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Sample records for robotic plasma radiochemical

  1. Development of robotic plasma radiochemical assays for positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Alexoff, D.L.; Shea, C.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S.J.; Schlyer, D.J.

    1995-12-01

    A commercial laboratory robot system (Zymate PyTechnology II Laboratory Automation System; Zymark Corporation, Hopkinton, MA) was interfaced to standard and custom laboratory equipment and programmed to perform rapid radiochemical analyses for quantitative PET studies. A Zymark XP robot arm was used to carry out the determination of unchanged (parent) radiotracer in plasma using only solid phase extraction methods. Robotic throughput for the assay of parent radiotracer in plasma is 4--6 samples/hour depending on the radiotracer. Robotic assays of parent compound in plasma were validated for the radiotracers [{sup 11}C]Benztropine, [{sup 11}C]cocaine, [{sup 11}C]clorgyline, [{sup 11}C]deprenyl, [{sup 11}C]methadone, [{sup 11}C]methylphenidate, [{sup 11}C]raclorpride, and [{sup 11}C]SR46349B. A simple robot-assisted methods development strategy has been implemented to facilitate the automation of plasma assays of new radiotracers.

  2. Robotic Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffery, Waris S.

    1993-01-01

    The need for automated plasma welding was identified in the early stages of the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) because it requires approximately 1.3 miles of welding for assembly. As a result of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding (VPPAW) process's ability to make virtually defect-free welds in aluminum, it was chosen to fulfill the welding needs. Space Station Freedom will be constructed of 2219 aluminum utilizing the computer controlled VPPAW process. The 'Node Radial Docking Port', with it's saddle shaped weld path, has a constantly changing surface angle over 360 deg of the 282 inch weld. The automated robotic VPPAW process requires eight-axes of motion (six-axes of robot and two-axes of positioner movement). The robot control system is programmed to maintain Torch Center Point (TCP) orientation perpendicular to the part while the part positioner is tilted and rotated to maintain the vertical up orientation as required by the VPPAW process. The combined speed of the robot and the positioner are integrated to maintain a constant speed between the part and the torch. A laser-based vision sensor system has also been integrated to track the seam and map the surface of the profile during welding.

  3. (Radiochemical limnology)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.R.

    1989-09-27

    The 24th Congress of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology (SIL) was organized to provide an opportunity for about 2000 scientists representing more than 50 countries to present and discuss their research results on theoretical and applied limnology. The traveler was a co-organizer and co-chair of a special workshop/symposium at this meeting entitled Radiochemical Limnology.''

  4. Nuclear and radiochemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.; Robertson, J.D.; Yates, S.W.

    1992-06-15

    This is the fourth in a series of periodic reviews on the subject of nuclear and radiochemical analysis. The review covers material found in books and journals concerning radiochemical, neutron activation, charged-particle activation, ion beam, isotope dilution, direct counting, transmission, attenuation, scattering, tracer, and isotopic dating methods.

  5. Accurate determination of chlorine, bromine, and iodine in sedimentary rock reference samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and a detailed comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry literature data.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Shun; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2013-07-01

    Trace amounts of three halogens (chlorine, bromine, and iodine) were determined using radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) for nine sedimentary rocks and three rhyolite samples. To obtain high-quality analytical data, the radiochemical procedure of RNAA was improved by lowering the background in gamma-ray spectrometry and completing the chemical procedure more rapidly than in conventional procedures. A comparison of the RNAA data of Br and I with corresponding inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) literature data revealed that the values obtained by ICPMS coupled with pyrohydrolysis preconcentration were systematically lower than the RNAA data for some reference samples, suggesting that the quantitative collection of Br and I cannot always be achieved by the pyrohydrolysis for some solid samples. The RNAA data of three halogens can classify sedimentary rock reference samples into two groups (the samples from inland water and those from seawater), implying the geochemical significance of halogen data.

  6. Accurate determination of chlorine, bromine, and iodine in sedimentary rock reference samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and a detailed comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry literature data.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Shun; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2013-07-01

    Trace amounts of three halogens (chlorine, bromine, and iodine) were determined using radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) for nine sedimentary rocks and three rhyolite samples. To obtain high-quality analytical data, the radiochemical procedure of RNAA was improved by lowering the background in gamma-ray spectrometry and completing the chemical procedure more rapidly than in conventional procedures. A comparison of the RNAA data of Br and I with corresponding inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) literature data revealed that the values obtained by ICPMS coupled with pyrohydrolysis preconcentration were systematically lower than the RNAA data for some reference samples, suggesting that the quantitative collection of Br and I cannot always be achieved by the pyrohydrolysis for some solid samples. The RNAA data of three halogens can classify sedimentary rock reference samples into two groups (the samples from inland water and those from seawater), implying the geochemical significance of halogen data. PMID:23710630

  7. Certification of Total Arsenic in Blood and Urine Standard Reference Materials by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Rick L.; Davis, W. Clay; Yu, Lee; Murphy, Karen E.; Guthrie, William F.; Leber, Dennis D.; Bryan, Colleen E.; Vetter, Thomas W.; Shakirova, Gulchekhra; Mitchell, Graylin; Kyle, David J.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.; Eckdahl, Steven; Wermers, Michelle; Maras, Melissa; Palmer, C. D.; Verostek, M.F.; Geraghty, C. M.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed procedure for determination of arsenic by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to measure arsenic at four levels in SRM 955c Toxic Elements in Caprine Blood and at two levels in SRM 2668 Toxic Elements in Frozen Human Urine for the purpose of providing mass concentration values for certification. Samples were freeze-dried prior to analysis followed by neutron irradiation for 3 h at a fluence rate of 1×1014cm−2s−1. After sample dissolution in perchloric and nitric acids, arsenic was separated from the matrix by extraction into zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform, and 76As quantified by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Differences in chemical yield and counting geometry between samples and standards were monitored by measuring the count rate of a 77As tracer added before sample dissolution. RNAA results were combined with inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) values from NIST and collaborating laboratories to provide certified values of (10.81 ± 0.54) μg/kg and (213.1 ± 0.73) μg/kg for SRM 2668 Levels I and II, and certified values of (21.66 ± 0.73) μg/kg, (52.7 ± 1.1) μg/kg, and (78.8 ± 4.9) μg/kg for SRM 955c Levels 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Because of discrepancies between values obtained by different methods for SRM 955c Level 1, an information value of < 5 μg/kg was assigned for this material. PMID:26300575

  8. Nuclear and radiochemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.; Yates, S.W.

    1986-04-01

    This review is based largely on a computerized keyword search of Chemical Abstracts for the period from mid-1983 to mid-November 1985. Approximately 50% of the nearly 2000 abstracts considered were found by searching with the keyphrase radiochemical analysis. Nuclear analytical chemistry is now clearly a mature field; breakthroughs in methodology are now rare, but innovative applications of nuclear techniques continue to increase. Some of the most interesting developments in the last few years have been the use of activatable (The term activatable is more commonly used in the radiochemical literature and will be used in the remainder of this review.) elemental or enriched isotope tracers in environmental studies, preirradiation derivatization or chemical separations to permit enhanced sensitivity or speciation, nuclear microprobe techniques, unique applications of prompt ..gamma.. neutron activation analysis, and accelerator-based dating methods that replace low activity counting methods. Publications in less common languages are included in this review only where the material covered is not represented in a more widely used language. Publications in major scientific languages other than English are included when an informative abstract in Chemical Abstracts (CA) can be cited. Laboratory or government reports and conference proceedings that may be difficult to obtain have generally been omitted. CA citations are appended to references where the language is other than English or where the publication is in a less accessible journal or report. 537 references, 5 tables.

  9. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  10. Evaluation of radiochemical data usability

    SciTech Connect

    Paar, J.G. |; Porterfield, D.R. |

    1997-04-01

    This procedure provides a framework for implementation of radiochemical data verification and validation for environmental remediation activities. It has been developed through participation of many individuals currently involved in analytical radiochemistry, radiochemical validation, and validation program development throughout the DOE complex. It should be regarded as a guidance to use in developing an implementable radiochemical validation strategy. This procedure provides specifications for developing and implementing a radiochemical validation methodology flexible enough to allow evaluation of data useability for project-specific Data Quality Objectives (DQO). Data produced by analytical methods for which this procedure provides limited guidance are classified as {open_quotes}non-routine{close_quotes} radionuclides and methods, and analyses by these methods may necessitate adoption of modified criteria from this procedure.

  11. Radiochemical method development

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

    1994-09-01

    The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.

  12. Nuclear and radiochemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.; Yates, S.W.

    1988-06-15

    In this, their second fundamental review under the present authorship and title, they have chosen to continue their emphasis on topics representing the use of nuclear properties for chemical analysis. Excluded are topics in the areas of health physics, nuclear spectroscopy (unless directly related to analysis), nuclear engineering, fusion, radioactive waste disposal, fallout, and nuclear and particle physics. Other topics such as particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), plasma desorption mass spectrometry, radioimmunoassay, Moessbauer spectroscopy, nuclear dating methods, and radiotracer applications are treated briefly here, since they are adequately covered in other current reviews in this or other major journals. Only a brief mention is made of well logging, since many of the advances in this field do not currently appear in the open literature. As in their previous review, they finish with short comments on some interesting developments in nuclear and radiochemistry that are not strictly analytical in nature. This review is based largely on a computerized keyword search of Chemical Abstracts (CA) for the period from mid-November 1985 through December 31, 1987.

  13. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  14. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  15. Radiochemical analysis of chlorine-36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, M.; Piña, G.; Lara, E.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive chlorine isotope, 36Cl, decays with a half-life of 3×105 years by emitting a beta particle (98 %) and by electron capture. The aim of this paper is to propose a radiochemical separation method of 36Cl from the other beta-gamma emitters present in low and medium radioactive wastes such as spent ion exchange resins and evaporator concentrates, that arise from Nuclear Power Plants and particularly in the wastes that come from decommissioning activities of graphite reactors, in order to provide data for 36Cl inventory calculations. The separation method proposed is based on an oxidation technique where chlorine is trapped by NaOH. 36Cl beta emissions are measured by liquid scintillation counting by the dual label technique in order to avoid the contamination produced by 14C which is also trapped by NaOH and which is the main contaminant present in graphite samples. The sensitivity of this method is sufficient to achieve the needed thresholds for the radiological characterization of the radioactive materials to which this method can be applied.

  16. Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberg, J

    1990-05-01

    This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.

  17. Safety assessment for TA-48 radiochemical operations

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document an assessment performed to evaluate the safety of the radiochemical operations conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory operations area designated as TA-48. This Safety Assessment for the TA-48 radiochemical operations was prepared to fulfill the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5481.1B, ``Safety Analysis and Review System.`` The area designated as TA-48 is operated by the Chemical Science and Technology (CST) Division and is involved with radiochemical operations associated with nuclear weapons testing, evaluation of samples collected from a variety of environmental sources, and nuclear medicine activities. This report documents a systematic evaluation of the hazards associated with the radiochemical operations that are conducted at TA-48. The accident analyses are limited to evaluation of the expected consequences associated with a few bounding accident scenarios that are selected as part of the hazard analysis. Section 2 of this report presents an executive summary and conclusions, Section 3 presents pertinent information concerning the TA-48 site and surrounding area, Section 4 presents a description of the TA-48 radiochemical operations, and Section 5 presents a description of the individual facilities. Section 6 of the report presents an evaluation of the hazards that are associated with the TA-48 operations and Section 7 presents a detailed analysis of selected accident scenarios.

  18. Automated Radiochemical Separation, Analysis, and Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-08-27

    Chapter 14 for the 2nd edition of the Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis. The techniques and examples described in this chapter demonstrate that modern fluidic techniques and instrumentation can be used to develop automated radiochemical separation workstations. In many applications, these can be mechanically simple and key parameters can be controlled from software. If desired, many of the fluidic components and solution can be located remotely from the radioactive samples and other hot sample processing zones. There are many issues to address in developing automated radiochemical separation that perform reliably time after time in unattended operation. These are associated primarily with the separation and analytical chemistry aspects of the process. The relevant issues include the selectivity of the separation, decontamination factors, matrix effects, and recoveries from the separation column. In addition, flow rate effects, column lifetimes, carryover from one sample to another, and sample throughput must be considered. Nevertheless, successful approaches for addressing these issues have been developed. Radiochemical analysis is required not only for processing nuclear waste samples in the laboratory, but also for at-site or in situ applications. Monitors for nuclear waste processing operations represent an at-site application where continuous unattended monitoring is required to assure effective process radiochemical separations that produce waste streams that qualify for conversion to stable waste forms. Radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and long term stewardship represent an application where at-site or in situ measurements will be most effective. Automated radiochemical analyzers and sensors have been developed that demonstrate that radiochemical analysis beyond the analytical laboratory is both possible and practical.

  19. Radiochemical Solar Neutrino Experiments - Successful and Otherwise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn,R.L.

    2008-05-25

    Over the years, several different radiochemical systems have been proposed as solar neutrino detectors. Of these, two achieved operating status and obtained important results that helped to define the current field of neutrino physics: the first solar-neutrino experiment, the Chlorine Detector ({sup 37}Cl) that was developed by chemist Raymond Davis and colleagues at the Homestake Mine, and the subsequent Gallium ({sup 71}Ga) Detectors that were operated by (a) the SAGE collaboration at the Baksan Laboratory and (b) the GALLEX/GNO collaborations at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. These experiments have been extensively discussed in the literature and in many previous International Neutrino Conferences. In this paper, I present important updates to the results from SAGE and GALLEX/GNO. I also review the principles of the radiochemical detectors and briefly describe several different detectors that have been proposed. In light of the well-known successes that have been subsequently obtained by real-time neutrino detectors such as Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO, and KamLAND, I do not anticipate that any new radiochemical neutrino detectors will be built. At present, only SAGE is still operating; the Chlorine and GNO radiochemical detectors have been decommissioned and dismantled.

  20. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Fischer, W.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Poole, H. J.; Todd, R.

    2015-05-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  1. Plasma Sputtering Robotic Device for In-Situ Thick Coatings of Long, Small Diameter Vacuum Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2014-10-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated & operated. Reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes and of electron clouds, due to high secondary electron yield (SEY), in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced SEY to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel RHIC tube has conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Device detail and experimental results will be presented. Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under

  2. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A. Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Todd, R.; Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Poole, H. J.

    2015-05-15

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  3. Radiochemical separation of gold by amalgam exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruch, R.R.

    1970-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the radiochemical separation of gold after neutron activation. The technique is based on treatment with a dilute indium-gold amalgam, both chemical reduction and isotopic exchange being involved. The counting efficiency for 198Au in small volumes of the amalgam is good. Few interferences occur and the method is applicable to clays, rocks, salts and metals. The possibility of determining silver, platinum and palladium by a similar method is mentioned. ?? 1970.

  4. Radiochemical reactions between tritium and humid air

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.H.; Taylor, D.J.; Honnell, K.G.; O`hira, S.; Kawamura, Y.; Nishi, M.; Okuno, K.

    1998-03-01

    Radiochemical reactions between pure tritium (T{sub 2}) and moist air have been examined using real-time Raman spectroscopy. The reacting constituents were contained in a 1 cm{sup 3} quartz cell sealed by a quartz-to-metal seal leading to a valve. A near-stoichiometric mixture of T{sub 2} and O{sub 2} was introduced into the cell, and the time evolution of the composition was monitored at 297 K for twenty-nine days. The production of T{sub 2}O was observed in these experiments, for the first time unambiguously detected in Raman spectroscopy. T{sub 2}O exhibits a relatively weak vibrational band at {approximately}2,313 cm{sup {minus}1}. The radiochemical production of tritiated water did not occur in the expected 2:1 ratio, but rather with the O{sub 2} disappearing totally when the T{sub 2} was only slightly over halfway depleted. After the disappearance of O{sub 2}, the T{sub 2} partial pressure continued to decrease, but at a slower rate. The initial water in the moist-air mixture disappeared totally after about 15 hours, with no concomitant production of HT. A small quantity of CO{sub 2} was also detected, presumably produced by radiochemically driven reactions with stainless steel components.

  5. MONITORING AND CONTROL OF UREX RADIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2007-07-01

    There is urgent need for methods to provide on-line monitoring and control of the radiochemical processes that are currently being developed and demonstrated under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust (require little or no maintenance) and must be able to withstand harsh environments (e.g., high radiation fields and aggressive chemical matrices). The ability for continuous online monitoring allows the following benefits: • Accountability of the fissile materials; • Control of the process flowsheet; • Information on flow parameters, solution composition, and chemical speciation; • Enhanced performance by eliminating the need for traditional analytical “grab samples”; • Improvement of operational and criticality safety; • Elimination of human error. The objective of our project is to use a system of flow, chemical composition, and physical property measurement techniques for developing on-line real-time monitoring systems for the UREX process streams. We will use our past experience in adapting and deploying Raman spectrometer combined with Coriolis meters and conductivity probes in developing a deployable prototype monitor for the UREX radiochemical streams. This system will be augmented with UV-vis-NIR spectrophotomter. Flow, temperature, density, and chemical composition and concentration measurements will be combined for real-time data analysis during processing. Currently emphasis of our research is placed on evaluation of the commercial instrumentation for the UREX flowsheet.

  6. Radiochemical Analysis Methodology for uranium Depletion Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Scatena-Wachel DE

    2007-01-09

    This report provides sufficient material for a test sponsor with little or no radiochemistry background to understand and follow physics irradiation test program execution. Most irradiation test programs employ similar techniques and the general details provided here can be applied to the analysis of other irradiated sample types. Aspects of program management directly affecting analysis quality are also provided. This report is not an in-depth treatise on the vast field of radiochemical analysis techniques and related topics such as quality control. Instrumental technology is a very fast growing field and dramatic improvements are made each year, thus the instrumentation described in this report is no longer cutting edge technology. Much of the background material is still applicable and useful for the analysis of older experiments and also for subcontractors who still retain the older instrumentation.

  7. Experimental and analysis methods in radiochemical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, C. M.; Pandola, L.

    2016-04-01

    Radiochemical experiments made the history of neutrino physics by achieving the first observation of solar neutrinos (Cl experiment) and the first detection of the fundamental pp solar neutrinos component (Ga experiments). They measured along decades the integral νe charged current interaction rate in the exposed target. The basic operation principle is the chemical separation of the few atoms of the new chemical species produced by the neutrino interactions from the rest of the target, and their individual counting in a low-background counter. The smallness of the expected interaction rate (1 event per day in a ˜ 100 ton target) poses severe experimental challenges on the chemical and on the counting procedures. The main aspects related to the analysis techniques employed in solar neutrino experiments are reviewed and described, with a special focus given to the event selection and the statistical data treatment.

  8. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  9. Industrial robots and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Kafrissen, S.; Stephens, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the study of robotics. It provides information of hardware, software, applications and economics. Eleven chapters examine the following: Minicomputers, Microcomputers, and Microprocessors; The Servo-Control System; The Activators; Robot Vision Systems; and Robot Workcell Environments. Twelve appendices supplement the data.

  10. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. ...

  11. Robot and robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  12. Radiochemical Mix Diagnostic in the Presence of Burn

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2014-01-28

    There is a general interest in radiochemical probes of hydrodamicalmix in burning regions of NIF capsule. Here we provide estimates for the production of 13N from mixing of 10B ablator burning hotspot of a capsule. By comparing the 13N signal with x-ray measurements of the ablator mix into the hotspot it should be possible to estimate the chunkiness of this mix.

  13. Robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-10-01

    This article discusses the developments that led up to robotic surgical systems as well as what is on the horizon for new robotic technology. Topics include how robotics is enabling new types of procedures, including natural orifice endoscopic translumenal surgery in which one cannot reach by hand under any circumstances, and how these developments will drive the next generation of robots. PMID:18790158

  14. Guiding Principles for Sustainable Existing Buildings: Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Jason E.

    2013-11-11

    In 2006, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) signed the Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), along with 21 other agencies. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is exceeding this requirement and, currently, about 25 percent of its buildings are High Performance and Sustainable Buildings. The pages that follow document the Guiding Principles conformance effort for the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at PNNL. The RPL effort is part of continued progress toward a building inventory that is 100 percent compliant with the Guiding Principles.

  15. A radiochemical analyses of metastudtite and leachates from spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Hanson, Brady D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.

    2004-12-01

    Immersion of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in deionized water produced two novel corrosion products after a two-year contact period. Another unexpected result was that suspensions of aggregates were observed to form at the air-water interface for each of five samples. These solids were characterized, by SEM and XRD to be nearly pure metastudtite (UO4-2H2O); while the corrosion present on the surface of the fuel itself was determined to be studtite (UO4-2H2O). The occurrence of the floating phase prompted a radiochemical analysis of these solids. This chemical analysis was a unique opportunity to study the relatively pure corrosion phase for incorporation of radionuclides. The analysis indicated that high concentration of 90Sr, 137Cs, 99Tc, and that lower concentrations 237Np, 238, 239Pu and 243, 244Cm had partitioned with the air-water interface aggregates. The concentrations of 241Am were two orders of magnitude lower than the expected inventory in the suspended solids. The radiochemical analyses of the several leachate samples provide preliminary solubility data for the hydrogen peroxide leaching of CSNF and these data are compared to leaching of the same fuel in J-13 and deionized waters. The extent of fuel dissolution in these media are discussed.

  16. Radiochemical ageing of EPDM elastomers. 3. Mechanism of radiooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaton, A.; Cambon, S.; Gardette, J.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The preceding paper of this series was devoted to the identification and quantification of the main chemical changes resulting from the radiochemical ageing of EPDM (77.9% ethylene, 21.4% propylene, 0.7% diene) and EPR (76.6% ethylene, 23.4% propylene) films irradiated under oxygen atmosphere using 60Co gamma rays. The double bond of the diene was observed to be consumed with a high radiochemical yield. The oxidation and reticulation rates were observed to be higher in the case of EPDM than in EPR. Accumulation of the major oxidation products in both polymers was shown to occur in the order of decreasing concentrations: hydroperoxides, ketones, carboxylic acids and alcohols, peroxides. On the basis of the analysis of the oxidation products formed in EPDM and EPR, and taking into account their relative concentrations, the mechanisms accounting for the EPDM γ-degradation under oxygen atmosphere are proposed in the present paper. Two main processes are involved in the EPDM radiooxidation. The random γ-radiolysis of the polymer provides a constant source of macroalkyl radicals mainly formed on ethylene units. The secondary radicals so formed are likely to initiate a selective oxidation of the polymer through free-radicals reactions involving the abstraction of labile hydrogen atoms. In particular, the hydroperoxides decomposition and the consumption of the ENB moieties, this latter being the most oxidisable site and the source of crosslinking, may result from hydrogen abstraction by radical species.

  17. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  18. Swarm Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Erol; Girgin, Sertan; Bayindir, Levent; Turgut, Ali Emre

    Swarm robotics is a novel approach to the coordination of large numbers of robots and has emerged as the application of swarm intelligence to multi-robot systems. Different from other swarm intelligence studies, swarm robotics puts emphases on the physical embodiment of individuals and realistic interactions among the individuals and between the individuals and the environment. In this chapter, we present a brief review of this new approach. We first present its definition, discuss the main motivations behind the approach, as well as its distinguishing characteristics and major coordination mechanisms. Then we present a brief review of swarm robotics research along four axes; namely design, modelling and analysis, robots and problems.

  19. Robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, D

    2000-09-01

    The industrial revolution demonstrated the capability of robotic systems to facilitate and improve manufacturing. As a result, robotics extended to various other domains, including the delivery of health care. Hence, robots have been developed to assist hospital staff, to facilitate laboratory analyses, to augment patient rehabilitation, and even to advance surgical performance. As robotics lead usefulness and gain wider acceptance among the surgical community, the urologist should become familiar with this new interdisciplinary field and its "URobotics" subset: robotics applied to urology. This article reviews the current applications and experience, issues and debates in surgical robotics, and highlights future directions in the field.

  20. CASSY Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Anna; Wright, Ann; Rice, Aaron; Shyaka, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The CASSY Robot project involved two square robots coded in RobotC. The goal was to code a robot to do a certain set of tasks autonomously. To begin with, our task was to code the robot so that it would roam a certain area, marked off by black tape. When the robot hit the black tape, it knew to back up and turn around. It was able to do this thanks to the light sensor that was attached to the bottom of the robot. Also, whenever the robot hit an obstacle, it knew to stop, back up, and turn around. This was primarily to prevent the robot from hurting itself if it hit an obstacle. This was accomplished by using touch sensors set up as bumpers. Once that was accomplished, we attached sonar sensors and created code so that one robot was able to find and track the other robot in a sort of intruder/police scenario. The overall goal of this project was to code the robot so that we can test it against a robot coded exactly the same, but using Layered Mode Selection Logic. Professor.

  1. RAPID RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES IN SUPPORT OF FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2012-11-07

    by Sr-Resin separation and gas flow proportional counting. To achieve a lower detection limit for analysis of some of the Japanese soil samples, a 10 gram aliquot of soil was taken, acid-leached and processed with similar preconcentration chemistry. The MDA using this approach was ~0.03 pCi/g (1.1 mBq/g)/, which is less than the 0.05-0.10 pCi/g {sup 90}Sr levels found in soil as a result of global fallout. The chemical yields observed for the Japanese soil samples was typically 75-80% and the laboratory control sample (LCS) and matrix spike (MS) results looked very good for this work Individual QC results were well within the ± 25% acceptable range and the average of these results does not show significant bias. Additional data for a radiostrontium in soil method for 50 gram samples will also be presented, which appears to be a significant step forward based on looking at the current literature, with higher chemical yields for even larger sample aliquots and lower MDA. Hou et al surveyed a wide range of separation methods for Pu in waters and environmental solid samples. While there are many actinide methods in the scientific literature, few would be considered rapid due to the tedious and time-consuming steps involved. For actinide analyses in soil, a new rapid method for the determination of actinide isotopes in soil samples using both alpha spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed. The new rapid soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates were used to reduce analytical time. Challenges associated with the mineral content in the volcanic soil will be discussed. Air filter samples were

  2. Rapid Radiochemical Analyses in Support of Fukushima Nuclear Accident - 13196

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2013-07-01

    precipitations, followed by Sr-Resin separation and gas flow proportional counting. To achieve a lower detection limit for analysis of some of the Japanese soil samples, a 10 gram aliquot of soil was taken, acid-leached and processed with similar preconcentration chemistry. The MDA using this approach was ∼0.03 pCi/g (1.1 mBq/g)/, which is less than the 0.05-0.10 pCi/g {sup 90}Sr levels found in soil as a result of global fallout. The chemical yields observed for the Japanese soil samples was typically 75-80% and the laboratory control sample (LCS) and matrix spike (MS) results looked very good for this work Individual QC results were well within the ± 25% acceptable range and the average of these results does not show significant bias. Additional data for a radiostrontium in soil method for 50 gram samples will also be presented, which appears to be a significant step forward based on looking at the current literature, with higher chemical yields for even larger sample aliquots and lower MDA [5, 6, 7] Hou et al surveyed a wide range of separation methods for Pu in waters and environmental solid samples [8]. While there are many actinide methods in the scientific literature, few would be considered rapid due to the tedious and time-consuming steps involved. For actinide analyses in soil, a new rapid method for the determination of actinide isotopes in soil samples using both alpha spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed. The new rapid soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. [9, 10] Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates were used to reduce analytical time. Challenges associated with the mineral content in the volcanic soil will be

  3. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  4. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  5. (Robotic hands)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1988-09-23

    The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

  6. Improvement in the degradation resistance of LDPE for radiochemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharescu, Traian; Pleşa, Ilona; Jipa, Silviu

    2014-01-01

    The effect of rosemary extract on radiochemical stability of low density polyethylene was studied by chemiluminescence, FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry after γ(137Cs)-irradiation at processing low doses (10 and 20 kGy) in respect of pristine material. The additive concentrations (1, 2 and 5 wt%) induced a significant improvement in radiation stability, especially at high temperatures, for example 200 °C, which is proved chiefly by lower values of chemiluminescence intensities. The comparison of neat and rosemary-modified LDPE samples has revealed the protection action of this natural extract, which delays efficiently the propagation of oxidative degradation in γ-exposed polyethylene. The most evident proof for antioxidative protection efficiency promoted by rosemary is the smooth changes in hydroxyl and carbonyl indexes calculated on LDPE/5 wt% rosemary samples at all exposure doses.

  7. Inter-laboratory comparison measurements of radiochemical laboratories in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Meresová, J; Belanová, A; Vrsková, M

    2010-01-01

    The first inter-laboratory comparison organized by the radiochemistry laboratory of Water Research Institute (WRI) in Bratislava was carried out in 1993 and since then is it realized on an annual basis and about 10 radiochemical laboratories from all over Slovakia are participating. The gross alpha and gross beta activities, and the activity concentrations of (222)Rn, tritium, and (226)Ra, and U(nat) concentration in synthetic water samples are compared. The distributed samples are covering the concentration range prevailing in potable and surface waters and are prepared by dilution of certified reference materials. Over the course of the years 1993-2008, we observed the improvement in the quality of results for most of the laboratories. However, the success rate of the gross alpha determination activity is not improving as much as the other parameters.

  8. Radiochemical Reactions Between Tritium Molecule and Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, W.M.; O'Hira, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishi, M. F.

    2005-07-15

    To have better understanding of radiochemical reactions among oxygen baking products in a fusion reactor, reactions in equimolar tritium molecule (T{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were examined by laser Raman spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. After mixing them at room temperature, T{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased rapidly in the first 30 minutes and then the reactions between them became much slower. As the predominant products of the reactions, carbon monoxide (CO) and tritiated water (T{sub 2}O) were found in gaseous phase and condensed phase, respectively. However, there likely existed also some solid products that were thermally decomposed into CO, CO{sub 2}, T{sub 2}, T{sub 2}O, etc. during baking up to 523 K.

  9. Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Mother-Liquid Radiochemical Production - 13089

    SciTech Connect

    Zherebtsov, Alexander; Dvoeglazov, Konstantine; Volk, Vladimir; Zagumenov, Vladimir; Zverev, Dmitriy; Tinin, Vasiliy; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Shamin, Dladimir; Tvilenev, Konstantin

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the work is to develop a basic technology of decomposition of ammonium nitrate stock solutions produced in radiochemical enterprises engaged in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel and fabrication of fresh fuel. It was necessary to work out how to conduct a one-step thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, select and test the catalysts for this process and to prepare proposals for recycling condensation. Necessary accessories were added to a laboratory equipment installation decomposition of ammonium nitrate. It is tested several types of reducing agents and two types of catalyst to neutralize the nitrogen oxides. It is conducted testing of modes of the process to produce condensation, suitable for use in the conversion of a new technological scheme of production. It is studied the structure of the catalysts before and after their use in a laboratory setting. It is tested the selected catalyst in the optimal range for 48 hours of continuous operation. (authors)

  10. Solid standards for quality control in radiochemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sill, C.W.; Sill, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    The accuracy of radiochemical analyses is frequently determined by intercomparison of results obtained by several participating laboratories on a given set of samples. From the large variability in the results generally obtained, it is evident that at least some of the results are inaccurate. When large numbers of laboratories are involved, with little if any discernible improvement from one intercomparison to another, the seriousness of the matter becomes obvious. Examples from the literature are discussed. Easy availability of standard samples containing known quantities of any radionuclide of interest would permit each individual laboratory to assess its own internal performance at any frequency desired without assistance from others. The advantages of preparing the standards by addition of known activities of the radionuclides to natural matrices rather than using standards with the nuclide of interest already in place by natural means are discussed.

  11. Robot programming

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano-Perez, T.

    1982-12-01

    The industrial robot's principal advantage over traditional automation is programmability. Robots can perform arbitrary sequences of pre-stored motions or of motions computed as functions of sensory input. This paper reviews requirements for and developments in robot programming systems. The key requirements for robot programming systems examined in the paper are in the areas of sensing, world modeling, motion specification, flow of control, and programming support. Existing and proposed robot programming systems fall into three broad categories: guiding systems in which the user leads a robot through the motions to be performed, robot-level programming systems in which the user writes a computer program specifying motion and sensing, and task-level programming systems in which the user writes a computer program specifying motion and sensing, and task-level programming systems in which the user specifies operations by their desired effect on objects. A representative sample of systems in each of these categories is surveyed in the paper.

