, Mark E; Kattan, Michael W; Russo, Paul

    2004-03-01

    Ketorolac has demonstrated advantages as a supplement to opioid based analgesia in several surgical settings, including donor nephrectomy. To our knowledge there has been no published data to date on the use of ketorolac in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy. We compared analgesia with ketorolac and opioids to analgesia with opioids alone with regard to pain control, postoperative recovery and effects on renal function in patients with renal cortical tumors surgically managed by partial nephrectomy. Records for 154 patients treated with partial nephrectomy for renal cortical tumors were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathological variables examined were age, gender, medication use, comorbidity profile, operation side, estimated blood loss, hospital stay, operative duration, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, histopathology results, perioperative transfusion status, ischemia type (warm vs cold vs none), duration of renal artery cross clamping, tumor size and intraparenchymal location, pathological stage and perioperative complications. Postoperative duration to the initiation of solid diet, discontinuation of patient controlled analgesia and overall pain control were assessed. Serum creatinine was measured during the preoperative period, and at 1, 3 or greater and 30 or greater days postoperatively. Patients who received ketorolac demonstrated superior postoperative recovery with an earlier return to solid diet and earlier discontinuation of patient controlled analgesia. Treatment groups were similar with respect to changes in serum creatinine, blood loss, transfusion rates and complication rates. Ketorolac was not associated with an increased risk of acute renal failure. Ketorolac is a safe and effective supplement to opioid based analgesia for pain control after partial nephrectomy.

  12. Hydro-jet assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: initial experience in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Shekarriz, H; Shekarriz, B; Upadhyay, J; Bürk, C; Wood, D P; Bruch, H P

    2000-03-01

    Hemostasis represents a challenge when performing laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Hydro-Jet cutting is an advanced technology that has been used to create an ultra-coherent water force that functions like a sharp knife. In the surgical field, it has mainly been used for liver surgery and initial clinical experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomies has been favorable. This technique allowed selective parenchymal cutting with preservation of vessels and bile ducts. We describe a novel Hydro-Jet assisted dissection technique for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a porcine model. Ten partial nephrectomies were performed in 5 pigs using a Muritz 1000 (Euromed Medizintechnik, A. Pein, Schwerin, Germany) Hydro-Jet generator. A thin stream of ultra coherent fluid is forced at a high velocity through a small nozzle. A modified probe allows both blunt dissection concomitantly with high-pressure water application. Coagulation can be applied via a bipolar thermoapplicator as needed. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was successful in all animals. Water-jet cutting through the parenchyma was virtually bloodless and preserved the vasculature and the collecting system. The vessels were then ligated or coagulated under direct vision. The continuous water flow established a bloodless operating field and a clear view for the surgeon. The mean dissection time and warm ischemia time were 45+/-9 and 17+/-3 minutes, respectively. This preliminary study supports the suitability of this technique for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy to improve hemostasis. The improved anatomical dissection and hemostasis may further decrease morbidity and operative time. Further studies are underway to compare this technique with laser coagulation for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  13. Laparoscopic wedge resection and partial nephrectomy--the Washington University experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    McDougall, E M; Elbahnasy, A M; Clayman, R V

    1998-01-01

    Open partial nephrectomy is an accepted form of treatment for a variety of benign conditions and for localized renal cell carcinoma. To date, there is limited experience with the clinical application of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and wedge resection for benign and malignant disease of the kidney. Herein, we report our clinical experience with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and a review of the current literature. Twelve patients (27-81 years) have undergone laparoscopic wedge resection (3) or attempted polar partial nephrectomy (9) since 1993. In the group of 12 patients, 5 had a mass suspicious for a malignancy, 4 patients had symptomatic polar calyceal dilation with or without stone disease, and 3 patients had an atrophic or hydronephrotic upper pole moiety. Among the patients in the polar nephrectomy group, a third were converted to an open procedure. The remaining 6 patients had a mean operative time of 6.5 hours (5.7-8.3 hours). These patients resumed their oral intake on average 0.8 days postoperatively. In the 2 patients with a mass, the final pathology was oncocytoma (1), and xanthogranulomatous reaction in a renal cyst (1). Postoperative complications included a nephrocutaneous fistula which was endoscopically fulgurated, a retroperitoneal urinoma which was percutaneously drained, and a two-day bout of ileus. The mean hospital stay was 5.3 days (2-9). Their full convalescence was completed in a mean of 4.2 weeks (2-8). Three patients underwent a wedge resection for a superficial < 2 cm mass. The average operative time in this group was 3.5 hours (2-5.4). The mean time to resuming oral intake was 0.7 days (0.3-0.7). The final pathology was oncocytoma (1), oncocytic renal cell cancer (1), and old infarction (1); none of the patients had any complications. The mean hospital stay was 2.7 days (2-4). Convalescence was completed in 4 weeks (range 1-8). Laparoscopic wedge resection and polar partial nephrectomy are feasible, albeit currently tedious

  14. Laparoscopic Wedge Resection and Partial Nephrectomy - The Washington University Experience and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Elbahnasy, Abdelhamid M.; Clayman, Ralph V.

    1998-01-01

    Open partial nephrectomy is an accepted form of treatment for a variety of benign conditions and for localized renal cell carcinoma. To date, there is limited experience with the clinical application of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and wedge resection for benign and malignant disease of the kidney. Herein, we report our clinical experience with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and a review of the current literature. Twelve patients (27 - 81 years) have undergone laparoscopic wedge resection (3) or attempted polar partial nephrectomy (9) since 1993. In the group of 12 patients, 5 had a mass suspicious for a malignancy, 4 patients had symptomatic polar calyceal dilation with or without stone disease, and 3 patients had an atrophic or hydronephrotic upper pole moiety. Among the patients in the polar nephrectomy group, a third were converted to an open procedure. The remaining 6 patients had a mean operative time of 6.5 hours (5.7 - 8.3 hours). These patients resumed their oral intake on average 0.8 days postoperatively. In the 2 patients with a mass, the final pathology was oncocytoma (1), and xanthogranulomatous reaction in a renal cyst (1). Postoperative complications included a nephrocutaneous fistula which was endoscopically fulgurated, a retroperitoneal urinoma which was percutaneously drained, and a two-day bout of ileus. The mean hospital stay was 5.3 days (2-9). Their full convalescence was completed in a mean of 4.2 weeks (2 - 8). Three patients underwent a wedge resection for a superficial < 2 cm mass. The average operative time in this group was 3.5 hours (2 - 5.4). The mean time to resuming oral intake was 0.7 days (0.3 - 0.7). The final pathology was oncocytoma (1), oncocytic renal cell cancer (1), and old infarction (1); none of the patients had any complications. The mean hospital stay was 2.7 days (2- 4). Convalescence was completed in 4 weeks (range 1-8). Laparoscopic wedge resection and polar partial nephrectomy are feasible, albeit currently

  15. Impact of warm ischemia time on the change of split renal function after minimally invasive partial nephrectomy in Taiwanese patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hung-Keng; Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Huang, Eric Y; Lin, Alex T; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Nephron-sparing surgery has become the standard treatment for T1 renal tumors. However, relevant data on the Taiwanese population are lacking, and most of the current literature uses global instead of split renal function (SRF) for postoperative renal function follow-up. We evaluated the postoperative renal function after minimally invasive partial nephrectomy in Taiwanese patients. We retrospectively reviewed our database from April 2004 to July 2012 and enrolled patients who received laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) or robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN). The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and SRF were calculated as representatives of renal function. The preoperative and 6- and 12-month postoperative renal functions were assessed. Freidman test was used to evaluate pre- and postoperative renal function changes; Wilcoxon test was used for comparing the renal function of each period. The 6- and 12-month postoperative SRF values were decreased compared with the preoperative values. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age was related to a lower postoperative eGFR, and a longer warm ischemia time was related to a decreased postoperative SRF. Patients with a warm ischemia time of >30 minutes were correlated with a larger mean tumor size, higher "preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical" score, greater amount of blood loss during the operation, longer postoperative hospital stay, and lower postoperative SRF compared with patients with a warm ischemia time of <30 minutes. Patients in the RPN group had shorter warm ischemia time and higher 6-month postoperative SRF compared with patients in the LPN group. SRF is more sensitive for postoperative follow-up than eGFR. Longer warm ischemia time is associated with poorer postoperative renal function. RPN is a safe and feasible alternative to LPN. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  16. Outcomes of high-complexity renal tumours with a Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) score of ≥10 after robot-assisted partial nephrectomy with a median 46.5-month follow-up: a tertiary centre experience.

    PubMed

    Abdel Raheem, Ali; Alatawi, Atalla; Kim, Dae K; Sheikh, Abulhasan; Alabdulaali, Ibrahim; Han, Woong K; Choi, Young D; Rha, Koon H

    2016-11-01

    To compare perioperative trifecta achievement and long-term oncological and functional outcomes between patients with renal tumours of low [Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) score 6-7], intermediate (PADUA score 8-9) and high (PADUA score ≥10) complexity undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN), and to determine predictors for trifecta achievement. Data were retrospectively analysed from 295 patients, who underwent RAPN, between 2006 and 2015, at a high-volume tertiary centre. Trifecta achievement was the primary outcome measurement. The perioperative parameters and long-term oncological and functional outcomes were the secondary outcome measures. Groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis H test or chi-square test. Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were used to determine the most important determinant variables associated with trifecta accomplishment. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and cancer-free survival (CFS). Of the 295 patients, 121 (41%) had a PADUA score of ≥10. Patients in the high-complexity PADUA group had larger tumours (P ≤ 0.001), higher clinical stages ≥T1b (P < 0.001), an increased risk of malignancy (P = 0.02), longer warm ischaemia time (P = 0.0030), and higher estimated blood loss (P = 0.001) compared with those in the intermediate- and low-complexity groups. Seven of eight patients who were converted to radical nephrectomy had high-complexity tumours (P = 0.02). Trifecta achievement was less in the high-complexity PADUA group (P < 0.001). Renal functional outcomes did not differ among the groups at follow-up (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for OS (P = 0.314), CSS (P = 0.228) and CFS (P = 0.532). In multivariable analysis, the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, operative time and tumour size were independent predictors of trifecta

  17. Percutaneous injection of fibrin glue for persistent nephrocutaneous fistula after partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Timothy J; Wolf, J Stuart

    2005-04-01

    We report a case of persistent urinary leak of nearly 4 months' duration after open surgical partial nephrectomy. The urinary leak was refractory to ureteral stenting, urethral catheter placement, and ureteroscopic fulguration. Fibrin glue was injected percutaneously under fluoroscopic guidance into the nephrocutaneous fistula tract, which resulted in its prompt and complete resolution.

  18. Mannitol has no impact on renal function after open partial nephrectomy in solitary kidneys.

    PubMed

    Omae, Kenji; Kondo, Tsunenori; Takagi, Toshio; Iizuka, Junpei; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2014-02-01

    Mannitol has been administered during partial nephrectomy as a renal protective agent for ischemic damage. However, we do not have any high-level clinical evidence of its effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol during open partial nephrectomy by comparing the postoperative renal function of patients who received it and those who did not. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 55 patients who underwent open partial nephrectomy for renal cancer in a solitary kidney from January 1990 to December 2012, and who were followed up postoperatively for at least 6 months. Of the 55 patients, mannitol was given to 20 patients (group M+) and not to the other 35 patients (group M-). We compared not only the postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, but also its decrease rate and the incidence of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis in the two groups. There were no significant differences in perioperative patient characteristics between the two groups. Mannitol made no significant difference in both the postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate and its decrease rate at any point within 6 months of the postoperative period. The incidence of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis was one (5.0%) in group M+ and two (5.7%) in group M-. These findings suggest that there might be no advantage from the administration of mannitol during open partial nephrectomy.

  19. Are renal tumour scoring systems better than clinical judgement at predicting partial nephrectomy complexity?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravi M; Lavallée, Luke T; Desantis, Darren; Cnossen, Sonya; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Cagiannos, Ilias; Morash, Chris; Breau, Rodney H

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to determine how renal tumour scoring systems, such as RENAL, PADUA, and Centrality (C)-index, compare to clinical judgement at predicting time required for tumour removal and kidney reconstruction during partial nephrectomy. A consecutive cohort of partial nephrectomy patients treated at The Ottawa Hospital, a tertiary care uro-oncological centre, was retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative axial images were reviewed by four experienced urological oncologists who independently rated the complexity of a partial nephrectomy from 1-10 to generate a clinical judgement score. Two independent reviewers determined the RENAL, PADUA, and C-index scores. The time to complete tumour resection and renal reconstruction during partial nephrectomy was prospectively recorded. During the study period, 104 partial nephrectomies were performed. The mean partial nephrectomy complexity score based on clinical judgement was 3.4 (standard deviation [SD] 2.1) out of 10. There was good agreement between surgeons in assessing tumour complexity (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65, 0.78). The mean RENAL score was 6.7 (SD 1.6) out of a maximum of 12, the mean PADUA score was 8.5 (SD 1.5) out of a maximum of 14, and the mean C-index score was 3.8 (SD 2). Mean resection and reconstruction time was 24 minutes (SD 10 minutes). The correlation between clinical judgement score and time was 0.27 (p=0.005). The correlation between renal tumour scoring systems and time was 0.20 (p=0.04) for RENAL, 0.21 (p=0.03) for C-index, and 0.26 (p=0.007) for PADUA. RENAL and PADUA scores were significantly associated with surgical and total complications. The majority of variance in ischemia time is not explained by clinical judgement or renal tumour scoring systems. Renal tumour scoring systems were not better than the clinical judgement of urological oncologists at predicting ischemia time during partial nephrectomy.

  20. Practice patterns and outcomes of pediatric partial nephrectomy in the United States: Comparison between pediatric urology and general pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Suson, Kristina D; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Elder, Jack S; Lakshmanan, Yegappan

    2015-08-01

    In the United States, both pediatric urologists (PUROs) and general pediatric surgeons (GPSs) perform nephrectomies in children, with PUROs performing more nephrectomies overall, most commonly for benign causes. GPSs perform more nephrectomies for malignant causes. We questioned whether the same trends persisted for partial nephrectomy. We hypothesized that PUROs performed more partial nephrectomies for all causes, including malignancy. Our primary aim was to characterize the number of partial nephrectomies performed by PUROs and GPSs. We also compared short-term outcomes between subspecialties. We analyzed the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS), a database encompassing data from 44 children's hospitals. Patients were ≤18 years old and had a partial nephrectomy (ICD-9 procedure code 554) carried out by PUROs or GPSs between 1 January, 2004 and June 30, 2013. Queried data points included surgeon subspecialty, age, gender, 3M™ All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (3M™ APR DRG) code, severity level, mortality risk, length of stay (LOS), and medical/surgical complication flags. Data points were compared in patients on whom PUROs and GPSs had operated. Statistical analysis included the Student t test, chi-square test, analysis of covariance, and logistic regression. Results are presented in the table. While PUROs performed the majority of partial nephrectomies, GPSs operated more commonly for malignancy. For surgeries performed for non-malignant indications, PURO patients had a shorter LOS and lower complication rate after controlling for statistically identified covariates. There was no difference in LOS or complication rate for patients with malignancy. A Pediatric Health Information System study of pediatric nephrectomy demonstrated PUROs performed more nephrectomies overall, but GPSs performed more surgeries for malignancy. The difference was less dramatic for partial nephrectomies (63% GPS, 37% PURO) than for radical nephrectomies (90% GPS, 10

  1. Perioperative Outcomes Following Partial Nephrectomy Performed on Patients Remaining on Antiplatelet Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ito, Timothy; Derweesh, Ithaar H; Ginzburg, Serge; Abbosh, Philip H; Raheem, Omer A; Mirheydar, Hossein; Hamilton, Zachary; Chen, David Y T; Smaldone, Marc C; Greenberg, Richard E; Viterbo, Rosalia; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the risk of bleeding complications in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy in whom perioperative antiplatelet therapy was continued, as antiplatelet therapy is increasingly used and hemorrhage is a significant concern in partial nephrectomy. In this 2-center retrospective analysis 1,097 patients underwent partial nephrectomy between 2000 and 2014. The cohort was split into 3 groups of perioperative continuation of antiplatelet therapy (group 1-67), antiplatelet therapy stopped preoperatively (group 2-254) and no chronic antiplatelet therapy (group 3-776). Bleeding complications were defined as any transfusion, or any hospital readmission or secondary procedure performed for hemorrhage. Multivariable analysis was performed to elucidate independent risk factors for bleeding complications. Patients in group 1 were older (median age 66 years vs 64 and 57 years in groups 2/3, p <0.0001), and had greater comorbidity (median ASA classification score 3 vs 2 and 2, p <0.0001). Group 1 had a higher rate of bleeding complications (20.9% vs 7.1% and 6.4%, p <0.0001) and transfusions (16.4% vs 5.9% and 5.4%, p=0.002). Multivariable analysis revealed continued antiplatelet therapy was an independent predictor of bleeding complications (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.06-4.51, p=0.03). These findings appear attributable to intraoperative clopidogrel use. On multivariable analysis the use of aspirin alone was not associated with bleeding complications (OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.72-3.75, p=0.24). The risk of bleeding complications due to antiplatelet therapy use at partial nephrectomy may be due to clopidogrel. The need to continue perioperative aspirin alone does not appear to be a contraindication to the safe performance of partial nephrectomy. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy without hilar clamping using a microwave tissue coagulator.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Noriyasu; Yasui, Takahiro; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Kubota, Yasue; Mizuno, Kentaro; Okada, Atsushi; Ando, Ryosuke; Tozawa, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-02-01

    To report our initial experience and evaluate the possibility of nonhilar clamp laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) partial nephrectomy by using a microwave tissue coagulator. From December 2010 to May 2012, all patients with an exophytic, solitary, enhancing small (≤4.0 cm) renal mass were chosen to receive the study treatment. A multichannel port provided both a retroperitoneal and transperitoneal approach. A rigid, articulating apparatus was used to perform dissection, exposure of tumor, tissue coagulation, and resection without hilar clamping. Pathologic and hematologic data, subjective evaluation of pain, and scar appearance were analyzed. Nonhilar clamp LESS partial nephrectomy by using a microwave tissue coagulator was performed in seven patients (mean operative time, 208 min; mean blood loss, 39 mL; mean renal mass size, 1.7 cm); one procedure with uncontrolled bleeding needed to be converted to conventional laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. No transfusion was necessary. Pathologic investigation demonstrated six renal-cell carcinomas and one oncocytoma. The hemoglobin level decreased by a mean of 1.1 g/dL. Patients did not complain about pain, and they had great satisfaction with the results. The mean duration of hospital stay was 13.8 days. LESS partial nephrectomy without hilar clamping by using a microwave tissue coagulator is possible for renal masses, confers postoperative outcomes comparable to the standard counterpart, and assures patient satisfaction. By use of a microwave tissue coagulator, additional trocars were not necessary, and LESS partial nephrectomy could be accomplished through a single port, which reduced invasion and increased the cosmetic satisfaction of the patients.

  3. Long-term survival following partial versus radical nephrectomy among older patients with early-stage kidney cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Norton, Edward C.; Ye, Zaojun; Hafez, Khaled S.; Gore, John L.; Miller, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Although partial nephrectomy is the preferred treatment for many patients with early-stage kidney cancer, recent clinical trial data demonstrating better survival for patients treated with radical nephrectomy has generated new uncertainty regarding the comparative effectiveness of these treatment options. Objective We sought to clarify this issue by performing an instrumental variable analysis comparing long-term survival after partial versus radical nephrectomy among a population-based patient cohort whose treatment reflects contemporary surgical practice. Design, Setting, and Patients We performed a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries with clinical stage T1a kidney cancer treated from 1992 through 2007 with partial or radical nephrectomy. Using an instrumental variable approach to account for measured and unmeasured differences between treatment groups, we fit a two-stage residual inclusion model to estimate the treatment effect of partial nephrectomy on long-term survival. Main outcome measures Overall and kidney cancer-specific survival. Results Among 7,138 Medicare beneficiaries with early-stage kidney cancer, we identified 1,925 (27.0%) patients treated with partial nephrectomy, and 5,213 (73.0%) patients treated with radical nephrectomy. During a median follow-up of 62 months, 487 (25.3%) and 2,164 (41.5%) patients died following partial or radical nephrectomy, respectively. Kidney cancer was the cause of death for 37 (1.9%) patients treated with partial nephrectomy, and 222 (4.3%) patients treated with radical nephrectomy. Patients treated with partial nephrectomy had a significantly lower risk of death (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85). This corresponded to a predicted survival increase with partial nephrectomy of 5.6 (95% CI 1.9-9.3), 11.8 (95% CI 3.9-19.7), and 15.5 (95% CI 5.0-26.0) percentage points at 2-, 5-, and 8-years post-treatment (p<0.001). No difference was noted in kidney cancer-specific survival (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0

  4. Robotic trans-abdominal transplant nephrectomy for a failed renal allograft.

    PubMed

    Mulloy, M R; Tan, M; Wolf, J H; D'Annunzio, S H; Pollinger, H S

    2014-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for removal of a failed renal allograft has not previously been reported. Herein, we report the first robotic trans-abdominal transplant nephrectomy (TN). A 34-year-old male with Alport's syndrome lost function of his deceased donor allograft after 12 years and presented with fever, pain over his allograft and hematuria. The operation was performed intra-abdominally using the Da Vinci Robotic Surgical System with four trocars. The total operative time was 235 min and the estimated blood loss was less than 25 cm(3). There were no peri-operative complications observed and the patient was discharged to home less than 24 h postoperatively. The utilization of robotic technology facilitated the successful performance of a minimally invasive, trans-abdominal TN.

  5. Prevalence and outcomes of peritumor fat involvement following partial nephrectomy for radiologic T1 renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Mohamed; Elfaramawi, Mohamed; Jadhav, Supria; Davis, Rodney; Saafan, Ahmed; Sher, Annashia

    2015-01-01

    Context: Partial nephrectomy is becoming the standard of care in management of small renal tumors and excision of the peritumor fat is recommended for accurate staging. During the surgery, the overlying fat may be excised for accurate visualization of margins or maybe inadvertently left behind when performing a partial nephrectomy in an obese patient. We investigated the prevalence of fat involvement in these patients. Aims: The aim was to document the prevalence of peritumor fat involvement discovered after partial nephrectomy performed for radiologic T1 renal cancer. Settings and Design: Between 2005 and 2011, 107 partial nephrectomy procedures were performed for radiologic T1 disease. Statistical Analysis: All analyses were performed using SAS 9.2. Subjects and Methods: Patients were classified as: Group A (n = 88 patients), patients with stage T1a (tumor size ≤4 cm) and Group B (n = 24 patients) patients with stage T1b (tumor size 4-7 cm). Results: The overall prevalence of peritumor fat involvement was 1.86% (n = 2). The two patients had tumor ≤4 cm in size of the papillary subtype and were followed for 61 and 57 months, respectively. Both were living and without recurrence. Patient demographics and tumor characteristics did not differ between the two groups except, Fuhrman Grades 3 and 4 were statistically more prevalent in Group B (<0.01). Tumor grade, clear cell type cancer and stage T1b did not correlate with peritumor fat involvement in the study population. Conclusions: Our study revealed a low prevalence of peritumor fat involvement in radiologic pT1 renal cancer; however, peritumor fat removal is still recommended. PMID:26692661

  6. Laparoendoscopic partial nephrectomy in single-incision triangulated umbilical surgery (SITUS) technique: early experience.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Mathias; Imkamp, Florian; Wohlatz, Lucy; Jutzi, Stephan; von Klot, Christoph A; Kuczyk, Markus A; Merseburger, Axel S; Walcher, Ute; Nagele, Udo; Herrmann, Thomas R W

    2015-03-01

    Nephron sparing surgery for renal tumors has evolved as the standard of care for resectable renal tumors. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (PN) has gained recognition after technical refinements were able to match the well-established criteria for open partial nephrectomy. Laparoendoscopic surgery (LESS) is one of the approaches to further minimize invasiveness of laparoscopic surgery. We report our initial experience with LESS partial nephrectomy in single-incision transumbilical surgery technique (SITUS) in daily clinical practice. From 2010, patients undergoing SITUS-PN were prospectively evaluated. Patients with small, solitary or multiple, exophytic-enhancing renal masses were selected, whereas patients with solitary kidney, endophytic or hilar tumors were excluded. Important clinical data, PADUA and RENAL score, were assessed prospectively. Patients' characteristics, perioperative, hematologic and pathologic data as well as pain evaluation using the visual analogue pain scale (VAPS) were assessed. A total of 13 patients underwent LESS-PN/SITUS-PN (6 right and 7 left renal units). One patient was converted to conventional laparoscopy requiring two additional ports to treat bleeding from renal vessels. Pathology revealed renal cell carcinoma in nine patients, oncocytoma in one and benign cyst in three patients. No positive surgical margin was observed. The mean blood loss was 2.1 g/dl [range 0.5-4.5 g/dl] in hemoglobin. Minimal discomfort was noted at discharge (VAPS = 0.2 ± 0.6 [range 0-2]/10]. LESS partial nephrectomy in SITUS technique is feasible for selected exophytic tumors and has been integrated into our armamentarium for nephron sparing minimally invasive surgical treatment.

  7. [Laparoscopic Non-Ischemic Partial Nephrectomy Using a Microwave Tissue Coagulator : A Single-Institutional Study].

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shinji; Iemura, Yusuke; Matsumura, Yoshiaki; Kagebayashi, Yoriaki; Samma, Shoji

    2017-04-01

    We retrospectively investigated the surgical outcomes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), perioperative complications, and residual renal function in patients receiving laparoscopic non-ischemic partial nephrectomy using a microwave tissue coagulator (MTC). Between January 2002 and December 2015, laparoscopic non-ischemic partial nephrectomy using MTC was performed in 49 patients. The histological diagnosis was RCC in 38 patients, angiomyolipoma in 4, oncocytoma in 2, and others in 5. A histologicallyproven positive surgical margin was observed in 1 (2.0%). Postoperative urine leakage occurred in 1, and it was treated conservatively. The mean follow-up period was 32.0 months. Although there was no patient who died of RCC, local recurrence occurred in 2 patients (4.1%) during the follow-up period. One of these 2 patients had a positive surgical margin. Deterioration of the residual renal function was not observed. Laparoscopic non-ischemic partial nephrectomy using MTC was safe and useful in terms of cancer control and preservation of renal function.

  8. Hospitalization for partial nephrectomy was not associated with intrathecal opioid analgesia: Retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Toby N; Del Mundo, Serena B; Yeoh, Tze Yeng; Scavonetto, Federica; Leibovich, Bradley C; Sprung, Juraj

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to test the hypothesis that the use of spinal analgesia shortens the length of hospital stay after partial nephrectomy. We reviewed all patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for malignancy through flank incision between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2011. We excluded patients who underwent tumor thrombectomy, used sustained-release opioids, or had general anesthesia supplemented by epidural analgesia. Patients were grouped into "spinal" (intrathecal opioid injection for postoperative analgesia) versus "general anesthetic" group, and "early" discharge group (within 3 postoperative days) versus "late" group. Association between demographics, patient physical status, anesthetic techniques, and surgical complexity and hospital stay were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of 380 patients, 158 (41.6%) were discharged "early" and 151 (39.7%) were "spinal" cases. Both spinal and early discharge groups had better postoperative pain control and used less postoperative systemic opioids. Spinal analgesia was associated with early hospital discharge, odds ratio 1.52, (95% confidence interval 1.00-2.30), P = 0.05, but in adjusted analysis was no longer associated with early discharge, 1.16 (0.73-1.86), P = 0.52. Early discharge was associated with calendar year, with more recent years being associated with early discharge. Spinal analgesia combined with general anesthesia was associated with improved postoperative pain control during the 1(st) postoperative day, but not with shorter hospital stay following partial nephrectomy. Therefore, unaccounted practice changes that occurred during more recent times affected hospital stay.

  9. Is It Safe to Use the Same Scissors After Accidental Tumor Incision During Partial Nephrectomy? Results of In Vitro and In Vivo Experiments.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hirofumi; Miyamoto, Kazutaka; Hwang, Eu-Chang; Yamane, Takashi; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Enokida, Hideki

    2017-04-01

    When accidental tumor incision (ATI) has occurred during open partial nephrectomy (PN), scissors can be changed easily. In contrast, during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) or robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN), it is time consuming and expensive especially during RPN to change scissors. This study investigates whether tumor cells remain on the surface of scissors after ATI during PN and investigates an alternative way to avoid changing scissors during LPN and RPN. We subcutaneously injected 786-O renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) cells containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (786-O/EGFP) into six mice. We incised the subsequent tumor with straight or Microline scissors. The scissor surfaces were then examined by microscopy for detection of EGFP immunofluorescence. In addition, the scissor surfaces were treated in three ways: no electrical treatment, electrical treatment of 20 W for 5 seconds, and electrical treatment of 40 W for 5 seconds. Strings or dots of EGFP were detected on every scissor surface, and 786-O/EGFP cells were alive and able to proliferate in medium in 33% of the nonelectrically treated samples. However, no 786-O/EGFP cells treated with monopolar electricity survived. In another experiment, we also found that 100 786-O cells placed on scissor surfaces could not survive after the same electrical treatment. RCC cells remained on scissors after ATI; however, electrical treatment eliminated tumor cells, possibly preventing recurrence or metastasis after surgery.

  10. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in the pig: comparison of three hemostasis techniques.

    PubMed

    Barret, E; Guillonneau, B; Cathelineau, X; Validire, P; Vallancien, G

    2001-04-01

    Control of intraoperative bleeding is the main technical difficulty encountered during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and morbidity of three renal parenchymal hemostasis techniques: high-frequency bipolar electrical current, high-frequency unipolar spray electrical current, and ultrasound during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy performed in pigs without vascular control. A standardized laparoscopic transperitoneal right lower-pole partial nephrectomy was performed in 27 pigs with a mean weight of 65 +/- 5 kg. The pigs were divided into three groups according to the technology used: Group 1 = bipolar electrical current, Group 2 = unipolar spray electrical current, and Group 3 = ultrasound. Intravenous urography was performed on the 28th day. The kidneys were then removed for histologic examination, and the pigs were sacrificed. The criteria evaluated were intraoperative and postoperative complications, blood loss, renal function, and thickness of the parenchymal lesions induced. The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test for comparison of medians was used for statistical analysis of the data (P < 0.05). Data from pigs that died before the end of the study were excluded from the analysis. All partial nephrectomies were performed laparoscopically, and all pigs were alive at the end of the operation. The postoperative complication rate was 11% (N = 3): two pigs died before the end of the study, one from hemorrhage on Day 6 (Group 2), and the other from prolonged reflex ileus with sacrifice of the pig on Day 7 (Group 3). One pig developed an asymptomatic urinoma (Group 2). Blood loss was significantly lower when ultrasound was used (P = 0.026). Global renal function was not significantly altered in the various groups. The median thickness of tissue necrosis and fibrosis detected in the scar zone was 6 mm (range 4-10 mm) and was similar in the three groups. Partial nephrectomy can be performed by laparoscopy without

  11. Partial Nephrectomy for Small Renal Masses: Do Teaching and Nonteaching Institutions Adhere to Guidelines Equally?

    PubMed

    Vigneswaran, Hari T; Lec, Patrick; Brito, Joseph; Turini, George; Pareek, Gyan; Golijanin, Dragan

    2016-06-01

    The American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines recommend partial nephrectomy (PN) as the gold standard for treatment of small renal masses (SRMs). This study examines the change in utilization of partial and radical nephrectomies at teaching and nonteaching institutions from 2003 to 2012. The data sample for this study came from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2012. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Clinical Modification codes were used to identify patients undergoing PN and radical nephrectomy for renal masses limited to the renal parenchyma. Teaching hospitals were defined, but not limited to any institution with an American Medical Association-approved residency program. Linear regression, bivariate, multivariate, and odds ratio analysis were used to demonstrate statistical significance. 39,685 patients were identified in teaching hospitals, and 22,239 were identified in nonteaching hospitals. Prior to the 2009 AUA guidelines, cumulative rates of PN were 33% vs 20% in teaching vs nonteaching hospitals (p < 0.0001) compared with postguideline rates of 48% vs 33% in teaching vs nonteaching hospitals (p < 0.0001). During the 10-year study period, the use of PN to treat SRMs has significantly increased in both teaching hospitals and in nonacademic centers; however, these changes are occurring at a slower rate in nonteaching hospitals.

  12. Partial Nephrectomy for a Massive Sporadic Renal Angiomyolipoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Molly; Murugan, Paari; Weight, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Angiomyolipomas are the most common benign tumor of the kidney, associated with Tuberous Sclerosis in 20% of cases and arising sporadically in 80% of cases. Renal angiomyolipomas are neoplasms of mesenchymal origin with varying proportions of vasculature, smooth muscle spindle cells, and adipocytes, making management of such neoplasms a challenging endeavor. Possible management options include partial or radical nephrectomy and segmental renal artery embolization. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old woman admitted for a large retroperitoneal hemorrhage was discovered to have a giant, sporadic, 3818.3 g, 30.0 × 26.5 × 18.0 cm left perinephric angiomyolipoma. Given her hemodynamic instability upon presentation, she underwent segmental arterial embolization, followed by an open left partial nephrectomy. Ten-month follow-up revealed no noticeable loss of renal function. Discussion. Literature review revealed occasional renal angiomyolipomas of comparable size, with all angiomyolipomas larger than this requiring treatment with radical nephrectomy. Conclusion. We show that nephron-sparing surgery may be considered in the treatment of even the largest of renal angiomyolipomas. PMID:28070443

  13. Impact of ischaemia time on renal function after partial nephrectomy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rod, Xavier; Peyronnet, Benoit; Seisen, Thomas; Pradere, Benjamin; Gomez, Florie D; Verhoest, Grégory; Vaessen, Christophe; De La Taille, Alexandre; Bensalah, Karim; Roupret, Morgan

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of ischaemia on renal function after partial nephrectomy (PN). A literature review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. In January 2015, the Medline and Embase databases were systematically searched using the protocol ('warm ischemia'[mesh] OR 'warm ischemia'[ti]) AND ('nephrectomy'[mesh] OR 'partial nephrectomy'[ti]). An updated search was performed in December 2015. Only studies based on a solitary kidney model or on a two-kidney model but with assessment of split renal function were included in this review. Of the 1119 studies identified, 969 abstracts were screened after duplicates were removed: 29 articles were finally included in this review, including nine studies that focused on patients with a solitary kidney. None of the nine studies adjusting for the amount of preserved parenchyma found a negative impact of warm ischaemia time on postoperative renal function, unless this was extended beyond a 25-min threshold. The quality and the quantity of preserved parenchyma appeared to be the main contributors to postoperative renal function. Currently, no evidence supports that limited ischaemia time (i.e. ≤25 min) has a higher risk of reducing renal function after PN compared to a 'zero ischaemia' technique. Several recent studies have suggested that prolonged warm ischaemia (>25-30 min) could cause an irreversible ischaemic insult to the surgically treated kidney. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Open partial nephrectomy. Experience at the 12 de Octubre University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Domínguez Esteban, M; Passas Martínez, Juan; Romero Otero, Javier; Medina Polo, J; Rodríguez Antolín, Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Radical nephrectomy has traditionally been considered as the standard treatment for renal tumors. Nephron-sparing surgery was introduced two decades ago. Its excellent oncological and functional results have led to widespread use of this procedure. This procedure was first performed at our institution in 1991. Our experience with open partial nephrectomy is reported. Our series of 83 open partial nephrectomies performed from 1991 to date for oncological purposes is analyzed. The demographic, intraoperative, postoperative, oncological, and functional results are reported. A survival analysis and renal function evaluation is also provided. Thirty-four of the 83 open partial nephrectomies (42%) were non-elective. Mean tumor size was 36 mm (12-120). Fifty-two percent of tumors were exophytic and 38% endophytic. The most relevant intraoperative variables included a median surgery time of 160 min, an ischemia time of 15 min, a blood loss of 500 mL, and a 9-day hospital stay. Twenty-four percent of patients experienced complications, of which fistula was the most common, occurring in 6 patients (8.8%). The pathological study revealed clear renal cell carcinoma in 57% of patients and benign tumors in 25%. Stage at diagnosis was pT1A in 61% of patients, pT1B in 27%, pT2 in 3%, and pT3 in 9%. Grade 2 of Furham classification was most common (40%). Positive surgical margins were seen in 4% of patients. Cancer-specific survival rates were 94% at 5 years and 85% at 10 years. A slight increase was seen in median creatinine levels when preoperative and postoperative values were compared: 0.04, 0.11, 0.08, and 0.03 at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months respectively. A minimum, statistically significant increase was found in mean creatinine levels 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery as compared to preoperative values. Open partial nephrectomy is a feasible procedure routinely used in our standard practice. Its oncological results are satisfactory and consistent with those reported in the

  15. Preserved Nephrogenesis Following Partial Nephrectomy in Early Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Kirita, Yuhei; Kami, Daisuke; Ishida, Ryo; Adachi, Takaomi; Tamagaki, Keiichi; Matoba, Satoaki; Kusaba, Tetsuro; Gojo, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Reconstitution of total nephron segments after resection in the adult kidney has not been achieved; however, whether the neonatal kidney can maintain the capacity for neo-nephrogenesis after resection is unknown. We performed partial resection of the kidney in neonatal rats on postnatal days 1 (P1x kidney) and 4 (P4x kidney) and examined morphological changes and relevant factors. The P1x kidney bulged into the newly formed cortex from the wound edge, while nephrogenesis failure was prominent in the P4x kidney. Twenty-eight days post-resection, the glomerular number, cortex area, and collecting duct were preserved in the P1x kidney, whereas these parameters were markedly decreased in the P4x kidney. During normal development, Six2 expression and Six2+ nephron progenitor cells in the cap mesenchyme both rapidly disappear after birth. However, time course analysis for the P1x kidney showed that Six2 expression and Six2+ cells were well preserved in the tissue surrounding the resected area even 2 days after resection. In conclusion, our results indicate that kidneys in early neonate rats retain the capability for neo-nephrogenesis after resection; however, this ability is lost soon after birth, which may be attributed to a declining amount of Six2+ cells. PMID:27244673

  16. Simple enucleation is equivalent to traditional partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: results of a nonrandomized, retrospective, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Andrea; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Rocco, Francesco; Antonelli, Alessandro; Bertini, Roberto; Carmignani, Giorgio; Cosciani Cunico, Sergio; Fontana, Dario; Longo, Nicola; Martorana, Giuseppe; Mirone, Vincenzo; Morgia, Giuseppe; Novara, Giacomo; Roscigno, Marco; Schiavina, Riccardo; Serni, Sergio; Simeone, Claudio; Simonato, Alchiede; Siracusano, Salvatore; Volpe, Alessandro; Zattoni, Filiberto; Zucchi, Alessandro; Carini, Marco

    2011-05-01

    The excision of the renal tumor with a substantial margin of healthy parenchyma is considered the gold standard technique for partial nephrectomy. However, simple enucleation showed excellent results in some retrospective series. We compared the oncologic outcomes after standard partial nephrectomy and simple enucleation. We retrospectively analyzed 982 patients who underwent standard partial nephrectomy and 537 who had simple enucleation for localized renal cell carcinoma at 16 academic centers between 1997 and 2007. Local recurrence, cancer specific survival and progression-free survival were the main outcomes of this study. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival functions and differences were assessed with the log rank statistic. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models addressed progression-free survival and cancer specific survival. Median followup of the patients undergoing traditional partial nephrectomy and simple enucleation was 51 ± 37.8 and 54.4 ± 36 months, respectively (p = 0.08). The 5 and 10-year progression-free survival estimates were 88.9 and 82% after standard partial nephrectomy, and 91.4% and 90.8% after simple enucleation (p = 0.09). The 5 and 10-year cancer specific survival estimates were 93.9% and 91.6% after standard partial nephrectomy, and 94.3% and 93.2% after simple enucleation (p = 0.94). On multivariable analysis the adopted nephron sparing surgery technique was not an independent predictor of progression-free survival (HR 0.8, p = 0.55) and cancer specific survival (HR 0.7, p = 0.53) when adjusted for the effect of the other covariates. To our knowledge this is the first multicenter, comparative study showing oncologic equivalence of standard partial nephrectomy and simple enucleation. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of biological Glue (Bioglue®) in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: a study in pigs.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luis Felipe; Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Melo, Glauco; Takano, Luiz Cesar Fernando; Mitre, Anuar Ibrahim; Arap, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Partial nephrectomy is the standard of care for localized renal tumors. However, bleeding and warm ischemia time are still controversial when laparoscopic surgeries are carried out. Herein, we aim to compare the outcomes from laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with and without the use of biological glue with purified bovine albumin and glutaraldehyde (BioGlue ®). Twenty-four kidneys of 12 pigs were used in this study. A pre-determined lower pole segment was resected (3 cm x 1 cm) and one of two different hemostatic techniques was performed. In one kidney, hemostatic ″ U suture ″ (poliglecaprone 3.0) was performed and in the contra-lateral kidney, only the biological glue was applied. Data recorded was comprised of warm ischemia time (seconds) and estimated blood loss (mL) for each procedure. In cases of bleeding after glue administration, a complementary suture was done. Mean warm ischemia time was 492.9 ± 113.1 (351-665) seconds and 746 ± 185.3 (409-1125) seconds for biological glue and suture groups, respectively. There was a positive significant difference in terms of warm ischemia favoring the biological glue group over the suture group (p<0.001). Mean blood loss was 39.4 (0-115) mL for the biological glue group and 39.1 (5-120) mL for the suture group (p=0.62). Biological glue is an important tool for laparoscopic partial nephrectomies. It is effective for hemostatic control in selected cases, and it can be used in combination with the traditional suture techniques.

  18. Use of biological Glue (Bioglue®) in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: a study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Luis Felipe; Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Melo, Glauco; Takano, Luiz Fernando; Mitre, Anuar Ibrahim; Arap, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Partial nephrectomy is the standard of care for localized renal tumors. However, bleeding and warm ischemia time are still controversial when laparoscopic surgeries are carried out. Herein, we aim to compare the outcomes from laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with and without the use of biological glue with purified bovine albumin and glutaraldehyde (BioGlue®). Materials and Methods Twenty-four kidneys of 12 pigs were used in this study. A pre-determined lower pole segment was resected (3 cm x 1 cm) and one of two different hemostatic techniques was performed. In one kidney, hemostatic “U suture” (poliglecaprone 3.0) was performed and in the contra-lateral kidney, only the biological glue was applied. Data recorded was comprised of warm ischemia time (seconds) and estimated blood loss (mL) for each procedure. In cases of bleeding after glue administration, a complementary suture was done. Results Mean warm ischemia time was 492.9±113.1 (351-665) seconds and 746±185.3 (409-1125) seconds for biological glue and suture groups, respectively. There was a positive significant difference in terms of warm ischemia favoring the biological glue group over the suture group (p<0.001). Mean blood loss was 39.4 (0-115) mL for the biological glue group and 39.1 (5-120) mL for the suture group (p=0.62). Conclusion Biological glue is an important tool for laparoscopic partial nephrectomies. It is effective for hemostatic control in selected cases, and it can be used in combination with the traditional suture techniques. PMID:26005989

  19. Intraoperative sonography during open partial nephrectomy for renal cell cancer: does it alter surgical management?

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Priya R; Wei, Wei; Ernst, Randy D; Bathala, Tharakeswara K; Reading, Rhoda M; Wood, Christopher G; Bedi, Deepak G

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) during open partial nephrectomy alters the surgical management for renal cell cancer (RCC). One hundred ninety-eight consecutive patients undergoing IOUS during open partial nephrectomy for RCC were selected for retrospective review of clinical and imaging data. Patient age and sex, the local extent of the primary lesion, and the presence of additional lesions were recorded. Ultrasound findings were compared with preoperative CT or MRI to determine whether the IOUS findings changed surgical management. Summary statistics were performed to assess what percentage of patients with additional IOUS findings had a change in their surgical management. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates for all patients. Patients were followed for 9-12 years to assess survival and measure recurrence rates. Twenty-one of 198 patients (10.6%; 95% CI, 6.7-15.8%) had additional findings on IOUS not seen on preoperative imaging. As a result, surgery was modified in 15 of these 21 patients (71.4%; 95% CI, 47.8-88.7%). The 5-year OS rate was 81%, and the EFS rate was 76% for the whole group; most deaths were due to unrelated causes. There was no statistically significant difference in OS (p = 0.867) and EFS (p = 0.069) rates among patients who had a change of management because of additional lesions seen by IOUS. IOUS performed during open partial nephrectomy for resection of RCC shows additional findings compared with preoperative cross-sectional imaging that may alter surgical management.

