Science.gov

Sample records for robotic science missions

  1. Distribution of Cost Growth in Robotic Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Cost growth characterization is a critical factor for effective cost risk analysis and project planning. This study analyzed low level budget changes in Jet Propulsion Laboratory-managed space science missions, which occurred during the development of the project. The data was then curve fit, according to cost distribution categories, to provide a reference set of distribution parameters with sufficient granularity to effectively model cost growth in robotic space science missions.

  2. Return to the Moon: Lunar robotic science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-02-01

    There are two important aspects of the Moon and its materials which must be addressed in preparation for a manned return to the Moon and establishment of a lunar base. These involve its geologic science and resource utilization. Knowledge of the Moon forms the basis for interpretations of the planetary science of the terrestrial planets and their satellites; and there are numerous exciting explorations into the geologic science of the Moon to be conducted using orbiter and lander missions. In addition, the rocks and minerals and soils of the Moon will be the basic raw materials for a lunar outpost; and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar materials must be considered in detail before any manned return to the Moon. Both of these fields -- planetary science and resource assessment -- will necessitate the collection of considerable amounts of new data, only obtainable from lunar-orbit remote sensing and robotic landers. For over fifteen years, there have been a considerable number of workshops, meetings, etc. with their subsequent 'white papers' which have detailed plans for a return to the Moon. The Lunar Observer mission, although grandiose, seems to have been too expensive for the austere budgets of the last several years. However, the tens of thousands of man-hours that have gone into 'brainstorming' and production of plans and reports have provided the precursor material for today's missions. It has been only since last year (1991) that realistic optimism for lunar orbiters and soft landers has come forth. Plans are for 1995 and 1996 'Early Robotic Missions' to the Moon, with the collection of data necessary for answering several of the major problems in lunar science, as well as for resource and site evaluation, in preparation for soft landers and a manned-presence on the Moon.

  3. Return to the Moon: Lunar robotic science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two important aspects of the Moon and its materials which must be addressed in preparation for a manned return to the Moon and establishment of a lunar base. These involve its geologic science and resource utilization. Knowledge of the Moon forms the basis for interpretations of the planetary science of the terrestrial planets and their satellites; and there are numerous exciting explorations into the geologic science of the Moon to be conducted using orbiter and lander missions. In addition, the rocks and minerals and soils of the Moon will be the basic raw materials for a lunar outpost; and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar materials must be considered in detail before any manned return to the Moon. Both of these fields -- planetary science and resource assessment -- will necessitate the collection of considerable amounts of new data, only obtainable from lunar-orbit remote sensing and robotic landers. For over fifteen years, there have been a considerable number of workshops, meetings, etc. with their subsequent 'white papers' which have detailed plans for a return to the Moon. The Lunar Observer mission, although grandiose, seems to have been too expensive for the austere budgets of the last several years. However, the tens of thousands of man-hours that have gone into 'brainstorming' and production of plans and reports have provided the precursor material for today's missions. It has been only since last year (1991) that realistic optimism for lunar orbiters and soft landers has come forth. Plans are for 1995 and 1996 'Early Robotic Missions' to the Moon, with the collection of data necessary for answering several of the major problems in lunar science, as well as for resource and site evaluation, in preparation for soft landers and a manned-presence on the Moon.

  4. Evolutionary Space Communications Architectures for Human/Robotic Exploration and Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA enterprises have growing needs for an advanced, integrated, communications infrastructure that will satisfy the capabilities needed for multiple human, robotic and scientific missions beyond 2015. Furthermore, the reliable, multipoint infrastructure is required to provide continuous, maximum coverage of areas of concentrated activities, such as around Earth and in the vicinity of the Moon or Mars, with access made available on demand of the human or robotic user. As a first step, the definitions of NASA's future space communications and networking architectures are underway. Architectures that describe the communications and networking needed between the nodal regions consisting of Earth, Moon, Lagrange points, Mars, and the places of interest within the inner and outer solar system have been laid out. These architectures will need the modular flexibility that must be included in the communication and networking technologies to enable the infrastructure to grow in capability with time and to transform from supporting robotic missions in the solar system to supporting human ventures to Mars, Jupiter, Jupiter's moons, and beyond. The protocol-based networking capability seamlessly connects the backbone, access, inter-spacecraft and proximity network elements of the architectures employed in the infrastructure. In this paper, we present the summary of NASA's near and long term needs and capability requirements that were gathered by participative methods. We describe an integrated architecture concept and model that will enable communications for evolutionary robotic and human science missions. We then define the communication nodes, their requirements, and various options to connect them.

  5. Radioisotope electric propulsion for robotic science missions to near-interstellar space

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.J.

    1994-10-01

    The use of radioisotope electric propulsion for sending small robotic probes on fast science missions several hundred astronomical units (AU) from the Sun is investigated. Such missions would address a large variety of solar, interstellar, galactic and cosmological science themes from unique vantage points at 100 to 600 AU, including parallax distance measurements for the entire Milky Way Galaxy, sampling of the interstellar medium and imaging of cosmological objects at the gravitational lens foci of the Sun ({ge} 550 AU). Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on multi-hundred watt, radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. In a previous work, the flight times for rendezvous missions to the outer planets (< 30 AU) using REP were found to be less than fifteen years. However fast prestellar missions to several hundred AU are not possible unless the probe`s energy can be substantially increased in the inner Solar System so as to boost the final hyperbolic excess velocity. In this paper an economical hybrid propulsion scheme combining chemical propulsion and gravity assist in the inner Solar System and radioisotope electric propulsion in the outer Solar System is studied which enables fast prestellar missions. Total hyperbolic excess velocities of 15 AU/year and flight times to 550 AU of about 40 years are possible using REP technology that may be available in the next decade.

  6. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  7. Mini-MITEE: Ultra Small, Ultra Light NTP Engines for Robotic Science and Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John

    2006-01-01

    A compact, ultra lightweight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine design is described with the capability to carry out a wide range of unique and important robotic science missions that are not possible using chemical or Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). The MITEE (MInature ReacTor EnginE) reactor uses hydrogeneous moderator, such as solid lithium-7 hydride, and high temperature cermet tungsten/UO2 nuclear fuel. The reactor is configured as a modular pressure tube assembly, with each pressure tube containing an outer annual shell of moderator with an inner annular region of W/UO2 cermet fuel sheets. H2 propellant flows radially inwards through the moderator and fuel regions, exiting at ~3000 K into a central channel that leads to a nozzle at the end of the pressure tube. Power density in the fuel region is 10 to 20 megawatts per liter, depending on design, producing a thrust output on the order of 15,000 Newtons and an Isp of ~1000 seconds. 3D Monte Carlo neutronic analyses are described for MITEE reactors utilizing various fissile fuel options (U-235, U-233, and Am242m) and moderators (7LiH and BeH2). Reactor mass ranges from a maximum of 100 kg for the 7LiH/U-235 option to a minimum of 28 kg for the BeH2/Am-242 m option. Pure thrust only and bi-modal (thrust plus electric power generation) MITEE designs are described. Potential unique robotic science missions enabled by the MITEE engine are described, including landing on Europa and exploring the ice sheet interior with return of samples to Earth, hopping to and exploring multiple sites on Mars, unlimited ramjet flight in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and landing on, and sample return from Pluto.

  8. Mini-MITEE: Ultra Small, Ultra Light NTP Engines for Robotic Science and Manned Exploration Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John

    2006-01-20

    A compact, ultra lightweight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine design is described with the capability to carry out a wide range of unique and important robotic science missions that are not possible using chemical or Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). The MITEE (MInature ReacTor EnginE) reactor uses hydrogeneous moderator, such as solid lithium-7 hydride, and high temperature cermet tungsten/UO2 nuclear fuel. The reactor is configured as a modular pressure tube assembly, with each pressure tube containing an outer annual shell of moderator with an inner annular region of W/UO2 cermet fuel sheets. H2 propellant flows radially inwards through the moderator and fuel regions, exiting at {approx}3000 K into a central channel that leads to a nozzle at the end of the pressure tube. Power density in the fuel region is 10 to 20 megawatts per liter, depending on design, producing a thrust output on the order of 15,000 Newtons and an Isp of {approx}1000 seconds. 3D Monte Carlo neutronic analyses are described for MITEE reactors utilizing various fissile fuel options (U-235, U-233, and Am242m) and moderators (7LiH and BeH2). Reactor mass ranges from a maximum of 100 kg for the 7LiH/U-235 option to a minimum of 28 kg for the BeH2/Am-242 m option. Pure thrust only and bi-modal (thrust plus electric power generation) MITEE designs are described. Potential unique robotic science missions enabled by the MITEE engine are described, including landing on Europa and exploring the ice sheet interior with return of samples to Earth, hopping to and exploring multiple sites on Mars, unlimited ramjet flight in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and landing on, and sample return from Pluto.

  9. Robotic Planetary Science Missions Enabled with Small NTR Engine/Stage Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-01-01

    The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-zirconium-niobium 'ternary carbide' fuel (Isp approximately 960 seconds at approximately 3025K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is examined and its use on an expendable injection stage is shown to provide major increases in payload delivered to the outer planets (Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto). Using a single 'Titan IV-class' launch vehicle, with a lift capability to low Earth orbit (LEO) of approximately 20 metric tons (t), an expendable NTR upper stage can inject two Pluto 'Fast Flyby' spacecraft (PFF/SC) plus support equipment-combined mass of approximately 508 kg--on high energy, '6.5-9.2 year' direct trajectory missions to Pluto. A conventional chemical propulsion mission would use a liquid oxygen (LOX)/LH2 'Centaur' upper stage and two solid rocket 'kick motors' to inject a single PFF/SC on the same Titan IV launch vehicle. For follow on Pluto missions, the NTR injection stage would utilize a Jupiter 'gravity assist' (JGA) maneuver to launch a LOX/liquid methane (CH4) capture stage (Isp approximately 375 seconds) and a Pluto 'orbiter' spacecraft weighing between approximately 167-312 kg. With chemical propulsion, a Pluto orbiter mission is not a viable option because c inadequate delivered mass. Using a 'standardized' NTR injection stage and the same single Titan IV launch scenario, 'direct flight' (no gravity assist) orbiter missions to Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are also enabled with transit times of 2.3, 6.6, and 12.6 years, respectively. Injected mass includes a storable, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (N2O4/MMH) capture stage (Isp approximately 330 seconds) and orbiter payloads 340 to 820% larger than that achievable using a

  10. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Alex Janas, robotics operator from the Goddard Space Flight Center, about the Robotic Refueling Mission that has been taking place on the space stati...

  11. MITEE-B: A Compact Ultra Lightweight Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine for Robotic Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John; Borowski, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) enables unique new robotic planetary science missions that are impossible with chemical or nuclear electric propulsion systems. A compact and ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine, termed MITEE-B (MInature ReacTor EnginE - Bi-Modal) can deliver 1000's of kilograms of propulsive thrust when it operates in the NTP mode, and many kilowatts of continuous electric power when it operates in the electric generation mode. The high propulsive thrust NTP mode enables spacecraft to land and takeoff from the surface of a planet or moon, to hop to multiple widely separated sites on the surface, and virtually unlimited flight in planetary atmospheres. The continuous electric generation mode enables a spacecraft to replenish its propellant by processing in-situ resources, provide power for controls, instruments, and communications while in space and on the surface, and operate electric propulsion units. Six examples of unique and important missions enabled by the MITEE-B engine are described, including: (1) Pluto lander and sample return; (2) Europa lander and ocean explorer; (3) Mars Hopper; (4) Jupiter atmospheric flyer; (5) SunBurn hypervelocity spacecraft; and (6) He3 mining from Uranus. Many additional important missions are enabled by MITEE-B. A strong technology base for MITEE-B already exists. With a vigorous development program, it could be ready for initial robotic science and exploration missions by 2010 AD. Potential mission benefits include much shorter in-space times, reduced IMLEO requirements, and replenishment of supplies from in-situ resources.

  12. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: A Robotic Boulder Capture Option for Science, Human Exploration, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar electric propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (4 - 10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (1 - 5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well- characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense. Science: The RBC option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting

  13. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office Dan Huot interviews Jill McGuire, the Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM) Project Manager at Goddard Space Flight Center, about the current RRM operation taking place outside...

  14. Historical Trends of Participation of Women Scientists in Robotic Spacecraft Mission Science Teams: Effect of Participating Scientist Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathbun, Julie A.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Diniega, Serina; Hurley, Dana; New, Michael; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louise; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Schug, Joanna; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many planetary scientists consider involvement in a robotic spacecraft mission the highlight of their career. We have searched for names of science team members and determined the percentage of women on each team. We have limited the lists to members working at US institutions at the time of selection. We also determined the year each team was selected. The gender of each team member was limited to male and female and based on gender expression. In some cases one of the authors knew the team member and what pronouns they use. In other cases, we based our determinations on the team member's name or photo (obtained via a google search, including institution). Our initial analysis considered 22 NASA planetary science missions over a period of 41 years and only considered NASA-selected PI and Co-Is and not participating scientists, postdocs, or graduate students. We found that there has been a dramatic increase in participation of women on spacecraft science teams since 1974, from 0-2% in the 1970s – 1980s to an average of 14% 2000-present. This, however, is still lower than the recent percentage of women in planetary science, which 3 different surveys found to be ~25%. Here we will present our latest results, which include consideration of participating scientists. As in the case of PIs and Co-Is, we consider only participating scientists working at US institutions at the time of their selection.

  15. NASA SSA for Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri K.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) activities as preparation for robotic missions and Goddard's role in this work. The presentation includes the preparations that Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has made to provide consolidated space systems protection indluding consolidating GSFC support for Orbit Debris analysis, conjunction assessment and collision avoidance, commercial and foreign support, and protection of GSFC managed missions.

  16. Low Cost Electric Propulsion Thruster for Deep Space Robotic Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David

    2008-01-01

    Electric Propulsion (EP) has found widespread acceptance by commercial satellite providers for on-orbit station keeping due to the total life cycle cost advantages these systems offer. NASA has also sought to benefit from the use of EP for primary propulsion onboard the Deep Space-1 and DAWN spacecraft. These applications utilized EP systems based on gridded ion thrusters, which offer performance unequaled by other electric propulsion thrusters. Through the In-Space Propulsion Project, a lower cost thruster technology is currently under development designed to make electric propulsion intended for primary propulsion applications cost competitive with chemical propulsion systems. The basis for this new technology is a very reliable electric propulsion thruster called the Hall thruster. Hall thrusters, which have been flown by the Russians dating back to the 1970s, have been used by the Europeans on the SMART-1 lunar orbiter and currently employed by 15 other geostationary spacecraft. Since the inception of the Hall thruster, over 100 of these devices have been used with no known failures. This paper describes the latest accomplishments of a development task that seeks to improve Hall thruster technology by increasing its specific impulse, throttle-ability, and lifetime to make this type of electric propulsion thruster applicable to NASA deep space science missions. In addition to discussing recent progress on this task, this paper describes the performance and cost benefits projected to result from the use of advanced Hall thrusters for deep space science missions.

  17. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  18. Technologies for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichy, B.

    2015-10-01

    The Robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) will demonstrate key capabilities that will enable new frontiers of future human and robotic spaceflight. We introduce the current robotic mission concept, and detail the technologies and capabilities that will be demonstrated by the mission.

  19. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L. A.; Kirby, K. W.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    The Moon provides an important window into the early history of the Earth, containing information about planetary composition, magmatic evolution, surface bombardment, and exposure to the space environment. Robotic lunar landers to achieve science goals and to provide precursor technology development and site characterization are an important part of program balance within NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). A Robotic Lunar Lan-der mission complements SMD's initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines and increases international participation in NASA's robotic exploration of the Moon.

  20. Mission Reliability Estimation for Repairable Robot Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Dolan, John; Stancliff, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A mission reliability estimation method has been designed to translate mission requirements into choices of robot modules in order to configure a multi-robot team to have high reliability at minimal cost. In order to build cost-effective robot teams for long-term missions, one must be able to compare alternative design paradigms in a principled way by comparing the reliability of different robot models and robot team configurations. Core modules have been created including: a probabilistic module with reliability-cost characteristics, a method for combining the characteristics of multiple modules to determine an overall reliability-cost characteristic, and a method for the generation of legitimate module combinations based on mission specifications and the selection of the best of the resulting combinations from a cost-reliability standpoint. The developed methodology can be used to predict the probability of a mission being completed, given information about the components used to build the robots, as well as information about the mission tasks. In the research for this innovation, sample robot missions were examined and compared to the performance of robot teams with different numbers of robots and different numbers of spare components. Data that a mission designer would need was factored in, such as whether it would be better to have a spare robot versus an equivalent number of spare parts, or if mission cost can be reduced while maintaining reliability using spares. This analytical model was applied to an example robot mission, examining the cost-reliability tradeoffs among different team configurations. Particularly scrutinized were teams using either redundancy (spare robots) or repairability (spare components). Using conservative estimates of the cost-reliability relationship, results show that it is possible to significantly reduce the cost of a robotic mission by using cheaper, lower-reliability components and providing spares. This suggests that the

  1. Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

  2. Lunar Science for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) will return humans to the Moon and will include robotic precursor missions in its early phases, including the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, now in development. Many opportunities for scientific investigations will arise from this program of exploration. Such opportunities will span across disciplines of planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science via remote observation and monitoring. This abstract focuses on some of the key lunar science objectives that can be addressed with robotic and human missions. Even after 35+ years of study of Apollo samples and data, and global remote sensing missions of the 1990's, key lunar science questions remain. Apollo provided ground truth for the central nearside, but ground truth is lacking for the lunar farside and poles. Lunar meteorites provide knowledge about areas potentially far distant from the central nearside, but ground truth in key areas such as the farside South Pole-Aitken Basin, which provides access to the lower crust and possibly the upper mantle, will enable more direct correlations between the lunar meteorites and global remotely sensed data. Extending and improving knowledge of surface compositions, including partially buried basalt deposits, globally, is needed to better understand the composition of the Moon's crust as a function of depth and of the mantle, and to provide new tests of the Moon's origin and early surface and internal evolution. These issues can be addressed in part with robotic measurements on the surface; however, samples cached for return to Earth are needed for detailed chemical, lithologic, and geochronologic investigations. Apollo experience has shown that regolith samples and/or rock fragments sieved from regolith provide a wealth of information that can be interpreted within the context of regional geology. Targeted sampling by humans and human/robotic teams can optimize sampling strategies. Detailed knowledge of specific

  3. Explorations Precursor Robotic Missions (xPRM)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Jay Jenkins delivers a presentation from the Exploration Precursor Robotic Missions (xPRM) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose...

  4. Science Autonomy in Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Historical mission operations have involved: (1) return of scientific data; (2) evaluation of these data by scientists; (3) recommendations for future mission activity by scientists; (4) commands for these transmitted to the craft; and (5) the activity being undertaken. This cycle is repeated throughout the mission with command opportunities once or twice per day. For a rover, this historical cycle is not amenable to rapid long range traverses or rapid response to any novel or unexpected situations. In addition to real-time response issues, imaging and/or spectroscopic devices can produce tremendous data volumes during a traverse. However, such data volumes can rapidly exceed on-board memory capabilities prior to the ability to transmit it to Earth. Additionally, the necessary communication band-widths are restrictive enough so that only a small portion of these data can actually be returned to Earth. Such scenarios suggest enabling some science decisions to be made on-board the robots. These decisions involve automating various aspects of scientific discovery instead of the electromechanical control, health, and navigation issues associated with robotic operations. The robot retains access to the full data fidelity obtained by its scientific sensors, and is in the best position to implement actions based upon these data. Such an approach would eventually enable the robot to alter observations and assure only the highest quality data is obtained for analysis. Additionally, the robot can begin to understand what is scientifically interesting and implement alternative observing sequences, because the observed data deviate from expectations based upon current theories/models of planetary processes. Such interesting data and/or conclusions can then be prioritized and selectively transmitted to Earth; reducing memory and communications demands. Results of Ames' current work in this area will be presented.

  5. NASA Lunar Robotics for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Lavoie, Anthony R.; Gilbert, Paul A.; Horack, John M.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the robotic missions that NASA and the international partnership are undertaking to investigate the moon to support science and exploration objectives. These missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Moon Mineralogy Mapper (MMM), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), and the International Lunar Network (ILN). The goals and instrumentation of these missions are reviewed.

  6. Robotic Lunar Landers For Science And Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Morse, B. J.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA s robotic lunar lander flight projects. In 2005, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program Mission #2 (RLEP-2) was selected as an ESMD precursor robotic lander mission to demonstrate precision landing and determine if there was water ice at the lunar poles; however, this project was canceled. Since 2008, the team has been supporting SMD designing small lunar robotic landers for science missions, primarily to establish anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar geophysical nodes. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science community. This paper describes the current status of the MSFC/APL robotic lunar mission studies and risk reduction efforts including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, long cycle time battery testing, combined GN&C and avionics testing, and two autonomous lander test articles.

  7. Robotic Precursor Missions for Mars Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Pirjanian, Paolo; Schenker, Paul S.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Das, Hari; Joshi, Sajay

    2000-07-01

    Infrastructure support for robotic colonies, manned Mars habitat, and/or robotic exploration of planetary surfaces will need to rely on the field deployment of multiple robust robots. This support includes such tasks as the deployment and servicing of power systems and ISRU generators, construction of beaconed roadways, and the site preparation and deployment of manned habitat modules. The current level of autonomy of planetary rovers such as Sojourner will need to be greatly enhanced for these types of operations. In addition, single robotic platforms will not be capable of complicated construction scenarios. Precursor robotic missions to Mars that involve teams of multiple cooperating robots to accomplish some of these tasks is a cost effective solution to the possible long timeline necessary for the deployment of a manned habitat. Ongoing work at JPL under the Mars Outpost Program in the area of robot colonies is investigating many of the technology developments necessary for such an ambitious undertaking. Some of the issues that are being addressed include behavior-based control systems for multiple cooperating robots (CAMPOUT), development of autonomous robotic systems for the rescue/repair of trapped or disabled robots, and the design and development of robotic platforms for construction tasks such as material transport and surface clearing.

  8. Robotic Precursor Missions for Mars Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Pirjanian, Paolo; Schenker, Paul S.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Das, Hari; Joshi, Sajay

    2000-01-01

    Infrastructure support for robotic colonies, manned Mars habitat, and/or robotic exploration of planetary surfaces will need to rely on the field deployment of multiple robust robots. This support includes such tasks as the deployment and servicing of power systems and ISRU generators, construction of beaconed roadways, and the site preparation and deployment of manned habitat modules. The current level of autonomy of planetary rovers such as Sojourner will need to be greatly enhanced for these types of operations. In addition, single robotic platforms will not be capable of complicated construction scenarios. Precursor robotic missions to Mars that involve teams of multiple cooperating robots to accomplish some of these tasks is a cost effective solution to the possible long timeline necessary for the deployment of a manned habitat. Ongoing work at JPL under the Mars Outpost Program in the area of robot colonies is investigating many of the technology developments necessary for such an ambitious undertaking. Some of the issues that are being addressed include behavior-based control systems for multiple cooperating robots (CAMPOUT), development of autonomous robotic systems for the rescue/repair of trapped or disabled robots, and the design and development of robotic platforms for construction tasks such as material transport and surface clearing.