  12. Placement of the radiochemical processing plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory into a safe standby condition

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, D.W.; Bopp, C.D.; Farmer, A.J.; Johnson, J.K.; Miller, C.H.; Powers, B.A.; Collins, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive upgrade, cleanup, and decontamination efforts are being conducted for appropriate areas in the Radiochemical Processing Plant (RPP) with the goal of achieving ''safe standby'' condition by the end of FY 1989. The ventilation system must maintain containment; thus, it is being upgraded via demolition and replacement of marginally adequate ductwork, fans, and control systems. Areas that are being decontaminated and stripped of various services (e.g., piping, ductwork, and process tanks) include hot cells, makeup rooms, and pipe tunnels. Operating equipment that is being decontaminated includes glove boxes and hoods. Replacement of the ventilation system and removal of equipment from pipe tunnels, cells, and makeup rooms are accomplished by contact labor by workers using proper attire, safety rules, and shielding. Removal of contaminated ductwork and piping is conducted with containment enclosures that are strategically located at breakpoints, and methods of separation are chosen to conform with health physics requirements. The methods of cutting contaminated piping and ductwork include portable reciprocating saws, pipe cutters, burning, and plasma torch. Specially designed containment enclosures will be used to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination while maintaining adequate ventilation. 6 figs.

  13. Hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Martinez, Michael A.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a hopping robot that includes a misfire tolerant linear actuator suitable for long trips, low energy steering and control, reliable low energy righting, miniature low energy fuel control. The present invention provides a robot with hopping mobility, capable of traversing obstacles significant in size relative to the robot and capable of operation on unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides a hopping robot with misfire-tolerant combustion actuation, and with combustion actuation suitable for use in oxygen-poor environments.

  14. Waste treatment at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center

    SciTech Connect

    Brunson, R.R.; Bond, W.D.; Chattin, F.R.; Collins, R.T.; Sullivan, G.R.; Wiles, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    At the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) irradiated targets are processed for the recovery of valuable radioisotopes, principally transuranium nuclides. A system was recently installed for treating the various liquid alkaline waste streams for removal of excess radioactive contaminants at the REDC. Radionuclides that are removed will be stored as solids and thus the future discharge of radionuclides to liquid low level waste tank storage will be greatly reduced. The treatment system is of modular design and is installed in a hot cell (Cubicle 7) in Building 7920 at the REDC where preliminary testing is in progress. The module incorporates the following: (1) a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin column for Cs removal, (2) a cross flow filtration unit for removal of rare earths and actinides as hydroxide, and (3) a waste solidification unit. Process flowsheets for operation of the module, key features of the module design, and its computer-assisted control system are presented. Good operability of the cross flow filter system is mandatory to the successful treatment of REDC wastes. Results of tests to date on the operation of the filter in its slurry collection mode and its slurry washing mode are presented. These tests include the effects of entrained organic solvent in the waste stream feed to the filter.

  15. Radiochemical microassay for aspartate aminotransferase activity in the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, D.; Beattie, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.

    1988-07-01

    A radiochemical procedure for measuring aspartate aminotransferase activity in the nervous system is described. The method is based on the exchange of tritium atoms at positions 2 and 3 of L-2,3-(/sup 3/H)aspartate with water when this amino acid is transaminated in the presence of alpha-ketoglutarate to form oxaloacetate. The tritiated water is separated from the radiolabeled aspartate by passing the reaction mixture over a cation exchange column. Confirmation that the radioactivity in the product is associated with water was obtained by separating it by anion exchange HPLC and by evaporation. The product formation is linear with time up to 120 min and with tissue in the 0.05- to 10-micrograms range. The apparent Km for aspartate in the rat brain homogenate is found to be 0.83 mM and that for alpha-ketoglutarate to be 0.12 mM. Methods that further improve the sensitivity of the assay are also discussed.

  16. Inorganic and Radiochemical Analysis of AW-101 and AN-107 ''Diluted Feed'' Materials

    SciTech Connect

    MW Urie; JJ Wagner; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; SK Fiskum; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist

    1999-11-11

    This report presents the inorganic and radiochemical analytical results for AW-101 and AN-107 diluted feed materials. The analyses were conducted in support of the BNFL Proposal No. 29952/29953 Task 2.1. The inorganic and radiochemical analysis results obtained from the diluted feed materials are used to provide initial characterization information for subsequent processing testing. Quality Assurance (QA) Plan MCS-033 provides the operational and quality control protocols for the analytical activities.

  17. Robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A robot having a plurality of interconnected sections is disclosed. Each of the sections includes components which are moveable relative to components of an adjacent section. A plurality of electric motors are operably connected to at least two of said relatively moveable components to effect relative movement. A fitted, removable protective covering surrounds the sections to protect the robot.

  18. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  19. Robot Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Martin Marietta Aero and Naval Systems has advanced the CAD art to a very high level at its Robotics Laboratory. One of the company's major projects is construction of a huge Field Material Handling Robot for the Army's Human Engineering Lab. Design of FMR, intended to move heavy and dangerous material such as ammunition, was a triumph in CAD Engineering. Separate computer problems modeled the robot's kinematics and dynamics, yielding such parameters as the strength of materials required for each component, the length of the arms, their degree of freedom and power of hydraulic system needed. The Robotics Lab went a step further and added data enabling computer simulation and animation of the robot's total operational capability under various loading and unloading conditions. NASA computer program (IAC), integrated Analysis Capability Engineering Database was used. Program contains a series of modules that can stand alone or be integrated with data from sensors or software tools.

  20. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  1. Robot visions.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Claudia; Suchman, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the resonating figures of primate, child, and robot in contemporary technoscientific corporealizations of the 'almost human'. We take as our model (in)organism 'Lucy the Robot Orangutan', roboticist Steve Grand's project to create an artificial life form with a mind of its own. One aspect of Lucy's figuration by Grand, we argue, which ties her to Haraway's analysis of the primate, is of the robot as a model for animal, and more specifically (or aspirationally) human, cognition. We follow the trope of 'model organism' as it is under discussion within science and technology studies and as an ironic descriptor for our own interest in Lucy as an entity/project through which to illuminate figurations within robotics more widely. Primate and robot together are forms of natureculture that help to clarify how the categories of animal and machine are entangled, while making explicit investments in their differences from one another, and from the third category of the human. We conclude, again following Haraway, by imagining what other possibilities there might be for figuring humans, robots, and their relations if we escape the reiterative imaginary of the robot as proxy for becoming human. PMID:25051585

  2. Robotic transportation.

    PubMed

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions.

  3. Robot visions.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Claudia; Suchman, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the resonating figures of primate, child, and robot in contemporary technoscientific corporealizations of the 'almost human'. We take as our model (in)organism 'Lucy the Robot Orangutan', roboticist Steve Grand's project to create an artificial life form with a mind of its own. One aspect of Lucy's figuration by Grand, we argue, which ties her to Haraway's analysis of the primate, is of the robot as a model for animal, and more specifically (or aspirationally) human, cognition. We follow the trope of 'model organism' as it is under discussion within science and technology studies and as an ironic descriptor for our own interest in Lucy as an entity/project through which to illuminate figurations within robotics more widely. Primate and robot together are forms of natureculture that help to clarify how the categories of animal and machine are entangled, while making explicit investments in their differences from one another, and from the third category of the human. We conclude, again following Haraway, by imagining what other possibilities there might be for figuring humans, robots, and their relations if we escape the reiterative imaginary of the robot as proxy for becoming human.

  4. Robotic transportation.

    PubMed

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions. PMID:2208684

  5. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures. PMID:24144815

  6. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures.

  7. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  8. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  9. Robotic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  10. Robotic vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  11. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  12. Robotic animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretch, S. J.

    1982-08-01

    The effectiveness of the robotic systems Place and Animate at McDonnell Douglas is discussed. The systems are designed for CAD/CAM on a kinematic basis. Place allows creation, analysis, and editing of cell descriptions as part of the CAD process, and involves primitive cell configuring prior to eventual integration of the entire robot. Objects are displayed in wire frame form and movement receives an awkwardness rating automatically, indicating the percentage of the real-world joint limit that is being approached. The same program is employed in the Animate process, where verification and debugging of the robot programs proceeds. Clearances, motion limits, and correct responses to commands are checked, allowing decisions on production to be made before any robots are actually built.

  13. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Quiroz-Guadarrama, César David; Pachecho-Gahbler, Carlos; Rojano-Rodríguez, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Medicine has experienced greater scientific and technological advances in the last 50 years than in the rest of human history. The article describes relevant events, revises concepts and advantages and clinical applications, summarizes published clinical results, and presents some personal reflections without giving dogmatic conclusions about robotic surgery. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) defines robotic surgery as a surgical procedure using technology to aid the interaction between surgeon and patient. The objective of the surgical robot is to correct human deficiencies and improve surgical skills. The capacity of repeating tasks with precision and reproducibility has been the base of the robot´s success. Robotic technology offers objective and measurable advantages: - Improving maneuverability and physical capacity during surgery. - Correcting bad postural habits and tremor. - Allowing depth perception (3D images). - Magnifying strength and movement limits. - Offering a platform for sensors, cameras, and instruments. Endoscopic surgery transformed conceptually the way of practicing surgery. Nevertheless in the last decade, robotic assisted surgery has become the next paradigm of our era.

  14. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Quiroz-Guadarrama, César David; Pachecho-Gahbler, Carlos; Rojano-Rodríguez, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Medicine has experienced greater scientific and technological advances in the last 50 years than in the rest of human history. The article describes relevant events, revises concepts and advantages and clinical applications, summarizes published clinical results, and presents some personal reflections without giving dogmatic conclusions about robotic surgery. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) defines robotic surgery as a surgical procedure using technology to aid the interaction between surgeon and patient. The objective of the surgical robot is to correct human deficiencies and improve surgical skills. The capacity of repeating tasks with precision and reproducibility has been the base of the robot´s success. Robotic technology offers objective and measurable advantages: - Improving maneuverability and physical capacity during surgery. - Correcting bad postural habits and tremor. - Allowing depth perception (3D images). - Magnifying strength and movement limits. - Offering a platform for sensors, cameras, and instruments. Endoscopic surgery transformed conceptually the way of practicing surgery. Nevertheless in the last decade, robotic assisted surgery has become the next paradigm of our era. PMID:25643879

  15. Handbook of industrial robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Nof, S.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of artificial intelligence to robots used in industrial plants. Topics considered include vision systems, elements of industrial robot software, robot teaching, the off-line programming of robots, a structured programming robot language, task-level manipulator programming, expert systems, and the role of the computer in robot intelligence.

  16. Tutorial on robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.G.; Gonzalez, R.C.; Fu, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Basic fundamentals in robotics are presented in this tutorial. Topics covered are as follows: robot arm kinematics; robot arm dynamics; planning or manipulator trajectories; servo control for manipulators; force sensing and control; robot vision systems; robot programming languages; and machine intelligence and robot planning.

  17. Inorganic and Radiochemical Analysis of AW-101 and AN-107 Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    MW Urie; JJ Wagner; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; SK Fiskum; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist

    1999-11-11

    This report presents the inorganic and radiochemical analytical results for AW-101 and AN-107 as received materials. The analyses were conducted in support of the BNFL Proposal No. 30406/29274 Task 5.0. The inorganic and radiochemical analysis results obtained from the as received materials are used to provide initial characterization information for subsequent process testing and to provide data to support permit application activities. Quality Assurance (QA) Plan MCS-033 provides the operational and quality control protocols for the analytical activities, and whenever possible, analyses were performed to SW-846 equivalent methods and protocols.

  18. Automated radiochemical synthesis and biodistribution of [11C]l-α-acetylmethadol ([11C]LAAM)

    PubMed Central

    Sai, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram; Fan, Jinda; Tu, Zhude; Zerkel, Patrick; Mach, Robert H.; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2015-01-01

    Long-acting opioid agonists methadone and l-α-acetylmethadol (LAAM) prevent withdrawal in opioid-dependent persons. Attempts to synthesize [11C]-methadone for PET evaluation of brain disposition were unsuccessful. Owing, however, to structural and pharmacologic similarities, we aimed to develop [11C]LAAM as a PET ligand to probe the brain exposure of long-lasting opioids in humans. This manuscript describes [11C]LAAM synthesis and its biodistribution in mice. The radiochemical synthetic strategy afforded high radiochemical yield, purity and specific activity, thereby making the synthesis adaptable to automated modules. PMID:24935116

  19. General formalism for the study of activation: application to radiochemical detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Poppe, C.H.

    1982-09-24

    This paper develops mathematical techniques required for the study of neutron-induced activation of importance to fission and fusion devices - reactors, nuclear weapons, etc. The formalism is presented as a guide for examining the dependence of activation products on flux time history, spatial gradients and the sensitivity to the assumed reactions and cross sections. Exact solutions in powers of the neutron fluence are presented and examined in various limits. As an example, radiochemical threshold (n,2n) detectors used to diagnose thermonuclear explosions are studied using approximations to these solutions. In particular, approximate formulas for the sensitivity of the radiochemical products to different cross sections are derived.

  20. Rehabilitation robotics

    PubMed Central

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  1. Rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost.

  2. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  3. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  4. Robot Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers and interns at this NASA field center are building the prototype of a robotic rover that could go where no wheeled rover has gone before-into the dark cold craters at the lunar poles and across the Moon s rugged highlands-like a walking tetrahedron. With NASA pushing to meet President Bush's new exploration objectives, the robots taking shape here today could be on the Moon in a decade. In the longer term, the concept could lead to shape-shifting robot swarms designed to explore distant planetary surfaces in advance of humans. "If you look at all of NASA s projections of the future, anyone s projections of the space program, they re all rigid-body architecture," says Steven Curtis, principal investigator on the effort. "This is not rigid-body. The whole key here is flexibility and reconfigurability with a capital R."

  5. Robot soccer.

    PubMed

    Sammut, Claude

    2010-11-01

    Robot soccer is a test bed for a variety of robotic and Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods. Its relevance to Cognitive Science is that it confronts the designer with a task that requires the integration of almost all aspects of AI to create an agent that is capable of working in a complex, dynamic environment inhabited by other agents, some of which are cooperative and others competitive. We describe the main elements that make up a robot soccer player and how these players associate to create effective teams. We pay special attention to the architecture of the players. WIREs Cogn Sci 2010 1 824-833 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  6. Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  7. Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A commercially available ANDROS Mark V-A robot was used by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as the departure point in the development of the HAZBOT III, a prototype teleoperated mobile robot designed for response to emergencies. Teleoperated robots contribute significantly to reducing human injury levels by performing tasks too hazardous for humans. ANDROS' manufacturer, REMOTEC, Inc., in turn, adopted some of the JPL concepts, particularly the control panel. HAZBOT III has exceptional mobility, employs solid state electronics and brushless DC motors for safer operation, and is designed so combustible gases cannot penetrate areas containing electronics and motors. Other features include the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, the 30-pound squeeze force parallel jaw gripper and two video cameras, one for general viewing and navigation and the other for manipulation/grasping.

  8. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  9. Scientists use GEANIE to Study Isotopes of Iridium and Europium to Improve Radiochemical Diagnostics in Nuclear Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J A; Nelson, R

    2002-11-21

    Radiochemical diagnostics play an important role in helping scientists understand the detonation of a nuclear device. Sometimes some elements or isotopes are inserted as radiochemical detectors at various locations in the nuclear device. During the detonation of the device, these detectors are subjected for a short time to the intense flux of neutrons emitted through fission and possibly through fusion of light elements (usually deuterium and tritium). After the detonation, the radiochemical detectors and their long-lived activation products are retrieved from the area where the underground explosion took place. These radiochemical samples are analyzed to extract information about how the device operated. A large amount of such radiochemical data exist from past nuclear-device tests.

  10. Beyond Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally, Beth; Laverdure, Nate

    2006-01-01

    Chantilly High School Academy Robotics Team Number 612 from Chantilly, Virginia, is an award-winning team of high school students actively involved with FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a multinational nonprofit organization that inspires students to transform culture--making science, math, engineering and…

  11. Robotic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  12. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: A quality control program for radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kehl, S.R.; Mount, M.E.; Robison, W.L.

    1995-09-01

    From 1979 to 1989, approximately 25,000 Post Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (PNMIRS) samples were collected, and over 71,400 radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed to establish the concentration of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am, and plutonium isotopes in soil, vegetation, fish, and animals in the Northern Marshall Islands. While the Low Level Gamma Counting Facility (B379) in the Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division accounted for over 80% of all gamma spectroscopy analyses, approximately 4889 radiochemical and 5437 gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed on 4784 samples of soil, vegetation, terrestrial animal, and marine organisms by outside laboratories. Four laboratories were used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform the radiochemical analyses: Thermo Analytical Norcal, Richmond, California (TMA); Nuclear Energy Services, North Carolina State University (NCSU); Laboratory of Radiation Ecology, University of Washington (LRE); and Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division, LLNL, Livermore, California. Additionally, LRE and NCSU were used to perform gamma spectroscopy analyses. The analytical precision and accuracy were monitored by including blind duplicates and natural matrix standards in each group of samples analyzed. On the basis of reported analytical values for duplicates and standards, 88% of the gamma and 87% of the radiochemical analyses in this survey were accepted. By laboratory, 93% of the radiochemical analyses by TMA; 88% of the gamma-ray spectrometry and 100% of the radiochemistry analyses by NCSU; 89% of the gamma spectroscopy and 87% of the radiochemistry analyses by LRE; and 90% of the radiochemistry analyses performed by HEA`s radiochemistry department were accepted.

  13. Facing Up to Robotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Leslie J.

    1982-01-01

    Speculates on the effects of introducing robots into American society. Robotization will be used increasingly to reduce labor costs in business and industry. The impact of robotization on leisure time use and education are discussed. (AM)

  14. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  15. Effects of colchicine on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and radiochemical studies in fasting rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-03-01

    The involvement of microtubules in the transepithelial transport of exogenous lipid in intestinal absorptive cells has been suggested. Using electronmicroscopic, biochemical, and radiochemical methods, researchers have studied the effects of the antimicrotubular agent colchicine on the intestinal mucosa and on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid of rats in the fasting state. After colchicine treatment, the concentration of triglycerides in intestinal mucosa of rats fasted for 24 h doubled, and electron microscopic studies showed a striking accumulation of lipid particles in absorptive epithelial cells of the tips of jejunal villi. These findings suggest that colchicine interferes with the intestinal transepithelial transport of endogenous lipoproteins. Additional studies, using an intraduodenal pulse injection of (/sup 14/C)linoleic acid, showed that colchicine does not affect the uptake of fatty acids by intestinal mucosa. However, it had divergent effects on fatty acid esterification, enhancing their incorporation into triglycerides relative to phospholipids, and caused a significant accumulation of endogenous diglycerides, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters within the absorptive intestinal epithelium. Detailed ultrastructural and morphometric studies revealed a decrease of visible microtubules, and a displacement of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, it is shown that after colchicine treatment, microvilli appear at the lateral plasma membrane of intestinal absorptive cells, a change not previously reported to our knowledge. Thus, our study shows that colchicine causes significant changes in enterocyte ultrastructure and colchicine perturbs the reesterification of absorbed endogenous fatty acids and their secretion in the form of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the enterocyte.

  16. A gaseous radiochemical method for registration of ionizing radiation and its possible applications in science and economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, S. G.; Akulinichev, S. V.; Iljinov, A. S.; Yants, V. E.

    2006-05-01

    This work presents a new possibility of registration of ionizing radiation by the flowing gaseous radiochemical method (FGRM). The specified method uses the property of some solid crystalline lattice materials for a free emission of radioactive isotopes of inert gas atoms formed as a result of nuclear reactions. Generated in an ampoule of the detector, the radioactive inert gases are transported by a gas-carrier into the proportional gas counter of the flowing type, where the decay rate of the radioactive gas species is measured. This quantity is unequivocally related to the flux of particles (neutrons, protons, light and heavy ions) at the location of the ampoule. The method was used to monitor the neutron flux of the pulsed neutron target “RADEX” driven by the linear proton accelerator of INR RAS. Further progress of the FGRM may give rise to possible applications in nuclear physics, astrophysics and medicine, in the nondestructive control of fissionable materials, diagnostics of thermonuclear plasma, monitoring of fluxes and measurement of spectra of bombarding particles.

  17. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications.

  18. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE: UPGRADED MPC AND A SYSTEMS FOR THE RADIOCHEMICAL PLANT OF THE SIBERIAN CHEMICAL COMBINE

    SciTech Connect

    RODRIGUEZ,C.GOLOSKOKOV,I.FISHBONE,L.GOODEY,K.LOOMIS,M.CRAIN,B.JR.LARSEN,R.

    2003-07-18

    The success of reducing the risk of nuclear proliferation through physical protection and material control/accounting systems depends upon the development of an effective design that includes consideration of the objectives of the systems and the resources available to implement the design. Included among the objectives of the design are facility characterization, definition of threat, and identification of targets. When considering resources, the designer must consider funds available, rapid low-cost elements, technology elements, human resources, and the availability of resources to sustain operation of the end system. The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is a multi-function nuclear facility located in the Tomsk region of Siberia, Russia. Beginning in 1996, SCC joined with the United States Department of Energy (US/DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) Program to develop and implement MPC&A upgrades for the Radiochemical, Chemical Metallurgical, Conversion, Uranium Enrichment, and Reactor Plants of the SCC. At the Radiochemical Plant the MPC&A design and implementation process has been largely completed for the Plutonium Storage Facility and related areas of the Radiochemical Plant. Design and implementation of upgrades for the Radiochemical Plant include rapid physical protection upgrades such as bricking up of doors and windows, and installation of security-hardened doors. Rapid material control and accounting upgrades include installation of modern balances and bar code equipment. Comprehensive MPC&A upgrades include the installation of access controls to sensitive areas of the Plant, alarm communication and display (AC&D) systems to detect and annunciate alarm conditions, closed circuit (CCTV) systems to assess alarm conditions, central and secondary alarm station upgrades that enable security forces to assess and respond to alarm conditions, material control and accounting upgrades that include upgraded physical inventory procedures, and

  19. On-Line Monitoring and Control of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2008-05-23

    Techniques are needed to provide on-line monitoring and control of the radiochemical processes that are being developed and demonstrated under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust and must be able to withstand harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes, has been recently developed by our research team. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine/high alkalinity generated during retrieval from Hanford nuclear waste storage tanks. We are currently applying similar methodology for monitoring the radiochemical streams generated at the spent fuel reprocessing plant. The nature of these strems calls for additional spectroscopic information, which can be gained by the utilization of UV-vis-NIR capabilities.

  20. Protein binding studies with radiolabeled compounds containing radiochemical impurities. Equilibrium dialysis versus dialysis rate determination

    SciTech Connect

    Honore, B.

    1987-04-01

    The influence of radiochemical impurities in dialysis experiments with high-affinity ligands is investigated. Albumin binding of labeled decanoate (97% pure) is studied by two dialysis techniques. It is shown that equilibrium dialysis is very sensitive to the presence of impurities resulting in erroneously low estimates of the binding affinity and in inconsistent results at varying albumin concentrations. Dialysis rate determination is less sensitive to impurities.

  1. Radiochemical detection of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase: distribution of the indomethacin sensitive enzyme in rat tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Ivins, J.; Penning, T.

    1986-05-01

    Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase catalyzes the NADP/sup +/ dependent oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which are potent proximate carcinogens. The authors have developed a highly sensitive radiochemical assay for this enzyme in which the oxidation of trans-1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-cyclohexadiene, a model substrate for trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogens, is coupled to O-methylation catalyzed by catechol O-methyl transferase. Using S-adenosyl-(/sup 3/H-methyl)-methionine as methyl donor at a specific activity of 0.1 nCi/pmol and extracting the product, /sup 3/H-o-methoxyphenol, the assay provides a 5000 fold increase in sensitivity over the existing spectrophotometric method. The radiochemical assay was validated by comparing the K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ values for rat liver cytosol with those derived spectrophotometrically. In both instances there was close agreement between values (K/sub m/ = 0.77 +/- 0.11 mM and V/sub max/ = 2.14 +/- 0.13 nmoles/min/mg protein determined radiochemically; K/sub m/ = 0.96 +/- 0.10 mM and V/sub max/ = 6.31 +/- 0.50 nmoles/min/mg protein determined spectrophotometrically). Using the radiochemical method, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activity was detected in the following rat tissues: liver > lung > heart > small intestine > testis > seminal vesicle > bladder > prostate > spleen. Specific activities ranged between 0.944 and 0.016 nmoles/min/mg protein. In liver, lung, and testis, which are sites of PAH metabolism, the dehydrogenase is sensitive to inhibition by low ..mu..M concentrations of indomethacin, suggesting that this drug can prevent the detoxification of proximate carcinogens by this route.

  2. Separation and collection of iodine, sulfur, and phosphorous anion complexes for subsequent radiochemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.; Dewberry, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    We developed a method to separate anion complexes of sulfur, iodine, and phosphorus to enable determination by radiochemical techniques. This method involves ion chromatographic separation of the anion complexes from other highly emitting radioactive species such as cesium-137 and strontium-90 which interfere with radiochemical analysis. We essentially use the ion chromatograph as a sample pretreatment method. The samples are injected onto a cation exchange column which allows the anions to pass through while retaining the positively charged species. These anions are collected in the column effluent and measured by nuclear counting methods. The method was developed to enable measurement of trace radionuclides in radioactive waste and in environmental samples. Trace radionuclides which are present in concentrations of only a few hundred disintegrations per minute per milliliter can be separated and then analyzed using liquid scintillation counting analysis. This paper establishes the separation and collection protocol, collection efficiencies for sulfur, iodine, and phosphorus anion standards, and overall efficiencies and detection limits for the separation and subsequent radiochemical analysis of iodine-129 from both environmental level and high salt waste samples.

  3. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  4. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  5. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  6. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  7. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  8. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  9. Hexapod Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  10. Application of External Axis in Robot-Assisted Thermal Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Sihao; Fang, Dandan; Cai, Zhenhua; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain

    2012-12-01

    Currently, industrial robots are widely used in the process of thermal spraying because of their high efficiency, security, and repeatability. Although robots are found suitable for use in industrial productions, they have some natural disadvantages because of their six-axis mechanical linkages. When a robot performs a series of stages of production, it could be hard to move from one to another because a few axes reach their limit value. For this reason, an external axis should be added to the robot system to extend the reachable space of the robots. This article concerns the application of external axis on ABB robots in thermal spraying and the different methods of off-line programming with external axis in the virtual environment. The developed software toolkit was applied to coat real workpiece with a complex geometry in atmospheric plasma spraying).

  11. Robotic intelligence kernel

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J.

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  12. Humanoid Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Strawser, Phillip A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank N. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.

  13. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  14. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  15. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications. PMID:23582470

  16. Competencies Identification for Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Le D.

    A study focused on the task of identifying competencies for robotics training. The level of robotics training was limited to that of robot technicians. Study objectives were to obtain a list of occupational competencies; to rank their order of importance; and to compare opinions from robot manufacturers, robot users, and robotics educators…

  17. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for certification of ion-implanted phosphorus in silicon.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rick L; Simons, David S; Guthrie, William F; Lu, John

    2003-08-15

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed, critically evaluated, and shown to have the necessary sensitivity, chemical specificity, matrix independence, and precision to certify phosphorus at ion implantation levels in silicon. 32P, produced by neutron capture of 31P, is chemically separated from the sample matrix and measured using a beta proportional counter. The method is used here to certify the amount of phosphorus in SRM 2133 (Phosphorus Implant in Silicon Depth Profile Standard) as (9.58 +/- 0.16) x 10(14) atoms x cm(-2). A detailed evaluation of uncertainties is given.

  18. Radio-UHPLC: a tool for rapidly determining the radiochemical purity of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals?

    PubMed

    Kryza, David; Janier, Marc

    2013-08-01

    Determining the radiochemical purity (RCP) of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radiopharmaceuticals using the method described in the package insert is a time-consuming process, requiring particular attention in order to achieve accurate RCP results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether radio-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (radio-UHPLC) may be an alternative method for RCP testing of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, (99m)Tc-MAG3 and (99m)Tc-sestamibi. Results obtained using radio-UHPLC were in excellent agreement with the standard method, with total analysis time being reduced to less than 3 min.

  19. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  20. Energy and Water Conservation Assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Stephanie R.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-05-31

    This report summarizes the results of an energy and water conservation assessment of the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The assessment was performed in October 2013 by engineers from the PNNL Building Performance Team with the support of the dedicated RPL staff and several Facilities and Operations (F&O) department engineers. The assessment was completed for the Facilities and Operations (F&O) department at PNNL in support of the requirements within Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007.

  1. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Orton, Robert D.; Rapko, Brian M.; Smart, John E.

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  2. New corrosion-resistant alloy CHS 129 for equipment used in radiochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Yankin, G.D.; Chechetina, N.A.; Zhelobetskii, V.A.

    1995-10-01

    A new chromium-nickel alloy has been developed CHS 129 (Cr-34-37%; Mo-1-2%; Fe-0.2-5%; and, the rest is Ni) for radiochemical equipment operating in nitrogen-fluoride media in the nuclear-cycle technology. From dissolution of spent fuel from fuel elements to storage of radioactive wastes, including gas-steam flows containing dust. The chemical composition of the alloy and the smelting method are protected by inventor`s certificates. This article is an abstract of the entire report.

  3. Advanced liquid and solid extraction procedures for ultratrace determination of rhenium by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizera, J.; Kučera, J.; Řanda, Z.; Lučaníková, M.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) procedures for determination of Re at the ultratrace level based on use of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and extraction chromatography (EXC) have been developed. Two different LLE procedures were used depending on the way of sample decomposition using either 2-butanone or tetraphenylarsonium chloride in CHCl3. EXC employed new solid extractant materials prepared by incorporation of the liquid trioctyl-methyl-ammonium chloride into an inert polyacrylonitrile matrix. The RNAA procedures presented have been compared and applied for Re determination in several biological and environmental reference materials.

  4. Robotic Surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    ZAPATA ENGINEERING challenged our engineers and scientists, which included robotics expertise from Carnegie Mellon University, to design a solution to meet our client's requirements for rapid digital geophysical and radiological data collection of a munitions test range with no down-range personnel. A prime concern of the project was to minimize exposure of personnel to unexploded ordnance and radiation. The field season was limited by extreme heat, cold and snow. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools were used throughout this project to accurately define the limits of mapped areas, build a common mapping platform from various client products, track production progress, allocate resources and relate subsurface geophysical information to geographical features for use in rapidly reacquiring targets for investigation. We were hopeful that our platform could meet the proposed 35 acres per day, towing both a geophysical package and a radiological monitoring trailer. We held our breath and crossed our fingers as the autonomous Speedrower began to crawl across the playa lakebed. We met our proposed production rate, and we averaged just less than 50 acres per 12-hour day using the autonomous platform with a path tracking error of less than +/- 4 inches. Our project team mapped over 1,800 acres in an 8-week (4 days per week) timeframe. The expertise of our partner, Carnegie Mellon University, was recently demonstrated when their two autonomous vehicle entries finished second and third at the 2005 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Grand Challenge. 'The Grand Challenge program was established to help foster the development of autonomous vehicle technology that will some day help save the lives of Americans who are protecting our country on the battlefield', said DARPA Grand Challenge Program Manager, Ron Kurjanowicz. Our autonomous remote-controlled vehicle (ARCV) was a modified New Holland 2550 Speedrower retrofitted to allow the machine

  5. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  6. Robotic space colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, P.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in these technologies, with a particular focus on experimental state-of-the-art robot work crew system demonstrations at JPL, that are being conducted now to begin to realize the futuristic robotic colony vision.

  7. Robotic Lander Prototype

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers successfully integrated and completed system testing on a new robotic lander recently at Teledyne Brown Engineering’s facility in Huntsville in support of the Robotic Lunar Lander ...

  8. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  9. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  10. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  11. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  12. Comparison of the radiochemical behaviour and biological efficacy of three 99mTc-HIG preparations.

    PubMed

    Gano, L; Rodrigues, A; Marques, E; Patrício, L

    1994-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the different methodologies used for human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) preparation can affect the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-HIG and its binding affinity to infection sites. Three intravenous immunoglobulin preparations, beta-propiolactone treated, hydrochloric acid/pepsin treated, and an unmodified HIG molecule were studied. The HIG preparations were analysed by size-esclusion HPLC. The UV chromatogram profiles obtained showed some percentage of polymeric and dimeric fractions in all of them. The three HIG studied were directly radiolabelled via 2-mercaptoethanol reduction. Lyophilized kits containing 1 mg of HIG and a small amount of MDP(Sn) solution were prepared and then radiolabelled by adding pertechnetate-99m. The radiolabelled products, evaluated by ITLC, showed high radiochemical purity and in vitro stability. Biodistribution studies were performed in mice with an infection in the right thigh induced by the im administration of a single isolate of S. aureus, in order to compare the ability of 99mTc-HIG to detect an infectious focus. This study suggests that any damage during immunoglobulin treatment can influence the in vivo behaviour of 99mTc-HIG.