  20. Hospitalization for partial nephrectomy was not associated with intrathecal opioid analgesia: Retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weingarten, Toby N.; Del Mundo, Serena B.; Yeoh, Tze Yeng; Scavonetto, Federica; Leibovich, Bradley C.; Sprung, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this retrospective study is to test the hypothesis that the use of spinal analgesia shortens the length of hospital stay after partial nephrectomy. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for malignancy through flank incision between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2011. We excluded patients who underwent tumor thrombectomy, used sustained-release opioids, or had general anesthesia supplemented by epidural analgesia. Patients were grouped into “spinal” (intrathecal opioid injection for postoperative analgesia) versus “general anesthetic” group, and “early” discharge group (within 3 postoperative days) versus “late” group. Association between demographics, patient physical status, anesthetic techniques, and surgical complexity and hospital stay were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: Of 380 patients, 158 (41.6%) were discharged “early” and 151 (39.7%) were “spinal” cases. Both spinal and early discharge groups had better postoperative pain control and used less postoperative systemic opioids. Spinal analgesia was associated with early hospital discharge, odds ratio 1.52, (95% confidence interval 1.00-2.30), P = 0.05, but in adjusted analysis was no longer associated with early discharge, 1.16 (0.73-1.86), P = 0.52. Early discharge was associated with calendar year, with more recent years being associated with early discharge. Conclusion: Spinal analgesia combined with general anesthesia was associated with improved postoperative pain control during the 1st postoperative day, but not with shorter hospital stay following partial nephrectomy. Therefore, unaccounted practice changes that occurred during more recent times affected hospital stay. PMID:25422611

  1. Bloodless Partial Nephrectomy Through Application of Non-Focused High-Intensity Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat, François-Joseph; Lafon, Cyril; Gelet, Albert; Martin, Xavier; Cathignol, Dominique

    2005-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the hemostatic ability of a new interstitial applicator composed of a planar ultrasonic transducer with a reflector, during partial nephrectomy in a porcine model. The new applicator was designed to make effective use of all the acoustic energy to coagulate the renal tissue . Placement of the reflector opposite the transducer allows use of all the acoustic energy for coagulation. Despite the low transmission frequency, it is possible to work at a relatively weak intensity, with the aid of the reflector. As a result, intense cooling of the transducer is no longer needed. The transducer functions at a frequency of 3.78 MHz. A movable brass plate was mounted to the applicator, parallel to the transducer, to reflect energy that was not absorbed during ultrasound wave transmission. Additionally, the plate served to immobilize the kidney during the treatment. Our methodology was to expose the kidneys of 9 pigs through abdominal laparotomy. An initial series of experiments on 5 pigs allowed exposure conditions to be selected. Thermocouples were implanted in the kidneys after exposure at 15, 20, and 25 mm from the renal capsule surface. The remaining 4 pigs underwent ultrasound treatment with the applicator before a bilateral lower pole partial nephrectomy. The treatment consisted of juxtaposing elementary lesions (made at an intensity of 26 W/cm2 for 50 seconds) circumferentially in a subhilar location. The hemostatic efficacy was evaluated just after the shots and during the 30 minutes that followed the sectioning of the kidney's lower pole. In the event of persistent bleeding, an it was possible form an elementary lesion opposite the insufficiently treated zone. For an exposure duration of 50 seconds at 26 W/cm2, the lesions obtained covered the total thickness of the kidney, which varied between 22 and 36 mm. The temperatures observed within the treated tissues were 62°, 59°, and 58°C at 15, 20 and 25 mm respectively from the

  2. Partial and Radical Nephrectomy for Unilateral Synchronous Multifocal Renal Cortical Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Roy; Kent, Matthew; Larish, Yaniv; Winer, Andrew G.; Chevinsky, Michael S.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Sternberg, Itay A.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Russo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients undergoing partial (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) for unilateral synchronous multifocal renal tumors. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records for 128 patients with non-metastatic unilateral synchronous multifocal renal tumors who underwent surgical resection at our institution from 1995 to 2012. Five patients with hereditary renal cell carcinoma were excluded. Differences between patient and tumor characteristics from the two nephrectomy groups were evaluated. Outcomes in terms of recurrence-free survival, overall survival, and chronic kidney disease upstaging were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. The log-rank test was used for group comparisons. Results The study cohort included 78 PN patients (63%) and 45 RN patients (37%); 17/95 planned PN (18%) were converted to RN. Tumor diameter and R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores were greater in RN patients (p<0.0001 and p=0.0002, respectively). Pathological stage T3 was seen in 40% of RN patients and 10% of PN patients (p=0.0002). Histologic concordance was apparent in 60/123 patients (49%). Median follow-up for patients alive without a recurrence was 4 years. Five-year recurrence-free survival was 98% for PN and 85% for RN. Five-year overall survival was 96% for PN and 86% for RN (p=0.5). Five-year freedom from chronic kidney disease upstaging was 74% for PN, and 55% for RN (p=0.11). Conclusion Partial nephrectomy for the treatment of unilateral synchronous multifocal renal tumors with favorable characteristics was associated with a low recurrence rate. These findings suggest PN is an appropriate management strategy for this group of carefully selected patients. PMID:25872696

  3. [Comparison of validity and safety between holmium: YAG laser and traditional surgery in partial nephrectomy].

    PubMed

    Bi, Sheng; Xia, Ming

    2015-08-11

    To compare the validity and safety between holmium: YAG laser and traditional surgery in partial nephrectomy. A total of 28 patients were divided into two groups (holmium: YAG laser group without renal artery clamping and traditional surgery group with renal artery clamping). The intraoperative blood loss, total operative time, renal artery clamping time, postoperative hospital stay, separated renal function, postoperative complications and depth of tissue injury were recorded. The intraoperative blood loss, total operative time, renal artery clamping time, postoperative hospital stay, separated renal function, postoperative complications and depth of tissue injury were 80 ml, 77 min, 0 min, 7.4 days, 35 ml/min, 0, 0.9 cm, respectively, in holmium: YAG laser group. And in traditional surgery group were 69 ml, 111 min, 25.5 min, 7.3 days, 34 ml/min, 0, 2.0 cm, respectively. The differences of total operative time, renal artery clamping time and depth of tissue injury between two groups were statistically significant. The others were not statistically significant. Holmium: YAG laser is effective and safe in partial nephrectomy. It can decrease the total operative time, minimize the warm ischemia time and enlarge the extent of surgical excision.

  4. Local tissue reaction after the application of topical hemostatic agents in a rat partial nephrectomy model.

    PubMed

    Chalupová, Marta; Suchý, Pavel; Pražanová, Gabriela; Bartošová, Ladislava; Sopuch, Tomáš; Havelka, Pavel

    2012-06-01

    Various hemostatics are used for renal surgical procedures. We investigated the hemostatic efficacy of cellulose derivatives on the model of partial nephrectomy in rats focusing on the local reaction of renal parenchyma. A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 10 animals each. Partial nephrectomy of the caudal pole without hilar vascular control was performed. Oxidized cellulose (OC), sodium salt of oxycellulose (OCN), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), dialdehyde cellulose (DAC), and gelatin-based hemostatic (C) were applied to the bleeding wounds. The time to hemostasis was monitored. Half of the animals were euthanized after 3 days, the second half 30 days from the experiment start date. The left kidney was excised and subjected to histopathological examination. The biochemical data was subjected to statistical analysis. The time to hemostasis in all groups was significantly less than in the C group (in OC p = 0.0057, OCN p = 0.0039, CMC and DAC p = 0.0001). In the C group, massive hemorrhages and necrosis did occur. In the OC and OCN groups, there were regenerative changes, a receding inflammatory reaction and hemorrhage. DAC caused an immune reaction and massive interstitial hemorrhages with biochemical signs of liver damage. Parenchyma in CMC revealed a reduction of necrosis and interstitial hemorrhages with regenerative processes. The most effective hemostatics were CMC and OC, achieving the best results both in the time to hemostasis, and for histopathological evaluation.

  5. National Trends in the Utilization of Partial Nephrectomy Before and After the Establishment of AUA guidelines for the Management of Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Walter, Dawn; Taksler, Glen B.; Huang, William C.; Wysock, James S.; Sivarajan, Ganesh; Loeb, Stacy; Taneja, Samir S.; Makarov, Danil V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of the American Urological Association guidelines advocating partial nephrectomy for T1 tumors guidelines on the likelihood of undergoing partial nephrectomy. Materials and Methods We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a dataset encompassing 20% of all United States inpatient hospitalizations, from 2007 through 2010. Our dependent variable was receipt of radical vs. partial nephrectomy (55.50, 55.51, 55.52, and 55.54 vs. 55.4) for a renal mass (ICD-9 code 189.0). The independent variable of interest was time of surgery (before or after the establishment of AUA guidelines); covariates included a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD), overall comorbidity, age, race, gender, geographic region, income, and hospital characteristics. Bivariate and multivariable adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the association between receipt of partial nephrectomy and time of guideline establishment. Results We identified 26,165 patients with renal tumors who underwent surgery. Prior to the guidelines, 4031 (27%) patients underwent partial nephrectomy compared to 3559 (32%) after. On multivariable analysis, undergoing surgery after the establishment of guidelines (OR 1.20 [95% Cl 1.08-1.32], p<0.01) was an independent predictor of partial nephrectomy. Other factors associated with partial nephrectomy were urban location, surgery at a teaching hospital, large hospital bed size, Northeast location, and Black race. Female gender and CKD were not associated with partial nephrectomy. Conclusions Although adoption of partial nephrectomy increased after establishment of new guidelines on renal masses, partial nephrectomy remains an underutilized procedure. Future research must focus on barriers to adoption of partial nephrectomy and how to overcome them. PMID:24295245

  6. Prechemotherapy robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for an adolescent with Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Cost, Nicholas G; Liss, Zachary J; Bean, Christopher M; Geller, James I; Minevich, Eugene A; Noh, Paul H

    2015-03-01

    Although Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common pediatric renal tumor, adolescent and adult WT is rare. Nevertheless, adolescent renal tumors as a group are sufficiently uncommon that WT must be included in the differential diagnosis for such patients, and in doing so affects the oncologic considerations of the surgery. Herein, we describe a 14-year-old female presenting with a 1-month history of right flank pain. Subsequent work-up revealed a localized, centrally located, enhancing right renal mass. The patient underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and pathology demonstrated stage II, favorable histology WT. Herein, we will discuss the pertinent details regarding adolescents with renal tumors and the risks and benefits of using a minimally invasive surgical approach.

  7. Robotic Partial Nephrectomy: The Will Rogers Surgical Effect.

    PubMed

    George, Arvin K; Hartman, Christopher; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of surgical techniques must be critically and objectively evaluated, ideally in the context of prospective trials. Comprehensive surgical training ensures that patients are offered the most appropriate treatment and highest clinical care.

  8. Collecting Duct Renal Cell Carcinoma Found to Involve the Collecting System During Partial Nephrectomy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Harbin, Andrew C; Styskel, Brett A; Patel, Viren; Wang, He; Eun, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare and aggressive form of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) arising from the principal cells of the collecting duct. One third of cases present with metastatic disease, but many present in a manner similar to conventional RCC or urothelial carcinoma (UC). We discuss a case of CDC which presented as a small mass at the cortico-medullary junction, and was discovered at robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) to be grossly involving the collecting system. A 62-year-old man presented with a small renal mass suspicious for RCC, which was found on computed tomography (CT) after an episode of gross hematuria. After thorough workup, RPN was attempted; however, intraoperatively the mass was found to be involving the collecting system. Radical nephroureterectomy was performed, and the pathology report revealed CDC. CDC is a rare and aggressive form of RCC. While many cases are metastatic at diagnosis, most patients present with the incidental finding of a small renal mass. There are no reports of a CDC involving the collecting system at RPN after negative ureteroscopy preoperatively. The adjuvant therapeutic options for CDC are limited, and long term survival is poor.

  9. Ex vivo comparison of the tissue effects of six laser wavelengths for potential use in laser supported partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Khoder, Wael Y; Zilinberg, Katja; Waidelich, Raphaela; Stief, Christian G; Becker, Armin J; Pangratz, Thomas; Hennig, Georg; Sroka, Ronald

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic/robotic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is increasingly considered for small renal tumors (RT). This demands new compatible surgical tools for RT-resection, such as lasers, to optimize cutting and coagulation. This work aims to characterize ex vivo handling requirements for six medically approved laser devices emitting different light wavelengths (940, 1064, 1318, 1470, 1940, and 2010 nm) amenable for LPN. Incisions were made by laser fibers driven by a computer-controlled stepping motor allowing precise linear movement with a preset velocity at a fixed fiber-tip distance to tissue. Optical parameters were measured on 200 μm tissue slices. Cutting quality depended on power output, fiber velocity and fiber-tip distance to tissue. Contact manner is suitable for cutting while a noncontact manner (5 mm distance) induces coagulation. Ablation threshold differs for each wavelength. Ablation depth is proportional to power output (within limit) while axial and superficial coagulation remains mostly constant. Increased fiber velocity compromises the coagulation quality. Optical parameters of porcine kidney tissue demonstrate that renal absorption coefficient follows water absorption in the 2 μm region while for other spectral regions (900 to 1500 and 1 μm) the tissue effects are influenced by other chromophores and scattering. Tissue color changes demonstrate dependencies on irradiance, scan velocity, and wavelength. Current results clearly demonstrate that surgeons considering laser-assisted RT excisions should be aware of the mentioned technical parameters (power output, fiber velocity and fiber-tip tissue-distance) rather than wavelength only.

  10. Urinary l-type fatty acid-binding protein is a predictor of early renal function after partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Yanishi, Masaaki; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Mishima, Takao; Taniguchi, Hisanori; Yoshida, Kenji; Komai, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Kaneki; Watanabe, Masato; Sugi, Motohiko; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    Urinary biomarkers of renal injury urinary may identify loss of renal function following nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). This study was designed to evaluate whether urinary l-type fatty acid-binding protein (l-FABP) is an early biomarker of loss of renal function after NSS. Specifically, the kinetics of urinary l-FABP level after NSS and its correlation with factors related to ischemic renal injury were analyzed. This study prospectively evaluated 18 patients who underwent NSS between July and December 2014, including 12 who underwent laparoscopic and six who underwent robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. Urinary l-FABP concentrations were measured preoperatively and 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after renal artery declamping. Loss of renal function loss was calculated by comparing the effective renal plasma flow, as determined by (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) clearance, on the operated and normal sides. The decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate from before surgery to six months after surgery was also measured. Urinary l-FABP concentration peaked within 2 h of declamping, which may quantify nephron damage caused by ischemia. The decrease in MAG3 reduction ratio correlated with both the ischemia time and peak urinary l-FABP concentration. Peak urinary l-FABP concentration showed a significant correlation with MAG3 reduction ratio. l-FABP is a suitable urinary biomarker for predicting the extent of ischemic renal injury.

  11. Ex vivo comparison of the tissue effects of six laser wavelengths for potential use in laser supported partial nephrectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoder, Wael Y.; Zilinberg, Katja; Waidelich, Raphaela; Stief, Christian G.; Becker, Armin J.; Pangratz, Thomas; Hennig, Georg; Sroka, Ronald

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic/robotic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is increasingly considered for small renal tumors (RT). This demands new compatible surgical tools for RT-resection, such as lasers, to optimize cutting and coagulation. This work aims to characterize ex vivo handling requirements for six medically approved laser devices emitting different light wavelengths (940, 1064, 1318, 1470, 1940, and 2010 nm) amenable for LPN. Incisions were made by laser fibers driven by a computer-controlled stepping motor allowing precise linear movement with a preset velocity at a fixed fiber-tip distance to tissue. Optical parameters were measured on 200 μm tissue slices. Cutting quality depended on power output, fiber velocity and fiber-tip distance to tissue. Contact manner is suitable for cutting while a noncontact manner (5 mm distance) induces coagulation. Ablation threshold differs for each wavelength. Ablation depth is proportional to power output (within limit) while axial and superficial coagulation remains mostly constant. Increased fiber velocity compromises the coagulation quality. Optical parameters of porcine kidney tissue demonstrate that renal absorption coefficient follows water absorption in the 2 μm region while for other spectral regions (900 to 1500 and 1 μm) the tissue effects are influenced by other chromophores and scattering. Tissue color changes demonstrate dependencies on irradiance, scan velocity, and wavelength. Current results clearly demonstrate that surgeons considering laser-assisted RT excisions should be aware of the mentioned technical parameters (power output, fiber velocity and fiber-tip tissue-distance) rather than wavelength only.

  12. Feasibility of quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for targeted measurement of renal ischemia during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Goel, Utsav O; Maddox, Michael M; Elfer, Katherine N; Dorsey, Philip J; Wang, Mei; McCaslin, Ian Ross; Brown, J Quincy; Lee, Benjamin R

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of warm ischemia time during partial nephrectomy (PN) is critical to minimizing ischemic damage and improving postoperative kidney function, while maintaining tumor resection efficacy. Recently, methods for localizing the effects of warm ischemia to the region of the tumor via selective clamping of higher-order segmental artery branches have been shown to have superior outcomes compared with clamping the main renal artery. However, artery identification can prolong operative time and increase the blood loss and reduce the positive effects of selective ischemia. Quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) can provide a convenient, real-time means to aid in artery identification during laparoscopic PN. The feasibility of quantitative DRS for real-time longitudinal measurement of tissue perfusion and vascular oxygenation in laparoscopic nephrectomy was investigated in vivo in six Yorkshire swine kidneys (n=three animals ). DRS allowed for rapid identification of ischemic areas after selective vessel occlusion. In addition, the rates of ischemia induction and recovery were compared for main renal artery versus tertiary segmental artery occlusion, and it was found that the tertiary segmental artery occlusion trends toward faster recovery after ischemia, which suggests a potential benefit of selective ischemia. Quantitative DRS could provide a convenient and fast tool for artery identification and evaluation of the depth, spatial extent, and duration of selective tissue ischemia in laparoscopic PN.

  13. Feasibility of quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for targeted measurement of renal ischemia during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Utsav O.; Maddox, Michael M.; Elfer, Katherine N.; Dorsey, Philip J.; Wang, Mei; McCaslin, Ian Ross; Brown, J. Quincy; Lee, Benjamin R.

    2014-10-01

    Reduction of warm ischemia time during partial nephrectomy (PN) is critical to minimizing ischemic damage and improving postoperative kidney function, while maintaining tumor resection efficacy. Recently, methods for localizing the effects of warm ischemia to the region of the tumor via selective clamping of higher-order segmental artery branches have been shown to have superior outcomes compared with clamping the main renal artery. However, artery identification can prolong operative time and increase the blood loss and reduce the positive effects of selective ischemia. Quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) can provide a convenient, real-time means to aid in artery identification during laparoscopic PN. The feasibility of quantitative DRS for real-time longitudinal measurement of tissue perfusion and vascular oxygenation in laparoscopic nephrectomy was investigated in vivo in six Yorkshire swine kidneys (n=three animals). DRS allowed for rapid identification of ischemic areas after selective vessel occlusion. In addition, the rates of ischemia induction and recovery were compared for main renal artery versus tertiary segmental artery occlusion, and it was found that the tertiary segmental artery occlusion trends toward faster recovery after ischemia, which suggests a potential benefit of selective ischemia. Quantitative DRS could provide a convenient and fast tool for artery identification and evaluation of the depth, spatial extent, and duration of selective tissue ischemia in laparoscopic PN.

  14. Trends of partial and radical nephrectomy in managing small renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Al Saidi, Ibrahim Khalid; Alqasem, Kholoud Saleh; Gharaibeh, Saeda Turki; Qamhia, Naim Z.N.; Abukhiran, Ibrahim; Al-Daghmin, Ali Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Objective Use of partial nephrectomy (PN) for renal tumors appears to have relatively lower incidence rates in Jordan. We sought to characterize its trend at King Hussein Cancer Center for the last 10 years. Material and methods A retrospective review of our renal cell cancer data was performed. We identified 169 patients who had undergone surgery for renal tumors measuring ≤7 cm between 2005 and 2015. We characterized tumor size, pathology, type of surgery and clinical outcomes. Factors associated with the use of PN were evaluated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of the 169 patients, 34 (20%) and 135 (80%) had undergone partial and radical nephrectomy (RN) respectively for tumors ≤7 cm in diameter. Total number of 48 patients with tumors of ≤4 cm in diameter had undergone either PN (n=19; 40%) or RN (n=29; 60%). The frequency of PN procedures steadily increased over the years from 6% in 2005–2008, to 32% in 2013–2015, contrary to RN which was less frequently applied 94% in 2005–2008, and 68% in 2013–2015. In multivariable analysis, delayed surgery (p=0.01) and smaller tumor size (p=0.0005) were significant independent predictors of PN. During follow-up period, incidence of metastasis was lower in PN versus RN (13% and 32%, respectively, p=0.043). Local recurrence rates were not significantly different between PN (6.9%) and RN (7.2%) (p=0.99). The mean tumor sizes for patients who had undergone PN and RN were 4.1 and 5.5 cm respectively, (p<0.0001). The mean follow-up period for PN was 20 months, and for RN 33 months, (p=0.0225). Conclusion Partial nephrectomy for small renal tumors is relatively less frequently applied in Jordan, however an increase in its use has been observed over the years. Our data showed lower rates of distant metastasis and similar rates of local recurrence in favor of PN. PMID:28270950

  15. Bolster material granuloma masquerading as recurrent renal cell carcinoma following partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhishek; Jai, Shrikant; Ganpule, Sanika; Ganpule, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Nephron sparing surgery has seen a phenomenal rise in its application over the past few decades. The use of Surgicel and gel foam for closure of defect created after partial nephrectomy has become a routine practice at many centers. In this case report, we describe radiological artifact secondary to a surgical bolster mimicking a residual disease or an early recurrence in the kidney. This case highlights two facts; first, reapproximation of the renal tissue is best done without the use of Surgicel bolsters. Second, bolsteroma should always be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in a case where computed tomography (CT) imaging is showing early recurrence. If the surgeon is sure about the surgical margins being negative and the CT image shows a bolsteroma, the patient should be observed and a repeat scan should be done at 3–6 months, which would show regression or disappearance of the lesion proving it to be an artifact rather than malignant lesion. PMID:27857461

  16. Fused video and ultrasound images for minimally invasive partial nephrectomy: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carling L; Wedlake, Chris; Moore, John; Pautler, Stephen E; Peters, Terry M

    2010-01-01

    The shift to minimally invasive abdominal surgery has increased reliance on image guidance during surgical procedures. However, these images are most often presented independently, increasing the cognitive workload for the surgeon and potentially increasing procedure time. When warm ischemia of an organ is involved, time is an important factor to consider. To address these limitations, we present a more intuitive visualization that combines images in a common augmented reality environment. In this paper, we assess surgeon performance under the guidance of the conventional visualization system and our fusion system using a phantom study that mimics the tumour resection of partial nephrectomy. The RMS error between the fused images was 2.43mm, which is sufficient for our purposes. A faster planning time for the resection was achieved using our fusion visualization system. This result is a positive step towards decreasing risks associated with long procedure times in minimally invasive abdominal interventions.

  17. Water jet assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy without hilar clamping in the calf model.

    PubMed

    Moinzadeh, Alireza; Hasan, Waleed; Spaliviero, Massimiliano; Finelli, Antonio; Kilciler, Mete; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; El Gabry, Ehab; Desai, Mihir; Kaouk, Jihad; Gill, Inderbir S

    2005-07-01

    Hemostasis represents a primary challenge during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). We typically clamp the renal artery/vein en bloc and perform LPN expeditiously under warm ischemia conditions. We evaluated Helix Hydro-jet assisted LPN without renal hilar vascular control in the survival calf model. Staged bilateral LPN using the Hydro-jet was performed without renal hilar vessel control in 10 survival calves (20 kidneys). Parenchymal hydrodissection was performed with a high velocity, ultracoherent saline stream at 450 psi through a small nozzle with integrated suction at the tip. The denuded intrarenal parenchymal blood vessels were precisely coagulated with a BIClamp bipolar instrument and transected. Followup involved biochemical, radiological and histopathological evaluation at designated sacrifice intervals of 1 and 2 weeks, and 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. All LPNs were completed successfully without open conversion. Of 20 LPNs 18 (90%) were performed without hilar clamping. Pelvicaliceal suture repair was necessary in 5 of 10 chronic kidneys (50%). Mean Hydro-jet(R) partial nephrectomy time was 63 minutes (range 13 to 150), mean estimated blood loss was 174 cc (range 20 to 750) and mean volume of normal saline used for hydro-dissection was 260 cc (mean 50 to 1,250). No animal had a urinary leak. Histological sections from the acute specimen revealed a thin (1 mm) layer of adherent coagulum at the amputation site with minimal thermal artifact. At 2 weeks a layer of adherent fibro-inflammatory pseudomembrane with giant cell reaction was seen. In this more stringent and robust survival calf model Hydro-jet assisted LPN can be performed without hilar vessel control, thus, completely avoiding warm ischemia. This approach has the potential to decrease the level of technical difficulty inherent in LPN.

  18. Elective partial nephrectomy is equivalent to radical nephrectomy in patients with clinical T1 renal cell carcinoma: results of a retrospective, comparative, multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Bertini, Roberto; Carini, Marco; Carmignani, Giorgio; Corti, Serena; Longo, Nicola; Martorana, Giuseppe; Minervini, Andrea; Mirone, Vincenzo; Novara, Giacomo; Serni, Sergio; Simeone, Claudio; Simonato, Alchiede; Siracusano, Salvatore; Volpe, Alessandro; Zattoni, Filiberto; Cunico, Sergio Cosciani

    2012-04-01

    To compare the oncological outcomes of patients who underwent elective partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) for clinically organ-confined renal masses ≤7 cm in size (cT1). The records of 3480 patients with cT1N0M0 disease were extracted from a multi-institutional database and analyzed retrospectively. In patients who underwent PN, the risk of clinical understaging was 3.2% in cT1a cases and 10.6% in cT1b cases. With regard to the cT1a patients, the 5- and 10-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) estimates were 94.7% and 90.4%, respectively, after RN and 96.1% and 94.9%, respectively, after PN (log-rank test: P = 0.01). With regard to cT1b patients, the 5-year CSS probabilities were 92.6% after RN and 90% after PN, respectively (log-rank test: P = 0.89). Surgical treatment failed to be an independent predictor of CSS on multivariable analysis, both for cT1a and cT1b patients. Interestingly, PN was oncologically equivalent to RN also in patients with pT3a tumours (log-rank test: P = 0.91). Elective PN is not associated with an increased risk of recurrence and cancer-specific mortality in both cT1a and cT1b tumours. Data from the present study strongly support the use of partial nephrectomy in patients with clinically T1 tumours, according to the current recommendations of the international guidelines. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  19. Effect of total and partial nephrectomy on the elimination of ciprofloxacin in humans.

    PubMed

    Szałek, Edyta; Połom, Wojciech; Karbownik, Agnieszka; Grabowski, Tomasz; Konkołowicz, Agnieszka; Wolc, Anna; Matuszewski, Marcin; Krajka, Kazimierz; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common form of kidney cancer. Surgery is a standard procedure to resect the tumor during total (TN) or partial (nephron-sparing) nephrectomy (PN). Ciprofloxacin is most often administered at the usual intravenous dose of 100-400 mg/12 h. The application of such low doses of ciprofloxacin as 200 mg/24 h carries the risk of achieving subtherapeutic concentrations even in patients with limited renal function. The aim of the study was a comparison of concentrations and pharmacokinetics for ciprofloxacin at steady-state in patients after total and partial nephrectomy and evaluation of the effectiveness of the iv dose 200 mg/24 h against the theoretical value of MIC, 0.5 μg/ml. The research was carried out on two groups of patients after nephrectomy: total (group 1, n = 21; mean [SD], age, 62.9 [14.4] years; weight, 76.0 [14.6] kg; creatinine clearance, CL(CR), 90.7 [22.2] ml/min) and partial (group 2, n = 15; 61.7 [9.3] years; 87.8 [16.4] kg; CL(CR), 107.8 [36.4] ml/min). The patients were treated with ciprofloxacin in the dose of 200 mg/24 h (iv). Plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin at steady state were measured with validated HPLC method with UV detection. The mean values of plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin at steady state in group 1 and 2 were: C(ss)(max), 2.012 and 1.345; C(ss)(min), 0.437 and 0.244 μg/ml, respectively. The main pharmacokinetic parameters for ciprofloxacin in group 1 and 2 were as follows: AUC((0-last)), 30.9 [17.9] and 19.5 [8.7] μg h/ml; AUMC((0-last)), 177.91 [11.1] and 91.9 [66.5] μg h(2)/ml; t(1/2β), 13.9 [7.7] and 9.8 [3.3] h; MRT, 16.5 [12.1] and 9.77 [5.4] h; V(d), 115.0 [67.2] and 142.2 [78.7] l; CL, 6.2 [3.3] and 10.8 [5.7] l/h, respectively. With the assumed MIC = 0.5 μg/ml, the values of C(ss)(max)/MIC < 10 and AUC/MIC < 125 were obtained in all the patients. In our patients we observed significant differences in some pharmacokinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin after two types of

  20. Preserving Renal Function through Partial Nephrectomy Depends on Tumor Complexity in T1b Renal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine patients with T1b renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who could benefit from partial nephrectomy (PN) and method to identify them preoperatively using nephrometry score (NS). From a total of 483 radical nephrectomy (RN)-treated patients and 40 PN-treated patients who received treatment for T1b RCC between 1995 and 2010, 120 patients identified through 1:2 propensity-score matching were included for analysis. Probability of chronic kidney disease (CKD) until postoperative 5-years was calculated and regressed with respect to the surgical method and NS. Median follow-up was 106 months. CKD-probability at 5-years was 40.7% and 13.5% after radical and PN, respectively (P = 0.005). While PN was associated with lower risk of CKD regardless of age, comorbidity, preoperative estimated renal function, the effect was observed only among patients with NS ≤ 8 (P < 0.001) but not in patients with NS ≥ 9 (P = 0.746). Percent operated-kidney volume reduction and ischemia time were similar between the patients with NS ≥ 9 and ≤ 8. In the stratified Cox regression accounting for the interaction observed between the surgical method and the NS, PN reduced CKD-risk only in patients with NS ≤ 8 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.054; P = 0.005) but not in ≥ 9 (HR, 0.996; P = 0.994). In T1b RCC with NS ≥ 9, the risk of postoperative CKD was not reduced following PN compared to RN. Considering the potential complications of PN, minimally invasive RN could be considered with priority in this subgroup of patients. PMID:28145654

  1. Microparticulate ICE slurry for renal hypothermia: laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a porcine model.

    SciTech Connect

    Shikanov, S; Wille, M; Large, M; Razmaria, A; Lifshitz, D; Chang, A; Wu, Y; Kasza, K; Shalhav, A

    2010-10-01

    Previously, we described the feasibility of renal hypothermia using microparticulate ice slurry during laparoscopy. In the present study, we compared surface cooling with the ice slurry versus near-frozen saline or warm ischemia (WI) during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in a porcine model. We used a single-kidney porcine model. Animals in 5 equal groups (n = 6 each) underwent right laparoscopic complete nephrectomy. In Phase I, left LPN was performed under 90 minutes of ischemia and 90-minute renal cooling with either slurry (Slurry group 1) or saline (Saline group 1). No cooling was applied in the WI group. In Phase II, to simulate more extreme condition, ischemia time was extended to 120 minutes and cooling shortened to 10 minutes (Slurry group 2 and Saline group 2). The study endpoints were renal and core temperature during the surgery and serum creatinine at baseline and days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after the procedure. The ice slurry was easily produced and delivered. Nadir renal temperature (mean {+-} SD) was 8 {+-} 4 C in Slurry group 1 vs. 22.5 {+-} 3 C in Saline group 1 (P < .0001). Renal rewarming to 30 C occurred after 61 {+-} 7 minutes in Slurry group 2 vs. 24 {+-} 6 minutes in Saline group 2 (P < .0001). Core temperature decreased on average to 35 C in the Saline groups compared with 37 C in the Slurry groups (P < .0001). Serum creatinine did not differ between the Saline and Slurry groups in Phases I and II at any time point. Ice slurry provides superior renal cooling compared with near-frozen saline during LPN without associated core hypothermia.

  2. Laparoscopic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy using an ergonomic chair: demonstration of technique and matched-pair analysis.

    PubMed

    Rassweiler, Jens J; Klein, Jan; Tschada, Alexandra; Gözen, Ali Serdar

    2017-02-01

    To present the technique and long-term results of retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN), focusing on the impact of an ergonomic platform. Between January 2000 and May 2016, 287 patients (193 men, 94 women) underwent LPN performed by four surgeons. The median (range) patient age was 59 (19-85) years, tumour size 3.1 (1-9) cm and PADUA score 7.3 (6-12). Access was retroperitoneal in 235 cases (82%). Since October 2010, we have used the ETHOS(™) chair (ETHOS(™) , Seattle, WA, USA) during excision of the tumour in 130 patients (45.3%). A total of 51 tumours (17.7%) were excised without ischaemia and 226 (78.7%) under warm ischaemia, with clamping of the renal artery using an enucleo-resection technique. We suture the resection bed and perform renorrhaphy using a barbed-suture pre-loaded with absorbable LAPRA-TY(™) clips (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA). The impact of the ETHOS chair was examined using a matched-pair analysis (66 with ETHOS chair vs 67 without ETHOS chair). The median (range) operating time was 146 (60-325) min, the median (range) estimated blood loss was 99 (10-3 000) mL and the mean (range) warm ischaemia time (WIT) was 17.1 (7-47) min. Histology showed 240 (83.6%) renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) and 46 (15.9%) benign tumours. The cumulative overall disease-free survival rate after a median (range) follow-up of 84 (3-155) months was 100% for 203 pT1 RCCs and local recurrence was observed in one patient (0.4%), who was managed by radical nephrectomy. There were two conversions (0.7%) to open surgery, both to hand-assisted laparoscopy. Perirenal haematoma was observed in 13 patients (4.5%). A total of 20 patients (6.9%) required transfusions (2-11 units). We observed five urine leaks (1.7%) requiring prolonged drainage. The median (range) length of hospital stay was 5 (3-24) days. Three patients developed arteriovenous fistulas, which were successfully occluded by superselective embolization (1.0%). Use of the ETHOS chair resulted in

  3. Integrated image monitoring system using head-mounted display for gasless single-port clampless partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kazunori; Saito, Kazutaka; Komai, Yoshinobu; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-12-01

    A novel head-mounted display (HMD) offers a higher quality of endoscopic imagery in front of the eyes regardless of head position. We present an application of the HMD system as a personal integrated multi-image monitoring system in gasless single-port clampless partial nephrectomy (PN). Our HMD system displayed multiple forms of information as integrated, sharp, high-contrast images both seamlessly and synchronously using a four-split screen. The surgeon wearing an HMD display could continuously and simultaneously monitor the endoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) video and intraoperative ultrasound images. In addition, the operator can rotate the 3D video image using fingertip movements on the finger tracking system. All two clampless partial nephrectomies were safely completed within the operative time, blood loss was within usual limits and there were no complications. The integrated image HMD system might facilitate maneuverability and safety in minimally invasive clampless PN.

  4. Outcome of radiofrequency ablation over partial nephrectomy for small renal mass (<4 cm): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Chen, Shouzhen; Chen, Fan; Zhu, Kejia; Deng, Qiming; Luo, Li; Shi, Benkang

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was undertaken to provide evidence-based clinical trials comparing radiofrequency ablation with partial nephrectomy for small renal mass. We searched through the major medical databases such as Pub Med, EMBASE, Medline, Science Citation Index, Web of Science and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database) and Wangfang (Database of Chinese Ministry of Science & Technology) for all published studies without any limit on language from May 2007 until May 2015. The following search terms wereused: partial nephrectomy, radiofrequency ablation, renal cell carcinoma, small renal tumor or mass. Furthermore, additional related studies were manually searched in the reference lists of all published reviews and retrieved articles. We found there were no statistical differences between groups in 5y-DFS, recurrence rates, complications, but a less percentage decease rate of GFR than PN, and RFA may be a better application for SRM (<4 cm).

  5. Integrated image monitoring system using head-mounted display for gasless single-port clampless partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazutaka; Komai, Yoshinobu; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    A novel head-mounted display (HMD) offers a higher quality of endoscopic imagery in front of the eyes regardless of head position. We present an application of the HMD system as a personal integrated multi-image monitoring system in gasless single-port clampless partial nephrectomy (PN). Our HMD system displayed multiple forms of information as integrated, sharp, high-contrast images both seamlessly and synchronously using a four-split screen. The surgeon wearing an HMD display could continuously and simultaneously monitor the endoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) video and intraoperative ultrasound images. In addition, the operator can rotate the 3D video image using fingertip movements on the finger tracking system. All two clampless partial nephrectomies were safely completed within the operative time, blood loss was within usual limits and there were no complications. The integrated image HMD system might facilitate maneuverability and safety in minimally invasive clampless PN. PMID:25562006

  6. Comparing different treatment modalities for partial nephrectomies without ischemic period: laser, Hydro-Jet and RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Boeken Kruger, Arto; Klaessens, John; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of partial nefrectomies is usually performed under a warm ischemic period. Recently, various treatment modalities have become available to perform a partial nefrectomy without clamping off the blood circulation. We have studied three devices in laboratory setting, investigating the thermal and high speed imaging techniques in tissue models and consequently, applying the instruments in the clinic during open procedures especially looking at efficacy and blood loss. The continuous wave 2.0 micron laser of 70 W (Revolix, LISA laser) is used as a fiber delivered knife cutting through circulated tissue with controlled hemostasis for vessels up to 3 mm diameter. The 2 μm wavelength effectively vaporizes tissue water and coagulates the smaller vessels. The Hydro-Jet (ERBE, Germany) uses high pressure (20-80 bar) to ejects a water jet of 40 um diameter at high velocity (10-30 m/s). The parenchyma is resected while vessels are preserved. Consequently, the exposed vessels can be coagulated in a controlled way with minimal blood loss. The water jet showed to induce cavitation bubbles that resect the soft tissue from the matrix leaving the elastic microvessels intact. Various systems are based on bipolar RF technology. We are using the Habib device (Rita 1500X RF generator) to create a coagulation zone around the tumor. Subsequently, the tumor can be resected along the coagulation zone with minimal bleeding. The treatment modalities investigated, have their own advantages and, stand-alone or in combination, can facilitate laparoscopic partial nephrectomies without an ischemic period.

  7. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a patient on simvastatin : Delayed recovery from neuromuscular blockade.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hakeem, E E; Kaki, A M; Almazlom, S A; Alsayyad, A J

    2017-03-06

    Delayed recovery from anesthesia remains a very challenging subject for anesthesiologists. This case report describes the clinical course of delayed recovery from neuromuscular blockade after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a patient on simvastatin. The patient was hypertensive on regular treatment with oral captopril 25 mg twice daily and amlodipine 5 mg once daily and hypercholesterolemic on regular simvastatin 40 mg once daily with a normal electrocardiogram (ECG). All preoperative laboratory findings were within normal ranges. The patient was premedicated with midazolam 1 mg and general anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 2 µg/kg body weight, propofol 2 mg/kg and rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg/kg to facilitate tracheal intubation. Anesthesia was maintained with inhalation of isoflurane 1.0-1.5 % in 40 % oxygen-enriched air and 25 µg boluses of fentanyl. The patient did not require any additional rocuronium throughout surgery which was finished after 4 h. The patient most probably had preoperative simvastatin-induced myotoxicity. This potentiated the muscle relaxant effect of rocuronium bromide and was the reason for patient unresponsiveness and delayed postoperative recovery. We can conclude that anesthesiologists should preoperatively identify statin myotoxicity and to avoid neuromuscular blocking drugs for statin-treated patients. Also, preoperative adjustment of statin dosage may be recommended.

  8. A simple method for ensuring resection margins during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: the intracorporeal ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, Arnaud; Oitchayomi, Abeni; Tillou, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    To describe a simple method for ensuring surgical margins during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (PN). A study was done at our institution from October 2013 to March 2014 for all patients undergoing laparoscopic PN for T1 renal tumors. Before tumor removal, intraoperative ultrasonography (US) localization was performed. The tumor was then removed with a standardized minimal healthy tissue margin technique. Immediately after removal and before performing hemostasis of the kidney, the specimen was placed into a laparoscopic endobag filled with saline solution. The laparoscopic probe was then placed into the endobag and a sequential ultrasonographic scan was performed to evaluate if the tumor's pseudocapsule was respected. Twelve patients were included in our study. Mean warm ischemia time was 19 ± 3 minutes. Mean US examination was 42 ± 9 seconds. US analysis of surgical margins was negative in all except 1 patient. The final histologic examination of all specimens confirmed US results with a 100% correlation. We describe an original, simple, and cost-effective method for ensuring surgical margins during laparoscopic PN with a moderate increase in warm time ischemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Successful Embolization of a Renal Artery Pseudoaneurysm with Arteriovenous Fistula and Extravasations Using Onyx After Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, Kamil; Sopilko, Igor; Svihra, Jan; Kliment, Jan

    2009-01-15

    Partial nephrectomy can be associated with vascular complications. Computed tomography (CT) with CT angiography is ideal for noninvasive imaging of this process. The treatment of choice is selective embolization. Successful transcatheter embolization of right renal subsegmental artery pseudoaneurysm with arteriovenous fistula and extravasations using Onyx was performed in a 66-year-old woman with macrohematuria 12 days after partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma.

  10. Urology residents experience comparable workload profiles when performing live porcine nephrectomies and robotic surgery virtual reality training modules.