  9. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    The MSFC/APL Robotic Lunar Landing Project (RLLDP) team has developed lander concepts encompassing a range of mission types and payloads for science, exploration, and technology demonstration missions: (1) Developed experience and expertise in lander systems, (2) incorporated lessons learned from previous efforts to improve the fidelity of mission concepts, analysis tools, and test beds Mature small and medium lander designs concepts have been developed: (1) Share largely a common design architecture. (2) Flexible for a large number of mission and payload options. High risk development areas have been successfully addressed Landers could be selected for a mission with much of the concept formulation phase work already complete

  10. A Dual Launch Robotic and Human Lunar Mission Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David L.; Mulqueen, Jack; Percy, Tom; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive lunar exploration architecture developed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office that features a science-based surface exploration strategy and a transportation architecture that uses two launches of a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver human and robotic mission systems to the moon. The principal advantage of the dual launch lunar mission strategy is the reduced cost and risk resulting from the development of just one launch vehicle system. The dual launch lunar mission architecture may also enhance opportunities for commercial and international partnerships by using expendable launch vehicle services for robotic missions or development of surface exploration elements. Furthermore, this architecture is particularly suited to the integration of robotic and human exploration to maximize science return. For surface operations, an innovative dual-mode rover is presented that is capable of performing robotic science exploration as well as transporting human crew conducting surface exploration. The dual-mode rover can be deployed to the lunar surface to perform precursor science activities, collect samples, scout potential crew landing sites, and meet the crew at a designated landing site. With this approach, the crew is able to evaluate the robotically collected samples to select the best samples for return to Earth to maximize the scientific value. The rovers can continue robotic exploration after the crew leaves the lunar surface. The transportation system for the dual launch mission architecture uses a lunar-orbit-rendezvous strategy. Two heavy lift launch vehicles depart from Earth within a six hour period to transport the lunar lander and crew elements separately to lunar orbit. In lunar orbit, the crew transfer vehicle docks with the lander and the crew boards the lander for descent to the surface. After the surface mission, the crew returns to the orbiting transfer vehicle for the return to the Earth. This

  11. Hall Thruster Technology for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Oh, David; Aadland, Randall

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a prototype Hall thruster designed for Discovery-class NASA science mission applications was evaluated at input powers ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 kilowatts. These data were used to construct a throttle profile for a projected Hall thruster system based on this prototype thruster. The suitability of such a Hall thruster system to perform robotic exploration missions was evaluated through the analysis of a near Earth asteroid sample return mission. This analysis demonstrated that a propulsion system based on the prototype Hall thruster offers mission benefits compared to a propulsion system based on an existing ion thruster.

  12. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  13. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  14. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly conducts a phone interview with Benjamin Reed, Deputy Program Manager of NASA’s Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office, about this week’s Robotic Refuel...

  15. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hill, L. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Chavers, D. G.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Kirby, K. W.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA s robotic lunar lander flight projects. In 2005, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program Mission #2 (RLEP-2) was selected as a Exploration Systems Mission Directorate precursor robotic lunar lander mission to demonstrate precision landing and definitively determine if there was water ice at the lunar poles; however, this project was canceled. Since 2008, the team has been supporting NASA s Science Mission Directorate designing small lunar robotic landers for diverse science missions. The primary emphasis has been to establish anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar science stations envisioned to be emplaced by multiple nations. This network would consist of multiple landers carrying instruments to address the geophysical characteristics and evolution of the moon. Additional mission studies have been conducted to support other objectives of the lunar science community and extensive risk reduction design and testing has been performed to advance the design of the lander system and reduce development risk for flight projects. This paper describes the current status of the robotic lunar mission studies that have been conducted by the MSFC/APL Robotic Lunar Lander Development team, including the ILN Anchor Nodes mission. In addition, the results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction efforts including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, long cycle time battery testing and combined GN&C and avionics testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two autonomous lander test articles: a compressed air system with limited flight durations and a second version using hydrogen peroxide propellant to achieve significantly longer flight times and the ability to

  16. NASA's asteroid redirect mission: Robotic boulder capture option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-07-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4--10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1--5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU_3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense.

  17. A robotic exploration mission to Mars and Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Justin H.; Defosse, Erin; Ho, Quang; Barriga, Ernisto; Davis, Grant; Mccourt, Steve; Smith, Matt

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the design of a robotic exploration to Mars and Phobos. It begins with the mission's background and objectives, followed by a detailed explanation of various elements of Project Aeneas, including science, spacecraft, probes, and orbital trajectories. In addition, a description of Argos Space Endeavours, management procedures, and overall project costs are presented. Finally, a list of recommendations for future design activity is included.

  18. Overview of Mission Design for NASA Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange, N.; Landau, D.; McElrath, T.; Lantoine, G.; Lam, T.; McGuire, M.; Burke, L.; Martini, M.; Dankanich, J.

    2013-10-01

    Part of NASA's new asteroid initiative would be a robotic mission to capture a roughly four to ten meter asteroid and redirect its orbit to place it in translunar space. Once in a stable storage orbit at the Moon, astronauts would then visit the asteroid for science investigations, to test in space resource extraction, and to develop experience with human deep space missions. This paper discusses the mission design techniques that would enable the redirection of a 100-1000 metric ton asteroid into lunar orbit with a 40-50 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) system.

  19. Overview of Mission Design for NASA Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strange, Nathan; Landau, Damon; McElrath, Timothy; Lantoine, Gregory; Lam, Try; McGuire, Melissa; Burke, Laura; Martini, Michael; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    Part of NASA's new asteroid initiative would be a robotic mission to capture a roughly four to ten meter asteroid and redirect its orbit to place it in translunar space. Once in a stable storage orbit at the Moon, astronauts would then visit the asteroid for science investigations, to test in space resource extraction, and to develop experience with human deep space missions. This paper discusses the mission design techniques that would enable the redirection of a 100-1000 metric ton asteroid into lunar orbit with a 40-50 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) system.

  20. Earth Science Missions Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marius, Julio L.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation gives a general overlook of the engineering efforts that are necessary to meet science mission requirement especially for Earth Science missions. It provides brief overlook of NASA's current missions and future Earth Science missions and the engineering challenges to meet some of the specific science objectives. It also provides, if time permits, a brief summary of two significant weather and climate phenomena in the Southern Hemisphere: El Nino and La Nina, as well as the Ozone depletion over Antarctica that will be of interest to IEEE intercom 2009 conference audience.

  1. Nuclear Electric Propulsion Application: RASC Mission Robotic Exploration of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    The following paper documents the mission and systems analysis portion of a study in which Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) is used as the in-space transportation system to send a series of robotic rovers and atmospheric science airplanes to Venus in the 2020 to 2030 timeframe. As part of the NASA RASC (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program, this mission analysis is meant to identify future technologies and their application to far reaching NASA missions. The NEP systems and mission analysis is based largely on current technology state of the art assumptions. This study looks specifically at the performance of the NEP transfer stage when sending a series of different payload package point design options to Venus orbit.

  2. RPS strategies to enable NASA's next decade robotic Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Jordan, James F.

    2007-06-01

    NASA's proposed roadmap for robotic Mars exploration over the next decade is influenced by science goals, technology needs and budgetary considerations. These requirements could introduce potential changes to the succession of missions, resulting in both technology feed forward and heritage. For long duration robotic surface missions at locations, where solar power generation is not feasible or limited, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) could be considered. Thus, RPSs could provide enabling power technologies for some of these missions, covering a power range from 10s of milliwatts to potentially a kilowatt or even higher. Currently, NASA and DoE with their industry partners are developing two RPSs, both generating about 110 W(e) at BOL. These systems will be made available as early as 2009. The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG)—with static power conversion—was down-selected as a potential power source for the MSL mission. Development of small-RPSs is in a planning stage by NASA and DoE; potentially targeting both the 10s of milliwatts and 10s of watts power ranges. If developed, Radioisotope Heat Unit (RHU) based systems—generating 10s to 100s of milliwatts—could power small adjunct elements on larger missions, while the GPHS module-based systems—each generating 10s of watts—could be stacked to provide the required power levels on MER class surface assets. MMRTGs and Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) could power MSL class or larger missions. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) with higher specific powers and increased power conversion efficiencies could enhance or even enable missions towards the second half of the next decade. This study examines the available power system options and power selection strategies in line with the proposed mission lineup, and identifies the benefits and utility of the various options for each of the next decade launch opportunities.

  3. (abstract) Telecommunications for Mars Rovers and Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesarone, Robert J.; Hastrup, Rolf C.; Horne, William; McOmber, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Telecommunications plays a key role in all rover and robotic missions to Mars both as a conduit for command information to the mission and for scientific data from the mission. Telecommunications to the Earth may be accomplished using direct-to-Earth links via the Deep Space Network (DSN) or by relay links supported by other missions at Mars. This paper reviews current plans for missions to Mars through the 2005 launch opportunity and their capabilities in support of rover and robotic telecommunications.

  4. Low Cost Robotic and Human Lunar Mission Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, J.

    Over the last three years SpaceDev has completed three studies of low cost robotic and human lunar lander missions of a private sector customer -- Lunar Enterprises of California and Hawaii The goal of the International Lunar Observatory was to design a fast low cost science lander mission for the Moon s South Pole The Human Servicing Mission study was to create a conceptual mission architecture and mission design for a human servicing mission to the Lunar south pole targeted for the period of 2010 to 2015 The studies explored the use of existing technology technology currently under development and proposed technology that could be developed by NASA other countries or the private sector in time to be incorporated into the missions in time The studies combined those technology capabilities to arrive at missions low in risk and low in cost Our approach to the study focused on developing a concept that would not only demonstrate that a low-cost near-term manned Lunar mission is feasible but would also generate excitement about returning humans to the Moon something which the NASA plan has failed to do The human mission objective is to send a crew of four people to the site of the International Lunar Observatories ILOs The length of stay on the Moon will be seven to ten days Mission constraints include available technology and the desired launch date range of 2010 to 2015 Additional constraints are imposed by the landing site the mission will require precision landing techniques in order to put the crew and their habitats close enough

  5. Science and Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever wondered about the science goals of various deep space missions? Or why scientists want such seemingly complicated spacecraft and operations scenarios? With a focus on outer planets) this talk will cover the scientific goals and results of several recent and future missions) how scientists approach a requirements flow down) and how the disparate needs of mission engineers and scientists can come together for mission success. It will also touch on several up and coming technologies and how they will change mission architectures in the future.

  6. Asteroid Redirect Mission Overview and Potential Science Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazanek, D.; Naasz, B.; Cichy, B.; Reeves, D.; Abell, P.

    2015-10-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the first-ever robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid, collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore it and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM will be provided along with a discussion of the potential science opportunities associated with the mission.

  7. MNSM - A Future Mars Network Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    2012-04-01

    Following ESA' s successful Mars Express mission, European efforts in Mars Exploration are now taking place within the joint ESA-NASA Mars Exploration Programme, starting in 2016 with the Trace Gases Orbiter (TGO) focusing on atmospheric trace gases and in particular methane, and with the Entry and Descent Module (EDM). In 2018, a joint NASA-ESA rover will perform sample caching as well as geological, geochemical and exobiological measurements of the surface and the subsurface of Mars. A number of missions for 2020 and beyond are currently under study. Among those, a possible candidate is a Mars Network Science Mission (MNSM) of 3-6 surface stations, to investigate the interior of the planet, its rotational parameters and its atmospheric dynamics. These important science goals have not been fully addressed by Mars exploration so far and can only be achieved with simultaneous measurements from a number of landers located on the surface of the planet such as a Mars Network mission. In addition, the geology, mineralogy and astrobiological significance of each landing site would be addressed, as three new locations on Mars would be reached. Such Mars Network Science Mission has been considered a significant priority by the planetary science community worldwide for the past two decades. In fact, a Mars Network mission concept has a long heritage, as it was studied a number of times by ESA, NASA and CNES (e.g., Marsnet, Intermarsnet, Netlander and MarsNEXT mission studies) since 1990. Study work has been renewed in ESA recently with MNSM Science and Engineering Teams being set up to update the scientific objectives of the mission and to evaluate its technical feasibility, respectively. The current mission baseline includes three ESA-led small landers with a robotic arm to be launched with a Soyuz rocket and direct communications to Earth (no need of a dedicated orbiter). However, a larger network could be put in place through international collaboration, as several

  8. Mission Driven Science at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Thackery, Michael; Wang, Michael; Young, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Mission driven science at Argonne means applying science and scientific knowledge to a physical and "real world" environment. Examples include testing a theoretical model through the use of formal science or solving a practical problem through the use of natural science. At the laboratory, our materials scientists are leading the way in producing energy solutions today that could help reduce and remove the energy crisis of tomorrow.

  9. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James

    2016-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. Last year, PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of

  10. Robotic Exploration: The Role of Science Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Historical mission operations have involved: (1) return of scientific data; (2) evaluation of these data by scientists; (3) recommendations for future mission activity by scientists; (4) commands for these transmitted to the craft; and (5) the activity being, undertaken. This cycle is repeated throughout the mission with command opportunities once or twice per day. For a rover, this historical cycle is not amenable to rapid long range traverses or rapid response to any novel or unexpected situations. In addition to real-time response issues, imaging and/or spectroscopic devices can produce tremendous data volumes during a traverse. However, such data volumes can rapidly exceed on-board memory capabilities prior to the ability to transmit it to Earth. Additionally, the necessary communication band-widths are restrictive enough so that only a small portion of these data can actually be returned to Earth. Such scenarios suggest enabling some science decisions to be made on-board the robots. These decisions involve automating various aspects of scientific discovery instead of the electromechanical control, health, and navigation issues associated with robotic operations. The robot retains access to the full data fidelity obtained by its scientific sensors, and is in the best position to implement actions based upon these data. Such an approach would eventually enable the robot to alter observations and assure only the highest quality data is obtained for analysis. Additionally, the robot can begin to understand what is scientifically interesting and implement alternative observing sequences, because the observed data deviate from expectations based upon current theories/models of planetary processes. Such interesting data and/or conclusions can then be prioritized and selectively transmitted to Earth; reducing memory and communications demands. Results of Ames' current work in this area will be presented.

  11. 1998 Mars Missions Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA executives gathered together for an interview to discuss the 1998 Mars Mission. A simulated overview of the Lander Mission is presented. Also presented are views of pre-launch activities, countdown, and launch of the spacecraft, burnouts of the first, second, and third engines, and the probe separating from the spacecraft. During this mission the Lander performs in situ investigations that address the science theme "Volatiles and Climate History" on Mars. The purpose of this mission is to study the following: climate; life; water; carbon dioxide; and dust particles.

  12. Future NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    With the launch of the last Earth Observation System (EOS) Missions, Aura, NASA now has a new fleet of 13+ highly capable remote sensing spacecraft orbiting the earth. Results from these missions are showing us the earth system as never seen before. But, what are the new challenges in understanding the Earth in an era of rapid change? In this talk I will outline some of the exciting results from the EOS missions and pull back the curtain on NASA's future earth science missions.

  13. Priority Planetary Science Missions Identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. National Research Council's (NRC) planetary science decadal survey report, released on 7 March, lays out a grand vision for priority planetary science missions for 2013-2022 within a tightly constrained fiscal environment. The cost-conscious report, issued by NRC's Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, identifies high-priority flagship missions, recommends a number of potential midsized missions, and indicates support for some smaller missions. The report states that the highest-priority flagship mission for the decade is the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C)—the first of three components of a NASA/European Space Agency Mars sample return campaign—provided that the mission scope can be reduced so that MAX-C costs no more than $2.5 billion. The currently estimated mission cost of $3.5 billion “would take up a disproportionate near-term share of the overall budget for NASA's Planetary Science Division,” the report notes.

  14. Enabling Future Robotic Missions with Multicore Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Wesley A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wilmot, Jonathan; Some, Raphael; Gostelow, Kim P.; Reeves, Glenn; Doyle, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent commercial developments in multicore processors (e.g. Tilera, Clearspeed, HyperX) have provided an option for high performance embedded computing that rivals the performance attainable with FPGA-based reconfigurable computing architectures. Furthermore, these processors offer more straightforward and streamlined application development by allowing the use of conventional programming languages and software tools in lieu of hardware design languages such as VHDL and Verilog. With these advantages, multicore processors can significantly enhance the capabilities of future robotic space missions. This paper will discuss these benefits, along with onboard processing applications where multicore processing can offer advantages over existing or competing approaches. This paper will also discuss the key artchitecural features of current commercial multicore processors. In comparison to the current art, the features and advancements necessary for spaceflight multicore processors will be identified. These include power reduction, radiation hardening, inherent fault tolerance, and support for common spacecraft bus interfaces. Lastly, this paper will explore how multicore processors might evolve with advances in electronics technology and how avionics architectures might evolve once multicore processors are inserted into NASA robotic spacecraft.

  15. Spacelab 3 Mission Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, George H. (Editor); Theon, John S. (Editor); Hill, Charles K. (Editor); Vaughan, Otha H. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Papers and abstracts of the presentations made at the symposium are given as the scientific report for the Spacelab 3 mission. Spacelab 3, the second flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) orbital laboratory, signified a new era of research in space. The primary objective of the mission was to conduct applications, science, and technology experiments requiring the low-gravity environment of Earth orbit and stable vehicle attitude over an extended period (e.g., 6 days) with emphasis on materials processing. The mission was launched on April 29, 1985, aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger which landed a week later on May 6. The multidisciplinary payload included 15 investigations in five scientific fields: material science, fluid dynamics, life sciences, astrophysics, and atmospheric science.

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    Scheduled to land in August of 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission was initiated to explore the habitability of Mars. This includes both modern environments as well as ancient environments recorded by the stratigraphic rock record preserved at the Gale crater landing site. The Curiosity rover has a designed lifetime of at least one Mars year (˜23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. Curiosity's science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere (SAM instrument); an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity (CheMin instrument); focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color (MAHLI, MARDI, and Mastcam instruments); an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry (APXS instrument); a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals (ChemCam instrument); an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith (DAN instrument); a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables (REMS instrument); and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD instrument). The various payload elements will work together to detect and study potential sampling targets with remote and in situ measurements; to acquire samples of rock, soil, and atmosphere and analyze them in onboard analytical instruments; and to observe the environment around the rover. The 155-km diameter Gale crater was chosen as Curiosity's field site based on several attributes: an interior mountain of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mountain show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate

  17. Attracting Students to Space Science Fields: Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Donald R.; Lovegrove, William P.; Samec, Ronald G.

    Attracting high school students to space science is one of the main goals of Bob Jones University's annual Mission to Mars (MTM). MTM develops interest in space exploration through a highly realistic simulated trip to Mars. Students study and learn to appreciate the challenges of space travel including propulsion life support medicine planetary astronomy psychology robotics and communication. Broken into teams (Management Spacecraft Design Communications Life Support Navigation Robotics and Science) they address the problems specific to each aspect of the mission. Teams also learn to interact and recognize that a successful mission requires cooperation. Coordinated by the Management Team the students build a spacecraft and associated apparatus connect computers and communications equipment train astronauts on the mission simulator and program a Pathfinder-type robot. On the big day the astronauts enter the spacecraft as Mission Control gets ready to support them through the expected and unexpected of their mission. Aided by teamwork the astronauts must land on Mars perform their scientific mission on a simulated surface of mars and return home. We see the success of MTM not only in successful missions but in the students who come back year after year for another MTM.

  18. Robotic missions to Mars - Paving the way for humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, D. S.; Bourke, R. D.; Cunningham, G. E.; Golombek, M. P.; Sturms, F. M.; Kahl, R. C.; Lance, N.; Martin, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is in the planning stages of a program leading to the human exploration of Mars. A critical element in that program is a set of robotic missions that will acquire information on the Martian environment and test critical functions (such as aerobraking) at the planet. This paper presents some history of Mars missions, as well as results of recent studies of the Mars robotic missions that are under consideration as part of the exploration program. These missions include: (1) global synoptic geochemical and climatological characterization from orbit (Mars Observer), (2) global network of small meteorological and seismic stations, (3) sample returns, (4) reconnaissance orbiters and (5) rovers.

  19. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic Missions in Near-Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2007-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science and robotic exploration, and planetary science. These missions span SEP power range from 10 kWe to about 100 kWe. A SEP design compatible with small inexpensive launch vehicles, and capable of lunar science missions, is presented. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  20. The Embudito Mission: A Case Study of the Systematics of Autonomous Ground Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    EICKER,PATRICK J.

    2001-02-01

    Ground mobile robots are much in the mind of defense planners at this time, being considered for a significant variety of missions with a diversity ranging from logistics supply to reconnaissance and surveillance. While there has been a very large amount of basic research funded in the last quarter century devoted to mobile robots and their supporting component technologies, little of this science base has been fully developed and deployed--notable exceptions being NASA's Mars rover and several terrestrial derivatives. The material in this paper was developed as a first exemplary step in the development of a more systematic approach to the R and D of ground mobile robots.

  1. Mission Success for Combustion Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes how mission success for combustion experiments has been obtained in previous spaceflight experiments and how it will be obtained for future International Space Station (ISS) experiments. The fluids and combustion facility is a payload planned for the ISS. It is composed of two racks: the fluids Integrated rack and the Combustion INtegrated Rack (CIR). Requirements for the CIR were obtained from a set of combustion basis experiments that served as surrogates for later experiments. The process for experiments that fly on the ISS includes proposal selection, requirements and success criteria definition, science and engineering reviews, mission operations, and postflight operations. By following this process, the microgravity combustion science program has attained success in 41 out of 42 experiments.

  2. Science Activity Planner for the MER Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Wallick, Michael N.; Mittman, David S.

    2008-01-01

    The Maestro Science Activity Planner is a computer program that assists human users in planning operations of the Mars Explorer Rover (MER) mission and visualizing scientific data returned from the MER rovers. Relative to its predecessors, this program is more powerful and easier to use. This program is built on the Java Eclipse open-source platform around a Web-browser-based user-interface paradigm to provide an intuitive user interface to Mars rovers and landers. This program affords a combination of advanced display and simulation capabilities. For example, a map view of terrain can be generated from images acquired by the High Resolution Imaging Science Explorer instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft and overlaid with images from a navigation camera (more precisely, a stereoscopic pair of cameras) aboard a rover, and an interactive, annotated rover traverse path can be incorporated into the overlay. It is also possible to construct an overhead perspective mosaic image of terrain from navigation-camera images. This program can be adapted to similar use on other outer-space missions and is potentially adaptable to numerous terrestrial applications involving analysis of data, operations of robots, and planning of such operations for acquisition of scientific data.

  3. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission Payload Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    Public Affairs Officer Kyle Herring talks by phone with Ben Reed, Deputy Project Manager of the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office at Goddard Space Flight Center. They talk about the Robotic R...

  4. A New Simulation Framework for Autonomy in Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Neukom, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Autonomy is a key factor in remote robotic exploration and there is significant activity addressing the application of autonomy to remote robots. It has become increasingly important to have simulation tools available to test the autonomy algorithms. While indus1;rial robotics benefits from a variety of high quality simulation tools, researchers developing autonomous software are still dependent primarily on block-world simulations. The Mission Simulation Facility I(MSF) project addresses this shortcoming with a simulation toolkit that will enable developers of autonomous control systems to test their system s performance against a set of integrated, standardized simulations of NASA mission scenarios. MSF provides a distributed architecture that connects the autonomous system to a set of simulated components replacing the robot hardware and its environment.

  5. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  6. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy; Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young

    2006-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  7. Thermal Design Considerations of the Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Teri H.; Newman, Miles

    2011-01-01

    The Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM) is a flight demonstration of the tasks required to perform robotic refueling of orbiting spacecraft. RRM will be mounted to an ExPress Adapter Plate (ExPA) for launch and installed onto the International Space Station (ISS) Express Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC4). RRM operations will be conducted using the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) robotic arm on the ISS with the ORU/Tool Changeout Mechanism (OTCM) for grasping tools and completing the refueling demonstration tasks. This paper presents the thermal considerations and design of the RRM including the tools required for the tasks.

  8. Historical trends of participation of women in robotic spacecraft missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathbun, Julie A.; Dones, Luke; Gay, Pamela; Cohen, Barbara; Horst, Sarah; Lakdawalla, Emily; Spickard, James; Milazzo, Moses; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Schug, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    For many planetary scientists, being involved in a spacecraft mission is the highlight of a career. Many young scientists hope to one day be involved in such a mission. We will look at the science teams of several flagship-class spacecraft missions to look for trends in the representation of groups that are underrepresented in science. We will start with The Galileo, Cassini, and Europa missions to the outer solar system as representing missions that began in the 1980s, 1990s and 2010s respectively. We would also like to extend our analysis to smaller missions and those to targets other than the outer solar system.

  9. NASA's Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP) 2 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horack, John M.; Lavoie, Anthony; Spudis, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Before returning humans to the Moon for mankind's seventh lunar landing, NASA will embark upon a series of robotic missions to prepare the way for further exploration. These missions, part of the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP), are designed to acquire decisive knowledge about the moon as well as to develop infrastructure needed to sustain human exploration in the lunar environment. Here we focus on the second mission in the RLEP program, RLEP-2, the first dedicated to landing in the south polar region of the moon. Managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, along with the Applied Physics Laboratory and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, RLEP-2 will build upon knowledge gained from the Chandraayan-1 and Lunar Robotic Orbiter orbital missions, to help further the prospects for sustainable human exploration on the moon. This mission will characterize the lighting environment in the polar region, critically important to understanding the amount of power available and to the thermal design of hardware, as well as explore the nature and distribution of volatiles that may be present in permanently shadowed regions of polar craters. We shall review the current status of the mission, articulate the results of onoging trade studies in power, surface mobility, launch vehicles, measurements and instrumentation, and navigation/communication, as well as discuss the primary mission objectives in detail.