  13. Determination of uranium at trace levels by radiochemical neutron-activation analysis employing radioisotopic yield evaluation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, A R; Benedik, L

    1988-03-01

    Nanogram and picogram quantities of uranium were determined in biological materials by radiochemical neutron-activation analysis. Two different approaches using either (239)U or (239)Np were employed for cross-checking, and the question of negative errors due to incomplete acid dissolution of any possible inorganic (siliceous) fraction was studied. In the first and main approach, radiochemical separation of the short-lived (239)U (23.5 min) nuclide was based on TBP extraction following rapid conventional wet-ashing. Addition of large amounts of uranium carrier (ca. 50 mg) allowed the chemical yield to be evaluated from the gamma spectrum of the isolated fraction by means of the 186 keV peak of (235)U. In the second approach, the longer-lived (239)Np (56.5 hr) daughter was separated by anion-exchange; this nuclide allowed use of lengthier dissolution procedures employing total decomposition with hydrofluoric acid. Nanogram quantities of (237)Np were irradiated simultaneously with the sample and an aliquot of the resulting solution containing (237)Np and (238)Np (51 hr) was added prior to sample destruction, these isotopes serving as carrier and yield tracer, respectively. Results are presented for a series of reference materials. The methodologies and results from the two approaches are discussed and evaluated. PMID:18964488

  14. On the Radiochemical Separations of the Beta-emitting Fission Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zheng; Sudowe, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    This research aims at developing fast and effective radiochemical procedures for separation of the beta-emitting fission products that are difficult to analyze by gamma-spectrometry. Post-detonation analysis, as one of the major tasks of nuclear forensics, can provide crucial information for identification of the explosion levels, fuel sources, and industrial processes of a nuclear device. However, a dozen of radionuclides with high fission yields such as Zr-93, Tc-99, Sr-90 are either pure beta-emitters or only emitting gamma-rays that are difficult to analyze. Although the analysis of these radionuclides was thoroughly studied, samples from unknown nuclear detonations can be complicated by the number of fission products, radioactivity levels, sample matrices, and time limits for analysis. The challenge facing the forensic analysis should not be underestimated. A sequential separation procedure is designed to analyze the major beta-emitting fission products. Radiochemical techniques such as solvent extraction, precipitation, and column chromatography are utilized. The procedure will be tested and improved by experiments. The final procedure should be capable of analyzing the fission products under various sample conditions effectively and rapidly.

  15. Radiochemical determination of 237NP in soil samples contaminated with weapon grade plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M. P.; Espinosa, A.; Aragón, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Palomares terrestrial ecosystem (Spain) constitutes a natural laboratory to study transuranics. This scenario is partially contaminated with weapon-grade plutonium since the burnout and fragmentation of two thermonuclear bombs accidentally dropped in 1966. While performing radiometric measurements in the field, the possible presence of 237Np was observed through its 29 keV gamma emission. To accomplish a detailed characterization of the source term in the contaminated area using the isotopic ratios Pu-Am-Np, the radiochemical isolation and quantification by alpha spectrometry of 237Np was initiated. The selected radiochemical procedure involves separation of Np from Am, U and Pu with ionic resins, given that in soil samples from Palomares 239+240Pu levels are several orders of magnitude higher than 237Np. Then neptunium is isolated using TEVA organic resins. After electrodeposition, quantification is performed by alpha spectrometry. Different tests were done with blank solutions spiked with 236Pu and 237Np, solutions resulting from the total dissolution of radioactive particles and soil samples. Results indicate that the optimal sequential radionuclide separation order is Pu-Np, with decontamination percentages obtained with the ionic resins ranging from 98% to 100%. Also, the addition of NaNO2 has proved to be necessary, acting as a stabilizer of Pu-Np valences.

  16. Spectroscopic Online Monitoring for Process Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Fuel Reprocessing Streams - 13553

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Levitskaia, T.G.; Casella, Amanda; Peterson, James

    2013-07-01

    There is a renewed interest worldwide to promote the use of nuclear power and close the nuclear fuel cycle. The long term successful use of nuclear power is critically dependent upon adequate and safe processing and disposition of the used nuclear fuel. Liquid-liquid extraction is a separation technique commonly employed for the processing of the dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust, require little or no maintenance, and be able to withstand harsh environments such as high radiation fields and aggressive chemical matrices. This paper discusses application of absorption and vibrational spectroscopic techniques supplemented by physicochemical measurements for radiochemical process monitoring. In this context, our team experimentally assessed the potential of Raman and spectrophotometric techniques for on-line real-time monitoring of the U(VI)/nitrate ion/nitric acid and Pu(IV)/Np(V)/Nd(III), respectively, in solutions relevant to spent fuel reprocessing. Both techniques demonstrated robust performance in the repetitive batch measurements of each analyte in a wide concentration range using simulant and commercial dissolved spent fuel solutions. Static spectroscopic measurements served as training sets for the multivariate data analysis to obtain partial least squares predictive models, which were validated using on-line centrifugal contactor extraction tests. Satisfactory prediction of the analytes concentrations in these preliminary experiments warrants further development of the spectroscopy-based methods for radiochemical safeguards and process control. (authors)

  17. Spectroscopic Online Monitoring for Process Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Fuel Reprocessing Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterson, James M.

    2013-02-24

    There is a renewed interest worldwide to promote the use of nuclear power and close the nuclear fuel cycle. The long term successful use of nuclear power is critically dependent upon adequate and safe processing and disposition of the spent nuclear fuel. Liquid-liquid extraction is a separation technique commonly employed for the processing of the dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust, require little or no maintenance, and be able to withstand harsh environments such as high radiation fields and aggressive chemical matrices. In addition, the ability for continuous online monitoring allows for numerous benefits. This paper reviews application of the absorption and vibrational spectroscopic techniques supplemented by physicochemical measurements for radiochemical process monitoring. In this context, our team experimentally assessed the potential of Raman and spectrophotometric techniques for on-line real-time monitoring of the U(VI)/nitrate ion/nitric acid and Pu(IV)/Np(V)/Nd(III), respectively, in solutions relevant to spent fuel reprocessing. Both techniques demonstrated robust performance in the repetitive batch measurements of each analyte in a wide concentration range using simulant and commercial dissolved spent fuel solutions. Static spectroscopic measurements served as training sets for the multivariate data analysis to obtain partial least squares predictive models, which were validated using on-line centrifugal contactor extraction tests. Satisfactory prediction of the analytes concentrations in these preliminary experiments warrants further development of the spectroscopy-based methods for radiochemical safeguards and process control.

  18. Spectroscopic online monitoring for process control and safeguarding of radiochemical streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Levitskaia, T.G.

    2013-07-01

    This paper summarizes application of the absorption and vibrational spectroscopic techniques supplemented by physicochemical measurements for radiochemical process monitoring. In this context, our team experimentally assessed the potential of Raman and spectrophotometric techniques for online real-time monitoring of the U(VI)/nitrate ion/nitric acid and Pu(IV)/Np(V)/Nd(III), respectively, in solutions relevant to spent fuel reprocessing. These techniques demonstrate robust performance in the repetitive batch measurements of each analyte in a wide concentration range using simulant and commercial dissolved spent fuel solutions. Spectroscopic measurements served as training sets for the multivariate data analysis to obtain partial least squares predictive models, which were validated using on-line centrifugal contactor extraction tests. Satisfactory prediction of the analytes concentrations in these preliminary experiments warrants further development of the spectroscopy-based methods for radiochemical process control and safeguarding. Additionally, the ability to identify material intentionally diverted from a liquid-liquid extraction contactor system was successfully tested using on-line process monitoring as a means to detect the amount of material diverted. (authors)

  19. The Robots Are Coming!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Molly

    1984-01-01

    Describes two robots that can be communicated with in Logo--Topo and Tasman Turtle--and briefly presents merchandise information on Topo II and Turtle Tot. Educational issues and possibilities related to robot use in school classrooms are discussed, and a school visit to introduce students to robots is recounted. (MBR)

  20. Building a Better Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  1. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Visualization is the software that supports the user interface. It uses the RIK-C software to communicate information to and from the robot. The RIK-V illustrates the data in a 3D display and provides an operating picture wherein the user can task the robot.

  2. Robotic Follow Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Robotic Follow Algorithm enables allows any robotic vehicle to follow a moving target while reactively choosing a route around nearby obstacles. The robotic follow behavior can be used with different camera systems and can be used with thermal or visual tracking as well as other tracking methods such as radio frequency tags.

  3. Robotics development programs overview

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-11-01

    This paper discusses the applications of robotics at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) continues to provide support to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many areas of Robotics and Remote Vision. An overview of the current and near term future developments are presented. The driving forces for Robotics and Vision developments at SRS include the classic reasons for industrial robotics installation (i.e. repetitive and undesirable jobs) and those reasons related to radioactive environments. Protection of personnel from both radiation and radioactive contamination benefit greatly from both Robotics and Telerobotics. Additionally, the quality of information available from remote locations benefits greatly from the ability to visually monitor and remotely sense. The systems discussed include a glovebox waste handling and bagout robot, a shielded cells robot for radioactive waste sample transfer, waste handling gantry robots, a two armed master/slave manipulator as an attachment to a gantry robot, navigation robot research/testing, demonstration of the mobile underwater remote cleaning and inspection device, a camera deployment robot to support remote crane operations and for deployment of radiation sensors directly over a hazardous site, and demonstration of a large mobile robot for high radiation environments. Development of specialized and limited life vision/viewing systems for hazardous environments is also discussed.

  4. Selected reaction monitoring LC-MS determination of idoxifene and its pyrrolidinone metabolite in human plasma using robotic high-throughput, sequential sample injection.

    PubMed

    Onorato, J M; Henion, J D; Lefebvre, P M; Kiplinger, J P

    2001-01-01

    The generation of large numbers of samples during early drug discovery has increased the demand for rapid and selective methods of analysis. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS), because of its sensitivity, selectivity, and robustness, has emerged as a powerful tool in the pharmaceutical industry for many analytical needs. This work presents a high-throughput selected reaction monitoring LC-MS bioanalytical method for the determination of idoxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, and its pyrrolidinone metabolite in clinical human plasma samples. The described method uses short, small-bore columns, high flow rates, and elevated HPLC column temperatures to perform LC separations of idoxifene and its metabolite within 10 s/sample. Sequential injections were accomplished with a 215/889 multiple probe liquid handler (Gilson, Inc.), which aspirates eight samples simultaneously and performs its rinse cycle parallel to sample injection, resulting in minimum lag time between injections. This high-throughput method was applied to the determination of idoxifene and its metabolite in clinical human plasma samples. Sample preparation employed liquid/liquid extraction in the 96-well format. Method validation included determination of intra- and interassay accuracy and precision values, recovery studies, autosampler stability, and freeze-thaw stability. The LOQ obtained was 10 ng/mL for idoxifene and 30 ng/mL for the metabolite. Using idoxifene-d5 as an internal standard, idoxifene showed acceptable accuracy and precision values at QC level 1 (QC1, 15 ng/mL), level 2 (QC2, 100 ng/mL), and level 3 (QC3, 180 ng/mL) (85.0% accuracy +/- 12.0% precision, 95.1 +/- 4.9%, and 90.3 +/- 4.7%, respectively). The pyrrolidinone metabolite also showed acceptable accuracy and precision values (using no internal standard for quantitation) at QC1 (60 ng/mL), QC2 (100 ng/mL), and QC3 (180 ng/mL) (104.9 +/- 14.4%, 91.1 +/- 13.0%, and 90.8 +/- 12.2%, respectively). The

  5. Strategy for robot motion and path planning in robot taping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qilong; Chen, I.-Ming; Lembono, Teguh Santoso; Landén, Simon Nelson; Malmgren, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Covering objects with masking tapes is a common process for surface protection in processes like spray painting, plasma spraying, shot peening, etc. Manual taping is tedious and takes a lot of effort of the workers. The taping process is a special process which requires correct surface covering strategy and proper attachment of the masking tape for an efficient surface protection. We have introduced an automatic robot taping system consisting of a robot manipulator, a rotating platform, a 3D scanner and specially designed taping end-effectors. This paper mainly talks about the surface covering strategies for different classes of geometries. The methods and corresponding taping tools are introduced for taping of following classes of surfaces: Cylindrical/extended surfaces, freeform surfaces with no grooves, surfaces with grooves, and rotational symmetrical surfaces. A collision avoidance algorithm is introduced for the robot taping manipulation. With further improvements on segmenting surfaces of taping parts and tape cutting mechanisms, such taping solution with the taping tool and the taping methodology can be combined as a very useful and practical taping package to assist humans in this tedious and time costly work.

  6. Impacts of industrial robots

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.; Miller, S.

    1981-11-01

    This report briefly describes robot technology and goes into more depth about where robots are used, and some of the anticipated social and economic impacts of their use. A number of short term transitional issues, including problems of potential displacement, are discussed. The ways in which robots may impact the economics of batch production are described. A framework for analyzing the impacts of robotics on economywide economic growth and employment is presented. Human resource policy issues are discussed. A chronology of robotics technology is also given.

  7. [Robotics in pediatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Camps, J I

    2011-10-01

    Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.

  8. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  9. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  10. Analysis of 161Tb by radiochemical separation and liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.; Davies, A.; Arrigo, L.; Friese, J.; Seiner, B. N.; Greenwood, L.; Finch, Z.

    2015-12-05

    The determination of 161Tb activity is problematic due to its very low fission yield, short half-life, and the complication of its gamma spectrum. At AWE, radiochemically purified 161Tb solution was measured on a PerkinElmer 1220 QuantulusTM Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. Since there was no 161Tb certified standard solution available commercially, the counting efficiency was determined by the CIEMAT/NIST Efficiency Tracing method. The method was validated during a recent inter-laboratory comparison exercise involving the analysis of a uranium sample irradiated with thermal neutrons. Lastly, the measured 161Tb result was in excellent agreement with the result using gamma spectrometry and the result obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  11. Quantitative radiochemical method for determination of major sources of natural radioactivity in ores and minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosholt, J.N.

    1954-01-01

    When an ore sample contains radioactivity other than that attributable to the uranium series in equilibrium, a quantitative analysis of the other emitters must be made in order to determine the source of this activity. Thorium-232, radon-222, and lead-210 have been determined by isolation and subsequent activity analysis of some of their short-lived daughter products. The sulfides of bismuth and polonium are precipitated out of solutions of thorium or uranium ores, and the ??-particle activity of polonium-214, polonium-212, and polonium-210 is determined by scintillation-counting techniques. Polonium-214 activity is used to determine radon-222, polonium-212 activity for thorium-232, and polonium-210 for lead-210. The development of these methods of radiochemical analysis will facilitate the rapid determination of some of the major sources of natural radioactivity.

  12. Analysis of 161Tb by radiochemical separation and liquid scintillation counting

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, J.; Davies, A.; Arrigo, L.; Friese, J.; Seiner, B. N.; Greenwood, L.; Finch, Z.

    2015-12-05

    The determination of 161Tb activity is problematic due to its very low fission yield, short half-life, and the complication of its gamma spectrum. At AWE, radiochemically purified 161Tb solution was measured on a PerkinElmer 1220 QuantulusTM Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. Since there was no 161Tb certified standard solution available commercially, the counting efficiency was determined by the CIEMAT/NIST Efficiency Tracing method. The method was validated during a recent inter-laboratory comparison exercise involving the analysis of a uranium sample irradiated with thermal neutrons. Lastly, the measured 161Tb result was in excellent agreement with the result using gamma spectrometry and the result obtainedmore » by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.« less

  13. Radiochemical Separation of Group 5 Elements. Model Experiments for Investigation of Dubnium Chemical Behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Tereshatov, E. E.; Bozhikov, G. A.; Aksenov, N. V.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Vostokin, G. K.; Shishkin, S. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Bruchertseifer, H.; Gaeggeler, H. W.

    2007-05-22

    Chemical behaviour of group 5 elements in the aqueous hydrofluoric acid solutions was studied. The radiochemical method for the cation exchange separation of Nb (Pa) and Ta from Zr, Hf and lanthanides is presented. The developed scheme allows excluding of the presence of SF heavy actinides in fractions of separated elements. On the basis of the data of the present work, it is possible to suggest the following order of the stability of the fluoride complexes of group 4 and 5 elements: Nb {approx_equal} Pa > Zr > Hf > Ta. The order of the complex formation is in agreement with theoretical predictions. This analytical procedure can be used in future heavy nuclei synthesis experiments for the separation of dubnium (Db) from other reactions products and for its chemical identification.

  14. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of the sources of natural radioactivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosholt, J.N.

    1957-01-01

    Study of the state of equilibrium of any natural radioactive source requires determination of several key nuclides or groups of nuclides to find their contribution to the total amount of radioactivity. Alpha activity measured by scintillation counting is used for determination of protactinium-231, thorium-232, thorium-230, and radium-226. The chemical procedures for the separations of the specific elements are described, as well as the measurement techniques used to determine the abundances of the individual isotopes. To correct for deviations in the ore standards, an independent means of evaluating the efficiencies of the individual separations and measurements is used. The development of these methods of radiochemical analysis facilitates detailed investigation of the major sources of natural radioactivity.

  15. Analysis of low levels of rare earths by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandless, G.A.; Morgan, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure for the radiochemical neutron-activation analysis for the rare earth elements (REE) involves the separation of the REE as a group by rapid ion-exchange methods and determination of yields by reactivation or by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard rocks, BCR-1 and AGV-1, were analyzed to determine the precision and accuracy of the method. We found that the precision was ??5-10% on the basis of replicate analysis and that, in general the accuracy was within ??5% of accepted values for most REE. Data for USGS standard rocks BIR-1 (Icelandic basalt) and DNC-1 (North Carolina diabase) are also presented. ?? 1985 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  16. A radiochemical assay for argininosuccinate synthetase with [U-14C]aspartate.

    PubMed

    Ratner, S

    1983-12-01

    A simple and sensitive radiochemical procedure to assay argininosuccinate synthetase activity in crude tissue homogenates and lysates of cultured cells is described. The new method depends on the location of 14C, uniformly, in the four carbons of aspartate. On incubation in the presence of excess of L-[U-14C]aspartate, L-citrulline, ATP, and an ATP-generating system, argininosuccinase and arginase, the [14C]fumarate formed is measured as the sum of malate and fumarate. After acidification the latter two acids are separated from [14C]aspartate on a small Dowex-50 column by elution with a few milliliters of water; the unutilized amino acid substrates remain on the column. With a specific radioactivity of 9 X 10(4) cpm, 1 to 2 nmol of product can be accurately measured under kinetically optimum conditions. PMID:6660522

  17. Hanford Environmental Restoration data validation process for chemical and radiochemical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.; Bechtold, R.A.; Clark, D.E.; Angelos, K.M.; Winter, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    Detailed procedures for validation of chemical and radiochemical data are used to assure consistent application of validation principles and support a uniform database of quality environmental data. During application of these procedures, it was determined that laboratory data packages were frequently missing certain types of documentation causing subsequent delays in meeting critical milestones in the completion of validation activities. A quality improvement team was assembled to address the problems caused by missing documentation and streamline the entire process. The result was the development of a separate data package verification procedure and revisions to the data validation procedures. This has resulted in a system whereby deficient data packages are immediately identified and corrected prior to validation and revised validation procedures which more closely match the common analytical reporting practices of laboratory service vendors.

  18. Investigation of the possibility of using hydrogranulation in reprocessing radioactive wastes of radiochemical production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Revyakin, V.; Borisov, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    Radio-chemical production facilities are constantly accumulating liquid radioactive wastes (still residues as the result of evaporation of extraction and adsorption solutions etc.) which are a complex multicomponent mixtures. The wastes are frequently stored for extended periods of time while awaiting disposition and in some cases, and this is much worse, they are released into the environment. In this report, I would like to draw your attention to some results we have obtained from investigations aimed at simplifying handing of such wastes by the precipitation of hard to dissolve metal hydroxides, the flocculation of the above into granules with the help of surface-active agents (in this case a polyacrylamide - PAA), quickly precipitated and easily filtered. The precipitate may be quickly dried and calcinated, if necessary, and transformed into a dense oxide sinter. In other words it may be transformed into a material convenient for storage or burial.

  19. On the degelation of networks - Case of the radiochemical degradation of methyl methacrylate - ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richaud, Emmanuel; Gilormini, Pierre; Verdu, Jacques

    2016-05-01

    Methyl methacrylate networks were synthetized and submitted to radiochemical degradation. Ageing was monitored by means of sol-gel analysis and glass transition temperature measurements. Networks were shown to undergo exclusively chain scission process leading to the degelation of network. The critical conversion degree corresponding to degelation (loss of all elastically active chains) is discussed regarding a statistical theory.

  20. On-Line Monitoring for Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Billing, Justin M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.

    2009-10-06

    Advanced techniques enabling enhanced safeguarding of the spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust and must be able to withstand harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements and featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes, has been recently developed by our research team. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine content generated during retrieval activities from Hanford nuclear waste storage tanks. The nature of the radiochemical streams at the spent fuel reprocessing plant calls for additional spectroscopic information, which can be gained by the utilization of UV-vis-NIR capabilities. Raman and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopies are analytical techniques that have extensively been extensively applied for measuring the various organic and inorganic compounds including actinides. The corresponding spectrometers used under the laboratory conditions are easily convertible to the process-friendly configurations allowing remote measurements under the flow conditions. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of the high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the UREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. The actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. In this report, we will present our recent results on spectroscopic measurements of simulant flowsheet solutions and commercial fuels available at

  1. ON-LINE MONITORING FOR CONTROL AND SAFEGUARDING OF RADIOCHEMICAL STREAMS AT SPENT FUEL REPROCESSING PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lines, Amanda M.; Billing, Justin M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.; Thomas, Elizabeth M.

    2009-11-10

    Advanced techniques that enhance safeguarding of spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on the prerequisite that real-time monitoring of solvent extraction flowsheets at a spent fuel reprocessing plant provides the unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust and capable of withstanding harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements and featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes recently has been developed by our research team for tank waste retrieval. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine content generated during retrieval activities from nuclear waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The nature of the radiochemical streams at the spent fuel reprocessing plant calls for additional spectroscopic information that can be gained by using Vis-NIR capabilities augmenting Raman spectroscopy. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the UREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. Actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by Vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. In this report, we present our results on spectroscopic measurements of simulant flowsheet solutions and commercial fuels designed to demonstrate the applicability of Raman and Vis-NIR spectroscopic analysis for actual dissolver feed solutions.

  2. Fluxes of metals to a manganese nodule: Radiochemical, chemical, structural, and mineralogical studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, W.S.; Ku, T.-L.; Macdougall, J.D.; Burns, V.M.; Burns, R.; Dymond, J.; Lyle, M.W.; Piper, D.Z.

    1981-01-01

    Fluxes of metals to the top and bottom surfaces of a manganese nodule were determined by combining radiochemical (230Th, 231Pa, 232Th, 238U, 234U) and detailed chemical data. The top of the nodule had been growing in its collected orientation at 4.7 mm Myr-1 for at least 0.5 Myr and accreting Mn at 200 ??g cm-2 kyr-1. The bottom of the nodule had been growing in its collected orientation at about 12 mm Myr-1 for at least 0.3 Myr and accreting Mn at about 700 ??g cm-2 yr-1. Although the top of the nodule was enriched in iron relative to the bottom, the nodule had been accreting Fe 50% faster on the bottom. 232Th was also accumulating more rapidly in the bottom despite a 20-fold enrichment of 230Th on the top. The distribution of alpha-emitting nuclides calculated from detailed radiochemical measurements matched closely the pattern revealed by 109-day exposures of alpha-sensitive film to the nodule. However, the shape and slope of the total alpha profile with depth into the nodule was affected strongly by 226Ra and 222Rn migrations making the alpha-track technique alone an inadequate method of measuring nodule growth rates. Diffusion of radium in the nodule may have been affected by diagenetic reactions which produce barite, phillipsite and todorokite within 1 mm of the nodule surface; however, our sampling interval was too broad to document the effect. We have not been able to resolve the importance of nodule diagenesis on the gross chemistry of the nodule. ?? 1981.

  3. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  4. Humanlike robots: the upcoming revolution in robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-08-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  5. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-01-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  6. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-02-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  7. Robots in modern industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is presented of robotic device types and capabilities, and an assessment is made of the relative benefits they confer in present and planned numbers on such industrial countries as Japan, the U.S., and West Germany. Attention is also given to possible social impacts of large-scale implementation, and the need for close consultation between management and labor is stressed. It is reported that, while the hourly cost of robot labor remained at between $4.00 and $4.60 over the period 1960-present, human hourly labor costs (including fringe benefits) have risen from less than $4.00 to nearly $17.00. Among the types of devices described are: (1) remotely controlled manipulator vehicles; (2) undersea robotic craft; (3) servo-controlled robots; and (4) articulated robots. Also covered are robot programming languages derived from such standard languages as ALGOL, FORTRAN, and BASIC.

  8. Robotics and industrial inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Image processing algorithms are discussed, taking into account hidden information in early visual processing, three-dimensional shape recognition by moirecorrelation, spatial-frequency representations of images with scale invariant properties, image-based focusing, the computational structure for the Walsh-Hadamard transform, a hybrid optical/digital moment-based robotic pattern recognition system, affordable implementations of image processing algorithms, and an analysis of low-level computer vision algorithms for implementation on a very large scale integrated processor array. Other topics considered are related to government programs and needs in robotics, DoD research and applications in robotics, time-varying image processing and control, industrial robotics, industrial applications of computer vision, and object perception and mensuration for robotics. Attention is given to laser scanning techniques for automatic inspection of heat-sealed film packages, computer software for robotic vision, and computerized tomography on a logarithmic polar grid.

  9. Multigait soft robot

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Robert F.; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A.; Stokes, Adam A.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (< 10 psi). A combination of crawling and undulation gaits allowed this robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion. PMID:22123978

  10. Multigait soft robot.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M

    2011-12-20

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (< 10 psi). A combination of crawling and undulation gaits allowed this robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion.

  11. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  12. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  13. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  14. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  15. Robotic liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Leung, Universe; Fong, Yuman

    2014-10-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  16. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  17. Viselike Robotic Gripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Split-rail/roller bearing system minimizes both friction and jamming under side loads. Viselike, high-performance, general-purpose robot hand developed for use in both industry and outer space. Device, called "split-rail parallel gripper", is simple, compact, inexpensive, rugged, light enough to be used on small robots, strong enough to be used on large robots to lift loads up to 100 lbs, and capable of gripping objects up to 7 in. wide.

  18. Robotics in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    McBeth, Paul B; Louw, Deon F; Rizun, Peter R; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2004-10-01

    Technological developments in imaging guidance, intraoperative imaging, and microscopy have pushed neurosurgeons to the limits of their dexterity and stamina. The introduction of robotically assisted surgery has provided surgeons with improved ergonomics and enhanced visualization, dexterity, and haptic capabilities. This article provides a historical perspective on neurosurgical robots, including image-guided stereotactic and microsurgery systems. The future of robot-assisted neurosurgery, including the use of surgical simulation tools and methods to evaluate surgeon performance, is discussed.

  19. Kinematics of robot wrists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. P.; Stevenson, C. N.

    1983-05-01

    Robots for use in assembly and other interactive tasks must be able to respond to both forces and velocity commands within their workspace. By considering a general six-joint robot it is shown that all such robots are limited in their ability to respond in orientation to feedback commands. It is also shown that it is simple to predict, if not to avoid, these regions of degeneracy in which the manipulator loses a degree of freedom.

  20. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  1. [Robotic surgery: marking time?].

    PubMed

    van der Poel, Henk G; Beerlage, Harry P; Klaver, Sjoerd O

    2013-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgery provides the next step in surgical evolution. Where laparoscopic surgery shortened both hospital stay and recovery, it often prolonged the surgical procedure. Novel laparoscopic instruments such as robotic systems improve visibility and patient outcome. Recent randomized studies show improved functional patient outcome after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. Introduction of image-guided surgical technologies is aided by robotic systems. Outside medicine, randomized controlled studies in technological improvements are non-existent. A careful monitoring of study results is mandatory for the introduction of novel technologies in the field of medicine.

  2. The robotics review 1

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, O.; Craig, J.J.; Lozano-Perez, T.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical and implementation issues in robotics are discussed in reviews of recent investigations. Sections are devoted to programming, planning, and learning; sensing and perception; kinematics, dynamics, and design; and motion and force control. Particular attention is given to a robust layered control system for a mobile robot, camera calibration for three-dimensional machine vision, walking vehicles, design and control of direct-drive vehicles, an efficient parallel algorithm for robot inverse dynamics, stability problems in contact tasks, and kinematics and reaction-moment compensation for satellite-mounted robot manipulators.

  3. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  4. Robotics for welding research

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.

    1984-09-01

    The welding metallurgy research and education program at Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is helping industries make the transition toward automation by training students in robotics. Industry's interest is primarily in pick and place operations, although robotics can increase efficiency in areas other than production. Training students to develop fully automated robotic welding systems will usher in new curriculum requirements in the area of computers and microprocessors. The Puma 560 robot is CSM's newest acquisition for welding research 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  5. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  6. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  7. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  8. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  9. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  10. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J.; Walton, Miles C.

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  11. Robotics: Generation soft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2016-08-01

    Meet the octobot, the first robot to be made entirely from soft materials. Powered by a chemical reaction and controlled by a fluidic logic circuit, it heralds a generation of soft robots that might surpass conventional machines. See Letter p.451

  12. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    PubMed

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality.

  13. Robotics in gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Frick, A C; Falcone, T

    2009-06-01

    Robotic surgery has evolved from an investigational surgical approach to a clinically useful adjunct in multiple surgical specialties over the past decade. Advocates of robotic-assisted gynecologic surgery revere the system's wristed instrumentation, ergonomic positioning, and three-dimensional high-definition vision system as significant improvements over laparoscopic equipment's four degrees of freedom and two-dimensional laparoscope that demand the surgeon stand throughout a procedure. The cost, lack of haptic feedback, and the bulky size of the equipment make robotics less attractive to others. Studies evaluating outcomes in robotic-assisted gynecologic surgery are limited. Multiple small retrospective studies demonstrate the safety and feasibility of robotic hysterectomy. With increased surgeon experience, operative times are similar to, or shorter than, laparoscopic cases. Robotic assistance can facilitate suturing in laparoscopic myomectomies, and is associated with decreased blood loss and a shorter hospital stay, although may require longer operative times. Robotic assistance has also been applied to multiple procedures in the subspecialties of infertility, urogynecology and gynecologic oncology with good success and relatively low morbidity. However, further research is warranted to better evaluate the relative benefits and costs of robotic assisted gynecologic surgery.

  14. Robotics technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on robotics technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: mechanisms; sensors; systems engineering processes for integrated robotics; man/machine cooperative control; 3D-real-time machine perception; multiple arm redundancy control; manipulator control from a movable base; multi-agent reasoning; and surfacing evolution technologies.

  15. Robotics in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  16. Randomization in robot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of randomization in the solution of robot manipulation tasks. One example of randomization is shown by the strategy of shaking a bin holding a part in order to orient the part in a desired stable state with some high probability. Randomization can be useful for mobile robot navigation and as a means of guiding the design process.

  17. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  18. Going Green Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    In looking at the interesting shapes and sizes of old computer parts, creating robots quickly came to the author's mind. In this article, she describes how computer parts can be used creatively. Students will surely enjoy creating their very own robots while learning about the importance of recycling in the society. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  20. Robot Rodeo 2013

    ScienceCinema

    Deuel, Jake

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  1. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    PubMed

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality. PMID:26390078

  2. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  3. Robot Rodeo 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Deuel, Jake

    2013-08-27

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  4. Motivating Students with Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda; Collver, Michael; Kasarda, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the need to advance the number of individuals pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields has gained much attention. The Montgomery County/Virginia Tech Robotics Collaborative (MCVTRC), a yearlong high school robotics program housed in an educational shop facility in Montgomery County, Virginia, seeks to…

  5. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  6. Education by Robot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    This article describes BEST (Boosting Engineering, Science, and Technology), a hands-on robotics program founded by Texas Instruments engineers Ted Mahler and Steve Marum. BEST links educators with industry to provide middle and high school students with a peek into the exciting world of robotics, with the goal of inspiring and interesting…

  7. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  8. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  9. Honda humanoid robots development.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato; Ogawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-15

    Honda has been doing research on robotics since 1986 with a focus upon bipedal walking technology. The research started with straight and static walking of the first prototype two-legged robot. Now, the continuous transition from walking in a straight line to making a turn has been achieved with the latest humanoid robot ASIMO. ASIMO is the most advanced robot of Honda so far in the mechanism and the control system. ASIMO's configuration allows it to operate freely in the human living space. It could be of practical help to humans with its ability of five-finger arms as well as its walking function. The target of further development of ASIMO is to develop a robot to improve life in human society. Much development work will be continued both mechanically and electronically, staying true to Honda's 'challenging spirit'.