    PubMed

    Mouraviev, Vladimir; Klein, Martina; Schommer, Eric; Thiel, David D; Samavedi, Srinivas; Kumar, Anup; Leveillee, Raymond J; Thomas, Raju; Pow-Sang, Julio M; Su, Li-Ming; Mui, Engy; Smith, Roger; Patel, Vipul

    2016-03-01

    In pursuit of improving the quality of residents' education, the Southeastern Section of the American Urological Association (SES AUA) hosts an annual robotic training course for its residents. The workshop involves performing a robotic live porcine nephrectomy as well as virtual reality robotic training modules. The aim of this study was to evaluate workload levels of urology residents when performing a live porcine nephrectomy and the virtual reality robotic surgery training modules employed during this workshop. Twenty-one residents from 14 SES AUA programs participated in 2015. On the first-day residents were taught with didactic lectures by faculty. On the second day, trainees were divided into two groups. Half were asked to perform training modules of the Mimic da Vinci-Trainer (MdVT, Mimic Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA, USA) for 4 h, while the other half performed nephrectomy procedures on a live porcine model using the da Vinci Si robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). After the first 4 h the groups changed places for another 4-h session. All trainees were asked to complete the NASA-TLX 1-page questionnaire following both the MdVT simulation and live animal model sessions. A significant interface and TLX interaction was observed. The interface by TLX interaction was further analyzed to determine whether the scores of each of the six TLX scales varied across the two interfaces. The means of the TLX scores observed at the two interfaces were similar. The only significant difference was observed for frustration, which was significantly higher at the simulation than the animal model, t (20) = 4.12, p = 0.001. This could be due to trainees' familiarity with live anatomical structures over skill set simulations which remain a real challenge to novice surgeons. Another reason might be that the simulator provides performance metrics for specific performance traits as well as composite scores for entire exercises. Novice trainees experienced

  11. Mini-flank supra-12th rib incision for open partial nephrectomy for renal tumor with RENAL nephrometry score ≥10: an innovation of traditional open surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Sun, Li-an; Wang, Yiwei; Xiang, Zhuoyi; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Guomin

    2015-04-01

    The skill of supra-12th rib mini-flank approach for open partial nephrectomy (MI-OPN) provides an advanced operative method for renal tumor. Compared with laparoscopic and robotic surgery, it may be a feasible selection for the complex renal tumors. We describe our techniques and results of MI-OPN in complex renal tumors with high RENAL nephrometry score (RENAL nephrometry score ≥10). Fifty-five patients diagnosed with renal tumors between January 2009 and July 2013 were included in this study. Eligibility criteria comprised of patients with complex renal tumor (RENAL score ≥10) being candidates for partial nephrectomy (PN). All patients received MI-OPN and all surgeries were performed by a single urologist. The preoperative workup comprised of medical history, physical examination, and routine laboratory tests. Serum creatinine was recorded preoperatively and 2 to 3 months after operation. Operative time, ischemia time, blood loss, operative and postoperative complications, renal function, and pathology parameters were recorded. MI-OPN was successfully performed in all cases. Mean tumor size was 4.7 cm (range: 2.5-8.1). Mean warm ischemia time was 28.1 minutes (range: 21-39), mean operative time was 105 minutes (range: 70-150) and mean estimated blood loss was 68 mL (range: 10-400). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 6.5 days (range: 5-12). Postoperative complications were found in 3 patients (5.5%). The mean pre- and postoperative serum creatinine levels were 76.2 μmol/L (range: 47-132) and 87.1 μmol/L (range: 61-189) with significant difference (P = 0.004). The mean pre- and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were 91.5 (range: 34-133) and 82.5 (range: 22-126.5), respectively with significant difference (P = 0.024). In an average follow-up of 19.9 months (range: 8-50), no local recurrence or systemic progression occurred. In conclusion, MI-OPN can combine the benefits of both minimal invasive and traditional open

  12. A Literature Review of Renal Surgical Anatomy and Surgical Strategies for Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Klatte, Tobias; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Gratzke, Christian; Kaouk, Jihad; Kutikov, Alexander; Macchi, Veronica; Mottrie, Alexandre; Porpiglia, Francesco; Porter, James; Rogers, Craig G; Russo, Paul; Thompson, R Houston; Uzzo, Robert G; Wood, Christopher G; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-12-01

    A detailed understanding of renal surgical anatomy is necessary to optimize preoperative planning and operative technique and provide a basis for improved outcomes. To evaluate the literature regarding pertinent surgical anatomy of the kidney and related structures, nephrometry scoring systems, and current surgical strategies for partial nephrectomy (PN). A literature review was conducted. Surgical renal anatomy fundamentally impacts PN surgery. The renal artery divides into anterior and posterior divisions, from which approximately five segmental terminal arteries originate. The renal veins are not terminal. Variations in the vascular and lymphatic channels are common; thus, concurrent lymphadenectomy is not routinely indicated during PN for cT1 renal masses in the setting of clinically negative lymph nodes. Renal-protocol contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is used for standard imaging. Anatomy-based nephrometry scoring systems allow standardized academic reporting of tumor characteristics and predict PN outcomes (complications, remnant function, possibly histology). Anatomy-based novel surgical approaches may reduce ischemic time during PN; these include early unclamping, segmental clamping, tumor-specific clamping (zero ischemia), and unclamped PN. Cancer cure after PN relies on complete resection, which can be achieved by thin margins. Post-PN renal function is impacted by kidney quality, remnant quantity, and ischemia type and duration. Surgical renal anatomy underpins imaging, nephrometry scoring systems, and vascular control techniques that reduce global renal ischemia and may impact post-PN function. A contemporary ideal PN excises the tumor with a thin negative margin, delicately secures the tumor bed to maximize vascularized remnant parenchyma, and minimizes global ischemia to the renal remnant with minimal complications. In this report we review renal surgical anatomy. Renal mass imaging allows detailed delineation of the

  13. Microwave ablation versus partial nephrectomy for small renal tumors: intermediate-term results.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Bai, Jian; Liu, Jihong; Wang, Shaogang; Zhuang, Qianyuan; Ye, Zhangqun; Hu, Zhiquan

    2012-09-01

    Prospective randomized comparison of intermediate-term outcomes of patients with small renal tumors who were treated with partial nephrectomy (PN) or microwave ablation. Of 102 selected patients with solitary small renal tumors who had prospectively completed at least 2 years of follow-up since December 2004, randomizedly, 54 had either open (19) or laparoscopic (35) PN and 48 had laparoscopic (28) or open (20) microwave ablation. Patient and tumor characteristics, surgical data, complications, histologic and oncologic data, and functional data of the two approaches were compared. Patients in microwave ablation group and PN group matched for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, body mass index, and tumor size and were respectively followed for median 32 and 36 months. Surgical and hospitalization times were comparable in both groups. Estimated blood loss, complication rates, and decline of postoperative renal function were significantly less in the microwave ablation group (P = 0.0002, P = 0.0187, and P = 0.0092, respectively). The decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate at the last available follow-up was similar in both groups (P = 1.0000). There were no disease-specific deaths. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall local recurrence-free survival at 3 years were 91.3% for microwave ablation and 96.0% for PN (P = 0.5414); the respective numbers for renal cell carcinomas were 90.4 and 96.6% (P = 0.4650). Microwave ablation can be also safely and efficiently done for patients with small renal tumors. This intermediate analysis showed that microwave ablation provides favorable results compared to PN. However, longer term data are still needed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Diagnosis and long-term outcome of renal cysts after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in children.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Ciro; Escolino, Maria; Troncoso Solar, Bernardita; Iacona, Roberta; Esposito, Rosanna; Settimi, Alessandro; Mushtaq, Imran

    2017-05-01

    To document the imaging follow-up of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in children and to investigate the natural history of cystic lesions following LPN. We reviewed the ultrasonography (US) imaging reports performed during the follow-up of 125 children (77 girls, 48 boys; mean age 3.2 years) who underwent LPN in two centres of paediatric surgery in the period 2005-2015. A transperitoneal approach was adopted in 83 children and a retroperitoneal approach in 42. The mean follow-up was 4.2 years. At US, an avascular cyst related to the operative site was found after 61/125 procedures (48.8%). As for their appearance, 53/61 cysts were simple and anechoic, and eight of the 61 cysts appeared septated. The mean diameter of the cysts was 3.3 × 2.8 cm. As for their course, 13/61 cysts (21.3%) disappeared after a mean of 4 years, 26/61 (42.6%) did not significantly change in dimension, 17/61 (27.8%) decreased in size, and only five of the 61 cysts (8.3%) enlarged. The cysts were asymptomatic in 51 children (83.6%), while they were associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and abdominal pain in the remaining 10; none required a re-intervention. The US finding of a simple cyst at the operative site after LPN is common during follow-up, with an incidence of ~50% in our series. In regard to aetiology, probably a seroma takes the place of the removed hemi-kidney. There was no correlation between cyst formation and type of surgical technique adopted. As there was no correlation between cysts and clinical outcomes, renal cysts after LPN can be managed conservatively, with periodic US evaluations. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of three-dimensional printing for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy of renal tumors: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Ge, Hong-wei; Li, Ning-chen; Yu, Cheng-fan; Guo, Hong-feng; Jin, Shi-hua; Liu, Jin-shun; Na, Yan-qun

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the impact of three-dimensional (3D) printing on the surgical planning, potential of training and patients' comprehension of minimally invasive surgery for renal tumors. Patients of a T1N0M0 single renal tumor and indicated for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy were selected. CT data were sent for post-processing and output to the 3D printer to create kidney models with tumor. By presenting to experienced laparoscopic urologists and patients, respectively, the models' realism, effectiveness for surgical planning and training, and patients' comprehension of disease and procedure were evaluated with plotted questionnaires (10-point rating scales, 1-not at all useful/not at all realistic/poor, 10-very useful/very realistic/excellent). The size of resected tumors was compared with that on the models. Ten kidney models of such patients were fabricated successfully. The overall effectiveness in surgical planning and training (7.8 ± 0.7-8.0 ± 1.1), and realism (6.0 ± 0.6-7.8 ± 1.0) were reached by four invited urologists. Intraoperative correlation was advocated by the two performing urologists. Patients were fascinated with the demonstration of a tactile "diseased organ" (average ≥ 9.0). The size deviation was 3.4 ± 1.3 mm. Generating kidney models of T1N0M0 tumors with 3D printing are feasible with refinements to be performed. Face and content validity was obtained when those models were presented to experienced urologists for making practical planning and training. Understandings of the disease and procedure from patients were well appreciated with this novel technology.

  16. Fusion of stereoscopic video and laparoscopic ultrasound for minimally invasive partial nephrectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Carling L.; Wedlake, Christopher; Moore, John; Pautler, Stephen E.; Ahmad, Anis; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    The development of an augmented reality environment that combines laparoscopic video and ultrasound imaging for image-guided minimally invasive abdominal surgical procedures, such as partial nephrectomy and radical prostatectomy, is an ongoing project in our laboratory. Our system overlays magnetically tracked ultrasound images onto endoscopic video to create a more intuitive visualization for mapping lesions intraoperatively and to give the ultrasound image context in 3D space. By presenting data in a common environment, this system will allow surgeons to visualize the multimodality information without having to switch between different images. A stereoscopic laparoscope from Visionsense Limited enhances our current system by providing surgeons with additional visual information through improved depth perception. In this paper, we develop and validate a calibration method that determines the transformation between the images from the stereoscopic laparoscope and the 3D locations of structures represented by a tracked laparoscopic ultrasound probe. We first calibrate the laparoscope with a checkerboard pattern and measure how accurate the transformation from image space to tracking space is. We then perform a target localization task using our fused environment. Our initial experience has demonstrated an RMS registration accuracy in 3D of 2.21mm for the laparoscope and 1.16mm for the ultrasound in a working volume of 0.125m3, indicating that magnetically tracked stereoscopic laparoscope and ultrasound images may be appropriately combined using magnetic tracking as long as steps are taken to ensure that the magnetic field generated by the system is not distorted by surrounding objects close to the working volume.

  17. A Literature Review of Renal Surgical Anatomy and Surgical Strategies for Partial Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Klatte, Tobias; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Gratzke, Christian; Kaouk, Jihad; Kutikov, Alexander; Macchi, Veronica; Mottrie, Alexandre; Porpiglia, Francesco; Porter, James; Rogers, Craig G.; Russo, Paul; Thompson, R. Houston; Uzzo, Robert G.; Wood, Christopher G.; Gill, Inderbir S.

    2016-01-01

    Context A detailed understanding of renal surgical anatomy is necessary to optimize preoperative planning and operative technique and provide a basis for improved outcomes. Objective To evaluate the literature regarding pertinent surgical anatomy of the kidney and related structures, nephrometry scoring systems, and current surgical strategies for partial nephrectomy (PN). Evidence acquisition A literature review was conducted. Evidence synthesis Surgical renal anatomy fundamentally impacts PN surgery. The renal artery divides into anterior and posterior divisions, from which approximately five segmental terminal arteries originate. The renal veins are not terminal. Variations in the vascular and lymphatic channels are common; thus, concurrent lymphadenectomy is not routinely indicated during PN for cT1 renal masses in the setting of clinically negative lymph nodes. Renal-protocol contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is used for standard imaging. Anatomy-based nephrometry scoring systems allow standardized academic reporting of tumor characteristics and predict PN outcomes (complications, remnant function, possibly histology). Anatomy-based novel surgical approaches may reduce ischemic time during PN; these include early unclamping, segmental clamping, tumor-specific clamping (zero ischemia), and unclamped PN. Cancer cure after PN relies on complete resection, which can be achieved by thin margins. Post-PN renal function is impacted by kidney quality, remnant quantity, and ischemia type and duration. Conclusions Surgical renal anatomy underpins imaging, nephrometry scoring systems, and vascular control techniques that reduce global renal ischemia and may impact post-PN function. A contemporary ideal PN excises the tumor with a thin negative margin, delicately secures the tumor bed to maximize vascularized remnant parenchyma, and minimizes global ischemia to the renal remnant with minimal complications. Patient summary In this report

  18. A novel mathematical model to predict the severity of postoperative functional reduction before partial nephrectomy: the importance of calculating resected and ischemic volume.

    PubMed

    Shin, Tae Young; Komninos, Christos; Kim, Dong Wook; So, Keum Sook; Bang, Ki Seok; Jeong, Heon-Jae; Han, Woong Kyu; Hong, Sung Jun; Jung, Byung Ha; Lim, Sey Kiat; Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Won Ki; Rha, Koon Ho

    2015-02-01

    Preoperatively predicting postoperative kidney function is an essential step to achieve improved renal function and prevent chronic kidney disease. We introduce a novel formula especially to calculate resected and ischemic volume before partial nephrectomy. We examined whether resected and ischemic volume would have value for predicting postoperative renal function. We performed a retrospective cohort study in 210 patients who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy between September 2006 and October 2013 at a tertiary cancer care center. Based on abdominopelvic computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging we calculated resected and ischemic volume by the novel mathematical formula using integral calculus. We comparatively analyzed resected and ischemic volume, and current nephrometry systems to determine the degree of association and predictability regarding the severity of the postoperative functional reduction. On multivariable analysis resected and ischemic volume showed a superior association with the absolute change in estimated glomerular filtration rate/percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (B = 6.5, p = 0.005/B = 6.35, p = 0.009). The ROC AUC revealed accurate predictability of resected and ischemic volume on the stratified event of an absolute change in estimated glomerular filtration rate/event of percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate compared to 3 representative nephrometry systems. The calibration plot of this model was excellent (close to the 45-degree line) within the whole range of predicted probabilities. We report a method of preoperatively calculating resected and ischemic volume with a novel formula. This method has superior correlation with the absolute and percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate compared to current nephrometry systems. The predictive model achieved a strong correlation for the absolute and percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Copyright © 2015 American

  19. Robot assisted "en bloc" radical nephrectomy, splenectomy and distal pancreatectomy for renal cell carcinoma: case report and illustration of technique.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Muhsin, Haidar Mohamed; Stern, Karen Lynn; Katariya, Nitin Nath; Castle, Erik Peter

    2016-12-01

    A 57-year-old female presented with recurrent gross hematuria and a large left renal mass with solitary pancreatic metastasis. After thorough evaluation, an en bloc robot assisted radical nephrectomy, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed using a team-based approach between urologists and the transplant/hepatobiliary teams. A standard robotic nephrectomy approach was used with intraoperative ultrasound to determine the extent of pancreatic involvement. Left kidney, left adrenal gland, spleen and pancreatic tail were resected en bloc. Total operative time was 194 min. Perioperative Hemoglobin change was 2.3 g/dL. The final pathology demonstrated a 12.5 cm, Fuhrman grade 3, clear cell RCC along with a 2.5 cm pancreatic metastasis consistent with pT3a, N0, M1 with negative surgical margins. The patient was discharged on post-operative day three and experienced no postoperative complications. This case report highlights the feasibility of this procedure and calls for evaluation of surgical outcomes in this disease category.

  20. Better recovery of kidney function in patients with de novo chronic kidney disease after partial nephrectomy compared with those with pre-existing chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Toshio; Kondo, Tsunenori; Iizuka, Junpei; Omae, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2014-06-01

    We compared kidney functional recovery between patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease, those with de novo chronic kidney disease and those with normal kidney function, after partial nephrectomy. A total of 311 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy at Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, between January 2004 and July 2011 with sufficient kidney functional data participated in the study. Patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (group1: 78 patients) were defined as those with estimated glomerular filtration rate under 60 mL/min/m(2) before partial nephrectomy. Patients with de novo chronic kidney disease (group 2: 49) were defined as those with estimated glomerular filtration rate over 60 mL/min/m(2) before surgery and who developed estimated glomerular filtration rate under 60 mL/min/m(2) 3 months after partial nephrectomy. Normal patients (group 3: 184) were defined as those with estimated glomerular filtration rate over 60 mL/min/m(2) both before and after partial nephrectomy. Group 1 was associated with older age and higher comorbidity, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus, compared with other groups. R.E.N.A.L. score was not significantly different between the groups. Although the percent change of estimated glomerular filtration rate between the preoperative period and 3 months after partial nephrectomy in group 2 was significantly decreased compared with that in other groups (group 1: -6.8%, group 2: -18%, group 3: -7.3%), the renal functional recovery between 3 and 12 months after partial nephrectomy in group 2 was better than that in other groups (group 1: -0.5%, group 2: 5.6%, group 3: -0.4%). Patients with de novo chronic kidney disease had better kidney functional recovery than the other two groups, which might suggest that they were surgically assaulted and developed chronic kidney disease in the early postoperative period, and were essentially different from those with pre-existing chronic kidney

  1. Correlation between loss of renal function and loss of renal volume after partial nephrectomy for tumor in a solitary kidney.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nidhi; O'Hara, Jerome; Novick, Andrew C; Lieber, Michael; Remer, Erick M; Herts, Brian R

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the correlation between reduced renal function and parenchymal volume following partial nephrectomy. In 21 of 42 patients with tumors in a solitary kidney who were enrolled in a study measuring function before and after surgery underwent computerized tomography, and measurement of the glomerular filtration rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (the latter at baseline and 2 to 6 months) before and after surgery. A segmentation algorithm was used to measure renal parenchymal volume. The percent of renal parenchymal volume loss was correlated with the percent loss in glomerular filtration rate using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Mean +/- SD net preoperative volume was 284 +/- 67 cc (range 179 to 413) and mean net postoperative volume was 240 +/- 61 cc (range 119 to 346) with an absolute functional volume loss of between 5 and 160 cc. The average percent of parenchymal volume loss was 15% (range -2% to 47%). The mean loss of the measured glomerular filtration rate 3 days postoperatively was 33.9% (range -70.7% to 74.4%) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate 2 to 6 months postoperatively was 19.7 % (-6.0% to 45.5%). There was a low degree of correlation between the percent volume loss and the percent measured glomerular filtration rate loss at 3 days (r = 0.28, p = 0.22). However, there was a moderate degree of correlation between the percent volume loss and the percent estimated glomerular filtration rate loss at 2 to 6 months (r = 0.48, p = 0.03). In patients with partial nephrectomy the renal parenchymal volume loss correlates best with the renal function loss several months after surgery. Estimates of volume loss may be useful for predicting postoperative renal function when planning partial nephrectomy in patients with a solitary kidney.

  2. Partial nephrectomy vs. radical nephrectomy for stage I renal cell carcinoma in the presence of predisposing systemic diseases for chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Demir, Ömer; Bozkurt, Ozan; Çelik, Serdar; Çömez, Kaan; Aslan, Güven; Mungan, Uğur; Çelebi, İlhan; Esen, Adil

    2017-07-01

    Aim of this study is to compare the effects of partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) for stage I renal cell carcinoma (RCC) on renal functions in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or hypertension (HT). Charts of patients who underwent surgery for stage I RCC in our department were retrospectively reviewed and patients with DM and/or HT were enrolled. Preoperative and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were calculated according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulation for both RN and PN groups. Groups were compared for patient demographics, preoperative eGFR, postoperative eGFR and ΔeGFR [(preoperative eGFR) - (postoperative eGFR)] which reflects the renal functional loss. There were 85 patients in the RN and 33 patients in the PN groups. Demographic data were similar but the patients in the PN group had smaller tumor size compared to RN group (32.2 ± 11.8 mm vs 47.1 ± 15.2 mm, p < 0.001). Preoperative eGFR did not differ between groups (75 ± 28.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) vs 75.5 ± 23.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in RN and PN groups, p = 0.929). However, there were significant differences between groups in terms of postoperative eGFR (57.5 ± 21.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2) vs 74 ± 27.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in RN and PN groups, p < 0.001) and ΔeGFR (17.5 ± 4.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) vs 1.5 ± 0.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in RN and PN groups, p < 0.001). Our findings favor the use of PN over RN for stage I RCC whenever feasible in patients with predisposing systemic diseases for chronic kidney disease for better preservation of renal functions. Copyright © 2017 Kaohsiung Medical University. Published by Elsevier Taiwan. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality assessment of partial nephrectomy complications reporting using EAU standardised quality criteria.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulos, Dionysios; Artibani, Walter; Biyani, Chandra Shekhar; Bjerggaard Jensen, Jørgen; Remzi, Mesut; Rouprêt, Morgan; Truss, Michael

    2014-09-01

    A standardised system to report outcomes and complications of urologic procedures has recently been proposed by an ad hoc European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines panel. To date, no studies have used these criteria to evaluate the quality of reports of outcomes and complications after partial nephrectomy (PN). To address the quality of reporting of PN complications. A systematic review of papers reporting outcomes of PN was conducted through the electronic search of databases, including Medline, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Analysis was carried out on structured forms. The quality criteria that the EAU Working Group proposed for reporting complications were recorded for each paper, and adherence to the Martin criteria was assessed. Standardised criteria to report and grade complications were used in 71 out of 204 evaluable studies (34.8%). Only six studies (2.9%) fulfilled all criteria that the EAU Guidelines Office ad hoc panel proposed. The mean number did not change significantly by time or by surgical approach used. The most underreported criteria (in <50% of the studies) were who collected the data (18.6%), whether he or she were involved in the treatment (13.7%), duration of follow-up (47.1%), mortality data and causes of death (33.8%), definition of procedure-specific complications (39.2), separate reporting of intra- and postoperative complications (45.1%), complication severity or grade (32.4%), risk factors analysis (44.1%), readmission rates (12.7%), and percentage of patients lost to follow-up (6.9%). The mean number fulfilled was 6.5 ± 2.9 (mean plus or minus standard deviation) and did not change significantly by time or by surgical approach used. The only way to improve the quality of the surgical scientific literature and to allow sound comparisons among different approaches, especially with the lack of randomised trials, is the use of more rigorous methodology than the one recently proposed to

  4. AN ARTERIAL BASED COMPLEXITY (ABC) SCORING SYSTEM TO ASSESS THE MORBIDITY PROFILE OF PARTIAL NEPHRECTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Spaliviero, Massimiliano; Poon, Bing Ying; Karlo, Christoph A.; Guglielmetti, Giuliano B.; Di Paolo, Pier Luigi; Corradi, Renato Beluco; Martin-Malburet, Alexandre G.; Campos-Juanatey, Felix; Escudero-Fontano, Eva; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Russo, Paul; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Akin, Oguz; Touijer, Karim A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumor characteristics affect surgical complexity and outcomes of partial nephrectomy (PN). Objective To develop an Arterial Based Complexity (ABC) scoring system to predict morbidity of PN. Design, Setting, and Participants Four readers independently scored contrast-enhanced computed tomography images of 179 patients who underwent PN. Intervention Renal cortical masses were categorized by the order of vessels needed to be transected/dissected during PN. Scores of 1, 2, 3S, or 3H were assigned to tumors requiring transection of interlobular and arcuate arteries, interlobar arteries, segmental arteries, or in close proximity of the renal hilum, respectively during PN. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis Interobserver variability was assessed with kappa values and percentage of exact matches between each pairwise combination of readers. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between reference scores and ischemia time, estimated blood loss, and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) at 6 wk and 6 mo after surgery adjusted for baseline eGFR. Fisher’s exact test was used to test for differences in risk of urinary fistula formation by reference category assignment. Results and Limitations Pairwise comparisons of readers’ score assignments were significantly correlated (all p <0.0001); average kappa = 0.545 across all reader pairs. The average proportion of exact matches was 69%. Linear regression between the complexity score system and surgical outcomes showed significant associations between reference category assignments and ischemia time (p <0.0001) and estimated blood loss (p = 0.049). Fisher’s exact test showed a significant difference in risk of urinary fistula formation with higher reference category assignments (p = 0.028). Limitations include use of a single institutional cohort to evaluate our system. Conclusions The ABC scoring system for PN is intuitive, easy to use, and demonstrated good correlation with

  5. Postoperative Urinary Leakage Following Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Mass: Risk Factors and a Proposed Algorithm for the Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Erlich, T; Abu-Ghanem, Y; Ramon, J; Mor, Y; Rosenzweig, B; Dotan, Z

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the current incidence, risk factors, management, and long-term follow-up of urinary leakage following partial nephrectomy, in order to propose an algorithm for diagnosis and evaluation of postoperative urinary leakage. The study included 752 patients who underwent elective partial nephrectomies for renal masses between the years 1988 and 2013. Patients' demographics, clinico-pathologic variables, and operative details were collected retrospectively. The associations between urinary leakage and patients' variables were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 752 patients, 21 (2.8%) experienced urinary leakage; 4 of the 21 patients with urinary leakage had spontaneous resolution, 1 patient underwent nephrectomy, and 16 patients were treated by retrograde ureteral stents insertion. One of them necessitated insertion of an additional percutaneous nephrostomy and another one deserved concomitant percutaneous drainage of a perirenal urinoma. The average period of time that elapsed from the operation until the insertion of stent was 8.5 ± 4.5 days. Stents were removed 68 ± 20.5 days postoperatively. None of the patients had either persistent or repeated leakage. On univariate analysis, hilar renal masses (p < 0.04) and higher preoperative creatinine levels (p < 0.01) were found to be associated with higher rates of urinary leakage. None of these variables was significant on a multivariate analysis. Review of the urinary leakage rate over time revealed it has been constantly decreasing over time, from 4% in early cases to 1.3% among the most recent ones. None of the preoperative variables that were examined in this study was significantly associated with increased risk of urinary leakage. However, cumulative surgical experience was associated with lower rates of urinary leakage, suggesting that the decrease in its incidence is related to the improved surgical skills, rather than to differences in tumors' or patients

  6. Incisional Intercostal Hernia With Prolapse of the Colon After Right Partial Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Kurashima, Yukiko; Watanabe, Chie; Ohata, Kazunori; Hashiba, Ryoya; Tanaka, Shogo; Uenishi, Takahiro; Ohno, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman with a history of myocardial infarction, gallstones, and right renal cancer was referred to our department because of right flank pain. She had a surgical scar on the right abdomen between the 10th and 11th ribs; computed tomography demonstrated intercostal herniation of the colon. Recognizing the possibility of adhesions of the hernia and colon, we used a median skin incision and patched a polyester mesh coated with absorbent collagen. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, with no pain for 6 months postoperatively. Transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernias with abdominal contents commonly develop after trauma or thoracic surgery. Incisional intercostal hernias seldom develop after nephrectomy; the present case is only the fourth report. We conjecture that a costochondral incision can induce subluxation of the costotransverse joint, intercostal nerve injury, and atrophy of the intercostal and abdominal oblique muscles. Surgeons must therefore recognize the potential, albeit rare, for intercostal hernia after nephrectomy. PMID:24229033

  7. Incisional intercostal hernia with prolapse of the colon after right partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Kurashima, Yukiko; Watanabe, Chie; Ohata, Kazunori; Hashiba, Ryoya; Tanaka, Shogo; Uenishi, Takahiro; Ohno, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman with a history of myocardial infarction, gallstones, and right renal cancer was referred to our department because of right flank pain. She had a surgical scar on the right abdomen between the 10th and 11th ribs; computed tomography demonstrated intercostal herniation of the colon. Recognizing the possibility of adhesions of the hernia and colon, we used a median skin incision and patched a polyester mesh coated with absorbent collagen. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, with no pain for 6 months postoperatively. Transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernias with abdominal contents commonly develop after trauma or thoracic surgery. Incisional intercostal hernias seldom develop after nephrectomy; the present case is only the fourth report. We conjecture that a costochondral incision can induce subluxation of the costotransverse joint, intercostal nerve injury, and atrophy of the intercostal and abdominal oblique muscles. Surgeons must therefore recognize the potential, albeit rare, for intercostal hernia after nephrectomy.

  8. Nephron-sparing Suture of Renal Parenchyma After Partial Nephrectomy: Which Technique to Go For? Some Best Practices.

    PubMed

    Porpiglia, Francesco; Bertolo, Riccardo; Amparore, Daniele; Fiori, Cristian

    2017-08-28

    The quantity of the preserved parenchyma after partial nephrectomy is the result of interplay among various factors: the unmodifiable preoperative quality of the renal parenchyma and some technical modifiable aspects. Among the modifiable factors able to influence the quantity, the suture technique has gained paramount importance. Indeed, nowadays there is a consensus suggesting that one of the main predictors of the ultimate renal function is the minimal parenchymal volume loss: this is the sum of the healthy parenchyma excised with the tumour and the portion of the parenchyma devascularised by the renorrhaphy. The historical aim of a good suture was to avoid bleeding and urine leakage. A modern suture after partial nephrectomy should minimise the ischaemic effect on the renal parenchyma whenever possible. This has to be carried out with precision and based on the vascular anatomy of the kidney. In this report, we tried to describe the best practice for the suturing of renal parenchyma after conservative surgical treatment for small renal tumours. Indeed, the suture after the resection of a renal mass should minimise the ischaemic effect on the renal tissue whenever possible, maximising the functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of tumour morphology on renal function decline after partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Mehrazin, Reza; Palazzi, Kerrin L; Kopp, Ryan P; Colangelo, Caroline J; Stroup, Sean P; Masterson, James H; Liss, Michael A; Cohen, Seth A; Jabaji, Ramzi; Park, Samuel K; Patterson, Anthony L; L'Esperance, James O; Derweesh, Ithaar H

    2013-06-01

    To examine the association of renal morphology with renal function after partial nephrectomy (PN). We conducted a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 322 PNs performed between 2003 and 2011. The RENAL nephrometry score for each lesion was determined and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated preoperatively and at last follow-up. We divided patients into two RENAL nephrometry score groups, low (<8) and high (≥8), and analysed and compared the outcomes of each group. The primary outcome was median change in eGFR between preoperative and last follow-up (ΔeGFR). The secondary outcome was eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at last follow-up. Multivariable analysis was conducted to evaluate the risk factors for eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at last follow-up. The median (interquartile range) follow-up was 25.2 (13.5-39.3) months. Low (n = 165) and high (n = 157) RENAL score groups were well-matched for baseline eGFR. The median tumour size (4.2 vs 2.4 cm, P < 0.001) was greater for the high group. In all, 64% of the low and 88.2% of the high RENAL score group (P < 0.001) had decreased eGFR at last follow-up. Median eGFR was -7 for the low vs -13.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for the high group (P = 0.001); eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at last follow-up was 27.3% for the low vs 37.6% for the high group (P = 0.057). Linear regression analysis showed that for each 1-point increase in RENAL score, there was 2.5% decrease in eGFR (P = 0.002); for each 1-cm increase in tumour size, there was 1.8% decrease in eGFR (P = 0.013). Area under curve analyses showed no significant difference between RENAL score and tumour size for prediction of de novo eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P = 0.920) and ΔeGFR ≥50% (P = 0.85). Multivariable analysis showed that increasing RENAL score (odds ratio [OR] 1.24, P = 0.046) and decreasing preoperative eGFR (OR 1.10, P < 0.001) were risk factors for eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at last follow-up. Increasing RENAL nephrometry score is an

  10. Renal Tumor Invasion Depth and Diameter are the Two Most Accurate Anatomical Features Regarding the Choice of Radical Versus Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Tornberg, S V; Kilpeläinen, T P; Järvinen, P; Visapää, H; Järvinen, R; Taari, K; Nisén, H

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate simple tumor characteristics (renal tumor diameter and parenchymal invasion depth) compared with more complex classifications, that is, Renal Tumor Invasion Index (RTII) and Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical classification, in predicting the type of nephrectomy (radical vs partial) performed. A total of 915 patients who had undergone either partial nephrectomy ( n = 388, 42%) or radical nephrectomy ( n = 527, 58%) were identified from the Helsinki University Hospital kidney tumor database between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014. Tumor maximum diameter and depth of invasion into the parenchyma were estimated from computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging images and compared with Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical and Renal Tumor Invasion Index. Logistic regression and receiver operating curves were used to compare the parameters at predicting the type of nephrectomy. All the anatomical variables of receiver operating curve/area under the curve analyses were significant predictors for the type of nephrectomy. Parenchymal invasion (area under the curve 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93), RTII (area under the curve 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93), and diameter (area under the curve 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93) performed significantly better than Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical classification (area under the curve 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.89). In multivariable analysis, invasion depth was the best predictor of nephrectomy type (percentage correct, 85.6%). Addition of one anatomic parameter into the model of non-anatomical cofactors improved the accuracy of the model significantly, but the addition of more parameters did not. Parenchymal invasion depth and tumor diameter are the most accurate anatomical features for predicting the nephrectomy type. All potential anatomical classification systems should be tested against

  11. The Physiologic and Anesthetic Considerations in Elderly Patients Undergoing Robotic Renal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vasdev, Nikhil; Poon, Anna Sau Kuk; Gowrie-Mohan, S; Lane, Tim; Boustead, Gregory; Hanbury, Damian; Adshead, James M

    2014-01-01

    A number of patients are diagnosed with renal malignancies incidentally worldwide. Once a diagnosis of a renal malignancy is established, after a careful evaluation, patients can be offered a robotic nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy. We present a review of the physiologic and anesthetic considerations in elderly patients who are being considered for robotic renal surgery. PMID:24791150

  12. Mayo Adhesive Probability Score Is an Independent Computed Tomography Scan Predictor of Adherent Perinephric Fat in Open Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Logan; Rouviere, Olivier; Bezza, Riadh; Bailleux, Jérôme; Abbas, Fatima; Schott-Pethelaz, Anne-Marie; Ruffion, Alain; Paparel, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate predictive radiological elements for adherent perinephric fat (APF) and the Mayo adhesive probability (MAP) score in the setting of open partial nephrectomy, and to assess their reproducibility. We performed a retrospective case-control study involving 86 patients who had open partial nephrectomies performed by a single surgeon between January 1, 2009 and April 1, 2015. Radiological elements were assessed by 4 readers blinded to patient APF status. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for all radiological and clinical factors. Reproducibility was analyzed using agreement coefficients. On univariate analysis for radiological findings, lateral and posterior fat thickness (odds ratio [OR]: 1.084 [1.033, 1.138], P < .001), stranding (OR: 2.179 [1.431, 3.318], P < .001), -80 HU fat area, and the MAP score (OR: 1.797 [1.332, 2.424], P < .001) were predictive of APF. On multivariate analysis, only age and the MAP score remained statistically significant (OR: 1.060 [1.005, 1.118], P = .03; and OR: 1.560 [1.137, 2.139], P = .0058, respectively). The reproducibility of the MAP score was fair (AC1 = 0.367 and kappa F = 0.353), as was that of stranding (AC1 = 0.499, kappa F = 0.376). The agreement was important if we defined a "low" (0 to 3) or "high" (4 or 5) score (AC1 = 0.706 and kappa F = 0.681). The MAP score was the element that best predicted APF in our study, although its reproducibility among our readers was only fair. The agreement becomes important if we defined "low or high" score. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A New Sliding-Loop Technique in Renorrhaphy for Partial Nephrectomy: A Feasibility Study in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Keun; Oh, Jong Jin; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Seung Bae; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Jeong, Chang Wook

    2016-04-01

    We developed a sliding-loop technique that narrowed both sides of the parenchyma in a porcine model and compared it with the conventional sliding-clip technique. Three pigs (30-40 kg) were reused following another experiment conducted by the same researchers. Bilateral kidneys were harvested within 30 minutes after euthanasia. Two partial nephrectomies per kidney were performed on opposite surfaces. All kidney defects were of the same size (diameter of 2.5-3 cm with a depth of 1.0-1.5 cm). The sliding-clip technique and sliding-loop technique were performed separately. In the sliding-loop technique, we created a 1-cm loop at the end of a Vicryl and placed a tetrafluoroethylene polymer pledget in front of the knots passing through the needle. The needle then crossed the loop after passing through the renal parenchyma. A Weck clip was placed and slid on one side to tighten the suture. Tightening was controlled with an equivalent force using a digital push-pull gauge. Three stitches were placed at each renorrhaphy site. The distance between repaired renal surfaces was measured at 5 different points (3 suture sites and 2 middle sites between sutures). The results of the 2 techniques were compared by using the independent t test. The mean distance between renal surfaces was significantly narrower in the sliding-loop technique than in the conventional technique (1.80 ± 1.08 mm vs 5.28 ± 2.46 mm, P < .001). In the porcine model, the sliding-loop technique more effectively closed the partial nephrectomy defects compared with the conventional sliding-clip technique. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. [Renal Cell Carcinoma: When is a Partial, Organ-preserving Nephrectomy Possible and Reasonable?].

    PubMed

    Padevit, Christian; Sauck, Anja; John, Hubert

    2016-06-22

    In Switzerland about 900 people a year are newly diagnosed with a kidney tumour. This is about 3 % of all cancer cases in this country. Because of the abundent diagnostic examinations carried out (MR, CT, US), kidney tumours are often coincidentally found. In recent years the organ-sparing therapy has moved to the foreground for kidney tumours of <4 cm. This is increasingly true for larger lesions of 4–7 cm diameter. Organ-sparing kidney surgery has replaced the radical nephrectomy for tumours up to 7 cm because of the superior post-op quality of Life and the total survival rate. In addition, the control of oncological parameters, maintenance of kidney function, low morbidity and reproducibility of the method are existant and can be achieved using this organ-sparing therapy.

  15. Nephron-sparing surgery across a nation - outcomes from the British Association of Urological Surgeons 2012 national partial nephrectomy audit.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Archie; Fowler, Sarah; O'Brien, Tim

    2016-06-01

    To determine the scope and outcomes of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), i.e. partial nephrectomy, across the UK and in so doing set a realistic benchmark and identify fresh contemporary challenges in NSS. In 2012 reporting of outcomes of all types of nephrectomy became mandatory in the UK. In all, 148 surgeons in 86 centres prospectively entered data on 6 042 nephrectomies undertaken in 2012. This study is a retrospective analysis of the NSS procedures in the dataset. A total of 1 044 NSS procedures were recorded and the median (range) surgical volume was 4 (1-39) per consultant and 8 (1-59) per centre. In all, 36 surgeons and 10 centres reported on only one NSS. The indications for NSS were: elective with a tumour of ≤4.5 cm in 59%, elective with a tumour of >4.5 cm in 10%, relative in 7%, imperative in 12%, Von Hippel-Lindau in 1%, and unknown in 11%. The median (range) tumour size was 3.4 (0.8-30) cm. The technique used was minimally invasive surgery in 42%, open in 58%, with conversions in 4%. The histology results were: malignant in 80%, benign in 18%, and unknown in 2%. In patients aged <40 years 36% (36/101) had benign histology vs 17% (151/874) of those aged ≥40 years (P < 0.01). In patients with tumours of <2.5 cm 29% (69/238) had benign histology vs 14% (57/410) with tumours of 2.5-4 cm vs 8% (16/194) with tumours of ≥4 cm (P = 0.02). In patients aged <40 years with of tumours of <2.5 cm 44% (15/34) were benign. The 30-day mortality was 0.1% (1/1 044). There were major complications (Clavien-Dindo grade of ≥IIIa) in 5% (53/1 044). There was an increased risk of complications after extended elective NSS of 19% (19/101) vs elective at 12% (76/621) (relative risk [RR] 1.54; P < 0.01). Margins were recorded in 68% (709/1 044) of the patients, with positive margins identified in 7% (51/709). Positive surgical margins after NSS for pathological T3 (pT3) tumours were found in 47.8% (11/23) vs 6.1% (32/523) for pT1a, tumours (RR 5.61; P < 0.01). In all, 14

  16. Impact of preoperative calculation of nephron volume loss on future of partial nephrectomy techniques; planning a strategic roadmap for improving functional preservation and securing oncological safety.

    PubMed

    Rha, Koon H; Abdel Raheem, Ali; Park, Sung Y; Kim, Kwang H; Kim, Hyung J; Koo, Kyo C; Choi, Young D; Jung, Byung H; Lee, Sang K; Lee, Won K; Krishnan, Jayram; Shin, Tae Y; Cho, Jin-Seon

    2017-06-20

    To assess the correlation of the resected and ischaemic volume (RAIV), which is a preoperatively calculated volume of nephron loss, with the amount of postoperative renal function (PRF) decline after minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (PN) in a multi-institutional dataset. We identified 348 patients from March 2005 to December 2013 at six institutions. Data on all cases of laparoscopic (n = 85) and robot-assisted PN (n = 263) performed were retrospectively gathered. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to identify the associations between various time points of PRF and the RAIV, as a continuous variable. The mean (sd) RAIV was 24.2 (29.2) cm(3) . The mean preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the eGFRs at postoperative day 1, 6 and 36 months after PN were 91.0 and 76.8, 80.2 and 87.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , respectively. In multivariable linear regression analysis, the amount of decline in PRF at follow-up was significantly correlated with the RAIV (β 0.261, 0.165, 0.260 at postoperative day 1, 6 and 36 months after PN, respectively). This study has the limitation of its retrospective nature. Preoperatively calculated RAIV significantly correlates with the amount of decline in PRF during long-term follow-up. The RAIV could lead our research to the level of prediction of the amount of PRF decline after PN and thus would be appropriate for assessing the technical advantages of emerging techniques. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Acute Ipsilateral Renal Dysfunction after Partial Nephrectomy in Patients with a Contralateral Kidney: Spectrum Score to Unmask Ischemic Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiling; Zhao, Juping; Dong, Wen; Aguilar Palacios, Diego; Remer, Erick M; Li, Jianbo; Demirjian, Sevag; Zabell, Joseph; Campbell, Steven C

    2016-10-01

    Acute ischemic injury in the operated kidney after partial nephrectomy (PN) is often masked by a functional contralateral kidney; however, there is no practical method to assess this and its prognostic significance has not been defined. We propose a spectrum score to reflect the degree of ischemic insult in the ipsilateral kidney and study its relationship to subsequent functional recovery. From 2007 to 2014, 243 patients with a functional contralateral kidney underwent PN with necessary studies for detailed analysis of function and parenchymal mass before and after surgery in the ipsilateral kidney. Based on split function and percent parenchymal mass preserved in the ipsilateral kidney, we determined: serum creatinine (SCr)ideal-peak: expected peak SCr presuming no ischemic injury; and SCrworstcase-peak: expected peak SCr presuming temporary complete nonfunction of the ipsilateral kidney. The acute ipsilateral renal dysfunction spectrum score was defined: (observed peak SCr - SCrideal-peak)/(SCrworstcase-peak - SCrideal-peak). Subsequent functional recovery was defined: (percent function preserved)/(percent mass saved). PN. Factors associated with spectrum score and relationship between spectrum score and subsequent functional recovery were evaluated by linear regression. Median duration of warm ischemia (n=152) was 21min (interquartile range [IQR] = 15-27) and hypothermia (n=91) 26min (IQR=23-30). Median parenchymal mass preservation was 83% (IQR=74-91%). Warm ischemia and longer ischemia duration associated with higher spectrum score (both p<0.05). Increased spectrum score (<25%, 25-50%, 50-75%, and >75% quartiles) had decreased functional recovery (98%, 94%, 90%, and 89%, respectively, p<0.001). However, this trend was not observed in the hypothermia cohort. On multivariable analysis spectrum score and ischemia type significantly associated with functional recovery (both p<0.01), while age and comorbidities failed to associate (p=0.3-0.7). Acute ipsilateral

  18. Acute Kidney Injury after Partial Nephrectomy: Role of Parenchymal Mass Reduction and Ischemia and Impact on Subsequent Functional Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiling; Zhao, Juping; Dong, Wen; Remer, Eric; Li, Jianbo; Demirjian, Sevag; Zabell, Joseph; Campbell, Steven C

    2016-04-01

    Acute increase of serum creatinine (SCr) after partial nephrectomy (PN) is primarily due to parenchymal mass reduction or ischemia; however, only ischemia can impact subsequent functional recovery. We evaluate etiologies of acute kidney injury (AKI) after PN and their prognostic significance. From 2007-2014, 83 solitary kidneys managed with PN had necessary studies for detailed analysis of function and parenchymal mass before/after surgery. AKI was classified by Risk/Injury/Failure/Loss/Endstage classification and defined by either standard criteria (comparison to preoperative SCr) or proposed criteria (comparison to projected postoperative SCr based on parenchymal mass reduction). Subsequent recovery was defined as percent function preserved/percent mass saved. PN. Predictive factors for AKI were evaluated by logistic regression. Relationship between AKI grade and subsequent functional recovery was assessed by linear regression. Median duration warm ischemia (n=39) was 20 min and hypothermia (n=44) was 29 min. Median parenchymal mass reduction was 11%. AKI occurred in 45 patients based on standard criteria and 38 based on proposed criteria, and reflected injury/failure (grade = 2/3) in 23 and 16 patients, respectively. On multivariable analysis, only ischemia time associated with AKI occurrence (p=0.016). Based on the proposed criteria, median recovery from ischemia was 99% in patients without AKI and 95%/90%/88% for patients with grades 1/2/3 AKI, respectively. The coefficient for association between AKI grade based on proposed criteria and subsequent functional recovery was -4.168 (p=0.018). Main limitation is limited patient cohort. Parenchymal mass reduction and ischemia both contribute to acute changes in SCr after PN. Classification of AKI by proposed criteria significantly associates with subsequent functional recovery. However, more robust numbers will be needed to further assess the merits of the proposed criteria. While AKI is associated with suboptimal

  19. Optimising renal cancer patients for nephron-sparing surgery: a review of pre-operative considerations and peri-operative techniques for partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Ertemi, Hani; Khetrapal, Pramit; Pavithran, Nevil M; Mumtaz, Faiz

    2017-02-03

    Nonmodifiable factors including pre-operative renal function and amount of healthy renal tissue preserved are the most important predictive factors that determine renal function after partial nephrectomy. Ischaemia time is an important modifiable risk factor and cold ischaemia time should be used if longer ischaemia time is anticipated. New techniques may have a role in maximising postoperative kidney function, but more robust studies are required to understand their potential benefits and risks.

  20. Cytoreductive partial nephrectomy does not undermine cancer control in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, Umberto; Zini, Laurent; Perrotte, Paul; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Jeldres, Claudio; Arjane, Philippe; Pharand, Daniel; Widmer, Hugues; Péloquin, François; Montorsi, Francesco; Patard, Jean-Jacques; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2008-11-01

    We examined the population-based rates of cancer-specific survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) treated with either partial (PN) or radical cytoreductive nephrectomy (RN). Patients diagnosed with MRCC and treated with either PN or RN were identified within nine SEER cancer registries. Matched and unmatched Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, as well as multivariable Cox regression models compared the effect of RN (n = 1997, 97.8%) vs. PN (n = 46, 2.2%) on cancer-specific survival (CSS). Covariates consisted of age, gender, community type (rural vs urban), race, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry, tumor size and year of diagnosis. In multivariable unmatched Cox regression analyses, no statistically significantly difference was found in CSS between the two groups (hazard ratio [HR] 1.40, P = .16). Similarly, no difference in CSS was found in the matched analyses (HR 1.35, log rank P = .34). Cytoreductive PN does not appear to undermine survival in patients with MRCC.

  1. Multicenter Experience with Nonischemic Multiport Laparoscopic and Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy Utilizing Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation Coagulator

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Wassim M.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Berkowitz, Jared; Atalah, Hany N.; Parekattil, Sijo; Derweesh, Ithaar H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate feasibility of multiport and laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) nonischemic laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (NI-LPN) utilizing bipolar radiofrequency coagulator. Methods. Multicenter retrospective review of 60 patients (46 multiport/14 LESS) undergoing NI-LPN between 4/2006 and 9/2009. Multiport and LESS NI-LPN utilized Habib 4X bipolar radiofrequency coagulator to form a hemostatic zone followed by nonischemic tumor excision and renorrhaphy. Demographics, tumor/perioperative characteristics, and outcomes were analyzed. Results. 59/60 (98.3%) successfully underwent NI-LPN. Mean tumor size was 2.35 cm. Mean operative time was 160.0 minutes. Mean estimated blood loss was 131.4 mL. Preoperative/postoperative creatinine (mg/dL) was 1.02/1.07 (P = .471). All had negative margins. 12 (20%) patients developed complications. 3 (5%) developed urine leaks. No differences between multiport and LESS-PN were noted as regards demographics, tumor size, outcomes, and complications. Conclusion. Initial experience demonstrates that nonischemic multiport and LESS-PN is safe and efficacious, with excellent short-term preservation of renal function. Long-term data are needed to confirm oncological efficacy. PMID:21747654

  2. External validation of the Arterial Based Complexity (ABC) scoring system in renal tumors treated by minimally invasive partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liangyou; Ma, Xin; Li, Hongzhao; Yao, Yuanxin; Xie, Yongpeng; Chen, Luyao; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Xu

    2017-09-01

    To assess the role of the Arterial Based Complexity (ABC) scoring system in predicting clinically relevant outcomes of a minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN). We retrospectively reviewed 350 consecutive patients who underwent a MIPN between 2013 and 2014. Tumor complexity was evaluated according to the ABC scoring system. Complications, surgical, and renal outcomes were recorded. There were respectively 36 (10.3%), 229 (65.4%), 43 (12.3%), and 42 (12.0%) patients in category 1, 2, 3S, 3H. Multivariate regression showed category assignment was associated with warm ischemia time (P < 0.001), estimated blood loss (P = 0.001), and operative time (P = 0.032). On multivariate analyses, tumor size was the only independent predictor of overall (P = 0.035) and minor (P = 0.032) complications, but ABC category failed to predict complications (P > 0.05 for all). For renal function, ABC category failed to predict postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate at 1 day and 6 months (P > 0.05 for both). In MIPN, the ABC scoring system predicted a prolonged warm ischemia time and operative time, and an added estimated blood loss. This scoring system was not a predictor for the occurrence of complications and postoperative renal function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy using the Da Vinci Si system: how to improve surgeon autonomy. Our step-by-step technique.