  10. Delta WIND Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The science objectives of the WIND mission are to: 1) provide complete plasma, energetic particle, and magnetic field input for magnetospheric and ionospheric studies; 2) Determine the magnetospheric output to interplanetary space in the up-stream region; 3) Investigate basic plasma processes occurring in the near-Earth solar wind; and 4) Provide baseline ecliptic plane observations to be used in heliospheric latitudes from ULYSSES. The WIND science briefing is presented by George Diller, NASA public affairs; Dr. Robert L. Carovillano, Project Scientist for the Global Geospace Science Initiative, NASA Headquarters; Dr. Mario H. Acuna, Project Scientist for the WIND Project, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); Dr. Keith W. Ogilvie, Principle Investigator, Solar Wind Experiment at GSFC; Dr. Jean Louis Bougeret, Principle Investigator, Radio/Plasma Wave Experiment, Paris; and Dr. Eugeny Mazets, Co-Principle Investigator, Russian Gamma Ray Spectrometer Instrument, St. Pertersburg, Russia. Dr. Carovillano presents a cartoon slide of the Solar Terrestrial System and describes the Sun and the Magnetic field of the Earth. Dr. Acuna also presents a cartoon slide describing GEOTAIL, POLAR, WIND, SOHO, ULYSSES and Cluster which are the various tools used to study the complex solar terrestrial system. Dr. Ogilvie explains four particle and wave instruments on WIND. These instruments will be used to study the contributions and characteristics of plasma and plasma waves that occur in the solar wind. Dr. Bougeret explains the European participation in the WIND mission. He also shows a slide presentation of SOHO and the CLUSTER spacecraft. Dr. Mazets explains the main objective of the Transient Gamma Ray Spectrometer (TGRS) aboard the WIND spacecraft, which is to perform high resolution measurements of Gamma Ray Burst spectra and time histories, with emphasis on the search for line features in the energy spectra. The briefing ends with a question and answer period. See NONP

  11. Technology transfer and space science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, Mario

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology transfer and space science missions are provided. Topics covered include: project scientist role within NASA; role of universities in technology transfer; role of government laboratories in research; and technology issues associated with science.

  12. Automation, robotics, and inflight training for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1986-01-01

    The automation, robotics, and inflight training requirements of manned Mars missions will be supported by similar capabilities developed for the space station program. Evolutionary space station onboard training facilities will allow the crewmembers to minimize the amount of training received on the ground by providing extensive onboard access to system and experiment malfunction procedures, maintenance procedures, repair procedures, and associated video sequences. Considerable on-the-job training will also be conducted for space station management, mobile remote manipulator operations, proximity operations with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (and later the Orbit Transfer Vehicle), and telerobotics and mobile robots. A similar approach could be used for manned Mars mission training with significant additions such as high fidelity image generation and simulation systems such as holographic projection systems for Mars landing, ascent, and rendezvous training. In addition, a substantial increase in the use of automation and robotics for hazardous and tedious tasks would be expected for Mars mission. Mobile robots may be used to assist in the assembly, test and checkout of the Mars spacecraft, in the handling of nuclear components and hazardous chemical propellent transfer operations, in major spacecraft repair tasks which might be needed (repair of a micrometeroid penetration, for example), in the construction of a Mars base, and for routine maintenance of the base when unmanned.

  13. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    Scheduled to land in August of 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission was initiated to explore the habitability of Mars. This includes both modern environments as well as ancient environments recorded by the stratigraphic rock record preserved at the Gale crater landing site. The Curiosity rover has a designed lifetime of at least one Mars year (˜23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. Curiosity's science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere (SAM instrument); an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity (CheMin instrument); focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color (MAHLI, MARDI, and Mastcam instruments); an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry (APXS instrument); a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals (ChemCam instrument); an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith (DAN instrument); a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables (REMS instrument); and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD instrument). The various payload elements will work together to detect and study potential sampling targets with remote and in situ measurements; to acquire samples of rock, soil, and atmosphere and analyze them in onboard analytical instruments; and to observe the environment around the rover. The 155-km diameter Gale crater was chosen as Curiosity's field site based on several attributes: an interior mountain of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mountain show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate

  14. Robotic Reconnaissance Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic reconnaissance missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near- Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the direction of the Human Exploration and Operations Missions Directorate (HEOMD), given NASA's recent interest in NEAs and the Martian moons as potential human destinations [1]. The action team

  15. Life sciences interests in Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Griffiths, Lynn D.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Space Life Sciences research permeates plans for Mars missions and the rationale for the exploration of the planet. The Space Life Sciences program has three major roles in Mars mission studies: providing enabling technology for piloted missions, conducting scientific exploration related to the origin and evolution of life, and protecting space crews from the adverse physiological effects of space flight. This paper presents a rationale for exploration and some of the issues, tradeoffs, and visions being addressed in the Space Life Sciences program in preparation for Mars missions.

  16. Spacelab life sciences 2 post mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Jay C. Buckey, M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas served as an alternate payload specialist astronaut for the Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Space Shuttle Mission from January 1992 through December 1993. This report summarizes his opinions on the mission and offers suggestions in the areas of selection, training, simulations, baseline data collection and mission operations. The report recognizes the contributions of the commander, payload commander and mission management team to the success of the mission. Dr. Buckey's main accomplishments during the mission are listed.

  17. Next Generation Simulation Framework for Robotic and Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Balaram, J.; Jain, Abhinandan; Kuo, Calvin; Lim, Christopher; Myint, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The Dartslab team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has a long history of developing physics-based simulations based on the Darts/Dshell simulation framework that have been used to simulate many planetary robotic missions, such as the Cassini spacecraft and the rovers that are currently driving on Mars. Recent collaboration efforts between the Dartslab team at JPL and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) have led to significant enhancements to the Dartslab DSENDS (Dynamics Simulator for Entry, Descent and Surface landing) software framework. The new version of DSENDS is now being used for new planetary mission simulations at JPL. JSC is using DSENDS as the foundation for a suite of software known as COMPASS (Core Operations, Mission Planning, and Analysis Spacecraft Simulation) that is the basis for their new human space mission simulations and analysis. In this paper, we will describe the collaborative process with the JPL Dartslab and the JSC MOD team that resulted in the redesign and enhancement of the DSENDS software. We will outline the improvements in DSENDS that simplify creation of new high-fidelity robotic/spacecraft simulations. We will illustrate how DSENDS simulations are assembled and show results from several mission simulations.

  18. Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.; Keller, J. W.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.; Petro, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18,2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and the measurement of the lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and was completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September of 2012. Under SMD, the Science Mission focused on a new set of goals related to understanding the history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having recently marked the completion of the two-year Science Mission, we will review here the major results from the LRO for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives for the Extended Science that will last until September, 2014. Some results from the LRO mission are: the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  19. Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. W.; Vondrak, R. R.; Petro, N. E.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and the measurement of the lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and was completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September of 2012. Under SMD, the Science Mission focused on a new set of goals related to understanding the history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having recently marked the completion of the two-year Science Mission, we will review here the major results from the LRO for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives for the Extended Science that will last until September, 2014. Some results from the LRO mission are: the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  20. The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten

  1. Telecommunications for Mars Rovers and Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. D.; Hastrup, R.; Cesarone, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars exploration program of NASA and the international community will evolve from an early emphasis on orbital remote sensing toward in situ science activity on, or just above, the Martian surface.

  2. Telecommunications for Mars Rovers and Robotic Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. D.; Hastrup, R.; Cesarone, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars exploration program of NASA and the international community will evolve from an early emphasis on orbital remote sensing toward in-situ science activity on, or just above, the Martian surface.

  3. Robotics and telepresence for moon missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian

    1994-10-01

    An integrated moon program has often been proposed as a logical next step for today's space efforts. In the context of preparing for the possibility of launching a moon program, the European Space Agency is currently conducting an internal study effort which is focusing on the assessment of key technologies. Current thinking has this moon program organized into four phases. Phase 1 will deal with lunar resource exploration. The goal would be to produce a complete chemical inventory of the moon, including oxygen, water, other volatiles, carbon, silicon, and other resources. Phase 2 will establish a permanent robotic presence on the moon via a number of landers and surface rovers. Phase 3 will extend the second phase and concentrate on the use and exploitation of local lunar resources. Phase 4 will be the establishment of a first human outpost. Some preliminary work such as the building of the outpost and the installation of scientific equipment will be done by unmanned systems before a human crew is sent to the moon.

  4. A risk-based approach to robotic mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, William C.; Bourke, Roger D.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Risk Team has developed a method for the application of risk management to the definition of robotic mission requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative. These requirements encompass environmental information, infrastructural emplacement in advance, and either technology testing or system/subsystems demonstration. Attention is presently given to a method for step-by-step consideration and analysis of the risk component inherent in mission architecture, followed by a calculation of the subjective risk level. Mitigation strategies are then applied with the same rules, and a comparison is made.

  5. Calculator-Controlled Robots: Hands-On Mathematics and Science Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchscherer, Tyson

    2010-01-01

    The Calculator Controlled Robots activities are designed to engage students in hands-on inquiry-based missions. These activities address National science and technology standards, as well as specifically focusing on mathematics content and process standards. There are ten missions and three exploration extensions that provide activities for up to…

  6. Chandrayaan-1: India's first planetary science mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath Goswami, Jitendra

    A new initiative of the Indian Space Research Organization to have dedicated Space Science Missions led to two major missions that are currently in progress: Astrosat and Chandrayaan-1, the latter being the first planetary science mission of the country. The spadework for this mission started about ten years back and culminated in late 2003 with the official endorsement for the mission. This remote sensing mission, to be launched in early next year, is expected to further our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon based on a chemical, mineralogical and topographic study of the lunar surface at spatial and spectral resolutions much better than those for previous and other currently planned lunar missions. The Chandrayaan-1 mission is also international in character and will have an array of Indian instruments as well as several instruments from abroad some of which will have very strong Indian collaboration. This talk will provide a brief overview of our present understanding of the Moon, the science objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission and how we hope to achieve these from the data to be obtained by the various instruments on board the mission. A possible road map for Indian planetary exploration programme in the context of the International scenario will be presented at the end.

  7. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  8. Mars penetrator: Subsurface science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, C. K.

    1974-01-01

    A penetrator system to emplace subsurface science on the planet Mars is described. The need for subsurface science is discussed, and the technologies for achieving successful atmospheric entry, Mars penetration, and data retrieval are presented.

  9. Planetary exploration by a mobile robot: mission teleprogramming and autonomous navigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatila, R.; Lacroix, S.; Simeon, T.; Herrb, M.

    Sending mobile robots to accomplish planetary exploration missions is scientifically promising and technologically challenging. The authors present a complete approach that encompasses the major aspects involved in the design of a robotic system for planetary exploration. It includes mission teleprogramming and supervision at a ground station, and autonomous mission execution by the remote mobile robot. They have partially implemented and validated these concepts. Experimental results illustrate the approach and the results.

  10. Life sciences flight experiments program mission science requirements document. The first life sciences dedicated Spacelab mission, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Mission Science Requirements Document (MSRD) for the First Dedicated Life Sciences Mission (LS-1) represents the culmination of thousands of hours of experiment selection, and science requirement definition activities. NASA life sciences has never before attempted to integrate, both scientifically and operationally, a single mission dedicated to life sciences research, and the complexity of the planning required for such an endeavor should be apparent. This set of requirements completes the first phase of a continual process which will attempt to optimize (within available programmatic and mission resources) the science accomplished on this mission.

  11. The virtual mission approach: Empowering earth and space science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Elaine

    1993-08-01

    Future Earth and Space Science missions will address increasingly broad and complex scientific issues. To accomplish this task, we will need to acquire and coordinate data sets from a number of different instrumetns, to make coordinated observations of a given phenomenon, and to coordinate the operation of the many individual instruments making these observations. These instruments will need to be used together as a single ``Virtual Mission.'' This coordinated approach is complicated in that these scientific instruments will generally be on different platforms, in different orbits, from different control centers, at different institutions, and report to different user groups. Before this Virtual Mission approach can be implemented, techniques need to be developed to enable separate instruments to work together harmoniously, to execute observing sequences in a synchronized manner, and to be managed by the Virtual Mission authority during times of these coordinated activities. Enabling technologies include object-oriented designed approaches, extended operations management concepts and distributed computing techniques. Once these technologies are developed and the Virtual Mission concept is available, we believe the concept will provide NASA's Science Program with a new, ``go-as-you-pay,'' flexible, and resilient way of accomplishing its science observing program. The concept will foster the use of smaller and lower cost satellites. It will enable the fleet of scientific satellites to evolve in directions that best meet prevailing science needs. It will empower scientists by enabling them to mix and match various combinations of in-space, ground, and suborbital instruments - combinations which can be called up quickly in response to new events or discoveries. And, it will enable small groups such as universities, Space Grant colleges, and small businesses to participate significantly in the program by developing small components of this evolving scientific fleet.

  12. Robotic Reconnaissance Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Robotic reconnaissance missions to asteroids and comets will directly address crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning small body physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations .

  13. Cryogenic Autogenous Pressurization Testing for Robotic Refueling Mission 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R.; DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Francis, J.; Mustafi, S.; Li, X.; Barfknecht, P.; DeLee, C. H.; McGuire, J.

    2015-01-01

    A wick-heater system has been selected for use to pressurize the Source Dewar of the Robotic Refueling Mission Phase 3 on-orbit cryogen transfer experiment payload for the International Space Station. Experimental results of autogenous pressurization of liquid argon and liquid nitrogen using a prototype wick-heater system are presented. The wick-heater generates gas to increase the pressure in the tank while maintaining a low bulk fluid temperature. Pressurization experiments were performed in 2013 to characterize the performance of the wick heater. This paper describes the experimental setup, pressurization results, and analytical model correlations.

  14. Science Missions Enabled by the Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Simon Peter; Weiler, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's planned heavy-lift Ares V rocket is a centerpiece of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. With approximately 30% more capacity to Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) than the Saturn V, Ares V could also enable additional science and exploration missions currently unachievable or extremely unworkable under current launch vehicle architectures. During the spring and summer of 2008, NASA held two workshops dedicated to the discussion of these new mission concepts for the Ares V rocket. The first workshop dealt with astronomy and astrophysics, and the second dealt primarily with planetary science and exploration, but did touch on Earth science and heliophysics. We present here the summary results and outcomes of these meetings, including a discussion of specific mission concepts and ideas, as well as suggestions on design for the Ares V fairing and flight configurations that improve science return.

  15. Robotic sampling system for an unmanned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, Wendell

    1989-01-01

    A major robotics opportunity for NASA will be the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission which could be launched as early as the 1990s. The exploratory portion of this mission will include two autonomous subsystems: the rover vehicle and a sample handling system. The sample handling system is the key to the process of collecting Martian soils. This system could include a core drill, a general-purpose manipulator, tools, containers, a return canister, certification hardware and a labeling system. Integrated into a functional package, the sample handling system is analogous to a complex robotic workcell. Discussed here are the different components of the system, their interfaces, forseeable problem areas and many options based on the scientific goals of the mission. The various interfaces in the sample handling process (component to component and handling system to rover) will be a major engineering effort. Two critical evaluation criteria that will be imposed on the system are flexibility and reliability. It needs to be flexible enough to adapt to different scenarios and environments and acquire the most desirable specimens for return to Earth. Scientists may decide to change the distribution and ratio of core samples to rock samples in the canister. The long distance and duration of this planetary mission places a reliability burden on the hardware. The communication time delay between Earth and Mars minimizes operator interaction (teleoperation, supervisory modes) with the sample handler. An intelligent system will be required to plan the actions, make sample choices, interpret sensor inputs, and query unknown surroundings. A combination of autonomous functions and supervised movements will be integrated into the sample handling system.

  16. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  17. Design of human missions to Mars and robotic missions to Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okutsu, Masataka

    We consider human missions to Mars and robotic missions to Jupiter for launch dates in the near- and far-future. For the near-future, we design trajectories for currently proposed space missions that have well-defined spacecraft and mission requirements. For example, for early human missions to Mars we assume that the constraints used in NASA's design reference missions are indicative of current and near-future technologies, which of course limit our capabilities to explore Mars--and these limits make the problem challenging. Similarly, in the case of robotic exploration of Jupiter, we consider that the technology levels assumed for the proposed Europa Orbiter mission represent reasonable limits. For the far-future (two to three decades from now), we take the best estimates from current literature about the capabilities that may be available in nuclear-powered electric propulsion. We consider hardware capabilities (in terms of specific mass, specific impulse, thrust, power, etc.) for low-thrust trajectories, which range froth near-term to far-future technologies. In designing such missions, several techniques are found useful. For example, the Tisserand Graph, which tracks the changes in orbital shapes and energies, provides insight in designing Jovian tours for the Europa Orbiter mission. The graph is also useful in analyzing abort trajectories for human missions to Mars. Furthermore, a patched-conic propagator, which can generate thousands of potential trajectories, plays a vital role in three of four chapters of this thesis. For launches in the next three decades, we discovered a class of Earth- Mars-Venus-Earth free returns (which appear only four times in the 100-year period), Jovian tours involving ten to twenty flybys of the Galilean satellites, and low-thrust trajectories to Jupiter via gravity assists from Venus, Earth, and Mars. In addition, our continuation method, in which a solution for a conic trajectory is gradually converted into that for a low

  18. Core Science Systems--Mission overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallagher, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    CSS provides a foundation for all USGS Mission Areas, as well as for the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI), in the following ways: 1) Conducts basic and applied science research and development 2) Fosters broad understanding and application of analyses and information 3) Provides a framework for data and information sharing 4) Creates new geospatially enabled data and information 5) Provides technical expertise in standards and methods 6) Builds and facilitates partnerships and innovation

  19. Robotic Manufacturing Science and Engineering Laboratory (RMSEL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Robotic Manufacturing Science and Engineering Laboratory (RMSEL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the robotics research and testing currently in progress at SNL. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  20. Robotic Mission to Mars: Hands-on, minds-on, web-based learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Naomi; Goktogen, Ali; Rankin, John; Anderson, Marion

    2012-11-01

    Problem-based learning has been demonstrated as an effective methodology for developing analytical skills and critical thinking. The use of scenario-based learning incorporates problem-based learning whilst encouraging students to collaborate with their colleagues and dynamically adapt to their environment. This increased interaction stimulates a deeper understanding and the generation of new knowledge. The Victorian Space Science Education Centre (VSSEC) uses scenario-based learning in its Mission to Mars, Mission to the Orbiting Space Laboratory and Primary Expedition to the M.A.R.S. Base programs. These programs utilize methodologies such as hands-on applications, immersive-learning, integrated technologies, critical thinking and mentoring to engage students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and highlight potential career paths in science and engineering. The immersive nature of the programs demands specialist environments such as a simulated Mars environment, Mission Control and Space Laboratory, thus restricting these programs to a physical location and limiting student access to the programs. To move beyond these limitations, VSSEC worked with its university partners to develop a web-based mission that delivered the benefits of scenario-based learning within a school environment. The Robotic Mission to Mars allows students to remotely control a real rover, developed by the Australian Centre for Field Robotics (ACFR), on the VSSEC Mars surface. After completing a pre-mission training program and site selection activity, students take on the roles of scientists and engineers in Mission Control to complete a mission and collect data for further analysis. Mission Control is established using software developed by the ACRI Games Technology Lab at La Trobe University using the principles of serious gaming. The software allows students to control the rover, monitor its systems and collect scientific data for analysis. This program encourages

  1. Mars mission science operations facilities design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wales, Roxana; Powell, Mark W.; Backes, Paul G.; Steinke, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    A variety of designs for Mars rover and lander science operations centers are discussed in this paper, beginning with a brief description of the Pathfinder science operations facility and its strengths and limitations. Particular attention is then paid to lessons learned in the design and use of operations facilities for a series of mission-like field tests of the FIDO prototype Mars rover. These lessons are then applied to a proposed science operations facilities design for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission. Issues discussed include equipment selection, facilities layout, collaborative interfaces, scalability, and dual-purpose environments. The paper concludes with a discussion of advanced concepts for future mission operations centers, including collaborative immersive interfaces and distributed operations. This paper's intended audience includes operations facility and situation room designers and the users of these environments.

  2. Parametric cost estimation for space science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.

    2008-07-01

    Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.

  3. Life Sciences in NASA's Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1999-01-01

    The topics of agency and enterprise goals, OLMSA organization, life sciences relationship to NASA/HEDS strategic plans, budget allocated by the HEDS strategic plan goals, 1998 successes, exploration and the International Space Station, congressional budgets, OLMSA grants, biomedical research and countermeasures, medical care, biologically inspired technologies, and publication, education and outreach are all presented in viewgraph form.

  4. Advancement of a 30K W Solar Electric Propulsion System Capability for NASA Human and Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Nazario, Margaret L.; Manzella, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion has evolved into a demonstrated operational capability performing station keeping for geosynchronous satellites, enabling challenging deep-space science missions, and assisting in the transfer of satellites from an elliptical orbit Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) to a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). Advancing higher power SEP systems will enable numerous future applications for human, robotic, and commercial missions. These missions are enabled by either the increased performance of the SEP system or by the cost reductions when compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems. Higher power SEP systems that provide very high payload for robotic missions also trade favorably for the advancement of human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Demonstrated reliable systems are required for human space flight and due to their successful present day widespread use and inherent high reliability, SEP systems have progressively become a viable entrant into these future human exploration architectures. NASA studies have identified a 30 kW-class SEP capability as the next appropriate evolutionary step, applicable to wide range of both human and robotic missions. This paper describes the planning options, mission applications, and technology investments for representative 30kW-class SEP mission concepts under consideration by NASA

  5. Test and Validation of the Mars Science Laboratory Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M.; Collins, C.; Leger, P.; Kim, W.; Carsten, J.; Tompkins, V.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Florow, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Robotic Arm (RA) is a key component for achieving the primary scientific goals of the mission. The RA supports sample acquisition by precisely positioning a scoop above loose regolith or accurately preloading a percussive drill on Martian rocks or rover-mounted organic check materials. It assists sample processing by orienting a sample processing unit called CHIMRA through a series of gravity-relative orientations and sample delivery by positioning the sample portion door above an instrument inlet or the observation tray. In addition the RA facilitates contact science by accurately positioning the dust removal tool, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) relative to surface targets. In order to fulfill these seemingly disparate science objectives the RA must satisfy a variety of accuracy and performance requirements. This paper describes the necessary arm requirement specification and the test campaign to demonstrate these requirements were satisfied.

  6. Spacelab mission 4 - The first dedicated life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, T. W.; Reid, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for the first Spacelab-4 mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, are reviewed. The thrust of the scientific mission scheduled for late 1985 will be to study the acute effects of weightlessness on living systems, particularly humans. The payload of the Spacelab compartment will contain 24 experiments of which approximately half will involve humans. Among the major areas of interest are cardiovascular and pulmonary function, vestibular function, renal and endocrine physiology, hematology, nitrogen balance, immunological function, the gravitational biology of plants, inflight fertilization of frogs' eggs and the effects of zero gravity on monkeys and rats. In selecting the array of experiments an effort was made to combine investigations with complementary scientific objectives to develop animal models of human biological problems.

  7. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, D. G.; Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L. A.; Eng, D.; Ballard, B. W.; Kubota, S. D.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Holloway, T. A.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) have been conducting mission studies and performing risk reduction activities for NASA s robotic lunar lander flight projects. This paper describes some of the lunar lander concepts derived from these studies conducted by the MSFC/APL Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project team. In addition, the results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction efforts including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, long cycle time battery testing and combined GN&C and avionics testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two autonomous lander flight test vehicles: a compressed air system with limited flight durations and a second version using hydrogen peroxide propellant to achieve significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms.