  10. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  11. Evaluation of a method for enzymic radiochemical assay of tobramycin and amikacin in serum

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, R.P.; Willis, J.E.

    1981-07-01

    This enzymic radiochemical procedure for measuring tobramycin and amikacin in serum is based on the transfer of the /sup 14/C-acetyl group from (/sup 14/C)acetyl-coenzyme A to the 6' nitrogen atom of the drug by the enzyme kanamycin 6'-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.55). The transfer, stoichiometric and quantitative, is complete after 10-min incubation at 37 degrees C. The labeled acetylaminoglycoside is adsorbed onto phosphocellulose paper discs, which are washed to removed any unreacted (/sup 14/C)acetyl-coenzyme A. The radioactivity is then eluted into liquid scintillation counting vials and counted for 1 min each. The assay detects as little as 2 ng of either drug and the standard curve is linear into the toxic range of concentrations. Most of the commonly administered aminoglycosides act as substrates in the assay, except for the C1 component of gentamicin C complex. Neither hemolysis, lipemia, nor icterus interfere with the assay. Results compare favorably with those determined by radioimmunoassay and a microbiological method.

  12. Correlation of physical parameters during radiochemical synthesis of (18)F positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Anjani K; Varshney, Raunak; Kaushik, Aruna; Datta, Anupama; Singh, Lokendra; Mishra, Anil K

    2011-06-01

    Positron emission tomography is a highly specialized imaging technique using short-lived radiolabel substances to produce extremely high resolution images of the body's biological function. The (18)F(-) ion is produced via the (18)O(p,n)(18)F reaction using a silver target cell filled with 1.4 mL of enriched [(18)O] water. On a typical run, the target is irradiated for 45 minutes with 16.5 MeV protons (on target) and an average beam current of 5-45 mA. When the same reaction takes place with [(16)O] water [(13)N] Ammonia is produced as the primary product by the abstraction of hydrogen from water. This study investigated the physical parameters of medical cyclotron during the radiochemical process with induced radioactivity flux and mutual correlation of physical parameters for 16.5 MeV medical cyclotron at the INMAS Delhi, India. It is observed that by getting farther from the target, the relative number of low-energy neutrons increases while the overall flux of neutrons decreases. This is due to multiple scattering of high-energy neutrons in the walls and eventually absorption of low-energy neutrons. The other parameters are also linked with each other which are correlatable.

  13. Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase: radiochemical assay procedures for the forward and reverse reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Smithers, G.W.; O'Sullivan, W.J.

    1985-02-15

    Simple and rapid radiochemical assay procedures for the forward (IMP synthesis) and reverse (IMP pyrophosphorolysis) reactions catalyzed by hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase have been developed. Enzyme activity in the forward direction was assessed by measuring the amount of (8-/sup 14/C)IMP formed from (8-/sup 14/C)hypoxanthine following their separation by polyethyleneimine-cellulose TLC in methanol:water (1:1, v/v). (8-/sup 14/C)IMP has been synthesized from (8-/sup 14/C)hypoxanthine, using hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase derived from human brain, with subsequent purification by elution from phenyl boronate-agarose. Enzyme activity in the reverse direction was assessed by measuring the amount of (8-/sup 14/C)uric acid formed from the labeled IMP following their separation by polyethyleneimine-cellulose TLC in 0.2 M LiCl saturated with boric acid (pH 4.5):95% ethanol (1:1, v/v), the transferase reaction being coupled with excess xanthine oxidase and catalase to overcome the unfavorable equilibrium.

  14. The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) Apparatus for Nuclear Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, D A; Velsko, C A; Jedlovec, D R; Yeamans, C B; Moody, K J; Tereshatov, E; Stoeffl, W; Riddle, A

    2012-05-11

    The RAGS (Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples) diagnostic apparatus was recently installed at the National Ignition Facility. Following a NIF shot, RAGS is used to pump the gas load from the NIF chamber for purification and isolation of the noble gases. After collection, the activated gaseous species are counted via gamma spectroscopy for measurement of the capsule areal density and fuel-ablator mix. Collection efficiency was determined by injecting a known amount of {sup 135}Xe into the NIF chamber, which was then collected with RAGS. Commissioning was performed with an exploding pusher capsule filled with isotopically enriched {sup 124}Xe and {sup 126}Xe added to the DT gas fill. Activated xenon species were recovered post-shot and counted via gamma spectroscopy. Results from the collection and commissioning tests are presented. The performance of RAGS allows us to establish a noble gas collection method for measurement of noble gas species produced via neutron and charged particle reactions in a NIF capsule.

  15. Chemical and radiochemical considerations in radiolabeling with α-emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott

    2011-07-01

    A review of chemical and radiochemical factors that must be considered when radiolabeling targeting agents with radionuclides is presented. The review discusses factors that are important in choice of radionuclide and choice of chelation or bonding reagents to use in the development of an α-emitting radiopharmaceutical. Chemical parameters, such as physical properties and pendant groups for radiolabeling, are reviewed. A major portion of the review outlines the development of chelates and labeling conditions for radiometals, and application of these reagents/conditions to radiometals. Acyclic and macrocyclic chelates containing amine and carboxylic acid coordination groups are highlighted, with examples of bifunctional chelates for biomolecule conjugation. Information is presented on over 60 radiometal-binding chelates. 211At radiolabeling is separated from that of radiometals, and the various reagents used for radiolabeling have been reviewed. Although not all 211At-labeling reagents are reviewed (due to another recent review), nearly 50 reagents studied in the development of pendant groups for labeling with 211At are described. The review also discusses how therapeutic doses of α-emitting radiopharmaceuticals can be affected by the radionuclide used and how radiation damage to the radiopharmaceutical can be minimized. PMID:22201710

  16. Radiochemical Assays of Irradiated VVER-440 Fuel for Use in Spent Fuel Burnup Credit Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2005-04-25

    The objective of this spent fuel burnup credit work was to study and describe a VVER-440 reactor spent fuel assembly (FA) initial state before irradiation, its operational irradiation history and the resulting radionuclide distribution in the fuel assembly after irradiation. This work includes the following stages: (1) to pick out and select a specific spent (irradiated) FA for examination; (2) to describe the FA initial state before irradiation; (3) to describe the irradiation history, including thermal calculations; (4) to examine the burnup distribution of select radionuclides along the FA height and cross-section; (5) to examine the radionuclide distributions; (6) to determine the Kr-85 release into the plenum; (7) to select and prepare FA rod specimens for destructive examinations; (8) to determine the radionuclide compositions, isotope masses and burnup in the rod specimens; and (9) to analyze, document and process the results. The specific workscope included the destructive assay (DA) of spent fuel assembly rod segments with an {approx}38.5 MWd/KgU burnup from a single VVER-440 fuel assembly from the Novovorenezh reactor in Russia. Based on irradiation history criteria, four rods from the fuel assembly were selected and removed from the assembly for examination. Next, 8 sections were cut from the four rods and sent for destructive analysis of radionuclides by radiochemical analyses. The results were documented in a series of seven reports over a period of {approx}1 1/2 years.

  17. Radium-223: From Radiochemical Development to Clinical Applications in Targeted Cancer Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bruland, Oyvind S.; Jonasdottir, Thora J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Larsen, Roy H.

    2008-09-15

    The radiochemical properties of radium-223 (223Ra, T1/2 = 11.4 d) render this alpha-emitting radionuclide promising for targeted cancer therapy. Together with its short-lived daughters, each 223Ra decay produces four alpha-particle emissions—which enhance therapy effectiveness at the cellular level. In this paper, we review the recently published data reported for pre-clinical and clinical use of 223Ra in cancer treatment. We have evaluated two distinct chemical forms of 223Ra in vivo: 1) cationic 223Ra as dissolved RaCl2, and 2) liposome-encapsulated 223Ra. Cationic 223Ra seeks metabolically active osteoblastic bone and tumor lesions with high uptake and strong binding affinity based on its similarities to calcium. Based on these properties, we have advanced the clinical use of 223Ra for treating bone metastases from late-stage breast and prostate cancer. The results show impressive anti-tumor activity and improved overall survival in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. In other studies, we have evaluated the biodistribution and tumor uptake of liposomally encapsulated 223Ra in mice with human osteosarcoma xenografts, and in dogs with spontaneous osteosarcoma and associated soft tissue metastases. Results indicate excellent biodistributions in both species. In dogs, we found considerable uptake of liposomal 223Ra in cancer metastases in multiple organs, resulting in favorable tumor-to-normal soft tissue ratios. Collectively, these findings show an outstanding potential for 223Ra as a therapeutic agent.

  18. Radiochemical characterization of produced water from two production offshore oilfields in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kpeglo, D O; Mantero, J; Darko, E O; Emi-Reynolds, G; Faanu, A; Manjón, G; Vioque, I; Akaho, E H K; Garcia-Tenorio, R

    2016-02-01

    Produced water from two Ghanaian offshore production oilfields has been characterized using alpha spectrometry after radiochemical separation, non-destructive gamma spectrometry and ICP-MS and other complimentary analytical tools. The measured concentrations of main NORM components were in the range of 6.2-22.3 Bq.L(-1), 6.4-35.5 Bq.L(-1), and 0.7-7.0 Bq.L(-1) for (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra respectively. A good correlation between several physico-chemical parameters and radium isotopes was observed in each production oilfield. The radium concentrations obtained in this study for produced water from the two oilfields of Ghana are of radiological importance and hence there may be the need to put in place measures for future contamination concerns due to their bioavailability in the media and bioaccumulation characteristics. The results will assist in critical decision making for future set up of appropriate national guidelines for the management of NORM waste from the emerging oil and gas industry in Ghana. PMID:26630039

  19. A Survey of Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Kortenkamp, D.; Wettergreen, D.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we summarize a survey conducted by NASA to determine the state-of-the-art in space robotics and to predict future robotic capabilities under either nominal and intensive development effort. The space robotics assessment study examined both in-space operations including assembly, inspection, and maintenance and planetary surface operations like mobility and exploration. Applications of robotic autonomy and human-robot cooperation were considered. The study group devised a decomposition of robotic capabilities and then suggested metrics to specify the technical challenges associated with each. The conclusion of this paper identifies possible areas in which investment in space robotics could lead to significant advances of important technologies.

  20. Sedimentological and radiochemical characteristics of marsh deposits from Assateague Island and the adjacent vicinity, Maryland and Virginia, following Hurricane Sandy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Christopher G.; Marot, Marci E.; Ellis, Alisha M.; Wheaton, Cathryn J.; Bernier, Julie C.; Adams, C. Scott

    2015-09-15

    This report serves as an archive for sedimentological and radiochemical data derived from the surface sediments and marsh cores collected March 26–April 4, 2014. Select surficial data are available for the additional sampling periods October 21–30, 2014. Downloadable data are available as Excel spreadsheets and as JPEG files. Additional files include: Field documentation, x-radiographs, photographs, detailed results of sediment grain size analyses, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata (data downloads).

  1. Sedimentological and radiochemical characteristics of marsh deposits from Assateague Island and the adjacent vicinity, Maryland and Virginia, following Hurricane Sandy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Christopher G.; Marot, Marci E.; Ellis, Alisha M.; Wheaton, Cathryn J.; Bernier, Julie C.; Adams, C. Scott

    2015-01-01

    This report serves as an archive for sedimentological and radiochemical data derived from the surface sediments and marsh cores collected March 26–April 4, 2014. Select surficial data are available for the additional sampling periods October 21–30, 2014. Downloadable data are available as Excel spreadsheets and as JPEG files. Additional files include: Field documentation, x-radiographs, photographs, detailed results of sediment grain size analyses, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata (data downloads).

  2. Robotic Surgery for Thoracic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgeries have developed in the general thoracic field over the past decade, and publications on robotic surgery outcomes have accumulated. However, controversy remains about the application of robotic surgery, with a lack of well-established evidence. Robotic surgery has several advantages such as natural movement of the surgeon’s hands when manipulating the robotic arms and instruments controlled by computer-assisted systems. Most studies have reported the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery based on acceptable morbidity and mortality compared to open or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Furthermore, there are accumulated data to indicate longer operation times and shorter hospital stay in robotic surgery. However, randomized controlled trials between robotic and open or VATS procedures are needed to clarify the advantage of robotic surgery. In this review, we focused the literature about robotic surgery used to treat lung cancer and mediastinal tumor. PMID:26822625

  3. Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has created codes that ensure that a robot will come to a stop at a precise, specified distance from any obstacle regardless of the robot's initial speed, its physical characteristics, and the responsiveness of the low-level motor control schema. This Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots system iteratively adjusts the robot's action in response to information about the robot's environment.

  4. Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

    In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

  5. Toward cognitive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, John E.

    2009-05-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.

  6. Robotic comfort zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, Maxim; Arkin, Ronald C.

    2000-10-01

    The paper investigates how the psychological notion of comfort can be useful in the design of robotic systems. A review of the existing study of human comfort, especially regarding its presence in infants, is conducted with the goal being to determine the relevant characteristics for mapping it onto the robotics domain. Focus is place on the identification of the salient features in the environment that affect the comfort level. Factors involved include current state familiarity, working conditions, the amount and location of available resources, etc. As part of our newly developed comfort function theory, the notion of an object as a psychological attachment for a robot is also introduced, as espoused in Bowlby's theory of attachment. The output space of the comfort function and its dependency on the comfort level are analyzed. The results of the derivation of this comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function in the domain of robotics is presented with relevance for real-world operations. Also, a transformation of the theoretical discussion into a mathematical framework suitable for implementation within a behavior-based control system is presented. The paper concludes with results of simulation studies and real robot experiments using the derived comfort function.

  7. Robotic systems in surgery.

    PubMed

    Bargar, W L; Carbone, E J

    1993-10-01

    Computer-driven robots and medical imaging technology may soon enable surgeons to plan and execute intricate procedures with unprecedented precision. Our experience in introducing a robotic system for use in an active role in cementless total hip replacement surgery has convinced us that the marriage of these two technologies-robotics and medical imaging-is likely to change the way many types of surgical procedures are performed. The ability to link an image-based preoperative plan with its surgical execution by a robot may be the key to improved outcomes. Research and development of robotic systems for a wide variety of medical applications is underway at a number of prestigious institutions. Grenoble University has developed the IGOR (Imaged Guided Operating Robot) system. This six-axis robot has performed more than 400 interventions, acting as a positioner for brain surgery in both biopsy and therapeutic procedures. AlephMed and Digital are currently assisting the developers in integrating image analysis into the system. Future development plans include an application for spinal surgery. PMID:25951597

  8. Future of robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lendvay, Thomas Sean; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    In just over a decade, robotic surgery has penetrated almost every surgical subspecialty and has even replaced some of the most commonly performed open oncologic procedures. The initial reports on patient outcomes yielded mixed results, but as more medical centers develop high-volume robotics programs, outcomes appear comparable if not improved for some applications. There are limitations to the current commercially available system, and new robotic platforms, some designed to compete in the current market and some to address niche surgical considerations, are being developed that will change the robotic landscape in the next decade. Adoption of these new systems will be dependent on overcoming barriers to true telesurgery that range from legal to logistical. As additional surgical disciplines embrace robotics and open surgery continues to be replaced by robotic approaches, it will be imperative that adequate education and training keep pace with technology. Methods to enhance surgical performance in robotics through the use of simulation and telementoring promise to accelerate learning curves and perhaps even improve surgical readiness through brief virtual-reality warm-ups and presurgical rehearsal. All these advances will need to be carefully and rigorously validated through not only patient outcomes, but also cost efficiency.

  9. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  10. Soft Robotics: New Perspectives for Robot Bodyware and Control

    PubMed Central

    Laschi, Cecilia; Cianchetti, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable advances of robotics in the last 50 years, which represent an incredible wealth of knowledge, are based on the fundamental assumption that robots are chains of rigid links. The use of soft materials in robotics, driven not only by new scientific paradigms (biomimetics, morphological computation, and others), but also by many applications (biomedical, service, rescue robots, and many more), is going to overcome these basic assumptions and makes the well-known theories and techniques poorly applicable, opening new perspectives for robot design and control. The current examples of soft robots represent a variety of solutions for actuation and control. Though very first steps, they have the potential for a radical technological change. Soft robotics is not just a new direction of technological development, but a novel approach to robotics, unhinging its fundamentals, with the potential to produce a new generation of robots, in the support of humans in our natural environments. PMID:25022259

  11. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  12. Architecture for robot intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  13. Robotic liver resection technique.

    PubMed

    Hart, Marquis E; Precht, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The robotic approach to hepatic resection has evolved because of advances in laparoscopy and digital technology and based on the modern understanding of hepatic anatomy. Robotic technology has allowed for the development of a minimally invasive approach, which is conceptually similar to the open approach. The major differences are improved visualization and smaller incisions without a haptic interface. As a result, the operative strategy is reliant on visual cues and knowledge of hepatic surgical anatomy. Development of a robotic liver resection program ideally occurs in the setting of a comprehensive liver program with significant experience in all aspects of surgical liver care.

  14. Robotics: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Cloy, D.; Harris, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an account encompassing the entire range of disciplines involved in robotics: mechanical, electrical, electronic, and software design, as well as the related technologies of pick-and-place devices, walking machines, teleoperators, and prosthetics. The book explores the evolution of robotics and major trends in the field, and covers an array of robot configurations and mechanisms. It also looks at fundamentals such as actuation, control, measurement, computers, sensing and interaction with the environment, and pattern recognition. Important economic and financial aspects as well as safety and social implications are detailed.

  15. Robots and telechirs

    SciTech Connect

    Thring, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume outlines an engineering approach and includes relevant social aspects of the impact of robotic automation. The book explains the basic principles and theory, discusses design and investigates current methods to produce practical, reliable robots. Specific topics include the theory and practice of mechanical arms, hands and legs. The use of robotics in industry and of telechirs in mines, underwater, and in such dangerous situations as handling explosives are also covered, as are the mechanisms of the human body in doing these tasks.

  16. Walking Humanoid Robot Lola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwienbacher, Markus; Favot, Valerio; Buschmann, Thomas; Lohmeier, Sebastian; Ulbrich, Heinz

    Based on the experience gathered from the walking robot Johnnie the new performance enhanced 25-DoF humanoid robot Lola was built. The goal of this project is to realize a fast, human-like walking. This paper presents different aspects of this complex mechatronic system. Besides the overall lightweight construction, custom build multi-sensory joint drives with high torque brush-less motors were crucial for reaching the performance goal. A decentralized electronics architecture is used for joint control and sensor data processing. A simulation environment serves as a testbed for the walking control, to minimize the risk of damaging the robot hardware during real world experiments.

  17. Modelling robot construction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Chris

    1990-01-01

    TROTER's are small, inexpensive robots that can work together to accomplish sophisticated construction tasks. To understand the issues involved in designing and operating a team of TROTER's, the robots and their components are being modeled. A TROTER system that features standardized component behavior is introduced. An object-oriented model implemented in the Smalltalk programming language is described and the advantages of the object-oriented approach for simulating robot and component interactions are discussed. The presentation includes preliminary results and a discussion of outstanding issues.

  18. Agile Walking Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.; Waldron, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed agile walking robot operates over rocky, sandy, and sloping terrain. Offers stability and climbing ability superior to other conceptual mobile robots. Equipped with six articulated legs like those of insect, continually feels ground under leg before applying weight to it. If leg sensed unexpected object or failed to make contact with ground at expected point, seeks alternative position within radius of 20 cm. Failing that, robot halts, examines area around foot in detail with laser ranging imager, and replans entire cycle of steps for all legs before proceeding.

  19. Robotics and remote systems applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling.

  20. Robotic follow system and method

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Anderson, Matthew O [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-05-01

    Robot platforms, methods, and computer media are disclosed. The robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for a robot to follow a target in its environment. The method includes receiving a target bearing and sensing whether the robot is blocked front. If the robot is blocked in front, then the robot's motion is adjusted to avoid the nearest obstacle in front. If the robot is not blocked in front, then the method senses whether the robot is blocked toward the target bearing and if so, sets the rotational direction opposite from the target bearing, and adjusts the rotational velocity and translational velocity. If the robot is not blocked toward the target bearing, then the rotational velocity is adjusted proportional to an angle of the target bearing and the translational velocity is adjusted proportional to a distance to the nearest obstacle in front.

  1. Using Absolute Humidity and Radiochemical Analyses of Water Vapor Samples to Correct Underestimated Atmospheric Tritium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1999-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) emits a wide variety of radioactive air contaminants. An extensive ambient air monitoring network, known as AIRNET, is operated on-site and in surrounding communities to estimate radioactive doses to the public. As part of this monitoring network, water vapor is sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These water vapor samples are collected every two weeks by absorbing the water vapor in the sampled air with silica gel and then radiochemically analyzing the water for tritium. The data have consistently indicated that LANL emissions cause a small, but measurable impact on local concentrations of tritium. In early 1998, while trying to independently verify the presumed 100% water vapor collection efficiency, the author found that this efficiency was normally lower and reached a minimum of 10 to 20% in the middle of summer. This inefficient collection was discovered by comparing absolute humidity (g/m{sup 3}) calculated from relative humidity and temperature to the amount of water vapor collected by the silica gel per cubic meter of air sampled. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the elevated temperature inside the louvered housing was high enough to reduce the capacity of the silica gel by more than half. In addition, their experiments also demonstrated that, even under optimal conditions, there is not enough silica gel present in the sampling canister to absorb all of the moisture during the higher humidity periods. However, there is a solution to this problem. Ambient tritium concentrations have been recalculated by using the absolute humidity values and the tritium analyses. These recalculated tritium concentrations were two to three times higher than previously reported. Future tritium concentrations will also be determined in the same manner. Finally, the water vapor collection process will be changed by relocating the sampling canister outside the housing to increase collection efficiency and, therefore

  2. Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE`s current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered.

  3. 324 Radiochemical engineering cells and high level vault tanks mixed waste compliance status

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-29

    The 324 Building in the Hanford 300 Area contains Radiochemical Engineering Cells and High Level Vault tanks (the {open_quotes}REC/HLV{close_quotes}) for research and development activities involving radioactive materials. Radioactive mixed waste within this research installation, found primarily in B-Cell and three of the high level vault tanks, is subject to RCRA/DWR ({open_quotes}RCRA{close_quotes}) regulations for storage. This white paper provides a baseline RCRA compliance summary of MW management in the REC/HLV, based on best available knowledge. The REC/HLV compliance project, of which this paper is a part, is intended to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable given the special technical difficulties of managing high activity radioactive materials, and to assure protection of human health and safety and the environment. The REC/HLV was constructed in 1965 to strict standards for the safe management of highly radioactive materials. Mixed waste in the REC/HLV consists of discarded tools and equipment, dried feed stock from nuclear waste melting experiments, contaminated particulate matter, and liquid feed stock from various experimental programs in the vault tanks. B-Cell contains most of these materials. Total radiological inventory in B-Cell is estimated at 3 MCi, about half of which is potentially {open_quotes}dispersible{close_quotes}, that is, it is in small pieces or mobile particles. Most of the mixed waste currently in the REC/HLV was generated or introduced before mixed wastes were subjected to RCRA in 1987.

  4. Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities, Part 1: Optical Spectroscopic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Peterson, James M.; Casella, Amanda J.

    2012-02-07

    Abstract: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts

  5. Altered biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals: role of radiochemical/pharmaceutical purity, physiological, and pharmacologic factors.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Killeen, Ronan P; Osborne, Joseph R

    2010-07-01

    One of the most common problems associated with radiopharmaceuticals is an unanticipated or altered biodistribution, which can have a significant clinical impact on safety, scan interpretation, and diagnostic imaging accuracy. In their most extreme manifestations, unanticipated imaging results may even compromise the utility and or accuracy of nuclear medicine studies. We present here an overall summary of altered biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals with a special emphasis on the molecular mechanisms involved. Important factors affecting the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be described in 5 major categories and include (1) radiopharmaceutical preparation and formulation problems; (2) problems caused by radiopharmaceutical administration techniques and procedures; (3) by changes in biochemical and pathophysiology; (4) previous medical procedures, such as surgery, radiation therapy and dialysis; and finally (5) by drug interactions. The altered biodistribution of (99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals are generally associated with increased amounts of (99m)Tc radiochemical impurities, such as free (99m)TcO(4)(-) and particulate impurities, such as (99m)Tc colloids or (99m)Tc-reduced hydrolyzed species. Faulty injection, such as dose infiltration or contamination with antiseptics and aluminum during dose administration, may cause significant artifacts. The patient's own medical problems, such as abnormalities in the regulation of hormone levels; failure in the function of excretory organs and systems, such as hepatobiliary and genitourinary systems; and even simple conditions, such as excessive talking may contribute to altered biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. Previous medical procedures (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, dialysis) and drug interaction are the some of the nontechnical factors responsible for unanticipated biodistribution of radiotracers. This review provides a comprehensive summary of various factors and specific examples to illustrate

  6. Radiochemically-Supported Microbial Communities: A Potential Mechanism for Biocolloid Production of Importance to Actinide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane P; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Fisher, Jenny C; Bruckner, James C; Kruger, Brittany; Sackett, Joshua; Russell, Charles E; Onstott, Tullis C; Czerwinski, Ken; Zavarin, Mavrik; Campbell, James H

    2014-06-01

    Due to the legacy of Cold War nuclear weapons testing, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly known as the Nevada Test Site (NTS)) contains millions of Curies of radioactive contamination. Presented here is a summary of the results of the first comprehensive study of subsurface microbial communities of radioactive and nonradioactive aquifers at this site. To achieve the objectives of this project, cooperative actions between the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the Nevada Field Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), the Underground Test Area Activity (UGTA), and contractors such as Navarro-Interra (NI), were required. Ultimately, fluids from 17 boreholes and two water-filled tunnels were sampled (sometimes on multiple occasions and from multiple depths) from the NNSS, the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and a reference hole in the Amargosa Valley near Death Valley. The sites sampled ranged from highly-radioactive nuclear device test cavities to uncontaminated perched and regional aquifers. Specific areas sampled included recharge, intermediate, and discharge zones of a 100,000-km2 internally-draining province, known as the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS), which encompasses the entirety of the NNSS/NTTR and surrounding areas. Specific geological features sampled included: West Pahute and Ranier Mesas (recharge zone), Yucca and Frenchman Flats (transitional zone), and the Western edge of the Amargosa Valley near Death Valley (discharge zone). The original overarching question underlying the proposal supporting this work was stated as: Can radiochemically-produced substrates support indigenous microbial communities and subsequently stimulate biocolloid formation that can affect radionuclides in NNSS subsurface nuclear test/detonation sites? Radioactive and non-radioactive groundwater samples were thus characterized for physical parameters, aqueous geochemistry, and microbial communities using both DNA- and

  7. Determination of tin in human blood serum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Versieck, J; Vanballenberghe, L

    1991-06-01

    A method was developed for the determination of tin in human serum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, using the long-lived radioisotope Sn(T1/2 = 115.09 days). This radioisotope decays to a daughter isotope 113mIn, the most suitable nuclide for counting (T1/2 = 1.658 h, gamma-ray of 391.7 keV). Experience showed that, with the exception of the serum samples with the lowest tin levels, in the experimental conditions of the present study tin could mostly also be determined by using its radioisotope 117mSn(T1/2 = 13.61 days, gamma-ray of 158.5 keV). Samples were collected and prepared by using the procedure elaborated by the authors, which proved its effectiveness in preventing significant sample contamination on several occasions. Because samples had to be irradiated at 10(14) n.cm-2.s-1, dry ashing was necessary. After irradiation, tin was separated by solvent extraction of tin(IV) iodide from a sulfuric acid-ammonium iodide solution with toluene. The dry ashing and solvent extraction steps were exhaustively tested by means of radioactive tracer experiments whereas the accuracy and precision of the analytical method were thoroughly checked by analyzing biological reference materials (Bowen's kale powder, the NBS' bovine liver, the NBS' nonfat milk powder, and the "second-generation" biological reference material--freeze-dried human serum--for trace element determinations, developed by the authors).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1883071

  8. Laser radar in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

  9. Microprocessors, Robotics, and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    1982-01-01

    The author explores several recent technological developments which will have an impact on future technical education. These developments include the revolution in information services, robotics, job changes and eliminations, changing role of the worker, and quality of life. (CT)

  10. Robotic heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Zenati, M A

    2001-01-01

    Advances in computer and robotic technology are transforming cardiac surgery, overcoming the limitations of conventional endoscopic tools. Using minimal access through 5 millimeter ports, computer-enhanced instruments provide superhuman dexterity through tremor filtration and motion scaling, and are capable of precise manipulation in confined body cavities. Using these technologies, endoscopic beating heart coronary bypass surgery as well as complex mitral valve repairs have been performed in the last few years. However, the current world experience with robotic heart surgery is mostly anecdotal, retrospective, and noncontrolled. Results of rigorous prospective randomized studies in the United States under Food and Drug Administration approved protocols, are awaited. The use of robotic telemanipulation technology for heart surgery is restricted in the United States to patients enrolled in clinical studies in a few elite centers. Further refinement in robotic and image-guided technology for cardiac surgery may further expand the use of computer enhanced instrumentation in the near future.

  11. Robotics in Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Allison; Steele, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, robotic surgery has developed from a futuristic dream to a real, widely used technology. Today, robotic platforms are used for a range of procedures and have added a new facet to the development and implementation of minimally invasive surgeries. The potential advantages are enormous, but the current progress is impeded by high costs and limited technology. However, recent advances in haptic feedback systems and single-port surgical techniques demonstrate a clear role for robotics and are likely to improve surgical outcomes. Although robotic surgeries have become the gold standard for a number of procedures, the research in colorectal surgery is not definitive and more work needs to be done to prove its safety and efficacy to both surgeons and patients. PMID:27746895

  12. Robots on the Roof

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is one of the first places that scientists turn when volcanoes, wildfires, pollution plumes, dust storms and many other phenomena—both natural and manmade—...

  13. Operator roles in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.; Madni, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The authors suggest that operator roles in robotics can be classified under the categories of monitor, manager, and maintainer. With increasingly sophisticated applications of machine intelligence, however, these roles will require explicit and continuing reassessment. 5 references.

  14. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed. PMID:26643022

  15. FIRST Robotics Kickoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA engineers Scott Olive (left) and Bo Clarke answer questions during the 2007 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition regional kickoff event held Saturday, Jan. 6, 2007, at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The SSC employees and FIRST Robotics volunteer mentors are standing near a mock-up of the playing field for the FIRST Robotics' 2007 `Rack n' Roll' challenge. Roughly 300 students and adult volunteers - representing 29 high schools from four states - attended the kickoff to hear the rules of `Rack n' Roll.' The teams will spend the next six weeks building and programming robots from parts kits they received Saturday, then battle their creations at regional spring competitions in New Orleans, Houston, Atlanta and other cities around the nation. FIRST aims to inspire students in the pursuit of engineering and technology studies and careers.

  16. DOE Robotics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document provide the bimonthly progress reports on the Department of Energy (DOE) Robotics Project by the University of Michigan. Reports are provided for the time periods of December 90/January 91 through June 91/July 91. (FI)

  17. Rolling friction robot fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.

  18. K-10 Robots

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robots, scientists, engineers and flight controllers from NASA's Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, Calif., and NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, gathered at NASA Ames to perform a series...

  19. Robotics and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2014-09-22

    In the attempt to build adaptive and intelligent machines, roboticists have looked at neuroscience for more than half a century as a source of inspiration for perception and control. More recently, neuroscientists have resorted to robots for testing hypotheses and validating models of biological nervous systems. Here, we give an overview of the work at the intersection of robotics and neuroscience and highlight the most promising approaches and areas where interactions between the two fields have generated significant new insights. We articulate the work in three sections, invertebrate, vertebrate and primate neuroscience. We argue that robots generate valuable insight into the function of nervous systems, which is intimately linked to behaviour and embodiment, and that brain-inspired algorithms and devices give robots life-like capabilities.

  20. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  1. Robots in operating theatres.

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, R. A.; Buckingham, R. O.