    PubMed

    Davila, Hugo H; Storey, Raul E; Rose, Marc C

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we describe several steps to improve surgeon autonomy during a Left Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy (RALRN), using the Da Vinci Si system. Our kidney cancer program is based on 2 community hospitals. We use the Da Vinci Si system. Access is obtained with the following trocars: Two 8 mm robotic, one 8 mm robotic, bariatric length (arm 3), 15 mm for the assistant and 12 mm for the camera. We use curved monopolar scissors in robotic arm 1, Bipolar Maryland in arm 2, Prograsp Forceps in arm 3, and we alternate throughout the surgery with EndoWrist clip appliers and the vessel sealer. Here, we described three steps and the use of 3 robotic instruments to improve surgeon autonomy. Step 1: the lower pole of the kidney was dissected and this was retracted upwards and laterally. This maneuver was performed using the 3rd robotic arm with the Prograsp Forceps. Step 2: the monopolar scissors was replaced (robotic arm 1) with the robotic EndoWrist clip applier, 10 mm Hem-o-Lok. The renal artery and vein were controlled and transected by the main surgeon. Step 3: the superior, posterolateral dissection and all bleeders were carefully coagulated by the surgeon with the EndoWrist one vessel sealer. We have now performed 15 RALRN following these steps. Our results were: blood loss 300 cc, console time 140 min, operating room time 200 min, anesthesia time 180 min, hospital stay 2.5 days, 1 incisional hernia, pathology: (13) RCC clear cell, (1) chromophobe and (1) papillary type 1. Tumor Stage: (5) T1b, (8) T2a, (2) T2b. We provide a concise, step-by-step technique for radical nephrectomy (RN) using the Da Vinci Si robotic system that may provide more autonomy to the surgeon, while maintaining surgical outcome equivalent to standard laparoscopic RN.

  4. Outcomes After Cryoablation Versus Partial Nephrectomy for Sporadic Renal Tumors in a Solitary Kidney: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhindi, Bimal; Mason, Ross J; Haddad, Mustafa M; Boorjian, Stephen A; Leibovich, Bradley C; Atwell, Thomas D; Weisbrod, Adam J; Schmit, Grant D; Thompson, R Houston

    2017-09-26

    While partial nephrectomy (PN) is considered the standard approach for a tumor in a solitary kidney, percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) is emerging as an alternative nephron-sparing option. To compare outcomes between PCA and PN for tumors in a solitary kidney. Patients who underwent PCA or PN between 2005 and 2015 for a single primary renal tumor in a solitary kidney were identified using Mayo Clinic Registries. Exclusion criteria were inherited tumor syndromes and salvage procedures. PCA and PN. To achieve balance in baseline characteristics, we used inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity to receive treatment. The risk of having a post-treatment complication and percent drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as well as the risks of local/ipsilateral recurrence, distant metastasis, and cancer-specific mortality, were compared between groups using logistic, linear, and Fine-and-Gray competing risk regression models. The cohort included 118 patients (PCA: 54; PN: 64) with a median follow-up of 47 mo (interquartile range 18, 74). In unadjusted analyses, PCA was associated with a lower risk of complications (15% vs 31%; odds ratio [OR]=0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15, 0.96; p=0.04). However, upon accounting for baseline differences with IPTW adjustment, there was no longer a significant difference in the risk of complications (28% vs 29%; OR=0.95; 95% CI 0.53, 1.69; p=0.9). There were no significant differences between PCA and PN in percentage drop in eGFR at discharge (mean: 11% vs 16%; β=-5%; 95% CI -13, 3; p=0.2) or at 3 mo (12% vs 9%; β=3%; 95% CI -3, 10; p=0.3). Likewise, no significant differences were noted in local recurrence (HR=0.87; 95% CI 0.38, 1.98; p=0.7), distant metastases (HR=0.60; 95% CI 0.30, 1.20; p=0.2), or cancer-specific mortality (HR=1.13; 95% CI 0.32, 3.98; p=0.8). Limitations include the sample size, given the relative rarity of renal masses in solitary kidneys. Our study found no

  5. Augmented reality: a new tool to improve surgical accuracy during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy? Preliminary in vitro and in vivo results.

    PubMed

    Teber, Dogu; Guven, Selcuk; Simpfendörfer, Tobias; Baumhauer, Mathias; Güven, Esref Oguz; Yencilek, Faruk; Gözen, Ali Serdar; Rassweiler, Jens

    2009-08-01

    Use of an augmented reality (AR)-based soft tissue navigation system in urologic laparoscopic surgery is an evolving technique. To evaluate a novel soft tissue navigation system developed to enhance the surgeon's perception and to provide decision-making guidance directly before initiation of kidney resection for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Custom-designed navigation aids, a mobile C-arm capable of cone-beam imaging, and a standard personal computer were used. The feasibility and reproducibility of inside-out tracking principles were evaluated in a porcine model with an artificially created intraparenchymal tumor in vitro. The same algorithm was then incorporated into clinical practice during LPN. Evaluation of a fully automated inside-out tracking system was repeated in exactly the same way for 10 different porcine renal units. Additionally, 10 patients underwent retroperitoneal LPNs under manual AR guidance by one surgeon. The navigation errors and image-acquisition times were determined in vitro. The mean operative time, time to locate the tumor, and positive surgical margin were assessed in vivo. The system was able to navigate and superpose the virtually created images and real-time images with an error margin of only 0.5 mm, and fully automated initial image acquisition took 40 ms. The mean operative time was 165 min (range: 135-195 min), and mean time to locate the tumor was 20 min (range: 13-27 min). None of the cases required conversion to open surgery. Definitive histology revealed tumor-free margins in all 10 cases. This novel AR tracking system proved to be functional with a reasonable margin of error and image-to-image registration time. Mounting the pre- or intraoperative imaging properties on real-time videoendoscopic images in a real-time manner will simplify and increase the precision of laparoscopic procedures.

  6. Postoperative elevation in creatine kinase and its impact on renal function in patients undergoing complex partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Sidana, Abhinav; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Truong, Hong; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Miao, Ning; Shih, Johanna; Mannes, Andrew; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Linehan, W Marston; Metwalli, Adam R

    2016-07-01

    To identify the risk factors associated with development of postoperative elevation of creatine kinase (CK) and study its effect on renal function in patients who underwent complex multifocal partial nephrectomy (PN). Patients who underwent PN at National Cancer Institute between January 2007 and December 2012 were included in the study. Elevated serum CK was defined as >2000 U/L. Kidney function was assessed using serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Changes were reported as percent change from preoperative values and compared using the Wilcoxon test. Regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of elevation in CK and decline in eGFR. From 407 total cases, 207 had adequate CK data for analysis. Median number of tumors removed was 3 (1-70). Median peak CK was 1458 (82-36,788). Forty-two percent developed CK elevation >2000 U/L. Factors associated with postoperative elevation of CK > 2000 were young age (p = 0.009), high BMI (p = 0.003) and operating room time (p < 0.001). Although CK > 2000 was associated with significantly greater decline in eGFR (37.4 vs. 20.3 %, p < 0.001) in immediate postoperative period, this change largely resolved to a much less clinically relevant (9.2 vs 3.3 %, p = 0.040) change after 3 months. On multivariate analysis, postoperative elevation in CK was not found to be an independent factor determining renal function at 3 months. In our cohort, a significant proportion of patients developed CK elevations >2000 U/L. While patients with elevated CK had more decline in eGFR in immediate postoperative period, postoperative elevations of CK did not appear to impact overall long-term renal function in patients undergoing PN.

  7. Safety and Postoperative Outcomes of Regional versus Global Ischemia for Partial Nephrectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiduo; Qu, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Shuqiu; Xu, Bin; Lu, Kai; Liu, Chunhui; Tao, Tao; Yang, Yu; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    To analyze current evidence comparing the safety and outcomes of regional and global ischemia for partial nephrectomy (PN). A systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases was conducted in May 2014 to identify studies comparing the safety and outcomes of regional and global ischemia for PN. A systematic review and meta-analysis was also performed. Six retrospective observational studies were selected for the analysis, including 363 patients who underwent PN (162 regional ischemia and 201 global ischemia cases). Operation times were not statistically different [weighted mean difference (WMD) = 20.35 min, 95% CI: -0.28-40.97, p = 0.05], but estimated blood loss was significantly higher in the regional ischemia group (WMD = 52.04 ml, 95% CI: 14.30-89.78, p = 0.007) than in the global ischemia group. Complication rates [odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.63-2.15, p = 0.63] and blood transfusion rates (OR = 1.85; 95% CI: 0.86-4.01, p = 0.12) of the two groups were not significantly different. The regional ischemia group showed better postoperative renal function (WMD = 4.23 ml/min, 95% CI: 2.61-5.85, p < 0.00001) than the global ischemia group, and all cases in the regional ischemia group showed negative margins. Regional ischemia is as safe to perform as global ischemia, and the former leads to better postoperative renal functions than the latter. These findings support the application of regional ischemia for PN. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Contemporary open partial nephrectomy is associated with diminished procedure-specific morbidity despite increasing technical challenges: a single institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Kava, Bruce R; De Los Santos, Rosely; Ayyathurai, Rajinikanth; Shirodkar, Samir; Manoharan, Murugesan; Leveillee, Raymond; Bird, Vincent; Ciancio, Gaetano; Soloway, Mark S

    2010-08-01

    To review trends in open partial nephrectomy (OPN) at our center, concentrating on patient selection, technique and perioperative complications. A comprehensive database was developed by chart review of consecutive patients undergoing OPN for renal masses at our center. Patient selection, technical modifications, perioperative morbidity, and histopathology were compared in patients undergoing OPN between 1992-1999, 2000-2003, and 2004-2008. Complications were divided into procedure-specific (PSCs) and nonspecific medical complications (NMCs). They were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. One hundred and sixty-three OPNs were performed. Temporal trends identified include: an increase in the mean patient BMI (p = 0.04), an increase in the percentage of patients with central tumors (p < 0.001), decrease in cold ischemia time (p = 0.045), increasing use of a sequential renal vein clamp (p = 0.03), increasing utilization of tissue sealants (p < 0.001), reduced EBL (p = 0.05), reduced length of stay (p = 0.005), and a decline in PSCs from 16 to 7% (p = 0.002). The incidence of histologically benign tumors declined from 34 to 10% (p = 0.001). Thirty-three (20.2%) patients experienced perioperative complications: 70% were CTCAE grade 1 or 2 adverse events. BMI was the only factor that was found to be associated with the risk of complications on multivariate analysis [odds ratio 1.067, CI 95% (1.002-1.136); p = 0.031]. Increasingly, OPN is being utilized for a cohort of challenging patients who are overweight and have centrally located tumors. Despite this, the risk of PSCs is low. Patients who are overweight are at increased risk for perioperative NMCs.

  9. Mortality, morbidity and healthcare expenditures after local tumour ablation or partial nephrectomy for T1A kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Larcher, A; Sun, M; Dell'Oglio, P; Trudeau, V; Boehm, K; Schiffmann, J; Tian, Z; Fossati, N; Capitanio, U; Briganti, A; Montorsi, F; Karakiewicz, P

    2017-04-01

    Local tumour ablation (LTA) may yield better perioperative outcomes than partial nephrectomy (PN), however the impact of each treatment on perioperative mortality and health care expenditures is unknown. The aim of the study was to compare mortality, morbidity and health care expenditures between LTA and PN. A population-based assessment of 2471 patients with cT1a kidney cancer treated with either LTA or PN, between 2000 and 2009, in the SEER-Medicare database was performed. After propensity score matching, 30-day mortality, overall and specific complication rates, length of stay, readmission rates and health care expenditures according to LTA or PN were estimated. Multivariable logistic and linear models addressed the effect of each specific LTA approach on overall complication rates, length of stay, readmission rates and health care expenditures. The 30-day mortality was <2% after either LTA or PN (OR 2.27, p = 0.2). The overall complication rate was 21% after LTA and 40% after PN (OR 0.38, p < 0.001). Blood transfusions, infection/sepsis, wound infections, respiratory complications, gastrointestinal complications, acute kidney injury, and accidental puncture or laceration/foreign body left during procedure rates resulted lower after LTA relative to PN (all p < 0.05). Similarly, length of stay and health care expenditures resulted lower after LTA relative to PN (all p < 0.05). Conversely, readmission rate was not significantly different in LTA relative to PN (p = 0.1). Despite similar perioperative mortality, LTA is associated with lower complications rate, shorter length of stay and lower health care expenditure relative to PN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  10. The Piezo Actuator-Driven Pulsed Water Jet System for Minimizing Renal Damage after Off-Clamp Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shinji; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Ito, Akihiro; Abe, Takaaki; Tominaga, Teiji; Arai, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    In the setting of partial nephrectomy (PN) for renal cell carcinoma, postoperative renal dysfunction might be caused by surgical procedure. The aim of this study was to clarify the technical safety and renal damage after off-clamp laparoscopic PN (LPN) with a piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system. Eight swine underwent off-clamp LPN with this surgical device, while off-clamp open PN was also performed with radio knife or soft coagulation. The length of the removed kidney was 40 mm, and the renal parenchyma was dissected until the renal calyx became clearly visible. The degree of renal degeneration from the resection surface was compared by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining and immunostaining for 1-methyladenosine, a sensitive marker for the ischemic tissue damage. The mRNA levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (Ngal), a biomarker for acute kidney injury, were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Off-clamp LPN with ADPJ system was successfully performed while preserving fine blood vessels and the renal calix with little bleeding. In contrast to other devices, the resection surface obtained with the ADPJ system showed only marginal degree of ischemic changes. Indeed, the expression level of Ngal mRNA was lower in the resection surface obtained with the ADPJ system than that with soft coagulation (p = 0.02). Furthermore, using the excised specimens of renal cell carcinoma, we measured the breaking strength at each site of the human kidney, suggesting the applicability of this ADPJ to clinical trials. In conclusion, off-clamp LPN with the ADPJ system could be safely performed with attenuated renal damage.

  11. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial cystectomy for symptomatic urachal hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Shepler, Richard; Zuckerman, Jack M.; Troyer, Dean; Malcolm, John B.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an urachal hamartoma in a 30-year-old African American woman. The urachal lesion was excised with a robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial cystectomy. Pathologic analysis revealed cysts, smooth muscle, and ciliated epithelium consistent with a hamartoma. The patient recovered without complication. This case highlights an unusual pathology that is infrequently reported following urachal remnant excision. PMID:27011882

  12. Targeted Endovascular Temporary Vessel Occlusion with a Reverse Thermosensitive Polymer for Near-Bloodless Partial Nephrectomy: Comparison to Standard Surgical Clamping Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Flacke, Sebastian; Harty, Niall J.; Laskey, Daniel H.; Moinzadeh, Alireza; Benn, James A.; Villani, Rosanna; Kalra, Aarti; Libertino, John A.; Madras, Peter N.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine whether reversible blood flow interruption to a randomly chosen target region of the kidney may be achieved with the injection of a reverse thermoplastic polymer through an angiographic catheter, thereby facilitating partial nephrectomy without compromising blood flow to the remaining kidney or adding risks beyond those encountered by the use of hilar clamping. Methods: Fifteen pigs underwent partial nephrectomy after blood flow interruption by vascular cross-clamping or injection of polymer (Lumagel Trade-Mark-Sign ) into a segmental artery. Five animals were euthanized after surgery (three open and two laparoscopic resection, cross-clamping n = 2), and 10 (open resection, cross-clamping n = 4) were euthanized after 6 weeks' survival. Blood specimens were obtained periodically, and angiogram and necropsy were performed at 6 weeks. Results: Selective renal ischemia was achieved in all cases. Surgical resection time averaged 9 and 24.5 min in the open and laparoscopic groups, respectively. Estimated blood loss was negligible with the exception of one case where an accessory renal artery was originally overlooked. Reversal of the polymer to a liquid state was consistent angiographically and visually in all cases. Time to complete flow return averaged 7.4 and 2 min for polymer and clamping, respectively. Angiography at 6 weeks revealed no evidence of vascular injury. Laboratory data and necropsies revealed no differences between animals undergoing vascular clamping or polymer injection. Conclusion: Lumagel was as effective as vascular clamping in producing a near bloodless operative field for partial nephrectomy while maintaining flow to the uninvolved portion of the affected kidney.

  13. Warm Ischemia-Related Postoperative Renal Dysfunction in Elective Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy Recovers During Intermediate-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Selcuk; Boyuk, Abubekir; Tefik, Tzevat; Yucel, Baris; Naghiyev, Rauf; Ozsoy, Mehmet; Verep, Samed; Sanli, Oner

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the impact of warm ischemia time (WIT) on early postoperative and ultimate renal function after elective laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). One hundred and twenty-seven patients who underwent elective, ischemia-applied LPN were investigated in this study. The study patients were without stage 3 or greater chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) before LPN. Initially, the patients were grouped using the criteria of postoperative de novo stage 3 or greater CKD: Group A (n=104, eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and group B (n=23, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). The patients were also divided into two groups using 27.75 minute cutoff value obtained by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis for WIT: Group 1 (n=69, WIT <27.75 min) and group 2 (n=58, WIT ≥27.75 min). The groups were compared with regard to demographic, perioperative, histopathologic, and renal functional outcomes. The decreased preoperative eGFR (P<0.001) and increased WIT (P=0.007), operative time (P=0.015), diabetes mellitus (DM) rate (P=0.019) and pathologic tumor size (P=0.031) were significantly different in group B. Multivariate analysis determined that independent predictors of de novo stage 3 or greater CKD in the early postoperative period were preoperative eGFR (P<0.001), WIT (P=0.014), and DM (P=0.030); meanwhile, preoperative eGFR (P=0.006) was the only independent predictor at last follow-up. Decreased median postoperative eGFR (P=0.018) and percent preserved postoperative eGFR (P=0.001) were significantly different in the increased WIT group, as well as elevated median postoperative eGFR loss (P=0.001). After similar follow-up (26 vs 23.5 months, P=0.913), the increased and limited WIT groups were not significantly different with regard to final eGFR (P=0.936), final eGFR loss (P=0.749) and percent preserved final eGFR (P=0.690). In elective LPN, increased WIT plays an important role in renal functional loss in

  14. Predicting ease of perinephric fat dissection at time of open partial nephrectomy using preoperative fat density characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yin; Espiritu, Patrick; Hakky, Tariq; Jutras, Kristin; Spiess, Philippe E

    2014-12-01

    To predict the ease of perinephric fat surgical dissection at the time of open partial nephrectomy (OPN) using perinepheric fat density characteristics as measured on preoperative computed tomography (CT). In all, 41 consecutive OPN patients with available preoperative imaging and prospectively collected dissection difficulty assessment were identified. Using a scoring system that was adopted for the purposes of this study, the genitourinary surgeon quantified the difficulty of the perinephric fat dissection on the surface of the renal capsule at the time of surgery. On axial CT slice centred on the renal hilum, we measured the quantity and density of perinephric fat whose absorption coefficient was between -190 to -30 Hounsfield units. Correlation between perinephric fat surface density (PnFSD) as noted on preoperative imaging and as observed by the surgeon at time of surgery were correlated in a completely 'double-blinded' fashion. Density comparisons between fat dissection difficulties were made using an anova. Associations between covariates and perinephric fat density were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for six different predictive models were created to visualise the predictive enhancement of PnFSD. PnFSD was positively correlated with total surgical duration (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.314, P = 0.04). PnFSD significantly correlated with gender (P = 0.001) and difficulty of perinephric fat surgical dissection (P < 0.001) scores. The mean (sd) PnFSD for a dissection that was not difficult (n = 19) was 5598.32 (1367.77) surface density pixel unit (SDPU), and for a difficult dissection (n = 22) was 10272.23 (3804.67) SDPU. Univariate analysis showed gender (P = 0.002), and PnFSD were predictive of the presence of 'sticky' perinephric fat. A multivariate analysis model showed that PnFSD was the only variable that remained an independent predictor of perinephric fat

  15. Predictive factors of chronic kidney disease stage V after partial nephrectomy in a solitary kidney: a multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Verhoest, G; Patard, J J; Oger, E; Rioux-Leclercq, N; Peyronnet, Benoit; Bessède, T; Laguna, P; Barwari, K; Rigaud, J; Roupret, M; Coffin, G; Bernhard, J C; Long, J A; Zisman, A; Berger, J; Paparel, P; Maurin, C; Lechevallier, E; Bertini, R; Ouzaid, I; Salomon, L; Bex, A; Farfara, R; Ljungberg, B; Rodriguez, A R; Bensalah, K

    2014-01-01

    Partial Nephrectomy (PN) in a solitary kidney is at risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V and/or haemodialysis (HD). Our objective was to determine predictive factors of CKD stage V in this population. Data from 300 patients were retrospectively collected from 16 tertiary centres. Clinical and operative parameters, tumor characteristics and renal function before surgery were analyzed. Patients with and without CKD stage V (defined as MDRD<1 5 ml/min) were compared using χ2 and Student-t tests for qualitative and quantitative variables, respectively. Predictive factors of CKD stage V were evaluated with a multivariable analysis using a Cox regression model. Median age and BMI were 63 years old and 26 kg/m², respectively. Most of the patients (65%) were male with an anatomic solitary kidney (88.3%). Median tumor size was 4 cm and 98% were malignant tumors. Median operative time, blood loss and clamping time were 180 min, 350 ml and 20 min respectively. Renal cooling was used in 19.3% and clamping of the pedicle was performed in 61.6%. Twenty five patients (8.5%) presented post operative CKD stage V at last follow-up and 18 underwent HD (6%) post-operatively because of acute renal insufficiency. There was no difference between CKD stage V and non CKD stage V patients concerning Charlson index, operative time (180 min vs 179 min, p = 0.39), blood loss (475 ml vs 350 ml, p = 0.51), use of renal cooling and type of clamping. Patients with CKD stage V were older (70 vs 63 years old, p = 0.005), had a lower baseline renal function (clearance MDRD 41 vs. 62 ml/min, p<0.0001) and an increased tumor size (p = 0.02). Complications occurred in 91 patients (30%) with 16% of minor (Clavien 1-2) and 14% of major (Clavien > 2) complications, respectively. In multivariable analysis, baseline MDRD, BMI, and the occurrence of a minor complication were independent predictive factors of post operative CKD stage V. PN in a solitary kidney is at risk of post-operative CKD stage V

  16. Collaborative Review of Risk Benefit Trade-offs Between Partial and Radical Nephrectomy in the Management of Anatomically Complex Renal Masses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Simon P; Campbell, Steven C; Gill, Inderbir; Lane, Brian R; Van Poppel, Hein; Smaldone, Marc C; Volpe, Alessandro; Kutikov, Alexander

    2017-07-01

    While partial nephrectomy (PN) is the recommended treatment for many small renal masses, anatomically complex tumors necessitate a clear understanding of the potential risks and benefits of PN and radical nephrectomy (RN). To critically review the comparative effectiveness evidence of PN versus RN; to describe key trade-offs involved in this treatment decision; and to highlight gaps in the current literature. A collaborative critical review of the medical literature was conducted. Patients who undergo PN for an anatomically complex or large mass may be exposed to perioperative and potential oncologic risks that could be avoided if RN were performed, while patients who undergo RN may forgo long-term benefits of renal preservation. Decision-making regarding the optimal treatment with PN or RN among patients with anatomically complex or large renal mass is highly nuanced and must balance the risks and benefits of each approach. Currently, high-quality evidence on comparative effectiveness is sparse. Retrospective comparisons are plagued by selection biases, while the one existing prospective randomized trial, albeit imperfect, suggests that nephron-sparing surgery may not benefit all patients. For anatomically complex tumors, PN preserves renal parenchyma but may expose patients to higher perioperative risks than RN. The risks and benefits of each surgical approach must be better objectified for identification of patients most suitable for complex PN. A prospective randomized trial is warranted and would help in directing patient counseling. Treatment decisions for complex renal masses require shared decision-making regarding the risk trade-offs between partial and radical nephrectomy. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Normal HDL-apo AI turnover and cholesterol enrichment of HDL subclasses in New Zealand rabbits with partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Ibelles, Paola; Franco, Martha; Carreón-Torres, Elizabeth; Luc, Gérald; Tailleux, Anne; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Fragoso, José Manuel; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Luna-Luna, María; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The kidney has been proposed to play a central role in apo AI catabolism, suggesting that HDL structure is determined, at least in part, by this organ. Here, we aimed at determining the effects of a renal mass reduction on HDL size distribution, lipid content, and apo AI turnover. We characterized HDL subclasses in rabbits with a 75% reduction of functional renal mass (Nptx group), using enzymatic staining of samples separated on polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels, and also performed kinetic studies using radiolabeled HDL-apo AI in this animal model. Creatinine clearance was reduced to 35% after nephrectomy as compared to the basal values, but without increased proteinuria. A slight, but significant modification of the relative HDL size distribution was observed after nephrectomy, whereas cholesterol plasma concentrations gradually augmented from large HDL2b (+54%) to small HDL3b particles (+150%, P<0.05). Cholesteryl esters were the increased fraction; in contrast, free cholesterol phospholipids and triglycerides of HDL subclasses were not affected by nephrectomy. HDL-apo AI fractional catabolic rates were similar to controls. Reduction of functional renal mass is associated to enrichment of HDL subclasses with cholesteryl esters. Structural abnormalities were not related to a low apo AI turnover, suggesting renal contribution to HDL remodeling beyond being just a catabolic site for these lipoproteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Generation of Chimeric "ABS Nanohemostat" Complex and Comparing Its Histomorphological In Vivo Effects to the Traditional Ankaferd Hemostat in Controlled Experimental Partial Nephrectomy Model.

    PubMed

    Huri, Emre; Beyazit, Yavuz; Mammadov, Rashad; Toksoz, Sila; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O; Ustun, Huseyin; Kekilli, Murat; Dadali, Mumtaz; Celik, Tugrul; Astarci, Müzeyyen; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Using the classical Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) solution to create active hemostasis during partial nephrectomy (PN) may not be so effective due to insufficient contact surface between the ABS hemostatic liquid agent and the bleeding area. In order to broaden the contact surface, we generated a chimeric hemostatic agent, ABS nanohemostat, via combining a self-assembling peptide amphiphile molecule with the traditional Ankaferd hemostat. Materials and Methods. In order to generate ABS nanohemostat, a positively charged Peptide Amphiphile (PA) molecule was synthesized by using solid phase peptide synthesis. For animal experiments, 24 Wistar rats were divided into the following 4 groups: Group 1: control; Group 2: conventional PN with only 0.5 ml Ankaferd hemostat; Group 3: conventional PN with ABS + peptide gel; Group 4: conventional PN with only 0.5 ml peptide solution. Results. Mean warm ischemia times (WITs) were 232.8  ±  56.3, 65.6 ± 11.4, 75.5 ± 17.2, and 58.1 ± 17.6 seconds in Group 1 to Group 4, respectively. Fibrosis was not different among the groups, while inflammation was detected to be significantly different in G3 and G4. Conclusions. ABS nanohemostat has comparable hemostatic efficacy to the traditional Ankaferd hemostat in the partial nephrectomy experimental model. Elucidation of the cellular and tissue effects of this chimeric compound may establish a catalytic spark and open new avenues for novel experimental and clinical studies in the battlefield of hemostasis.

  19. Comparison of progression to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis after partial or radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in patients with severe chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Toshio; Kondo, Tsunenori; Omae, Kenji; Iizuka, Junpei; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed trends related to surgical approach for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), including partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN), in patients with stage 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD), and identified predictors for postoperative progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring permanent dialysis. We enrolled patients with stage 4 CKD who underwent surgery for non-metastatic RCC. We compared their characteristics according to surgical approach (PN vs. RN). Moreover, predictors for postoperative progression to requiring permanent dialysis were determined using multivariable analyses. The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was adjusted for age. Fifty-one patients (PN 23, RN 28) were evaluated in the present study. Their mean preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 24 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and four patients had a solitary kidney. Three of 23 patients (13 %) who underwent PN progressed to requiring dialysis after surgery after a median 16 months. In contrast, 13 of 28 patients (46 %) who underwent RN developed dialysis immediately after surgery (median 2 days). Patients who underwent PN had lower T stages (T1, PN 100 % vs. RN 50 %, p = 0.004) and smaller tumors (31 mm vs. 65 mm, p < 0.0001) than did those who underwent RN. RN and lower preoperative eGFR significantly predicted progression to requiring dialysis, while tumor size and CCI did not. PN tended to be selected for patients with lower T stage and smaller tumors in the limited cohort of stage 4 CKD patients. PN had a significant benefit of preventing dialysis in the multivariable analysis.

  20. 76 FR 67716 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ReconRobotics, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ReconRobotics, Inc... notice of its intent to grant to ReconRobotics, Inc., a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive...

  1. High-fidelity simulation-based team training in urology: evaluation of technical and nontechnical skills of urology residents during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Abdelshehid, Corollos S; Quach, Stephen; Nelson, Corey; Graversen, Joseph; Lusch, Achim; Zarraga, Jerome; Alipanah, Reza; Landman, Jaime; McDougall, Elspeth M

    2013-01-01

    The use of low-risk simulation training for resident education is rapidly expanding as teaching centers integrate simulation-based team training (SBTT) sessions into their education curriculum. SBTT is a valuable tool in technical and communication skills training and assessment for residents. We created a unique SBTT scenario for urology residents involving a laparoscopic partial nephrectomy procedure. Urology residents were randomly paired with a certified registered nurse anesthetists or an anesthesia resident. The scenario incorporated a laparoscopic right partial nephrectomy utilizing a unique polyvinyl alcohol kidney model with an embedded 3cm lower pole exophytic tumor and the high-fidelity SimMan3G mannequin. The Urology residents were instructed to pay particular attention to the patient's identifying information provided at the beginning of the case. Two scripted events occurred, the patient had an anaphylactic reaction to a drug and, after tumor specimen was sent for a frozen section, the confederate pathologist called into the operating room (OR) twice, first with the wrong patient name and subsequently with the wrong specimen. After the scenario was complete, technical performance and nontechnical performance were evaluated and assessed. A debriefing session followed the scenario to discuss and assess technical performance and interdisciplinary nontechnical communication between the team. All Urology residents (n = 9) rated the SBTT scenario as a useful tool in developing communication skills among the OR team and 88% rated the model as useful for technical skills training. Despite cuing to note patient identification, only 3 of 9 (33%) participants identified that the wrong patient information was presented when the confederate "pathologist" called in to report pathology results. All urology residents rated SBTT sessions as useful for the development of communication skills between different team members and making residents aware of unlikely but

  2. The use of Haemostatic Agents does not impact the rate of hemorrhagic complications in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Dotan, Zohar; Kaver, Issac; Zilberman, Dorit E.; Ramon, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Hemostatic agents(HAs) have gained increasing popularity as interventions to improve perioperative haemostasis and diminish the need for allogeneic red cell transfusion(PBT) despite a paucity of data supporting the practice. The aim of the current study is to examine the efficacy of HAs in reducing the rate of hemorrhagic complications during partial nephrectomy(PN). Data on 657 patients, who underwent elective PN between 2004–2013, were analyzed. The impact of HAs and SURGICEL was evaluated by comparing four sequential groups of patients: Group1 = Sutures alone, Group2 = sutures and HA, Group3 = sutures and SURGICEL, Group4 = both HA and SURGICEL. Complications included post-operative urinary leak(UL), PBT rate, delayed bleeding and post-operative renal failure. Results showed that the use of HAs did not engender a statistically significant difference in overall complications rate. Specifically, the addition of HAs did not reduce the rate of PBT, delayed bleeding or UL. Further analysis revealed that patients who received SURGICEL had significantly higher PBT rate and higher prevalence of UL cases. Addition of HAs to SURGICEL had no effect on the rate of these complications. In the current study, the use of HAs during open and laparoscopic PN did not reduce the rate of negative outcomes. Adequate suture renorrhaphy may be sufficient to prevent hemorrhagic complications. PMID:27572274

  3. The use of Haemostatic Agents does not impact the rate of hemorrhagic complications in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for renal masses.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Dotan, Zohar; Kaver, Issac; Zilberman, Dorit E; Ramon, Jacob

    2016-08-30

    Hemostatic agents(HAs) have gained increasing popularity as interventions to improve perioperative haemostasis and diminish the need for allogeneic red cell transfusion(PBT) despite a paucity of data supporting the practice. The aim of the current study is to examine the efficacy of HAs in reducing the rate of hemorrhagic complications during partial nephrectomy(PN). Data on 657 patients, who underwent elective PN between 2004-2013, were analyzed. The impact of HAs and SURGICEL was evaluated by comparing four sequential groups of patients: Group1 = Sutures alone, Group2 = sutures and HA, Group3 = sutures and SURGICEL, Group4 = both HA and SURGICEL. Complications included post-operative urinary leak(UL), PBT rate, delayed bleeding and post-operative renal failure. Results showed that the use of HAs did not engender a statistically significant difference in overall complications rate. Specifically, the addition of HAs did not reduce the rate of PBT, delayed bleeding or UL. Further analysis revealed that patients who received SURGICEL had significantly higher PBT rate and higher prevalence of UL cases. Addition of HAs to SURGICEL had no effect on the rate of these complications. In the current study, the use of HAs during open and laparoscopic PN did not reduce the rate of negative outcomes. Adequate suture renorrhaphy may be sufficient to prevent hemorrhagic complications.

  4. Trends in the use of partial nephrectomy for cT1 renal tumors: Analysis of a 10-yr European multicenter dataset.

    PubMed

    Simone, G; De Nunzio, C; Ferriero, M; Cindolo, L; Brookman-May, S; Papalia, R; Sperduti, I; Collura, D; Leonardo, C; Anceschi, U; Tuderti, G; Misuraca, L; Dalpiaz, O; Hatzl, S; Lodde, M; Trenti, E; Pastore, A L; Palleschi, G; Lotrecchiano, G; Salzano, L; Carbone, A; De Cobelli, O; Tubaro, A; Schips, L; Zigeuner, R; Tostain, J; May, M; Guaglianone, S; Muto, G; Gallucci, M

    2016-11-01

    Although extensively addressed in US registries, the utilization rate of Partial Nephrectomy has been poorly addressed in European settings. Our aim is to evaluate the impact of hospital volume on the use of PN for cT1 renal tumors. 2526 patients with cT1N0M0 renal tumors treated with either PN or radical nephrectomy at 10 European centres in the last decade were included in the analysis. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify significant changes over time in linear slope of the trend for each center. The correlation between yearly caseload and the slopes was assessed with the non-parametric Spearman test. Coincident pairwise tests and regression analyses were used to generate and compare the trends of high-volume (HV), mid-volume (MV) and low-volume (LV) groups. Yearly caseload was significantly associated with increased use of PN (R = 0.69, p = 0.028). The utilization rate of PN was stable at LV centres (p = 0.67, p = 0.7, p = 0.76, for cT1, cT1a, and cT1b tumors, respectively), while increased significantly at MV (p = 0.002, 0.0005 and 0.007, respectively) and HV centers (all p < 0.0001). Regression analysis confirmed the trends for HV and MV as significantly different from those observed in LV centres (all p ≤ 0.002) and highlighted significant differences also between MV and HV centres (all p ≤ 0.03). We confirmed the association between caseload and the use of PN for cT1 tumors. Our findings suggest that a minimum caseload might turn the tide also in LV centres while a selective referral to HV centers for cT1b tumors should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Partial nephrectomy using radiofrequency incremental bipolar generator with multi electrode probe: experimental study in bench pig kidneys.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Piero; Bove, Pierluigi; Montuori, Mauro; De Majo, Adriano; Ricciardi, Edoardo; Mattei, Maurizio; Bernardini, Roberta; Calzetta, Luigino; Mauti, Paolo; Intini, Lorenzo; Quattrini, Valentino; Chiaramonte, Carlo; Vespasiani, Giuseppe

    2014-01-10

    The aim of this research project was the realization of an incremental bipolar radiofrequency generator with inline 4-electrode probe for partial renal resection without clamping of the vessels. The experimentation was carried out across two phases: the preliminary realization of a specific generator and an inline multielectrode probe for open surgery (Phase 1); system testing on 27 bench kidneys for a total of 47 partial resection (Phase 2). The parameters evaluated were: power level, generator automatisms, parenchymal coagulation times, needle caliber, thickness of the coagulated tissue "slice", charring, ergonomy, feasibility of the application of "bolster" stitches. The analysis of the results referred to the homogeneity and thickness of coagulation, energy supply times with reference to the power level and caliber of the needles. The optimal results were obtained by using needles of 1.5 mm caliber at power level 5, and with coagulation times of 54 seconds for the first insertion and 30 seconds for the second. The experimentation demonstrated that the apparatus, consisting of a generator named "LaparoNewPro" and fitted with a dedicated probe for open surgery, is able to carry out a coagulation of the line of resection of the renal parenchyma in a homogeneous manner, in short times, without tissue charring, and with the possibility of stitching both on coagulated tissue and the caliceal system. The generator automatism based on the flow of the current supplied by each electrode is reliable, and the cessation of energy supply coincides with optimal coagulation.

  6. Nephrectomy (Kidney Removal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... urologic surgeon may perform a nephrectomy through a single incision in the abdomen or side (open nephrectomy) or through a series of small incisions in the abdomen using a camera and small instruments (laparoscopic nephrectomy). In some cases, these laparoscopic procedures are ...

  7. Partial nephrectomy using radiofrequency incremental bipolar generator with multi electrode probe: experimental study in bench pig kidneys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this research project was the realization of an incremental bipolar radiofrequency generator with inline 4-electrode probe for partial renal resection without clamping of the vessels. Methods The experimentation was carried out across two phases: the preliminary realization of a specific generator and an inline multielectrode probe for open surgery (Phase 1); system testing on 27 bench kidneys for a total of 47 partial resection (Phase 2). The parameters evaluated were: power level, generator automatisms, parenchymal coagulation times, needle caliber, thickness of the coagulated tissue “slice”, charring, ergonomy, feasibility of the application of “bolster” stitches. Results The analysis of the results referred to the homogeneity and thickness of coagulation, energy supply times with reference to the power level and caliber of the needles. The optimal results were obtained by using needles of 1.5 mm caliber at power level 5, and with coagulation times of 54 seconds for the first insertion and 30 seconds for the second. Conclusions The experimentation demonstrated that the apparatus, consisting of a generator named “LaparoNewPro” and fitted with a dedicated probe for open surgery, is able to carry out a coagulation of the line of resection of the renal parenchyma in a homogeneous manner, in short times, without tissue charring, and with the possibility of stitching both on coagulated tissue and the caliceal system. The generator automatism based on the flow of the current supplied by each electrode is reliable, and the cessation of energy supply coincides with optimal coagulation. PMID:24410789

  8. Preoperative Predictors of Malignancy and Unfavorable Pathology for Clinical T1a Tumors Treated with Partial Nephrectomy: A Multi-Institutional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Mark W.; Gorin, Michael A.; Bhayani, Sam B.; Rogers, Craig G.; Stifelman, Michael D.; Kaouk, Jihad H.; Zargar, Homayoun; Marshall, Susan; Larson, Jeffrey A.; Rahbar, Haider M.; Trock, Bruce J.; Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Allaf, Mohamad E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine preoperative predictors associated with RCC and unfavorable pathology in small renal masses treated with partial nephrectomy (PN). Materials and Methods PN records from 5 centers were retrospectively queried for patients with a clinically localized, single tumor < 4 cm on imaging (cT1a). Between 2007 and 2013, 1009 patients met inclusion criteria. Unfavorable pathology was defined as any grade III or IV RCC or tumors upstaged to pathologic T3a disease. Logistic regression models were used to determine preoperative characteristics associated with RCC and with unfavorable pathology. Results A total of 771 (76.4%) patients were found to have RCC and 198 (19.6%) had unfavorable pathology. On multivariate, bootstrap-adjusted logistic regression analysis, factors associated with presence of malignancy were imaging tumor size > 3 cm (OR 1.46, p = 0.040), male sex (OR 1.88, p < 0.0001) and nephrometry score > 8 (OR 1.64, p = 0.005). These same factors were independently associated with risk of unfavorable pathology: size > 3 cm (OR 1.46, p=0.021), male sex (OR 2.35, p < 0.0001) and nephrometry score > 8 (OR 1.49, p =0.015). The c statistic was 0.62 for the predicting malignancy and 0.63 for unfavorable pathology. Conclusions In this multi-institutional cohort, male sex, imaging tumor size >3 cm, and nephrometry score >8 were predictors of RCC and adverse pathology following PN. These factors may assist in risk stratification and selective renal mass biopsy prior to decision making. Further studies are necessary to validate these findings. PMID:25499258

  9. The percentage of resected and ischemic volume determined by a geometric model is a significant predictor of renal functional change after partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Hsuan; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Huang, Chi-Ping; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Hsieh, Po-Fan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The percentage of parenchyma preserved plays a predominant role in predicting renal function after partial nephrectomy (PN). Currently there is no standard method to estimate preserved renal parenchyma. In this study we propose a formula of the percentage of resected and ischemic volume (PRAIV) determined by a geometric model and evaluate the relationships between renal functional change and PRAIV as well as other clinical parameters. Materials and Methods We identified 71 patients who underwent open PN between January 2004 and April 2014. Assuming the kidney to be an ellipsoid with bilaterally equal volume and tumor to be a sphere, we calculated PRAIV by integral calculus. Nadir estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between postoperative 3 and 12 months were recorded. The correlation between percent eGFR reduction, PRAIV, and other clinical parameters were examined. Results On univariate analysis, age (p=0.03), depth of tumor invasion (p=0.004), C index (p=0.003), RAIV (p=0.04), and PRAIV (p<0.001) were correlated with percent reduction of eGFR. However, only age (p=0.007) and PRAIV (p<0.001) were significantly correlated with percent reduction of eGFR on multivariate analysis. Depicting these values along the regression line, we found R2 was 0.194 and 0.073 for PRAIV and age, respectively. Conclusions PRAIV determined by a geometric model is a significant predictor of renal functional change after PN. Using PRAIV, we can estimate percent eGFR reduction preoperatively for better patient consultation and surgical planning. PMID:28124529

  10. What's the best minimal invasive approach to pediatric nephrectomy and heminephrectomy: conventional laparoscopy (CL), single-site (LESS) or robotics (RAS)?

    PubMed

    Till, Holger; Basharkhah, Ali; Hock, Andras

    2016-10-01

    Conventional laparoscopy (CL) using 3-5 mm ports has become the goldstandard for pediatric nephrectomy (N), heminephrectomy (HN) and heminephrecto-ureterectomy (HNU) for many years now. Recently the spectrum of minimal invasive surgery (MIS) has been extended by variants like laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) or robot-assisted surgery (RAS). However such technical developments tend to drive surgical euphoria and feasibility studies, but may miss adequate academic research about function and proven patients' benefits. This article delivers a comprehensive analysis of present pediatric studies comparing at least two MIS approaches to N, HN and HNU. A systematic literature-based search for studies published between 2011-2016 about CL versus LESS or RAS for pediatric N, HN, and HNU was performed using multiple electronic databases and sources. The level of evidence was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine (OCEBM) criteria. Single arm observational studies about N, HN or HNU using CL, LESS or RAS as well as publications including adult patients were excluded. A total of 11 studies met defined inclusion criteria, reporting on CL versus LESS or RAS. No studies of OCEBM Level 1 or 2 were identified. Performing CL for N and HN limited evidence indicated reduced analgesic requirements and shorter hospital stay over open surgery, but longer operating time. Preservation of renal function of the remaining moiety after CL-HN was 95%. Importantly, of patients losing their remaining moiety, median age at surgery was 9 months (range, 4-42 months), and all except 1 (6/7) had an upper pole HN. Several authors compared TNP versus RPN access for CL and confirmed a longer operating time for RPN versus TPN-NU. Moreover one study reported a longer ureteric stump in RPN versus TPN-HNU (range, 2-5 cm vs. 3-7 mm). Disadvantages of LESS or RAS over CL were longer operative time and higher total costs (RAS). There were no differences regarding complications

  11. [Life without robots : What is left for the urologist?].

    PubMed

    Hakenberg, O

    2010-08-01

    The triumphal march of robots in urology seems to be unstoppable. In the meantime, a broadening of the scope for indications in urology can be observed: this applies to pyeloplasty and to a lesser degree also to partial nephrectomy and radical cystectomy. As yet no evidence has been provided that robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RP) is superior to open surgery. Furthermore, data are available which suggest that the midterm functional results are possibly even worse than those achieved with open RP.