  8. Mission and science activity scheduling language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    To support the distributed and complex operational scheduling required for future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions, a formal, textual language, the Scheduling Applications Interface Language (SAIL), has been developed. Increased geographic dispersion of investigators is leading to distributed mission and science activity planning, scheduling, and operations. SAIL is an innovation which supports the effective and efficient communication of scheduling information among physically dispersed applications in distributed scheduling environments. SAIL offers a clear, concise, unambiguous expression of scheduling information in a readable, hardware independent format. The language concept, syntax, and semantics incorporate language features found useful during five years of research and prototyping with scheduling languages in physically distributed environments. SAIL allows concise specification of mission and science activity plans in a format which promotes repetition and reuse.

  9. NASA Mars 2020 Rover Mission: New Frontiers in Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission is the next step in NASAs robotic exploration of the red planet. The rover, based on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover now on Mars, will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission would also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.Like the Mars Science Laboratory rover, which has been exploring Mars since 2012, the Mars 2020 spacecraft will use a guided entry, descent, and landing system which includes a parachute, descent vehicle, and, during the provides the ability to land a very large, heavy rover on the surface of Mars in a more precise landing area. The Mars 2020 mission is designed to accomplish several high-priority planetary science goals and will be an important step toward meeting NASAs challenge to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. The mission will conduct geological assessments of the rover's landing site, determine the habitability of the environment, search for signs of ancient Martian life, and assess natural resources and hazards for future human explorers. The science instruments aboard the rover also will enable scientists to identify and select a collection of rock and soil samples that will be stored for potential return to Earth in the future. The rover also may help designers of a human expedition understand the hazards posed by Martian dust and demonstrate how to collect carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which could be a valuable resource for producing oxygen and rocket fuel.

  10. Game changing: NASA's space launch system and science mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creech, S. D.

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher characteristic energy (C3) energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as “ monolithic” telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  11. Next Gen NEAR: Near Earth Asteroid Human Robotic Precursor Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Kirby, Karen; Cheng, Andrew F.; Gold, Robert; Kelly, Daniel; Reed, Cheryl; Abell, Paul; Garvin, James; Landis, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Asteroids have long held the attention of the planetary science community. In particular, asteroids that evolve into orbits near that of Earth, called near-Earth objects (NEO), are of high interest as potential targets for exploration due to the relative ease (in terms of delta V) to reach them. NASA's Flexible Path calls for missions and experiments to be conducted as intermediate steps towards the eventual goal of human exploration of Mars; piloted missions to NEOs are such example. A human NEO mission is a valuable exploratory step beyond the Earth-Moon system enhancing capabilities that surpass our current experience, while also developing infrastructure for future mars exploration capabilities. To prepare for a human rendezvous with an NEO, NASA is interested in pursuing a responsible program of robotic NEO precursor missions. Next Gen NEAR is such a mission, building on the NEAR Shoemaker mission experience at the JHU/APL Space Department, to provide an affordable, low risk solution with quick data return. Next Gen NEAR proposes to make measurements needed for human exploration to asteroids: to demonstrate proximity operations, to quantify hazards for human exploration and to characterize an environment at a near-Earth asteroid representative of those that may be future human destinations. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has demonstrated exploration-driven mission feasibility by developing a versatile spacecraft design concept using conventional technologies that satisfies a set of science, exploration and mission objectives defined by a concept development team in the summer of 2010. We will describe the mission concept and spacecraft architecture in detail. Configuration options were compared with the mission goals and objectives in order to select the spacecraft design concept that provides the lowest cost, lowest implementation risk, simplest operation and the most benefit for the mission implementation. The Next Gen NEAR

  12. Multimodal Platform Control for Robotic Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions pose unique problems for astronauts seeking to coordinate and control exploration vehicles. These include working in an environment filled with abrasive dust (e.g., regolith compositions), a desire to have effective hands-free communication, and a desire to have effective analog control of robotic platforms or end effectors. Requirements to operate in pressurized suits are particularly problematic due to the increased bulk and stiffness of gloves. As a result, researchers are considering alternative methods to perform fine movement control, for example capitalizing on higher-order voice actuation commands to perform control tasks. This paper presents current research at NASA s Neuro Engineering Laboratory that explores one method-direct bioelectric interpretation-for handling some of these problems. In this type of control system, electromyographic (EMG) signals are used both to facilitate understanding of acoustic speech in pressure-regulated suits 2nd to provide smooth analog control of a robotic platform, all without requiring fine-gained hand movement. This is accomplished through the use of non-invasive silver silver-chloride electrodes located on the forearm, throat, and lower chin, positioned so as to receive electrical activity originating from the muscles during contraction. For direct analog platform control, a small Personal Exploration Rover (PER) built by Carnegie Mellon University Robotics is controlled using forearm contraction duration and magnitudes, measured using several EMG channels. Signal processing is used to translate these signals into directional platform rotation rates and translational velocities. higher order commands were generated by differential contraction patterns called "clench codes."

  13. Mini AERCam Inspection Robot for Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.; Duran, Steve; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2004-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate of NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a nanosatellite-class free-flyer intended for future external inspection and remote viewing of human spacecraft. The Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam) technology demonstration unit has been integrated into the approximate form and function of a flight system. The spherical Mini AERCam free flyer is 7.5 inches in diameter and weighs approximately 10 pounds, yet it incorporates significant additional capabilities compared to the 35 pound, 14 inch AERCam Sprint that flew as a Shuttle flight experiment in 1997. Mini AERCam hosts a full suite of miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, imaging, power, and propulsion subsystems, including digital video cameras and a high resolution still image camera. The vehicle is designed for either remotely piloted operations or supervised autonomous operations including automatic stationkeeping and point-to-point maneuvering. Mini AERCam is designed to fulfill the unique requirements and constraints associated with using a free flyer to perform external inspections and remote viewing of human spacecraft operations. This paper describes the application of Mini AERCam for stand-alone spacecraft inspection, as well as for roles on teams of humans and robots conducting future space exploration missions.

  14. Space Missions for Automation and Robotics Technologies (SMART) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliffone, D. L.; Lum, H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is currently considering the establishment of a Space Mission for Automation and Robotics Technologies (SMART) Program to define, develop, integrate, test, and operate a spaceborne national research facility for the validation of advanced automation and robotics technologies. Initially, the concept is envisioned to be implemented through a series of shuttle based flight experiments which will utilize telepresence technologies and real time operation concepts. However, eventually the facility will be capable of a more autonomous role and will be supported by either the shuttle or the space station. To ensure incorporation of leading edge technology in the facility, performance capability will periodically and systematically be upgraded by the solicitation of recommendations from a user advisory group. The facility will be managed by NASA, but will be available to all potential investigators. Experiments for each flight will be selected by a peer review group. Detailed definition and design is proposed to take place during FY 86, with the first SMART flight projected for FY 89.

  15. The Philae Science Mission - A Preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    The PHILAE Science Mission is based on measurements from 10 scientific instruments, i.e. the α-particle and X-ray spectrometer APXS, the visible camera and near-infrared spectrometer CIVA, the radio sounding experiment CONSERT, the molecule mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph COSAC, the accelerometer and thermal probe MUPUS, the light elements and isotope mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph PTOLEMY, the down-looking camera ROLIS, the magnetometer and plasma package ROMAP, the drill system SD2, and the acoustic and electric probe and dust impact sensor SESAME. The measurements are performed during 4 mission phase, i.e. during the pre-landing phase (PDCS) while the lander is still attached to the ROSETTA orbiter, during the separation, descent and landing phase (SDL), during the First Science Sequence (FSS) within about 3 days after landing and during a Long-Term Science phase (LTS) which follows the FSS immediately or after a short hibernation period depending on the landing site and the related power situation of the lander. The PDCS and SDL phase only a subset of the lander instruments will be active with scientific measurements, i.e. CIVA, CONSERT, PTOLEMY, ROMAP and SESAME during PDCS and CIVA, CONSERT, ROLIS, and ROMAP during SDL. The FSS and LTS phases will utilize all 10 PHILAE instruments for science. The presentations provides an overview of the PHILAE observations during the various mission phases, outlines the expected results and comments on the impact of the landing sites for the PHILAE science.

  16. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technology Assessment for Future Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, Pat; Cutts, James; Quadrelli, Marco B.; Wood, Lincoln J.; Riedel, Joseph E.; McHenry, Mike; Aung, MiMi; Cangahuala, Laureano A.; Volpe, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Future planetary explorations envisioned by the National Research Council's (NRC's) report titled Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, developed for NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Planetary Science Division (PSD), seek to reach targets of broad scientific interest across the solar system. This goal requires new capabilities such as innovative interplanetary trajectories, precision landing, operation in close proximity to targets, precision pointing, multiple collaborating spacecraft, multiple target tours, and advanced robotic surface exploration. Advancements in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) and Mission Design in the areas of software, algorithm development and sensors will be necessary to accomplish these future missions. This paper summarizes the key GN&C and mission design capabilities and technologies needed for future missions pursuing SMD PSD's scientific goals.

  17. 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission Design Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abilleira, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in the fall of 2011 with arrival at Mars occurring in the summer of 2012, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory will explore and assess whether Mars ever had conditions capable of supporting microbial life. In order to achieve its science objectives, the Mars Science Laboratory will be equipped with the most advanced suite of instruments ever sent to the surface of the Red Planet. Delivering the next mobile science laboratory safely to the surface of Mars has various key challenges derived from a strict set of requirements which include launch vehicle performance, spacecraft mass, communications coverage during Entry, Descent, and Landing, atmosphere-relative entry speeds, latitude accessibility, and dust storm season avoidance among others. The Mars Science Laboratory launch/arrival strategy selected after careful review satisfies all these mission requirements.

  18. Spacelab Life Sciences 1 - Dedicated life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) mission is discussed, and an overview of the SLS-1 Spacelab configuration is shown. Twenty interdisciplinary experiments, planned for this mission, are intended to explore the early stages of human and animal physiological adaptation to space flight conditions. Biomedical and gravitational biology experiments include cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary deconditioning, altered vestibular functions, altered metabolic functions (including altered fluid-electrolyte regulation), muscle atrophy, bone demineralization, decreased red blood cell mass, and altered immunologic responses.

  19. Robotic Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration and planetary defense. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. These data can also be applied for gaining an understanding of pertinent small body physical characteristics that would also be beneficial for formulating future impact mitigation procedures. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the

  20. From an Idea to a Working Robot Prototype: Distributing Knowledge of Robotics through Science Museum Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishuk, Alexander; Verner, Igor; Mir, Ronen

    This paper presents our experience of teaching robotics to primary and middle school students at the Gelfand Center for Model Building, Robotics & Communication which is part of the Israel National Museum of Science, Technology and Space (MadaTech). The educational study examines the value and characteristics of students’ teamwork in the museum robotics workshops.

  1. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  2. Science of the Europa Multiple Flyby Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Senske, David A.; Prockter, Louise; Hand, Kevin P.; Goldstein, Barry; Europa Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Europa Multiple Flyby Mission, in formulation for launch in the 2020s, would investigate the habitability of Jupiter's moon Europa. The mission would send a solar-powered, radiation-tolerant spacecraft into an elliptical orbit about Jupiter to conduct more than 40 close flybys of Europa, most in the range 25 km–100 km. The payload comprises a suite of nine science instruments that together would support three key objectives: detailed investigation of Europa's interior, both its internal ocean (including its salinity and depth) and its ice shell (including thickness and potential water pockets within); composition of the icy surface, notably dark reddish areas that may evince linkages between the ocean and the surface; and geology at the regional and local scales, especially areas that may show signs of recent or current activity. The science objectives and project status will be summarized.

  3. Spacelab Life Science-1 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The laboratory module in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia was photographed during the Spacelab Life Science-1 (SLS-1) mission. SLS-1 was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and to bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones and cells. The five body systems being studied were: The Cardiovascular/Cardiopulmonary System (heart, lungs, and blood vessels), the Renal/Endocrine System (kidney and hormone-secreting organs), the Immune System (white blood cells), the Musculoskeletal System (muscles and bones), and the Neurovestibular System (brain and nerves, eyes, and irner ear). The SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.

  4. Science Formulation of Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Mehta, Amita; Shepherd, Marshall; Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In late 2001, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was approved as a new start by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The new mission, which is now in its formulation phase, is motivated by a number of scientific questions that are posed over a range of space and time scales that generally fall within the discipline of the global water and energy cycle (GWEC), although not restricted to that branch of research. Recognizing that satellite rainfall datasets are now a foremost tool for understanding global climate variability out to decadal scales and beyond, for improving weather forecasting, and for producing better predictions of hydrometeorological processes including short-term hazardous flooding and seasonal fresh water resources assessment, a comprehensive and internationally sanctioned global measuring strategy has led to the GPM mission. The GPM mission plans to expand the scope of rainfall measurement through use of a multi-member satellite constellation that will be contributed by a number of world nations. This talk overviews the GPM scientific research program that has been fostered within NASA, then focuses on scientific progress that is being made in various areas in the course of the mission formulation phase that are of interest to the Natural Hazards scientific community. This latter part of the talk addresses research issues that have become central to the GPM science implementation plan concerning the rate of the global water cycling, cloud macrophysical-microphysical processes of flood-producing storms, and the general improvement in measuring precipitation at the fundamental microphysical level.

  5. Juno at Jupiter: Mission and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, Scott

    2016-07-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the atmosphere of Jupiter will be presented.

  6. Flight status of robotic asteroid sample return mission Hayabusa2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Yuichi; Nakazawa, Satoru; Kushiki, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Seiichiro

    2016-10-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency launched the asteroid sample return spacecraft "Hayabusa2" on December 3, 2014. Hayabusa2 will reach the C-type asteroid 1999 JU3 in 2018, and return back to the Earth in 2020. Sample collections from three sites, four surface rovers deployment and a 4 MJ-class kinetic impact crater generation are planned in the 1.5 years of the asteroid-proximity operation. The mission objective of Hayabusa2 has three aspects, science, engineering and exploration, all of which would be expanded by the successful round-trip journey. This paper describes the outline of the Hayabusa2 mission and the current flight status after the seven month of the interplanetary cruise.

  7. Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR): Science objectives and mission description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. Scott; Wercinski, Paul F.; Sarver, George L.; Hanel, Robert P.; Ramos, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    In-situ observations and measurements of Mars are objectives of a feasibility study beginning at the Ames Research Center for a mission called the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR). The purpose of the MESUR mission is to emplace a pole-to-pole global distribution of landers on the Martian surface to make both short- and long-term observations of the atmosphere and surface. The basic concept is to deploy probes which would directly enter the Mars atmosphere, provide measurements of the upper atmospheric structure, image the local terrain before landing, and survive landing to perform meteorology, seismology, surface imaging, and soil chemistry measurements. MESUR is intended to be a relatively low-cost mission to advance both Mars science and human presence objectives. Mission philosophy is to: (1) 'grow' a network over a period of years using a series of launch opportunities, thereby minimizing the peak annual costs; (2) develop a level-of-effort which is flexible and responsive to a broad set of objectives; (3) focus on science while providing a solid basis for human exploration; and (4) minimize project cost and complexity wherever possible. In order to meet the diverse scientific objectives, each MESUR lander will carry the following strawman instrument payload consisting of: (1) Atmospheric structure experiment, (2) Descent and surface imagers, (3) Meteorology package, (4) Elemental composition instrument, (5) 3-axis seismometer, and (6) Thermal analyzer/evolved gas analyzer. The feasibility study is primarily to show a practical way to design an early capability for characterizing Mars' surface and atmospheric environment on a global scale. The goals are to answer some of the most urgent questions to advance significantly our scientific knowledge about Mars, and for planning eventual exploration of the planet by robots and humans.

  8. Science Goal Monitor: Science Goal Driven Automation for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA s future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist s desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve om understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an operational prototype so that the perceived risks associated

  9. Conceptual definition of a 50-100 kWe NEP system for planetary science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan

    1993-01-01

    The Phase 1 objective of this project is to assess the applicability of a common Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) flight system of the 50-100 kWe power class to meet the advanced transportation requirements of a suite of planetary science (robotic) missions, accounting for differences in mission-specific payloads and delivery requirements. The candidate missions are as follows: (1) Comet Nucleus Sample Return; (2) Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous; (3) Jupiter Grand Tour (Galilean satellites and magnetosphere); (4) Uranus Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); (5) Neptune Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); and (6) Pluto-Charon Orbiter/Lander. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  10. The Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollough, J. P., II; Johnston, W. R.; Starks, M. J.; Albert, J.

    2015-12-01

    In 2016, the Air Force Research Laboratory will launch its Demonstration and Science Experiments mission to investigate wave-particle interactions and the particle and space environment in medium Earth orbit (MEO). The DSX spacecraft includes three experiment packages. The Wave Particle Interaction Experiment (WPIx) will perform active and passive investigations involving VLF waves and their interaction with plasma and energetic electrons in MEO. The Space Weather Experiment (SWx) includes five particle instruments to survey the MEO electron and proton environment. The Space Environmental Effects Experiment (SFx) will investigate effects of the MEO environment on electronics and materials. We will describe the capabilities of the DSX science payloads, science plans, and opportunities for collaborative studies such as conjunction observations and far-field measurements.

  11. Spacelab Life Science-1 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Spacelab Life Science -1 (SLS-1) was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones, and cells. This photograph shows astronaut Rhea Seddon conducting an inflight study of the Cardiovascular Deconditioning experiment by breathing into the cardiovascular rebreathing unit. This experiment focused on the deconditioning of the heart and lungs and changes in cardiopulmonary function that occur upon return to Earth. By using noninvasive techniques of prolonged expiration and rebreathing, investigators can determine the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (cardiac output), the ease with which blood flows through all the vessels (total peripheral resistance), oxygen used and carbon dioxide released by the body, and lung function and volume changes. SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.

  12. Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Susan Preston

    1999-01-01

    Compared the impact of robotics (computer-powered manipulative) to a battery-powered manipulative (novelty control) and traditionally taught science class on science achievement and problem solving of fourth through sixth graders. Found that the robotics group had higher scores on programming logic-problem solving than did the novelty control…

  13. Pluto Fast Flyby Mission and Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, A.

    1993-01-01

    Planning for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission centers on the launch of two small (110-160 kg) spacecraft late in the 1990s on fast, 6-8-year trajectories that do not require Jupiter flybys. The cost target of the two-spaceraft PFF mission is $400 million. Scientific payload definition by NASA's Outer Planets Science Working Group (OPSWG) and JPL design studies for the Pluto flyby spacecraft are now being completed, and the program is in Phase A development. Selection of a set of lightweight, low-power instrument demonstrations is planned for May 1993. According to plan, the completion of Phase A and then detailed Phase B spacecraft and payload design work will occur in FY94. The release of an instrument payload AO, followed by the selection of the flight payload, is also scheduled for FY94.

  14. Science requirements for PRoViScout, a robotics vision system for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Pullan, D.; Griffiths, A.; Paar, G.

    2011-10-01

    The robotic exploration of planetary surfaces, including missions of interest for geobiology (e.g., ExoMars), will be the precursor of human missions within the next few decades. Such exploration will require platforms which are much more self-reliant and capable of exploring long distances with limited ground support in order to advance planetary science objectives in a timely manner. The key to this objective is the development of planetary robotic onboard vision processing systems, which will enable the autonomous on-site selection of scientific and mission-strategic targets, and the access thereto. The EU-funded research project PRoViScout (Planetary Robotics Vision Scout) is designed to develop a unified and generic approach for robotic vision onboard processing, namely the combination of navigation and scientific target selection. Any such system needs to be "trained", i.e. it needs (a) scientific requirements which the system needs to address, and (b) a data base of scientifically representative target scenarios which can be analysed. We present our preliminary list of science requirements, based on previous experience from landed Mars missions.

  15. Communicating the Science from NASA's Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Hashima; Smith, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    Communicating science from NASA's Astrophysics missions has multiple objectives, which leads to a multi-faceted approach. While a timely dissemination of knowledge to the scientific community follows the time-honored process of publication in peer reviewed journals, NASA delivers newsworthy research result to the public through news releases, its websites and social media. Knowledge in greater depth is infused into the educational system by the creation of educational material and teacher workshops that engage students and educators in cutting-edge NASA Astrophysics discoveries. Yet another avenue for the general public to learn about the science and technology through NASA missions is through exhibits at museums, science centers, libraries and other public venues. Examples of the variety of ways NASA conveys the excitement of its scientific discoveries to students, educators and the general public will be discussed in this talk. A brief overview of NASA's participation in the International Year of Light will also be given, as well as of the celebration of the twenty-fifth year of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope.

  16. ESA announces its Future Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    The announcement will be made at ESA's Head Office, 8-10 rue Mario Nikis in Paris, during a press breakfast starting at 08:30. Media representatives wishing to attend the event are kindly requested to fill out the attached accreditation from and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Office - Paris. Note to editors The announcement will follow a two-day meeting of ESA's Space Science Committee (SPC), composed of Delegates from all ESA's Member States, in Paris on 11 and 12 October. The SPC will decide - on the basis of the Space Science Advisory Committee's (SSAC) recommendations formulated earlier in September - about the next Cornerstone (CS) and Flexi (F) Missions that will be implemented in the framework of ESA's Horizons 2000 Programme. Further information about the Future Mission candidates and the ESA Science Programme can be found at: http://sci.esa.int. In particular the SSAC recommendations to SPC can be found at: http://sci.esa.int/structure/content/index.cfm?aid=1&cid=2304 Further information on ESA at : http//www.esa.int

  17. Review of the Draft 2014 Science Mission Directorate Science Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board (SSB) initiated a study to review a draft of the SMD's 2014 Science Plan. The request for this review was made at a time when NASA is engaged in the final stages of a comprehensive, agency-wide effort to develop a new strategic plan and at a time when NASA's budget is under considerable stress. SMD's Science Plan serves to provide more detail on its four traditional science disciplines-astronomy and astrophysics, solar and space physics (also called heliophysics), planetary science, and Earth remote sensing and related activities-than is possible in the agency-wide Strategic Plan. In conducting its review of the draft Science Plan, the Committee on the Assessment of the NASA Science Mission Directorate 2014 Science Plan was charged to comment on the following specific areas: (1) Responsiveness to the NRC's guidance on key science issues and opportunities in recent NRC reports; (2) Attention to interdisciplinary aspects and overall scientific balance; (3) Identification and exposition of important opportunities for partnerships as well as education and public outreach; (4) Integration of technology development with the science program; (5) Clarity on how the plan aligns with SMD's strategic planning process; (6) General readability and clarity of presentation; and (7) Other relevant issues as determined by the committee. The main body of the report provides detailed findings and recommendations relating to the draft Science Plan. The highest-level, crosscutting issues are summarized here, and more detail is available in the main body of the report.

  18. Robotic traverse and sample return strategies for a lunar farside mission to the Schrödinger basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Nicola J.; Gullikson, Amber L.; Curran, Natalie M.; Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Leader, Mark K.; Rege, Rushal N.; Klaus, Kurt K.; Kring, David A.

    2015-02-01

    Most of the highest priority objectives for lunar science and exploration (e.g., NRC, 2007) require sample return. Studies of the best places to conduct that work have identified Schrödinger basin as a geologically rich area, able to address a significant number of these scientific concepts. In this study traverses were designed for a robotic mission within previously identified crewed landing sites in Schrödinger basin. Traverse routes and sampling locations were identified using LROC imagery and LOLA topography data, combined with a theoretical rover travel and operations model. The findings of this investigation highlight the need to consider increased rover capabilities. A significant number of samples that can address many of the NRC (2007) scientific goals can be returned in a robotic mission during one period of lunar illumination (∼14 Earth days) using specifications from previous lunar rovers.