    1995-01-01

    Robots designed for surgery have three main advantages over humans. They have greater three dimensional spatial accuracy, are more reliable, and can achieve much greater precision. Although few surgical robots are yet in clinical trials one or two have advanced to the stage of seeking approval from the UK's Medical Devices Agency and the US Federal Drug Administration. Safety is a key concern. A robotic device can be designed in an intrinsically safe way by restricting its range of movement to an area where it can do no damage. Furthermore, safety can be increased by making it passive, guided at all times by a surgeon. Nevertheless, some of the most promising developments may come from robots that are active (monitored rather than controlled by the surgeon) and not limited to intrinsically safe motion. Images Fig 1 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:8520340

  2. Robot Grasps Rotating Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  3. Wheeled hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  4. Robotic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Escobar Dominguez, Jose E; Gonzalez, Anthony; Donkor, Charan

    2015-09-01

    Inguinal hernias have been described throughout the history of medicine with many efforts to achieve the cure. Currently, with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, new questions arise: what is going to be the best approach for inguinal hernia repair? Is there a real benefit with the robotic approach? Should minimally invasive hernia surgery be the standard of care? In this report we address these questions by describing our experience with robotic inguinal hernia repair. PMID:26153353

  5. Robotic surgery in gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B.; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  6. Robotic surgery in gynecology.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  7. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    PubMed Central

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  8. Robotic assisted andrological surgery.

    PubMed

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE).

  9. Modularity in robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

  10. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  11. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory decontamination and decommissioning robotics development program

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, M.D.

    1993-04-01

    As part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) robotics program, a task was designed to integrate the plasma arc cutting technology being developed under the Waste Facility Operations (WFO) robotics program into D&D cutting applications. The plasma arc cutting technology is based upon the use of a high energy plasma torch to cut metallic objects. Traditionally, D&D workers removing equipment and processes from a facility have used plasma arc cutting to accomplish this task. The worker is required to don a protective suit to shield from the high electromagnetic energy released from the cutting operation. Additionally, the worker is required to don protective clothing to shield against the radioactive materials and contamination. This protective clothing can become restrictive and cumbersome to work in. Because some of the work areas contain high levels of radiation, the worker is not allowed to dwell in the environment for sustained periods of time. To help alleviate some of the burdens required to accomplish this task, reduce or eliminate the safety hazardous to the worker, and reduce the overall cost of remediation, a program was established though the Office of Technology Development (OTD) to design and develop a robotic system capable of performing cutting operations using a plasma arc torch. Several D&D tasks were identified having potential for use of the plasma arc cutting technology. The tasks listed below were chosen to represent common D&D type activities where the plasma arc cutting technology can be applied.

  12. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 2: Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the rapidly changing field of robotics. The report incorporates definitions of the various types of robots, a summary of the basic concepts, utilized in each of the many technical areas, review of the state of the art and statistics of robot manufacture and usage. Particular attention is paid to the status of robot development, the organizations involved, their activities, and their funding.

  13. Robots for Astrobiology!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, Penelope J.

    2016-01-01

    The search for life and its study is known as astrobiology. Conducting that search on other planets in our Solar System is a major goal of NASA and other space agencies, and a driving passion of the community of scientists and engineers around the world. We practice for that search in many ways, from exploring and studying extreme environments on Earth, to developing robots to go to other planets and help us look for any possible life that may be there or may have been there in the past. The unique challenges of space exploration make collaborations between robots and humans essential. The products of those collaborations will be novel and driven by the features of wholly new environments. For space and planetary environments that are intolerable for humans or where humans present an unacceptable risk to possible biologically sensitive sites, autonomous robots or telepresence offer excellent choices. The search for life signs on Mars fits within this category, especially in advance of human landed missions there, but also as assistants and tools once humans reach the Red Planet. For planetary destinations where we do not envision humans ever going in person, like bitterly cold icy moons, or ocean worlds with thick ice roofs that essentially make them planetary-sized ice caves, we will rely on robots alone to visit those environments for us and enable us to explore and understand any life that we may find there. Current generation robots are not quite ready for some of the tasks that we need them to do, so there are many opportunities for roboticists of the future to advance novel types of mobility, autonomy, and bio-inspired robotic designs to help us accomplish our astrobiological goals. We see an exciting partnership between robotics and astrobiology continually strengthening as we jointly pursue the quest to find extraterrestrial life.

  14. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2007-04-29

    Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them.

  15. Supersmart Robots: The Next Generation of Robots Has Evolutionary Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Robots that can learn new behaviors. Robots that can reproduce themselves. Science fiction? Not anymore. Roboticists at Cornell's Computational Synthesis Lab have developed just such engineered creatures that offer interesting implications for education. The team, headed by Hod Lipson, was intrigued by the question, "How can you get robots to be…

  16. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  17. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  18. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  19. Industrial Robots on the Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Robert; Miller, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Explores the history of robotics and its effects upon the manufacturing industry. Topics include robots' capabilities and limitations, the factory of the future, displacement of the workforce, and implications for management and labor. (SK)

  20. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Alex Janas, robotics operator from the Goddard Space Flight Center, about the Robotic Refueling Mission that has been taking place on the space stati...

  1. Robots and Kids: Classroom Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Twila

    1984-01-01

    Describes how three different levels of students interacted with three different commercially available robots. Considers the educational value of these devices and provides a list of seven robots (indicating their source, computer compatibility, language, current cost, capabilities, and options). (JN)

  2. Artificial intelligence: Robots with instincts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    An evolutionary algorithm has been developed that allows robots to adapt to unforeseen change. The robots learn behaviours quickly and instinctively by mining the memory of their past achievements. See Letter p.503

  3. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery-2014.

    PubMed

    Kearns, James T; Gundeti, Mohan S

    2014-07-01

    We seek to provide a background of the current state of pediatric urologic surgery including a brief history, procedural outcomes, cost considerations, future directions, and the state of robotic surgery in India. Pediatric robotic urology has been shown to be safe and effective in cases ranging from pyeloplasty to bladder augmentation with continent urinary diversion. Complication rates are in line with other methods of performing the same procedures. The cost of robotic surgery continues to decrease, but setting up pediatric robotic urology programs can be costly in terms of both monetary investment and the training of robotic surgeons. The future directions of robot surgery include instrument and system refinements, augmented reality and haptics, and telesurgery. Given the large number of children in India, there is huge potential for growth of pediatric robotic urology in India. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery has been established as safe and effective, and it will be an important tool in the future of pediatric urologic surgery worldwide. PMID:25197187

  4. Chemical, radiochemical and biological studies of new gallium(III) complexes with hexadentate chelators.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francisco; Campello, Maria Paula C; Gano, Lurdes; Fernandes, Célia; Santos, Isabel C; Santos, Isabel; Ascenso, José R; João Ferreira, M; Paulo, António

    2015-02-21

    New N4O2-donor acyclic chelators 2-[[2-[2-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)ethyl-[2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylamino]ethyl]amino]ethylamino]methyl]phenol (H2L(pz*,NH)) and 2-[[2-[2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylamino]ethyl-(2-pyridylmethyl)amino]ethylamino]methyl]phenol (H2L(py,NH)) were obtained upon introduction of pyridyl or pyrazolyl coordinating units at the central nitrogen atom of diethylenetriamine (dien) and by functionalization of its terminal amines with phenol groups. The coordination behavior of H2L(pz*,NH) and H2L(py,NH) was evaluated towards (nat)Ga/(67)Ga, aiming to assess their suitability to obtain Ga(iii) chelates relevant for biomedical applications. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the complexes [GaL(pz*,NH)](ClO4) and [GaL(py,NH)](ClO4) confirmed the presence of N4O2-hexadentate chelators with the phenoxide groups coordinated cis relatively to the pyridyl/pyrazolyl arms. Unlike [GaL(pz*,NH)](ClO4), [GaL(py,NH)](ClO4) exists in solution as a mixture of isomers, as confirmed by several NMR techniques. The corresponding radiocomplex [(67)GaL(py,NH)](+) was obtained smoothly in almost quantitative radiochemical yield, contrary to [(67)GaL(pz*,NH)](+) that seems to be (hemi)labile under the same conditions. [(67)GaL(py,NH)](+) presents a high in vivo stability and a favourable biodistribution profile in mice. The imine congeners 2-[(E)-2-[2-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)ethyl-[2-[(E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyleneamino]ethyl]amino]ethyliminomethyl]phenol (H2L(pz*,C[double bond, length as m-dash]N)) and 2-[(E)-2-[2-[(E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyleneamino]ethyl-(2-pyridylmethyl)amino]ethyliminomethyl]phenol (H2L(py,C[double bond, length as m-dash]N)) were also evaluated but they did not form complexes compatible for biomedical applications owing to their high reactivity. PMID:25601139

  5. On-Line Monitoring for Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterson, James M.; Lines, Amanda M.; Jordan, Elizabeth A.; Verdugo, Dawn E.; Skomurski, Frances N.

    2011-07-19

    There is a renewed interest worldwide to promote the use of nuclear power and close the nuclear fuel cycle. The long term successful use of nuclear power is critically dependent upon adequate and safe processing and disposition of the spent nuclear fuel Liquid-liquid extraction is a separation technique commonly employed for the processing of the dissolved spent nuclear fuel. Our approach is based on prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust, require little or no maintenance, and be able to withstand harsh environments such as high radiation fields and aggressive chemical matrices. In addition, the ability for continuous on-line monitoring allows for numerous benefits. Our team experimentally assessed the potential of Raman and vis-NIR spectrophotometric techniques for on-line real-time monitoring of the U(VI)/nitrate ion/nitric acid and Pu(IV)/Np(V)/Nd(III), respectively, in solutions relevant to spent fuel reprocessing. Both techniques demonstrated robust performance in the repetitive batch measurements of each analyte in a wide concentration range using simulant and commercial dissolved spent fuel solutions. Static spectroscopic measurements served as training sets for the multivariate data analysis to obtain partial least squares predictive models, which were validated using on-line centrifugal contactor extraction tests. The corresponding spectrometers used under the laboratory conditions are easily convertible to the process-friendly configurations allowing remote measurements under the flow conditions. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of the high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the PUREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as

  6. Radiochemical Separation and Quantification of Tritium in Metallic Radwastes Generated from CANDU Type NPP - 13279

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, H.J.; Choi, K.C.; Choi, K.S.; Park, T.H.; Park, Y.J.; Song, K.

    2013-07-01

    As a destructive quantification method of {sup 3}H in low and intermediate level radwastes, bomb oxidation, sample oxidation, and wet oxidation methods have been introduced. These methods have some merits and demerits in the radiochemical separation of {sup 3}H radionuclides. That is, since the bomb oxidation and sample oxidation methods are techniques using heating at high temperature, the separation methods of the radionuclides are relatively simple. However, since {sup 3}H radionuclide has a property of being diffused deeply into the inside of metals, {sup 3}H which is distributed on the surface of the metals can only be extracted if the methods are applied. As an another separation method, the wet oxidation method makes {sup 3}H oxidized with an acidic solution, and extracted completely to an oxidized HTO compound. However, incomplete oxidized {sup 3}H compounds, which are produced by reactions of acidic solutions and metallic radwastes, can be released into the air. Thus, in this study, a wet oxidation method to extract and quantify the {sup 3}H radionuclide from metallic radwastes was established. In particular, a complete extraction method and complete oxidation method of incomplete chemical compounds of {sup 3}H using a Pt catalyst were studied. The radioactivity of {sup 3}H in metallic radwastes is extracted and measured using a wet oxidation method and liquid scintillation counter. Considering the surface dose rate of the sample, the appropriate size of the sample was determined and weighed, and a mixture of oxidants was added to a 200 ml round flask with 3 tubes. The flask was quickly connected to the distilling apparatus. 20 mL of 16 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was given into the 200-ml round flask through a dropping funnel while under stirring and refluxing. After dropping, the temperature of the mixture was raised to 96 deg. C and the sample was leached and oxidized by refluxing for 3 hours. At that time, the incomplete oxidized {sup 3}H compounds were

  7. Chemical, radiochemical and biological studies of new gallium(III) complexes with hexadentate chelators.

    PubMed

    Silva, Francisco; Campello, Maria Paula C; Gano, Lurdes; Fernandes, Célia; Santos, Isabel C; Santos, Isabel; Ascenso, José R; João Ferreira, M; Paulo, António

    2015-02-21

    New N4O2-donor acyclic chelators 2-[[2-[2-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)ethyl-[2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylamino]ethyl]amino]ethylamino]methyl]phenol (H2L(pz*,NH)) and 2-[[2-[2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylamino]ethyl-(2-pyridylmethyl)amino]ethylamino]methyl]phenol (H2L(py,NH)) were obtained upon introduction of pyridyl or pyrazolyl coordinating units at the central nitrogen atom of diethylenetriamine (dien) and by functionalization of its terminal amines with phenol groups. The coordination behavior of H2L(pz*,NH) and H2L(py,NH) was evaluated towards (nat)Ga/(67)Ga, aiming to assess their suitability to obtain Ga(iii) chelates relevant for biomedical applications. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the complexes [GaL(pz*,NH)](ClO4) and [GaL(py,NH)](ClO4) confirmed the presence of N4O2-hexadentate chelators with the phenoxide groups coordinated cis relatively to the pyridyl/pyrazolyl arms. Unlike [GaL(pz*,NH)](ClO4), [GaL(py,NH)](ClO4) exists in solution as a mixture of isomers, as confirmed by several NMR techniques. The corresponding radiocomplex [(67)GaL(py,NH)](+) was obtained smoothly in almost quantitative radiochemical yield, contrary to [(67)GaL(pz*,NH)](+) that seems to be (hemi)labile under the same conditions. [(67)GaL(py,NH)](+) presents a high in vivo stability and a favourable biodistribution profile in mice. The imine congeners 2-[(E)-2-[2-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)ethyl-[2-[(E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyleneamino]ethyl]amino]ethyliminomethyl]phenol (H2L(pz*,C[double bond, length as m-dash]N)) and 2-[(E)-2-[2-[(E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyleneamino]ethyl-(2-pyridylmethyl)amino]ethyliminomethyl]phenol (H2L(py,C[double bond, length as m-dash]N)) were also evaluated but they did not form complexes compatible for biomedical applications owing to their high reactivity.

  8. Estimating Am-241 activity in the body: comparison of direct measurements and radiochemical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Timothy P.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; James, Anthony C.

    2009-06-01

    The assessment of dose and ultimately the health risk from intakes of radioactive materials begins with estimating the amount actually taken into the body. An accurate estimate provides the basis to best assess the distribution in the body, the resulting dose, and ultimately the health risk. This study continues the time-honored practice of evaluating the accuracy of results obtained using in vivo measurement methods and techniques. Results from the radiochemical analyses of the 241Am activity content of tissues and organs from four donors to the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries were compared to the results from direct measurements of radioactive material in the body performed in vivo and post mortem. Two were whole body donations and two were partial body donations The skeleton was the organ with the highest deposition of 241Am activity in all four cases. The activities ranged from 30 Bq to 300 Bq. The skeletal estimates obtained from measurements over the forehead were within 20% of the radiochemistry results in three cases and differed by 78% in one case. The 241Am lung activity estimates ranged from 1 Bq to 30 Bq in the four cases. The results from the direct measurements were within 40% of the radiochemistry results in 3 cases and within a factor of 3 for the other case. The direct measurement estimates of liver activity ranged from 2 Bq to 60 Bq and were generally lower than the radiochemistry results. The results from this study suggest that the measurement methods and calibration techniques used at the In Vivo Radiobioassay and Research Facility to quantify the activity in the lungs, skeleton and liver are reasonable under the most challenging conditions where there is 241Am activity in multiple organs. These methods and techniques are comparable to those used at other Department of Energy sites. This suggests that the current in vivo methods and calibration techniques provide reasonable estimates of radioactive material in the body. Not

  9. Radiochemical synthesis of a carbon-supported Pt-SnO2 bicomponent nanostructure exhibiting enhanced catalysis of ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Tomohisa; Seino, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kugai, Junichiro; Ohkubo, Yuji; Akita, Tomoki; Nitani, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-supported Pt-SnO2 electrocatalysts with various Sn/Pt molar ratios were prepared by an electron beam irradiation method. These catalysts were composed of metallic Pt particles approximately 5 nm in diameter together with low crystalline SnO2. The contact between the Pt and SnO2 in these materials varied with the amount of dissolved oxygen in the precursor solutions and it was determined that intimate contact between the Pt and SnO2 significantly enhanced the catalytic activity of these materials during the ethanol oxidation reaction. The mechanism by which the contact varies is discussed based on the radiochemical reduction process.

  10. Teen Sized Humanoid Robot: Archie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Jacky; Byagowi, Ahmad; Anderson, John; Kopacek, Peter

    This paper describes our first teen sized humanoid robot Archie. This robot has been developed in conjunction with Prof. Kopacek’s lab from the Technical University of Vienna. Archie uses brushless motors and harmonic gears with a novel approach to position encoding. Based on our previous experience with small humanoid robots, we developed software to create, store, and play back motions as well as control methods which automatically balance the robot using feedback from an internal measurement unit (IMU).

  11. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  12. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  13. Modular robotic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smurlo, Richard P.; Laird, Robin T.

    1991-03-01

    The development of control architectures for mobile systems is typically a task undertaken with each new application. These architectures address different operational needs and tend to be difficult to adapt to more than the problem at hand. The development of a flexible and extendible control system with evolutionary growth potential for use on mobile robots will help alleviate these problems and if made widely available will promote standardization and cornpatibility among systems throughout the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control systern that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set of software hardware tools that can be used to design modular robots (MODBOTs) with nearly unlimited growth potential. The MODBOT itself is a generic creature that must be customized by the developer for a particular application. The MRA facilitates customization of the MODBOT by providing sensor actuator and processing modules that can be configured in almost any manner as demanded by the application. The Mobile Security Robot (MOSER) is an instance of a MODBOT that is being developed using the MRA. Navigational Sonar Module RF Link Control Station Module hR Link Detection Module Near hR Proximi Sensor Module Fluxgate Compass and Rate Gyro Collision Avoidance Sonar Module Figure 1. Remote platform module configuration of the Mobile Security Robot (MOSER). Acoustical Detection Array Stereoscopic Pan and Tilt Module High Level Processing Module Mobile Base 566

  14. Robotic Microsurgery Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The increased application of the da Vinci robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical Inc.) for microsurgery has led to the development of new adjunctive surgical instrumentation. In microsurgery, the robotic platform can provide high definition 12×-15× digital magnification, broader range of motion, fine instrument handling with decreased tremor, reduced surgeon fatigue, and improved surgical productivity. This paper presents novel adjunctive tools that provide enhanced optical magnification, micro-Doppler sensing of vessels down to a 1-mm size, vein mapping capabilities, hydro-dissection, micro-ablation technology (with minimal thermal spread-CO2 laser technology), and confocal microscopy to provide imaging at a cellular level. Microsurgical outcomes from the use of these tools in the management of patients with infertility and chronic groin and testicular pain are reviewed. All these instruments have been adapted for the robotic console and enhance the robot-assisted microsurgery experience. As the popularity of robot-assisted microsurgery grows, so will its breadth of instrumentation. PMID:24883272

  15. Quantum robots plus environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-23

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system, including an on board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems, that interacts with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include making specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. The environments considered so far, oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are seen to be special cases of environments considered here. It is also seen that a quantum robot should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model of quantum robots and their interactions is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of alternating computation and action phases,is described by a unitary single time step operator T {approx} T{sub a} + T{sub c} (discrete space and time are assumed). The overall system dynamics is described as a sum over paths of completed computation (T{sub c}) and action (T{sub a}) phases. A simple example of a task, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D lattice with quantum phase path dispersion present, is analyzed. A decision diagram for the task is presented and analyzed.

  16. Controlling multiple groups of robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor, MawKae

    1992-11-01

    Coordinating multiple robots has attracted researchers' interests for many years. However, most of the problems being studied deal with multiple robots acted only within a single group. Coordinated robots are categorized into different groups when the coordination involves robots interchange or heterogeneous motion during the manipulation process. In such a case, coordination between robot groups has to be considered. This is required in certain types of coordinated manipulations such as passing an object, held by multiple robots, between groups of robots or rotating or rolling an object, held by multiple robots, continuously. In the former task, coordinations are made between two isotropic groups of robots whereas in the latter task, coordinations are made between non-isotropic groups of robots. This paper investigates problems related to the control and coordinating of multiple groups of robots. We analyze various kind of tasks of these types and propose a hierarchical control mechanism in achieving these coordinations. Scenarios and limitations for these tasks are presented and discussed. A hybrid force and position control principle is employed in both global and local planning and control. A hierarchical architecture is used to control different levels of the control and planning primitives. The primitives developed for controlling individual robot group can be adopted in this architecture. The primitives in one level offer services only to those in its neighboring levels and hides them from the details of actual service implementations hence reducing the system designing complexity.

  17. Robot teachers: The very idea!

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient attention has been paid to the use of robots in classrooms. Robot "teachers" are being developed, but because Kline ignores such technological developments, it is not clear how they would fit within her framework. It is argued here that robots are not capable of teaching in any meaningful sense, and should be deployed only as educational tools.

  18. Future perspectives in robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Wedmid, Alexei; Llukani, Elton; Lee, David I

    2011-09-01

    Robotics of the current day have advanced significantly from early computer-aided design/manufacturing systems to modern master-slave robotic systems that replicate the surgeon's exact movements onto robotic instruments in the patient. • Globally >300,000 robotic procedures were completed in 2010, including ≈98,000 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. • Broadening applications of robotics for urological procedures are being investigated in both adult and paediatric urology. • The use of the current robotic system continues to be further refined. Increasing experience has optimized port placement reducing arm collisions to allow for more expedient surgery. Improved three-dimensional camera magnification provides improved intraoperative identification of structures. • Robotics has probably improved the learning curve of laparoscopic surgery while still maintaining its patient recovery advantages and outcomes. • The future of robotic surgery will take this current platform forward by improving haptic (touch) feedback, improving vision beyond even the magnified eye, improving robot accessibility with a reduction of entry ports and miniaturizing the slave robot. • Here, we focus on the possible advancements that may change the future landscape of robotic surgery.

  19. KC-135 materials handling robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Robot dynamics and control will become an important issue for implementing productive platforms in space. Robotic operations will become necessary for man-tended stations and for efficient performance of routine operations in a manned platform. The current constraints on the use of robotic devices in a microgravity environment appears to be due to an anticipated increase in acceleration levels due to manipulator motion and for safety concerns. The objective of this study will be to provide baseline data to meet that need. Most texts and papers dealing with the kinematics and dynamics of robots assume that the manipulator is composed of joints separated by rigid links. However, in recent years several groups have begun to study the dynamics of flexible manipulators, primarily for applying robots in space and for improving the efficiency and precision of robotic systems. Robotic systems which are being planned for implementation in space have a number of constraints to overcome. Additional concepts which have to be worked out in any robotic implementation for a space platform include teleoperation and degree of autonomous control. Some significant results in developing a robotic workcell for performing robotics research on the KC-135 aircraft in preperation for space-based robotics applications in the future were generated. In addition, it was shown that TREETOPS can be used to simulate the dynamics of robot manipulators for both space and ground-based applications.

  20. Robotics: Applications and social implications

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.U.; Miller, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Robots are expected to dramatically alter the U.S. economy in the 1980s. In this assessment of their effects on everyday life, the authors examine the scope of the robotics revolution and provide recommendations for a smooth introduction of robots into American industry.

  1. KC-135 materials handling robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-04-01

    Robot dynamics and control will become an important issue for implementing productive platforms in space. Robotic operations will become necessary for man-tended stations and for efficient performance of routine operations in a manned platform. The current constraints on the use of robotic devices in a microgravity environment appears to be due to an anticipated increase in acceleration levels due to manipulator motion and for safety concerns. The objective of this study will be to provide baseline data to meet that need. Most texts and papers dealing with the kinematics and dynamics of robots assume that the manipulator is composed of joints separated by rigid links. However, in recent years several groups have begun to study the dynamics of flexible manipulators, primarily for applying robots in space and for improving the efficiency and precision of robotic systems. Robotic systems which are being planned for implementation in space have a number of constraints to overcome. Additional concepts which have to be worked out in any robotic implementation for a space platform include teleoperation and degree of autonomous control. Some significant results in developing a robotic workcell for performing robotics research on the KC-135 aircraft in preperation for space-based robotics applications in the future were generated. In addition, it was shown that TREETOPS can be used to simulate the dynamics of robot manipulators for both space and ground-based applications.

  2. Robot Technology: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Paul E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an introduction to robotic technology, and describes current robot models. Three ways of using robots in education are discussed--as exemplars of other processes, as objects of instruction, and as prosthetic aids--and selection criteria are outlined. (17 references) (CLB)

  3. Future perspectives in robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Wedmid, Alexei; Llukani, Elton; Lee, David I

    2011-09-01

    Robotics of the current day have advanced significantly from early computer-aided design/manufacturing systems to modern master-slave robotic systems that replicate the surgeon's exact movements onto robotic instruments in the patient. • Globally >300,000 robotic procedures were completed in 2010, including ≈98,000 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. • Broadening applications of robotics for urological procedures are being investigated in both adult and paediatric urology. • The use of the current robotic system continues to be further refined. Increasing experience has optimized port placement reducing arm collisions to allow for more expedient surgery. Improved three-dimensional camera magnification provides improved intraoperative identification of structures. • Robotics has probably improved the learning curve of laparoscopic surgery while still maintaining its patient recovery advantages and outcomes. • The future of robotic surgery will take this current platform forward by improving haptic (touch) feedback, improving vision beyond even the magnified eye, improving robot accessibility with a reduction of entry ports and miniaturizing the slave robot. • Here, we focus on the possible advancements that may change the future landscape of robotic surgery. PMID:21917107

  4. Humans and Robots. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses human movement and robotic human movement simulators. The activity for students in grades 5-12 provides a history of robotic movement and includes making an End Effector for the robotic arms used on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). (MVL)

  5. Adaptive Language Games with Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, Luc

    2010-11-01

    This paper surveys recent research into language evolution using computer simulations and robotic experiments. This field has made tremendous progress in the past decade going from simple simulations of lexicon formation with animallike cybernetic robots to sophisticated grammatical experiments with humanoid robots.

  6. The problem with multiple robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

  7. Robotic Design for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Burns, Kaylynn

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of robotic design to interest students in science and engineering. It describes one program, BEST, and resources that area available to design and create a robot. BEST is a competition for sixth and seventh graders that is designed to engage gifted and talented students. A couple of scenarios involving the use of a robot are outlined.

  8. Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinova, Evdokiya; Forest, C.; Cooper, C.; Coquerel, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX) is investigating the self-generation of magnetic fields and related processes in a large, weakly magnetized, fast flowing, and hot (conducting) plasma. The dynamo re-creates conditions highly similar to many astrophysical plasmas. Stars and other planets have dynamos, and so do galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which makes it extremely crucial for researchers in the field to carry out experiments in this previously uninvestigated plasma regime, which will help for the development of a comprehensive theory of how magnetic fields are generated in planets, the Sun and other stars. MPDX is a laboratory astrophysical experiment where 200,000-degree Fahrenheit plasma is confined within a three-meter diameter spherical aluminum vacuum chamber with the help of multiple tracks of cusp magnets covering the inside shell. The dynamo utilizes six robotic insertion sweep probes that are programmed to find any point inside the sphere by given radial and angular coordinates. This innovative mechanical system allows us to take measurements of the state variables in key points in the plasma flow and to better investigate its cosmic-like plasma behavior. The probes are able to autonomously calculate coordinate transformations, move in a two dimensional plane, and return information about their relative position. This makes them an extremely useful, highly accurate, and easily controlled tool for plasma analysis.

  9. The universal robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moravec, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Our artifacts are getting smarter, and a loose parallel with the evolution of animal intelligence suggests one future course for them. Computerless industrial machinery exhibits the behavioral flexibility of single-celled organisms. Today's best computer-controlled robots are like the simpler invertebrates. A thousand-fold increase in computer power in the next decade should make possible machines with reptile-like sensory and motor competence. Properly configured, such robots could do in the physical world what personal computers now do in the world of data - act on our behalf as literal-minded slaves. Growing computer power over the next half-century will allow this reptile stage to be surpassed, in stages producing robots that learn like mammals, model their world like primates, and eventually reason like humans. Depending on your point of view, humanity will then have produced a worthy successor, or transcended some of its inherited limitations and so transformed itself into something quite new.

  10. RX130 Robot Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugal, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In order to create precision magnets for an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a new reverse engineering method has been proposed that uses the magnetic scalar potential to solve for the currents necessary to produce the desired field. To make the magnet it is proposed to use a copper coated G10 form, upon which a drill, mounted on a robotic arm, will carve wires. The accuracy required in the manufacturing of the wires exceeds nominal robot capabilities. However, due to the rigidity as well as the precision servo motor and harmonic gear drivers, there are robots capable of meeting this requirement with proper calibration. Improving the accuracy of an RX130 to be within 35 microns (the accuracy necessary of the wires) is the goal of this project. Using feedback from a displacement sensor, or camera and inverse kinematics it is possible to achieve this accuracy.

  11. The universal robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravec, Hans

    1993-12-01

    Our artifacts are getting smarter, and a loose parallel with the evolution of animal intelligence suggests one future course for them. Computerless industrial machinery exhibits the behavioral flexibility of single-celled organisms. Today's best computer-controlled robots are like the simpler invertebrates. A thousand-fold increase in computer power in the next decade should make possible machines with reptile-like sensory and motor competence. Properly configured, such robots could do in the physical world what personal computers now do in the world of data - act on our behalf as literal-minded slaves. Growing computer power over the next half-century will allow this reptile stage to be surpassed, in stages producing robots that learn like mammals, model their world like primates, and eventually reason like humans. Depending on your point of view, humanity will then have produced a worthy successor, or transcended some of its inherited limitations and so transformed itself into something quite new.

  12. Advanced mechanisms for robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of applied research and development at NASA-Goddard (GSFC) on mechanisms and the collision avoidance skin for robots is presented. First the work on robot end effectors is outlined, followed by a brief discussion on robot-friendly payload latching mechanisms and compliant joints. This, in turn, is followed by the collision avoidance/management skin and the GSFC research on magnetostrictive direct drive motors. Finally, a new project, the artificial muscle, is introduced. Each of the devices is described in sufficient detail to permit a basic understanding of its purpose, fundamental principles of operation, and capabilities. In addition, the development status of each is reported along with descriptions of breadboards and prototypes and their test results. In each case, the implications of the research for commercialization is discussed. The chronology of the presentation will give a clear idea of both the evolution of the R&D in recent years and its likely direction in the future.

  13. Robotically assisted ultrasound interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jienan; Swerdlow, Dan; Wang, Shuxin; Wilson, Emmanuel; Tang, Jonathan; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a robotic system to assist the physician in minimally invasive ultrasound interventions. In current practice, the physician must manually hold the ultrasound probe in one hand and manipulate the needle with the other hand, which can be challenging, particularly when trying to target small lesions. To assist the physician, the robot should not only be capable of providing the spatial movement needed, but also be able to control the contact force between the ultrasound probe and patient. To meet these requirements, we are developing a prototype system based on a six degree of freedom parallel robot. The system will provide high bandwidth, precision motion, and force control. In this paper we report on our progress to date, including the development of a PC-based control system and the results of our initial experiments.

  14. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  15. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  16. Technical vision for robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    A new invention by scientists who have copied the structure of a human eye will help replace a human telescope-watching astronomer with a robot. It will be possible to provide technical vision not only for robot astronomers but also for their industrial fellow robots. So far, an artificial eye with dimensions close to those of a human eye discerns only black-and-white images. But already the second model of the eye is to perceive colors as well. Polymers which are suited for the role of the coat of an eye, lens, and vitreous body were applied. The retina has been replaced with a bundle of the finest glass filaments through which light rays get onto photomultipliers. They can be positioned outside the artificial eye. The main thing is to prevent great losses in the light guide.

  17. Put Your Robot In, Put Your Robot Out: Sequencing through Programming Robots in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability in early childhood. Thirty-four children (ages 4.5-6.5 years) participated in computer programming activities with a developmentally appropriate tool, CHERP, specifically designed to program a robot's behaviors. The children learned to build and program robots over three…

  18. Segway robotic mobility platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Morrell, John; Mullens, Katherine D.; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Miles, Susan; Farrington, Nathan; Thomas, Kari M.; Gage, Douglas W.

    2004-12-01

    The Segway Robotic Mobility Platform (RMP) is a new mobile robotic platform based on the self-balancing Segway Human Transporter (HT). The Segway RMP is faster, cheaper, and more agile than existing comparable platforms. It is also rugged, has a small footprint, a zero turning radius, and yet can carry a greater payload. The new geometry of the platform presents researchers with an opportunity to examine novel topics, including people-height sensing and actuation modalities. This paper describes the history and development of the platform, its characteristics, and a summary of current research projects involving the platform at various institutions across the United States.