  12. What is next in robotic urology?

    PubMed

    Cathelineau, Xavier; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Sivaraman, Arjun

    2014-12-01

    The application of robotic technology in surgical practice was developed during the past three decades, but its clinical application has made a significant impact during the last 10 years. Urologists have embraced surgical robots throughout their evolution, and robot-assisted urologic surgeries have matured into everyday clinical practice in many parts of the world. Long-term data from robot-assisted radical prostatectomies (RARP), an early robotic urologic surgery, has shown that the results are comparable to contemporary open radical prostatectomy (ORP) cohorts. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is largely restricted to high-volume academic centers; comparative studies have demonstrated significant advantages in favor of RAPN over laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) to achieve adequate warm ischemia time, surgical margins free of cancer cells, and no peri-operative complications. Robot-assisted radical cystectomy shows results that are comparable to contemporary open radical cystectomy. Several authors have reported the feasibility of robotic intracorporeal urinary diversion. The available long-term outcomes of robot-assisted urological surgeries are comparable to conventional open surgical methods and are associated with fewer complications. Surgical robots continue to evolve, and robotic engineers alongside surgeons strive hard to synthesize and evaluate novel robotic platforms, downsize hardware, and develop flexible instruments and newer technologies. Robotic applications available at this point represent the infancy of this technology. Future developments in robotics are profoundly limited to human imagination and can potentially scale to unimaginable heights. We would expect robots coupled with imaging and energies, aiming to provide accurate and reliable treatments which will be finely targeted by biogenetic information.

  13. What’s the best minimal invasive approach to pediatric nephrectomy and heminephrectomy: conventional laparoscopy (CL), single-site (LESS) or robotics (RAS)?

    PubMed Central

    Basharkhah, Ali; Hock, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional laparoscopy (CL) using 3–5 mm ports has become the goldstandard for pediatric nephrectomy (N), heminephrectomy (HN) and heminephrecto-ureterectomy (HNU) for many years now. Recently the spectrum of minimal invasive surgery (MIS) has been extended by variants like laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) or robot-assisted surgery (RAS). However such technical developments tend to drive surgical euphoria and feasibility studies, but may miss adequate academic research about function and proven patients’ benefits. This article delivers a comprehensive analysis of present pediatric studies comparing at least two MIS approaches to N, HN and HNU. Methods A systematic literature-based search for studies published between 2011–2016 about CL versus LESS or RAS for pediatric N, HN, and HNU was performed using multiple electronic databases and sources. The level of evidence was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine (OCEBM) criteria. Single arm observational studies about N, HN or HNU using CL, LESS or RAS as well as publications including adult patients were excluded. Results A total of 11 studies met defined inclusion criteria, reporting on CL versus LESS or RAS. No studies of OCEBM Level 1 or 2 were identified. Performing CL for N and HN limited evidence indicated reduced analgesic requirements and shorter hospital stay over open surgery, but longer operating time. Preservation of renal function of the remaining moiety after CL-HN was 95%. Importantly, of patients losing their remaining moiety, median age at surgery was 9 months (range, 4–42 months), and all except 1 (6/7) had an upper pole HN. Several authors compared TNP versus RPN access for CL and confirmed a longer operating time for RPN versus TPN-NU. Moreover one study reported a longer ureteric stump in RPN versus TPN-HNU (range, 2–5 cm vs. 3–7 mm). Disadvantages of LESS or RAS over CL were longer operative time and higher total costs (RAS). There were

  14. A propensity-score matched comparison of perioperative and early renal functional outcomes of robotic versus open partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenjie; Li, Mingmin; Qu, Le; Ye, Huamao; Liu, Bing; Yang, Qing; Sheng, Jing; Xiao, Liang; Lv, Chen; Yang, Bo; Gao, Xu; Gao, Xiaofeng; Xu, Chuanliang; Hou, Jianguo; Sun, Yinghao; Wang, Linhui

    2014-01-01

    To compare the perioperative and early renal functional outcomes of RPN with OPN for kidney tumors. A total of 209 RPN or OPN patients with availability of preoperative cross-sectional imaging since 2009 at our center were included. To adjust for potential baseline confounders propensity-score matching was performed, which resulted in 94 OPNs matched to 51 RPNs. Perioperative and early renal functional outcomes were compared. In propensity-score matched analysis, RPN procedures were well tolerated and resulted in significant decreases in postoperative analgesic time (24 vs. 48 hr, p<0.001) and visual analog pain scale (3 vs. 4, p<0.001). Besides, the RPN patients had a significantly shorter LOS (9 vs. 11 days, p = 0.008) and less EBL (100 vs. 200 ml, p<0.001), but median operative time was significantly longer (229 vs. 182 min, p<0.001). Ischemia time, transfusion rates, complication rates, percentage eGFR decline and CKD upstaging were equivalent after RPN versus OPN. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, RPN patients were less likely to have a prolonged LOS (odds ratio [OR]: 0.409; p = 0.016), while more likely to experience a longer operative time (OR: 4.296; p = 0.001). However, the statistical significance for the protective effect of RPN versus OPN in EBL was not confirmed by examining the risk of EBL≥400 ml (OR: 0.488; p = 0.212). When adjusted for potential selection biases, RPN offers comparable perioperative and early renal functional outcomes to those of OPN, with the added advantage of improved postoperative pain control and a shorter LOS.

  15. Visual Enhancement of Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy With 3-Charge Coupled Device Camera: Assessing Intraoperative Tissue Perfusion and Vascular Anatomy by Visible Hemoglobin Spectral Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Surgeon observes compos· ite of 3 ceo responses on high definition monitor in operating room. computer and may potentially mdicate organ per- fusion ...and adaptation of sur- gical technique, and appropriate experience as well as improved instrumentation, hemostatic agents and video endoscopic...renal lunctio11 after lapa- roscoprc pa1 Ml nephrectomy BJU lnl 2005; 95: 377 23 Yossepow1tch 0 Eggener SE. Ser1o A et al Tem- porary renal 1schemra

  16. Reward-Modulated Hebbian Plasticity as Leverage for Partially Embodied Control in Compliant Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Burms, Jeroen; Caluwaerts, Ken; Dambre, Joni

    2015-01-01

    In embodied computation (or morphological computation), part of the complexity of motor control is offloaded to the body dynamics. We demonstrate that a simple Hebbian-like learning rule can be used to train systems with (partial) embodiment, and can be extended outside of the scope of traditional neural networks. To this end, we apply the learning rule to optimize the connection weights of recurrent neural networks with different topologies and for various tasks. We then apply this learning rule to a simulated compliant tensegrity robot by optimizing static feedback controllers that directly exploit the dynamics of the robot body. This leads to partially embodied controllers, i.e., hybrid controllers that naturally integrate the computations that are performed by the robot body into a neural network architecture. Our results demonstrate the universal applicability of reward-modulated Hebbian learning. Furthermore, they demonstrate the robustness of systems trained with the learning rule. This study strengthens our belief that compliant robots should or can be seen as computational units, instead of dumb hardware that needs a complex controller. This link between compliant robotics and neural networks is also the main reason for our search for simple universal learning rules for both neural networks and robotics. PMID:26347645

  17. Comparing renal function preservation after laparoscopic radio frequency ablation assisted tumor enucleation and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for clinical T1a renal tumor: using a 3D parenchyma measurement system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liangsong; Wu, Guangyu; Huang, Jiwei; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ruiyun; Kong, Wen; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran; Chen, Yonghui; Zhang, Jin

    2017-05-01

    To compare the renal function preservation between laparoscopic radio frequency ablation assisted tumor enucleation and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Data were analyzed from 246 patients who underwent laparoscopic radio frequency ablation assisted tumor enucleation and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for solitary cT1a renal cell carcinoma from January 2013 to July 2015. To reduce the intergroup difference, we used a 1:1 propensity matching analysis. The functional renal parenchyma volume preservation were measured preoperative and 12 months after surgery. The total renal function recovery and spilt GFR was compared. Multivariable logistic analysis was used for predictive factors for renal function decline. After 1:1 propensity matching, each group including 100 patients. Patients in the laparoscopic radio frequency ablation assisted tumor enucleation had a smaller decrease in estimate glomerular filtration rate at 1 day (-7.88 vs -20.01%, p < 0.001), 3 months (-2.31 vs -10.39%, p < 0.001), 6 months (-2.16 vs -7.99%, p = 0.015), 12 months (-3.26 vs -8.03%, p = 0.012) and latest test (-3.24 vs -8.02%, p = 0.040), also had better functional renal parenchyma volume preservation (89.19 vs 84.27%, p < 0.001), lower decrease of the spilt glomerular filtration rate (-9.41 vs -17.13%, p < 0.001) at 12 months. The functional renal parenchyma volume preservation, warm ischemia time and baseline renal function were the important independent factors in determining long-term functional recovery. The laparoscopic radio frequency ablation assisted tumor enucleation technology has unique advantage and potential in preserving renal parenchyma without ischemia damage compared to conventional laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, and had a better outcome, thus we recommend this technique in selected T1a patients.

  18. Moving Horizon Estimation for Vehicle Robots using Partial Marker Information of Motion Capture System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Manami; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    The measurement using a motion capture camera is fluctuated by white noise and outliers. In addition, markers to be measured are frequently hidden from cameras by occlusion, then the position and heading angle of a vehicle cannot be uniquely determined because of failure to detect sufficient number of markers. Thus, robust estimation method is required which suppresses the influence of the white noise, the outlier and the occlusion. In this study, we introduce Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) using partial marker information of motion capture system. It optimizes the objective function using both the marker information in the evaluation range and the constraints on the robot dynamics. By virtue of introduction of constraints, even if the cameras fail to measure the actual state of the robot, the estimated value is determined by MHE. It is the difference from our previous research which assumed that sufficient number of markers are available. In this paper, we estimate the position of the vehicle robot by MHE using the information of the measured markers on the robot, even if several markers are hidden. We will prove the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing MHE with EKF.

  19. Robotic retroperitoneal surgery: a contemporary review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mayank; Porter, James

    2013-01-01

    Robotic-assisted renal surgery is being increasingly utilized for various kidney diseases; however, the majority of these are performed via a transperitoneal approach. Retroperitoneal robotic surgery is a relatively new technique, which allows direct access to the posterolateral surface of the kidney, as well as posterior hilar structures. In this review, we summarize the most recent publications and review our experience of retroperitoneal robotic surgery. Retroperitoneal robotic surgery has been successfully applied to radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and pyeloplasty. The current series, although few, find this approach ideal for posterior and lateral renal masses, and technically feasible with the advances in robotic technology. The retroperitoneal approach has been shown to decrease operative times, narcotic need and permit quicker return of bowel function. Furthermore, there does not appear to be any increase in perioperative complications using this approach. The limited data using this technique offer an encouraging outlook on robotic retroperitoneal surgery. The retroperitoneal approach permits direct access to the renal hilum, no need for bowel mobilization and excellent visualization for posteriorly located renal disease.

  20. The use of bovine serum albumin-glutaraldehyde tissue adhesive (BioGlue(®)) for tumor bed closure following open partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bahouth, Z; Halachmi, S; Shprits, S; Burbara, Y; Avitan, O; Masarwa, I; Moskovitz, B; Nativ, O

    2017-10-01

    To report the results of the use of Bovine Serum Albumin-Glutaraldehyde tissue adhesive (BioGlue®) for tumor bed closure in open nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). The cohort included 255 patients with enhancing renal mass who underwent open NSS. We used open flank approach, with in-situ hypothermia and enucleation of the tumor. For tumor bed closure, we used the BioGlue(®) sealant for tumor bed filling, without suturing the edges. Mean patients' age was 65.4 years. 5.1% of patients had pre-operative chronic renal failure. Mean renal mass diameter was 4.2±1.6cm and mean R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score was 8.0±1.6. Mean ischemia time was 21.8±7.6. Mean estimated blood loss was 42±82ml and only two patients required blood transfusion. Urine leak and pseudo-aneurysm were recorded in two and one patient, respectively. None of the operations were converted to radical nephrectomy. The average change between post-operative and pre-operative eGFR (Δ=-1.7ml/min) was insignificant in a mean follow-up of 30.1±29.6 months. The 10-year recurrence-free survival rate was 99% and the 10-year overall survival rate was 85%. The use of BioGlue(®) alone for hemostasis after NSS is a feasible and safe alternative to classical suturing. Its use enables satisfactory functional outcome and could potentially reduce ischemia time. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Oncological outcomes of minimally invasive partial versus minimally invasive radical nephrectomy for cT1-2/N0/M0 clear cell renal cell carcinoma: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Simone, Giuseppe; Tuderti, Gabriele; Anceschi, Umberto; Papalia, Rocco; Ferriero, Mariaconsiglia; Misuraca, Leonardo; Minisola, Francesco; Mastroianni, Riccardo; Costantini, Manuela; Guaglianone, Salvatore; Sentinelli, Steno; Gallucci, Michele

    2017-05-01

    To compare the oncologic outcomes of partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) for cT1-2/N0 renal tumors and pathologically confirmed pT1-pT3a-pNx clear cell (cc)-renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Few studies compared the oncologic outcomes of PN and RN for renal tumors >7 cm. A prospective "renal cancer" database was queried for cT<3-cN0-cM0 and pT1a-pT3a-pNx cc-RCC. Out of 1650 cases treated between 2001 and 2013, 921 were cc-RCC and 666 met inclusion criteria, 232 of which treated with minimally invasive RN and 434 with MIPN. A 1:1 propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis was employed to minimize the selection bias of non-random assignment of patients to PN as opposed to RN. Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the oncologic outcomes of the PSM cohorts. Survival rates were computed at 2, 5, and 10 years after surgery, and the log-rank test was applied to assess statistical significance between the two PSM groups. RN tumors were significantly larger (p < 0.001), with higher pT stages (p < 0.001), higher Fuhrman grades (p = 0.002) and a more frequent sarcomatoid differentiation (p = 0.04). After applying the PSM analysis, the two cohorts of 155 RN and 155 PN cases did not differ for all clinical and pathologic covariates (all p ≥ 0.32). PN and RN cohorts displayed comparable 5-year metastasis-free survival (88.9 vs 89.9 %, p = 0.811), local recurrence-free survival (94.2 vs 95.9 %, p = 0.283), overall survival (94.5 vs 96.8 %, p = 0.419) and cancer-specific survival (96 vs 98.6 %, p = 0.907) rates. PN and RN for patients with cc-RCC larger than 7 cm provided equivalent oncologic outcomes. Safety and reproducibility of our findings should be further investigated in larger multicentric cohorts.

  2. Robotic Laparoendoscopic Single-site Retroperitioneal Renal Surgery: Initial Investigation of a Purpose-built Single-port Surgical System.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Matthew J; Ramirez, Daniel; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2017-04-01

    Robotic single-site retroperitoneal renal surgery has the potential to minimize the morbidity of standard transperitoneal and multiport approaches. Traditionally, technological limitations of non-purpose-built robotic platforms have hindered the application of this approach. To assess the feasibility of retroperitoneal renal surgery using a new purpose-built robotic single-port surgical system. This was a preclinical study using three male cadavers to assess the feasibility of the da Vinci SP1098 surgical system for robotic laparoendoscopic single-site (R-LESS) retroperitoneal renal surgery. We used the SP1098 to perform retroperitoneal R-LESS radical nephrectomy (n=1) and bilateral partial nephrectomy (n=4) on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the kidney. Improvements unique to this system include enhanced optics and intelligent instrument arm control. Access was obtained 2cm anterior and inferior to the tip of the 12th rib using a novel 2.5-cm robotic single-port system that accommodates three double-jointed articulating robotic instruments, an articulating camera, and an assistant port. The primary outcome was the technical feasibility of the procedures, as measured by the need for conversion to standard techniques, intraoperative complications, and operative times. All cases were completed without the need for conversion. There were no intraoperative complications. The operative time was 100min for radical nephrectomy, and the mean operative time was 91.8±18.5min for partial nephrectomy. Limitations include the preclinical model, the small sample size, and the lack of a control group. Single-site retroperitoneal renal surgery is feasible using the latest-generation SP1098 robotic platform. While the potential of the SP1098 appears promising, further study is needed for clinical evaluation of this investigational technology. In an experimental model, we used a new robotic system to successfully perform major surgery on the kidney through a single small

  3. Urinary biomarkers after donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk-van den Akker, Judith M; Warlé, Michiel C; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Kloke, Heinrich J; Wever, Kim E; d'Ancona, Frank C H; Ӧzdemir, Denise M D; Wetzels, Jack F M; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2015-05-01

    As the beginning of living-donor kidney transplantation, physicians have expressed concern about the possibility that unilateral nephrectomy can be harmful to a healthy individual. To investigate whether the elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy causes early damage to the remaining kidney, we evaluated urine biomarkers after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We measured albumin and alpha-1-microglobulin (α-1-MGB) in urine samples collected during and after open and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colectomy. Additionally, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were measured in urine samples collected during and after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and colectomy. The same biomarkers were studied in patients randomly assigned to standard or low IAP during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We observed a peak in urinary albumin excretion during all procedures. Urine α-1-MGB rose in the postoperative period with a peak on the third postoperative day after donor nephrectomy. Urine α-1-MGB did not increase after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colectomy. After laparoscopic nephrectomy, we observed slight increases in urine KIM-1 during surgery and in urine NGAL at day 2-3 after the procedure. After laparoscopic colectomy, both KIM-1 and NGAL were increased in the postoperative period. There were no differences between the high- and low-pressure procedure. Elevated urinary α-1-MGB suggests kidney damage after donor nephrectomy, occurring irrespective of IAP during the laparoscopic procedure.

  4. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  5. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  6. Perioperative outcomes of 6042 nephrectomies in 2012: surgeon-reported results in the UK from the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) nephrectomy database.

    PubMed

    Henderson, John M; Fowler, Sarah; Joyce, Adrian; Dickinson, Andrew; Keeley, Francis X

    2015-01-01

    To present the perioperative outcomes from the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) nephrectomy dataset for 2012, the first year of public reporting of individual surgeon outcomes in the UK. All nephrectomies performed in the year 2012 and recorded in the database were analysed. These were divided into simple nephrectomy (SN), partial nephrectomy (PN), radical nephrectomy (RN), and nephroureterectomy (NU). The estimated capture rate for nephrectomy was 80%. The outcomes measured were 30-day mortality (30-DM), Clavien-Dindo complications grade ≥III, blood transfusion, conversion to open, and length of stay. The overall 30-DM was 0.55% (SN 0.53%; PN 0.10%; RN 0.52%; NU 1.27%). Clavien-Dindo complications grade ≥III were recorded in 3.9% of nephrectomies (SN 4.3%; PN 5.4%; RN 3.1%; NU 4.5%). Blood transfusion was required during surgical admission for 8.4% of nephrectomies (SN 5.2%; PN 3.4%; RN 11.1%; NU 8.3%). Conversion to open was carried out in 5.5% of minimally invasive nephrectomies (SN 6.1%; PN 4.0%; RN 5.5%; NU 5.6%). Open nephrectomy patients remained in hospital for a median of 6 days (SN 7; PN 5; RN 7; NU 8 days), which was higher than the median 4-day stay (SN 3; PN 4; RN 4; NU 5 days) for minimally invasive surgery. Nephrectomy in 2012 was a safe procedure with morbidity and mortality rates comparable with or less than published series. The collection of surgeon-specific data should be iterative with further refinement of data categories, support for the collection process and independent validation of results. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  7. Initial laboratory experience with a novel ultrasound probe for standard and single-port robotic kidney surgery: increasing console surgeon autonomy and minimizing instrument clashing.

    PubMed

    Yakoubi, Rachid; Autorino, Riccardo; Laydner, Humberto; Guillotreau, Julien; White, Michael A; Hillyer, Shahab; Spana, Gregory; Khanna, Rakesh; Isaac, Wahib; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Stein, Robert J; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel ultrasound probe specifically developed for robotic surgery by determining its efficiency in identifying renal tumors. The study was carried out using the Da Vinci™ surgical system in one female pig. Renal tumor targets were created by percutaneous injection of a tumor mimic mixture. Single-port and standard robotic partial nephrectomy were performed. Intraoperative ultrasound was performed using both standard laparoscopic probe and the new ProART™ Robotic probe. Probe maneuverability and ease of handling for tumor localization were recorded. The standard laparoscopic probe was guided by the assistant. Significant clashing with robotic arms was noted during the single-port procedure. The novel robotic probe was easily introduced through the assistant trocar, and held by the console surgeon using the robotic Prograsp™ with no registered clashing in the external operative field. The average time for grasping the new robotic probe was less than 10 s. Once inserted and grasped, no limitation was found in terms of instrument clashing during the single-port procedure. This novel ultrasound probe developed for robotic surgery was noted to be user-friendly when performing porcine standard and especially single-port robotic partial nephrectomy. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  9. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed.

  10. Effect of Regional Hospital Competition and Hospital Financial Status on the Use of Robotic-Assisted Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jason D; Tergas, Ana I; Hou, June Y; Burke, William M; Chen, Ling; Hu, Jim C; Neugut, Alfred I; Ananth, Cande V; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-07-01

    Despite the lack of efficacy data, robotic-assisted surgery has diffused rapidly into practice. Marketing to physicians, hospitals, and patients has been widespread, but how this marketing has contributed to the diffusion of the technology remains unknown. To examine the effect of regional hospital competition and hospital financial status on the use of robotic-assisted surgery for 5 commonly performed procedures. A cohort study of 221 637 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, total nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, hysterectomy, or oophorectomy at 1370 hospitals in the United States from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011, was conducted. The association between hospital competition, hospital financial status, and performance of robotic-assisted surgery was examined. The association between hospital competition was measured with the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), hospital financial status was estimated as operating margin, and performance of robotic-assisted surgery was examined using multivariate mixed-effects regression models. We identified 221 637 patients who underwent one of the procedures of interest. The cohort included 30 345 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy; 20 802, total nephrectomy; 8060, partial nephrectomy; 134 985, hysterectomy; and 27 445, oophorectomy. Robotic-assisted operations were performed for 20 500 (67.6%) radical prostatectomies, 1405 (6.8%) total nephrectomies, 2759 (34.2%) partial nephrectomies, 14 047 (10.4%) hysterectomies, and 1782 (6.5%) oophorectomies. Use of robotic-assisted surgery increased for each procedure from January 2010 through December 2011. For all 5 operations, increased market competition (as measured by the HHI) was associated with increased use of robotic-assisted surgery. For prostatectomy, the risk ratios (95% CIs) for undergoing a robotic-assisted procedure were 2.20 (1.50-3.24) at hospitals in moderately competitive markets and 2.64 (1.84-3.78) for highly competitive markets

  11. Diffusion of robotics into clinical practice in the United States: process, patient safety, learning curves, and the public health.

    PubMed

    Mirheydar, Hossein S; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2013-06-01

    Robotic technology disseminated into urological practice without robust comparative effectiveness data. To review the diffusion of robotic surgery into urological practice. We performed a comprehensive literature review focusing on diffusion patterns, patient safety, learning curves, and comparative costs for robotic radical prostatectomy, partial nephrectomy, and radical cystectomy. Robotic urologic surgery diffused in patterns typical of novel technology spreading among practicing surgeons. Robust evidence-based data comparing outcomes of robotic to open surgery were sparse. Although initial Level 3 evidence for robotic prostatectomy observed complication outcomes similar to open prostatectomy, subsequent population-based Level 2 evidence noted an increased prevalence of adverse patient safety events and genitourinary complications among robotic patients during the early years of diffusion. Level 2 evidence indicated comparable to improved patient safety outcomes for robotic compared to open partial nephrectomy and cystectomy. Learning curve recommendations for robotic urologic surgery have drawn exclusively on Level 4 evidence and subjective, non-validated metrics. The minimum number of cases required to achieve competency for robotic prostatectomy has increased to unrealistically high levels. Most comparative cost-analyses have demonstrated that robotic surgery is significantly more expensive than open or laparoscopic surgery. Evidence-based data are limited but suggest an increased prevalence of adverse patient safety events for robotic prostatectomy early in the national diffusion period. Learning curves for robotic urologic surgery are subjective and based on non-validated metrics. The urological community should develop rigorous, evidence-based processes by which future technological innovations may diffuse in an organized and safe manner.

  12. Urologic robotic surgery in Korea: past and present.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ill Young

    2015-08-01

    Since 2005 when the da Vinci surgical system was approved as a medical device by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, 51 systems have been installed in 40 institutions as of May 2015. Although robotic surgery is not covered by the national health insurance service in Korea, it has been used in several urologic fields as a less invasive surgery. Since the first robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in 2005, partial nephrectomy, radical cystectomy, pyeloplasty, and other urologic surgeries have been performed. The following should be considered to extend the indications for robotic surgery: training systems including accreditation, operative outcomes from follow-up results, and cost-effectiveness. In this review, the history and current status of robotic surgeries in Korea are presented.

  13. Urologic robotic surgery in Korea: Past and present

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Since 2005 when the da Vinci surgical system was approved as a medical device by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, 51 systems have been installed in 40 institutions as of May 2015. Although robotic surgery is not covered by the national health insurance service in Korea, it has been used in several urologic fields as a less invasive surgery. Since the first robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in 2005, partial nephrectomy, radical cystectomy, pyeloplasty, and other urologic surgeries have been performed. The following should be considered to extend the indications for robotic surgery: training systems including accreditation, operative outcomes from follow-up results, and cost-effectiveness. In this review, the history and current status of robotic surgeries in Korea are presented. PMID:26279823

  14. Unilateral nephrectomy in 10 cattle.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Susan R; Desrochers, André; Babkine, Marie; Mulon, Pierre-Yves; Nichols, Sylvain

    2011-02-01

    To describe clinical and imaging findings, treatment, and long-term outcome of cattle undergoing unilateral nephrectomy. Case series. Cattle (n=10). Medical records (January 1991-August 2008) of cattle that had unilateral nephrectomy were reviewed. Follow-up data were obtained by owner telephone interview. Nephrectomy was performed without surgical complications. Transient increases in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations occurred after surgery and then returned to, or below, presurgical values in 9 cattle. Nine cows were discharged and 7 rejoined their respective herd as productive animals without long-term complications. Ultrasonography was the most useful imaging tool for presurgical diagnosis. Based on our follow-up data, unilateral nephrectomy resulted in few serious short-term or long-term complications, and cattle undergoing this procedure are capable of satisfactory growth, reproduction, and milk production after surgery. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Radiofrequency ablation versus partial nephrectomy in patients with solitary clinical T1a renal cell carcinoma: comparable oncologic outcomes at a minimum of 5 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olweny, Ephrem O; Park, Samuel K; Tan, Yung K; Best, Sara L; Trimmer, Clayton; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2012-06-01

    Long-term comparative outcomes for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) versus partial nephrectomy (PN) for the primary treatment of clinical T1a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have not previously been reported. Report comparative 5-yr oncologic outcomes for RFA versus PN in patients with clinical T1a RCC. Observational single-institution cohort study, involving consecutive patients with a solitary histologically confirmed T1a RCC treated by RFA or PN and followed for a minimum of 5 yr. Those presenting with synchronous multiple, metachronous, bilateral, and/or metastatic disease, a history of hereditary RCC syndromes, a family history of RCC, and with post-treatment follow-up <5 yr were excluded from analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine 5-yr overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), local recurrence-free survival (local RFS), overall disease-free survival (DFS), and metastasis-free survival (MFS) for RFA versus PN. Survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. A p value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 37 patients in each group met the selection criteria. The RFA cohort was significantly older and had more advanced comorbidities, but other patient characteristics were similar. For RFA versus PN, median follow-up was 6.5 yr (interquartile range [IQR]: 5.8-7.1) versus 6.1 yr (IQR: 5.4-7.3) (p = 0.68), respectively. The 5-yr OS was 97.2% versus 100% (p = 0.31), CSS was 97.2% versus 100% (p = 0.31), DFS was 89.2% versus 89.2% (p = 0.78), local RFS was 91.7% versus 94.6% (p = 0.96), and MFS was 97.2% versus 91.8% (p = 0.35), respectively. Study limitations are retrospective data analysis, loss to follow-up, limited statistical power, and limited generalizability of our data. In appropriately selected patients, RFA is an effective minimally invasive therapy for the treatment of cT1a RCC, yielding comparable long-term oncologic outcomes to nephron-sparing surgery. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology

  16. Simple Laparoscopic Nephrectomy in Stone Disease: Not Always Simple.

    PubMed

    Angerri, Oriol; López, Juan Manuel; Sánchez-Martin, Francisco; Millán-Rodriguez, Félix; Rosales, Antonio; Villavicencio, Humberto

    2016-10-01

    Simple nephrectomy is performed for a benign pathology that does not require the excision of either the adrenal gland or any adenopathies. When it is carried out in cases of stone disease, however, it is frequently not a "simple" technique owing to the presence of significant inflammation and infection. Ninety-six simple laparoscopic nephrectomies performed because of stone disease between 2006 and 2015 were retrospectively studied. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed, as well as an evaluation of the associated complications. Of the 96 laparoscopic nephrectomies (62 left, 34 right), 7 (7.2%) had to be converted into open surgery owing to the impossibility of dissecting the renal hilum because of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (n = 4) or major associated lesions (n = 3). The indication for nephrectomy was lumbar pain associated with urinary infection, with a partial renal function below 15% assessed by DMSA renal scan. There were three major complications. Pathologic assessment revealed chronic pyelonephritis with kidney atrophy and associated pyonephrosis in 85 cases, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in 10, and pT4 squamous cell carcinoma in 1. Despite its high technical difficulty, simple laparoscopic nephrectomy for stones is a viable technique for advanced laparoscopists. Its principal advantage compared with open surgery is improved postsurgical recovery, and it is associated with an acceptable complication rate. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is not an initial contraindication to laparoscopy, but it is the most significant risk factor for conversion to open surgery.

  17. Robot-assisted urologic surgery in 2010 – Advancements and future outlook

    PubMed Central

    Babbar, Paurush; Hemal, Ashok K

    2011-01-01

    Robotic surgery is a cutting edge and minimally invasive procedure, which has generated a great deal of excitement in the urologic community. While there has been much advancement in this emerging technology, it is safe to say that robotic urologic surgery holds tremendous potential for progress in the near future. Hence, it is paramount that urologists stay up-to-date regarding new developments in the realm of robotics with respect to novel applications, limitations and opportunities for incorporation into their practice. Robot-assisted surgery provides an enhanced 3D view, increased magnification of the surgical field, better manual dexterity, relatively bloodless field, elimination of surgeon′s tremor, reduction in a surgeon′s fatigue and mitigation of scattered light. All these factors translate into greater precision of surgical dissection, which is imperative in providing better intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. Pioneering work assessing the feasibility of robotic surgery in urology began in the early 2000's with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and has since expanded to procedures such as robot-assisted radical cystectomy, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, robot-assisted nephroureterectomy and robot-assisted pyeloplasty. A MEDLINE search was used to identify recent articles (within the last two years) and publications of specific importance, which highlighted the recent developments and future direction of robotics. This review will use the aforementioned urologic surgeries as vehicles to evaluate the current status and future role of robotics in the advancement of the field of urology. PMID:21346825

  18. Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Scheide, A.W.

    1983-11-01

    This article reviews some of the technical areas and history associated with robotics, provides information relative to the formation of a Robotics Industry Committee within the Industry Applications Society (IAS), and describes how all activities relating to robotics will be coordinated within the IEEE. Industrial robots are being used for material handling, processes such as coating and arc welding, and some mechanical and electronics assembly. An industrial robot is defined as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for a variety of tasks. The initial focus of the Robotics Industry Committee will be on the application of robotics systems to the various industries that are represented within the IAS.

  19. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Deger, S; Giessing, M; Roigas, J; Wille, A H; Lein, M; Schönberger, B; Loening, S A

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN) has removed disincentives of potential donors and may bear the potential to increase kidney donation. Multiple modifications have been made to abbreviate the learning curve while at the same time guarantee the highest possible level of medical quality for donor and recipient. We reviewed the literature for the evolution of the different LDN techniques and their impact on donor, graft and operating surgeon, including the subtleties of different surgical accesses, vessel handling and organ extraction. We performed a literature search (PubMed, DIMDI, medline) to evaluate the development of the LDN techniques from 1995 to 2003. Today more than 200 centres worldwide perform LDN. Hand-assistance has led to a spread of LDN. Studies comparing open and hand-assisted LDN show a reduction of operating and warm ischaemia times for the hand-assisted LDN. Different surgical access sites (trans- or retroperitoneal), different vessel dissection approaches, donor organ delivery techniques, delivery sites and variations of hand-assistance techniques reflect the evolution of LDN. Proper techniques and their combination for the consecutive surgical steps minimize both warm ischaemia time and operating time while offering the donor a safe minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. LDN has breathed new life into the moribund field of living kidney donation. Within a few years LDN could become the standard approach in living kidney donation. Surgeons working in this field must be trained thoroughly and well acquainted with the subtleties of the different LDN techniques and their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Robot-assisted urological surgery: Current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Khurshid R.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sammon, Jesse; Jeong, Wooju; Dabaja, Ali; Menon, Mani

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the current status of robot-assisted urological surgery. Methods We searched PubMed for articles published from 2008 using the search terms ‘advances’, ‘robotic surgery equipment’ and ‘instrumentation’. We also searched PubMed for articles describing the latest developments in reconstructive techniques for lower and upper urinary tract procedures. Finally, we searched PubMed for original articles containing the terms ‘robotic surgery training’ and ‘credentialing’. Results With each release of hardware or ancillary instrumentation, the reconstructive abilities of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) improve. Recent developments in reconstructive capabilities of robotic urological surgery include posterior reconstruction during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, barbed sutures for urethrovesical anastomosis, sliding-clip renorrhaphy for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, and repair of pelvic organ prolapse. The safe implementation of robotic surgery is aided by new guidelines in credentialing and proctoring, and the introduction of virtual reality simulators for training. Conclusion Robotic urological surgery is rapidly developing and expanding globally. To achieve the highest levels of safety for patients, surgeons must ensure that the implementation of robotic surgery is an integrative and effective process. PMID:26558000

  1. Robot-assisted urological surgery: Current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sammon, Jesse; Jeong, Wooju; Dabaja, Ali; Menon, Mani

    2012-03-01

    To discuss the current status of robot-assisted urological surgery. We searched PubMed for articles published from 2008 using the search terms 'advances', 'robotic surgery equipment' and 'instrumentation'. We also searched PubMed for articles describing the latest developments in reconstructive techniques for lower and upper urinary tract procedures. Finally, we searched PubMed for original articles containing the terms 'robotic surgery training' and 'credentialing'. With each release of hardware or ancillary instrumentation, the reconstructive abilities of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) improve. Recent developments in reconstructive capabilities of robotic urological surgery include posterior reconstruction during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, barbed sutures for urethrovesical anastomosis, sliding-clip renorrhaphy for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, and repair of pelvic organ prolapse. The safe implementation of robotic surgery is aided by new guidelines in credentialing and proctoring, and the introduction of virtual reality simulators for training. Robotic urological surgery is rapidly developing and expanding globally. To achieve the highest levels of safety for patients, surgeons must ensure that the implementation of robotic surgery is an integrative and effective process.

  2. Patient Positioning and Port Placement for Robot-Assisted Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Charles; Steinberg, Zoe; Shah, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The introduction of robotic surgical systems and their integration into minimally invasive procedures have changed the landscape of laparoscopic surgery dramatically. Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci Surgical System was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration for cardiothoracic procedures in the late 1990s. This trend quickly spread through other surgical specialties, with urologists as one of the frontrunners in adoption. Subsequently, pediatric urologists have adopted robot-assisted procedures in selected centers, performing procedures such as pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction, partial and complete nephrectomy, and both intravesical and extravesical ureteral reimplantation. In this article, we will discuss technical considerations related to patient positioning and port placement in pediatric robot-assisted surgery. PMID:24548088

  3. Symplastic glomus tumor of the urinary bladder treated by robot-assisted partial cystectomy: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Franco; Gadda, Franco; Spinelli, Matteo G; Maggioni, Marco; Rocco, Bernardo; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-01-16

    Glomus tumors arising in the urinary bladder are extremely rare, and only two cases have been reported in the English Literature. We present a case of a 58-year-old man with an asymptomatic mass of the anterior wall of the bladder that measured 2.5 × 2.5 cm. Endoscopic excision was performed, and the tumor was diagnosed as symplastic glomus tumor. The patient finally underwent robotic-assisted partial cystectomy, and he remains healthy without any recurrence to date.After reviewing this case and previous reports, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features and treatment options for this rare neoplasm.

  4. Intraureteral and intravenous indocyanine green to facilitate robotic partial nephroureterectomy in a patient with complete ureteral triplication

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew; Lee, Ziho

    2015-01-01

    A patient with a complete right ureteral triplication presented with recurrent pyelonephritis and flank pain that was refractory to medical management. Evaluation showed that the atrophic upper-most renal moiety had been chronically obstructed and was associated with a dilated ureter. Intraureteral and intravenous indocyanine green (ICG) were used as real-time contrast agents intraoperatively to facilitate right robotic partial nephroureterectomy of the diseased system. Intraureteral ICG was used to accurately distinguish the pathologic ureter and associated renal pelvis from its normal counterparts. Intravenous ICG was used to assess perfusion in the right kidney and delineate the margins of diseased renal parenchyma. PMID:26078846

  5. Application of a laser-guided docking system in robot-assisted urologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Hui-Qing; Sheng, Xia; Xiao, Liang; Sun, Ying-Hao; Yang, Bo

    2016-09-01

    This work explores the clinical significance of a laser-guided docking system for robot-assisted urologic surgery. Between July 2013 and June 2014, 40 patients underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), and 32 patients underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RAPN) performed by a single surgeon. In the RALP and RAPN groups, the robot was docked in the traditional way in 20 and 16 cases, respectively. A laser guiding system was used in the other cases. The docking time and the time required to adjust the angles were recorded. The docking time was significantly shorter for the laser-guided process performed by inexperienced nurses. The time required to adjust the angles was also lower. There were no significant differences between the processes performed by experienced nurses. A laser-guided docking system may simplify and standardize the docking process and shorten the learning curve. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  7. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  8. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  9. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy versus open donor nephrectomy: recipient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Jamale, Tukaram E; Hase, Niwrutti K; Iqbal, Anwar M

    2012-11-01

    Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson's chi square test, Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027) was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335) and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275) was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014). Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002). LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.

  10. Risk-adjusted outcomes in Medicare inpatient nephrectomy patients

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Donald E.; Pine, Michael; Nedza, Susan M.; Locke, David G.; Reband, Agnes M.; Pine, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Without risk-adjusted outcomes of surgical care across both the inpatient and postacute period of time, hospitals and surgeons cannot evaluate the effectiveness of current performance in nephrectomy and other operations, and will not have objective metrics to gauge improvements from care redesign efforts. We compared risk-adjusted hospital outcomes following elective total and partial nephrectomy to demonstrate differences that can be used to improve care. We used the Medicare Limited Dataset for 2010 to 2012 for total and partial nephrectomy for benign and malignant neoplasms to create prediction models for the adverse outcomes (AOs) of inpatient deaths, prolonged length-of-stay outliers, 90-day postdischarge deaths without readmission, and 90-day relevant readmissions. From the 4 prediction models, total predicted adverse outcomes were determined for each hospital in the dataset that met a minimum of 25 evaluable cases for the study period. Standard deviations (SDs) for each hospital were used to identify specific z-scores. Risk-adjusted adverse outcomes rates were computed to permit benchmarking each hospital's performance against the national standard. Differences between best and suboptimal performing hospitals defined the potential margin of preventable adverse outcomes for this operation. A total of 449 hospitals with 23,477 patients were evaluated. Overall AO rate was 20.8%; 17 hospitals had risk-adjusted AO rates that were 2 SDs poorer than predicted and 8 were 2 SDs better. The top performing decile of hospitals had a risk-adjusted AO rate of 10.2% while the lowest performing decile had 32.1%. With a minimum of 25 cases for each study hospital, no statistically valid improvement in outcomes was seen with increased case volume. Inpatient and 90-day postdischarge risk-adjusted adverse outcomes demonstrated marked variability among study hospitals and illustrate the opportunities for care improvement. This analytic design is applicable for comparing

  11. Risk-adjusted outcomes in Medicare inpatient nephrectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donald E; Pine, Michael; Nedza, Susan M; Locke, David G; Reband, Agnes M; Pine, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    Without risk-adjusted outcomes of surgical care across both the inpatient and postacute period of time, hospitals and surgeons cannot evaluate the effectiveness of current performance in nephrectomy and other operations, and will not have objective metrics to gauge improvements from care redesign efforts.We compared risk-adjusted hospital outcomes following elective total and partial nephrectomy to demonstrate differences that can be used to improve care. We used the Medicare Limited Dataset for 2010 to 2012 for total and partial nephrectomy for benign and malignant neoplasms to create prediction models for the adverse outcomes (AOs) of inpatient deaths, prolonged length-of-stay outliers, 90-day postdischarge deaths without readmission, and 90-day relevant readmissions. From the 4 prediction models, total predicted adverse outcomes were determined for each hospital in the dataset that met a minimum of 25 evaluable cases for the study period. Standard deviations (SDs) for each hospital were used to identify specific z-scores. Risk-adjusted adverse outcomes rates were computed to permit benchmarking each hospital's performance against the national standard. Differences between best and suboptimal performing hospitals defined the potential margin of preventable adverse outcomes for this operation.A total of 449 hospitals with 23,477 patients were evaluated. Overall AO rate was 20.8%; 17 hospitals had risk-adjusted AO rates that were 2 SDs poorer than predicted and 8 were 2 SDs better. The top performing decile of hospitals had a risk-adjusted AO rate of 10.2% while the lowest performing decile had 32.1%. With a minimum of 25 cases for each study hospital, no statistically valid improvement in outcomes was seen with increased case volume.Inpatient and 90-day postdischarge risk-adjusted adverse outcomes demonstrated marked variability among study hospitals and illustrate the opportunities for care improvement. This analytic design is applicable for comparing provider

  12. Robot-assisted partial cystectomy with intraoperative frozen section examination: Evolution and evaluation of a novel technique

    PubMed Central

    Klett, Dane E.; Abdollah, Firas; Sammon, Jesse D.; Pucheril, Dan; Menon, Mani; Jeong, Wooju; Peabody, James O.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe a novel modification to robot-assisted partial cystectomy (RAPC) that allows for intraoperative surgical margin assessment by bimanual-examination and frozen-section analysis. Materials and Methods A total of 7 patients underwent RAPC at a single tertiary-care institution between 2008 and 2013. The technique evolved over the study-period and permitted real-time intraoperative surgical margin evaluation in the last 5 patients via bimanual-examination and frozen-section analysis, utilizing the GelPOINT platform (a hand-assist device). The GelPOINT platform was placed through a 4- to 5-cm vertical supraumbilical incision and allowed for rapid retrieval of the bladder specimen without compromising the pneumoperitoneum or prolonging the operative time. Perioperative, oncological and functional outcomes were evaluated; all patients had a minimum 12-month follow-up. At the time of last follow-up, a cross-sectional survey of patients was performed to evaluate regret/satisfaction utilizing validated questionnaires. Results The mean age was 72.5 years; 71.4% of the patients were men (n=5). All patients underwent RAPC for a malignant indication. The mean operative and console times were 291 and 217 minutes, respectively. No patient had a positive surgical margin. Mean length-of-stay was 1.7 days. At a median follow-up of 38.9 months, 1 patient experienced a local recurrence 6 months postsurgery. The only mortality was secondary to Lewy-body disease, in the same patient, 1 year postoperatively. Patient assessment of regret and satisfaction indicated 0% regret and 0% dissatisfaction. Conclusions The 'modified' technique of RAPC is technically feasible, safe, and reproducible; further, RAPC leads to favorable oncological, functional and quality-of-life outcomes in patients eligible for partial cystectomy. PMID:27195322

  13. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3-Dimensional Conformal and Robotic SBRT Treatment Plans for Accelerated Partial Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goggin, L M; Descovich, M; McGuinness, C; Shiao, S; Pouliot, J; Park, C

    2016-06-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is an attractive alternative to conventional whole breast radiotherapy for selected patients. Recently, CyberKnife has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional techniques for accelerated partial breast irradiation. In this retrospective study, we present a dosimetric comparison between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans and CyberKnife plans using circular (Iris) and multi-leaf collimators. Nine patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast radiation were included in this retrospective study. The CyberKnife planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the lumpectomy cavity + 10 mm + 2 mm with prescription dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions. Two sets of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created, one used the same definitions as described for CyberKnife and the second used the RTOG-0413 definition of the PTV: lumpectomy cavity + 15 mm + 10 mm with prescription dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Using both PTV definitions allowed us to compare the dose delivery capabilities of each technology and to evaluate the advantage of CyberKnife tracking. For the dosimetric comparison using the same PTV margins, CyberKnife and 3-dimensional plans resulted in similar tumor coverage and dose to critical structures, with the exception of the lung V5%, which was significantly smaller for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 6.2% when compared to 39.4% for CyberKnife-Iris and 17.9% for CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator. When the inability of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to track motion is considered, the result increased to 25.6%. Both CyberKnife-Iris and CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator plans demonstrated significantly lower average ipsilateral breast V50% (25.5% and 24.2%, respectively) than 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (56.2%). The CyberKnife plans were more conformal but less homogeneous than the 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans. Approximately 50% shorter

  14. From Leonardo to da Vinci: the history of robot-assisted surgery in urology.

    PubMed

    Yates, David R; Vaessen, Christophe; Roupret, Morgan

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Numerous urological procedures can now be performed with robotic assistance. Though not definitely proven to be superior to conventional laparoscopy or traditional open surgery in the setting of a randomised trial, in experienced centres robot-assisted surgery allows for excellent surgical outcomes and is a valuable tool to augment modern surgical practice. Our review highlights the depth of history that underpins the robotic surgical platform we utilise today, whilst also detailing the current place of robot-assisted surgery in urology in 2011. The evolution of robots in general and as platforms to augment surgical practice is an intriguing story that spans cultures, continents and centuries. A timeline from Yan Shi (1023-957 bc), Archytas of Tarentum (400 bc), Aristotle (322 bc), Heron of Alexandria (10-70 ad), Leonardo da Vinci (1495), the Industrial Revolution (1790), 'telepresence' (1950) and to the da Vinci(®) Surgical System (1999), shows the incredible depth of history and development that underpins the modern surgical robot we use to treat our patients. Robot-assisted surgery is now well-established in Urology and although not currently regarded as a 'gold standard' approach for any urological procedure, it is being increasingly used for index operations of the prostate, kidney and bladder. We perceive that robotic evolution will continue infinitely, securing the place of robots in the history of Urological surgery. Herein, we detail the history of robots in general, in surgery and in Urology, highlighting the current place of robot-assisted surgery in radical prostatectomy, partial nephrectomy, pyeloplasty and radical cystectomy.