  19. Mars 2020 Science Rover: Science Goals and Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, John F.; Beaty, D.; Bass, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT), chartered in January 2013 by NASA, formulated a spacecraft mission concept for a science-focused, highly mobile rover to explore and investigate in detail a site on Mars that likely was once habitable. The mission, based on the Mars Science Laboratory landing and rover systems, would address, within a cost- and time-constrained framework, four objectives: (A) Explore an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars to decipher its geological processes and history, including the assessment of past habitability; (B) Assess the biosignature preservation potential within the selected geological environment and search for potential biosignatures; (C) Demonstrate significant technical progress towards the future return of scientifically selected, well-documented samples to Earth; and (D) provide an opportunity for contributed instruments from Human Exploration or Space Technology Programs. The SDT addressed the four mission objectives and six additional charter-specified tasks independently while specifically looking for synergy among them. Objectives A and B are each ends unto themselves, while Objective A is also the means by which samples are selected for objective B, and together they motivate and inform Objective C. The SDT also found that Objective D goals are well aligned with A through C. Critically, Objectives A, B, and C as an ensemble brought the SDT to the conclusion that exploration oriented toward both astrobiology and the preparation of a returnable cache of scientifically selected, well documented surface samples is the only acceptable mission concept. Importantly the SDT concluded that the measurements needed to attain these objectives were essentially identical, consisting of six types of field measurements: 1) context imaging 2) context mineralogy, 3) fine-scale imaging, 4) fine-scale mineralogy, 5) fine-scale elemental chemistry, and 6) organic matter detection. The mission concept fully addresses

  20. Vanguard: A New Science Mission For Experimental Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, A.; Wynn-Williams, D.; Edwards, H.; Dickensheets, D.; Welch, C.; Curley, A.

    As an alternative to technically and financially problemat ic sample return missions, a rover-mounted laser Raman spectrometer sensitive to biomolecules and their mineral substrata is a promising alternative in the search for evidence of former life on Mars. We presented a new remote in situ analysis package being designed for experimental astrobiology on terrestrial-type planetary surfaces. The science is based on the hypothesis that if life arose on Mars, the selective pressure of solar radiation would have led to the evolution of pigmented systems to harness the energy of sunlight and to protect cells from concurrent UV stress. Microbial communities would have therefore become stratified by the light gradient, and our remote system would penetrate the near-subsurface profile in a vertical transect of horizontal strata in ancient sediments (such as palaeolake beds). The system will include an extensive array of robotic support to translocate and deploy a Raman spectrometer detectors beneath the surface of Mars ­ it will comprise of a base station lander to support communications, a robotic micro-rover to permit well- separated triplicate profiles made by three ground-penetrating moles mounted in a vertical configuration. Each mole will deploy a tether carrying fibre optic cables coupling the Raman spectrometer onboard the rover and the side-scanning sensor head on the mole. The complete system has been named Vanguard, and it represents a close collaboration between a space robotics engineer (Ellery), an astrobiologist (Wynn-Williams), a molecular spectroscopist (Edwards), an opto-electronic technologist (Dickensheets), a spacecraft engineer (Welch) and a robotic vision specialist (Curley). The autonomy requirement for the Vanguard instrument requires that significant scientific competence is imparted to the instrument through an expert system to ensure that quick-look analysis is performed onboard in real-time as the mole penetrates beneath the surface. Onboard

  1. Science Goal Monitor: science goal driven automation for NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-09-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA's future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts' onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists' goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist's desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve our understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an "operational" prototype so that the perceived risks

  2. Reusable science tools for analog exploration missions: xGDS Web Tools, VERVE, and Gigapan Voyage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Susan Y.; Lees, David; Cohen, Tamar; Allan, Mark; Deans, Matthew; Morse, Theodore; Park, Eric; Smith, Trey

    2013-10-01

    The Exploration Ground Data Systems (xGDS) project led by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at NASA Ames Research Center creates software tools to support multiple NASA-led planetary analog field experiments. The two primary tools that fall under the xGDS umbrella are the xGDS Web Tools (xGDS-WT) and Visual Environment for Remote Virtual Exploration (VERVE). IRG has also developed a hardware and software system that is closely integrated with our xGDS tools and is used in multiple field experiments called Gigapan Voyage. xGDS-WT, VERVE, and Gigapan Voyage are examples of IRG projects that improve the ratio of science return versus development effort by creating generic and reusable tools that leverage existing technologies in both hardware and software. xGDS Web Tools provides software for gathering and organizing mission data for science and engineering operations, including tools for planning traverses, monitoring autonomous or piloted vehicles, visualization, documentation, analysis, and search. VERVE provides high performance three dimensional (3D) user interfaces used by scientists, robot operators, and mission planners to visualize robot data in real time. Gigapan Voyage is a gigapixel image capturing and processing tool that improves situational awareness and scientific exploration in human and robotic analog missions. All of these technologies emphasize software reuse and leverage open source and/or commercial-off-the-shelf tools to greatly improve the utility and reduce the development and operational cost of future similar technologies. Over the past several years these technologies have been used in many NASA-led robotic field campaigns including the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), the Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP), the K10 Robotic Follow-Up tests, and most recently we have become involved in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) field experiments. A major objective of these joint robot and crew experiments is

  3. 76 FR 17621 - Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... Biotechnology Life Sciences trade mission to China on October 17-20, 2011. Led by a senior Department of Commerce official, the mission to China is intended to include representatives from a variety of...

  4. Science with the Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küppers, Michael; Michel, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) will monitor the binary asteroid Didymos before, during, and after the impact of the projectile sent by the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART)spacecraft. The primary goal of the mission is to demonstrate asteroid deflection with a kinetic impactor. However, important asteroid science will be achieved as a secondary objective. AIM is the first space mission to study a binary asteroid. There are several hypotheses about how binaries form, and the comparison of the global properties (density, and surface amd interior structure) may allow to distinguish between those scenarios. For example, if the binary was formed by rotational fission of the primary, an oblate shape of the primary and a low density and tensile strength of the secondary are expected. Furthermore, observation of the DART impact will provide unique data on the reaction to small asteroids, with significant implications on the collisional evolution of the solar system and planetary rings. Landing of MASCOT-2 on the secondary will provide information about the physical surface properties of a very small asteroid, providing additional information about the evolution of those objects. We will present an overview of the scientific studies foreseen with the AIM payload and their implications on the physics of small bodies in the solar system.

  5. Indian Space Science and Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, S. C.

    mission life of ˜ 5 years. Based on an expert report, ISRO has announced its plan to launch the first moon mission (Chandrayaan-1), which could be realised with the existing ISRO capabilities of launch vehicle, satellite and related technologies. The mission has specific scientific goals to study the three-dimensional lunar surface geological features and distribution of elemental and mineralogical species to help understand the origin and evolution of lunar system. The mission goal is to place a lunar-craft, weighing about 525 kg and carrying ˜ 55 kg payload mass, at ˜ 100 km polar orbit of moon for high spatial resolution (5-20 km) mapping. The rationale for selecting these and other future space science missions along with the expected scientific results would be discussed.

  6. MSLICE Science Activity Planner for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Fox, Jason M.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Kurien, James A.; McCurdy, Michael P.; Pyrzak, Guy; Aghevli, Arash; Bachmann, Andrew G.

    2009-01-01

    MSLICE (Mars Science Laboratory InterfaCE) is the tool used by scientists and engineers on the Mars Science Laboratory rover mission to visualize the data returned by the rover and collaboratively plan its activities. It enables users to efficiently and effectively search all mission data to find applicable products (e.g., images, targets, activity plans, sequences, etc.), view and plan the traverse of the rover in HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) images, visualize data acquired by the rover, and develop, model, and validate the activities the rover will perform. MSLICE enables users to securely contribute to the mission s activity planning process from their home institutions using off-the-shelf laptop computers. This software has made use of several plug-ins (software components) developed for previous missions [e.g., Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix Mars Lander (PHX)] and other technology tasks. It has a simple, intuitive, and powerful search capability. For any given mission, there is a huge amount of data and associated metadata that is generated. To help users sort through this information, MSLICE s search interface is provided in a similar fashion as major Internet search engines. With regard to the HiRISE visualization of the rover s traverse, this view is a map of the mission that allows scientists to easily gauge where the rover has been and where it is likely to go. The map also provides the ability to correct or adjust the known position of the rover through the overlaying of images acquired from the rover on top of the HiRISE image. A user can then correct the rover s position by collocating the visible features in the overlays with the same features in the underlying HiRISE image. MSLICE users can also rapidly search all mission data for images that contain a point specified by the user in another image or panoramic mosaic. MSLICE allows the creation of targets, which provides a way for scientists to collaboratively name

  7. Orion/MoonRise: A proposed human & robotic sample return mission from the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalai, L.; Solish, B.; Elliott, J.; McElrath, T.; Mueller, J.; Parker, J.

    This paper describes a new mission concept called Orion/MoonRise that proposes to return samples from the Lunar far-side South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPAB) using a combination of a robotic Sample Return Vehicle (SRV) based on the MoonRise mission concept developed at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle currently under development by NASA at Lockheed Martin. The mission concept proposes significant challenges for both robotic and human parts of the mission. Whereas there are many ways to execute this mission concept, one approach is for the Orion and the SRV to launch separately. We assume that the Orion will be staged at the Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 2 (EM-L2) and the SRV at EM-L1. Once both are in place, the SRV descends to the SPAB while the Orion provides critical relay coverage with ground control on Earth. During surface operations, the Orion crew tele-operate the lander sampling system and possibly deploy a sample fetch rover. Once the samples are collected, the Lunar Ascent Vehicle (LAV) launches towards the EM-L2 to rendezvous with Orion. The samples are then brought back to Earth for detailed sample curation and analysis by the scientific community. The Orion/MoonRise mission concept has many strengths worth noting: it provides a very exciting mission to be performed in cis-Lunar space, as a precursor to future human exploration beyond the Earth-Moon System and as a technology demonstration for future sample return from Mars; it implements a mission that is of tremendous value to the planetary science community; it provides an exciting and challenging mission for astronauts to perform and demonstrate in deep-space including remote teleoperations and sample rendezvous and capture; and finally it provides an exciting opportunity for the broad engagement of the general public.

  8. Inventing Japan's 'robotics culture': the repeated assembly of science, technology, and culture in social robotics.

    PubMed

    Sabanović, Selma

    2014-06-01

    Using interviews, participant observation, and published documents, this article analyzes the co-construction of robotics and culture in Japan through the technical discourse and practices of robotics researchers. Three cases from current robotics research--the seal-like robot PARO, the Humanoid Robotics Project HRP-2 humanoid, and 'kansei robotics' - show the different ways in which scientists invoke culture to provide epistemological grounding and possibilities for social acceptance of their work. These examples show how the production and consumption of social robotic technologies are associated with traditional crafts and values, how roboticists negotiate among social, technical, and cultural constraints while designing robots, and how humans and robots are constructed as cultural subjects in social robotics discourse. The conceptual focus is on the repeated assembly of cultural models of social behavior, organization, cognition, and technology through roboticists' narratives about the development of advanced robotic technologies. This article provides a picture of robotics as the dynamic construction of technology and culture and concludes with a discussion of the limits and possibilities of this vision in promoting a culturally situated understanding of technology and a multicultural view of science.

  9. Non-planetary Science from Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or

  10. System for Contributing and Discovering Derived Mission and Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallick, Michael N.; Powell, Mark W.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Mickelson, Megan C.; Ohata, Darrick M.; Kurien, James A.; Abramyan, Luch

    2013-01-01

    A system was developed to provide a new mechanism for members of the mission community to create and contribute new science data to the rest of the community. Mission tools have allowed members of the mission community to share first order data (data that is created by the mission s process in command and control of the spacecraft or the data that is captured by the craft itself, like images, science results, etc.). However, second and higher order data (data that is created after the fact by scientists and other members of the mission) was previously not widely disseminated, nor did it make its way into the mission planning process.

  11. Ant-based distributed protocol for coordination of a swarm of robots in demining mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rango, Floriano; Palmieri, Nunzia

    2016-05-01

    Coordination among multiple robots has been extensively studied, since a number of practical real problem s can be performed using an effective approach. In this paper is investigated a collective task that requires a multi-robot system to search for randomly distributed mines in an unknown environment and disarm them cooperatively. The communication among the swarm of robots influences the overall performance in terms of time to execute the task or consumed energy. To address this problem, a new distributed recruiting protocol to coordinate a swarm of robots in demining mission, is described. This problem is a multi-objective problem and two bio inspired strategies are used. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of direct and indirect communication: on one hand an indirect communication among robots is used for the exploration of the environment, on the other hand a novel protocol is used to accomplish the recruiting and coordination of the robots for demining task. This protocol attempts to tackle the question of how autonomous robot can coordinate themselves into an unknown environment relying on simple low-level capabilities. The strategy is able to adapt the current system dynamics if the number of robots or the environment structure or both change. The proposed approach has been implemented and has been evaluated in several simulated environments. We analyzed the impact of our approach in the overall performance of a robot team. Experimental results indicated the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed protocol to spread the robots in the environment.

  12. A cognitive robotic system based on the Soar cognitive architecture for mobile robot navigation, search, and mapping missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanford, Scott D.

    Most unmanned vehicles used for civilian and military applications are remotely operated or are designed for specific applications. As these vehicles are used to perform more difficult missions or a larger number of missions in remote environments, there will be a great need for these vehicles to behave intelligently and autonomously. Cognitive architectures, computer programs that define mechanisms that are important for modeling and generating domain-independent intelligent behavior, have the potential for generating intelligent and autonomous behavior in unmanned vehicles. The research described in this presentation explored the use of the Soar cognitive architecture for cognitive robotics. The Cognitive Robotic System (CRS) has been developed to integrate software systems for motor control and sensor processing with Soar for unmanned vehicle control. The CRS has been tested using two mobile robot missions: outdoor navigation and search in an indoor environment. The use of the CRS for the outdoor navigation mission demonstrated that a Soar agent could autonomously navigate to a specified location while avoiding obstacles, including cul-de-sacs, with only a minimal amount of knowledge about the environment. While most systems use information from maps or long-range perceptual capabilities to avoid cul-de-sacs, a Soar agent in the CRS was able to recognize when a simple approach to avoiding obstacles was unsuccessful and switch to a different strategy for avoiding complex obstacles. During the indoor search mission, the CRS autonomously and intelligently searches a building for an object of interest and common intersection types. While searching the building, the Soar agent builds a topological map of the environment using information about the intersections the CRS detects. The agent uses this topological model (along with Soar's reasoning, planning, and learning mechanisms) to make intelligent decisions about how to effectively search the building. Once the

  13. Integrating Mobile Robotics and Vision with Undergraduate Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cielniak, G.; Bellotto, N.; Duckett, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of robotics education into an undergraduate Computer Science curriculum. The proposed approach delivers mobile robotics as well as covering the closely related field of Computer Vision and is directly linked to the research conducted at the authors' institution. The paper describes the most relevant…

  14. 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Robotic Field Geologists for a Mars Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed in Gusev crater on Jan. 4, 2004 and the rover Opportunity arrived on the plains of Meridiani Planum on Jan. 25, 2004. The rovers continue to return new discoveries after 4 continuous Earth years of operations on the surface of the red planet. Spirit has successfully traversed 7.5 km over the Gusev crater plains, ascended to the top of Husband Hill, and entered into the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills. Opportunity has traveled nearly 12 km over flat plains of Meridiani and descended into several impact craters. Spirit and Opportunity carry an integrated suite of scientific instruments and tools called the Athena science payload. The Athena science payload consists of the 1) Panoramic Camera (Pancam) that provides high-resolution, color stereo imaging, 2) Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) that provides spectral cubes at mid-infrared wavelengths, 3) Microscopic Imager (MI) for close-up imaging, 4) Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) for elemental chemistry, 5) Moessbauer Spectrometer (MB) for the mineralogy of Fe-bearing materials, 6) Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) for removing dusty and weathered surfaces and exposing fresh rock underneath, and 7) Magnetic Properties Experiment that allow the instruments to study the composition of magnetic martian materials [1]. The primary objective of the Athena science investigation is to explore two sites on the martian surface where water may once have been present, and to assess past environmental conditions at those sites and their suitability for life. The Athena science instruments have made numerous scientific discoveries over the 4 plus years of operations. The objectives of this paper are to 1) describe the major scientific discoveries of the MER robotic field geologists and 2) briefly summarize what major outstanding questions were not answered by MER that might be addressed by returning samples to our laboratories on Earth.

  15. Asteroid Redirect Mission Robotic Trajectory and Crew Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation opens with a rendering of the mission's spacecraft trajectory, rendezvous, and approach to asteroid 2008 EV5. Although the mission's target asteroid won't officially be selec...

  16. Gravity Science with The JUICE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M.; Finocchiaro, S.; Iess, L.

    2012-04-01

    JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) is a European mission to the Jovian system, proposed in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision program. The spacecraft will reach the Jovian system and fly several times by the moons Callisto and Europa before being inserted in a nearly circular, polar orbit around Ganymede. After its arrival in 2030, the mission timeline entails two Europa flybys (2030), twelve Callisto flybys (2031) and the orbital phase at Ganymede (2033) [1]. Gravity measurements will provide crucial information on the interior structure of the three satellites. If the bodies are in hydrostatic equilibrium, the radial density distribution may be constrained from their moment of inertia factor and low-degree gravity field coefficients [2]. Furthermore, the determination of the high-degree harmonics will provide the distribution of gravity anomalies. Evidence for subsurface oceans within Ganymede and Callisto, one of the main scientific goals of the mission, will be obtained by the determination of the tidal Love number k2 as part of a global solution for the static and variable gravity field. Gravity fields and tidal deformations will be determined by means of precise Doppler tracking of the spacecraft in Ka-band (32.5-34 GHz). The Radio Science Instrument (RSI) is enabled by a Ka-band transponder which, complemented by suitable ground instrumentation, will enable a radio link with a very high phase stability. The main observable quantity for gravity field determination is the range rate (to 3 micron/s at 1000 s integration time, two-way). The spacecraft range (accurate to 20 cm, two-way) will be used to improve the ephemerides of the Jupiter system. Gravity science at Ganymede will be carried out during the orbital phase. According to the mission profile (subject to change), the first 102 days will be spent at an altitude of 500 km. The orbit will be lowered to 200 km in the last 32 days of the mission. If the spacecraft will be endowed with a steerable medium gain

  17. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The first decades of the 21st century will be marked by major lunar science and exploration activities. The Moon is a witness to 4.5 billion years of solar system history, recording that history more completely and more clearly than any other planetary body. Lunar science encompasses early planetary evolution and differentiation, lava eruptions and fire fountains, impact scars throughout time, and billions of years of volatile input. I will cover the main outstanding issues in lunar science today and the most intriguing scientific opportunities made possible by renewed robotic and human lunar exploration. Barbara is a planetary scientist at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center. She studies meteorites from the Moon, Mars and asteroids and has been to Antarctica twice to hunt for them. Barbara also works on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity and has an asteroid named after her. She is currently helping the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program on the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, a project tasked by the Exploration System Mission Directorate (ESMD) to develop maps and tools of the Moon to benefit the Constellation Program lunar planning. She is also supporting the Science Mission Directorate s (SMD) lunar flight projects line at Marshall as the co-chair of the Science Definition Team for NASA s next robotic landers, which will be nodes of the International Lunar Network, providing geophysical information about the Moon s interior structure and composition.

  18. Overview of EXIST mission science and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, J.; Gehrels, N.; Bloom, J.; Coppi, P.; Soderberg, Al.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Moseley, H.; Kutyrev, A.; Fabbiano, G.; Fishman, G.; Ramsey, B.; Della Ceca, R.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P., III

    2010-07-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is designed to i) use the birth of stellar mass black holes, as revealed by cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), as probes of the very first stars and galaxies to exist in the Universe. Both their extreme luminosity (~104 times larger than the most luminous quasars) and their hard X-ray detectability over the full sky with wide-field imaging make them ideal "back-lights" to measure cosmic structure with X-ray, optical and near-IR (nIR) spectra over many sight lines to high redshift. The full-sky imaging detection and rapid followup narrowfield imaging and spectroscopy allow two additional primary science objectives: ii) novel surveys of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) accreting as very luminous but rare quasars, which can trace the birth and growth of the first SMBHs as well as quiescent SMBHs (non-accreting) which reveal their presence by X-ray flares from the tidal disruption of passing field stars; and iii) a multiwavelength Time Domain Astrophysics (TDA) survey to measure the temporal variability and physics of a wide range of objects, from birth to death of stars and from the thermal to non-thermal Universe. These science objectives are achieved with the telescopes and mission as proposed for EXIST described here.

  19. Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Garvin, James B.; Rice, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September, 2012. The LRO mission has been extended for two years under SMD. The extended mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution Of the Solar System. Here we will review the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for the extended science phase out to 2014. Results from the LRO mission include but are not limited to the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the day and night time temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs, evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon, and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions as the poles. The objectives for the second and extended science phases of the mission under SMD include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5

  20. Mission Status at Aura Science Team MOWG Meeting: EOS Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation at the 24797-16 Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Science Team Meeting (Mission Operations Work Group (MOWG)) at Rotterdam, Netherlands August 29, 2016. Presentation topics include mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, spacecraft anomalies, data capture, propellant usage and lifetime estimates, spacecraft maneuvers and ground track history, mission highlights and past spacecraft anomalies and reliability estimates.

  1. AFRL's Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherbarth, Mark; Smith, Durand; Adler, Aaron; Stuart, Janet; Ginet, Greg

    2009-08-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/RV) has developed the Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) mission to research technologies needed to significantly advance Department of Defense (DoD) capabilities to operate spacecraft in the harsh radiation environment of Medium-Earth Orbits (MEO). The ability to operate effectively in the MEO environment significantly increases the DoD's capability to field space systems that provide persistent global space surveillance and reconnaissance, high-speed satellite-based communication, lower-cost GPS navigation, and protection from space weather and environmental effects on a responsive satellite platform. The three DSX physics-based research/experiment areas are: 1. Wave Particle Interaction Experiment (WPIx): Researching the physics of Very-Low-Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic wave transmissions through the ionosphere and in the magnetosphere and characterizing the feasibility of natural and man-made VLF waves to reduce and precipitate space radiation; 2. Space Weather Experiment (SWx): Characterizing, mapping, and modeling the space radiation environment in MEO, an orbital regime attractive for future DoD, Civil, and Commercial missions; and 3. Space Environmental Effects (SFx): Researching and characterizing the MEO space weather effects on spacecraft electronics and materials. Collectively, thirteen individual payloads are combined together from these three research areas and integrated onto a single platform (DSX) which provides a low-cost opportunity for AFRL due to their common requirements. All three experiments require a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft bus (but no propulsion), a suite of radiation sensors, and extended duration in a low inclination, elliptical, MEO orbit. DSX will be launch-ready in summer 2010 for a likely launch comanifest with an operational DoD satellite on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV).

  2. AFRL's Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherbarth, M.; Adler, A.; Smith, D.; Loretti, V.; Stuart, J.

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Space Vehicles Directorate has developed the Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) mission to research technologies needed to significantly advance Department of Defense (DoD) capabilities to operate spacecraft in the harsh radiation environment of medium-earth orbits (MEO). The ability to operate effectively in the MEO environment significantly increases the DoDs capability to field space systems that provide persistent global targeting-grade space surveillance and reconnaissance, high-speed satellite-based communication, lower-cost GPS navigation, and protection from space weather and environmental effects on a responsive satellite platform. The three DSX physics-based research/experiment areas are: 1. Wave Particle Interaction Experiment (WPIx): Researching the physics of very-low-frequency (VLF) electro-magnetic wave transmissions through the ionosphere and in the magnetosphere and characterizing the feasibility of natural and man-made VLF waves to reduce and precipitate space radiation; 2. Space Weather Experiment (SWx): Characterizing, mapping, and modeling the space radiation environment in MEO, an orbital regime attractive for future DoD, Civil, and Commercial missions; 3. Space Environmental Effects (SFx): Researching and characterizing the MEO space weather effects on spacecraft electronics and materials. Collectively, thirteen individual payloads are synergized together from these three research areas and integrated onto a single platform (DSX) which provides a low-cost opportunity for AFRL due to their common requirements. All three groups of experiments require a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft bus (but no propulsion), a suite of radiation sensors, and extended duration in a low inclination, elliptical, MEO orbit. DSX will be launch ready in summer 2010 for a likely launch co-manifest with an operational DoD satellite on an EELV (evolved expendable launch vehicle).