  19. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  20. Robotics and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Rattner, David

    2003-12-01

    Industrial robotics have proven the benefit of using an untiring machine to perform precise repetitive tasks in uncomfortable or dangerous for humans environments. Highly skilled surgeons are trained to operate and adapt to difficult conditions. They are even capable of developing intelligent mechanisms to exploit a variety of tactile, visual, and other cues. The robotic systems, however, can enhance the surgeon's capability to perform a wide variety of tasks. They cannot replace the surgeon's problem-solving ability. Instead, they will redefine his role. They will significantly enhance the surgeon's skills and dexterity by providing their complementary capabilities and an ergonomically efficient and more user-friendly working environment.

  1. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  2. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  3. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  4. SDIO robotics in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Robotics in space supporting the Strategic Defense System (SDS) program is discussed. Ongoing initiatives which are intended to establish an initial Robotics in Space capability are addressed. This is specifically being referred to as the Satellite Servicing System (SSS). This system is based on the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) with a Robotic Manipulator(s) based on the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and other SSS equipment required to do the satellite servicing work attached to the OMV. Specific Robotics in Space Requirements which have resulted from the completion of the Robotics Requirements Study Contract are addressed.

  5. Robust Software Architecture for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

  6. Remote automatic control scheme for plasma arc cutting of contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Ward, C.R.; Kriikku, E.M.

    1993-10-01

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Technology Center has developed and implemented a scheme to perform automatic cutting of metallic contaminated waste. The scheme employs a plasma arc cutter in conjunction with a laser ranging sensor attached to a robotic manipulator called the Telerobot. A software algorithm using proportional control is then used to perturb the robot`s trajectory in such a way as to regulate the plasma arc standoff and the robot`s speed in order to achieve automatic plasma arc cuts. The scheme has been successfully tested on simulated waste materials and the results have been very favorable. This report details the development and testing of the scheme.

  7. /sup 57/Co-soap assay for plasma total non-esterified fatty acids compared with a gas-liquid chromatographic method

    SciTech Connect

    Turnell, D.C.; Price, C.P.; France, M.M.

    1980-12-01

    A relatively rapid radiochemical assay for determining plasma non-esterified fatty acids is described. Results correlated well with those by gas-liquid chromatography. The between-batch CV for 1.12 mmol of non-esterified fatty acids per liter was 7%.

  8. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  9. Hiding robot inertia using resonance.

    PubMed

    Vallery, Heike; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To enable compliant training modes with a rehabilitation robot, an important prerequisite is that any undesired human-robot interaction forces caused by robot dynamics must be avoided, either by an appropriate mechanical design or by compensating control strategies. Our recently proposed control scheme of "Generalized Elasticities" employs potential fields to compensate for robot dynamics, including inertia, beyond what can be done using closed-loop force control. In this paper, we give a simple mechanical equivalent using the example of the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The robot consists of an exoskeleton that is attached to a frame around the patient's pelvis. This frame is suspended by a springloaded parallelogram structure. The mechanism allows vertical displacement while providing almost constant robot gravity compensation. However, inertia of the device when the patient's pelvis moves up and down remains a source of large interaction forces, which are reflected in increased ground reaction forces. Here, we investigate an alternative suspension: To hide not only gravity, but also robot inertia during vertical pelvis motion, we suspend the robot frame by a stiff linear spring that allows the robot to oscillate vertically at an eigenfrequency close to the natural gait frequency. This mechanism reduces human-robot interaction forces, which is demonstrated in pilot experimental results. PMID:21095916

  10. Hiding robot inertia using resonance.

    PubMed

    Vallery, Heike; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert

    2010-01-01

    To enable compliant training modes with a rehabilitation robot, an important prerequisite is that any undesired human-robot interaction forces caused by robot dynamics must be avoided, either by an appropriate mechanical design or by compensating control strategies. Our recently proposed control scheme of "Generalized Elasticities" employs potential fields to compensate for robot dynamics, including inertia, beyond what can be done using closed-loop force control. In this paper, we give a simple mechanical equivalent using the example of the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The robot consists of an exoskeleton that is attached to a frame around the patient's pelvis. This frame is suspended by a springloaded parallelogram structure. The mechanism allows vertical displacement while providing almost constant robot gravity compensation. However, inertia of the device when the patient's pelvis moves up and down remains a source of large interaction forces, which are reflected in increased ground reaction forces. Here, we investigate an alternative suspension: To hide not only gravity, but also robot inertia during vertical pelvis motion, we suspend the robot frame by a stiff linear spring that allows the robot to oscillate vertically at an eigenfrequency close to the natural gait frequency. This mechanism reduces human-robot interaction forces, which is demonstrated in pilot experimental results.

  11. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Hibner, Michał; Marianowski, Piotr; Szymusik, Iwona; Wielgós, Mirosław

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of robotic surgery in the first decade of the 21 century was one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anesthesia. For the first time in history the surgeon was placed remotely from the patient and was able to operate with the device that has more degrees of freedom than human hand. Initially developed for the US Military in order to allow surgeons to be removed from the battlefield, surgical robots quickly made a leap to the mainstream medicine. One of the first surgical uses for the robot was cardiac surgery but it is urology and prostate surgery that gave it a widespread popularity Gynecologic surgeons caught on very quickly and it is estimated that 31% of hysterectomies done in the United States in 2012 will be done robotically. With over half a million hysterectomies done each year in the US alone, gynecologic surgery is one of the main driving forces behind the growth of robotic surgery Other applications in gynecology include myomectomy oophorectomy and ovarian cystectomy resection of endometriosis and lymphadenectomy Advantages of the surgical robot are clearly seen in myomectomy The wrist motion allows for better more precise suturing than conventional "straight stick" laparoscopy The strength of the arms allow for better pulling of the suture and the third arm for holding the suture on tension. Other advantage of the robot is scaling of the movements when big movement on the outside translates to very fine movement on the inside. This enables much more precise surgery and may be important in the procedures like tubal anastomosis and implantation of the ureter Three-dimensional vision provides excellent depth of field perception. It is important for surgeons who are switching from open surgeries and preliminary evidence shows that it may allow for better identification of lesions like endometriosis. Another big advantage of robotics is that the surgeon sits comfortably with his/her arms and head supported. This

  12. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

    1996-01-01

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  13. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  14. Intelligent Robots for Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Oh, S. J.

    1985-04-01

    Industrial robots are now proven technology in a variety of applications including welding, materials handling, spray painting, machine loading and assembly. However, to fully realize the potential of these universal manipulators , "intelligence" needs to be added to the industrial robot. This involves adding sensory capability and machine intelligence to the controls. The "intelligence" may be added externally or as integral components of the robot. These new "intelligent robots" promise to greatly enhance the versatility of the robot for factory applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief review of the techniques and applications of intelligent robots for factory automation and to suggest possible designs for the intelligent robot of the future.

  15. Improving the (18)F-fluoromethylcholine ((18)F-FCH) radiochemical yield via optimising the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (18)F-fluorine.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hishar; Abu Bakar, Suharzelim; Halim, Khairul Najah Che A; Idris, Jaleezah; Ahmad Saad, Fathinul Fikri; Nordin, Abdul Jalil

    2015-01-01

    (18)F-Fluoromethylcholine ((18)F-FCH) has been suggested as one of the reputable imaging tracers for diagnosis of prostate tumour in PET/CT examination. Nevertheless, it has never been synthesised in Malaysia. We acknowledged the major problem with (18)F-FCH is due to its relatively low radiochemical yield at the end of synthesis (EOS). Therefore, this technical note presents improved (18)F-FCH radiochemical yields after carrying out optimisation on azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (18)F-Fluorine.

  16. Touch Sensor for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Touch sensor for robot hands provides information about shape of grasped object and force exerted by gripper on object. Pins projecting from sensor create electrical signals when pressed. When grasped object depresses pin, it contacts electrode under it, connecting electrode to common electrode. Sensor indicates where, and how firmly, gripper has touched object.

  17. Robot Serviced Space Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A robot serviced space facility includes multiple modules which are identical in physical structure, but selectively differing in function. and purpose. Each module includes multiple like attachment points which are identically placed on each module so as to permit interconnection with immediately adjacent modules. Connection is made through like outwardly extending flange assemblies having identical male and female configurations for interconnecting to and locking to a complementary side of another flange. Multiple rows of interconnected modules permit force, fluid, data and power transfer to be accomplished by redundant circuit paths. Redundant modules of critical subsystems are included. Redundancy of modules and of interconnections results in a space complex with any module being removable upon demand, either for module replacement or facility reconfiguration. without eliminating any vital functions of the complex. Module replacement and facility assembly or reconfiguration are accomplished by a computer controlled articulated walker type robotic manipulator arm assembly having two identical end-effectors in the form of male configurations which are identical to those on module flanges and which interconnect to female configurations on other flanges. The robotic arm assembly moves along a connected set or modules by successively disconnecting, moving and reconnecting alternate ends of itself to a succession of flanges in a walking type maneuver. To transport a module, the robot keeps the transported module attached to one of its end-effectors and uses another flange male configuration of the attached module as a substitute end-effector during walking.

  18. An Inexpensive Robotics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inigo, R. M.; Angulo, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the design and implementation of a simple robot manipulator. The manipulator has three degrees of freedom and is controlled by a general purpose microcomputer. The basis for the manipulator (which costs under $100) is a simple working model of a crane. (Author/JN)

  19. Savannah River Site Robotics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  20. Brain controlled robots

    PubMed Central

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In January 2008, Duke University and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) publicized their successful control of a brain-machine interface for a humanoid robot by a monkey brain across the Pacific Ocean. The activities of a few hundred neurons were recorded from a monkey’s motor cortex in Miguel Nicolelis’s lab at Duke University, and the kinematic features of monkey locomotion on a treadmill were decoded from neural firing rates in real time. The decoded information was sent to a humanoid robot, CB-i, in ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories located in Kyoto, Japan. This robot was developed by the JST International Collaborative Research Project (ICORP) as the “Computational Brain Project.” CB-i’s locomotion-like movement was video-recorded and projected on a screen in front of the monkey. Although the bidirectional communication used a conventional Internet connection, its delay was suppressed below one over several seconds, partly due to a video-streaming technique, and this encouraged the monkey’s voluntary locomotion and influenced its brain activity. This commentary introduces the background and future directions of the brain-controlled robot. PMID:19404467

  1. Industrial robot's vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  2. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  3. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  4. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  5. [Radical prostatectomy - pro robotic].

    PubMed

    Gillitzer, R

    2012-05-01

    Anatomical radical prostatectomy was introduced in the early 1980s by Walsh and Donker. Elucidation of key anatomical structures led to a significant reduction in the morbidity of this procedure. The strive to achieve similar oncological and functional results to this gold standard open procedure but with further reduction of morbidity through a minimally invasive access led to the establishment of laparoscopic prostatectomy. However, this procedure is complex and difficult and is associated with a long learning curve. The technical advantages of robotically assisted surgery coupled with the intuitive handling of the device led to increased precision and shortening of the learning curve. These main advantages, together with a massive internet presence and aggressive marketing, have resulted in a rapid dissemination of robotic radical prostatectomy and an increasing patient demand. However, superiority of robotic radical prostatectomy in comparison to the other surgical therapeutic options has not yet been proven on a scientific basis. Currently robotic-assisted surgery is an established technique and future technical improvements will certainly further define its role in urological surgery. In the end this technical innovation will have to be balanced against the very high purchase and running costs, which remain the main limitation of this technology.

  6. Information Robots and Manipulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katys, G. P.; And Others

    In the modern concept a robot is a complex automatic cybernetics system capable of executing various operations in the sphere of human activity and in various respects combining the imitative capacity of the physical and mental activity of man. They are a class of automatic information systems intended for search, collection, processing, and…

  7. Robots in the Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Joan; Shanahan, Dolores

    1983-01-01

    Describes work with kindergarten children to improve their development of estimation, decision making, divergent thinking, directionality, numerical concepts, and creative problem solving skills through learning to program and control the robot Big Trak, a truck which moves along the floor in response to their commands. (EAO)

  8. Mathematics and "Lego" Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janus Halkier; Traeholt, Rune

    2007-01-01

    For the last four years, Soenderholm School, near the town of Aalborg, Northjutland, Denmark, has had an optional subject in the seventh grade called First "Lego" League (FLL). FLL is an international contest which aims to advance pupils' scientific interest. The task is for participants to build and program a "Lego" robot able to solve eight…

  9. Robotically assisted gynaecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Tommaso; Steiner, Charles P

    2002-05-01

    Industry has used robots successfully for fine, delicate, repetitive tasks for decades. Recently, robots have been introduced into clinical medicine and specifically into the surgical suite. Voice algorithms have been developed that allow voice activation of some types of equipment in the operating room, such as the laparoscope or the light source. Advances in computer software have allowed a computer controller to translate a surgeon's movements from the handles located in a console to the robotic arms that hold the surgical instruments. This console is placed away from the surgical table. Clinical experience is limited and there are few published clinical trials. The initial trials have focused on laparoscopic microsuturing such as that performed during coronary bypass surgery or tubal anastomosis. Preliminary results have demonstrated that laparoscopic coronary bypass surgery with the internal mammary artery can be achieved. In gynaecological surgery, laparoscopic tubal reanastomosis can be performed using the same technique that has been used traditionally at laparotomy. Future clinical trials will assess whether other gynaecological procedures can be performed with robotic assistance. PMID:12082211

  10. Robotically assisted gynaecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Tommaso; Steiner, Charles P

    2002-05-01

    Industry has used robots successfully for fine, delicate, repetitive tasks for decades. Recently, robots have been introduced into clinical medicine and specifically into the surgical suite. Voice algorithms have been developed that allow voice activation of some types of equipment in the operating room, such as the laparoscope or the light source. Advances in computer software have allowed a computer controller to translate a surgeon's movements from the handles located in a console to the robotic arms that hold the surgical instruments. This console is placed away from the surgical table. Clinical experience is limited and there are few published clinical trials. The initial trials have focused on laparoscopic microsuturing such as that performed during coronary bypass surgery or tubal anastomosis. Preliminary results have demonstrated that laparoscopic coronary bypass surgery with the internal mammary artery can be achieved. In gynaecological surgery, laparoscopic tubal reanastomosis can be performed using the same technique that has been used traditionally at laparotomy. Future clinical trials will assess whether other gynaecological procedures can be performed with robotic assistance.

  11. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  12. Savannah River Site Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  13. Robot mother ship design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2000-07-01

    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  14. Soldier universal robot controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyams, Jeffrey; Batavia, Parag; Liao, Elizabeth; Somerville, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    The Soldier Universal Robot Controller (SURC) is a modular OCU designed for simultaneous control of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles. It has a well defined, published API., defined using XML schemas, that allows other potential users of the system to develop their own modules for rapid integration with SURC. The SURC architecture is broken down into three layers: User Interface, Core Functions, and Transport. The User Interface layer is the front end module which provides the human computer interface for user control of robots. The Core layer is further divided into the following modules: Capabilities, Tactical, Mobility, and World Model. The Capabilities module keeps track of the known robots and provides a list of specifications and services. The Mobility module provides path planning via D*, while the Tactical module provides higher level mission planning (multi-agent/multi-mission) capabilities for collaborative operations. The World Model module is a relational database which stores world model objects. Finally, a Transport module provides translation from the SURC architecture to the robot specific messaging protocols (such as JAUS). This allows fast integration of new robot protocols into an existing SURC implementation to enable a new system to rapidly leverage existing SURC capabilities. The communication between different modules within the SURC architecture is done via XML. This gives developers and users the flexibility to extend existing messages without breaking backwards compatibility. The modularity of SURC offers users and developers alike the capability to create custom modules and plug them into place, as long as they follow the pre defined messaging API for that module.

  15. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  16. 30 Years of Robotic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Leal Ghezzi, Tiago; Campos Corleta, Oly

    2016-10-01

    The idea of reproducing himself with the use of a mechanical robot structure has been in man's imagination in the last 3000 years. However, the use of robots in medicine has only 30 years of history. The application of robots in surgery originates from the need of modern man to achieve two goals: the telepresence and the performance of repetitive and accurate tasks. The first "robot surgeon" used on a human patient was the PUMA 200 in 1985. In the 1990s, scientists developed the concept of "master-slave" robot, which consisted of a robot with remote manipulators controlled by a surgeon at a surgical workstation. Despite the lack of force and tactile feedback, technical advantages of robotic surgery, such as 3D vision, stable and magnified image, EndoWrist instruments, physiologic tremor filtering, and motion scaling, have been considered fundamental to overcome many of the limitations of the laparoscopic surgery. Since the approval of the da Vinci(®) robot by international agencies, American, European, and Asian surgeons have proved its factibility and safety for the performance of many different robot-assisted surgeries. Comparative studies of robotic and laparoscopic surgical procedures in general surgery have shown similar results with regard to perioperative, oncological, and functional outcomes. However, higher costs and lack of haptic feedback represent the major limitations of current robotic technology to become the standard technique of minimally invasive surgery worldwide. Therefore, the future of robotic surgery involves cost reduction, development of new platforms and technologies, creation and validation of curriculum and virtual simulators, and conduction of randomized clinical trials to determine the best applications of robotics. PMID:27177648

  17. 30 Years of Robotic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Leal Ghezzi, Tiago; Campos Corleta, Oly

    2016-10-01

    The idea of reproducing himself with the use of a mechanical robot structure has been in man's imagination in the last 3000 years. However, the use of robots in medicine has only 30 years of history. The application of robots in surgery originates from the need of modern man to achieve two goals: the telepresence and the performance of repetitive and accurate tasks. The first "robot surgeon" used on a human patient was the PUMA 200 in 1985. In the 1990s, scientists developed the concept of "master-slave" robot, which consisted of a robot with remote manipulators controlled by a surgeon at a surgical workstation. Despite the lack of force and tactile feedback, technical advantages of robotic surgery, such as 3D vision, stable and magnified image, EndoWrist instruments, physiologic tremor filtering, and motion scaling, have been considered fundamental to overcome many of the limitations of the laparoscopic surgery. Since the approval of the da Vinci(®) robot by international agencies, American, European, and Asian surgeons have proved its factibility and safety for the performance of many different robot-assisted surgeries. Comparative studies of robotic and laparoscopic surgical procedures in general surgery have shown similar results with regard to perioperative, oncological, and functional outcomes. However, higher costs and lack of haptic feedback represent the major limitations of current robotic technology to become the standard technique of minimally invasive surgery worldwide. Therefore, the future of robotic surgery involves cost reduction, development of new platforms and technologies, creation and validation of curriculum and virtual simulators, and conduction of randomized clinical trials to determine the best applications of robotics.

  18. Robots hooked on drugs. Robotic automation expands pharmacy services.

    PubMed

    Marietti, C

    1997-11-01

    Hospitals are not known for automating labor-intensive tasks but robots are just beginning to make inroads in health-care. The first--and still only--robot grew from a class assignment to use an established technology in a new growth industry. The established technology was bar coding; the industry health-care; and the result a robotic device for the hospital pharmacy.

  19. Robotic repair of scrotal bladder hernia during robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ee-Rah; Park, Sung Yul; Ham, Won Sik; Jeong, Wooju; Lee, Woo Jung; Rha, Koon Ho

    2008-09-01

    We report a case of scrotal bladder hernia in a 68-year-old man who was also diagnosed with prostate cancer. We fixed the herniated portion of the bladder using robotics after having successfully accomplished robotic prostatectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report on simultaneous repair of scrotal bladder hernia and prostate cancer where both pathological findings have been treated with the assistance of robotics at a single operation. PMID:27628264

  20. Note: Radiochemical measurement of fuel and ablator areal densities in cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, C; Shaughnessy, D A; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Gharibyan, N; Gostic, J M; Wooddy, P T; Torretto, P C; Bandong, B B; Bionta, R; Cerjan, C J; Bernstein, L A; Caggiano, J A; Herrmann, H W; Knauer, J P; Sayre, D B; Schneider, D H; Henry, E A; Fortner, R J

    2015-07-01

    A new radiochemical method for determining deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel and plastic ablator (CH) areal densities (ρR) in high-convergence, cryogenic inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility is described. It is based on measuring the (198)Au/(196)Au activation ratio using the collected post-shot debris of the Au hohlraum. The Au ratio combined with the independently measured neutron down scatter ratio uniquely determines the areal densities ρR(DT) and ρR(CH) during burn in the context of a simple 1-dimensional capsule model. The results show larger than expected ρR(CH) values, hinting at the presence of cold fuel-ablator mix. PMID:26233419

  1. Note: Radiochemical measurement of fuel and ablator areal densities in cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, C.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Gharibyan, N.; Gostic, J. M.; Wooddy, P. T.; Torretto, P. C.; Bandong, B. B.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C. J.; Bernstein, L. A.; Caggiano, J. A.; Herrmann, H. W.; Knauer, J. P.; Sayre, D. B.; Schneider, D. H.; Henry, E. A.; Fortner, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    A new radiochemical method for determining deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel and plastic ablator (CH) areal densities (ρR) in high-convergence, cryogenic inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility is described. It is based on measuring the 198Au/196Au activation ratio using the collected post-shot debris of the Au hohlraum. The Au ratio combined with the independently measured neutron down scatter ratio uniquely determines the areal densities ρR(DT) and ρR(CH) during burn in the context of a simple 1-dimensional capsule model. The results show larger than expected ρR(CH) values, hinting at the presence of cold fuel-ablator mix.

  2. Note: Radiochemical measurement of fuel and ablator areal densities in cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C. Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Gharibyan, N.; Gostic, J. M.; Wooddy, P. T.; Torretto, P. C.; Bandong, B. B.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C. J.; Bernstein, L. A.; Caggiano, J. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Schneider, D. H.; Henry, E. A.; Fortner, R. J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Knauer, J. P.

    2015-07-15

    A new radiochemical method for determining deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel and plastic ablator (CH) areal densities (ρR) in high-convergence, cryogenic inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility is described. It is based on measuring the {sup 198}Au/{sup 196}Au activation ratio using the collected post-shot debris of the Au hohlraum. The Au ratio combined with the independently measured neutron down scatter ratio uniquely determines the areal densities ρR(DT) and ρR(CH) during burn in the context of a simple 1-dimensional capsule model. The results show larger than expected ρR(CH) values, hinting at the presence of cold fuel-ablator mix.

  3. Determination of trace halogens in rock samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis coupled with the k0-standardization method.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hiromasa; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2007-02-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis coupled with the k0-standardization method (k0-RNAA method) was applied to silicate rock samples for the simultaneous determination of trace halogens (Cl, Br and I). Analytical results obtained by the k0-RNAA method for geological standard rocks and meteorite samples agreed with those determined by the conventional comparison method conducted in the same set of experiments, suggesting that the k0-RNAA method is as reliable as the conventional method. Our data for these samples are in good agreement with their literature values except for rare cases. Detection limits calculated under the present experimental condition are sufficiently low for Cl and Br but not for I for typical geologic and meteoritic samples. The k0-RNAA method coupled with longer neutron-irradiation is expected to yield satisfactorily low detection limits for halogens including I in these samples.

  4. Spatial awareness in robotic theatre.

    PubMed

    Ark, Sandip; Williams, Joanne

    2016-03-01

    As surgical and anaesthetic procedures become more complex, operating theatres need to be larger and multi-purpose to accommodate specialist equipment such as the Da Vinci Robot. The Da Vinci theatre at The Royal Wolverhampton NHS trust (RWT) is a modern theatre equipped and designed specifically for robotic surgery. When we first began to perform robotic surgery at RWT we faced many challenges on how to maximise the space available to us, whilst striving to minimise the chance of desterilisation. PMID:27149830

  5. Space Station robotics planning tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Bridget Mintz

    1992-01-01

    The concepts are described for the set of advanced Space Station Freedom (SSF) robotics planning tools for use in the Space Station Control Center (SSCC). It is also shown how planning for SSF robotics operations is an international process, and baseline concepts are indicated for that process. Current SRMS methods provide the backdrop for this SSF theater of multiple robots, long operating time-space, advanced tools, and international cooperation.

  6. [Robotic surgery: toy or tool?].

    PubMed

    Vallancien, Guy; Cathelineau, Xavier; Rozet, François; Barret, Eric

    2005-05-01

    Telemanipulation has been developed for industrial purposes since the 1970s. More recently, telemanipulated arms entered the operating room. This paper briefly describes the history of surgical robotics and discusses the advantages and disadvantages for both patients and surgeons. The authors advocate the development of robotic surgery, as it facilitates the training of young surgeons and can be useful during certain phases of an operation. Thus, robotic surgery is more a promising tool than a simple toy.

  7. Control of Single Wheel Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yangsheng; Ou, Yongsheng

    This monograph presents a novel concept of a mobile robot, which is a single-wheel, gyroscopically stabilized robot. The robot is balanced by a spinning wheel attached through a two-link manipulator at the wheel bearing, and actuated by a drive motor. This configuration conveys significant advantages including insensitivity to attitude disturbances, high maneuverability, low rolling resistance, ability to recover from falls, and amphibious capability for potential applications on both land and water.

  8. Climbing robot. [caterpillar design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J. (Inventor); May, Edward L. (Inventor); Ecklund, Wayne D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A mobile robot for traversing any surface consisting of a number of interconnected segments, each interconnected segment having an upper 'U' frame member, a lower 'U' frame member, a compliant joint between the upper 'U' frame member and the lower 'U' frame member, a number of linear actuators between the two frame members acting to provide relative displacement between the frame members, a foot attached to the lower 'U' frame member for adherence of the segment to the surface, an inter-segment attachment attached to the upper 'U' frame member for interconnecting the segments, a power source connected to the linear actuator, and a computer/controller for independently controlling each linear actuator in each interconnected segment such that the mobile robot moves in a caterpillar like fashion.

  9. Robotic Waterjet System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA needed a way to safely strip old paint and thermal protection material from reusable components from the Space Shuttle; to meet this requirement, Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with United Technologies' USBI Company and developed a stripping system based on hydroblasting. United Technology spun off a new company, Waterjet Systems, to commercialize and market the technology. The resulting ARMS (Automated Robotic Maintenance Systems), employ waterblasts at 55,000 pounds per square inch controlled by target-sensitive robots. The systems are used on aircraft and engine parts, and the newest application is on ships, where it not only strips but catches the ensuing wastewater. This innovation results in faster, cheaper stripping with less clean-up and reduced environmental impact.

  10. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  11. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  12. Simulation of robot manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Bills, K.C.; Kwon, D.S.; Schoenwald, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories` Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment.

  13. NASA's Lunar Robotic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2006-01-01

    Before returning humans to the Moon for mankind s seventh lunar landing, NASA will embark upon a series of robotic missions with International partnership, executed within the construct of an integrated program, designed specifically to prepare the way for this further human exploration. The Lunar Precursors Robotic Exploration Program (LPRP) will acquire knowledge about the moon and its environment, as well as to develop operational experience and infrastructure, all needed to bring about sustained human exploration in the lunar environment. This paper presents an overview of the program in its early stages, a review of the currently planned missions, highlights of several of the program s important features and objectives, and a discussion of the challenges faced as we move forward to prepare for a return of people to the Moon.

  14. 3D light robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark; Banas, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    As celebrated by the Nobel Prize 2014 in Chemistry light-based technologies can now overcome the diffraction barrier for imaging with nanoscopic resolution by so-called super-resolution microscopy1. However, interactive investigations coupled with advanced imaging modalities at these small scale domains gradually demand the development of a new generation of disruptive tools, not only for passively observing at nanoscopic scales, but also for actively reaching into and effectively handling constituents in this size domain. This intriguing mindset has recently led to the emergence of a novel research discipline that could potentially be able to offer the full packet needed for true "active nanoscopy" by use of so-called light-driven micro-robotics or Light Robotics in short.

  15. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    ScienceCinema

    INL

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  16. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    SciTech Connect

    INL

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  17. Robotic technology evolution and transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.

    1992-01-01

    A report concerning technology transfer in the area of robotics is presented in vugraph form. The following topics are discussed: definition of technology innovation and tech-transfer; concepts relevant for understanding tech-transfer; models advanced to portray tech-transfer process; factors identified as promoting tech-transfer; factors identified as impeding tech-transfer; what important roles do individuals fulfill in tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; robotic technology evolution; robotic technology transferred; and recommendations for successful robotics tech-transfer.

  18. ARIES NDA Robot operators` manual

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, N.L.; Nelson, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The ARIES NDA Robot is an automation device for servicing the material movements for a suite of Non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. This suite of instruments includes a calorimeter, a gamma isotopic system, a segmented gamma scanner (SGS), and a neutron coincidence counter (NCC). Objects moved by the robot include sample cans, standard cans, and instrument plugs. The robot computer has an RS-232 connection with the NDA Host computer, which coordinates robot movements and instrument measurements. The instruments are expected to perform measurements under the direction of the Host without operator intervention. This user`s manual describes system startup, using the main menu, manual operation, and error recovery.

  19. NASA Robotics for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, RIchard T.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation focuses on NASA's use of robotics in support of space exploration. The content was taken from public available websites in an effort to minimize any ITAR or EAR issues. The agenda starts with an introduction to NASA and the "Vision for Space Exploration" followed by NASA's major areas of robotic use: Robotic Explorers, Astronaut Assistants, Space Vehicle, Processing, and In-Space Workhorse (space infrastructure). Pictorials and movies of NASA robots in use by the major NASA programs: Space Shuttle, International Space Station, current Solar Systems Exploration and Mars Exploration, and future Lunar Exploration are throughout the presentation.

  20. Sensory Interactive Teleoperator Robotic Grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alark, Keli; Lumia, Ron

    1997-01-01

    As the technological world strives for efficiency, the need for economical equipment that increases operator proficiency in minimal time is fundamental. This system links a CCD camera, a controller and a robotic arm to a computer vision system to provide an alternative method of image analysis. The machine vision system which was employed possesses software tools for acquiring and analyzing images which are received through a CCD camera. After feature extraction on the object in the image was performed, information about the object's location, orientation and distance from the robotic gripper is sent to the robot controller so that the robot can manipulate the object.

  1. Robotic systems in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lang, J E; Mannava, S; Floyd, A J; Goddard, M S; Smith, B P; Mofidi, A; Seyler, T M; Jinnah, R H

    2011-10-01

    Robots have been used in surgery since the late 1980s. Orthopaedic surgery began to incorporate robotic technology in 1992, with the introduction of ROBODOC, for the planning and performance of total hip replacement. The use of robotic systems has subsequently increased, with promising short-term radiological outcomes when compared with traditional orthopaedic procedures. Robotic systems can be classified into two categories: autonomous and haptic (or surgeon-guided). Passive surgery systems, which represent a third type of technology, have also been adopted recently by orthopaedic surgeons. While autonomous systems have fallen out of favour, tactile systems with technological improvements have become widely used. Specifically, the use of tactile and passive robotic systems in unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) has addressed some of the historical mechanisms of failure of non-robotic UKR. These systems assist with increasing the accuracy of the alignment of the components and produce more consistent ligament balance. Short-term improvements in clinical and radiological outcomes have increased the popularity of robot-assisted UKR. Robot-assisted orthopaedic surgery has the potential for improving surgical outcomes. We discuss the different types of robotic systems available for use in orthopaedics and consider the indication, contraindications and limitations of these technologies.

  2. Robotic systems in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lang, J E; Mannava, S; Floyd, A J; Goddard, M S; Smith, B P; Mofidi, A; Seyler, T M; Jinnah, R H

    2011-10-01

    Robots have been used in surgery since the late 1980s. Orthopaedic surgery began to incorporate robotic technology in 1992, with the introduction of ROBODOC, for the planning and performance of total hip replacement. The use of robotic systems has subsequently increased, with promising short-term radiological outcomes when compared with traditional orthopaedic procedures. Robotic systems can be classified into two categories: autonomous and haptic (or surgeon-guided). Passive surgery systems, which represent a third type of technology, have also been adopted recently by orthopaedic surgeons. While autonomous systems have fallen out of favour, tactile systems with technological improvements have become widely used. Specifically, the use of tactile and passive robotic systems in unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) has addressed some of the historical mechanisms of failure of non-robotic UKR. These systems assist with increasing the accuracy of the alignment of the components and produce more consistent ligament balance. Short-term improvements in clinical and radiological outcomes have increased the popularity of robot-assisted UKR. Robot-assisted orthopaedic surgery has the potential for improving surgical outcomes. We discuss the different types of robotic systems available for use in orthopaedics and consider the indication, contraindications and limitations of these technologies. PMID:21969424

  3. Students Learn About Station Robotics

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Robotics Systems Flight Controller Jason Dyer participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at East Stroudsber...

  4. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  5. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  6. Robots: Fantasy and Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, Neil

    2007-04-27

    A irreverent non-technical review of the history of surprisingly animate machines, from ancient Egypt to current times. Areas include teleoperators for hazardous environments, assembly systems, medical applications, entertainment, and science fiction. The talk has over 100 slides, covering such varied topics as Memnon son of Dawn, Droz's automata, Vaucanson's duck, cathedral clocks, Von Kempelen's chess player, household robots, Asimov's laws, Disneyland, dinosaurs, and movie droids and cyborgs.