  15. Robotics applied in laparoscopic kidney surgery: the Yonsei University experience of 127 cases.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Enrique Ian S; Jeong, Wooju; Oh, Cheol Kyu; Chung, Byung Ha; Choi, Young Deuk; Rha, Koon Ho

    2011-01-01

    We report our experience on 127 kidney surgeries with the da Vinci surgical system and show the feasibility of a robotics application in a variety of kidney surgeries by both a laparoscopically-trained and a laparoscopically-naïve surgeon. Clinical data of patients who underwent kidney surgery with the da Vinci surgical system from September 2006 to April 2009 were reviewed. Data acquired from medical records included patient demographics, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), incidence of intraoperative complication, duration of hospital stay, blood transfusion rate, oncological outcomes, and follow-up results. One-hundred twenty-seven kidney surgeries have been conducted with the da Vinci surgical system at our institution. Three urologists--1 with formal endourology training, 1 with laparoscopic experience, and 1 laparoscopically naïve--have used it for a variety of procedures involving the kidney. The cases include 65 partial nephrectomies (RPN), 38 radical nephrectomies (RRN), and 24 nephroureterectomies with bladder cuff (RNU). Results on operative time, EBL, incidence of intraoperative injury, duration of hospital stay, and blood transfusion rate are comparable with contemporary studies. Robotics application in kidney surgery is a viable option for various procedures. Our experience shows it can be safely and effectively conducted by both laparoscopically-trained and laparoscopically-naïve surgeons once they are accustomed to the robotics system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The morbidity of trauma nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Norma M; Claridge, Jeffrey A; Forsythe, Raquel M; Weinberg, Jordan A; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2009-11-01

    Mortality has been shown to be high in patients after trauma nephrectomy (TN). However, there are little data regarding morbidity in survivors. The objective of this study was to determine the morbidity rates associated with TN with attention directed to renal failure (RF) and formation of intra-abdominal abscess (IAA). Patients who underwent TN over a 9-year period (1996 to 2004) were identified from the trauma registry. Records were reviewed for all complications after TN in patients surviving at least 48 hours. Eighty-nine patients were identified with TN; 61 per cent resulted after penetrating trauma. Overall mortality was 34 per cent. Seventy-one patients survived greater than 48 hours; 51 (72%) experienced at least one morbidity. There was no difference in morbidity rates between patients undergoing blunt trauma and those undergoing penetrating trama. Patients with morbidities were significantly older, more severely injured, and had higher mortality rates and longer hospital courses. Infectious complications were seen in 52 per cent, respiratory in 48 per cent, gastrointestinal in 30 per cent, coagulopathy in 25 per cent, and RF and IAA were each seen in 14 per cent of patients. Patients undergoing TN are severely injured with significant morbidity. The results from this study allow us to establish benchmarks to assess complication rates for patients who undergo TN, which can provide prognostic information and goals to improve patient outcomes.

  17. Who is at risk of death from nephrectomy? An analysis of thirty-day mortality after 21 380 nephrectomies in 3 years of the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) National Nephrectomy Audit.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Archie; Fowler, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; O'Brien, Tim

    2017-09-01

    To ascertain contemporary overall and differential thirty-day mortality (TDM) rates after all types of nephrectomy in the UK, and to identify potential new risk factors for death. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the 110 deaths that occurred within 30 days of surgery out of the total of 21 380 nephrectomies performed, and calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for TDM based on peri-operative characteristics. The overall TDM rate was 110/21380 (0.5%). The TDM rates after radical, partial, simple nephrectomy and nephro-ureterectomy were 0.6% (63/11057), 0.1% (4/3931), 0.4% (11/2819) and 0.9% (28/3091), respectively. TDM increased with age, stage, estimated blood loss (EBL), operating time and performance status. EBL of 1-2 L was associated with a greater risk of TDM than EBL of 2-5 L (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.03-2.24). Conversion from minimally invasive surgery was associated with higher risk than non-conversion (OR 2.53; 95% CI 1.14-4.51. Curative surgery was safer than cytoreductive surgery (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.18-0.54). There was an association between surgical volume and TDM. This study provides contemporary insights into the true risks of all types of nephrectomy. The TDM rate after nephrectomy in the UK appears acceptably low at 0.5%. Established risk factors were confirmed and the following novel risk factors were identified: modest EBL (1-2 L) and conversion from minimally invasive surgery. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus affect complication rate of different nephrectomy techniques.

    PubMed

    Hua, X; Ying-Ying, C; Zu-Jun, F; Gang, X; Zu-Quan, X; Qiang, D; Hao-Wen, J

    2014-12-01

    To investigate whether obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (DM) would increase post-nephrectomy complication rates using standardized classification method. We retrospectively included 843 patients from March 2006 to November 2012, of whom 613 underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) and 229 had partial nephrectomy (PN). Modified Clavien classification system was applied to quantify complication severity of nephrectomy. Fisher's exact or chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between complication rates and obesity, hypertension, as well as DM. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and DM was 11.51%, 30.84%, 8.78%, respectively. The overall complication rate was 19.31%, 30.04%, 35.71% and 36.36% for laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN), open-RN, LPN and open-PN respectively. An increasing trend of low grade complication rate as BMI increased was observed in LRN (P=.027) and open-RN (P<.001). Obese patients had greater chance to have low grade complications in LRN (OR=4.471; 95% CI: 1.290-17.422; P=0.031) and open-RN (OR=2.448; 95% CI: 1.703-3.518; P<.001). Patients with hypertension were more likely to have low grade complications, especially grade ii complications in open-RN (OR=1.526; 95% CI: 1.055-2.206; P=.026) and open PN (OR=2.032; 95% CI: 1.199-3.443; P=.009). DM was also associated with higher grade i complication rate in open-RN (OR=2.490; 95% CI: 331-4.657; P=.016) and open-PN (OR=4.425; 95% CI: 1.815-10.791; P=.013). High grade complication rates were similar in comparison. Obesity, hypertension, and DM were closely associated with increased post-nephrectomy complication rates, mainly low grade complications. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Robotic surgery in urologic oncology: gathering the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Skolarus, Ted A; Zhang, Yun; Hollenbeck, Brent K

    2010-01-01

    In less than a decade, the widespread application of robotic technology to the field of urologic oncology has permanently altered the way urologists approach malignancy. The short-term benefits of minimally invasive surgery using robotic assistance (i.e., decreased blood loss, improved convalescence and ergonomic appeal), as well as a broad marketing campaign, have helped the technology gain traction in the field of urology. Although the long-term benefits of its use in urologic surgery are less clear and the costs of robotic surgery are consistently greater than those of other approaches, the numbers of prostate, kidney and bladder cancer cases continue to rise. Identifying transferable surgical processes of care that matter most for each of the robotic cases in urologic oncology (e.g., prostatectomy, cystectomy and partial nephrectomy) is a next step toward broadly improving the quality of urologic cancer care. To this end, urologic professional societies and their surgeons should aim to identify underwriters for and participate in large clinical registries and surgical quality collaboratives. PMID:20715919

  20. Hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy as an alternative to traditional laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Buell, Joseph F; Hanaway, Michael J; Potter, Steven R; Cronin, David C; Yoshida, Atsushi; Munda, Rino; Alexander, J Wesley; Newell, Kenneth A; Bruce, David S; Woodle, E Steve

    2002-11-01

    The benefits of laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (LDN) are well described, while similar data on hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (HALDN) are lacking. We compare hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy with open donor nephrectomy. One hundred consecutive hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (10/98-8/01) donor/recipient pairs were compared to 50 open donor nephrectomy pairs (8/97-1/00). Mean donor weights were similar (179.6 +/- 40.8 vs. 167.4 +/- 30.3 lb; p = NS), while donor age was greater among hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (38.2 +/- 9.5 vs. 31.2 +/- 7.8 year; p < 0.01). Right nephrectomies was fewer in hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy [17/100 (17%) vs. 22/50 (44%); p < 0.05]. Operative time for hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (3.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.5 h; p < 0.01) was longer; however, return to diet (6.9 +/- 2.8 vs. 25.6 +/- 6.1 h; p < 0.01), narcotics requirement (17.9 +/- 6.3 vs. 56.3 +/- 6.4h; p < 0.01) and length of stay (51.7 +/- 22.2 vs. 129.6 +/- 65.7 h; p < 0.01) were less than open donor nephrectomy. Costs were similar ($11072 vs. 10840). Graft function and 1-week Cr of 1.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.6 +/- 1.1 g/dL (p = NS) were similar. With the introduction of HALDN, our laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy program has increased by 20%. Thus, similar to traditional laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy provides advantages over open donor nephrectomy without increasing costs.

  1. [A trial of laparoscopic assisted radical nephrectomy].

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, K; Nishiyama, T; Ohashi, M; Ishikawa, H; Hata, M

    1997-09-01

    We tried a new procedure of gas-less laparoscopy assisted radical nephrectomy. Prior to insertion of laparoscope, pararectal incision approximately 7 cm in length was made to enter into the intraabdominal cavity. A 12 mm trocar was placed just below the umbilicus and a flexible electroscope was inserted through it. A 10 cm size disposable fan for lifting up the abdominal wall was indwelled through the under space of trocar port. After appropriately lifting up the abdominal wall, a 10 mm trocar for working channel was placed at mid-axillar line. Under laparoscopic and trans-laparotomic views, radical nephrectomy was performed using the combined technique of laparoscopic and open surgery. Seven patients have been successfully treated with this procedure. The mean operating time of this procedure was significantly shorter than that of totally laparoscopic nephrectomy. The recovery time from the operation was as short as usual laparoscopic nephrectomy. We thought that this procedure could open a new scope of laparoscopic surgery.

  2. Kidney cooling in partial nephrectomy. Evaluation of a technique.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S

    1975-04-01

    A technique of cooling the isolated human kidney by immersing it in a plastic bag filled with iced saline slush is described. This technique is simple, swift to perform, requires no specialized equipment, and is inexpensive; it has proved to be effective and safe.

  3. Preparedness in robotically assisted interventions.

    PubMed

    Coste-Manière, Eve; Adhami, Louaï; Antiphon, Patrick; Abbou, Clément-Claude

    2003-04-01

    For many years, robots have been used in manufacturing to perform a variety of delicate tasks. Their use is now being generalized to other fields, such as biology, domestic applications, and especially medicine, in which they are poised to make a significant contribution. This evolution comes from the progress made in the field of robotics and from recent changes in medical and surgical techniques, namely, developments in medical imaging and a new desire for minimally invasive interventions. This emerging combination of high-precision robotic manipulators, new medical diagnostic techniques, and efficient minimally invasive surgery has not yet been perfected. After a brief discussion of state-of-the-art robotic systems used in urology, this article discusses new challenges presented by robotic minimally invasive surgery. A computer-integrated approach aimed at increasing the efficiency of such interventions through better preparedness is presented. This approach is illustrated by a case study in human nephrectomy and a cardiac animal experiment.

  4. Laparoscopic nephrectomy using Ligasure system: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Costantino; Guaglianone, Salvatore; De Carli, Piero; Pompeo, Vincenzo; Forastiere, Ester; Gallucci, Michele

    2005-10-01

    The advent of laparoscopic surgery has created new technical challenges and problems. Recently, a new commercially available vessel-sealing technology, the Ligasure system, was introduced. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of this new system with earlier methods in a group of patients affected by renal-cell carcinoma. A series of 30 patients underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for clinically localized renal-cell carcinoma. We always used a transperitoneal approach with a three-trocar technique. Patients were randomly divided in two groups: 15 underwent conventional laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, while 15 underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy using the Ligasure system, which is a bipolar radiofrequency generator. Information analyzed included intraoperative blood loss, operative time, conversion rate, and postoperative course. Statistical analysis was performed with commercially available software. The two groups were compared in term of clinical and pathologic variables using Student's t-test. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups for baseline characteristics. No conversion occurred in either group. Statistically significant differences were observed between conventional and Ligasure nephrectomy regarding mean intraoperative blood loss (485 mL and 100 mL, respectively; p < 0.05) and mean operative time (164 minutes and 68 minutes, respectively p < 0.05). No statistically difference was observed in the postoperative discharge time. The Ligasure vessel-sealing system seems to produce a consistent, reliable, permanent seal of veins, arteries, and tissue bundles by fusing the collagen in vessel walls. By reducing sutures and the number of instrument exchanges in the operating theatre, the Ligasure decreases operating time and blood loss. This new energy-based vessel-ligation device appears to be effective in advanced laparoscopic procedures.

  5. The best option: Umbilical LESS radical nephrectomy with vaginal extraction.

    PubMed

    Andrés, G; García-Mediero, J M; García-Tello, A; Arance, I; Cabrera, P M; Angulo, J C

    2015-04-01

    Umbilical laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery represents an excellent alternative to laparoscopic or robotic multiport surgery. LESS surgery offers faster recovery, less postoperative pain and optimal cosmetic results. The reusable nature of its instruments also has significant economic advantages. We present a 34-year-old patient with a solid mesorenal lesion measuring 8 cm in the left kidney treated with pure LESS radical nephrectomy assisted by vaginal extraction of the specimen. The umbilical approach using a single-site multichannel KeyPort (Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany) with DuoRotate curved instruments allows for minimum crushing and fewer spatial conflicts. Its perfect umbilical adaptation provides a hermetic system. The instrument's double rotation provides considerable movement precision. Vaginal extraction avoids damage to the abdominal wall and the need for widening the umbilical incision. After the placement of the device and triangulation of the clips, we proceeded to operate on posterior parietal peritoneum. The descending colon was mobilized to access the retroperitoneum and dissect the renal hilum. Hem-o-lok clips were placed on the artery and vein, which were subsequently sectioned. The specimen was inserted into a laparoscopic bag. Under direct vision, we placed a 15-mm trocar through the bottom of the vaginal posterior fornix to facilitate the extraction of the bag's thread. The incision was widened with the fingers, and the specimen was extracted, closing the vagina from the perineum with visualization from the navel. Abdominal drainage was not employed. The surgical time was 180 min. The patient was discharged the following day without needing analgesia. A year later, the patient was disease-free and had no complications. Umbilical LESS radical nephrectomy with vaginal extraction is feasible in selected cases. The procedure is oncologically safe, avoids scars and facilitates early recovery. From a practical point of view

  6. Cost comparison of open approach, transoral laser microsurgery and transoral robotic surgery for partial and total laryngectomies.

    PubMed

    Dombrée, Manon; Crott, Ralph; Lawson, Georges; Janne, Pascal; Castiaux, Annick; Krug, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    Activity-based costing is used to give a better insight into the actual cost structure of open, transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and transoral robotic surgery (TORS) supraglottic and total laryngectomies. Cost data were obtained from hospital administration, personnel and vendor structured interviews. A process map identified 17 activities, to which the detailed cost data are related. One-way sensitivity analyses on the patient throughput, the cost of the equipment or operative times were performed. The total cost for supraglottic open (135-203 min), TLM (110-210 min) and TORS (35-130 min) approaches were 3,349 euro (3,193-3,499 euro), 3,461 euro (3,207-3,664 euro) and 5,650 euro (4,297-5,974 euro), respectively. For total laryngectomy, the overall cost were 3,581 euro (3,215-3,846 euro) for open and 6,767 euro (6,418-7,389 euro) for TORS. TORS cost is mostly influenced by equipment (54%) where the other procedures are predominantly determined by personnel cost (about 45%). Even when we doubled the yearly case-load, used the shortest operative times or a calculation without robot equipment costs we did not reach cost equivalence. TORS is more expensive than standard approaches and mainly influenced by purchase and maintenance costs and the use of proprietary instruments. Further trials on long-term outcomes and costs following TORS are needed to evaluate its cost-effectiveness.

  7. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Renal Schwannoma Excision.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jeremy; Collins, Ryan; Allam, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background: To report the first case of a renal schwannoma excised with robot-assisted laparoscopy. Case Presentation: A 43-year-old Caucasian female patient with vague abdominal symptoms was noted to have incidental right renal mass. Physical examination and laboratory tests were within normal limits. CT revealed a 4.6 cm heterogeneous enhancing right renal mass arising near the hilum. RENAL nephrometry score was 11a. She was treated by right robot-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy. She recovered well without complications. Pathology analysis revealed a benign renal schwannoma. Conclusion: Renal schwannoma is a rare kidney tumor. We report the first known case of this tumor excised by robot-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy.

  8. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Renal Schwannoma Excision

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Jeremy; Collins, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: To report the first case of a renal schwannoma excised with robot-assisted laparoscopy. Case Presentation: A 43-year-old Caucasian female patient with vague abdominal symptoms was noted to have incidental right renal mass. Physical examination and laboratory tests were within normal limits. CT revealed a 4.6 cm heterogeneous enhancing right renal mass arising near the hilum. RENAL nephrometry score was 11a. She was treated by right robot-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy. She recovered well without complications. Pathology analysis revealed a benign renal schwannoma. Conclusion: Renal schwannoma is a rare kidney tumor. We report the first known case of this tumor excised by robot-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy. PMID:27872900

  9. Laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy (LESS-DN) versus standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ameet; Ahmed, Kamran; Kynaston, Howard G; Dasgupta, Prokar; Chlosta, Piotr L; Aboumarzouk, Omar M

    2016-05-27

    Advances in minimally invasive surgery for live kidney donors have led to the development of laparoendoscopic single site donor nephrectomy (LESS-DN). At present, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is the technique of choice for donor nephrectomy globally. Compared with open surgical approaches, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is associated with decreased morbidity, faster recovery times and return to normal activity, and shorter hospital stays. LESS-DN differs from standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy; LESS-DN requires a single incision through which the procedure is performed and donor kidney is removed. Previous studies have hypothesised that LESS-DN may provide additional benefits for kidney donors and stimulate increased donor rates. This review looked at the benefits and harms of LESS-DN compared with standard laparoscopic nephrectomy for live kidney donors. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant's Specialised Register to 28 January 2016 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared LESS-DN with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in adults. Three authors independently assessed studies for eligibility and conducted risk of bias evaluation. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) or risk difference (RD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. We included three studies (179 participants) comparing LESS-DN with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. There were no significant differences between LESS-DN and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy for mean operative time (2 studies, 79 participants: MD 6.36 min, 95% CI -11.85 to 24.57), intra-operative blood loss (2 studies, 79 participants: MD -8.31 mL, 95% CI -23.70 to 7.09), or complication rates (3 studies, 179 participants: RD 0.05, 95% CI -0.04 to 0

  10. Compensatory Hypertrophy After Living Donor Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Chen, K W; Wu, M W F; Chen, Z; Tai, B C; Goh, Y S B; Lata, R; Vathsala, A; Tiong, H Y

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that kidney volume enhances the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in kidney donors. This study aimed to describe the phenomenon of compensatory hypertrophy after donor nephrectomy as measured on computerized tomographic (CT) scans. An institutional Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB)-approved study involved approaching kidney donors to have a follow up CT scan from 6 months to 1 year after surgery; 29 patients participated; 55% were female. Clinical chart review was performed, and the patient's remaining kidney volume was measured before and after surgery based on CT scans. eGFR was determined with the use of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Mean parenchymal volume of the remaining kidney for this population (mean age, 44.3 ± 8.5 y) was 204.7 ± 82.5 cc before surgery and 250.5 ± 113.3 cc after donor nephrectomy. Compensatory hypertrophy occurred in 79.3% of patients (n = 23). Mean increase in remaining kidney volume was 22.4 ± 23.2% after donor nephrectomy in healthy individuals. Over a median follow-up of 52.9 ± 19.8 months, mean eGFR was 68.9 ± 12.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), with 24.1% of patients (n = 7) in chronic kidney disease grade 3. Absolute and relative change in kidney volume was not associated with sex, race, surgical approach, or background of hypertension (P = NS). There was a trend of decreased hypertrophy with increasing age (P = .5; Spearman correlation, -0.12). In healthy kidney donors, compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining kidney occurs in 79.3% of the patients, with an average increment of about 22.4%. Older patients may have a blunted compensatory hypertrophy response after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Commentary on "Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) partial nephrectomy short-term outcomes." Rais-Bahrami S, George AK, Montag S, Okhunov Z, Richstone L, The Arthur Smith Institute for Urology, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, New Hyde Park, NY: BJU Int 2012 (Epub ahead of print).

    PubMed

    Meng, Maxwell V

    2013-01-01

    Study type-therapy (case series). Level of evidence 4. What's known on the subject and what does the study add? Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery has been used by urologists for a broad-range of operations including LESS partial nephrectomy (LESS-PN). To date, experiences of LESS-PN have been presented as small series or as a subset of larger heterogeneous operative experiences, which have shown the overall feasibility and safety of this novel technique. We report our experience with LESS-PN with complete pathologic resection and excellent short-term oncologic and renal functional outcomes in the select patient-population who underwent this minimally invasive approach. To present our experience of transumbilical LESS-PN with pathologic and short-term oncologic and renal functional outcomes. In all, 15 LESS-PNs were performed for cT1a tumors between July 2008 and August 2011 by 1 surgeon. All patients underwent transumbilical LESS using a 5mm flexible-tip laparoscope and a combination of flexible and conventional laparoscopic instruments. The technique for transperitoneal LESS-PN otherwise replicated conventional laparoscopic PN. Demographic, perioperative, and postoperative variables were recorded and analyzed. Of the 14 patients (8 men), undergoing 15 distinct LESS-PN, the mean (sd) age was 57.9 (8.7) years and the mean (sd, range) tumor size resected was 2.4 (0.8; 1.2-4.0). There were 12 renal cell carcinomas, 2 angiomyolipomas, and 2 metanephric adenomas on final pathology, all with negative margins. The mean (sd) operative duration was 169 (47) minutes with a mean (sd, range) warm ischemia time of 14.7 (13.4; 0-37) minutes; bull-dog clamps were used for hilar-control in 9 cases with the remaining 6 cases done without hilar vascular clamping. The mean (sd) estimated blood loss in this series was 293 (325)ml (median 200ml) and no cases required intraoperative or postoperative blood transfusions. The mean (sd) hospital stay was 2.7 (0.8) days and mean

  12. Is simple nephrectomy truly simple? Comparison with the radical alternative.

    PubMed

    Connolly, S S; O'Brien, M Frank; Kunni, I M; Phelan, E; Conroy, R; Thornhill, J A; Grainger, R

    2011-03-01

    The Oxford English dictionary defines the term "simple" as "easily done" and "uncomplicated". We tested the validity of this terminology in relation to open nephrectomy surgery. Retrospective review of 215 patients undergoing open, simple (n = 89) or radical (n = 126) nephrectomy in a single university-affiliated institution between 1998 and 2002. Operative time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), operative complications (OC) and length of stay in hospital (LOS) were analysed. Statistical analysis employed Fisher's exact test and Stata Release 8.2. Simple nephrectomy was associated with shorter OT (mean 126 vs. 144 min; p = 0.002), reduced EBL (mean 729 vs. 859 cc; p = 0.472), lower OC (9 vs. 17%; 0.087), and more brief LOS (mean 6 vs. 8 days; p < 0.001). All parameters suggest favourable outcome for the simple nephrectomy group, supporting the use of this terminology. This implies "simple" nephrectomies are truly easier to perform with less complication than their radical counterpart.

  13. Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy for benign nonfunctioning kidneys: Training and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Saifee, Yusuf; Nagarajan, Ramya; Qadri, Syed Javed; Sarmah, Amlan; Kumar, Suresh; Pal, Bipin Chandra; Modi, Pranjal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Between the two techniques of laparoscopic nephrectomy, retroperitoneoscopy has certain distinct advantages over transperitoneal access but may be a more difficult technique to learn. We present our experience of training novices in retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy with a good outcome, making it a standard of care for nephrectomy at our institute. Methods: The aim of this study was to report the initial experience, learning curve, and outcome of retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy by novices under a mentored approach. The series included four novice urologists. The data from the initial forty retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomies performed by each of them were reviewed. Results: Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomies were successfully completed by novices in 88.1% (141/160) of the patients. Nine cases (5.6%) required the mentor's help because of nonprogression, and ten cases (6%) required conversion to open nephrectomy. The median operative time of all surgeons decreased with increased surgical experience. There was some intersurgeon variation in the learning curve ranging from 10 to 30 cases, but all surgeons showed a significant reduction in operative time across consecutive sets of ten cases. Seven cases required mentor help in the initial series (7/80) and only two in later half of cases (2/80). All minor complications were also significantly less in the later series. Conclusions: The present series represents the effectiveness of training in retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy of novices by a responsible team and with the standard protocol and surgical steps. Through effective mentoring, the steep learning curve associated with retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy has been overcome, making it standard of care for nephrectomy at our institute. PMID:27843214

  14. Nonfunctioning Renal Allograft Embolization as an Alternative to Graft Nephrectomy: Report on Seven Years' Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Atar, Eli; Belenky, Alexander; Neuman-Levin, Margalit; Yussim, A.; Bar-Nathan, Nathan; Bachar, Gil N.

    2003-02-15

    Purpose: Graft nephrectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with graft intolerance syndrome, but it is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Renal vascular embolization has been suggested as a possible alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of arterial embolization of these nonfunctioning transplanted kidneys. Methods: Twenty-six transplanted kidneys in 25 patients with irreversible renal graft rejection and graft intolerance who underwent arterial embolization at our center from August 1994 to April 2001 we reanalyzed for procedural success and long-term outcome. Embolization was performed with absolute alcohol or with polyvinyl alcohol (Ivalon) and coils. Results: Twenty-four of the 26 (92%) procedures were technically successful, but in one patient only partial occlusion of one of two renal arteries was achieved, and in another the renal artery was already completely occluded. There were two major complications: emphysematous pyelonephritis necessitating nephrectomy and groin abscess that was drained. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 84 months. Clinical success was achieved in 24 of the 26 procedures(92%), and only in one patient did embolization fail to relieve the symptoms, and nephrectomy was performed 3 months later. Conclusion: Renal vascular embolization is a simple, safe and effective technique for the treatment of nonfunctioning renal allografts associated with graft intolerance syndrome. We suggest that it be considered the treatment of choice.

  15. Nephrectomy for benign disease in the UK: results from the British Association of Urological Surgeons nephrectomy database.

    PubMed

    Zelhof, Bachar; McIntyre, Iain G; Fowler, Sarah M; Napier-Hemy, Richard D; Burke, Daniel M; Grey, Ben R

    2016-01-01

    To summarize the practice of UK urologists with regard to nephrectomy for benign disease, documenting the indications, procedural techniques and outcomes. All patients undergoing nephrectomy for a benign condition in 2012 were identified from the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) nephrectomy database. Recorded variables included the technique of surgery, the type of minimally invasive procedure, operating time, blood loss, transfusion rate, conversion rate, intra- and postoperative complications and mortality rate. Cases were also sub-analysed according to their pathologies to determine the differences in complication rate between stone disease, pyelonephritis, non-functioning kidney and other benign lesions. To contextualize procedural complexity, the simple nephrectomy data were compared with those obtained from the BAUS stage T1 radical nephrectomy audit. A total of 1 093 nephrectomies were performed (537 non-functioning kidneys, 142 stone disease, 129 nephrectomies secondary to pyelonephritis and 285 cases with other benign conditions). Of these, 76% were performed laparoscopically. Blood loss >500 mL was noted in 74 cases with a 4.8% blood transfusion rate. The intra- and postoperative complication rates were 5.2 and 11.9%, respectively. Of the 847 minimally invasive procedures, the conversion rate was 5.9%. Patients with stone disease have the highest intra- and postoperative complications (9.9 and 23.9%, respectively) compared with other benign pathologies. The total number of T1 radical nephrectomies performed was 1 095. In comparison with T1 radical nephrectomy, simple nephrectomy carries an increased risk of conversion to an open procedure (1.8 times), a higher rate of blood transfusion (4.8 vs 2.8%), and a higher risk of intra- and postoperative complications (5.2 vs 3.7% and 11.9 vs 10%, respectively). The present study reports the largest series of nephrectomies performed for benign disease and the resultant data now support the bespoke

  16. [Surgical complications of nephrectomy in living donors].

    PubMed

    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Fekak, H; Moufid, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S; Khaleq, K; Idali, B; Harti, A; Barrou, L; Fatihi, M; Benghanem, M; Hachim, J; Ramdani, B; Zaid, D

    2002-05-01

    Renal transplantation from a living donor is now considered the best treatment for chronic renal failure. We reviewed the operative complications in 38 living related donor nephrectomies performed at our institution over the past 14 years. The mean age of our donors was 30 years old with age range between 18 and 58 years old and female predominance (55.2%). These swabs were realized by a posterolateral lumbar lombotomy with resection of the 11 third. The left kidney was removed in 34 donors (90%), surgical complications were noted in 39.4% of the cases: one case of wound of inferior vena cava (2.6%), one case of release of the renal artery clamp (2.6%), four cases of pleural grap (10.5%), one case of pneumothorax (2.6%), one case of pleurisy (2.6%), three cases of urinary infection (7.8%), three cases of parietal infection (7.8%) and one case of patient pain at the level of the wound (2.6%). There were no mortalities. We conclude that the morbidity of living donor nephrectomy is negligible compared with the advantages for the recipient.

  17. Robotic inferior vena cava surgery.

    PubMed

    Davila, Victor J; Velazco, Cristine S; Stone, William M; Fowl, Richard J; Abdul-Muhsin, Haidar M; Castle, Erik P; Money, Samuel R

    2017-03-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) surgery is uncommon and has traditionally been performed through open surgical approaches. Renal cell carcinoma with IVC extension generally requires vena cavotomy and reconstruction. Open removal of malpositioned IVC filters (IVCF) is occasionally required after endovascular retrieval attempts have failed. As our experience with robotic surgery has advanced, we have applied this technology to surgery of the IVC. We reviewed our institution's experience with robotic surgical procedures involving the IVC to determine its safety and efficacy. All patients undergoing robotic surgery that included cavotomy and repair from 2011 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were obtained detailing preoperative demographics, operative details, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Ten patients (6 men) underwent robotic vena caval procedures at our institution. Seven patients underwent robotic nephrectomy with removal of IVC tumor thrombus and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Three patients underwent robotic explantation of an IVCF after multiple endovascular attempts at removal had failed. The patients with renal cell carcinoma were a mean age of was 65.4 years (range, 55-74 years). Six patients had right-sided malignancy. All patients had T3b lesions at time of diagnosis. Mean tumor length extension into the IVC was 5 cm (range, 1-8 cm). All patients underwent robotic radical nephrectomy, with caval tumor thrombus removal and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. The average operative time for patients undergoing surgery for renal cell carcinoma was 273 minutes (range, 137-382 minutes). Average intraoperative blood loss was 428 mL (range, 150-1200 mL). The patients with IVCF removal were a mean age of 33 years (range, 24-41 years). Average time from IVCF placement until robotic removal was 35.5 months (range, 4.3-57.3 months). Before robotic IVCF removal, a minimum of two endovascular retrievals were attempted. Average operative time

  18. Visual enhancement of laparoscopic nephrectomies using the 3-CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Nicole J.; Kansal, Neil S.; Dhanani, Nadeem; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Kirk, Allan D.; Pinto, Peter A.; Elster, Eric A.; Huffman, Scott W.; Levin, Ira W.

    2006-02-01

    Many surgical techniques are currently shifting from the more conventional, open approach towards minimally invasive laparoscopic procedures. Laparoscopy results in smaller incisions, potentially leading to less postoperative pain and more rapid recoveries . One key disadvantage of laparoscopic surgery is the loss of three-dimensional assessment of organs and tissue perfusion. Advances in laparoscopic technology include high-definition monitors for improved visualization and upgraded single charge coupled device (CCD) detectors to 3-CCD cameras, to provide a larger, more sensitive color palette to increase the perception of detail. In this discussion, we further advance existing laparoscopic technology to create greater enhancement of images obtained during radical and partial nephrectomies in which the assessment of tissue perfusion is crucial but limited with current 3-CCD cameras. By separating the signals received by each CCD in the 3-CCD camera and by introducing a straight forward algorithm, rapid differentiation of renal vessels and perfusion is accomplished and could be performed real time. The newly acquired images are overlaid onto conventional images for reference and comparison. This affords the surgeon the ability to accurately detect changes in tissue oxygenation despite inherent limitations of the visible light image. Such additional capability should impact procedures in which visual assessment of organ vitality is critical.

  19. Comparison of Acute and Chronic Pain after Open Nephrectomy versus Laparoscopic Nephrectomy: A Prospective Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Alper, Isik; Yüksel, Esra

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated postoperative pain intensity and the incidence of chronic pain in patients with renal cell carcinoma undergoing laparoscopic or open radical nephrectomy. In this prospective study, 27 laparoscopic nephrectomy (Group LN) and 25 open nephrectomy (Group ON) patients were included. All patients received paracetamol infusion and intramuscular morphine 30 minutes before the end of the operation and intravenous patient controlled analgesia with morphine postoperatively. Data including patients' demographics, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores at postoperative 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, postoperative morphine consumption, analgesic demand, analgesic delivery, number of patients requiring rescue analgesics, side effects because of analgesic medications, and overall patient satisfaction were recorded and compared between the two groups. Two and 6 months after the operation, patients were evaluated for chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). Postoperative average VAS pain scores were not different between the two groups. However, only at 2 hours postoperatively, pain score was significantly higher in Group ON than in Group LN. In both groups, the highest pain scores were recorded at 30 minutes and 1 hour after surgery. Ninety-six percent of group ON patients and 88% of group LN patients required additional analgesia in the early postoperative period (P = 0.33). Postoperative morphine consumption and analgesic demand were found to be similar between the two groups. CPSP at 2 months after surgery was observed in 4 out of 25 patients (16%) in the ON group and 3 out of 27 patients (11.1%) in the LN group (P = 0.6). Chronic pain at 6 months after surgery was observed in 1 ON patient (4%) and 1 LN patient (3.7%, P = 0.9). This study demonstrated that postoperative acute pain scores were not different after laparoscopic or open nephrectomy and patients undergoing laparoscopic or open nephrectomy were at equal risk of developing CPSP. Pain control

  20. Comparison of Acute and Chronic Pain after Open Nephrectomy versus Laparoscopic Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Alper, Isik; Yüksel, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated postoperative pain intensity and the incidence of chronic pain in patients with renal cell carcinoma undergoing laparoscopic or open radical nephrectomy. In this prospective study, 27 laparoscopic nephrectomy (Group LN) and 25 open nephrectomy (Group ON) patients were included. All patients received paracetamol infusion and intramuscular morphine 30 minutes before the end of the operation and intravenous patient controlled analgesia with morphine postoperatively. Data including patients’ demographics, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores at postoperative 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, postoperative morphine consumption, analgesic demand, analgesic delivery, number of patients requiring rescue analgesics, side effects because of analgesic medications, and overall patient satisfaction were recorded and compared between the two groups. Two and 6 months after the operation, patients were evaluated for chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). Postoperative average VAS pain scores were not different between the two groups. However, only at 2 hours postoperatively, pain score was significantly higher in Group ON than in Group LN. In both groups, the highest pain scores were recorded at 30 minutes and 1 hour after surgery. Ninety-six percent of group ON patients and 88% of group LN patients required additional analgesia in the early postoperative period (P = 0.33). Postoperative morphine consumption and analgesic demand were found to be similar between the two groups. CPSP at 2 months after surgery was observed in 4 out of 25 patients (16%) in the ON group and 3 out of 27 patients (11.1%) in the LN group (P = 0.6). Chronic pain at 6 months after surgery was observed in 1 ON patient (4%) and 1 LN patient (3.7%, P = 0.9). This study demonstrated that postoperative acute pain scores were not different after laparoscopic or open nephrectomy and patients undergoing laparoscopic or open nephrectomy were at equal risk of developing CPSP. Pain

  1. Current controversies in pediatric urologic robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Trevisani, Lorenzo F M; Nguyen, Hiep T

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgeries such as conventional laparoscopic surgery and robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) have significant advantages over the traditional open surgical approach including lower pain medication requirements and decreased length of hospitalization. However, open surgery has demonstrated better success rates and shorter surgery time when compared to the other modalities. Currently, it is unclear which approach has better long-term clinical outcomes, greater benefits and less cost. There are limited studies in the literature comparing these three different surgical approaches. In this review, we will evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of RALS compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery and open surgery for commonly performed pediatric urological procedures such as pyeloplasty, ureteral reimplantation, complete and partial nephrectomy, bladder augmentation and creation of continent catheterizable channels. Although it is not yet possible to demonstrate the superiority of one single surgical modality over another, RALS has been shown to be feasible, well tolerated and advantageous in reconstructive urological procedures. With experience, the outcomes of RALS are improving, justifying its usage. However, cost remains a significant issue, limiting the accessibility of RALS, which in the future may improve with market competition and device innovation.

  2. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  3. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  4. Initial experience with the new da Vinci single-port robot-assisted platform.

    PubMed

    Ballestero Diego, R; Zubillaga Guerrero, S; Truan Cacho, D; Carrion Ballardo, C; Velilla Diez, G; Calleja Hermosa, P; Gutiérrez Baños, J L

    2017-06-01

    To describe our experience in the first cases of urological surgeries performed with the da Vinci single-port robot-assisted platform. We performed 5 single-port robot-assisted surgeries (R-LESS) between May and October 2014. We performed 3 ureteral reimplant surgeries, one ureteropyeloplasty in an inverted kidney and 1 partial nephrectomy. The perioperative and postoperative results were collected, as well as a report of the complications according to the Clavien classification system. Of the 5 procedures, 4 were performed completely by LESS, while 1 procedure was reconverted to multiport robot-assisted surgery. There were no intraoperative complications. We observed perioperative complications in 4 patients, all of which were grade 1 or 2. The mean surgical time was 262minutes (range, 230-300). In our initial experience with the da Vinci device, R-LESS surgery was feasible and safe. There are still a number of limitations in its use, which require new and improved R-LESS platforms. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [Surgical robotics in neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Haidegger, Tamás; Benyó, Zoltán

    2009-09-06

    Surgical robotics is one of the most dynamically advancing areas of biomedical engineering. In the past few decades, computer-integrated interventional medicine has gained significance internationally in the field of surgical procedures. More recently, mechatronic devices have been used for nephrectomy, cholecystectomy, as well as in orthopedics and radiosurgery. Estimates show that 70% of the radical prostatectomies were performed with the da Vinci robot in the United States last year. Robot-aided procedures offer remarkable advantages in neurosurgery both for the patient and the surgeon, making microsurgery and Minimally Invasive Surgery a reality, and even complete teleoperation accessible. This paper introduces surgical robotic systems developed primarily for brain and spine applications, besides, it focuses on the different research strategies applied to provide smarter, better and more advanced tools to surgeons. A new system is discussed in details that we have developed together with the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. This cooperatively-controlled system can assist with skull base drilling to improve the safety and quality of neurosurgery while reducing the operating time. The paper presents the entire system, the preliminary results of phantom and cadaver tests and our efforts to improve the accuracy of the components. An effective optical tracking based patient motion compensation method has been implemented and tested. The results verify the effectiveness of the system and allow for further research.

  6. Nested hierarchical controller with partial autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of computer architecture for intelligent robots with partial autonomy is addressed. A robot with partial autonomy is considered a degenerated case of a fully autonomous robot. Thus, the problem of man-machine communication is formulated, and the conditions are determined for generating a language for such a communication. The duties of the master are determined.

  7. Comparison of renal function after donor and radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gazel, Eymen; Biçer, Sait; Ölçücüoğlu, Erkan; Yığman, Metin; Taştemur, Sedat; Çamtosun, Ahmet; Ceylan, Cavit; Ateş, Can

    2015-04-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is directly proportionate to nephron reserves. In this respect, it is known that the patients who underwent radical nephrectomy due to renal tumor are under high risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the long term. In this study, it was aimed to compare post-operative renal functions of patients who underwent radical nephrectomy due to renal malignancy and who underwent donor nephrectomy as renal donors, to observe whether renal failure process develops or not, and to determine the factors that affect post-operative renal functions. 70 patients who underwent donor nephrectomy as renal donors and 130 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy due to renal tumor were studied. When we divided the groups as those with a GFR of below 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and those with a GFR of above 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), we observed that GFR values of patients who underwent radical nephrectomy had a significantly stronger tendency to stay below 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) compared to patients who underwent donor nephrectomy (p < 0.001). When we divided the groups as those with a GFR of below 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and those with a GFR of above 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2), we observed that there were no patients in donor nephrectomy group whose GFR values dropped below 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and there was not a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.099). If possible, nephron sparing methods should be preferred for patients to undergo nephrectomy because of the tumor without ignoring oncologic results and it should be remembered that patient's age and pre-operative renal functions may affect post-operative results in donor selection.

  8. [RADICAL LAPAROSCOPIC NEPHRECTOMY WITH INFERIOR VENA CAVA THROMBECTOMY].

    PubMed

    Perlin, D V; Aleksandrov, I V; Zipunnikov, V P; Ljaljuev, A M

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy has proven itself as the "gold standard" treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombus is a complicating factor that occurs in 5% to 10% of patients with renal cell carcinoma. In world literature, there are only anecdotal reports on using laparoscopic approach for IVC thrombectomy in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Herein we report our experience of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy of the level II tumor thrombus in the IVC. Two patients (79-year-old female and 48-year-old male) underwent radical nephrectomy with thrombectomy from IVC for renal cell carcinoma T3bNxM0 complicated by the formation of a tumor thrombus in the IVC. To do this, IVC was isolated, the right gonadal and lumbar veins were ligated and transected. The IVC and the left renal vein blood flow were controlled with a plastic clip and Satinski clamp. After thrombectomy and resection of the IVC, the wall the defect was sutured with continuous Prolene suture. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy with thrombectomy without conversion to open surgery was successfully carried out in both patients. During 6-18 months follow-up no local recurrence or distant metastasis were observed. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy with thrombectomy for renal cell carcinoma complicated with tumor thrombus level II is a safe and reproducible method, which can be applied to a specific population of patients.

  9. [Pneumothorax during right-sided nephrectomy in a heifer].

    PubMed

    Nuss, K; Muggli, E; Gerspach, C; Schramm, S; Dettwiler, M; Bach, F; Ringer, S

    2016-01-01

    A 250-kg heifer had signs of colic attributable to urolithiasis of the right kidney. Medical treatment did not result in resolution of clinical signs, and nephrectomy was carried out. The surgery was started with the heifer standing, and the 13th rib was resected. However, during blunt dissection of the kidney, air suddenly entered the pleural space and the heifer had acute severe dyspnoea. The hole in the pleural cavity was sutured and a chest drain was placed. Inhalation anaesthesia was then induced and nephrectomy could be completed without further complications. The heifer was discharged 11 days postoperatively, and was healthy and had been integrated into the herd 12 months after surgery. Pneumothorax must be considered a possible complication of rib resection in right-sided nephrectomy in cattle.

  10. [Renal adaptation after experimental nephrectomy in animals: a review].

    PubMed

    Rouvellat-Terrade, P; Game, X; de Bonnecaze, G; Beauval, J-B; Mansouri, A; Doumerc, N; Rischmann, P; Malavaud, B

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DATA-GATHERING: We reviewed experimental litterature about kidney adaptation after nephrectomy in mammals. KNOWLEDGE SYNTHESIS: Renal mass increases after nephrectomy thanks to two components, one is immediately due to the rise of glomulary capillary vascular flow, other is linked to cellular modifications with hyperplasia stage which precedes hypertrophy stage. After nephrectomy, young animals show higher renal adaptability than adults. Similarly, the sex influences the remnant kidney parenchyma volume, the increase of glomerular filtration, the hyperplasia's intensity or length, the hypertrophy's metabolic pathways and the glomerular and tubular cells' injury. There is no question that renal compensatory is regulated by hormones such as IGF-1, TGFβ-1 and Ang-II. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Outcomes of angioembolization and nephrectomy for renal angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex: a real-world US national study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peter; Liu, Jamae; Charles, Hearns; Hulbert, John; Bissler, John

    2017-05-01

    To examine outcomes of clinical procedures for renal angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) based on US national health claims databases. This retrospective cohort study selected two cohorts of TSC patients, who underwent either embolization or nephrectomy (either partial or complete) for renal angiomyolipoma in the years from 2000 through 2011. Based on claims diagnosis codes, we estimated the prevalence rates of 10 angiomyolipoma-related conditions and 50 embolization- or nephrectomy-related conditions in the pre- and post-baseline periods respectively, and made cross-year and cross-period comparison of these rates with repeated measures analysis methods. The embolization cohort (N = 4280) and the nephrectomy cohort (N = 3842) had mean baseline ages of 50.7 and 51.7 years with 52.5% and 51.3% males, respectively. After the intervention, the embolization cohort had statistically significant reductions (all p < .05) in gross hematuria (-27.7%), retroperitoneal hemorrhage (-8.4%), and abdominal mass (-6.9%), and increases in hypertension (15.5%), renal mass or unspecified disorder of kidney and ureter (13.8%), anemia (5.1%), and renal insufficiency (3.3%). Similarly, the nephrectomy cohort saw statistically significant reductions (all p < .05) in gross hematuria (-30.6%), flank pain (-7.5%), and abdominal mass (-6.4%), but increases in hypertension (11.9%), renal insufficiency (10.4%), and anemia (7.6%). Embolization was associated with post-procedure increases in renal mass or unspecified kidney/ureter disorder (13.9%), other disorders of kidney and ureter (3.4%), non-acute renal insufficiency (3.1%), flank pain (3.7%), renal insufficiency (3.2%), etc. (all p < .05). Nephrectomy was associated with post-procedure increases in postoperative ileus (5.3%), pain and headache (4.8%), paralytic ileus (3.6%), etc. (all p < .05). Both embolization and nephrectomy were effective, but associated with increases in certain

  12. The role of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Eng, Mary

    2010-04-01

    Renal transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Unfortunately, the number of patients waiting for transplantation greatly exceeds the number of suitable organs. Use of live kidney donors can increase the donor pool. Historically, donor nephrectomy was performed as an open technique. Its associated prolonged convalescence and long-term morbidity was likely a disincentive to donate. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, however, has been shown to have fewer long-term complications without compromising graft function. Since its inception, there has been an increase in the number of live donor renal transplantations performed.