  3. Science Planning for the TROPIX Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the study grant was to undertake the planning needed to execute meaningful solar electric propulsion missions in the magnetosphere and beyond. The first mission examined was the Transfer Orbit Plasma Investigation Experiment (TROPIX) mission to spiral outward through the magnetosphere. The next mission examined was to the moon and an asteroid. Entitled Diana, it was proposed to NASA in October 1994. Two similar missions were conceived in 1996 entitled CNR for Comet Nucleus Rendezvous and MBAR for Main Belt Asteroid Rendezvous. The latter mission was again proposed in 1998. All four of these missions were unsuccessfully proposed to the NASA Discovery program. Nevertheless we were partially successful in that the Deep Space 1 (DS1) mission was eventually carried out nearly duplicating our CNR mission. Returning to the magnetosphere we studied and proposed to the Medium Class Explorer (MIDEX) program a MidEx mission called TEMPEST, in 1995. This mission included two solar electric spacecraft that spiraled outward in the magnetosphere: one at near 900 inclination and one in the equatorial plane. This mission was not selected for flight. Next we proposed a single SEP vehicle to carry Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imagers and inside observations to complement the IMAGE mission providing needed data to properly interpret the IMAGE data. This mission called SESAME was submitted unsuccessfully in 1997. One proposal was successful. A study grant was awarded to examine a four spacecraft solar electric mission, named Global Magnetospheric Dynamics. This study was completed and a report on this mission is attached but events overtook this design and a separate study team was selected to design a classical chemical mission as a Solar Terrestrial Probe. Competing proposals such as through the MIDEX opportunity were expressly forbidden. A bibliography is attached.

  4. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise: Future Science Missions, Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1998-01-01

    NASA has been actively involved in studying the planet Earth and its changing environment for well over thirty years. Within the last decade, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has become a major observational and scientific element of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise management has developed a comprehensive observation-based research program addressing all the critical science questions that will take us into the next century. Furthermore, the entire program is being mapped to answer five Science Themes (1) land-cover and land-use change research (2) seasonal-to-interannual climate variability and prediction (3) natural hazards research and applications (4) long-term climate-natural variability and change research and (5) atmospheric ozone research. Now the emergence of newer technologies on the horizon and at the same time continuously declining budget environment has lead to an effort to refocus the Earth Science Enterprise activities. The intent is not to compromise the overall scientific goals, but rather strengthen them by enabling challenging detection, computational and space flight technologies those have not been practically feasible to date. NASA is planning faster, cost effective and relatively smaller missions to continue the science observations from space for the next decade. At the same time, there is a growing interest in the world in the remote sensing area which will allow NASA to take advantage of this by building strong coalitions with a number of international partners. The focus of this presentation is to provide a comprehensive look at the NASA's Earth Science Enterprise in terms of its brief history, scientific objectives, organization, activities and future direction.

  5. Multiagent Modeling and Simulation in Human-Robot Mission Operations Work System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Sims, Michael H.; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative multiagent modeling and simulation approach for designing work systems. The Brahms environment is used to model mission operations for a semi-autonomous robot mission to the Moon at the work practice level. It shows the impact of human-decision making on the activities and energy consumption of a robot. A collaborative work systems design methodology is described that allows informal models, created with users and stakeholders, to be used as input to the development of formal computational models.

  6. Human and Robotic Space Mission Use Cases for High-Performance Spaceflight Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard; Bergman, Larry; Some, Raphael; Whitaker, William; Powell, Wesley; Johnson, Michael; Goforth, Montgomery; Lowry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight computing is a key resource in NASA space missions and a core determining factor of spacecraft capability, with ripple effects throughout the spacecraft, end-to-end system, and the mission; it can be aptly viewed as a "technology multiplier" in that advances in onboard computing provide dramatic improvements in flight functions and capabilities across the NASA mission classes, and will enable new flight capabilities and mission scenarios, increasing science and exploration return per mission-dollar.

  7. Space missions for automation and robotics technologies (SMART) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciffone, D. L.; Lum, H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The motivations, features and expected benefits and applications of the NASA SMART program are summarized. SMART is intended to push the state of the art in automation and robotics, a goal that Public Law 98-371 mandated be an inherent part of the Space Station program. The effort would first require tests of sensors, manipulators, computers and other subsystems as seeds for the evolution of flight-qualified subsystems. Consideration is currently being given to robotics systems as add-ons to the RMS, MMU and OMV and a self-contained automation and robotics module which would be tended by astronaut visits. Probable experimentation and development paths that would be pursued with the equipment are discussed, along with the management structure and procedures for the program. The first hardware flight is projected for 1989.

  8. Science Mission Definition Studies for TROPIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of mission definition studies for solar electric propulsion missions that have been carried out over the last approximately three years. The major output from the studies has been two proposals which were submitted to NASA in response to Announcements of Opportunity for missions and an ongoing Global Magnetospheric Dynamics mission study. The bulk of this report consists of copies of the proposals and preliminary materials from the GMD study that will be completed in the coming months.

  9. The Mars Pathfinder Mission and Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, the first low-cost, quick Discovery class mission to be completed, successfully landed on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997, deployed and navigated a small rover, and collected data from 3 science instruments and 10 technology experiments. The mission operated on Mars for 3 months and returned 2.3 Gbits of new data, including over 16,500 lander and 550 rover images, 16 chemical analyses of rocks and soil, and 8.5 million individual temperature, pressure and wind measurements. The rover traversed 100 m clockwise around the lander, exploring about 200 square meters of the surface. The mission captured the imagination of the public, and garnered front page headlines during the first week. A total of about 566 million internet "hits" were registered during the first month of the mission, with 47 million "hits" on July 8th alone, making the Pathfinder landing by far the largest internet event in history at the time. Pathfinder was the first mission to deploy a rover on Mars. It carried a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which provided a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The combination of spectral imaging of the landing area by the lander camera, chemical analyses aboard the rover, and close-up imaging of colors, textures and fabrics with the rover cameras offered the potential of identifying rocks (petrology and mineralogy). With this payload, a landing site in Ares Vallis was selected because it appeared acceptably safe and offered the prospect of analyzing a variety of rock types expected to be deposited by catastrophic floods, which enabled addressing first-order scientific questions such as differentiation of the crust, the development of weathering products, and the nature of the early Martian environment and its subsequent evolution. The 3 instruments and rover allowed seven areas of scientific investigation: the

  10. Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In-Space propulsion technologies relevant to Mars presentation is for the 14.03 Emerging Technologies for Mars Exploration panel. The talk will address propulsion technology needs for future Mars science missions, and will address electric propulsion, Earth entry vehicles, light weight propellant tanks, and the Mars ascent vehicle. The second panel presentation is Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions. This talk is for 14.02 Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions panel. The talk will summarize the technology needs identified in the NAC's Planetary Science Decadal Survey, and will set the stage for the talks for the 4 other panelist.

  11. Evaluation of Human and AutomationRobotics Integration Needs for Future Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Adelstein, Bernard D.; Ellis, Stephen; Chang, Mai Lee; Howard, Robert

    2016-01-01

    NASA employs Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to define potential architectures for future human exploration missions to deep space, the Moon, and Mars. While DRMs to these destinations share some components, each mission has different needs. This paper focuses on the human and automation/robotic integration needs for these future missions, evaluating them with respect to NASA research gaps in the area of space human factors engineering. The outcomes of our assessment is a human and automation/robotic (HAR) task list for each of the four DRMs that we reviewed (i.e., Deep Space Sortie, Lunar Visit/Habitation, Deep Space Habitation, and Planetary), a list of common critical HAR factors that drive HAR design.

  12. Human and Robotic Exploration Missions to Phobos Prior to Crewed Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Beaton, Kara H.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Crues, Edwin Z.; Li, Zu Qun; Bielski, Paul; Howe, A. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Phobos is a scientifically significant destination and exploring it would facilitate the development and operation of the human Mars transportation infrastructure, unmanned cargo delivery systems and other Mars surface systems. In addition to fostering development of systems relevant to Mars surface missions, exploring Phobos offers engineering and operational opportunities that could enhance subsequent Mars surface operations. These opportunities include the use of low-latency teleoperations to control Mars surface assets associated with exploration science, human landing-site selection, and infrastructure development, which may include in situ resource utilization to provide liquid oxygen for the Mars ascent vehicle (MAV). A human mission to the moons of Mars would be preceded by a cargo predeploy of a surface habitat and a pressurized excursion vehicle (PEV) to Mars orbit. Once in Mars orbit, the habitat and PEV would spiral to Phobos using solar electric propulsion-based systems. When a crewed mission is launched to Phobos, it would include the remaining systems to support the crew during the Earth-to-Mars transit and to reach Phobos after insertion into Mars orbit. The crew would taxi from Mars orbit to Phobos in a spacecraft that is based on a MAV to join with the predeployed systems. A mostly static Phobos surface habitat was chosen as a baseline architecture. The habitat would have limited capability to relocate on the surface to shorten excursion distances required by the PEV during exploration and to provide rescue capability should the PEV become disabled. To supplement exploration capabilities of the PEV, the surface habitat may use deployable EVA support structures that allow astronauts to work from portable foot restraints or body restraint tethers in the vicinity of the habitat. Prototype structures were tested as part of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 20. PEVs would contain closed-loop guidance and provide life support and

  13. Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

  14. Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Lee, Gregory; Ross, Floyd; Sokol, Daniel; Bolisay, Linden

    2015-11-01

    Over the past several years, we have explored a possible new approach to Venus upper atmosphere exploration by applying recent Northrop (non-NASA) development programs and have come up with a new class of exploration vehicle: an atmospheric rover. We will discuss a possible suite of instruments and measurements to study the current climate through detailed characterization of cloud level atmosphere and to understand the processes that control climate on Earth-like planets.Our Venus atmospheric rover concept, the Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP), is a hypersonic entry vehicle with an ultra-low ballistic coefficient that transitions to a semi-buoyant air vehicle (AV) after entering the Venus atmosphere. Prior to entry, the AV fully deploys to enable lifting entry and eliminates the need for an aeroshell. The mass savings realized by eliminating the aeroshell allows VAMP to accommodate significantly more instruments compared to previous Venus in situ exploration missions. VAMP targets the global Venus atmosphere between 50-65 km altitudes and would be an ideal, stable platform for atmospheric and surface interaction measurements. We will present a straw man concept of VAMP, including its science instrument accommodation capability and platform’s physical characteristics (mass, power, wingspan, etc). We will discuss the various instrument options.VAMP’s subsonic flight regime starts at ~94 km and after <1 hour, the AV will reach its cruise altitude of ~65 km. During this phase of flight, the VAMP sensor suite will acquire a pre-defined set of upper atmosphere measurements. The nominal VAMP lifetime at cruise altitude is several months to a year, providing numerous circumnavigation cycles of Venus at mid-latitude. The stability of the AV and its extended residence time provide the very long integration times required for isotopic mass analysis. VAMP communicates with the orbiter, which provides data relay and possibly additional science measurements

  15. The Science Operations of the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altobelli, Nicolas; Cardesin, Alejandro; Costa, Marc; Frew, David; Lorente, Rosario; Vallat, Claire; Witasse, Olivier; Christian, Erd

    2016-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa.JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system.The Science Operation Centre (SOC) is in charge of implementing the science operations of the JUICE mission. The SOC aims at supporting the Science Working Team (SWT) and the Science Working Groups (WGs) performing studies of science operation feasibility and coverage analysis during the mission development phase, high level science planning during the cruise phase, and routine consolidation of instrument pointing and commanding timeline during the nominal science phase.We will present the current status of the SOC science planning activities with an overview of the tools and methods in place in this early phase of the mission.

  16. A 2D chaotic path planning for mobile robots accomplishing boundary surveillance missions in adversarial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan; Volosencu, Constantin

    2014-10-01

    The path-planning algorithm represents a crucial issue for every autonomous mobile robot. In normal circumstances a patrol robot will compute an optimal path to ensure its task accomplishment, but in adversarial conditions the problem is getting more complicated. Here, the robot’s trajectory needs to be altered into a misleading and unpredictable path to cope with potential opponents. Chaotic systems provide the needed framework for obtaining unpredictable motion in all of the three basic robot surveillance missions: area, points of interests and boundary monitoring. Proficient approaches have been provided for the first two surveillance tasks, but for boundary patrol missions no method has been reported yet. This paper addresses the mentioned research gap by proposing an efficient method, based on chaotic dynamic of the Hénon system, to ensure unpredictable boundary patrol on any shape of chosen closed contour.

  17. A Science Data System Approach for the SMAP Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollard, David; Kwoun, Oh-ig; Bicknell, Tom; West, Richard; Leung, Kon

    2009-01-01

    Though Science Data System (SDS) development has not traditionally been part of the mission concept phase, lessons learned and study of past Earth science missions indicate that SDS functionality can greatly benefit algorithm developers in all mission phases. We have proposed a SDS approach for the SMAP Mission that incorporates early support for an algorithm testbed, allowing scientists to develop codes and seamlessly integrate them into the operational SDS. This approach will greatly reduce both the costs and risks involved in algorithm transitioning and SDS development.

  18. Planetary Protection Considerations for Human And Robotic Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogul, R.; Stabekis, P. D.; Race, M. S.; Conley, C. A.

    2012-06-01

    Incorporating planetary protection into human missions, as supported by NASA Policy Directive NPD 8020.7G, is essential to preventing the forward contamination of Mars, ensuring astronaut health, and preventing backward contamination of Earth.

  19. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of what is known about the moon, and draws parallels between the moon and any other terrestrial planet. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets The Moon is a terrestrial body, formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids The Moon is a differentiated body, with a layered internal structure (crust, mantle, and core) The Moon is a cratered body, preserving a record of bombardment history in the inner solar system The Moon is an active body, experiencing moonquakes, releasing primordial heat, conducting electricity, sustaining bombardment, and trapping volatile molecules Lunar robotic missions provide early science return to obtain important science and engineering objectives, rebuild a lunar science community, and keep our eyes on the Moon. These lunar missions, both past and future are reviewed.

  20. Design and simulation of EVA tools and robot end effectors for servicing missions of the HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched into near-earth orbit by the Space Shuttle Discovery on April 24, 1990. The payload of two cameras, two spectrographs, and a high-speed photometer is supplemented by three fine-guidance sensors that can be used for astronomy as well as for star tracking. A widely reported spherical aberration in the primary mirror causes HST to produce images of much lower quality than intended. A Space Shuttle repair mission in January 1994 installed small corrective mirrors that restored the full intended optical capability of the HST. A Second Servicing Mission (SM2) scheduled in 1997 will involve considerable Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). To reduce EVA time, the addition of robotic capability in the remaining servicing missions has been proposed. Toward that end, two concept designs for a general purpose end effector for robots are presented in this report.

  1. Potential Astrophysics Science Missions Enabled by NASA's Planned Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley; Langhoff, Stepheni; Postman, Marc; Lester, Daniel; Lillie, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    NASA s planned Ares V cargo vehicle with its 10 meter diameter fairing and 60,000 kg payload mass to L2 offers the potential to launch entirely new classes of space science missions such as 8-meter monolithic aperture telescopes, 12- meter aperture x-ray telescopes, 16 to 24 meter segmented telescopes and highly capable outer planet missions. The paper will summarize the current Ares V baseline performance capabilities and review potential mission concepts enabled by these capabilities.

  2. Genesis Science Team Report on Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, D. S.

    2005-12-01

    The Genesis Discovery Mission exposed pure materials to the solar wind at the L1 Lagrangian point for 27 months between December 2001 and April 2004. These were returned for analysis in terrestrial laboratories in Sept 2004. The general science objectives for Genesis are: (1) measure solar isotopic abundance ratios to the precision required for planetary science problems, (2) improve the accuracy of photospheric elemental abundances by a least a factor of three, (3) provide independent analyses of the 3 major solar wind regimes and (4) provide a reservoir of solar matter for subsequent studies. Based on these general objectives, we are working towards a list of 18 specific prioritized measurement objectives, the first 5 of which are isotopic measurements. The two highest priority objectives are the isotopic compositions of O and N; to obtain a higher signal to background ratio for these elements, a concentrator (focusing ion telescope) was built at LANL to provide a factor of 20 fluence enhancement for elements lighter than P on a 30 mm radius target. The concentrator performed well in flight. A variety of other collector materials, tailored to specific analytical approaches, were mounted in 5 arrays of 55 hexagons, 4 cm point to point. Three of the arrays were used to provide the independent regime (coronal hole, low speed interstream, and coronal mass ejection) samples. The solar wind regime was measured by LANL Solar Wind Monitors on the Genesis spacecraft and the appropriate array exposed while the inappropriate array remained shielded. Array switchouts were carried out flawlessly during flight. Sample analyses have been slowed considerably by a parachute deployment failure which caused a crash of the sample return capsule upon reentry and by the presence of an in-flight contamination film, affectionately referred to as the brown stain. The crash has led to major loss of collector materials, along with significant pitting and scratching of the surviving

  3. Life sciences - On the critical path for missions of exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Connors, Mary M.; Gaiser, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Life sciences are important and critical to the safety and success of manned and long-duration space missions. The life science issues covered include gravitational physiology, space radiation, medical care delivery, environmental maintenance, bioregenerative systems, crew and human factors within and outside the spacecraft. The history of the role of life sciences in the space program is traced from the Apollo era, through the Skylab era to the Space Shuttle era. The life science issues of the space station program and manned missions to the moon and Mars are covered.

  4. Objectives for Mars Orbital Missions in the 2020s: Report from a MEPAG Science Analysis Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, R. W.; Campbell, B. A.; Diniega, S.; Lock, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Headquarters is looking at possible missions to Mars to follow the proposed 2020 Mars rover mission currently in development. One option being considered is a multi-functional orbiter, launched in the early 2020's, whose capabilities could address objectives in the following areas: • Replenishment of the telecommunications and reconnaissance infrastructure presently provided by the aging Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiters; • Scientific and technical progress on the NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey priorities, updated MEPAG Goals, and/or follow-up of new discoveries; • Location and quantification of in situ resources for utilization by future robotic and human surface-based missions; and • Data needed to address Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), again for possible human missions. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) was asked to prepare an analysis of possible science objectives and remote sensing capabilities that could be implemented by such a multi-purpose Mars orbiter launched in the 2022/24 timeframe. MEPAG conducted this analysis through formation of a Next Orbiter Science Analysis Group (NEX-SAG), which was chartered jointly by the NASA Science and Human Exploration Directorates. The SAG was asked to conduct this study within a range of mission capabilities, including the possible first use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) in the Mars system. SEP could provide additional power enabling new payload components and possible changes in orbit (e.g., orbital inclination change) that permit different mission observational campaigns (e.g., polar and non-polar). Special attention was paid towards identifying synergies between science investigations, reconnaissance, and resource/SKG needs. We will present the findings and conclusions of this NEX-SAG regarding possible objectives for the next NASA Orbiter to Mars.

  5. Robotic Exploration: The Role of Science Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Historical mission operations have involved: (1) commands transmitted to the craft; (2) execution of commands; (3) return of scientific data; (4) evaluation of these data by scientists; and (5) recommendations for future mission activity by scientists. This cycle is repeated throughout the mission with command opportunities once or twice per day. For a rover, this historical cycle is not amenable to rapid long range traverses or rapid response to any novel or unexpected situations.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Angular Velocity Estimation During the Robotic Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie K.; Queen, Steven Z.; VanEepoel, John M.; Sanner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 NASA began investigation of a robotic servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Such a mission would require estimates of the HST attitude and rates in order to achieve a capture by the proposed Hubble robotic vehicle (HRV). HRV was to be equipped with vision-based sensors, capable of estimating the relative attitude between HST and HRV. The inertial HST attitude is derived from the measured relative attitude and the HRV computed inertial attitude. However, the relative rate between HST and HRV cannot be measured directly. Therefore, the HST rate with respect to inertial space is not known. Two approaches are developed to estimate the HST rates. Both methods utilize the measured relative attitude and the HRV inertial attitude and rates. First, a non-linear estimator is developed. The nonlinear approach estimates the HST rate through an estimation of the inertial angular momentum. Second, a linearized approach is developed. The linearized approach is a pseudo-linear Kalman filter. Simulation test results for both methods are given. Even though the development began as an application for the HST robotic servicing mission, the methods presented are applicable to any rendezvous/capture mission involving a non-cooperative target spacecraft.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope Angular Velocity Estimation During the Robotic Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie K.; Sanner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 NASA began investigation of a robotic servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Such a mission would require estimates of the HST attitude and rates in order to achieve a capture by the proposed Hubble robotic vehicle (HRV). HRV was to be equipped with vision-based sensors, capable of estimating the relative attitude between HST and HRV. The inertial HST attitude is derived from the measured relative attitude and the HRV computed inertial attitude. However, the relative rate between HST and HRV cannot be measured directly. Therefore, the HST rate with respect to inertial space is not known. Two approaches are developed to estimate the HST rates. Both methods utilize the measured relative attitude and the HRV inertial attitude and rates. First, a nonlinear estimator is developed. The nonlinear approach estimates the HST rate through an estimation of the inertial angular momentum. The development includes an analysis of the estimator stability given errors in the measured attitude. Second, a linearized approach is developed. The linearized approach is a pseudo-linear Kalman filter. Simulation test results for both methods are given, including scenarios with erroneous measured attitudes. Even though the development began as an application for the HST robotic servicing mission, the methods presented are applicable to any rendezvous/capture mission involving a non-cooperative target spacecraft.

  8. Design of multihundredwatt DIPS for robotic space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Geng, S. M.; Schreiber, J. G.; Withrow, C. A.; Schmitz, P. C.; Mccomas, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Design of a dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) general purpose heat source (GPHS) and small free piston Stirling engine (FPSE) is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to SEI precursor missions. These are multihundredwatt missions. The incentive for any dynamic system is that it can save fuel which reduces cost and radiological hazard. However, unlike a conventional DIPS based on turbomachinery converions, the small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled to multihundred watt unit size while preserving size and weight competitiveness with RTG's. Stirling conversion extends the range where dynamic systems are competitive to hundreds of watts (a power range not previously considered for dynamic systems). The challenge of course is to demonstrate reliability similar to RTG experience. Since the competative potential of FPSE as an isotope converter was first identified, work has focused on the feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Extensive thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries were performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain within safe operating limits under all conditions including shutdown of one engine. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred watt units were established.

  9. Lessons Learned from NASA UAV Science Demonstration Program Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steven S.; Schoenung, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, two airborne missions were flown as part of a NASA Earth Science Enterprise program to demonstrate the use of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) to perform earth science. One mission, the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES), successfully measured lightning storms in the vicinity of Key West, Florida, during storm season using a high-altitude Altus(TM) UAV. In the other, a solar-powered UAV, the Pathfinder Plus, flew a high-resolution imaging mission over coffee fields in Kauai, Hawaii, to help guide the harvest.

  10. Robotics and Science Literacy: Thinking Skills, Science Process Skills and Systems Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Florence R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of the relationship of robotics activity to the use of science literacy skills and the development of systems understanding in middle school students. Twenty-six 11-12-year-olds (22 males and 4 females) attending an intensive robotics course offered at a summer camp for academically advanced students…

  11. Solar Electric Propulsion for Primitive Body Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzberger, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes work that assesses the performance of solar electric propulsion (SEP) for three different primitive body science missions: 1) Comet Rendezvous 2) Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR), and 3) a Trojan asteroid/Centaur object Reconnaissance Flyby. Each of these missions launches from Earth between 2010 and 2016. Beginning-of-life (BOL) solar array power (referenced at 1 A.U.) varies from 10 to 18 kW. Launch vehicle selections range from a Delta II to a Delta IV medium-class. The primary figure of merit (FOM) is net delivered mass (NDM). This analysis considers the effects of imposing various mission constraints on the Comet Rendezvous and CSSR missions. Specifically, the Comet Rendezvous mission analysis examines an arrival date constraint with a launch year variation, whereas the CSSR mission analysis investigates an Earth entry velocity constraint commensurate with past and current missions. Additionally, the CSSR mission analysis establishes NASA's New Frontiers (NF) Design Reference Mission (DRM) in order to evaluate current and future SEP technologies. The results show that transfer times range from 5 to 9 years (depending on the mission). More importantly, the spacecraft's primary propulsion system performs an average 5-degree plane change on the return leg of the CSSR mission to meet the previously mentioned Earth entry velocity constraint. Consequently, these analyses show that SEP technologies that have higher thrust-to-power ratios can: 1) reduce flight time, and 2) change planes more efficiently.

  12. March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Robotic Refueling Mission (Narrated)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, presented by Tara Ruttley, Associate ISS Program Scientist, during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows safety cap removal and refueling during Roboti...