  7. (Computer vision and robotics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P.

    1989-02-13

    The traveler attended the Fourth Aalborg International Symposium on Computer Vision at Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. The traveler presented three invited lectures entitled, Concurrent Computer Vision on a Hypercube Multicomputer'', The Butterfly Accumulator and its Application in Concurrent Computer Vision on Hypercube Multicomputers'', and Concurrency in Mobile Robotics at ORNL'', and a ten-minute editorial entitled, It Concurrency an Issue in Computer Vision.'' The traveler obtained information on current R D efforts elsewhere in concurrent computer vision.

  8. Integrated mobile robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amidi, Omead; Thorpe, Charles

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the structure, implementation, and operation of a real-time mobile robot controller which integrates capabilities such as: position estimation, path specification and tracking, human interfaces, fast communication, and multiple client support. The benefits of such high-level capabilities in a low-level controller was shown by its implementation for the Navlab autonomous vehicle. In addition, performance results from positioning and tracking systems are reported and analyzed.

  9. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Driver

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Driver is built on top of the RIK-A and implements a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-D is used to orchestrate hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a single cognitive behavior kernel that provides intrinsic intelligence for a wide variety of unmanned ground vehicle systems.

  10. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  11. Robotic tele-existence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tachi, Susumu; Arai, Hirohiko; Maeda, Taro

    1989-01-01

    Tele-existence is an advanced type of teleoperation system that enables a human operator at the controls to perform remote manipulation tasks dexterously with the feeling that he or she exists in the remote anthropomorphic robot in the remote environment. The concept of a tele-existence is presented, the principle of the tele-existence display method is explained, some of the prototype systems are described, and its space application is discussed.

  12. Self-navigating robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Rangefinding equipment and onboard navigation system determine best route from point to point. Research robot has two TV cameras and laser for scanning and mapping its environment. Path planner finds most direct, unobstructed route that requires minimum expenditure of energy. Distance is used as measure of energy expense, although other measures such as time or power consumption (which would depend on the topography of the path) may be used.

  13. Robotics for port security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, William; Freiburger, Lonnie A.; Gerhart, Grant R.; Mallon, Lawrence

    2004-09-01

    The capacity through the use of robots with on board visual, NBC and HAZMAT sensors to rapidly and continuously screen convoys and staged exposed assets would be a force multiplier and measurably improve base and force protection at both inbound and outbound DOD and commercial facilities. This paper chronicles our experiment with the ODIS robot at the Ports of Los Angeles (POLA) and Long Beach (POLB) in July of 2003. POLA & POLB are responsible for moving over 30% of the United States trade goods. Queues of 54" container trucks routinely exceed 100 trucks, extending for over a mile from the port entrances. Spotted equipment and convoys at staging areas are a high visibility and value assets to a terrorist incident. The POLA/POLB scenario is also representative of TRANSCOM operations at the port of Basra during current operation in Iraq. The California Highway Patrol is responsible for physically inspecting these vehicles for roadworthiness and contraband, a dangerous and dirty job. We will also discuss the use of ODIS robots for this task.

  14. Robotic nuclear sample management

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Beugelsdijk, T.J.; Temer, D.J.; Hopkins, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory processes in excess of 4000 plutonium metal samples each year. Depending on what specific elements are to be determined, each sample must be cut into fractions for distribution to the various task areas for specific analyses in areas such as mass spectrometry. A unique laboratory automation system has been developed based on a commercially available Zymate II robot. The robot consists of a central arm that operates in a hollow cylindrical work envelop and has four degrees of freedom. Accessible to the arm are standard Zymark laboratory stations, which include an analytical balance, a reagent dispensing station, a capping station, and vial racks. Custom stations designed and constructed by an in-house robotics group for corrosive environments include a vial capping station, a pipette tip shucker, and a vial dispenser. Initial reliability testing is currently in progress. Copper metal samples are being used in lieu of plutonium to identify areas in which mechanical adjustments are needed or in which the software needs modification. The system is projected to be commissioned during January 1988. Future plane include the addition of capabilities to accommodate plutonium oxide samples.

  15. ROBOT TASK SCENE ANALYZER

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Steven Everett

    2000-08-01

    Environmental restoration and waste management (ER and WM) challenges in the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and around the world, involve radiation or other hazards which will necessitate the use of remote operations to protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote operations carry the implication of greater costs since remote work systems are inherently less productive than contact human work due to the inefficiencies/complexities of teleoperation. To reduce costs and improve quality, much attention has been focused on methods to improve the productivity of combined human operator/remote equipment systems; the achievements to date are modest at best. The most promising avenue in the near term is to supplement conventional remote work systems with robotic planning and control techniques borrowed from manufacturing and other domains where robotic automation has been used. Practical combinations of teleoperation and robotic control will yield telerobotic work systems that outperform currently available remote equipment. It is believed that practical telerobotic systems may increase remote work efficiencies significantly. Increases of 30% to 50% have been conservatively estimated for typical remote operations. It is important to recognize that the basic hardware and software features of most modern remote manipulation systems can readily accommodate the functionality required for telerobotics. Further, several of the additional system ingredients necessary to implement telerobotic control--machine vision, 3D object and workspace modeling, automatic tool path generation and collision-free trajectory planning--are existent.

  16. Mobile robot sense net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  17. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-09-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  18. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-01

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'×20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  19. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  20. Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echols, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes current Lunar Exploration plans and objectives. It begins with specific statements from the President s vision for U.S. Space Exploration which pertain to robotic lunar missions. An outline of missions objectives is provided, along with a high-level schedule of events through the year 2025. Focus is then given to the Lunar Robotic and Precursor Program (LPRP) to describe objectives and goals. Recent developments in the Program are explained - specifically, the renaming of the RLEP program to "LPRP" and the movement of the program office to MSFC. A brief summary of the synergy expected between the robotic and crewed missions, with the LSAM descent stage Project is given. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, with its co-manifested Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), is then described with an overview of the payloads and mission objectives. Finally, information is given about the expected future of the LPRP program and Exploration and the development of a compressive Lunar Exploration Architecture.

  1. Robotic tool change mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An assembly of three major components is disclosed which included a wrist interface plate which is secured to the wrist joint of a robotic arm, a tool interface plate which is secured to each tool intended for use by the robotic arm, and a tool holster for each tool attached to the interface plate. The wrist interface plate and a selected tool interface plate are mutually connectable together through an opening or recess in the upper face of the interface plate by means of a notched tongue protruding from the front face of the wrist interface plate which engages a pair of spring-biased rotatable notched wheels located within the body of the tool interface plate. The tool holster captures and locks onto the tool interface plate by means of a pair of actuation claws including a locking tab and an unlocking wedge which operate respective actuation bosses on each of the notched wheels in response to a forward and backward motion of the tool interface plate as a result of motion of the robotic arm to either park the tool or use the tool.

  2. The walking robot project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, P.; Sagraniching, E.; Bennett, M.; Singh, R.

    1991-01-01

    A walking robot was designed, analyzed, and tested as an intelligent, mobile, and a terrain adaptive system. The robot's design was an application of existing technologies. The design of the six legs modified and combines well understood mechanisms and was optimized for performance, flexibility, and simplicity. The body design incorporated two tripods for walking stability and ease of turning. The electrical hardware design used modularity and distributed processing to drive the motors. The software design used feedback to coordinate the system and simple keystrokes to give commands. The walking machine can be easily adapted to hostile environments such as high radiation zones and alien terrain. The primary goal of the leg design was to create a leg capable of supporting a robot's body and electrical hardware while walking or performing desired tasks, namely those required for planetary exploration. The leg designers intent was to study the maximum amount of flexibility and maneuverability achievable by the simplest and lightest leg design. The main constraints for the leg design were leg kinematics, ease of assembly, degrees of freedom, number of motors, overall size, and weight.

  3. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-25

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  4. Multisensor robot navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persa, Stelian; Jonker, Pieter P.

    2002-02-01

    Almost all robot navigation systems work indoors. Outdoor robot navigation systems offer the potential for new application areas. The biggest single obstacle to building effective robot navigation systems is the lack of accurate wide-area sensors for trackers that report the locations and orientations of objects in an environment. Active (sensor-emitter) tracking technologies require powered-device installation, limiting their use to prepared areas that are relative free of natural or man-made interference sources. The hybrid tracker combines rate gyros and accelerometers with compass and tilt orientation sensor and DGPS system. Sensor distortions, delays and drift required compensation to achieve good results. The measurements from sensors are fused together to compensate for each other's limitations. Analysis and experimental results demonstrate the system effectiveness. The paper presents a field experiment for a low-cost strapdown-IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)/DGPS combination, with data processing for the determination of 2-D components of position (trajectory), velocity and heading. In the present approach we have neglected earth rotation and gravity variations, because of the poor gyroscope sensitivities of our low-cost ISA (Inertial Sensor Assembly) and because of the relatively small area of the trajectory. The scope of this experiment was to test the feasibility of an integrated DGPS/IMU system of this type and to develop a field evaluation procedure for such a combination.

  5. Exploring TeleRobotics: A Radio-Controlled Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III; Hsiung, Steve C.

    2007-01-01

    Robotics is a rich and exciting multidisciplinary area to study and learn about electronics and control technology. The interest in robotic devices and systems provides the technology teacher with an excellent opportunity to make many concrete connections between electronics, control technology, and computers and science, engineering, and…

  6. Eclectic theory of intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Ghaffari, M.; Liao, X.; Ali, S. M. Alhaj; Sarkar, Saurabh; Reynolds, Scott; Mathur, Kovid

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a concept of eclecticism for the design, development, simulation and implementation of a real time controller for an intelligent, vision guided robots. The use of an eclectic perceptual, creative controller that can select its own tasks and perform autonomous operations is illustrated. This eclectic controller is a new paradigm for robot controllers and is an attempt to simplify the application of intelligent machines in general and robots in particular. The idea is to uses a task control center and dynamic programming approach. However, the information required for an optimal solution may only partially reside in a dynamic database so that some tasks are impossible to accomplish. So a decision must be made about the feasibility of a solution to a task before the task is attempted. Even when tasks are feasible, an iterative learning approach may be required. The learning could go on forever. The dynamic database stores both global environmental information and local information including the kinematic and dynamic models of the intelligent robot. The kinematic model is very useful for position control and simulations. However, models of the dynamics of the manipulators are needed for tracking control of the robot's motions. Such models are also necessary for sizing the actuators, tuning the controller, and achieving superior performance. Simulations of various control designs are shown. Much of the model has also been used for the actual prototype Bearcat Cub mobile robot. This vision guided robot was designed for the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Contest. A novel feature of the proposed approach lies in the fact that it is applicable to both robot arm manipulators and mobile robots such as wheeled mobile robots. This generality should encourage the development of more mobile robots with manipulator capability since both models can be easily stored in the dynamic database. The multi task controller also permits wide

  7. Robotic mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Kypson, Alan P; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2003-12-01

    A renaissance in cardiac surgery has begun. The early clinical experience with computer-enhanced telemanipulation systems outlines the limitations of this approach despite some procedural success. Technologic advancements, such as the use of nitinol U-clips (Coalescent Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) instead of sutures requiring manual knot tying, have been shown to decrease operative times significantly. It is expected that with further refinements and development of adjunct technologies, the technique of computer-enhanced endoscopic cardiac surgery will evolve and may prove to be beneficial for many patients. Robotic technology has provided benefits to cardiac surgery. With improved optics and instrumentation, incisions are smaller. The ergometric movements and simulated three-dimensional optics project hand-eye coordination for the surgeon. The placement of the wristlike articulations at the end of the instruments moves the pivoting action to the plane of the mitral annulus. This improves dexterity in tight spaces and allows for ambidextrous suture placement. Sutures can be placed more accurately because of tremor filtration and high-resolution video magnification. Furthermore, the robotic system may have potential as an educational tool. In the near future, surgical vision and training systems might be able to model most surgical procedures through immersive technology. Thus, a "flight simulator" concept emerges where surgeons may be able to practice and perform the operation without a patient. Already, effective curricula for training teams in robotic surgery exist. Nevertheless, certain constraints continue to limit the advancement to a totally endoscopic computer-enhanced mitral valve operation. The current size of the instruments, intrathoracic instrument collisions, and extrathoracic "elbow" conflicts still can limit dexterity. When smaller instruments are developed, these restraints may be resolved. Furthermore, a working port incision is still required for

  8. Students Compete at Robotics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    July 22-23, 2005 the Indiana Robotics Invitational (IRI) was held at Lawrence North High school in Indianapolis. The IRI began in Indiana in May 2000 with 20 teams. The first invitational was nicknamed the "Hoosier Havoc." The event was coordinated by FIRST robotics team #45 (the Techno-Kats) from Kokomo, Indiana. Today, the former Hoosier Havoc…

  9. Robotics: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Maurice J.

    Robots are finally receiving wide-spread attention as a means to realize the goal of automating factories. In the 1960's robot use was limited by unfavorable acquisition and operating costs and the affordable control technology limiting applications to relatively simple jobs. During the 1970's productivity of manufacturing organizations declined…

  10. Rotorcraft and Enabling Robotic Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the issues underlying potential robotic rescue devices (RRD) in the context where autonomous or manned rotorcraft deployment of such robotic systems is a crucial attribute for their success in supporting future disaster relief and emergency response (DRER) missions. As a part of this discussion, work related to proof-of-concept prototyping of two notional RRD systems is summarized.

  11. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.

  12. Characterization Of Robot Work Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Ronald R.; Paternoster, Vincent Y.; Guthmiller, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    Iterative process of measurement and computation used to characterize work cell of robot, increasing accuracy of mathematical model of work cell. Characterization needed because model used in off-line programming (OLP) to compute paths to control motion of robot. Increases accuracies of model and paths.

  13. Robotic Welding and Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    H. B. Smartt; D. P. Pace; E. D. Larsen; T. R. McJunkin; C. I. Nichol; D. E. Clark; K. L. Skinner; M. L. Clark; T. G. Kaser; C. R. Tolle

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a robotic system for GTA welding of lids on cylindrical vessels. The system consists of an articulated robot arm, a rotating positioner, end effectors for welding, grinding, ultrasonic and eddy current inspection. Features include weld viewing cameras, modular software, and text-based procedural files for process and motion trajectories.

  14. Human Resource Implications of Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, H. Allan; Hunt, Timothy L.

    A study examined the job creation and job displacement potential of industrial robots in the United States and specifically, in Michigan, by 1990. To complete an analysis of the impact of robotics on the American labor force, researchers combined data from previous forecasts of future unit and dollar sales projections and from interviews with…

  15. Social robots for health applications.

    PubMed

    Breazeal, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Social robots are designed to interact with people in a manner that is consistent with human social psychology. They are a particularly intriguing technology in health domains due to their ability to engage people along social and emotional dimensions. In this paper, we highlight a number of interesting opportunities for social robots in healthcare related applications.

  16. Robotic joint experiments under ultravacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrien, A.; Petitjean, L.

    1988-01-01

    First, various aspects of a robotic joint development program, including gearbox technology, electromechanical components, lubrication, and test results, are discussed. Secondly, a test prototype of the joint allowing simulation of robotic arm dynamic effects is presented. This prototype is tested under vacuum with different types of motors and sensors to characterize the functional parameters: angular position error, mechanical backlash, gearbox efficiency, and lifetime.

  17. Robot Forearm and Dexterous Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    An electromechanical hand-and-forearm assembly has been developed for incorporation into an anthropomorphic robot that would be used in outer space. The assembly is designed to offer manual dexterity comparable to that of a hand inside an astronaut s suit; thus, the assembly may also be useful as a prosthesis or as an end effector on an industrial robot.

  18. Robotic Welding Of Injector Manifold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Shelley, D. Mark

    1992-01-01

    Brief report presents history, up through October 1990, of continuing efforts to convert from manual to robotic gas/tungsten arc welding in fabrication of main injector inlet manifold of main engine of Space Shuttle. Includes photographs of welding machinery, welds, and weld preparations. Of interest to engineers considering establishment of robotic-welding facilities.

  19. Robot computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.

  20. Robotics as an Educational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miglino, Orazio; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Cardaci, Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    Explores a new educational application of Piaget's theories of cognitive development: the use, as a teaching tool, of physical robots conceived as artificial organisms. Reviews educational projects using real robots. Shows that the use of intelligent systems to enlarge the view of biological reality could become an integral part of curricula in…

  1. Resources for Underwater Robotics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michael L.; Freitas, William M.

    2016-01-01

    4-H clubs can build and program underwater robots from raw materials. An annotated resource list for engaging youth in building underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) is provided. This article is a companion piece to the Research in Brief article "Building Teen Futures with Underwater Robotics" in this issue of the "Journal of…

  2. Robotic systems for homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Brian; Miller, Jon; Huston, Dryver R.; Bourn, Phil

    2004-07-01

    This paper will present the concept of utilizing various mobile robotic platforms for homeland security. Highly specialized mobile robots equipped with the proper sensors and data processing capabilities have the ability to provide security and surveillance for a wide variety of applications. Large infrastructure components, such as bridges, pipelines, dams, and electrical power grids pose severe challenges for monitoring, surveillance, and protection against man-made and natural hazards. The structures are enormous, often with awkward and dangerous configurations that make it difficult, if not impossible, for continuous human surveillance. Properly outfitted robots have the potential to provide long-term surveillance without requiring continuous human supervision. Furthermore, these robotic platforms can have disaster mitigation capabilities such as evaluation of infrastructure integrity at the disaster site. The results presented will include proof-of-concept robotic platforms equipped with various sensor arrays, as well as discussion of design criteria for numerous homeland security applications.

  3. Interactive robots in experimental biology.

    PubMed

    Krause, Jens; Winfield, Alan F T; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2011-07-01

    Interactive robots have the potential to revolutionise the study of social behaviour because they provide several methodological advances. In interactions with live animals, the behaviour of robots can be standardised, morphology and behaviour can be decoupled (so that different morphologies and behavioural strategies can be combined), behaviour can be manipulated in complex interaction sequences and models of behaviour can be embodied by the robot and thereby be tested. Furthermore, robots can be used as demonstrators in experiments on social learning. As we discuss here, the opportunities that robots create for new experimental approaches have far-reaching consequences for research in fields such as mate choice, cooperation, social learning, personality studies and collective behaviour.

  4. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  5. Robotic control and inspection verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Virgil Leon

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of possible commercialization involving robots at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are discussed: a six degree-of-freedom target tracking system for remote umbilical operations; an intelligent torque sensing end effector for operating hand valves in hazardous locations; and an automatic radiator inspection device, a 13 by 65 foot robotic mechanism involving completely redundant motors, drives, and controls. Aspects concerning the first two innovations can be integrated to enable robots or teleoperators to perform tasks involving orientation and panal actuation operations that can be done with existing technology rather than waiting for telerobots to incorporate artificial intelligence (AI) to perform 'smart' autonomous operations. The third robot involves the application of complete control hardware redundancy to enable performance of work over and near expensive Space Shuttle hardware. The consumer marketplace may wish to explore commercialization of similiar component redundancy techniques for applications when a robot would not normally be used because of reliability concerns.

  6. Teleautonomous guidance for mobile robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borenstein, J.; Koren, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Teleautonomous guidance (TG), a technique for the remote guidance of fast mobile robots, has been developed and implemented. With TG, the mobile robot follows the general direction prescribed by an operator. However, if the robot encounters an obstacle, it autonomously avoids collision with that obstacle while trying to match the prescribed direction as closely as possible. This type of shared control is completely transparent and transfers control between teleoperation and autonomous obstacle avoidance gradually. TG allows the operator to steer vehicles and robots at high speeds and in cluttered environments, even without visual contact. TG is based on the virtual force field (VFF) method, which was developed earlier for autonomous obstacle avoidance. The VFF method is especially suited to the accommodation of inaccurate sensor data (such as that produced by ultrasonic sensors) and sensor fusion, and allows the mobile robot to travel quickly without stopping for obstacles.

  7. Robotics in invasive cardiac electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Shurrab, Mohammed; Schilling, Richard; Gang, Eli; Khan, Ejaz M; Crystal, Eugene

    2014-07-01

    Robotic systems allow for mapping and ablation of different arrhythmia substrates replacing hand maneuvering of intracardiac catheters with machine steering. Currently there are four commercially available robotic systems. Niobe magnetic navigation system (Stereotaxis Inc., St Louis, MO) and Sensei robotic navigation system (Hansen Medical Inc., Mountain View, CA) have an established platform with at least 10 years of clinical studies looking at their efficacy and safety. AMIGO Remote Catheter System (Catheter Robotics, Inc., Mount Olive, NJ) and Catheter Guidance Control and Imaging (Magnetecs, Inglewood, CA) are in the earlier phases of implementations with ongoing feasibility and some limited clinical studies. This review discusses the advantages and limitations related to each existing system and highlights the ideal futuristic robotic system that may include the most promising features of the current ones.

  8. Robotic surgery - advance or gimmick?

    PubMed

    De Wilde, Rudy L; Herrmann, Anja

    2013-06-01

    Robotic surgery is increasingly implemented as a minimally invasive approach to a variety of gynaecological procedures. The use of conventional laparoscopy by a broad range of surgeons, especially in complex procedures, is hampered by several drawbacks. Robotic surgery was created with the aim of overcoming some of the limitations. Although robotic surgery has many advantages, it is also associated with clear disadvantages. At present, the proof of superiority over access by laparotomy or laparoscopy through large randomised- controlled trials is still lacking. Until results of such trials are present, a firm conclusion about the usefulness of robotic surgery cannot be drawn. Robotic surgery is promising, making the advantages of minimally invasive surgery potentially available to a large number of surgeons and patients in the future.

  9. Robotic-assisted knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Elmallah, Randa K; Jauregui, Julio J; Pierce, Todd P; Mont, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Robotics in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has undergone vast improvements. Although some of the systems have fallen out of favor due to safety concerns, there has been recent increased interest for semi-active haptic robotic systems that provide intraoperative tactile feedback to the surgeon. The potential advantages include improvements in radiographic outcomes, reducing the incidence of mechanical axis malalignment of the lower extremity and better tissue balance. Proponents of robotic technology believe that these improvements may lead to superior functional outcomes and implant survivorship. We aim to discuss robotic technology development, outcomes of unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty and the future outlook. Short-term follow-up studies on robotic-assisted knee arthroplasty suggest that, although some alignment objectives may have been achieved, more studies regarding functional outcomes are needed. Furthermore, studies evaluating the projected cost-benefit analyses of this new technology are needed before widespread adoption. Nevertheless, the short-term results warrant further evaluation. PMID:26365088

  10. MRH-5 Robot/Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Valley Technical Coll., Appleton, WI.

    This student manual for the Miller MRH-5 welding robot contains nine modules on how to: safely operate the MRH-5 robot; recognize different types of data; weld a part programming the MRH-5; re-teach an already taught program; weld various joints with the MRH-5 robot; weld a desk plaque with the MRH-5 robot; perform editing functions; check/edit…

  11. A Mini-Curriculum for Robotics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Preston K.

    This practicum report documents the development of a four-lesson multimedia program for robotics instruction for fourth and seventh grade students. The commercial film "Robot Revolution" and the videocassette tape "Robotics" were used, along with two author-developed slide/audiotape presentations and 14 overhead transparency foils. Two robots,…

  12. Design-Oriented Enhanced Robotics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, M.; Ozcelik, S.; Yilmazer, N.; Nekovei, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative two-course, laboratory-based, and design-oriented robotics educational model. The robotics curriculum exposed senior-level undergraduate students to major robotics concepts, and enhanced the student learning experience in hybrid learning environments by incorporating the IEEE Region-5 annual robotics competition…

  13. Robotic System For Greenhouse Or Nursery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul; Montgomery, Jim; Silver, John; Heffelfinger, Neil; Simonton, Ward; Pease, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Report presents additional information about robotic system described in "Robotic Gripper With Force Control And Optical Sensors" (MFS-28537). "Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator System" (FARMS) serves as prototype of robotic systems intended to enhance productivities of agricultural assembly-line-type facilities in large commercial greenhouses and nurseries.

  14. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully.

    The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Remote robotic countermine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Peter

    2010-04-01

    QinetiQ North America (QNA) has approximately 27 years experience in the mine/countermine mission area. Our expertise covers mine development, detection, and neutralization and has always been intertwined with deployment of remote robotic systems. Our countermine payload systems have been used to detect limpet mines on ship hulls, antiassault mines in shallow water and littoral zones and currently for clearance and render safe of land-based routes. In our talk, we will address the challenges encountered in addressing the ongoing countermine mission over a diverse range of operational scenarios, environmental conditions and strategic priorities.

  16. Compliant Joints For Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Compliant joints devised to accommodate misalignments of tools and/or workpieces with respect to robotic manipulators. Has characteristics and appearance of both universal-joint and cable-spring-type flexible shaft coupling. Compliance derived from elastic properties of short pieces of cable. Compliance of joint determined by lengths, distances between, relative orientations, thickness of strands, number of strands, material, amount of pretwist, and number of short pieces of cable. Worm-drive mechanism used to adjust lengths to vary compliance as needed during operation.

  17. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  18. Robotics in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hance, J; Rockall, T; Darzi, A

    2004-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been shown to offer many advantages to general surgical patients but has not been widely adopted for colorectal disease. Initial fears surrounding the oncological safety of laparoscopic colectomies have largely subsided but the technical challenges still remain. Surgical robots or telemanipulators present the laparoscopic surgeon with unrivaled dexterity and vision, which may allow colonic resections to be completed with greater ease. Although initial studies suggest promising results using currently available systems, it will take further time for patient benefits to be proven, therefore justifying the greater expense of operating with this new technology.

  19. Hazardous-Materials Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1995-01-01

    Remotely controlled mobile robot used to locate, characterize, identify, and eventually mitigate incidents involving hazardous-materials spills/releases. Possesses number of innovative features, allowing it to perform mission-critical functions such as opening and unlocking doors and sensing for hazardous materials. Provides safe means for locating and identifying spills and eliminates risks of injury associated with use of manned entry teams. Current version of vehicle, called HAZBOT III, also features unique mechanical and electrical design enabling vehicle to operate safely within combustible atmosphere.

  20. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  1. The TAOS Robotic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Matthew; Wen, C.-Y.; Wang, J.-H.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Bianco, F. B.; Gimmarco, J.; Porrata, R.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; Kim, D.-W.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Wang, S.-Y.; Yen, W.-L.; Rice, J. A.; de Pater, I.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Geary, J.; Norton, T.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    2011-03-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation survey (TAOS) operate four small telescopes in central Taiwan to search for occultations by small (~1 km diameter) Kuiper Belt Objects. The system is fully robotic, requiring human intervention only in the event of hardware failures. However, the status of the system during observations is monitored remotely via smart-phone. A successor survey, the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II) is currently being constructed. This next generation survey will be more than one hundred times as sensitive as the earlier survey. In this paper, we summarize the science goals of the surveys, describe the two surveys, and discuss the lessons learned in automating the TAOS observations.

  2. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  3. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  4. Robot-Aided Neurorehabilitation: A Robot for Wrist Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Hermano Igo; Volpe, Bruce T.; Williams, Dustin; Celestino, James; Charles, Steven K.; Lynch, Daniel; Hogan, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In 1991, a novel robot, MIT-MANUS, was introduced to study the potential that robots might assist in and quantify the neuro-rehabilitation of motor function. MIT-MANUS proved an excellent tool for shoulder and elbow rehabilitation in stroke patients, showing in clinical trials a reduction of impairment in movements confined to the exercised joints. This successful proof of principle as to additional targeted and intensive movement treatment prompted a test of robot training examining other limb segments. This paper focuses on a robot for wrist rehabilitation designed to provide three rotational degrees-of-freedom. The first clinical trial of the device will enroll 200 stroke survivors. Ultimately 160 stroke survivors will train with both the proximal shoulder and elbow MIT-MANUS robot, as well as with the novel distal wrist robot, in addition to 40 stroke survivor controls. So far 52 stroke patients have completed the robot training (ongoing protocol). Here, we report on the initial results on 36 of these volunteers. These results demonstrate that further improvement should be expected by adding additional training to other limb segments. PMID:17894265

  5. [Mobile autonomous robots-Possibilities and limits].

    PubMed

    Maehle, E; Brockmann, W; Walthelm, A

    2002-02-01

    Besides industrial robots, which today are firmly established in production processes, service robots are becoming more and more important. They shall provide services for humans in different areas of their professional and everyday environment including medicine. Most of these service robots are mobile which requires an intelligent autonomous behaviour. After characterising the different kinds of robots the relevant paradigms of intelligent autonomous behaviour for mobile robots are critically discussed in this paper and illustrated by three concrete examples of robots realized in Lübeck. In addition a short survey of actual kinds of surgical robots as well as an outlook to future developments is given.

  6. What can Robots Do? Towards Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nogueira, Monica

    1997-01-01

    Robots have become more and more sophisticated. Every robot has its limits. If we face a task that existing robots cannot solve, then, before we start improving these robots, it is important to check whether it is, in principle, possible to design a robot for this task or not. For that, it is necessary to describe what exactly the robots can, in principle, do. A similar problem - to describe what exactly computers can do - has been solved as early as 1936, by Turing. In this paper, we describe a framework within which we can, hopefully, formalize and answer the question of what exactly robots can do.

  7. A power autonomous monopedal robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Benjamin T.; Pratt, Jerry E.

    2006-05-01

    We present the design and initial results of a power-autonomous planar monopedal robot. The robot is a gasoline powered, two degree of freedom robot that runs in a circle, constrained by a boom. The robot uses hydraulic Series Elastic Actuators, force-controllable actuators which provide high force fidelity, moderate bandwidth, and low impedance. The actuators are mounted in the body of the robot, with cable drives transmitting power to the hip and knee joints of the leg. A two-stroke, gasoline engine drives a constant displacement pump which pressurizes an accumulator. Absolute position and spring deflection of each of the Series Elastic Actuators are measured using linear encoders. The spring deflection is translated into force output and compared to desired force in a closed loop force-control algorithm implemented in software. The output signal of each force controller drives high performance servo valves which control flow to each of the pistons of the actuators. In designing the robot, we used a simulation-based iterative design approach. Preliminary estimates of the robot's physical parameters were based on past experience and used to create a physically realistic simulation model of the robot. Next, a control algorithm was implemented in simulation to produce planar hopping. Using the joint power requirements and range of motions from simulation, we worked backward specifying pulley diameter, piston diameter and stroke, hydraulic pressure and flow, servo valve flow and bandwidth, gear pump flow, and engine power requirements. Components that meet or exceed these specifications were chosen and integrated into the robot design. Using CAD software, we calculated the physical parameters of the robot design, replaced the original estimates with the CAD estimates, and produced new joint power requirements. We iterated on this process, resulting in a design which was prototyped and tested. The Monopod currently runs at approximately 1.2 m/s with the weight of all

  8. The Summer Robotic Autonomy Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nourbakhsh, Illah R.

    2002-01-01

    We offered a first Robotic Autonomy course this summer, located at NASA/Ames' new NASA Research Park, for approximately 30 high school students. In this 7-week course, students worked in ten teams to build then program advanced autonomous robots capable of visual processing and high-speed wireless communication. The course made use of challenge-based curricula, culminating each week with a Wednesday Challenge Day and a Friday Exhibition and Contest Day. Robotic Autonomy provided a comprehensive grounding in elementary robotics, including basic electronics, electronics evaluation, microprocessor programming, real-time control, and robot mechanics and kinematics. Our course then continued the educational process by introducing higher-level perception, action and autonomy topics, including teleoperation, visual servoing, intelligent scheduling and planning and cooperative problem-solving. We were able to deliver such a comprehensive, high-level education in robotic autonomy for two reasons. First, the content resulted from close collaboration between the CMU Robotics Institute and researchers in the Information Sciences and Technology Directorate and various education program/project managers at NASA/Ames. This collaboration produced not only educational content, but will also be focal to the conduct of formative and summative evaluations of the course for further refinement. Second, CMU rapid prototyping skills as well as the PI's low-overhead perception and locomotion research projects enabled design and delivery of affordable robot kits with unprecedented sensory- locomotory capability. Each Trikebot robot was capable of both indoor locomotion and high-speed outdoor motion and was equipped with a high-speed vision system coupled to a low-cost pan/tilt head. As planned, follow the completion of Robotic Autonomy, each student took home an autonomous, competent robot. This robot is the student's to keep, as she explores robotics with an extremely capable tool in the

  9. Boudreaux the Robot (a.k.a. EVA Robotic Assistant)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillcutt, Kimberly; Burridge, Robert; Graham, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The EVA Robotic Assistant is a prototype for an autonomous rover designed to assist human astronauts. The primary focus of the research is to explore the interaction between humans and robots, particularly in extreme environments, and to develop a software infrastructure that could be applied to any type of assistant robot, whether for planetary exploration or orbital missions. This paper describes the background and current status of the project, the types of scenarios addressed in field demonstrations, the hardware and software that comprise the current prototype, and future research plans.