  13. [History of robotics: from archytas of tarentum until Da Vinci robot. (Part II)].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, F M; Jiménez Schlegl, P; Millán Rodríguez, F; Salvador-Bayarri, J; Monllau Font, V; Palou Redorta, J; Villavicencio Mavrich, H

    2007-03-01

    Robotic surgery is a reality. In order to to understand how new robots work is interesting to know the history of ancient (see part i) and modern robotics. The desire to design automatic machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.), Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Bacon, Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors. At 1942 Asimov published the three robotics laws. Mechanics, electronics and informatics advances at XXth century developed robots to be able to do very complex self governing works. At 1985 the robot PUMA 560 was employed to introduce a needle inside the brain. Later on, they were designed surgical robots like World First, Robodoc, Gaspar o Acrobot, Zeus, AESOP, Probot o PAKI-RCP. At 2000 the FDA approved the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), a very sophisticated robot to assist surgeons. Currently urological procedures like prostatectomy, cystectomy and nephrectomy are performed with the da Vinci, so urology has become a very suitable speciality to robotic surgery.

  14. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. ...

  15. [Right renal arteriovenous fistula after nephrectomy with streptococcal endarteritis].

    PubMed

    Natali, J; Emerit, J; Reynier, P; Maraval, M

    1975-01-18

    The authors add a new case, to the 41 already published, of arterio-venous fistula of the renal pedicle after nephrectomy, with the peculiarity of its presentation as a prolonged fever resulting from streptococcal bacterial endarteritis at the site of the fistula (3rd case in the literature). Surgical treatment in association with massive and prolonged antibiotic therapy resulted in recovery.

  16. Training techniques in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Raque, Jessica; Billeter, Adrian T; Lucich, Elizabeth; Marvin, Michael M; Sutton, Erica

    2015-10-01

    The learning curve to achieve competency in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is poorly outlined. Online databases were searched for training in LDN. Abstracts and manuscripts were excluded if they did not address introduction of a laparoscopic technique for donor nephrectomy. Relevant manuscripts were reviewed for surgical technique, use of animal models, co-surgeons, surgeon specialty and training, institution type/volume, and assessment of training method. Forty-four met inclusion criteria, with 75% describing the evolution from open to LDN. Eighty-two percent were from academic centers, and 36% were from centers performing <25 donor nephrectomies each year. The learner was an attending surgeon 80% of the time, mostly urologists with prior laparoscopy or open nephrectomy experience. The learning curve, defined by decreased operating time, averaged 35 cases. Improved intra-operative, patient, and recipient outcomes were observed for centers performing ≥50 LDNs annually. The United Network of Organ Sharing requires 15 cases as surgeon or assistant to be certified as the primary LDN surgeon. This falls below the described learning curve for LDN. The assessment of training and competency for LDN is heterogeneous, and objective learner-based metrics could help surgeons and institutions reach a quality standard for performing this operation.

  17. Hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: a single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Macech, Michał; Alsharabi, Amro; Romanowski, Łukasz; Grochowiecki, Tadeusz; Lewandowska, Dorota; Kaliciński, Piotr; Durlik, Magdalena; Pączek, Leszek; Nazarewski, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The advantages of a minimally invasive nephrectomy are a faster recovery and better quality of life for the donors. Until recently, the majority of donor nephrectomies in Poland were done by open surgery. Aim To present a single centre experience in hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN). Material and methods The first videoscopic left donor nephrectomy in Poland was performed in our department in 2003 using a hand-assisted retroperitoneal approach. From 2011, we changed the method to a transperitoneal approach and started to harvest also right kidneys. Since then, it has become the method of choice for donor nephrectomy and has been performed in 59 cases. Preoperatively, kidneys were assessed by scintigraphy and by angio-computed tomography. We harvested 32 left and 27 right kidneys. There were double renal arteries in 2 cases and triple renal arteries in 1 case. The warm ischaemia time (WIT) was 80–420 s (average 176.13 s); operative time was 85–210 min (average 140 min). Results All procedures were uncomplicated, and all donors were discharged after 2–8 days with normal creatinine levels. The average follow-up period lasted 23 months (1–51 months). Out of all of the cases, 1 case had two minor complications, while all others were uneventful. None of the donors were lost to follow-up. All of the kidneys were transplanted. There were 2 cases of delayed graft function (DGF) and 2 cases of ureter necrosis. One of those kidneys was lost in the third postoperative week. Conclusions Our limited experience shows that HALDN is a safe method and should be used routinely instead of open surgery. PMID:28194249

  18. Hybrid Transureteral Nephrectomy in a Survival Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kirk M.; Alsyouf, Muhannad; Richards, Gideon; Agarwal, Gautum; Heldt, Jonathan P.; Schlaifer, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Natural-orifice approaches for nephrectomy have included access via the stomach, vagina, bladder, and rectum. Recently, the feasibility of using the ureter as a natural orifice for natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery nephrectomy has been demonstrated in a nonsurvival porcine model. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes of transureteral laparoscopic natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery nephrectomy in a survival porcine model. Methods: Three pigs underwent hybrid transureteral natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery nephrectomy. An experimental balloon/dilating sheath was inserted over a wire to dilate the urethra, ureteral orifice, and ureter. Through a bariatric 12-mm laparoscopic port, the ureter was opened medially and the hilar dissection was performed. Next, 2 needlescopic ports were placed transabdominally to facilitate hilar transection. The kidney was morcellated using a bipolar sealing device and extracted via the ureter using the housing of a bariatric stapling device. The ureteral orifice was closed with a laparoscopic suturing device. The bladder was drained by a catheter for 10 to 14 days postoperatively. Pigs were euthanized on postoperative day 21. Results: All surgical procedures were successfully completed, with no intraoperative complications. One pig had an episode of postoperative clot retention that resolved with catheter irrigation. Each pig was healthy and eating a normal diet prior to euthanasia. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of a hybrid transureteral approach to nephrectomy in a survival porcine model. This technique avoids the intentional violation of a second organ system and the risk for peritoneal contamination. Improved instrumentation is needed prior to implementation in the human population. PMID:25489210

  19. Venous thromboembolism after nephrectomy: incidence, timing and associated risk factors from a national multi-institutional database.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Brian J; Matulewicz, Richard S; Trihn, Brian; Kundu, Shilajit

    2017-05-17

    To evaluate the rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after nephrectomy with specific focus on event timing and location (before or after hospital discharge) in order to identify modifiable risk factors and establish benchmarks for preventive interventions. Using the ACS-NSQIP database, we identified patients undergoing nephrectomy from 2006 to 2012. Patients were analyzed in two cohorts: collectively and by surgical approach [open vs. lap/robotic (MIS)]. Rates of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE) were assessed and time to each event was established in relation to discharge status. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess association between preoperative risk factors, surgical variables, and VTE. In total, 13,208 patients met inclusion criteria. The overall rate of VTE was 1.2% (PE = 0.5% and DVT = 0.8, 0.1% DVT and PE). Using regression analysis, diabetes, dependent functional status, and longer operative time were associated with higher odds of DVT. For PE, dyspnea, disseminated cancer, and longer operative time were significant associations. The rate of VTE was higher in open surgery compared to MIS (2 vs. 0.8%, p < 0.001). Median times to DVT and PE were 8.5 and 6 days, respectively, with 53.3% of DVTs and 63.1% of PEs occurring prior to discharge. The overall rate of VTE after nephrectomy is low, occurs roughly one week after surgery, and is associated with longer hospital stays. Certain patient factors, open surgical approach, and longer operative times were associated with higher odds of post-operative VTE; these patients may benefit from more aggressive prophylaxis.

  20. Robot and robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  1. New three-dimensional head-mounted display system, TMDU-S-3D system, for minimally invasive surgery application: procedures for gasless single-port radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kazunori; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Masuda, Hitoshi; Saito, Kazutaka; Koga, Fumitaka; Matsuoka, Yoh; Numao, Noboru; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    2012-09-01

    We present an application of a new three-dimensional head-mounted display system that combines a high-definition three-dimensional organic electroluminescent head-mounted display with a high-definition three-dimensional endoscope to minimally invasive surgery, using gasless single-port radical nephrectomy procedures as a model. This system presents the surgeon with a higher quality of magnified three-dimensional imagery in front of the eyes regardless of head position, and simultaneously allows direct vision by moving the angle of sight downward. It is also significantly less expensive than the current robotic surgery system. While carrying out gasless single-port radical nephrectomy, the system provided the surgeon with excellent three-dimensional imagery of the operative field, direct vision of the outside and inside of the patient, and depth perception and tactile feedback through the devices. All four nephrectomies were safely completed within the operative time, blood loss was within usual limits and there were no complications. The display was light enough to comfortably be worn for a long operative time. Our experiences show that the three-dimensional head-mounted display system might facilitate maneuverability and safety in minimally invasive procedures, without prohibitive cost, and thus might mitigate the drawbacks of other three-dimensional vision systems. Because of the potential benefits that this system offers, it deserves further refinements of its role in various minimally invasive surgeries.

  2. The Role of Nephrectomy for Kidney Cancer in the Era of Targeted and Immune Therapies.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Ulka N

    2016-01-01

    Although two phase III trials support the recommendation of nephrectomy followed by interferon alpha in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), this procedure cannot be applied to every patient with this condition. Systemic therapy has changed from interferon alpha to antiangiogenic-targeted therapy, and the clinical impact of nephrectomy in the era of targeted therapy has not been proven. The SEER database shows that only 35% of patients with advanced RCC undergo nephrectomy as their initial treatment. Retrospective studies showed improved overall survival (OS) outcomes with nephrectomy and interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy; however, the inherent selection bias of younger and healthier patients receiving IL-2 likely accounts for this finding. Neoadjuvant therapy has demonstrated only modest efficacy in unresectable disease, and if remission is obtained with systemic therapy, it is unclear whether nephrectomy has any incremental benefit. In the absence of proven benefit of nephrectomy in the setting of targeted therapy, it seems advisable for patients with RCC with severely symptomatic disease, competing comorbidities, poor performance status, or unresectable disease to avoid nephrectomy and proceed directly to systemic therapy. The clinical implications of deferred cytoreductive nephrectomy for patients with metastatic RCC are poorly understood, and patient cohorts that do not undergo this procedure are likely to be comprised of patients with unfavorable disease characteristics. Unfortunately, the completed trials of targeted therapy were 90% comprised of patients with prior nephrectomy (the majority of trials incorporate prior nephrectomy as an eligibility requirement) and hence may not reflect the outcomes of the majority of the patients with advanced RCC who have not undergone nephrectomy. Newer therapies such as nivolumab and cabozantinib have also been evaluated for a population in which 90% of the patients underwent nephrectomy. Future clinical trials and registry

  3. War without men. Robots on the future battlefield

    SciTech Connect

    Shaker, S.M.; Wise, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The first book on unmanned military vehicles, the weapons of the next war: remotely piloted airborne vehicles, unmanned naval vessels and submersibles, unmanned spacecraft, and robotic ground vehicles. Contents (partial): Foreword; Introduction to the robot warrior; The evolution of military robotic systems; Current operational use and development of unmanned robotic ground vehicles; Current operational use and development of RPVs; Current operational use and development of unmanned naval vessels; Space-based robotics; Impact, applications, and the future of military robots; Index.

  4. [Robots in general surgery: present and future].

    PubMed

    Galvani, Carlos; Horgan, Santiago

    2005-09-01

    Robotic surgery is an emerging technology. We began to use this technique in 2000, after it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Our preliminary experience was satisfactory. We report 4 years' experience of using this technique in our institution. Between August 2000 and December 2004, 399 patients underwent robotic surgery using the Da Vinci system. We performed 110 gastric bypass procedures, 30 Lap band, 59 Heller myotomies, 12 Nissen fundoplications, 6 epiphrenic diverticula, 18 total esophagectomies, 3 esophageal leiomyoma resections, 1 pyloroplasty, 2 gastrojejunostomies, 2 transduodenal sphincteroplasties, 10 adrenalectomies and 145 living-related donor nephrectomies. Operating times for fundoplications and Lap band were longer. After the learning curve, the operating times and morbidity of the remaining procedures were considerably reduced. Robot-assisted surgery allows advanced laparoscopic procedures to be performed with enhanced results given that it reduces the learning curve as measured by operating time and morbidity.

  5. [Aspergillosis located on polycystic kidney treated with retroperitoneal nephrectomy].

    PubMed

    Rabii, R; Hoznek, A; Salomon, L; Bourg, S; Chopin, D K; Abbou, C C

    2001-03-01

    We reported an uncommon case of 40 years old man, cardiac transplant recipient with chronic renal faillure who consulted for infected left polycystic renal. The serum creatinine level was 750 mmol/L, and urine culture isolated a E. Ecol germe. The abdominopelvic computed tomography showed a bilateral large polycystic renal cortex and suspected the infected cyst in lower pole of left kidney. The retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed confirming a renal invasive aspergillosa. About this case we should have a high index of suspicion for fungal aetiology in kidney infection in transplant patients and the management of non functioning infected polycystic kidney can use laparoscopic retroperitoneal nephrectomy. This approach can offers a minimal morbidity and alternative to open surgery.

  6. Malignant Hypertension Revisited: The Role of Bilateral Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Iluminado; Callender, Clive O.; Cummings, Yvonne; Dillard, Martin; Hosten, Adrian; Stevens, Joel

    1980-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading cause of renal failure in this dialysis and transplant center. When malignant hypertension is encountered, the symptom complex of cachexia and failure to thrive highlights its clinical presentation. The courses of 32 black renal hypertensive patients studied retrospectively demonstrated this symptom complex as well as prolongation of survival, when bilateral nephrectomy and renal transplantation were used as definitive treatment. PMID:6991710

  7. Preoperative nuclear renal scan underestimates renal function after radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Laurie; Negron, Edris; Liu, Joceline S; Su, Yu-Kai; Paparello, James J; Eggener, Scott; Kundu, Shilajit D

    2014-12-01

    To compare expected and actual renal function after nephrectomy. Nuclear renal scan estimates differential kidney function and is commonly used to calculate expected postoperative renal function after radical nephrectomy. However, the observed postoperative renal function is often different from the expected. A retrospective review was performed on 136 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy or nephroureterectomy and had a preoperative renal scan with calculated differential function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values, preoperative and postoperative, were calculated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. The expected postoperative GFR based on renal scan was compared with the actual postoperative GFR. The average age of patients undergoing surgery was 58.6 years, and the indication for surgery was for benign causes in 59 (44%) patients and cancer in 76 (56%) patients. The average preoperative creatinine and estimated GFR were 1.0 mg/dL and 69.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At a median follow-up of 3.3 months, the actual postoperative GFR exceeded the expected GFR by an average of 12.1% (interquartile range, 2.6%-25.2%). When stratified by preoperative GFR >90, 60-90, and <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively, the observed GFR exceeded the expected GFR by 4.3%, 12.6%, and 14.9%, respectively (P = .16). This trend was maintained when GFR was plotted over time. After nephrectomy, the remaining kidney exceeded the expected postoperative GFR by 12% in this cohort of patients with preoperative renal scans. Patients with existing renal insufficiency had the greatest compensatory response, and this was durable over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental evaluation of Ethibloc for nonsurgical nephrectomy. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, K.C.; Bowers, T.; Chuang, V.P.; Tsai, C.C.

    1982-11-01

    Six adult dogs weighing 18-28 kg were used to evaluate a new embolic material, Ethibloc, for nonsurgical nephrectomy. Both acute and chronic studies were performed. Results indicated that Ethibloc is easily administered and neither toxic nor mutagenic (at 9 weeks). However, it exhibits inadequate radiopacity at the dosages used and may require a balloon catheter (which could cause some Ethibloc to be forced through the glomerular capillaries) or repeat embolization to achieve permanent and complete renal infarction.

  9. [Two cases of gravity dependent atelectasis after laparoscopic nephrectomy].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Sawako; Hiraki, Teruyuki; Miyagawa, Yoshikado; Kano, Tatsuhiko

    2004-08-01

    Two patients developed postoperative pulmonary atelectasis after receving laparoscopic nephrectomy in the lateral kidney position. In both patients, the trachea was intubated with a single lumen tube and the lateral kidney position was kept over 9 hours. Because the pulmonary atelectasis had developed on the lower side of the lungs, we considered it as the gravity dependent atelectasis (GDA). We have also described treatments and prophylaxis for GDA in this case report.

  10. Death or dialysis? The risk of dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure after trauma nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Kristopher C; Yeung, Louise Y; Miranda, Marvin A; Miraflor, Emily J; Strumwasser, Aaron M; Victorino, Gregory P

    2013-01-01

    Although renal trauma is increasingly managed nonoperatively, severe renovascular injuries occasionally require nephrectomy. Long-term outcomes after trauma nephrectomy are unknown. We hypothesized that the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is minimal after trauma nephrectomy. We conducted a retrospective review of the following: 1) our university-based, urban trauma center database; 2) the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB); 3) the National Inpatient Sample (NIS); and 4) the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS). Data were compiled to estimate the risk of ESRD after trauma nephrectomy in the United States. Of the 232 patients who sustained traumatic renal injuries at our institution from 1998 to 2007, 36 (16%) underwent a nephrectomy an average of approximately four nephrectomies per year. The NTDB reported 1780 trauma nephrectomies from 2002 to 2006, an average of 356 per year. The 2005 NIS data estimated that in the United States, over 20,000 nephrectomies are performed annually for renal cell carcinoma. The USRDS annual incidence of ESRD requiring hemodialysis is over 90,000, of which 0.1 per cent (100 per year) of renal failure is the result of traumatic or surgical loss of a kidney. Considering the large number of nephrectomies performed for cancer, we estimated the risk of trauma nephrectomy causing renal failure that requires dialysis to be 0.5 per cent. National data regarding the etiology of renal failure among patients with ESRD reveal a very low incidence of trauma nephrectomy (0.5%) as a cause; therefore, nephrectomy for trauma can be performed with little concern for long-term dialysis dependence.

  11. The rabbit nephrectomy model for training in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Molinas, Carlos Roger; Binda, Maria Mercedes; Mailova, Karina; Koninckx, Philippe Robert

    2004-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgical training is generally done with the teacher-student model using complex exercises. This study was performed to evaluate a new training model that emphasizes the repetition of simple procedures. Laparoscopic surgery was performed in rabbits (n=200) using conventional instruments. Gynaecologists (n=10) and medical students (n=10) performed a series of exercises during 20 full days training. Nephrectomy was chosen to evaluate and score laparoscopic skills, i.e. duration of surgery and complication rate, since it mimics the surgical challenge and involves dissection of major vessels. Each surgeon performed 20 nephrectomies, alternating left and right sides. Duration of surgery and complications decreased with training. For duration of surgery, a two-phase exponential decay learning curve, with different decays for gynaecologists and students, was observed. Gynaecologists achieved shorter operating times than students for real and calculated times in the first procedure (P<0.0001 and P<0.0001) and for calculated time in the last procedure (P=0.001). Severe complications were more frequent in students than in gynaecologists (P=0.0003). The rabbit nephrectomy model is suitable for training in laparoscopic surgery. Since it implies the repetition of short and well-defined exercises, progression is easier to monitor and the necessity for continuous supervision is less, making training less expensive.

  12. Hand-assisted and standard laparoscopic radical nephrectomy after prior renal surgery.

    PubMed

    Gabr, Ahmed H; Roberts, William W; Wolf, J Stuart

    2014-02-01

    With the increasing use of partial nephrectomy, cases of ipsilateral tumor recurrence will inevitably occur. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) for a previously operated kidney, through a case-matched comparison with LRN in patients without prior renal surgery. Among 550 patients who underwent hand-assisted or standard LRN at our institution between August 1996 and January 2013, we identified patients who had prior laparoscopic or open surgical renal surgery. Each study patient was matched 1:2 with patients who had not had prior renal surgery. Matching was exact by surgical approach, gender, side of surgery, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and closest possible by age and body mass index. LRN was performed in 9 patients (6 hand-assisted and 3 standard) with prior open surgical or laparoscopic renal surgery. There were no conversions to open surgery. Primary surgeon tended to be to attending urologist more often than the trainee in the study compared to the control patients, an indication of increased technical difficulty. Additionally, there were four intraoperative injuries recorded in the study group (44%) and just one such event in the control group (5.6%) (p = 0.0297). Although LRN after prior renal surgery is challenging, requiring the expertise of experienced surgeons and being associated with appreciable rate of intraoperative injuries, these cases can be completed laparoscopically (especially with the selective use of hand-assistance) and are associated with duration of hospitalization and postoperative complication rates similar to those in patients undergoing LRN without prior renal surgery.

  13. Laparoscopic bilateral hand-assisted nephrectomy: end-stage renal disease from tuberculosis, an unusual indication for nephrectomy before transplantation.

    PubMed

    Casaccia, Marco; Torelli, Paolo; Fontana, Iris; Panaro, Fabrizio; Valente, Umberto

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to sterilize renal tuberculous foci in a pretransplantation patient with a laparoscopic hand-assisted approach and to verify the feasibility of bilateral nephrectomy for this indication. This case report is the first description of hand-assisted laparoscopic bilateral nephrectomy for this pathologic condition. The 33-year-old patient had end-stage renal disease from renal tuberculosis. A commercially available hand-assistance device was used through a midline 8-cm supraumbilical incision and with four ports. The procedure was successfully completed. The total operative time was 3 hours and 40 minutes. Estimated blood loss was 250 mL. The postoperative course was uneventful, and clinical follow-up at 3 weeks revealed a successful outcome. Hand-assisted bilateral laparoscopic nephrectomy in patients with chronic renal failure from tuberculosis represents a viable option because it is feasible and effective. The hand-assisted approach increases the safety of the procedure while retaining all the advantages of minimally invasive surgery.

  14. Robot-assisted nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy using near-infrared fluorescence technology and indocyanine green: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Mario S; De Gobbi, Alberto; Beniamin, Francesco; Lamon, Claudio; Ciaccia, Matteo; Maccatrozzo, Luigino

    2017-05-23

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a fluorescent molecule that provokes detectable photon emission. The use of ICG with near-infrared (NIR) imaging system (Akorn, Lake Forest, IL) has been described during robotic partial nephrectomy (RAPN) as an adjunctive means of identifying renal artery and parenchymal perfusion.We propose the use of the ICG with NIR fluorescence during laparoscopic robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), to identify the benchmark artery improving the preservation of neurovascular bundle and to improve the visualization of the vascularization and then the hemostasis. From April 2015 to February 2016, 62 patients underwent to RARP in our Urology Unit. In 26 consecutive patients, in the attempt to have a better visualization of neurovascular bundles, we used to inject ICG during the procedure. We evaluated the percentage of identification of neurovascular bundles using NIR fluorescence. Then, we evaluated complications related to injection of ICG and operative time differences between RARP with and without ICG injection performed by the same surgeons. We identified prostatic arteries and neurovascular bundles using NIR fluorescence technology in all patients (100%). There was not any increase in the operative time compared with RARP without ICG injection performed by the same surgeons. Complications related to injection of ICG did not occurred. In our experience, even if on a limited number of patients, the application of ICG with NIR fluorescence during RARP is helpful to identify the benchmark artery of neurovascular bundle.

  15. A Systematic Review of Virtual Reality Simulators for Robot-assisted Surgery.

    PubMed

    Moglia, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Morelli, Luca; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2016-06-01

    No single large published randomized controlled trial (RCT) has confirmed the efficacy of virtual simulators in the acquisition of skills to the standard required for safe clinical robotic surgery. This remains the main obstacle for the adoption of these virtual simulators in surgical residency curricula. To evaluate the level of evidence in published studies on the efficacy of training on virtual simulators for robotic surgery. In April 2015 a literature search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the Clinical Trials Database (US) and the Meta Register of Controlled Trials. All publications were scrutinized for relevance to the review and for assessment of the levels of evidence provided using the classification developed by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The publications included in the review consisted of one RCT and 28 cohort studies on validity, and seven RCTs and two cohort studies on skills transfer from virtual simulators to robot-assisted surgery. Simulators were rated good for realism (face validity) and for usefulness as a training tool (content validity). However, the studies included used various simulation training methodologies, limiting the assessment of construct validity. The review confirms the absence of any consensus on which tasks and metrics are the most effective for the da Vinci Skills Simulator and dV-Trainer, the most widely investigated systems. Although there is consensus for the RoSS simulator, this is based on only two studies on construct validity involving four exercises. One study on initial evaluation of an augmented reality module for partial nephrectomy using the dV-Trainer reported high correlation (r=0.8) between in vivo porcine nephrectomy and a virtual renorrhaphy task according to the overall Global Evaluation Assessment of Robotic Surgery (GEARS) score. In one RCT on skills transfer, the experimental group outperformed the control group, with a significant difference in overall

  16. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  17. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  18. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  19. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  20. A robotics-based flat-panel ultrasound device for continuous intraoperative transcutaneous imaging.

    PubMed

    Gumprecht, Jan D J; Bauer, Thomas; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Lueth, Tim C

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy has become more and more popular in the last decade. Video laparoscopes remain the gold standard of intraoperative imaging during laparoscopic interventions. However, providing only superficial images of the target tissue. In contrast, ultrasound (US) imaging may offer crucial information of the interior of the target tissue that could improve surgical outcome. In this paper, we propose a new concept and prototype system to manipulate an US-probe during laparoscopic partial nephrectomies. Our primary goal was to provide the surgeon with US-images during the intervention in real-time. The prototype system consists of three components: a conventional US-machine, a manipulator to guide the US-probe, and a joystick console to control the manipulator. The results of our experiments show that the concept is feasible for US-imaging during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  1. Hand-assisted laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (right-sided approach): experience obtained from 31 cases.

    PubMed

    Maciel, R F

    2007-10-01

    The removal of a donor kidney by laparoscopic nephrectomy is a safe method that is widely used, mainly in left donor nephrectomy. However, for right donor nephrectomy where the right renal vein is short, open surgery has been more frequently described in the literature. Our objective was to describe our experience with 31 renal transplantations using 2 different techniques in right donor nephrectomy. In the period ranging from February 2002 to June 2005, we performed, 31 hand-assisted laparoscopic right donor nephrectomies. Twenty-five were performed by the method where the assistant used his hand to assist the surgery and 6 were by the laparoscopic method assisted by the first surgeon. The right donor nephrectomies assisted either by the hand of the assistant or the surgeon showed similar results. All recipients displayed diuresis in the immediate postoperative period. The serum creatinine level at 1 week after transplantation was 1.90 mg/dL (+/-1.55). Although the handling techniques are similar, we concluded that laparoscopic nephrectomy assisted by the surgeon is more adequate for right kidney extraction. It can be performed either by a resident doctor or a surgeon of the transplantation team, with or without experience in nephrectomy for transplantation.

  2. [Should ipsilateral adrenalectomy be performed systematically during radical nephrectomy for renal cancer?].

    PubMed

    Joual, A; Fekak, H; Rabii, R; Hafiani, M; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a retrospective study of 46 patients with renal cell carcinoma treated by radical nephrectomy including ipsilateral adrenalectomy. CT scan showed a normal adrenal gland in all patients. Histology revealed the absence of adrenal metastasis in all patients. Ipsilateral adrenalectomy is not systematically required in radical nephrectomy.

  3. Effects of maternal subtotal nephrectomy on the development of the fetal kidney: A morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tomohiro; Kitano-Amahori, Yoko; Nagai, Hiroaki; Mino, Masaki; Takeshita, Ai; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Okada, Toshiya

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to explore if maternal subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy affects the development of fetal rat kidneys using morphometric methods and examining whether there are any apoptotic changes in the fetal kidney. To generate 5/6 nephrectomized model rats, animals underwent 2/3 left nephrectomy on gestation day (GD) 5 and total right nephrectomy on GD 12. The fetal kidneys were examined on GDs 16 and 22. A significant decrease in fetal body weight resulting from maternal 5/6 nephrectomy was observed on GD 16, and a significant decrease in fetal renal weight and fetal body weight caused by maternal nephrectomy was observed on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy induced a significant increase in glomerular number, proximal tubular length, and total proximal tubular volume of fetuses on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the metanephric mesenchyme of the kidney on GD 16, and in the collecting tubules on GD 22. These findings suggest that maternal 5/6 nephrectomy stimulates the development of the fetal kidney while suppressing fetal growth.

  4. Anesthetic management of nephrectomy in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient with recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappaji; Bhat Pai, Rohini; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2016-01-01

    Nephrectomies are usually performed under general anesthesia alone or in combination with regional anesthesia and rarely under regional anesthesia alone. We report the management of a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a history of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax undergoing nephrectomy under regional anesthesia alone.

  5. [Anesthetic management of nephrectomy in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient with recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax].

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappaji; Bhat Pai, Rohini; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2016-01-01

    Nephrectomies are usually performed under general anesthesia alone or in combination with regional anesthesia and rarely under regional anesthesia alone. We report the management of a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a history of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax undergoing nephrectomy under regional anesthesia alone.

  6. Minimally invasive open nephrectomy on children with multicystic dysplastic kidney

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dongchuan; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Sun, Fang; Ma, Tongsheng; Li, Yuan; Chen, Shujing

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to summarize the preliminary experience of minimally invasive open nephrectomy operation on children with multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK). A retrospective review was performed on the clinical materials of the 15 children that had accepted consecutive minimally invasive open nephrectomies during the previous 2 years. The enrolled children were diagnosed with unilateral MCDK under computed tomography, emission computerized tomography and ultrasound and no anomaly in the contralateral functioning kidney was found. Of the 15 children, 12 were boys and 3 were girls, with 5 cases on the right and 10 cases on the left. Operations were completed at the retroperitoneal space in order to open an incision on the waists and ribs of the children, the length of which ranged from 1.5 to 2.0 cm (average 1.7 cm). The age of the children at operation ranged from 3 months to 5.6 years old, with an average of 2.4 years old. Surgery lasted for 30–50 min, with an average of 34.6 min. The estimated blood loss of each child was <5 ml. After operation, prophylactic intravenous antibiotics were administered for 2–4 days to prevent infection. All of the operations proved very successful. Following surgery the children were hospitalized for 2–4 days for observation, with an average of 2.8 days. No complications occurred during the follow-up period. In conclusion, minimally invasive open nephrectomy is effective for children with MCDK. The procedure is superior with regard to operative time, cosmesis, and length of stay. It is a safe and effective treatment choice for patietns with MCDK and can be easily performed on children. PMID:28101154

  7. Percutaneously Assisted "Two-Ports" Transperitoneal Radical Nephrectomy: Initial Series.

    PubMed

    Porpiglia, Francesco; Bertolo, Riccardo; Morra, Ivano; Fiori, Cristian

    2016-06-01

    Looking for a virtually "scarless" surgery mini-laparoscopy (ML) could be a viable alternative to conventional laparoscopy. ML is a reproducible technique and allows for the preservation of the triangulation concept, the cornerstone of laparoscopic surgery. Drawback of ML could be the poor performance of miniaturized instruments that could affect the confidence of the surgeon and limit the indications. The recent availability of a novel mini-laparoscopic platform in our center expanded the indications of ML to radical nephrectomy even in cases of large renal tumors in kidneys with abundant perirenal fat. The platform is composed by mini-instruments with the peculiarity of a 2.9-mm shaft that is mounted on a handle and a jaw that are comparable in size and performance to those of conventional instruments, increasing the ergonomy and the confidence perceived by the surgeon. Allowing for inclusion criteria, nine consecutive patients were enrolled in our prospective study and underwent percutaneously assisted "two-ports" radical nephrectomy. Preliminary data showed that the novel platform allowed us to perform a safe and effective procedure with acceptable perioperative outcomes and apparent improvements in cosmesis. Larger sample size and comparative studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  8. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: meeting the challenge of consumerism?

    PubMed

    Siddins, Mark; Hart, Gabrielle; He, Bulang; Kanchanabat, Burapa; Mohan Rao, M

    2003-11-01

    Despite the increasing adoption of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, no study has examined donor perceptions following this procedure. In particular, it has been tacitly assumed that a less invasive procedure might in itself provide a more satisfactory donor experience. The present study reviews the experience of donors undergoing laparoscopic nephrectomy, and examines the extent to which contemporary management practice addresses issues relevant to consumerism. Forty-two donors participated in a structured telephone interview, and 33 (79%) returned a written questionnaire. Coming through the survey was a strong sense of commitment to donation, and most respondents were satisfied with the experience. The main criticisms related to hotel services, the duration of the preoperative investigations, the perceived quality of nursing care on the general wards, medical communication and the duration of postoperative follow up. The self-reported time to meet recovery goals was extremely broad. Considering the nature of criticisms offered by the respondents, it is concluded that the expectations of donors as health-care consumers will only be met through modification of existing protocols.

  9. Comparison of three perioperative fluid regimes for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Di Biase, Manuela; Verbrugge, Serge; IJzermans, Jan N. M.; Gommers, Diederik

    2007-01-01

    Background Pneumoperitoneum (PP), as used for laparoscopic procedures, impairs stroke volume, renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and urine output. This study investigated whether perioperative fluid management can abolish these negative effects of PP on hemodynamics. Methods Twenty-one patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) were randomized into three groups: group 1 received overnight infusion and received a bolus of colloid before induction of anesthesia, followed by a bolus just before PP; group 2 received overnight infusion and a colloid bolus before anesthesia; group 3 served as controls and received only infusion during operation. All three groups received the same total amount of crystalloids and colloids until nephrectomy. Data analysis of the donor included; mean arterial pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), left ventricular ejection time (LVETc), perioperative urine output and renal function measured as the creatinine clearance (CrCl) until one-year post-operative. Results SV was significantly higher in group 1 compared to controls for all measurements. In the control group SV significantly decreased after changing from the supine to lateral position whereas there was no change in SV in both pre-hydrated groups. In all groups, MAP decreased after induction of anesthesia, and restored to pre-anesthetic values during PP. CrCl decreased in the control group during PP, but not in the other groups. From two days postoperative, CrCl was comparable between the three study groups. Conclusion Overnight infusion and a bolus of colloid just before PP attenuate hemodynamic compromise from PP. PMID:17522928

  10. Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy in Complete Situs Inversus

    PubMed Central

    Gahagan, John V.; Whealon, Matthew D.; Reddy, Uttam; Foster, Clarence E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complete situs inversus is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by transposition of organs. We report a case of renal transplantation using a kidney from a living complete situs inversus donor. The recipient was a 59-year-old female with end-stage renal disease because of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The donor was the 56-year-old sister of the recipient with complete situs inversus. CT angiogram of the abdomen and pelvis showed complete situs inversus and an otherwise normal appearance of the bilateral kidneys with patent bilateral single renal arteries and longer renal vein in the right kidney. The patient was taken to the operating room for a hand-assisted laparoscopic right donor nephrectomy. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was discharged home in good condition on postoperative day 1. The recipient experienced no episodes of acute rejection or infection, with serum creatinine levels of 0.8–1.2 mg/dL. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in a patient with complete situs inversus remains a technically feasible operation and the presence of situs inversus should not preclude consideration for living kidney donation. PMID:27579434

  11. CASSY Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Anna; Wright, Ann; Rice, Aaron; Shyaka, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The CASSY Robot project involved two square robots coded in RobotC. The goal was to code a robot to do a certain set of tasks autonomously. To begin with, our task was to code the robot so that it would roam a certain area, marked off by black tape. When the robot hit the black tape, it knew to back up and turn around. It was able to do this thanks to the light sensor that was attached to the bottom of the robot. Also, whenever the robot hit an obstacle, it knew to stop, back up, and turn around. This was primarily to prevent the robot from hurting itself if it hit an obstacle. This was accomplished by using touch sensors set up as bumpers. Once that was accomplished, we attached sonar sensors and created code so that one robot was able to find and track the other robot in a sort of intruder/police scenario. The overall goal of this project was to code the robot so that we can test it against a robot coded exactly the same, but using Layered Mode Selection Logic. Professor.

  12. Emerging role of robotics in urology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajeev; Hemal, Ashok K.

    2005-01-01

    Robotic assistance is one of the latest additions to the field of laparoscopic surgery. The most commonly used robotic device in Urology is the da Vinci® system of which over 200 devices are installed worldwide including 3 in India. This robot consists of three or four arms, one of which is used to hold and manipulate the laparoscopic camera while the others are used to manipulate specialized laparoscopic instruments with endowrist® technology that allows 7 degrees of freedom. The robot is currently used primarily for radical prostatectomies where complex dissection and reconstruction can be performed in less than 2 hours with excellent outcomes. There is a progressive increase in the number of surgeries being performed by this device which allows laparoscopy naïve surgeons to offer the benefits of minimally invasive surgery to their patients. The other surgeries where this device has been used to benefit are pyeloplasty, cystectomy with urinary diversion, nephrectomy and ureteric re-implant. The principal drawbacks of the device are the steep cost of machine and disposables. However, the benefits achieved in terms of improved surgical precision, magnified 3 dimensional vision, scaling of movements, remote surgery and as a teaching tools will help the robot establish a definitive place in the urologic armamentarium. PMID:21206664

  13. Army Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-07

    Army Robotics 07 October 2009 Dr. Grant Gerhart, Senior Research Scientist Bernard Theisen, Joint Center for Robotics DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A... Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Grant Gerhart; Bernard Theisen 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...CBRNE • IED Defeat Systems • Disarm / Disrupt • Reconnaissance • Investigation • Explosive Sniffer • Common Robotic Kit • EOD • Convoy • Log

  14. Space Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    ACCESSION NO 3. RECIPIENTS CATALOG NUIA3.R CMU-RI-TR-82-10 I4 1 (. 4. ;,;-LL (and Sublitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD CovEREO SPACE ROBOTICS Interim... Robotics Institute Pittsburgh, PA. 15213 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Office of Naval Research -August 1982 Arlington, VA 22217...SXnet.eE . Space Robotics Richard E. Korf Department of Computer Science and The Robotics Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Oetusylvania

  15. TARDEC Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-12

    unclassified TARDEC Robotics Dr. James L. Overholt Director, Joint Center for Robotics US Army TARDEC Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TARDEC Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) James L. Overholt... Robotics , Network and Control Components with a Focus on Customer Driven Requirements to Provide Full System Solutions to the War Fighter Technology

  16. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  17. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  18. (Robotic hands)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1988-09-23

    The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

  19. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  20. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  1. The Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy on Blood Pressure and Its Circadian Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Naro; Isobe, Shinsuke; Ishigaki, Sayaka; Suzuki, Takahisa; Motoyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Nagata, Masao; Kato, Akihiko; Ozono, Seiichiro; Yasuda, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypertension and diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation are widely accepted as risk factors for renal damage. However, the effects of unilateral nephrectomy on BP and its circadian rhythm have not yet been clarified in patients with a compromised renal function, including dialysis patients. Methods We investigated 22 unilateral nephrectomized patients (16 men and 6 women, age: 64.5±14.3 years). The function of the circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II) and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were evaluated before and after nephrectomy. Daytime and nighttime 24-h ABPM values were determined based on sleep and waking times. Results In non-dialysis patients, the estimated glomerular filtration rate after nephrectomy was significantly lower than that before (before, 62.4±23.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. after, 43.7±16.8 mL/min/1.73 m2; p<0.01). No significant differences were noted in the levels of BPs and circulating RAS before and after nephrectomy. However, the night-to-day (N/D) ratio of systolic BP (SBP) was significantly higher after nephrectomy than before (before, 93.3±6.5% vs. after, 98.4±6.9%; p<0.01), and the patterns of circadian BP rhythm also significantly differed before and after nephrectomy (p=0.022). Namely, the rates of dipper patterns decreased and nondipper and riser patterns increased after nephrectomy. In contrast, in dialysis patients, no significant differences were observed in the N/D ratio of SBP or the patterns of circadian BP rhythm before and after nephrectomy. Conclusion Unilateral nephrectomy affects the circadian rhythm of BP but not absolute values of BP. PMID:27904104

  2. National nephrectomy registries: Reviewing the need for population-based data.

    PubMed

    Pearson, John; Williamson, Timothy; Ischia, Joseph; Bolton, Damien M; Frydenberg, Mark; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2015-09-01

    Nephrectomy is the cornerstone therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and continued refinement of the procedure through research may enhance patient outcomes. A national nephrectomy registry may provide the key information needed to assess the procedure at a national level. The aim of this study was to review nephrectomy data available at a population-based level in Australia and to benchmark these data against data from the rest of the world as an examination of the national nephrectomy registry model. A PubMed search identified records pertaining to RCC nephrectomy in Australia. A similar search identified records relating to established nephrectomy registries internationally and other surgical registries of clinical importance. These records were reviewed to address the stated aims of this article. Population-based data within Australia for nephrectomy were lacking. Key issues identified were the difficulty in benchmarking outcomes and no ongoing monitoring of trends. The care centralization debate, which questions whether small-volume centers provide comparable outcomes to high-volume centers, is ongoing. Patterns of adherence and the effectiveness of existing protocols are uncertain. A review of established international registries demonstrated that the registry model can effectively address issues comparable to those identified in the Australian literature. A national nephrectomy registry could address deficiencies identified in a given nation's nephrectomy field. The model is supported by evidence from international examples and will provide the population-based data needed for studies. Scope exists for possible integration with other registries to develop a more encompassing urological or surgical registry. Need remains for further exploration of the feasibility and practicalities of initiating such a registry including a minimum data set, outcome indicators, and auditing of data.

  3. Impact of transplant nephrectomy on peak PRA levels and outcome after kidney re-transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tittelbach-Helmrich, Dietlind; Pisarski, Przemyslaw; Offermann, Gerd; Geyer, Marcel; Thomusch, Oliver; Hopt, Ulrich Theodor; Drognitz, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the impact of transplant nephrectomy on peak panel reactive antibody (PRA) levels, patient and graft survival in kidney re-transplants. METHODS: From 1969 to 2006, a total of 609 kidney re-transplantations were performed at the University of Freiburg and the Campus Benjamin Franklin of the University of Berlin. Patients with PRA levels above (5%) before first kidney transplantation were excluded from further analysis (n = 304). Patients with graft nephrectomy (n = 245, NE+) were retrospectively compared to 60 kidney re-transplants without prior graft nephrectomy (NE-). RESULTS: Peak PRA levels between the first and the second transplantation were higher in patients undergoing graft nephrectomy (P = 0.098), whereas the last PRA levels before the second kidney transplantation did not differ between the groups. Age adjusted survival for the second kidney graft, censored for death with functioning graft, were comparable in both groups. Waiting time between first and second transplantation did not influence the graft survival significantly in the group that underwent nephrectomy. In contrast, patients without nephrectomy experienced better graft survival rates when re-transplantation was performed within one year after graft loss (P = 0.033). Age adjusted patient survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 94.1% and 86.3% vs 83.1% and 75.4% group NE+ and NE-, respectively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Transplant nephrectomy leads to a temporary increase in PRA levels that normalize before kidney re-transplantation. In patients without nephrectomy of a non-viable kidney graft timing of re-transplantation significantly influences graft survival after a second transplantation. Most importantly, transplant nephrectomy is associated with a significantly longer patient survival. PMID:25032103

  4. National nephrectomy registries: Reviewing the need for population-based data

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, John; Williamson, Timothy; Ischia, Joseph; Bolton, Damien M; Frydenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Nephrectomy is the cornerstone therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and continued refinement of the procedure through research may enhance patient outcomes. A national nephrectomy registry may provide the key information needed to assess the procedure at a national level. The aim of this study was to review nephrectomy data available at a population-based level in Australia and to benchmark these data against data from the rest of the world as an examination of the national nephrectomy registry model. A PubMed search identified records pertaining to RCC nephrectomy in Australia. A similar search identified records relating to established nephrectomy registries internationally and other surgical registries of clinical importance. These records were reviewed to address the stated aims of this article. Population-based data within Australia for nephrectomy were lacking. Key issues identified were the difficulty in benchmarking outcomes and no ongoing monitoring of trends. The care centralization debate, which questions whether small-volume centers provide comparable outcomes to high-volume centers, is ongoing. Patterns of adherence and the effectiveness of existing protocols are uncertain. A review of established international registries demonstrated that the registry model can effectively address issues comparable to those identified in the Australian literature. A national nephrectomy registry could address deficiencies identified in a given nation's nephrectomy field. The model is supported by evidence from international examples and will provide the population-based data needed for studies. Scope exists for possible integration with other registries to develop a more encompassing urological or surgical registry. Need remains for further exploration of the feasibility and practicalities of initiating such a registry including a minimum data set, outcome indicators, and auditing of data. PMID:26366272

  5. The Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy on Blood Pressure and Its Circadian Rhythm.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Naro; Isobe, Shinsuke; Ishigaki, Sayaka; Suzuki, Takahisa; Motoyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Nagata, Masao; Kato, Akihiko; Ozono, Seiichiro; Yasuda, Hideo

    Objective Hypertension and diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation are widely accepted as risk factors for renal damage. However, the effects of unilateral nephrectomy on BP and its circadian rhythm have not yet been clarified in patients with a compromised renal function, including dialysis patients. Methods We investigated 22 unilateral nephrectomized patients (16 men and 6 women, age: 64.5±14.3 years). The function of the circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II) and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were evaluated before and after nephrectomy. Daytime and nighttime 24-h ABPM values were determined based on sleep and waking times. Results In non-dialysis patients, the estimated glomerular filtration rate after nephrectomy was significantly lower than that before (before, 62.4±23.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) vs. after, 43.7±16.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); p<0.01). No significant differences were noted in the levels of BPs and circulating RAS before and after nephrectomy. However, the night-to-day (N/D) ratio of systolic BP (SBP) was significantly higher after nephrectomy than before (before, 93.3±6.5% vs. after, 98.4±6.9%; p<0.01), and the patterns of circadian BP rhythm also significantly differed before and after nephrectomy (p=0.022). Namely, the rates of dipper patterns decreased and nondipper and riser patterns increased after nephrectomy. In contrast, in dialysis patients, no significant differences were observed in the N/D ratio of SBP or the patterns of circadian BP rhythm before and after nephrectomy. Conclusion Unilateral nephrectomy affects the circadian rhythm of BP but not absolute values of BP.