  13. March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, presented by Tara Ruttley, Associate ISS Program Scientist, during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows safety cap removal and refueling during Roboti...

  14. In-Space Propulsion Technology Products for NASA's Future Science and Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling, for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered, as well as having broad applicability to future competed mission solicitations. The high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost was completed in 2009. Two other ISPT technologies are nearing completion of their technology development phase: 1) NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 2) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; aerothermal effect models: and atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars and Venus. This paper provides status of the technology development, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies that have recently completed their technology development and will be ready for infusion into NASA s Discovery, New Frontiers, Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Flagship, and Exploration technology demonstration missions

  15. Dawn Mission Education and Public Outreach: Science as Human Endeavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, W. H.; Wise, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Ristvey, J.

    2012-12-01

    Dawn Education and Public Outreach strives to reach diverse learners using multi-disciplinary approaches. In-depth professional development workshops in collaboration with NASA's Discovery Program, MESSENGER and Stardust-NExT missions focusing on STEM initiatives that integrate the arts have met the needs of diverse audiences and received excellent evaluations. Another collaboration on NASA ROSES grant, Small Bodies, Big Concepts, has helped bridge the learning sequence between the upper elementary and middle school, and the middle and high school Dawn curriculum modules. Leveraging the Small Bodies, Big Concepts model, educators experience diverse and developmentally appropriate NASA activities that tell the Dawn story, with teachers' pedagogical skills enriched by strategies drawn from NSTA's Designing Effective Science Instruction. Dawn mission members enrich workshops by offering science presentations to highlight events and emerging data. Teachers' awareness of the process of learning new content is heightened, and they use that experience to deepen their science teaching practice. Activities are sequenced to enhance conceptual understanding of big ideas in space science and Vesta and Ceres and the Dawn Mission 's place within that body of knowledge Other media add depth to Dawn's resources for reaching students. Instrument and ion engine interactives developed with the respective science team leads help audiences engage with the mission payload and the data each instrument collects. The Dawn Dictionary, an offering in both audio as well as written formats, makes key vocabulary accessible to a broader range of students and the interested public. Further, as Dawn E/PO has invited the public to learn about mission objectives as the mission explored asteroid Vesta, new inroads into public presentations such as the Dawn MissionCast tell the story of this extraordinary mission. Asteroid Mapper is the latest, exciting citizen science endeavor designed to invite the

  16. Ikhana: A NASA UAS Supporting Long Duration Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Ikhana unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc. (San Diego, California) MQ-9 Predator-B modified to support the conduct of Earth science missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate and, through partnerships, other government agencies and universities. It can carry over 2000 lb of experiment payloads in the avionics bay and external pods and is capable of mission durations in excess of 24 hours at altitudes above 40,000 ft. The aircraft is remotely piloted from a mobile ground control station (GCS) that is designed to be deployable by air, land, or sea. On-board support capabilities include an instrumentation system and an Airborne Research Test System (ARTS). The Ikhana project will complete GCS development, science support systems integration, external pod integration and flight clearance, and operations crew training in early 2007. A large-area remote sensing mission is currently scheduled for Summer 2007.

  17. Science Data Center concepts for moderate-sized NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, R.; Han, D.; Pedelty, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the approaches taken by the NASA Science Data Operations Center to the concepts for two future NASA moderate-sized missions, the Orbiting Solar Laboratory (OSL) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The OSL space science mission will be a free-flying spacecraft with a complement of science instruments, placed in a high-inclination, sun synchronous orbit to allow continuous study of the sun for extended periods. The TRMM is planned to be a free-flying satellite for measuring tropical rainfall and its variations. Both missions will produce 'standard' data products for the benefit of their communities, and both depend upon their own scientific community to provide algorithms for generating the standard data products.

  18. Noble Gas Analysis for Mars Robotic Missions: Evaluating K-Ar Age Dating for Mars Rock Analogs and Martian Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Ming, D. W.; Garrison, D. H.; Jones, J. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Nagao, K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this noble gas investigation was to evaluate the possibility of measuring noble gases in martian rocks and air by future robotic missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL mission has, as part of its payload, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument, which consists of a pyrolysis oven integrated with a GCMS. The MSL SAM instrument has the capability to measure noble gas compositions of martian rocks and atmosphere. Here we suggest the possibility of K-Ar age dating based on noble gas release of martian rocks by conducting laboratory simulation experiments on terrestrial basalts and martian meteorites. We provide requirements for the SAM instrument to obtain adequate noble gas abundances and compositions within the current SAM instrumental operating conditions, especially, a power limit that prevents heating the furnace above approx.1100 C. In addition, Martian meteorite analyses from NASA-JSC will be used as ground truth to evaluate the feasibility of robotic experiments to constrain the ages of martian surface rocks.

  19. Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for robotic space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1992-08-01

    The design of a multihundred-watt Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS), based on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to Space Exploration Initiative precursor missions. Power level for these missions is less than a kilowatt. The incentive for any dynamic system is that it can save fuel and reduce costs and radiological hazard. Unlike DIPS based on turbomachinery conversion (e.g. Brayton), this small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled to multihundred-watt unit size while preserving size and mass competitiveness with RTG's. Stirling conversion extends the competitive range for dynamic systems down to a few hundred watts--a power level not previously considered for dynamic systems. The challenge for Stirling conversion will be to demonstrate reliability and life similar to RTG experience. Since the competitive potential of FPSE as an isotope converter was first identified, work has focused on feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries has been performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain within acceptable operating limits. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred-watt units have been established.

  20. Human Factors Principles in Design of Computer-Mediated Visualization for Robot Missions

    SciTech Connect

    David I Gertman; David J Bruemmer

    2008-12-01

    With increased use of robots as a resource in missions supporting countermine, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and chemical, biological, radiological nuclear and conventional explosives (CBRNE), fully understanding the best means by which to complement the human operator’s underlying perceptual and cognitive processes could not be more important. Consistent with control and display integration practices in many other high technology computer-supported applications, current robotic design practices rely highly upon static guidelines and design heuristics that reflect the expertise and experience of the individual designer. In order to use what we know about human factors (HF) to drive human robot interaction (HRI) design, this paper reviews underlying human perception and cognition principles and shows how they were applied to a threat detection domain.

  1. The Reformed Social Sciences to Reform the University: Mission Impossible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Davydd J.; Levin, Morten

    2008-01-01

    The core argument is that social science must re-examine its mission and praxis in order to be a significant player in future higher education. This article reviews the results and prospects arising from a four-year international project. Originating in Greenwood and Levin's concern about the social sciences, the project, funded by the Ford…

  2. A Highly Agile Ground Assessment Robot (HAGAR) for military battlefield and support missions

    SciTech Connect

    Klarer, P.

    1994-04-01

    A mobile robotic vehicle with potential for use in military field applications is described. Based on a Sandia design intended for use in exploration of the Lunar surface, the Highly Agile Ground Assessment Robot (HAGAR) is a four wheeled all-wheel-drive dual-body vehicle. A uniquely simple method of chassis articulation is employed which allows all four wheels to remain in contact with the ground, even while operating in very rough terrain and climbing over obstacles as large as a wheel diameter. Skid steering and modular construction are used to produce a simple, rugged, lightweight, highly agile mobility chassis with a reduction in the number of parts required when compared to conventional vehicle designs for military battlefield and support missions. The design configuration, mobility parameters, potential mission configurations, and performance of existing and proposed HAGAR prototypes are discussed.

  3. Interplanetary Trajectory Design for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Qu, Min; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob A.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents mission performance analysis methods and results for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger NEA. It details the optimization and design of heliocentric low-thrust trajectories to asteroid targets for the ARRM solar electric propulsion spacecraft. Extensive searches were conducted to determine asteroid targets with large pick-up mass potential and potential observation opportunities. Interplanetary trajectory approximations were developed in method based tools for Itokawa, Bennu, 1999 JU3, and 2008 EV5 and were validated by end-to-end integrated trajectories.

  4. Sailing the Planets: Science from Directed Aerial Robot Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nock, K.; Pankine, A.

    2004-12-01

    In the past 50 years planetary exploration has evolved from being a subject of science fiction to a multi-billion dollar activity that embraces numerous branches of science, engineering and government on several continents, affects national policies and excites the public. The development of new observational platforms - orbiters, landers and rovers - has been central to successful exploration of the planets. The maturing of planetary exploration suggests that a unifying approach to planetary exploration - one that would reduce costs and facilitate discovery - is needed. Global Aerospace Corporation under funding from the NASA institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) is developing a concept for planetary exploration architecture that would provide such an approach. At the core of the architecture are the Directed Aerial Robot Explorer (DARE) platforms, which are autonomous balloons with path guidance capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature robotic probes over multiple target areas. These platforms will observe planets in concert with orbiter(s) and surface platforms (landers and rovers) on global scales continuously for several years. Due to their relatively low cost and low power consumption balloons represent a very attractive platform for planetary exploration. Indeed, the successful Venera-Vega Project demonstrated technical feasibility of deploying a balloon on another planet and the wealth of opportunities presented by a balloon platform for planetary atmospheric and surface studies. Concepts for planetary balloon exploration of Mars, Venus, Titan and the Outer Planets have been studied. The DARE architecture revolutionizes these early concepts by providing the balloon, for the first time, a means of flight path control and autonomous navigation, and by integrating the balloon platform with innovative lightweight microprobes. In addition, DARE platforms can make concurrent observations with other observational platforms leading to a revolutionary

  5. Effect of Robotics-Enhanced Inquiry-Based Learning in Elementary Science Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jungho

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been conducted in educational robotics, a new instructional technology, for K-12 education. However, there are arguments on the effect of robotics and limited empirical evidence to investigate the impact of robotics in science learning. Also most robotics studies were carried in an informal educational setting. This study…

  6. The Aura mission, science, and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Douglass, A. R.

    The EOS-Aura Mission is designed to answer three basic questions concerning the Earth's atmosphere: 1) Is stratospheric ozone recovering as predicted, 2) what are the processes that control air quality, and 3) how are changes in atmospheric chemistry effecting climate? Aura's four instruments work synergistically and observe from the ultraviolet to the microwave region and view in both the nadir and limb. The most important source, radical, and reservoir gases in the stratosphere will be observed globally on a daily basis. Aura will also continue the TOMS global ozone trend record. For the troposphere, key pollutants, including aerosols, gases, and their precursors will be observed with the best spatial resolution and coverage ever achieved from space. High vertical resolution measurements will be made in the vicinity of the tropopause to better define the interactions of the UT/LS and particularly determine the amount downward transport of ozone and upward transport of water vapor where both contribute to climate forcing. Aura will also measure aerosols in the stratosphere and troposphere where they play a role in ozone chemistry, air quality, and climate. Aura data will also be used by several environmental operational agencies for their decision support systems. Aura post launch validation program will augment the ground based measurement networks that measure atmospheric composition. Validation will be conducted under a range of geophysical conditions and throughout Aura's observing lifetime. Balloon campaigns will be conducted from a variety of latitudes and numerous aircraft missions are planned to cover an altitude range from the middle troposphere to the lower stratosphere and include in-situ and remote sensors. Long duration Un-inhabited aircraft are also being considered as part of the validation program. Substantial collaboration is planned with other chemistry satellite missions such as Envisat, SciSat, and Odin in order to make efficient use of

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Genesis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) The Genesis Mission Solar Wind Collection: Solar-Wind Statistics over the Period of Collection; 2) Artificial Implantation of Noble Gases on Genesis Targets; 3) Depth Sensitive Sampling of Implanted Species in Genesis Collectors Using UV Laser Ablation and SIMS; 4) A High Energy Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer for the Analysis of Captured Solar Wind; 5) Genesis Preliminary Examination Plans; 6) Genesis Sample Material Subdividing Plans.

  8. Model Based Mission Assurance: Emerging Opportunities for Robotic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, John W.; DiVenti, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) in a Model Based Engineering framework has created new opportunities to improve effectiveness and efficiencies across the assurance functions. The MBSE environment supports not only system architecture development, but provides for support of Systems Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis concurrently in the same framework. Linking to detailed design will further improve assurance capabilities to support failures avoidance and mitigation in flight systems. This also is leading new assurance functions including model assurance and management of uncertainty in the modeling environment. Further, the assurance cases, a structured hierarchal argument or model, are emerging as a basis for supporting a comprehensive viewpoint in which to support Model Based Mission Assurance (MBMA).

  9. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  10. Terrain Safety Assessment in Support of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kipp, Devin

    2012-01-01

    In August 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. The process to select the MSL landing site took over five years and began with over 50 initial candidate sites from which four finalist sites were chosen. The four finalist sites were examined in detail to assess overall science merit, EDL safety, and rover traversability on the surface. Ultimately, the engineering assessments demonstrated a high level of safety and robustness at all four finalist sites and differences in the assessment across those sites were small enough that neither EDL safety nor rover traversability considerations could significantly discriminate among the final four sites. Thus the MSL landing site at Gale Crater was selected from among the four finalists primarily on the basis of science considerations.

  11. Live Blogging Science News: The Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S.

    2016-03-01

    When one of the world's most popular online news websites decides to cover a space science event live, you know that something big is brewing. Stuart Clark reports on how live blogging can be used for science reporting and how an idea that was triggered by his observations during the Rosetta flyby of the asteroid Lutetia and the landing of the Curiosity rover on Mars led to him live blogging two of Rosetta's most memorable occasions for The Guardian newspaper.

  12. Life sciences experiments in the first Spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffstetler, W. J.; Rummel, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) by the United States and the Spacelab pressurized modules and pallets by the European Space Agency (ESA) presents a unique multi-mission space experimentation capability to scientists and researchers of all disciplines. This capability is especially pertinent to life scientists involved in all areas of biological and behavioral research. This paper explains the solicitation, evaluation, and selection process involved in establishing life sciences experiment payloads. Explanations relative to experiment hardware development, experiment support hardware (CORE) concepts, hardware integration and test, and concepts of direct Principal Investigator involvement in the missions are presented as they are being accomplished for the first Spacelab mission. Additionally, discussions of future plans for life sciences dedicated Spacelab missions are included in an attempt to define projected capabilities for space research in the 1980s utilizing the STS.

  13. Nuclear electric propulsion for future NASA space science missions

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Chen-wan L.

    1993-07-20

    This study has been made to assess the needs, potential benefits and the applicability of early (circa year 2000) Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology in conducting NASA science missions. The study goals are: to obtain the performance characteristics of near term NEP technologies; to measure the performance potential of NEP for important OSSA missions; to compare NEP performance with that of conventional chemical propulsion; to identify key NEP system requirements; to clarify and depict the degree of importance NEP might have in advancing NASA space science goals; and to disseminate the results in a format useful to both NEP users and technology developers. This is a mission performance study and precludes investigations of multitudes of new mission operation and systems design issues attendant in a NEP flight.

  14. Engaging the public in planetary science missions: the role of competitions in the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flaherty, K. S.; Baldwin, E.; Mignone, C.; Homfeld, A.-M.; Scuka, D.; Schepers, A.; Braun, M.; Croci, F.; Giacomini, L.; Journo, N.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    The year 2014 was an historic and challenging year for the Rosetta mission. On 20 January, the spacecraft awoke from a 957-day hibernation; by August, the spacecraft had arrived at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko; and in November, the lander Philae was deployed to the comet's surface. Each of these mission milestones was marked by a competition. We outline how these competitions provided a means for the public to engage with what was to become one of the most exciting space science missions of this decade.

  15. The Aura Mission, Science and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest; Schoeberl, Mark; Douglass, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The EOS-Aura Mission is designed to answer three basic questions concerning the Earth's atmosphere: 1) Is stratospheric ozone recovering as predicted, 2) what are the processes that control air quality, and 3) how is changes in atmospheric chemistry effecting climate? Aura's four instruments work synergistically and are dedicated to answering these questions. Aura's instruments observe from the ultraviolet to the microwave region and view in the nadir and limb. This capability allows measurements of all the critical source, radical, and reservoir gases in the stratosphere to be observed globally on a daily basis. Aura will also continue the TOMS global ozone trend record. Observations in the troposphere will be conducted with the best spatial resolution and coverage ever achieved from space. Key pollutants, including aerosols, gases, and their precursors are the primary targets for Aura. High vertical resolution measurements will be made in the vicinity of the tropopause to better define the interactions of the UT/LS and particularly determine the amount downward transport of ozone and upward transport.of water vapor where both contribute to climate forcing. Aura will also measure aerosols in the stratosphere and troposphere where they play a role in ozone chemistry, air quality and climate. Aura data will be used by several environmental agencies for their decision support systems. Aura post launch validation program includes an augmented ground based measurement program which include the operational networks which measure atmospheric composition. Validation will be conducted under a range of geophysical conditions and throughout most of Aura s observing range. Balloon campaigns will conducted from a variety of latitudes and numerous aircraft missions are planned to cover an altitude range from the middle troposphere to the lower stratosphere and include in-situ and remote sensors. Long duration Un-inhabited aircraft are also being considered as part of the

  16. Science questions for the Magellan continuing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Stofan, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magellan has completed two mapping cycles around the planet Venus, returning high resolution synthetic aperture images and altimetry data of over 95 percent of the planet's surface. Venus is dominated by low lying volcanic plains with an impact crater population indicating an average surface age of about 500 million years. Highland regions either tend to be characterized by volcanic shield complexes and rifting or by complex ridged terrain. Successful as the primary mission of Magellan has been, significant scientific questions remain to be addressed with imaging and gravity data that will be collected over the next several years.

  17. EDOS Evolution to Support NASA Future Earth Sciences Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordier, Guy R.; McLemore, Bruce; Wood, Terri; Wilkinson, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a ground system architecture to service future NASA decadal missions and in particular, the high rate science data downlinks, by evolving EDOS current infrastructure and upgrading high rate network lines. The paper will also cover EDOS participation to date in formulation and operations concepts for the respective missions to understand the particular mission needs and derived requirements such as data volumes, downlink rates, data encoding, and data latencies. Future decadal requirements such as onboard data recorder management and file protocols drive the need to emulate these requirements within the ground system. The EDOS open system modular architecture is scalable to accommodate additional missions using the current sites antennas and future sites as well and meet the data security requirements and fulfill mission's objectives

  18. Small to intermediate satellites for future space science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sanctis, Carmine E.

    1993-09-01

    Spacecraft capable of carrying modest to intermediate size science payloads into Earth orbit at relatively low cost are being investigated by the Marshall Space Flight Center at the request of the Astrophysics and Space Physics Division of OSSA. Intermediate-class space science missions, such as the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE), Inner Magnetosphere Imager (IMI), the Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Correlative Emissions (SOURCE) experiment, and the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF-II) are expected to have a progressively larger role in NASA's space science program into the next century. These and other space science missions have been examined to define the systems, subsystems, and interface requirements needed to accomplish their stated objectives. This paper discusses the science objectives, technical requirements and major issues posed by IMI, LUTE, SOURCE, and LDEF-II and will address MSFC's new ways of doing business.

  19. Benefits of Delay Tolerant Networking for Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Faith; Marquart, Jane; Menke, Greg

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been much discussion about the value of Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) for space missions. Claims of various benefits, based on paper analysis, are good; however a benefits statement with empirical evidence to support is even better. This paper presents potential and actual advantages of using DTN for Earth science missions based on results from multiple demonstrations, conducted by the Communications, Standards, and Technology Laboratory (CSTL) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Demonstrations included two flight demonstrations using the Earth Observing Mission 1 (EO-1) and the Near Earth Network (NEN), a ground based demonstration over satellite links to the Internet Router in Space (IRIS) payload on Intelsat-14, and others using the NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Real and potential findings include increased flexibility and efficiency in science campaigns, reduced latency in a collaborative science scenario, and improved scientist-instrument communication and control.

  20. Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Squyres, Steven

    2007-10-05

    NASA launched two Mars Exploration Rovers, on June 10 and July 7, 2003, primarily to probe the history of water on the red planet. After landing on Mars in January 2004, the robots began to explore the planet. One of the most important scientific goals of the mission was to find and identify a variety of rocks and soils that provide evidence of the past presence of water on the planet. To obtain this information, Squyres is studying the data obtained on Mars by several sophisticated scientific instruments. In his talk, he will discuss his conclusions about water on Mars and other observations about the nature of the planet.

  1. Trajectory and navigation system design for robotic and piloted missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, S. W.; Matousek, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    Future Mars exploration missions, both robotic and piloted, may utilize Earth to Mars transfer trajectories that are significantly different from one another, depending upon the type of mission being flown and the time period during which the flight takes place. The use of new or emerging technologies for future missions to Mars, such as aerobraking and nuclear rocket propulsion, may yield navigation requirements that are much more stringent than those of past robotic missions, and are very difficult to meet for some trajectories. This article explores the interdependencies between the properties of direct Earth to Mars trajectories and the Mars approach navigation accuracy that can be achieved using different radio metric data types, such as ranging measurements between an approaching spacecraft and Mars orbiting relay satellites, or Earth based measurements such as coherent Doppler and very long baseline interferometry. The trajectory characteristics affecting navigation performance are identified, and the variations in accuracy that might be experienced over the range of different Mars approach trajectories are discussed. The results predict that three sigma periapsis altitude navigation uncertainties of 2 to 10 km can be achieved when a Mars orbiting satellite is used as a navigation aid.

  2. Balancing Science Objectives and Operational Constraints: A Mission Planner's Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldy, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The Air Force minute sensor technology integration (MSTI-3) satellite's primary mission is to characterize Earth's atmospheric background clutter. MSTI-3 will use three cameras for data collection, a mid-wave infrared imager, a short wave infrared imager, and a visible imaging spectrometer. Mission science objectives call for the collection of over 2 million images within the one year mission life. In addition, operational constraints limit camera usage to four operations of twenty minutes per day, with no more than 10,000 data and calibrating images collected per day. To balance the operational constraints and science objectives, the mission planning team has designed a planning process to e event schedules and sensor operation timelines. Each set of constraints, including spacecraft performance capabilities, the camera filters, the geographical regions, and the spacecraft-Sun-Earth geometries of interest, and remote tracking station deconflictions has been accounted for in this methodology. To aid in this process, the mission planning team is building a series of tools from commercial off-the-shelf software. These include the mission manifest which builds a daily schedule of events, and the MSTI Scene Simulator which helps build geometrically correct scans. These tools provide an efficient, responsive, and highly flexible architecture that maximizes data collection while minimizing mission planning time.

  3. Reducing the Risk and Improving Mission Success for NASA's Human Mission to a Near-Earth Asteroid: How Many Robotic Surveyors?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Lincoln, William P.; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's recent attention and interest in sending a human mission to land on a Near-Earth asteroid raises the question of need for a robotic surveyor. This paper describes a Bayesian approach for comparing the productivity and cost-risk tradeoffs of sending (versus not sending) one or more robotic surveyor missions prior to a human mission to land on an asteroid. The probability of finding an asteroid suitable for landing was derived from an analysis of more than 1200 asteroids in order to define a quantitative estimate of suitability. The low cost of the surveyors relative to the human mission underlined the multi-surveyor strategy as relatively inexpensive insurance against the risks of encountering an unsuitable asteroid for landing on arrival by a human mission.

  4. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic and Human Missions in Near-Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2011-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science, lunar exploration, lunar exploitation, planetary science, and planetary exploration. These missions span SEP power range from 10s of kWe to several MWe. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  5. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic and Human Missions in Near-Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2006-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science, lunar exploration, lunar exploitation, planetary science, and planetary exploration. These missions span SEP power range from 10s of kWe to several MWe. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  6. Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    For human and robotic exploration missions envisioned in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, computing, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, and NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 1) the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

  7. Creating Communications, Computing, and Networking Technology Development Road Maps for Future NASA Human and Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Hayden, Jeffrey L.