  10. Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  11. Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453

  12. Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453

  13. The Human-Robot Interaction Operating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Kunz, Clayton; Hiatt, Laura M.; Bugajska, Magda

    2006-01-01

    In order for humans and robots to work effectively together, they need to be able to converse about abilities, goals and achievements. Thus, we are developing an interaction infrastructure called the "Human-Robot Interaction Operating System" (HRI/OS). The HRI/OS provides a structured software framework for building human-robot teams, supports a variety of user interfaces, enables humans and robots to engage in task-oriented dialogue, and facilitates integration of robots through an extensible API.

  14. The climbing crawling robot (a unique cable robot for space and Earth)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J.; May, Edward; Eklund, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Some of the greatest concerns in robotic designs have been the high center of gravity of the robot, the irregular or flat surface that the robot has to work on, the weight of the robot that has to handle heavy weights or use heavy forces, and the ability of the robot to climb straight up in the air. This climbing crawling robot handles these problems well with magnets, suction cups, or actuators. The cables give body to the robot and it performs very similar to a caterpillar. The computer program is simple and inexpensive as is the robot. One of the important features of this system is that the robot can work in pairs or triplets to handle jobs that would be extremely difficult for single robots. The light weight of the robot allows it to handle quite heavy weights. The number of feet give the robot many roots where a simple set of feet would give it trouble.

  15. Robotic Surgery in Gynecology.

    PubMed

    Bouquet de Joliniere, Jean; Librino, Armando; Dubuisson, Jean-Bernard; Khomsi, Fathi; Ben Ali, Nordine; Fadhlaoui, Anis; Ayoubi, J M; Feki, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) can be considered as the greatest surgical innovation over the past 30 years. It revolutionized surgical practice with well-proven advantages over traditional open surgery: reduced surgical trauma and incision-related complications, such as surgical-site infections, postoperative pain and hernia, reduced hospital stay, and improved cosmetic outcome. Nonetheless, proficiency in MIS can be technically challenging as conventional laparoscopy is associated with several limitations as the two-dimensional (2D) monitor reduction in-depth perception, camera instability, limited range of motion, and steep learning curves. The surgeon has a low force feedback, which allows simple gestures, respect for tissues, and more effective treatment of complications. Since the 1980s, several computer sciences and robotics projects have been set up to overcome the difficulties encountered with conventional laparoscopy, to augment the surgeon's skills, achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery, and facilitate widespread of MIS. Surgical instruments are guided by haptic interfaces that replicate and filter hand movements. Robotically assisted technology offers advantages that include improved three-dimensional stereoscopic vision, wristed instruments that improve dexterity, and tremor canceling software that improves surgical precision. PMID:27200358

  16. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  17. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Nels W.

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  18. Robotics in scansorial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autumn, Kellar; Buehler, Martin; Cutkosky, Mark; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert J.; Goldman, Daniel; Groff, Richard; Provancher, William; Rizzi, Alfred A.; Saranli, Uluc; Saunders, Aaron; Koditschek, Daniel E.

    2005-05-01

    We review a large multidisciplinary effort to develop a family of autonomous robots capable of rapid, agile maneuvers in and around natural and artificial vertical terrains such as walls, cliffs, caves, trees and rubble. Our robot designs are inspired by (but not direct copies of) biological climbers such as cockroaches, geckos, and squirrels. We are incorporating advanced materials (e.g., synthetic gecko hairs) into these designs and fabricating them using state of the art rapid prototyping techniques (e.g., shape deposition manufacturing) that permit multiple iterations of design and testing with an effective integration path for the novel materials and components. We are developing novel motion control techniques to support dexterous climbing behaviors that are inspired by neuroethological studies of animals and descended from earlier frameworks that have proven analytically tractable and empirically sound. Our near term behavioral targets call for vertical climbing on soft (e.g., bark) or rough surfaces and for ascents on smooth, hard steep inclines (e.g., 60 degree slopes on metal or glass sheets) at one body length per second.

  19. Robotic Surgery in Gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Bouquet de Joliniere, Jean; Librino, Armando; Dubuisson, Jean-Bernard; Khomsi, Fathi; Ben Ali, Nordine; Fadhlaoui, Anis; Ayoubi, J. M.; Feki, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) can be considered as the greatest surgical innovation over the past 30 years. It revolutionized surgical practice with well-proven advantages over traditional open surgery: reduced surgical trauma and incision-related complications, such as surgical-site infections, postoperative pain and hernia, reduced hospital stay, and improved cosmetic outcome. Nonetheless, proficiency in MIS can be technically challenging as conventional laparoscopy is associated with several limitations as the two-dimensional (2D) monitor reduction in-depth perception, camera instability, limited range of motion, and steep learning curves. The surgeon has a low force feedback, which allows simple gestures, respect for tissues, and more effective treatment of complications. Since the 1980s, several computer sciences and robotics projects have been set up to overcome the difficulties encountered with conventional laparoscopy, to augment the surgeon’s skills, achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery, and facilitate widespread of MIS. Surgical instruments are guided by haptic interfaces that replicate and filter hand movements. Robotically assisted technology offers advantages that include improved three-dimensional stereoscopic vision, wristed instruments that improve dexterity, and tremor canceling software that improves surgical precision. PMID:27200358

  20. IC handling robot

    SciTech Connect

    Law, D.O.

    1986-09-01

    Allied Corporation, Bendix Kansas City Division uses many integrated circuits (ICs) which are 100% tested by receiving inspection prior to installation into the next assemblies. Testing includes functional testing followed by a burn-in cycle then additional functional testing. Before an IC can be functionally tested, it must be inserted into a custom plastic carrier which is placed into a metal magazine that fits the functional tester. The ICs are removed from both tester magazines and carriers prior to being placed into connectors mounted on a printed wiring board for burn-in. Then they are removed from the burn-in board and re-inserted into carriers and magazines for additional functional testing. Each device is handled manually a minimum of 12 times before it is accepted. This project established a robotic workcell which automatically prepares a dual in-line packaged (DIP) integrated circuit for several types of inspection operations performed by Receiving Inspection. Specific activities required to accomplish this goal included definition of the work cell, preparation of the robot and other equipment specifications, installation planning, establishment of programming routines and logic, design of operator safeguards, and development of the work cell concept into an operational unit capable of supporting production.

  1. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission.

    Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Synthetic Bursae for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic bursae are under development for incorporation into robot joints that are actuated by motor-driven cables in a manner similar to that of arthropod joints actuated by muscle-driven tendons. Like natural bursae, the synthetic bursae would serve as cushions and friction reducers. A natural bursa is a thin bladder filled with synovial fluid, which serves to reduce friction and provide a cushion between a bone and a muscle or a tendon. A synthetic bursa would be similar in form and function: It would be, essentially, a compact, soft roller consisting of a bladder filled with a non-Newtonian fluid. The bladder would be constrained to approximately constant volume. The synthetic bursa would cushion an actuator cable against one of the members of a robot joint and would reduce the friction between the cable and the member. Under load, the pressure in the bladder would hold the opposite walls of the bladder apart, making it possible for them to move freely past each other without rubbing.

  3. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  4. Biomimetic vibrissal sensing for robots

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Martin J.; Mitchinson, Ben; Sullivan, J. Charles; Pipe, Anthony G.; Prescott, Tony J.

    2011-01-01

    Active vibrissal touch can be used to replace or to supplement sensory systems such as computer vision and, therefore, improve the sensory capacity of mobile robots. This paper describes how arrays of whisker-like touch sensors have been incorporated onto mobile robot platforms taking inspiration from biology for their morphology and control. There were two motivations for this work: first, to build a physical platform on which to model, and therefore test, recent neuroethological hypotheses about vibrissal touch; second, to exploit the control strategies and morphology observed in the biological analogue to maximize the quality and quantity of tactile sensory information derived from the artificial whisker array. We describe the design of a new whiskered robot, Shrewbot, endowed with a biomimetic array of individually controlled whiskers and a neuroethologically inspired whisking pattern generation mechanism. We then present results showing how the morphology of the whisker array shapes the sensory surface surrounding the robot's head, and demonstrate the impact of active touch control on the sensory information that can be acquired by the robot. We show that adopting bio-inspired, low latency motor control of the rhythmic motion of the whiskers in response to contact-induced stimuli usefully constrains the sensory range, while also maximizing the number of whisker contacts. The robot experiments also demonstrate that the sensory consequences of active touch control can be usefully investigated in biomimetic robots. PMID:21969690

  5. Hand-held medical robots.

    PubMed

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  6. Robotic Microsurgical Training and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Selber, Jesse C.; Alrasheed, Taiba

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery has expanded rapidly over the past two decades and is in widespread use among the surgical subspecialties. Clinical applications in plastic surgery have emerged gradually over the last few years. One of the promising applications is robotic-assisted microvascular anastomosis. Here the authors first describe a process by which an assessment instrument they developed called the Structured Assessment of Robotic Microsurgical Skills (SARMS) was validated. The instrument combines the previously validated Structured Assessment of Microsurgical Skills (SAMS) with other skill domains in robotic surgery. Interrater reliability for the SARMS instrument was excellent for all skill areas among four expert, blinded evaluators. They then present a process by which the learning curve for robotic-assisted microvascular anastomoses was measured and plotted. Ten study participants performed five robotic microanastomoses each that were recorded, deidentified and scored. Trends in SARMS scores were plotted. All skill areas and overall performance improved significantly for each participant over the five microanastomotic sessions, and operative time decreased for all participants. The results showed an initial steep ascent in technical skill acquisition followed by more gradual improvement, and a steady decrease in operative times for the cohort. Participants at all levels of training, ranging from minimal microsurgical experience to expert microsurgeons gained proficiency over the course of five robotic sessions. PMID:24872773

  7. Radiochemical ageing of EPDM elastomers.. 2. Identification and quantification of chemical changes in EPDM and EPR films γ-irradiated under oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaton, A.; Cambon, S.; Gardette, J.-L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the identification and quantification of the main chemical changes resulting from the radiochemical ageing under oxygen atmosphere of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) films containing the same molar ratio of ethylene/propylene. IR and UV-Vis analysis showed that radiooxidation produces a complex mixture of different products and provokes the consumption of the diene double bond. The radiochemical yields of formation of ketones, carboxylic acids, hydroperoxides and alcohols were determined by combining IR analysis with derivatisation reactions and chemical titration. The contributions of secondary and tertiary structures of these two types of -OH groups were separated. Esters and γ-lactones were formed in low concentration. The oxidation products distribution in irradiated films was determined by micro-FTIR spectroscopy. Crosslinking was evaluated by gel fraction methods. In complement, the gas phase composition was analysed by mass spectrometry.

  8. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1997-06-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  9. Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

  10. Sorbent Testing For Solidification of Process Waste streams from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, J.; Taylor, P.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate sorbents identified by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to solidify the radioactive liquid organic waste from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL. REDC recovers and purifies heavy elements (berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium) from irradiated targets for research and industrial applications. Both organic and aqueous waste streams are discharged from REDC. The organic waste is generated from the plutonium/uranium extraction (Purex), Cleanex, and Pubex processes. The Purex waste derives from an organic-aqueous isotope separation process for plutonium and uranium fission products, the Cleanex waste derives from the removal of fission products and other impurities from the americium/curium product, and the Pubex waste is derived from the separation process of plutonium from dissolved targets. MSE had also been tasked to test a grouting formula for the aqueous waste stream that includes radioactive shielding material. The aqueous waste is a mixture of the raffinate streams from the various extraction processes plus the caustic solution that is used to dissolve the aluminum cladding from the irradiated targets. (authors)

  11. Radiochemical analysis of Tc-99m human serum albumin with high-pressure liquid chromatography: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, S; Goldsmith, S J; Pollina, R; Lipszyc, H

    1982-04-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) can be performed with an aqueous size-exclusion column to separate proteins or other macromolecules on the basis of molecular size. An HPLC system with a Spherogel-TSK SW column was modified to detect simultaneously uv absorption and radioactivity. Characteristic retention times (RT) were determined for pure human serum albumin (HSA) (RT = 17 min) and pertechnetate (RT = 28.5 min). When analysis was performed on Tc-99m HSA preparations, Tc-99m radioactivity was resolved into five different peaks, with RT ranging from 10.2 to 28.5 min. Less than 2% radioactivity was associated with the pertechnetate peak, whereas the remaining Tc-99m was protein bound. Most of the activity (90%) corresponded to the albumin peak, and 7% was bound to contaminants of high molecular weight with RTs of 10.2 and 14 min. Rapid separation of various radiochemical components differing in molecular size provides an improved basis for understanding the biodistribution of a Tc-99m HSA preparation. This technique would be useful for the preparation and analysis of various radiolabeled macromolecules such as enzymes, immunoglobulins, and other proteins.

  12. Radiochemical analysis of Tc-99m human serum albumin with high-pressure liquid chromatography: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Pollina, R.; Lipszyc, H.

    1982-04-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) can be performed with an aqueous size-exclusion column to separate proteins or other macromolecules on the basis of molecular size. An HPLC system with a Spherogel-TSK SW column was modified to detect simultaneously uv absorption and radioactivity. Characteristic retention times (RT) were determined for pure human serum albumin (HSA) (RT = 17 min) and pertechnetate (RT = 28.5 min). When analysis was performed on Tc-99m HSA preparations, Tc-99m radioactivity was resolved into five different peaks, with RT ranging from 10.2 to 28.5 min. Less than 2% radioactivity was associated with the pertechnetate peak, whereas the remaining Tc-99m was protein bound. Most of the activity (90%) corresponded to the albumin peak, and 7% was bound to contaminants of high molecular weight with RTs of 10.2 and 14 min. Rapid separation of various radiochemical components differing in molecular size provides an improved basis for understanding the biodistribution of a Tc-99m HSA preparation. This technique would be useful for the preparation and analysis of various radiolabeled macromolecules such as enzymes, immunoglobulins, and other proteins.

  13. Radiochemical analysis of /sup 99m/Tc human serum albumin with high-pressure liquid chromatography: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Pollina, R.; Lipszyc, H.

    1982-04-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) can be performed with an aqueous size-exclusion column to separate proteins or other macromolecules on the basis of molecular size. An HPLC system with a Spherogel-TSK SW column was modified to detect simultaneously uv absorption and radioactivity. Characteristic retention times (RT) were determined for pure human serum albumin (HSA) (RT . 17 min) and pertechnetate (RT . 28.5 min). When analysis was performed on /sup 99m/Tc HSA preparations, /sup 99m/Tc radioactivity was resolved into five different peaks, with RT ranging from 10.2 to 28.5 min. Less than 2% radioactivity was associated with the pertechnetate peak, whereas the remaining /sup 99m/Tc was protein bound. Most of the activity (90%) corresponded to the albumin peak, and 7% was bound to contaminants of high molecular weight with RTs of 10.2 and 14 min. Rapid separation of various radiochemical components differing in molecular size provides an improved basis for understanding the biodistribution of a /sup 99m/Tc HSA preparation. This technique would be useful for the preparation and analysis of various radiolabeled macromolecules such as enzymes, immunoglobulins, and other proteins.

  14. Radiochemical Procedures Used at Iaea-Ilmr Monaco for Measuring Artificial Radionuclides Resulting from the Chernobyl Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J. J.

    The Chernobyl accident which occurred on 26 April 1986 resulted in relatively high levels of radioactive fallout over the major part of Europe. Air filter and precipitation samples enabled us to follow the contamination from the accident. In addition contamination was also monitored in selected environmental samples such as seaweeds, sea water, sediment, soil, suspended matter and biological material from the Mediterranean. All samples were counted on Ge(Li) or Ge(HP) detectors to determine the type and quantity of gamma emitting radionuclides and plutonium, americium and curium isotopes were separated and measured using radiochemical techniques and alpha counting. Increased atmospheric radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident was first detected by observing increased activity levels on air filters taken on April 30, 1986, with maximum activities occurring during 1-3 May. Most of the radionuclides initially measured were short-lived fission products. Cs-137 was one of the predominant isotope in the fallout debris and its deposition at Monaco due to Chernobyl was estimated to be around 1400 Bq m-2, which represents 25-40% of the integrated fallout at this latitude. The deposition of Pu-239+240 was much smaller and was estimated to be around 10 mBq m-2 or only 0.1% of the total deposition from nuclear weapon testing.

  15. Report on the radiochemical and environmental isotope character for monitoring well UE-1-q: Groundwater Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Hudson, G.B.; Kenneally, J.; Nimz, G.J.; Rego, J.H.

    1993-06-01

    Well UE-1-q is located in the northeastern portion of area 1 of the Nevada Test Site in southwestern Nevada, 1244.1 meters above sea level. The well was originally an exploratory hole drilled to a depth of 743 meters below the surface (mbs) by LANL in November of 1980. In May 1992, the Groundwater Characterization Program (GCP) extended the total depth to approximately 792.5 mbs. UE-1-q is cased to a total depth of 749.5 mbs, with the remaining uncased depth exposed exclusively to Paleozoicaged carbonate rock, the principle zone of groundwater sampling. Geologic logging indicates approximately 390 meters of tuffaceous and calcareous alluvium overlies 320 meters of Tertiary-aged volcanic ash-flow and bedded tuffs. Paleozoic carbonate lithology extends from 716 mbs to the total well depth and is separated from the overlying Tertiary volcanic deposits by 6 meters of paleocolluvium. This report outlines the results and interpretations of radiochemical and environmental isotopic analyses of groundwater sampled from UE-1-q on July 10, 1992 during the well pump test following well development. In addition, results of the field tritium monitoring performed during the well drilling are reported in Appendix 1. Sampling, analytical techniques, and analytical uncertainties for the groundwater analyses are presented in Appendix 2.

  16. The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) apparatus for nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, D. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Yeamans, C. B.; Moody, K. J.; Tereshatov, E.; Stoeffl, W.; Riddle, A.

    2012-10-15

    The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) diagnostic apparatus was recently installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Following a NIF shot, RAGS is used to pump the gas load from the NIF chamber for purification and isolation of the noble gases. After collection, the activated gaseous species are counted via gamma spectroscopy for measurement of the capsule areal density and fuel-ablator mix. Collection efficiency was determined by injecting a known amount of {sup 135}Xe into the NIF chamber, which was then collected with RAGS. Commissioning was performed with an exploding pusher capsule filled with isotopically enriched {sup 124}Xe and {sup 126}Xe added to the DT gas fill. Activated xenon species were recovered post-shot and counted via gamma spectroscopy. Results from the collection and commissioning tests are presented. The performance of RAGS allows us to establish a noble gas collection method for measurement of noble gas species produced via neutron and charged particle reactions in a NIF capsule.

  17. Robotic planner expert system (RPLANES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grice, Ervin Oneal

    1987-01-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis of the Johnson Space Center has developed a prototype of an expert system for robotic planning. A robot is given a high level goal to perform an action (i.e., swap, adjust, or stow) on a component unit of an object such as a satellite and the Robotic Planner Expert System (RPLANES) generates the necessary goals for arm actions. RPLANES is designed using the Inference Corp. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) development tool. It resides on a SYMBOLICS 3670. RPLANES and its evolution are described.

  18. Intuitive control of robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusbarsky, David; Gray, Jeremy; Peters, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Modular Intelligent Manipulation system with Intuitive Control program, industry is working with the U.S. Army to explore technologies that will allow a user to intuitively control multiple degree of freedom robotic arms and maintain better awareness of the operating environment through haptic feedback. In addition to reporting resistance, haptic feedback can help make operators feel like they are actually there with the robot, opening doors, unscrewing blast caps, cutting wires, or removing batteries. Coupled with intuitive controls and advanced video feedback, the goal of this project is to provide users with the sensation that the robot is an extension of their body, all from a safe distance.

  19. ARIES: A mobile robot inspector

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) is a mobile robot inspection system being developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) to survey and inspect drums containing mixed and low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at DOE facilities. The drums are typically stacked four high and arranged in rows with three-foot aisle widths. The robot will navigate through the aisles and perform an autonomous inspection operation, typically performed by a human operator. It will make real-time decisions about the condition of the drums, maintain a database of pertinent information about each drum, and generate reports.

  20. Robot, computer problem solving system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

  1. A focused bibliography on robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergler, H. W.

    1983-08-01

    The present bibliography focuses on eight robotics-related topics believed by the author to be of special interest to researchers in the field of industrial electronics: robots, sensors, kinematics, dynamics, control systems, actuators, vision, economics, and robot applications. This literature search was conducted through the 1970-present COMPENDEX data base, which provides world-wide coverage of nearly 3500 journals, conference proceedings and reports, and the 1969-1981 INSPEC data base, which is the largest for the English language in the fields of physics, electrotechnology, computers, and control.

  2. NASA, Engineering, and Swarming Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leucht, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an introduction to NASA, to science and engineering, to biologically inspired robotics, and to the Swarmie ant-inspired robot project at KSC. This presentation is geared towards elementary school students, middle school students, and also high school students. This presentation is suitable for use in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) outreach events. The first use of this presentation will be on Oct 28, 2015 at Madison Middle School in Titusville, Florida where the author has been asked by the NASA-KSC Speakers Bureau to speak to the students about the Swarmie robots.

  3. Learning control of robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Heng-Ming; Chen, Yu-Che

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a learning control scheme for direct trajectory control of robotic manipulators. The main features are that we use a priori structure knowledge of robot dynamics in the design and the neural networks are not used to learn inverse dynamic models. The neural network controller is utilized to compensate the deviation due to the approximate models of robotic manipulators. In addition, true teaching signals of the neural network compensators are employed in the learning phase. Simulations are conducted to show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  4. Robot-assisted ophthalmic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fine, Howard F; Wei, Wei; Goldman, Roger; Simaan, Nabil

    2010-12-01

    Surgical robots have revolutionized a number of surgical subspecialties, including laparoscopic surgery, urology, gynecology, and orthopedics. Robots offer a number of potential improvements over unassisted human hands, such as tremor filtration, scaling of motion, enhanced dexterity in confined spaces, and extremely high precision. Several designs and prototypes have recently been introduced for use in ophthalmic surgery and they have been tested in animal models. Ophthalmic surgical robots have the potential to expand our treatment armamentarium, reduce complication rates, and hold future promise to treat surgical conditions that remain incurable today.

  5. Rapid Mars transits with exhaust-modulated plasma propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Braden, Ellen; Johnson, Ivan; Hsu, Michael M.; Yang, Tien Fang

    1995-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the Exhaust-Modulated Plasma Rocket are described. Four basic human and robotic mission scenarios to Mars are analyzed using numerical optimization techniques at variable specific impulse and constant power. The device is well suited for 'split-sprint' missions, allowing fast, one-way low-payload human transits of 90 to 104 days, as well as slower, 180-day, high-payload robotic precursor flights. Abort capabilities, essential for human missions, are also explored.

  6. A radio-high-performance liquid chromatography dual-flow cell gamma-detection system for on-line radiochemical purity and labeling efficiency determination.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, S; Jensen, H; Jacobsson, L

    2014-04-11

    In this study, a method of determining radiochemical yield and radiochemical purity using radio-HPLC detection employing a dual-flow-cell system is evaluated. The dual-flow cell, consisting of a reference cell and an analytical cell, was constructed from two PEEK capillary coils to fit into the well of a NaI(Tl) detector. The radio-HPLC flow was directed from the injector to the reference cell allowing on-line detection of the total injected sample activity prior to entering the HPLC column. The radioactivity eluted from the column was then detected in the analytical cell. In this way, the sample will act as its own standard, a feature enabling on-line quantification of the processed radioactivity passing through the system. All data were acquired on-line via an analog signal from a rate meter using chromatographic software. The radiochemical yield and recovery could be simply and accurately determined by integration of the peak areas in the chromatogram obtained from the reference and analytical cells using an experimentally determined volume factor to correct for the effect of different cell volumes. PMID:24630054

  7. A radio-high-performance liquid chromatography dual-flow cell gamma-detection system for on-line radiochemical purity and labeling efficiency determination.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, S; Jensen, H; Jacobsson, L

    2014-04-11

    In this study, a method of determining radiochemical yield and radiochemical purity using radio-HPLC detection employing a dual-flow-cell system is evaluated. The dual-flow cell, consisting of a reference cell and an analytical cell, was constructed from two PEEK capillary coils to fit into the well of a NaI(Tl) detector. The radio-HPLC flow was directed from the injector to the reference cell allowing on-line detection of the total injected sample activity prior to entering the HPLC column. The radioactivity eluted from the column was then detected in the analytical cell. In this way, the sample will act as its own standard, a feature enabling on-line quantification of the processed radioactivity passing through the system. All data were acquired on-line via an analog signal from a rate meter using chromatographic software. The radiochemical yield and recovery could be simply and accurately determined by integration of the peak areas in the chromatogram obtained from the reference and analytical cells using an experimentally determined volume factor to correct for the effect of different cell volumes.

  8. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Wehnke, Amy J.; Hall, L. Flint; Campbell, Linford J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 14 sites as part of an ongoing study to monitor the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer between the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Burley-Twin Falls-Hagerman area. The State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of INL Oversight and Radiation Control cosampled with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources and their analytical results are included in this report. The samples were collected from four domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, four irrigation wells, one observation well, and one stock well and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. Two quality-assurance samples, sequential replicates, also were collected and analyzed. None of the concentrations of radiochemical or organic-chemical constituents exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the concentration of one inorganic-chemical constituent, nitrate (as nitrogen), in water from site MV-43 was 20 milligrams per liter which exceeded the maximum contaminant level for that constituent. Of the radiochemical and chemical concentrations analyzed for in the replicate-sample pairs, 267 of the 270 pairs (with 95 percent confidence) were statistically equivalent.

  9. Not Just ``Teaching Robotics'' but ``Teaching through Robotics''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasz, Andrew W.

    This paper explores strategies for teaching robotics not simply as a subject in its own right, but, using robotics in the teaching environment as an opportunity to stimulate creative thinking and generating an interest in science and technology as creative endeavours. The spirit is very much that espoused by C.P.Snow in his attempts to bridge “the two cultures” i.e. that of the arts on the one hand and that of science and technology on the other.

  10. [Rehabilitation and nursing-care robots].

    PubMed

    Hachisuka, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    In the extremely aged society, rehabilitation staff will be required to provide ample rehabilitation training for more stroke patients and more aged people with disabilities despite limitations in human resources. A nursing-care robot is one potential solution from the standpoint of rehabilitation. The nursing-care robot is defined as a robot which assists aged people and persons with disabilities in daily life and social life activities. The nursing-care robot consists of an independent support robot, caregiver support robot, and life support robot. Although many nursing-care robots have been developed, the most appropriate robot must be selected according to its features and the needs of patients and caregivers in the field of nursing-care. PMID:27333762

  11. [Rehabilitation and nursing-care robots].

    PubMed

    Hachisuka, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    In the extremely aged society, rehabilitation staff will be required to provide ample rehabilitation training for more stroke patients and more aged people with disabilities despite limitations in human resources. A nursing-care robot is one potential solution from the standpoint of rehabilitation. The nursing-care robot is defined as a robot which assists aged people and persons with disabilities in daily life and social life activities. The nursing-care robot consists of an independent support robot, caregiver support robot, and life support robot. Although many nursing-care robots have been developed, the most appropriate robot must be selected according to its features and the needs of patients and caregivers in the field of nursing-care.

  12. Azimut: a multimodal locomotion robotic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, Francois; Letourneau, Dominic; Arsenault, Martin; Bergeron, Yann; Cadrin, Richard; Gagnon, Frederic; Legault, Marc-Antoine; Millette, Mathieu; Pare, Jean-Francois; Tremblay, Marie-Christine; Lepage, Pierre; Morin, Yan; Caron, Serge

    2003-09-01

    Other than from its sensing and processing capabilities, a mobile robotic platform can be limited in its use by its ability to move in the environment. A wheeled robot works well on flat surfaces. Tracks are useful over rough terrains, while legs allow a robot to move over obstacles. In this paper we present a new concept of mobile robot with the objective of combining different locomotion mechanisms on the same platform to increase its locomotion capabilities. After presenting a review of multi-modal robotic platforms, we describe the design of our robot called AZIMUT. AZIMUT combines wheels, legs and tracks to move in three-dimensional environments. The robot is symmetrical and is made of four independent leg-track-wheel articulations. It can move with its articulations up, down or straight, or move sideways without changing the robot's orientation. The robot could be used in surveillance and rescue missions, exploration or operation in hazardous environments.

  13. Types of verbal interaction with instructable robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crangle, C.; Suppes, P.; Michalowski, S.

    1987-01-01

    An instructable robot is one that accepts instruction in some natural language such as English and uses that instruction to extend its basic repertoire of actions. Such robots are quite different in conception from autonomously intelligent robots, which provide the impetus for much of the research on inference and planning in artificial intelligence. Examined here are the significant problem areas in the design of robots that learn from vebal instruction. Examples are drawn primarily from our earlier work on instructable robots and recent work on the Robotic Aid for the physically disabled. Natural-language understanding by machines is discussed as well as in the possibilities and limits of verbal instruction. The core problem of verbal instruction, namely, how to achieve specific concrete action in the robot in response to commands that express general intentions, is considered, as are two major challenges to instructability: achieving appropriate real-time behavior in the robot, and extending the robot's language capabilities.

  14. Plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W.; Hu, G.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  15. Vision-guided heterogeneous mobile robot docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spofford, John R.; Blitch, John; Klarquist, William N.; Murphy, Robin R.

    1999-08-01

    Teams of heterogeneous mobile robots are a key aspect of future unmanned system for operations in complex and dynamic urban environments, such as that envisioned by DARPA's Tactical Mobile Robotics program. One examples of an interaction among such team members is the docking of small robot of limited sensory and processing capability with a larger, more capable robot. Applications for such docking include the transfer of power, data, and materia, as well as physically combined maneuver or manipulation. A two-robot system is considered in this paper. The smaller 'throwable' robot contains a video camera capable of imaging the larger 'packable' robot and transmitting the imagery. The packable robot can both sense the throwable robot through an onboard camera, as well as sense itself through the throwable robot's transmitted video, and is capable of processing imagery from either source. This paper describes recent results in the development of control and sensing strategies for automatic mid-range docking of these two robots. Decisions addressed include the selection of which robot's image sensor to use and which robot to maneuver. Initial experimental results are presented for docking using sensor data from each robot.

  16. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly conducts a phone interview with Benjamin Reed, Deputy Program Manager of NASA’s Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office, about this week’s Robotic Refuel...

  17. Legal aspects of service robotics.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Thomas; Spiecker Genannt Döhmann, Indra

    2012-12-01

    The emergent use of service robots in more and more areas of social life raises a number of legal issues which have to be addressed in order to apply and adapt the existing legal framework to this new technology. The article provides an overview of law as a means to regulate and govern technology and discusses fundamental issues of the relationship between law and technology. It then goes on to address a number of relevant problems in the field of service robotics. In particular, these issues include the organization of administrative control and the legal liability regime which applies to service robots. Also, the issue of autonomy of service robots is discussed, which cannot easily be answered under the existing, human-centered legal regime.

  18. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office Dan Huot interviews Jill McGuire, the Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM) Project Manager at Goddard Space Flight Center, about the current RRM operation taking place outside...

  19. Robot learning and error correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L.

    1977-01-01

    A model of robot learning is described that associates previously unknown perceptions with the sensed known consequences of robot actions. For these actions, both the categories of outcomes and the corresponding sensory patterns are incorporated in a knowledge base by the system designer. Thus the robot is able to predict the outcome of an action and compare the expectation with the experience. New knowledge about what to expect in the world may then be incorporated by the robot in a pre-existing structure whether it detects accordance or discrepancy between a predicted consequence and experience. Errors committed during plan execution are detected by the same type of comparison process and learning may be applied to avoiding the errors.

  20. On controlling robots with redundancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.

    1991-01-01

    An adaptive position control scheme for manipulators possessing either kinematic or actuator redundancy is presented. The controller is developed by considering the end-effector position control problem and redundancy resolution problem separately. The end-effector position control problem is solved by using an adaptive scheme to generate the Cartesian-space control input required to track the desired end-effector position trajectory; this control problem is nonredundant even for redundant robots. The Cartesian-space position controller is derived using a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) approach, and does not require knowledge of the complex robot dynamic model or parameter values for the robot or the payload. As a result, the scheme is applicable to both open-chain and closed-chain robots, and is computationally efficient for on-line implementations.