  6. Displacement of the Spleen Mimicking Renal Cell Cancer Recurrence Post-Nephrectomy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Emanuels, Carolina S.; Timmerman, Krista D.; Aijaz, Tabish; Nguyen, Thu-Cuc; Jest, Nathaniel; Drane, Walter E.; Gilbert, Scott M.; Crispen, Paul L.; Su, Li-Ming; Deitte, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Local regional recurrence of renal cell cancer post-nephrectomy most often occurs within three years after surgery. Post-nephrectomy, many processes may mimic RCC recurrence. We present the case of a 75 year-old Caucasian male patient with a mass in his renal fossa post-nephrectomy for renal cell cancer, suggesting local recurrence. Use of the technetium-99m sulfur colloid scan showed that the mass was his spleen which had been displaced into the renal fossa. With high index of suspicion, characterization of these processes as splenic in origin would prevent subjecting patients to risks of biopsy or even surgery.

  7. Hospitalizations Following Living Donor Nephrectomy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, David A.; Buccini, Laura D.; Rodrigue, James R.; Mandelbrot, Didier; Heaphy, Emily L. G.; Fatica, Richard A.; Poggio, Emilio D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Living donors represented 43% of United States kidney donors in 2012. Although research suggests minimal long-term consequences of donation, few comprehensive longitudinal studies for this population have been performed. The primary aims of this study were to examine the incidence, risk factors, and causes of rehospitalization following donation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements State Inpatient Databases (SID) compiled by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were used to identify living donors in four different states between 2005 and 2010 (n=4524). Multivariable survival models were used to examine risks for rehospitalization, and patient characteristics were compared with data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR). Outcomes among patients undergoing appendectomy (n=200,274), cholecystectomy (n=255,231), and nephrectomy for nonmetastatic carcinoma (n=1314) were contrasted. Results The study population was similar to United States donors (for SRTR and SID, respectively: mean age, 41 and 41 years; African Americans, 12% and 10%; women, 60% and 61%). The 3-year incidence of rehospitalization following donation was 11% for all causes and 9% excluding pregnancy-related hospitalizations. After censoring of models for pregnancy-related rehospitalizations, older age (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.02 per year; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.01 to 1.03), African American race (AHR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.54 to 3.03), depression (AHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.12 to 3.14), hypothyroidism (AHR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.49), and longer initial length of stay were related to higher rehospitalization rates among donors. Compared with living donors, adjusted risks for rehospitalizations were greater among patients undergoing appendectomy (AHR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.75), cholecystectomy (AHR, 2.25; 95% CI, 2.03 to 2.50), and nephrectomy for nonmetastatic carcinoma (AHR, 2.95; 95% CI, 2.58 to 3.37). Risks for

  8. Rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Munih, Marko; Bajd, Tadej

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the background, main achievements and components of rehabilitation robotics in a simple way, using non-technical terms. The introductory part looks at the development of robotic approaches in the rehabilitation of neurological patients and outlines the principles of robotic device interactions with patients. There follows a section on virtual reality in rehabilitation. Hapticity and interaction between robot and human are presented in order to understand the added value of robotics that cannot be exploited in other devices. The importance of passive exercise and active tasks is then discussed using the results of various clinical trials, followed by the place of upper and lower extremity robotic devices in rehabilitation practice. The closing section refers to the general importance of measurements in this area and stresses quantitative measurements as one of the advantages in using robotic devices.

  9. Oncological outcomes of nephron sparing nephrectomy. 17-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Aguilera Bazan, Alfredo; Bañuelos, B; Alonso-Dorrego, J M; Diez, J; Cisneros, J; De la Peña Barthel, J

    2014-04-01

    Nephron sparing renal surgery is considered the technique of choice for renal tumors smaller than 4 cm. We present our oncological results in a 17-year period. Between January 1995 and December 2012, 130 renal tumor surgeries (58 open, 72 laparoscopic) were performed. We analize the pathological results, presence of positive surgical margins, local relapse, distant metastases and death. The most frequent tumor was clear cell carcinoma (73%) in a pT1 stage (87%). Mean tumor size was 3 cm. Positive surgical margin rate was 7%, currently without any tumor recurrence among these cases (follow up 37 months). Cancer specific mortality is 0% and local recurrence rate 3%. Mean follow up is 71 months. Nephron sparing surgery results are similar to radical nephrectomy in tumors smaller than 4 cm. Positive surgical margins do not seem to have an important repercussion in cancer specific survival.

  10. Ureteral Clipping Simplifies Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Kamran P.; Wynn, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: We describe a technique of doubly clipping the distal ureter during hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) to prevent urine accumulation, thereby simplifying renal hilar division and potentially decreasing the graft warm ischemic time. Methods: A technique of placing polymer-locking clips across the distal ureter prior to division was developed to prevent urine accumulation and the need for suctioning during critical hilar vessel division. Results: We found that ureteral clipping and the elimination of urine accumulation simplified renal hilar division. Retrospective assessment of a series of 27 sequential HALDNs (15 without and 12 with clipping) demonstrated similar estimated blood loss, total operative and warm ischemic times (P=0.13 to 0.18). No adverse impact on graft viability or recipient outcome was observed. Conclusion: Distal ureter clipping to prevent urine accumulation around the renal hilum during HALDN is safe and helpful. PMID:21605517

  11. [Outcomes of transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for renal adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Safarík, L; Novák, K; Babjuk, M; Pesl, M; Macek, P; Dvorácek, J

    2008-11-01

    Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) is method of choice in malignant renal tumors (RCC) stage T1-3. Procedure has proved to be technically safe with low post-operative morbidity and standard oncological results, provided the patients are secondaries free in the time of surgery, and there was no positive margin in resected tissue. There was no recurrence even after 6 years of follow-up. The most influential variables regarding the survival of patients postoperatively were: presence of metastases in the time of surgery p <0.0001, pathological grade p < 0.001, stage p < 0.018 and p < 0.046, respectively, if the tumors were 4 cm and bigger. It could be concluded, that laparoscopic way of removing the tumor with the kidney has proved the same oncological results even in the mid-term follow-up, if compared with classical open surgery done lege artis.

  12. Radiation response of the monkey kidney following contralateral nephrectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, M.E.C.; Stephens, L.C.; Gray, K.N.

    1994-09-30

    The long-term functional and morphologic responses of the hypertrophied monkey kidney after unilateral nephrectomy to fractionated irradiation were assessed. The right kidney of 13 adult female rhesus monkeys was removed. Twelve weeks after unilateral nephrectomy (UN) the remaining kidney received fractionated doses of {gamma}-rays ranging from 35.2 Gy/16 fractions (F) up to 44 Gy/20 F. Glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and hematocrit values were measured up to 107 weeks postirradiation (PI). The monkeys were killed and the remaining kidneys were removed 107 weeks PI or earlier when end-stage renal failure was exhibited. Glomeruli were scored for the presence/absence of several pathologic features including increased intercapillary eosinophilic material (ICE), ecstatic capillaries, and thrombi. The relative proportion of renal cortex occupied by glomeruli, interstitium, normal tubules or abnormal tubules was determined using a Chalkley point grid. These quantal dose response data were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Irradiation of the remaining kidney in UN monkeys resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in renal function and anemia. Glomerular dysfunction preceded tubular dysfunction. Animals receiving 44 Gy all manifested progressive clinical renal failure. Conversely, those receiving {le} 39.6 Gy showed stable, albeit impaired, renal function for the duration of the observation period of 107 weeks. Morphologically, the incidence of ICE, ecstatic glomerular capillaries, thrombi, and periglomerular fibrosis was significantly dose-related (p < 0.005). A significant (p < 0.001) dose-related increase in the relative proportion of renal cortex occupied by abnormal tubules was indicative of tubular injury. A highly significant (p < 0.001) dose-dependent increase in the proportion of abnormal to normal tubules was also seen. 27 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Assessment of renal oxygenation during partial nephrectomy using DLP hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Sara L.; Thapa, Abhas; Holzer, Michael S.; Jackson, Neil; Mir, Saad A.; Donnally, Chester J.; Wehner, Eleanor; Raj, Ganesh V.; Livingston, Edward; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.; Zuzak, Karel J.

    2011-03-01

    Digital Light Processing (DLP®) hyperspectral imaging (HsI) is a non-invasive method used to construct a highly sensitive, real-time tissue oxygenation map through the measurement of the percentage of oxyhemoglobin. We have demonstrated that this technology can detect the oxyhemoglobin in the blood vessels on the surface of the kidney and we have used this to monitor renal perfusion during kidney cancer operations, where the blood supply to the kidney is interrupted for a period of time. This technology may allow us to "personalize" surgery based on the oxygenation profile.

  14. [Extracorporeal partial nephrectomy under pharmaco-cold ischemia for renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gritskevich, A A; Miroshkina, I V; Piyanikin, S S; Adyrkhayev, Z A; Stepanova, Yu A; Zotikov, A E; Teplov, A A; Kubyshkin, V A; Revishvili, A Sh

    2017-01-01

    В настоящее время приоритетным направлением является разработка мер по раннему выявлению рака и органосохраняющих методов лечения, особенно при почечно-клеточном раке (ПКР) с интрапаренхиматозной и центральной локализацией при единственной, единственно функционирующей почки, а также в сочетании с патологией контралатеральной почки. Цель исследования — разработка метода экстракорпоральной резекции почки в условиях фармакохолодовой ишемии без пересечения мочеточника с ортотопической реплантацией почечных сосудов при ПКР. Материал и методы. В исследование включены 37 больных с морфологически подтвержденным ПКР со стадией pT1a-Т3bN0M0—1G1—3 с интрапаренхиматозной и центральной локализацией опухоли при единственной, при наличии сопутствующей патологии, как контралатеральной почки, так и почки на стороне опухолевого поражения. Результаты. Средняя длительность операции составила 413,97±89,14 мин. Среднее время тепловой ишемии составило 8,39±4,75 мин, продолжительность холодовой ишемии в среднем 151,41±41,29 мин. Интраоперационные осложнения выявлены у 3 (8,1%) больных, послеоперационные — у 18 (48,6%) больных. Заключение. Экстракорпоральная резекция почки в условиях фармакохолодовой ишемии без пересечения мочеточника с ортотопической реплантацией почечных сосудов при ПКР является относительно безопасным методом органосохранного лечения, позволяющая выполнять резекции опухолей больших размеров, любой локализации, в условиях длительной холодовой ишемии, без пересечения мочеточников.

  15. Effect of nephrectomy on the rate and pattern of the disappearance of exogenous gastrin in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Clendinnen, B. Guy; Reeder, David D.; Brandt, E. N.; Thompson, James C.

    1973-01-01

    Studies of gastrin metabolism were performed in four dogs before and after nephrectomy. Synthetic human gastrin I was infused for two hours and serum samples were obtained at various times during and after infusion. Serum concentrations of gastrin were measured by radioimmunoassay. A two-compartment model was employed to calculate half-lives under each of four experimental conditions, low and high infusion rates, used both before and after nephrectomy. The model half-life was greatly prolonged after nephrectomy at both infusion rates (from 2·54 min to 5·15 min at the low rate, and from 2·85 min to 7·88 min at the high rate). The metabolic clearance rate, an expression of the rate of catabolism during infusion, decreased significantly after nephrectomy at both infusion rates. These observations indicate that the kidney is an important organ for the catabolism of exogenous gastrin. PMID:4719213

  16. Kidney retransplantation for BK virus nephropathy with active viremia without allograft nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingbo; Danovitch, Gabriel; Pham, Phuong-Thu; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Huang, Edmund

    2015-12-01

    BK virus nephropathy is an important cause of kidney allograft failure. Retransplantation has been successfully performed for patients with previous allograft loss due to BK virus nephropathy; however, whether allograft nephrectomy and viral clearance are required prior to retransplantation is controversial. Some recent studies have suggested that retransplantion can be successfully achieved without allograft nephrectomy if viremia is cleared prior to retransplant. The only published experience of successful retransplantation in the presence of active viremia occurred in the presence of concomitant allograft nephrectomy of the failing kidney. In this report, we describe a case of successful repeat kidney transplant in a patient with high-grade BK viremia and fulminant hepatic failure without concomitant allograft nephrectomy performed under the setting of a simultaneous liver-kidney transplant.

  17. Robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Diana, M; Marescaux, J

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency in minimally invasive surgery requires intensive and continuous training, as it is technically challenging for unnatural visual and haptic perceptions. Robotic and computer sciences are producing innovations to augment the surgeon's skills to achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery. This article reviews the current use of robotically assisted surgery, focusing on technology as well as main applications in digestive surgery, and future perspectives. The PubMed database was interrogated to retrieve evidence-based data on surgical applications. Internal and external consulting with key opinion leaders, renowned robotics laboratories and robotic platform manufacturers was used to produce state-of-the art business intelligence around robotically assisted surgery. Selected digestive procedures (oesophagectomy, gastric bypass, pancreatic and liver resections, rectal resection for cancer) might benefit from robotic assistance, although the current level of evidence is insufficient to support widespread adoption. The surgical robotic market is growing, and a variety of projects have recently been launched at both academic and corporate levels to develop lightweight, miniaturized surgical robotic prototypes. The magnified view, and improved ergonomics and dexterity offered by robotic platforms, might facilitate the uptake of minimally invasive procedures. Image guidance to complement robotically assisted procedures, through the concepts of augmented reality, could well represent a major revolution to increase safety and deal with difficulties associated with the new minimally invasive approaches. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with nephrocutaneous fistula after failed flank exploration.

    PubMed

    Kijvikai, Kittinut; Dissaranan, Charuspong; Chalermsanyakorn, Panas; Matchariyakul, Chaiyasit; Kochakarn, Wachira

    2006-08-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis presenting with nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare condition, and its treatment of choice is nephrectomy. Laparoscopic management has been proved to be challenging in these inflammatory renal conditions. However, there was no previous report in the literature regarding laparoscopic treatment of nephrocutaneous fistula especially after previous operation. In this communication, we report the first case of hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with nephrocutaneous fistula after previous failed flank exploration.

  19. Bilateral native nephrectomy for refractory hypertension in kidney transplant and kidney pancreas transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Mark J.; Hinton, Sandra; Aronoff, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is common in renal transplant patients and sometimes very difficult to control. Refractory hypertension can adversely affect renal graft and patient survival. Many antihypertensive medications are not well tolerated or can have important drug interactions with immunosuppressive medications. These drugs can cause significant side effects including fluid depletion, azotemia, electrolyte imbalance, and anemia. Bilateral native nephrectomy in renal transplant patients has been reported to be beneficial in controlling severe hypertension. We report five patients with severe hypertension despite as many as 9 different antihypertensive medications. All patients had previous kidney or simultaneous kidney pancreas transplantation. Each of our patients underwent laparoscopic bilateral native nephrectomy. Renal function varied from creatinine of 1.4–2.4, and the number of antihypertensive medications from 3 to 9 at the time of nephrectomy surgery. Mean arterial blood pressure improved in all five patients at 3–6 months post nephrectomy, the number of antihypertensive medications decreased in 4, but renal function remained stable at 3–6 months in only 3 patients. We found laparoscopic bilateral native nephrectomy to be beneficial in renal and simultaneous kidney pancreas transplant patients with severe and refractory hypertension. Our patients with better baseline renal allograft function at time of nephrectomy received the most benefit. No decrease in allograft function could be attributed to acute rejection. PMID:26348394

  20. Laparoscopic splenectomy and nephrectomy in a rat model. Description of a new technique.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, M C; Marquet, R L; Kazemier, G; Wittich, P; Bouvy, N D; Bruining, H A; Bonjer, H J

    1997-05-01

    In experimental studies on the effects of laparoscopic procedures on tumor biology, a localized tumor model is desirable. The spleen and the kidney are preferable, because these organs are amenable to tumor placement and subsequent removal. This study describes the technique of laparoscopic splenectomy and nephrectomy in the rat model. Pneumoperitoneum was established by CO2 insufflation. Laparoscopic splenectomy involved two-handed dissection, intracorporeal ligation, and division of gastrosplenic attachments and hilar and short gastric vessels. Laparoscopic nephrectomy was done by intracorporeal ligation and division of the renal vessels and the ureter after mobilization of the kidney. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed in six rats; laparoscopic nephrectomy was done in six rats. Operative time ranged from 45 to 90 min for splenectomy and from 40 to 65 min for nephrectomy. Postoperatively, two rats died from hemorrhage. Necropsy of the rats after 10 days revealed adhesion in three rats after splenectomy and in four rats after nephrectomy. Inflammatory processes were found around the silk ligatures in all rats after splenectomy; in two rats wound infections occurred at the port sites. Laparoscopic splenectomy and nephrectomy in the rat proved technically feasible and may provide new localized tumor models suitable to be used in further studies on the oncological effects of laparoscopic surgery.

  1. TARDEC Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    TARDEC Robotics Dr. Greg Hudas Greg.hudas@us.army.mil UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TARDEC Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Greg Hudas...ANSI Std Z39-18 Excellence in Robotics Outreach & University Shaping Requirements Building Modeling & Simulation Component Development International

  2. ROBOT WRITING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Technical writers who are hypnotized by the mechanical metaphor inevitably produce robot writing - a separate language, distantly related to the...prose of Darwin, Huxley, Jeans, and Einstein. Where they were clear, fresh, and graceful, the robot writer is hard, dull, and clumsy. Where they were...merely human, the robot writer is infallible, prefabricated, impersonal, and irresponsible. These four characteristics are interlinked. An example of one usually illustrates the other three.

  3. Robot Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    34natural" behavior . They are each suitable to some applications more than others. Robot systems should support a wide repertoire of such motion regimes... behavior at a kinematic singularity. Some applications, such as arc-welding or spray-painting, can require very fine control of the robot’s speed...for specifying the behavior of systems more complex than a single robot. Another example of the need of this kind of coordination is in the

  4. Hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Martinez, Michael A.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a hopping robot that includes a misfire tolerant linear actuator suitable for long trips, low energy steering and control, reliable low energy righting, miniature low energy fuel control. The present invention provides a robot with hopping mobility, capable of traversing obstacles significant in size relative to the robot and capable of operation on unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides a hopping robot with misfire-tolerant combustion actuation, and with combustion actuation suitable for use in oxygen-poor environments.

  5. Robotics research

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.; Paul, R.

    1984-01-01

    Organized around a view of robotics as ''the intelligent connection of perception to action,'' the fifty-three contributions collected in this book present leading current research in one of the fastest moving fields of artificial intelligence. Readings Include: Hand-Eye Coordination in Rope Handling; 3-D Balance Using 2-D algorithms. A Model Driven Visual Inspection Module: Stereo Vision: Complexity and Constraints; Interpretation of Contact Geometers from Force Measurement; The Utah MIT Dextrous Hand: Work in Progress; Hierarchical Nonlinear Control for Robots; VAL-11; A Robot Programming Language and Control System; Technological Barriers in Robotics: A Perspective from Industry.

  6. Curiosity Mars Rover Flexes its Robotic Arm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-16

    Test operators in a clean room at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory monitor some of the first motions by the robotic arm on the Mars rover Curiosity after installation in August 2010. The arm is shown in a partially extended position.

  7. Eclectic theory of intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Ghaffari, M.; Liao, X.; Ali, S. M. Alhaj; Sarkar, Saurabh; Reynolds, Scott; Mathur, Kovid

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a concept of eclecticism for the design, development, simulation and implementation of a real time controller for an intelligent, vision guided robots. The use of an eclectic perceptual, creative controller that can select its own tasks and perform autonomous operations is illustrated. This eclectic controller is a new paradigm for robot controllers and is an attempt to simplify the application of intelligent machines in general and robots in particular. The idea is to uses a task control center and dynamic programming approach. However, the information required for an optimal solution may only partially reside in a dynamic database so that some tasks are impossible to accomplish. So a decision must be made about the feasibility of a solution to a task before the task is attempted. Even when tasks are feasible, an iterative learning approach may be required. The learning could go on forever. The dynamic database stores both global environmental information and local information including the kinematic and dynamic models of the intelligent robot. The kinematic model is very useful for position control and simulations. However, models of the dynamics of the manipulators are needed for tracking control of the robot's motions. Such models are also necessary for sizing the actuators, tuning the controller, and achieving superior performance. Simulations of various control designs are shown. Much of the model has also been used for the actual prototype Bearcat Cub mobile robot. This vision guided robot was designed for the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Contest. A novel feature of the proposed approach lies in the fact that it is applicable to both robot arm manipulators and mobile robots such as wheeled mobile robots. This generality should encourage the development of more mobile robots with manipulator capability since both models can be easily stored in the dynamic database. The multi task controller also permits wide

  8. Tumour size, tumour complexity, and surgical approach are associated with nephrectomy type in small renal cortical tumours treated electively.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Gregory J; Clark, Peter E; Barocas, Daniel A; Cookson, Michael S; Smith, Joseph A; Herrell, S Duke; Chang, Sam S

    2012-06-01

    Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Although the benefits of nephron-sparing renal cortical tumour treatments are now widely accepted and have robust data supporting their oncological efficacy, safety, and positive effect on medium- and long-term renal function, the decision to perform partial nephrectomy (PN) remains a complex interaction between several competing factors. Various patient factors, e.g. comorbid conditions, age, body habitus, patient preference, etc. may effect this decision. Then there are the preferences of the surgeon him- or herself, including faculty with different operative techniques and surgical approaches, which may lead to one treatment decision over another. Finally, the anatomy of the tumour itself, i.e. the complexity of the tumour within the kidney and anatomical relationships within the organ, is intuitively critical to a surgeon's assessment of resectability. There is very little published data indicating which of the multitude of clinical variables have the greatest impact on the decision to perform PN. Most previous investigations into the subject have focused on either imperative or relative indications for PN (i.e. solitary kidney, bilateral renal masses, and multifocal tumours) or have used maximal tumour diameter (i.e. tumour size) alone in their assessment of the clinical variables associated with PN use. To identify preoperative variables associated with choice of partial nephrectomy (PN) vs radical nephrectomy (RN). Between January 2004 and June 2008, 203 patients were treated for clinical T1a renal cortical tumours. Of these, 154 (75.8%) had all data available and form the analytic cohort. Patients were categorized into two groups, PN and RN, based on preoperative treatment plan. Patient-, procedure-, and tumour-related variables, together with tumour complexity (based on the R.E.N.A.L Nephrometry Score [RENAL-NS]) were evaluated for their

  9. Use of preoperative embolization prior to Transplant nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yeast, Carrie; Riley, Julie M.; Holyoak, Joshua; Ross, Gilbert; Weinstein, Stephen; Wakefield, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction After a failed transplant, management of a non-functional graft with pain or recurrent infections can be challenging. Transplant nephrectomy (TN) can be a morbid procedure with the potential for significant blood loss. Embolization of the renal artery alone has been proposed as a method of reducing complications from an in vivo failed kidney transplant. While this does yield less morbidity, it may not address an infected graft or refractory hematuria or rejection. We elected to begin preoperative embolization to assess if this would help decrease the blood loss and transfusion rate associated with TN. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent non-emergent TN at our institution. Patients who had functioning grafts that later failed were included in analysis. TN was performed for recurrent infections, pain or hematuria. We evaluated for blood loss (EBL) during TN, transfusion rate and length of hospital stay. Results A total of 16 patients were identified. Nine had preoperative embolization or no blood flow to the graft prior to TN. The remaining 7 did not have preoperative embolization. The shortest time from transplant to TN was 8 months and the longest 18 years with an average of 6.3 years. Average EBL for the embolized patients (ETN) was 143.9cc compared to 621.4cc in the non-embolized (NETN) group (p=0.041). Average number of units of blood transfused was 0.44 in the ETN with only 3/9 patients requiring transfusion. The NETN patients had average of 1.29 units transfused with 5/7 requiring transfusion. The length of stay was longer for the ETN (5.4 days) compared to 3.9 in the NETN. No intraoperative complications were seen in either group and only one patient had a postoperative ileus in the NETN. Conclusion Embolization prior to TN significantly decreases the EBL but does not significantly decrease transfusion rate. However, patients do require a significantly longer hospitalization with

  10. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  11. Robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A robot having a plurality of interconnected sections is disclosed. Each of the sections includes components which are moveable relative to components of an adjacent section. A plurality of electric motors are operably connected to at least two of said relatively moveable components to effect relative movement. A fitted, removable protective covering surrounds the sections to protect the robot.

  12. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  13. Renal parenchymal histopathology predicts life-threatening chronic kidney disease as a result of radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Sejima, Takehiro; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency plays an important role in the decision-making process regarding renal surgery options. Furthermore, the prediction of both postoperative renal insufficiency and postoperative cardiovascular disease occurrence, which is suggested to be an adverse consequence caused by renal insufficiency, contributes to the preoperative policy decision as well as the precise informed consent for a renal cell carcinoma patient. Preoperative nomograms for the prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, calculated using patient backgrounds, are advocated. The use of these nomograms together with other types of nomograms predicting oncological outcome is beneficial. Post-radical nephrectomy attending physicians can predict renal insufficiency based on the normal renal parenchymal pathology in addition to preoperative patient characteristics. It is suggested that a high level of global glomerulosclerosis in nephrectomized normal renal parenchyma is closely associated with severe renal insufficiency. Some studies showed that post-radical nephrectomy severe renal insufficiency might have an association with increased mortality as a result of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, such pathophysiology should be recognized as life-threatening, surgically-related chronic kidney disease. On the contrary, the investigation of the prediction of mild post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, which is not related to adverse consequences in the postoperative long-term period, is also promising because the prediction of mild renal insufficiency might be the basis for the substitution of radical nephrectomy for nephron-sparing surgery in technically difficult or compromised cases. The deterioration of quality of life caused by post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency should be investigated in conjunction with life-threatening matters.

  14. National practice patterns and outcomes of pediatric nephrectomy: comparison between urology and general surgery.

    PubMed

    Suson, Kristina D; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Elder, Jack S; Lakshmanan, Yegappan

    2015-05-01

    In adults nephrectomy is under the purview of urologists, but pediatric urologists and pediatric general surgeons perform extirpative renal surgery in children. We compared the contemporary performance and outcome of all-cause nephrectomy at pediatric hospitals as performed by pediatric urologists and pediatric general surgeons. We queried the Pediatric Health Information System to identify patients 0 to 18 years old who were treated with nephrectomy between 2004 and 2013 by pediatric urologists and pediatric general surgeons. Data points included age, gender, severity level, mortality risk, complications and length of stay. Patients were compared by APR DRG codes 442 (kidney and urinary tract procedures for malignancy) and 443 (kidney and urinary tract procedures for nonmalignancy). Pediatric urologists performed more all-cause nephrectomies. While pediatric urologists were more likely to operate on patients with benign renal disease, pediatric general surgeons were more likely to operate on children with malignancy. Patients on whom pediatric general surgeons operated had a higher average severity level and were at greater risk for mortality. After controlling for differences patients without malignancy operated on by pediatric urologists had a shorter length of stay, and fewer medical and surgical complications. There was no difference in length of stay, or medical or surgical complications in patients with malignancy. Overall compared to pediatric general surgeons more nephrectomies are performed by pediatric urologists. Short-term outcomes, including length of stay and complication rates, appear better in this data set in patients without malignancy who undergo nephrectomy by pediatric urologists but there is no difference in outcomes when nephrectomy is performed for malignancy. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  16. Robot Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Martin Marietta Aero and Naval Systems has advanced the CAD art to a very high level at its Robotics Laboratory. One of the company's major projects is construction of a huge Field Material Handling Robot for the Army's Human Engineering Lab. Design of FMR, intended to move heavy and dangerous material such as ammunition, was a triumph in CAD Engineering. Separate computer problems modeled the robot's kinematics and dynamics, yielding such parameters as the strength of materials required for each component, the length of the arms, their degree of freedom and power of hydraulic system needed. The Robotics Lab went a step further and added data enabling computer simulation and animation of the robot's total operational capability under various loading and unloading conditions. NASA computer program (IAC), integrated Analysis Capability Engineering Database was used. Program contains a series of modules that can stand alone or be integrated with data from sensors or software tools.

  17. LESS living donor nephrectomy: Surgical technique and results

    PubMed Central

    Alessimi, Abdullah; Adam, Emilie; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Badet, Lionel; Codas, Ricardo; Fehri, Hakim Fassi; Martin, Xavier; Crouzet, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We present the findings of 50 patients undergoing pure trans-umbilical laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) living donor nephrectomy (LDN), between February 2010 and May 2014. Materials and Methods: Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery LDN was performed through an umbilical incision. Different trocars were used, namely Gelpoint (Applied Mιdical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) SILS port (Covidien, Hamilton, Bermuda), R-port (Olympus Surgical, Orangeburg, NY) and standard trocars, inserted through the same skin incision but using separate fascial punctures. The standard laparoscopic technique was employed. The kidney was pre-entrapped in a retrieval bag and extracted trans-umbilically. Data were collected prospectively including questionnaires containing patient reported oral pain medication duration and time to recovery. Results: LESS LDN was successful in all patients. Mean warm ischemia time was 6.2 min (3–15), mean procedure time was 233.2 min (172–300), and hospitalization stay was 3.94 days (3–7) with a visual analogue pain score at discharge of 1.32 (0–3). No intraoperative complications occurred. The mean time of oral pain medication was 8.72 days (1–20) and final scar length was 4.06 cm (3–5). Each allograft was functional. Conclusion: Although challenging, trans-umbilical LESS LDN seems to be feasible and safe. Hence, LESS has the potential to improve cosmetic results and decrease morbidity. PMID:26229326

  18. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, complications and management: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Tuğcu, Volkan; Şahin, Selçuk; Yiğitbaşı, İsmail; Şener, Nevzat Can; Akbay, Fatih Gökhan; Taşçı, Ali İhsan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN), our complications and management modalities. Material and methods: Fifty-one transperitoneal LDNs performed in our clinic between the years 2011, and 2015, were evaluated retrospectively. Demographic characteristics of the patients, operative and postoperative data and complications were evaluated. Results Nineteen female and 32 male patients with ages ranging from 24 to 65 years underwent left- (n=44), and right-sided (n=7) LDNs. Six patients had two, and one patient three renal arteries. Mean operation time was 115±11 (min–max: 90–150) minutes, and mean warm ischemia time 111±9 (min–max: 90–140 sec) seconds. Mean hospital stay was found to be 2.5±0.5 days. No patient needed to switch to open surgery. In one patient, lumbar vein was ruptured, and hemostatic control was achieved laparoscopically. Postoperative paralytic ileus developed in two patients. Three patients had postoperative atelectasis, and a febrile (38.1°C) episode. Conclusion LDN is a minimally invasive method with advantages of short hospital stay, less analgesic requirement, and better cosmetic results. However it should be performed by surgeons with advanced laparoscopic experience. PMID:28270958

  19. Multivessel variant angina after a radical nephrectomy operation

    PubMed Central

    Ural, Ertan; Kilic, Teoman; Kahraman, Göksel; Dillioglugil, Ozdal; Ural, Dilek; Komsuoglux, Baki

    2008-01-01

    A case of multivessel variant angina after an open radical nephrectomy operation (RNO) is presented. A 52-year-old man was admitted to the coronary care unit with recurrent chest pain and dynamic ST-T wave changes on electrocardiogram early after an RNO. The first diagnosis of the clinical condition was non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. However, recurrent angina with ST segment elevation occurred after the standard medical therapy, which included beta-blockers. Emergency coronary angiography showed diffuse and multiple narrowing of all the three major coronary arteries during the chest pain, which was relieved by intracoronary nitroglycerine injection. Variant angina was suspected, and beta-blocker therapy was replaced with calcium channel blocker treatment. No angina attacks were observed during the clinical follow-up. Although a direct relationship between the type of surgery and variant angina was not established, coronary vasospasm after an RNO should be kept in mind, especially in the differential diagnosis of a patient with recurrent angina and dynamic ST-T changes on electrocardiogram. Although beta-blocker therapy is a first-line treatment for all acute coronary syndromes, it can be harmful in patients with variant angina and should be stopped immediately after verification of diagnosis. PMID:18548153

  20. Surgery Videos: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009) Mitral Valve Prolapse Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery: Robot Assisted Mitral Valve Repair (Baptist Health South Florida, ... Center, Merriam, KS, 05/04/2012) Kidney Cancer Robot Assisted Partial Nephrectomy Using Fluorescence (Shawnee Mission Medical ...

  1. Subtotal nephrectomy inhibits the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats

    PubMed Central

    da Graça, José Ronaldo Vasconcelos; Parente, Cynara Carvalho; Fiúza, Robério Ferreira; da Silva, Pedro Alberto Freitas; Mota, Bruno Teixeira; Salles, Luiz Derwal; Silva, Camila Meirelles de Souza; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; de Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; dos Santos, Armenio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of blood volume (BV) is attained through a functional interaction between the cardiovascular and renal systems. The gastrointestinal tract also adjusts its permeability and motor behavior after acute BV imbalances. We evaluated the effect of progressive nephron loss on gut motility. Male Wistar rats were subjected or not (sham) to 5/6 partial nephrectomy (PNX) in two steps (0 and 7th day). After further 3, 7, or 14 days, PNX and sham operation (control) rats were instrumented to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), and blood collection for biochemical analysis. The next day, they were gavage fed with a liquid test meal (phenol red in glucose solution), and fractional dye recovery determined 10, 20, or 30 min later. The effect of nonhypotensive hypovolemia and the role of neuroautonomic pathways on PNX-induced gastric emptying (GE) delay were also evaluated. Compared with the sham-operated group, PNX rats exhibited higher (P < 0.05) MAP and CVP values as well as increased values of gastric dye recovery, phenomenon proportional to the BV values. Gastric retention was prevented by prior hypovolemia, bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, coelic ganglionectomy + splanchnicectomy, guanethidine, or atropine pretreatment. PNX also inhibited (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, PNX increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. In conclusion, the progressive loss of kidney function delayed the GE rate, which may contribute to gut dysmotility complaints associated with severe renal failure. PMID:25677547

  2. Clinicians’ Real World Perceptions of Pre-Nephrectomy Diagnostic Biopsy Performance as a Driver of Reduction in Unnecessary Surgeries in Renal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Lauren; Sanden, Mats O.; Wassman, E. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Operative removal of oncocytomas is generally unnecessary, but not infrequent in the context of renal masses. The infrequent use of pre-nephrectomy biopsies is a function of historical limitations of histopathological differential diagnosis in this setting. Assessment of clinicians’ receptiveness to a novel molecular diagnostic approach to this challenge was undertaken by means of a survey vehicle administered to 102 practicing urologists and pathologists who met inclusion criteria related to their actual clinical activity. Survey results supported the previously reported observations on misdiagnosis with urologists’ reported rates of 25% inconclusive results, and an additional 17% disagree with the final surgical diagnosis. The self-reported rate of 9% for pre-operative biopsies was comparable to prior reports, but 39% of urologists who are not currently performing pre-operative biopsies expressed interest in introducing them into their practice for this purpose with an improved diagnostic. Almost all urologists (94%) felt it important not to resect benign oncocytomas and 62% indicated they would use a test which improved the ability to sub-type renal tumors pre-operatively. The level of performance benchmark of the unidentified prototypic microRNA-based diagnostic as reported previously in the literature was deemed sufficient to change care in these cases by 73%. Overall they predicted a 38% rate of biopsies and resulting increases in decisions to forgo nephrectomy or to perform only partial nephrectomy. Pathologists also expressed support for the use of this technology in the context of inadequate specimens and for improved sub-typing of these tumors in inconclusive cases.

  3. Robotic transportation.

    PubMed

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions.

  4. Subsumption Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Subsumption Robotics Christopher K. DeBolt Naval EOD Technology Division 2008 Stump Neck Road Indian Head, MD 20640-5070 phone: (301) 744-6850, Ext...eodmgate.navsea.navy.mil; nguyent.eodtc@eodmgate.navsea.navy.mil Helen Greiner and Polly K. Pook I.S. Robotics phone: (617) 629-0055 e-mail: helen@isr.com , pook...408) 656-3462 e-mail: healey@me.nps.navy.mil LONG-TERM GOALS Through the use of subsumption architectures, low cost, simple robots can be developed

  5. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures.

  6. Robotic thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Holsinger, F Christopher; Chung, Woong Youn

    2014-06-01

    Robotic thyroidectomy is ideal for patients with indeterminate, likely benign lesions less than 3 cm, and a body mass index less than 35 kg/mg(2). Proper arm position and padding are important to facilitate exposure and development of the working space from axilla to thyroid bed. The working space is developed using headlight and retractors without robotic assistance, establishing exposure of the thyroid bed from a 5-cm incision in the axilla. Three robotic instruments and a stereoscopic endoscope provide excellent visualization of the associated thyroid neurovasculature anatomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Benefit of on nephrectomy for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz de León, C; Pellejero-Pérez, P; Quintás-Blanco, A; García-Rodríguez, J; Álvarez-Fernández, C; Fernández-Gómez, J M

    2017-06-01

    Systemic treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has changed with the new therapies, and it is not clear if nephrectomy (NEP) has a survival benefit in this kind of patients. To investigate if NEP associated to systemic treatment improves overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). A retrospective, observational, descriptive study of 45 patients with diagnosis of mRCC between 2006-2014. Advanced cases with only palliative care were excluded, also patients with solitary metastasis who were managed with surgical resection. Finally 34 patients were treated with systemic treatment. Twenty-six also with surgery associated. Seventy percent were intermediate/low risk at the Motzer classification and>80% Karnofsky performance status. PFS was 7m. NEP improves PFS (10 vs. 4m). High risk Motzer decreased PFS (P<.001). The OS was 11.5m. Patients with Karnofsky performance status>80, intermediate or low risk Motzer treated with NEP and mTOR as second line treatment, increased the OS (14 vs. 3m, P=.0001; 14 vs. 6m, P=.001; and 9 vs. 5m, P=.003, respectively). In the multivariate analysis only NEP (P=0,006; HR 4.5) and intermediate/low risk at the Motzer classification(P=.020; HR 8.9) demonstrated significant improvement in OS. Patients treated with NEP associated to systemic treatment and with an intermediate/low risk in the Motzer classification had a better PFS and OS. The OS also improves in patients treated with mTOR in second line, and Karnofsky performance status>80%in the univariate study, but not in the multivariable one. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. [Bilateral nephrectomy in patients with end-stage renal failure and chronic active pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, M A; Vtorenko, V I; Trushkin, R N; Lubennikov, A E; Sysoev, A M; Sokolov, A A

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the results of bilateral nephrectomy in 14 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and chronic active pyelonephritis. Seven patients had urosepsis, and 10 patients had a purulent form of pyelonephritis, which was one-sided in 7 of them. In the early postoperative period, on average, after 9.3 days, 9 patients died. Statistically significant risk factors for death were: chronic hemodialysis, long-term antibiotic therapy, and existing sepsis. Intraoperative complications and postoperative morbidity were not significantly associated with death. The study results imply the need of differentiated approach to bilateral nephrectomy in patients with ESRD and risk factors for fatal outcome. It must be performed on the strong indications since the intervention does not lead to eradication of sepsis. It is advisable to perform "preventive, sanation" bilateral nephrectomy in the "cold period" in patients at risk for developing urosepsis.

  9. Surrogate Robot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-21

    The Surrogate robot Surge, built at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA., is being developed in order to extend humanity reach into hazardous environments to perform tasks such as using environmental test equipment.

  10. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  11. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  12. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  13. Robotic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  14. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  15. Rolling Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed rolling robot routinely traverses rough terrain, clearing rocks as high as 1 m. Climbs steps 1 m high and spans ditches 2.3 m wide. Simple but rugged semiautonomous rover has large wheels and articulated body. With combined yaw, roll, and four-wheel drive, robot crawls slowly to pass over soft or sandy terrain. Senses terrain along corridor, chooses path to avoid insurmountable obstacles, and monitors state of vehicle for unexpected hazards.

  16. Renal Function Recovery after Nephrectomy or Nephron-Sparing Surgery in Children with Unilateral Renal Tumor.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Denis A; Ceccanti, Silvia; Cozzi, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Children with unilateral renal tumor (URT) and preoperative renal dysfunction (PRD) may benefit from nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). To test this hypothesis, we studied the outcome of baseline renal function after nephrectomy or NSS among children with URT. Materials and Methods Retrospective records review of children with URT who underwent nephrectomy (25 children) or NSS (11 children) at our institution. We analyzed the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) changes over time among patients, stratified by both preoperative renal function (with or without PRD) and surgical extent (NSS vs. nephrectomy). The primary end point was evaluation of compensatory recovery of preoperative eGFR after surgery. Only children older than 2 years at surgery were included in the study. Renal dysfunction was defined as an eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Results After nephrectomy or NSS, patients with PRD presented, on average during adolescence, a significant increase in eGFR, whereas patients without PRD presented, on average during adolescence, a stable eGFR. However, after nephrectomy, 5 of 17 (29%) and 7 of 8 (87%) adolescent patients with baseline eGFR ≤ or > 100 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively, achieved or maintained two-kidney eGFR values (T-KEV) (p = 0.01). After NSS, four adolescent patients with PRD and seven without PRD achieved or maintained T-KEV. Conclusion The majority of children with URT and low baseline eGFR present with an impaired renal function recovery after nephrectomy and may benefit from NSS. Collaborative studies are needed to support present findings. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Robot Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.

  18. Handbook of industrial robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Nof, S.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of artificial intelligence to robots used in industrial plants. Topics considered include vision systems, elements of industrial robot software, robot teaching, the off-line programming of robots, a structured programming robot language, task-level manipulator programming, expert systems, and the role of the computer in robot intelligence.

  19. Tutorial on robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.G.; Gonzalez, R.C.; Fu, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Basic fundamentals in robotics are presented in this tutorial. Topics covered are as follows: robot arm kinematics; robot arm dynamics; planning or manipulator trajectories; servo control for manipulators; force sensing and control; robot vision systems; robot programming languages; and machine intelligence and robot planning.

  20. Renal artery aneurysm in hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: case report.

    PubMed

    Maciel, R F; Branco, A J; Branco, A W; Guterres, J C; Silva, A E; Ramos, L B; Rost, C; Vieira, C A; Cicogna, P E S; Daudt, C A; Deboni, L M; Vieira, M A; Luz, H A; Vieira, J A

    2003-12-01

    We report a living donor who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy using a hand-assisted device (HALD). At preoperative arteriography the donor showed a renal artery aneurysm. The patient was a 37-year-old female, 166 cm height, white, weighing 87 kg, HLA identical to the recipient. HALD was indicated due to the better visualization of renal pedicle and greater security in an obese patient. Renal artery aneurysm is a rare condition, with many possible complications. The method proved to be adequate and safe for donor nephrectomy, despite a renal artery aneurysm.

  1. Role of Robotics in Children: A brave New World!

    PubMed

    Spinoit, Anne-Françoise; Nguyen, Hiep; Subramaniam, Ramnath

    2017-09-07

    The key in the evolution towards minimally invasive surgery is the availability of appropriate equipment, especially when procedures involve children. While robotic procedures in adults continue to struggle to prove measurable advantages compared with open or classical laparoscopic ones, the use of the robotic platform (RP) in pediatric urology is steadily increasing. To review the contemporary literature regarding the use of robotic-assisted (RA) urologic interventions in children. A nonsystematic review of the literature was conducted through PubMed database between 2002 and 2017, with an emphasis on large series. A few major challenges must be considered before using the RP in children: anesthesia, placement of trocars, and technical difficulties related to small space. To date, only the robot-assisted pyeloplasty is recognized as safe and efficient with an equivalent outcome compared to the open or classical laparoscopy; this was supported by large multicentric studies, which are not available for most of the other procedures. RA procedure in children has been proven safe and effective. Still in its infancy, further data over time is likely to prove different RA procedures to be equivalent to open or laparoscopy in terms of outcome. The advent of the robotic platform means an evolution towards minimizing surgical trauma for the child. Currently, the available platforms designed for adults are adapted to work in children. However, it might be expected in the future that new technologies will improve the technical possibilities to improve the robotic platform for minimally invasive surgery in chil