    2005-01-01

    For human and robotic exploration missions in the Vision for Exploration, roadmaps are needed for capability development and investments based on advanced technology developments. A roadmap development process was undertaken for the needed communications, and networking capabilities and technologies for the future human and robotics missions. The underlying processes are derived from work carried out during development of the future space communications architecture, an d NASA's Space Architect Office (SAO) defined formats and structures for accumulating data. Interrelationships were established among emerging requirements, the capability analysis and technology status, and performance data. After developing an architectural communications and networking framework structured around the assumed needs for human and robotic exploration, in the vicinity of Earth, Moon, along the path to Mars, and in the vicinity of Mars, information was gathered from expert participants. This information was used to identify the capabilities expected from the new infrastructure and the technological gaps in the way of obtaining them. We define realistic, long-term space communication architectures based on emerging needs and translate the needs into interfaces, functions, and computer processing that will be required. In developing our roadmapping process, we defined requirements for achieving end-to-end activities that will be carried out by future NASA human and robotic missions. This paper describes: 10 the architectural framework developed for analysis; 2) our approach to gathering and analyzing data from NASA, industry, and academia; 3) an outline of the technology research to be done, including milestones for technology research and demonstrations with timelines; and 4) the technology roadmaps themselves.

  8. Future System Science Mission Targets for Heliophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James; Christensen, Andrew B.; SaintCyr, O. C.; Giles, Barbara I.; Posner, Arik

    2009-01-01

    Heliophysics is a discipline that investigates the science at work from the interface of Earth and space, to the core of the Sun, and to the outer edge of our solar system. This solar-interplanetary-planetary system is vast and inherently coupled on many spatial, temporal and energy scales. The Sun's explosive energy output creates complicated field and plasma structures that when coupled without terrestrial magnetized space, generates an extraordinary complex environment that has practical implications for humanity as we are becoming increasingly dependent on space-based assets. The immense volume of our cosmic neighborhood is the domain of heliophysics. Understanding this domain and the dominant mechanisms that control the transfer of mass and energy requires a system approach that addresses all aspects and regions of the system. The 2009 NASA Heliophysics Roadmap presents a science-focused strategic approach to advance the goal of heliophysics: why does the Sun vary; how do the Earth and heliosphere respond; and what are the impacts on humanity? This talk will present the top 6 prioritized science targets to understand the coupled heliophysics system as presented in the 2009 NASA Heliophysics Roadmap. An exposition of each science target and how it addresses outstanding questions in heliophysics will be discussed.

  9. Contributions of Cnn to Bio-Robotics and Brain Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, Paolo; Patané, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm of Cellular Non-linear Networks is ubiquitously applied in different research fields. In this chapter the breakthrough in bio-robotics and brain science research is focused. In particular the implementation of CNN-based CPGs is discussed proposing different implementations on bio-inspired robots: hexapods, lamprey-like structures, crab-inspired platforms and others. Furthermore the locomotion control system has been extended following a bottom-up procedure to include higher cognitive capabilities. The CNN paradigm was applied to design and implement perceptual architecture inspired by the insect world. Reaction-Diffusion CNN systems have been used to model the arousal of behavioral solution optimized to the on-going environmental conditions. An approach based on Turing patterns is illustrated including experimental results on navigation control with a roving robot. Finally, interesting works based on the olfactory system of insects, modeled with the Winner-less Competition principle, are reported and discussed.

  10. NASA Johnson Space Center's Planetary Sample Analysis and Mission Science (PSAMS) Laboratory: A National Facility for Planetary Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.

  11. A Mission Control Architecture for robotic lunar sample return as field tested in an analogue deployment to the sudbury impact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.; Francis, Raymond; Mader, Marianne; Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Barry, N.; Basic, G.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Blain, S.; Bondy, M.; Capitan, R.-D.; Chanou, A.; Clayton, J.; Cloutis, E.; Daly, M.; Dickinson, C.; Dong, H.; Flemming, R.; Furgale, P.; Gammel, J.; Gharfoor, N.; Hussein, M.; Grieve, R.; Henrys, H.; Jaziobedski, P.; Lambert, A.; Leung, K.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; McManus, C.; Neish, C. D.; Ng, H. K.; Ozaruk, A.; Pickersgill, A.; Preston, L. J.; Redman, D.; Sapers, H.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Souders, K.; Stenning, B.; Stooke, P.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L.

    2012-12-01

    A Mission Control Architecture is presented for a Robotic Lunar Sample Return Mission which builds upon the experience of the landed missions of the NASA Mars Exploration Program. This architecture consists of four separate processes working in parallel at Mission Control and achieving buy-in for plans sequentially instead of simultaneously from all members of the team. These four processes were: science processing, science interpretation, planning and mission evaluation. science processing was responsible for creating products from data downlinked from the field and is organized by instrument. Science Interpretation was responsible for determining whether or not science goals are being met and what measurements need to be taken to satisfy these goals. The Planning process, responsible for scheduling and sequencing observations, and the Evaluation process that fostered inter-process communications, reporting and documentation assisted these processes. This organization is advantageous for its flexibility as shown by the ability of the structure to produce plans for the rover every two hours, for the rapidity with which Mission Control team members may be trained and for the relatively small size of each individual team. This architecture was tested in an analogue mission to the Sudbury impact structure from June 6-17, 2011. A rover was used which was capable of developing a network of locations that could be revisited using a teach and repeat method. This allowed the science team to process several different outcrops in parallel, downselecting at each stage to ensure that the samples selected for caching were the most representative of the site. Over the course of 10 days, 18 rock samples were collected from 5 different outcrops, 182 individual field activities - such as roving or acquiring an image mosaic or other data product - were completed within 43 command cycles, and the rover travelled over 2200 m. Data transfer from communications passes were filled to 74

  12. Common Spacecraft Bus for Earth Science Decadal Survey Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, T.; Klaus, K.; Elsperman, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Our study assessed the overall technical and programmatic viability of a Common Spacecraft Bus (CSB) approach that could satify the requirements of multiple Earth Science Decadal Mission programs resulting in cost and schedule savings over individual programs. Our approach developed a Common Payload Interface (CPIF) concept based on assessment of TIER I mission requirements to enable flexibility to the payloads while maintaining maximum commonality in the bus design. Satellite missions in Tier 1 of the Decadal Survey are missions with a launch period beginning in 2014. Four missions are planned and will measure climate change by examining solar and earth radiation, soil moisture and freeze/thaw cycles, ice sheet height differences, surface and ice sheet deformation from natural hazards, and vegetation structure (SMAP, ICESat-2, CLARREO, and DESDynI). Our study goals and objectives were: Develop a Common Spacecraft Bus (CSB) that incorporates the defined CPIF that can be configured to meet the individual Tier I mission specific requirements with minimal impacts or changes; Develop a efficient Assembly, Integration and Test (AI&T) flow and program schedule that can accommodate multiple Observatory level spacecraft processing and provide the flexibility to respond to program changes and other schedule perturbations; Develop a ROM cost for the CSB program approach, based on the reference design and schedules; Evaluate the CSB capability to host payloads of opportunity on the Tier I spacecraft; Evaluate the CSB capability to host the Tier II missions and what changes are required from the Tier I CSB We concluded: CSB approach for Tier I missions is feasible with very good synergy; Program Execution and AI&T approaches can be defined to take maximum advantage of CSB program approach and meet required launch readiness dates; ROM cost analysis indicates that a CSB approach is viable and offers substantial savings over separate procurements The Common Spacecraft Bus

  13. A Long Range Science Rover For Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation currently underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of a long range science rover for future missions to Mars. The small rover prototype, called Rocky 7, is capable of long traverse. autonomous navigation. and science instrument control, carries three science instruments, and can be commanded from any computer platform and any location using the World Wide Web. In this paper we describe the mobility system, the sampling system, the sensor suite, navigation and control, onboard science instruments. and the ground command and control system.

  14. Rosetta science operations in support of the Philae mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashman, Mike; Barthélémy, Maud; O`Rourke, Laurence; Almeida, Miguel; Altobelli, Nicolas; Costa Sitjà, Marc; García Beteta, Juan José; Geiger, Bernhard; Grieger, Björn; Heather, David; Hoofs, Raymond; Küppers, Michael; Martin, Patrick; Moissl, Richard; Múñoz Crego, Claudio; Pérez-Ayúcar, Miguel; Sanchez Suarez, Eduardo; Taylor, Matt; Vallat, Claire

    2016-08-01

    The international Rosetta mission was launched on 2nd March 2004 and after its ten year journey, arrived at its target destination of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, during 2014. Following the January 2014 exit from a two and half year hibernation period, Rosetta approached and arrived at the comet in August 2014. In November 2014, the Philae lander was deployed from Rosetta onto the comet's surface after which the orbiter continued its approximately one and a half year comet escort phase. The Rosetta Science Ground Segment's primary roles within the project are to support the Project Scientist and the Science Working Team, in order to ensure the coordination, development, validation and delivery of the desired science operations plans and their associated operational products throughout the mission., whilst also providing support to the Principle Investigator teams (including the Philae lander team) in order to ensure the provision of adequate data to the Planetary Science Archive. The lead up to, and execution of, the November 2014 Philae landing, and the subsequent Philae activities through 2015, have presented numerous unique challenges to the project teams. This paper discusses these challenges, and more specifically, their impact on the overall mission science planning activities. It details how the Rosetta Science Ground Segment has addressed these issues in collaboration with the other project teams in order to accommodate Philae operations within the continually evolving Rosetta science planning process.

  15. The MAVEN mission to Mars: Communicating science through social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, T.; Renfrow, S.

    2012-12-01

    While science literacy rates in the U.S. have recently increased, overall levels remain remarkably low.There are opportunities for the public to learn about science and to engage directly with real-life practitioners. It is the responsibility of science education and communications professionals to provide these opportunities and to assess the effectiveness of each platform. At the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), we utilize a diverse, well-tested approach to introduce science to the public and to give scientists access to the broadest possible audience. This poster will focus on NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars and the social media outlets we have incorporated into our Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program in order to introduce rather complex science concepts to the public. We'll examine several evaluation tools that are used to provide ongoing, immediate feedback regarding our strategies and to guide long-term efforts. MAVEN educators and scientists are capitalizing on the recent excitement surrounding Mars science and the public's fascination with the search for life to bring the science of the mission directly to a variety of audiences. Our EPO professionals are using cross-platform, transportable content to maximize exposure and create pathways for two-way interactions between our audience and mission experts. We are using social media tools to build a community that will join us in the MAVEN journey and its important scientific discoveries.

  16. Interplanetary Laser Ranging. Analysis for Implementation in Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkx, Dominic

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of the motion of natural (and artificial) bodies in the solar system provide key input on their interior structre and properties. Currently, the most accurate measurements of solar system dynamics are performed using radiometric tracking systems on planetary missions, providing range measurement with an accuracy in the order of 1 m. Laser ranging to Earth-orbiting satellites equipped with laser retroreflectors provides range data with (sub-)cm accuracy. Extending this technology to planetary missions, however, requires the use of an active space segment equipped with a laser detector and transmitter (for a two-way system). The feasibility of such measurements have been demonstrated at planetary distances, and used operationally (with a one-way system) for the Lunar Reconaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. The topic of this dissertation is the analysis of the application of interplanetary laser ranging (ILR) to improve the science return from next-generation space missions, with a focus on planetary science objectives. We have simulated laser ranging data for a variety of mission and system architectures, analyzing the influence of both model and measurement uncertainties. Our simulations show that the single-shot measurement precision is relatively inconsequential compared to the systematic range errors, providing a strong rationale for the consistent use of single-photon signal-intensity operation. We find that great advances in planetary geodesy (tidal, rotational characteristics, etc.) could be achieved by ILR. However, the laser data should be accompanied by commensurate improvements in other measurements and data analysis models to maximize the system's science return. The science return from laser ranging data will be especially strong for planetary landers, with a radio system remaining the preferred choice for many orbiter missions. Furthermore, we conclude that the science case for a one-way laser ranging is relatively weak compared to next

  17. Ikhana: A NASA UAS Supporting Long Duration Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Ikhana unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a General Atomics MQ-9 Predator-B modified to support the conduct of Earth science missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate through partnerships, other government agencies and universities. Ikhana, a Native American word meaning 'intelligence', can carry over 2000 lbs of atmospheric and remote sensing instruments in the payload bay and external pods. The aircraft is capable of mission durations in excess of 24 hours at altitudes above 40,000 ft. Redundant flight control, avionics, power, and network systems increase the system reliability and allow easier access to public airspace. The aircraft is remotely piloted from a mobile ground control station (GCS) using both C-band line-of-sight and Ku-band over-the-horizon satellite datalinks. NASA's GCS has been modified to support on-site science monitoring, or the downlink data can be networked to remote sites. All ground support systems are designed to be deployable to support global Eart science investigations. On-board support capabilities include an instrumentation system and an Airborne Research Test System (ARTS). The ARTS can host research algorithms that will autonomously command and control on-board sensors, perform sensor health monitoring, conduct data analysis, and request changes to the flight plan to maximize data collection. The ARTS also has the ability to host algorithms that will autonomously control the aircraft trajectory based on sensor needs, (e.g. precision trajectory for repeat pass interferometry) or to optimize mission objectives (e.g. search for specific atmospheric conditions). Standard on-board networks will collect science data for recording and for inclusion in the aircraft's high bandwidth downlink. The Ikhana project will complete GCS development, science support systems integration, external pod integration and flight clearance, and operations crew training in early 2007. A large-area remote sensing mission is currently scheduled

  18. Preparing for Humans at Mars, MPPG Updates to Strategic Knowledge Gaps and Collaboration with Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Wargo, Michael J.; Beaty, David

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Program Planning Group (MPPG) was an agency wide effort, chartered in March 2012 by the NASA Associate Administrator for Science, in collaboration with NASA's Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, the Chief Scientist, and the Chief Technologist. NASA tasked the MPPG to develop foundations for a program-level architecture for robotic exploration of Mars that is consistent with the President's challenge of sending humans to the Mars system in the decade of the 2030s and responsive to the primary scientific goals of the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey for Planetary Science. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) also sponsored a Precursor measurement Strategy Analysis Group (P-SAG) to revisit prior assessments of required precursor measurements for the human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the key results of the MPPG and P-SAG efforts to update and refine our understanding of the Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) required to successfully conduct human Mars missions.

  19. Boulder Capture System Design Options for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belbin, Scott P.; Merrill, Raymond G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a boulder acquisition and asteroid surface interaction electromechanical concept developed for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). It details the down select process and ranking of potential boulder capture methods, the evolution of a simple yet elegant articulating spaceframe, and ongoing risk reduction and concept refinement efforts. The capture system configuration leverages the spaceframe, heritage manipulators, and a new microspine technology to enable the ARRM boulder capture. While at the NEA it enables attenuation of terminal descent velocity, ascent to escape velocity, boulder collection and restraint. After departure from the NEA it enables, robotic inspection, sample caching, and crew Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA).

  20. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... prominent biotech organizations, government meetings, and briefings and receptions during the AusBiotech... science industry organizations and multipliers. During the mission, U.S. participants will benefit from... using the biopartnering.com platform, an efficient and easy to use personalized intelligent...

  1. Rooted in Mission: Family and Consumer Sciences in Catholic Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Janine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the unity between the missions of the Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) discipline and Catholic higher education by demonstrating relationships among (a) Catholic Social Teaching (CST) and the role of the service principle to FCS; (b) Catholic Intellectual Tradition (CIT) and the centrality of intellect…

  2. Proximity Operations for the Robotic Boulder Capture Option for the Asteroid Redirect Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, David M.; Naasz, Bo J.; Wright, Cinnamon A.; Pini, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    In September of 2013, the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) Option B team was formed to expand on NASA's previous work on the robotic boulder capture option. While the original Option A concept focuses on capturing an entire smaller Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) using an inflatable bag capture mechanism, this design seeks to land on a larger NEA and retrieve a boulder off of its surface. The Option B team has developed a detailed and feasible mission concept that preserves many aspects of Option A's vehicle design while employing a fundamentally different technique for returning a significant quantity of asteroidal material to the Earth-Moon system. As part of this effort, a point of departure proximity operations concept was developed complete with a detailed timeline, as well as DeltaV and propellant allocations. Special attention was paid to the development of the approach strategy, terminal descent to the surface, controlled ascent with the captured boulder, and control during the Enhanced Gravity Tractor planetary defense demonstration. The concept of retrieving a boulder from the surface of an asteroid and demonstrating the Enhanced Gravity Tractor planetary defense technique is found to be feasible and within the proposed capabilities of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). While this point of departure concept initially focuses on a mission to Itokawa, the proximity operations design is also shown to be extensible to wide range of asteroids.

  3. Significant Science from a Saturn Atmospheric Entry Probe Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atkinson, D. H.; Atreya, S. K.; Colaprete, A.; Spilker, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    A single planet cannot be understood in isolation. Comparative studies of gas and ice giant planets' atmospheres are needed to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system and the giant planets, formation of giant planet atmospheres, and to provide a valuable link to extrasolar planets. Giant planets' tropospheres and interiors contain material from the epoch of solar system formation. Some of these materials are expected to be unprocessed and thus would reflect the protosolar nebula's composition at the time and location of each planet's formation. Other materials will have been extensively processed, reflecting a planet's evolutionary processes. Beginning with the Pioneer and Voyager flybys, space flight missions began assembling data sets needed for these comparisons. The Galileo orbiter and probe mission provided both remote sensing and the first in situ studies of Jupiter's atmosphere. Comparable understanding of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune would provide an important comparative planetology context for the Galileo Jupiter results. The Cassini orbiter continues to yield a wealth of discoveries about Saturn's atmosphere from its remote sensing measurements, and its "Proximal Orbits" (2016 and 2017) will provide knowledge of Saturn's internal structure to complement the Juno mission's measurements at Jupiter. A Saturn entry probe mission, to complement the Galileo Probe investigations at Jupiter, would complete a solid basis for improved understanding of both Jupiter and Saturn, and an important stepping stone to understanding Uranus and Neptune, and the formation and evolution of the solar system. The draft "2012 Planetary Science Decadal Survey" (PSDS), released in March 2011, supports the high priority of a Saturn entry probe mission, recommending its addition to NASA's New Frontiers Program. It lists two levels of science objectives: Tier 1, highest-priority objectives that any New Frontiers implementation must achieve; and Tier 2, high priorities

  4. Using NASA's Space Launch System to Enable Game Changing Science Mission Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will help restore U.S. leadership in space by carrying the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids, Mars, and the outer solar system. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip times and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as monolithic telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  5. Human and Robotic Mission to Small Bodies: Mapping, Planning and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neffian, Ara V.; Bellerose, Julie; Beyer, Ross A.; Archinal, Brent; Edwards, Laurence; Lee, Pascal; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the requirements, performs a gap analysis and makes a set of recommendations for mapping products and exploration tools required to support operations and scientific discovery for near- term and future NASA missions to small bodies. The mapping products and their requirements are based on the analysis of current mission scenarios (rendezvous, docking, and sample return) and recommendations made by the NEA Users Team (NUT) in the framework of human exploration. The mapping products that sat- isfy operational, scienti c, and public outreach goals include topography, images, albedo, gravity, mass, density, subsurface radar, mineralogical and thermal maps. The gap analysis points to a need for incremental generation of mapping products from low (flyby) to high-resolution data needed for anchoring and docking, real-time spatial data processing for hazard avoidance and astronaut or robot localization in low gravity, high dynamic environments, and motivates a standard for coordinate reference systems capable of describing irregular body shapes. Another aspect investigated in this study is the set of requirements and the gap analysis for exploration tools that support visualization and simulation of operational conditions including soil interactions, environment dynamics, and communications coverage. Building robust, usable data sets and visualisation/simulation tools is the best way for mission designers and simulators to make correct decisions for future missions. In the near term, it is the most useful way to begin building capabilities for small body exploration without needing to commit to specific mission architectures.

  6. New Space at Airbus Defence & Space to facilitate science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boithias, Helene; Benchetrit, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    In addition to Airbus legacy activities, where Airbus satellites usually enable challenging science missions such as Venus Express, Mars Express, Rosetta with an historic landing on a comet, Bepi Colombo mission to Mercury and JUICE to orbit around Jupiter moon Ganymede, Swarm studying the Earth magnetic field, Goce to measure the Earth gravitational field and Cryosat to monitor the Earth polar ice, Airbus is now developing a new approach to facilitate next generation missions.After more than 25 years of collaboration with the scientists on space missions, Airbus has demonstrated its capacity to implement highly demanding missions implying a deep understanding of the science mission requirements and their intrinsic constraints such as- a very fierce competition between the scientific communities,- the pursuit of high maturity for the science instrument in order to be selected,- the very strict institutional budget limiting the number of operational missions.As a matter of fact, the combination of these constraints may lead to the cancellation of valuable missions.Based on that and inspired by the New Space trend, Airbus is developing an highly accessible concept called HYPE.The objective of HYPE is to make access to Space much more simple, affordable and efficient.With a standardized approach, the scientist books only the capacities he needs among the resources available on-board, as the HYPE satellites can host a large range of payloads from 1kg up to 60kg.At prices significantly more affordable than those of comparable dedicated satellite, HYPE is by far a very cost-efficient way of bringing science missions to life.After the launch, the scientist enjoys a plug-and-play access to two-way communications with his instrument through a secure high-speed portal available online 24/7.Everything else is taken care of by Airbus: launch services and the associated risk, reliable power supply, setting up and operating the communication channels, respect of space law

  7. Recent Electric Propulsion Development Activities for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    (The primary source of electric propulsion development throughout NASA is managed by the In-Space Propulsion Technology Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center for the Science Mission Directorate. The objective of the Electric Propulsion project area is to develop near-term electric propulsion technology to enhance or enable science missions while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Major hardware tasks include developing NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), developing a long-life High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HIVHAC), developing an advanced feed system, and developing cross-platform components. The objective of the NEXT task is to advance next generation ion propulsion technology readiness. The baseline NEXT system consists of a high-performance, 7-kW ion thruster; a high-efficiency, 7-kW power processor unit (PPU); a highly flexible advanced xenon propellant management system (PMS); a lightweight engine gimbal; and key elements of a digital control interface unit (DCIU) including software algorithms. This design approach was selected to provide future NASA science missions with the greatest value in mission performance benefit at a low total development cost. The objective of the HIVHAC task is to advance the Hall thruster technology readiness for science mission applications. The task seeks to increase specific impulse, throttle-ability and lifetime to make Hall propulsion systems applicable to deep space science missions. The primary application focus for the resulting Hall propulsion system would be cost-capped missions, such as competitively selected, Discovery-class missions. The objective of the advanced xenon feed system task is to demonstrate novel manufacturing techniques that will significantly reduce mass, volume, and footprint size of xenon feed systems over conventional feed systems. This task has focused on the development of a flow control module, which consists of a three-channel flow system based on a piezo-electrically actuated

  8. Radiation effects on science instruments in Grand Tour type missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The extent of the radiation effects problem is delineated, along with the status of protective designs for 15 representative science instruments. Designs for protecting science instruments from radiation damage is discussed for the various instruments to be employed in the Grand Tour type missions. A literature search effort was undertaken to collect science instrument components damage/interference effects data on the various sensitive components such as Si detectors, vidicon tubes, etc. A small experimental effort is underway to provide verification of the radiation effects predictions.

  9. Developing a Fault Management Guidebook for Nasa's Deep Space Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesq, Lorraine M.; Jacome, Raquel Weitl

    2015-01-01

    NASA designs and builds systems that achieve incredibly ambitious goals, as evidenced by the Curiosity rover traversing on Mars, the highly complex International Space Station orbiting our Earth, and the compelling plans for capturing, retrieving and redirecting an asteroid into a lunar orbit to create a nearby a target to be investigated by astronauts. In order to accomplish these feats, the missions must be imbued with sufficient knowledge and capability not only to realize the goals, but also to identify and respond to off-nominal conditions. Fault Management (FM) is the discipline of establishing how a system will respond to preserve its ability to function even in the presence of faults. In 2012, NASA released a draft FM Handbook in an attempt to coalesce the field by establishing a unified terminology and a common process for designing FM mechanisms. However, FM approaches are very diverse across NASA, especially between the different mission types such as Earth orbiters, launch vehicles, deep space robotic vehicles and human spaceflight missions, and the authors were challenged to capture and represent all of these views. The authors recognized that a necessary precursor step is for each sub-community to codify its FM policies, practices and approaches in individual, focused guidebooks. Then, the sub-communities can look across NASA to better understand the different ways off-nominal conditions are addressed, and to seek commonality or at least an understanding of the multitude of FM approaches. This paper describes the development of the "Deep Space Robotic Fault Management Guidebook," which is intended to be the first of NASA's FM guidebooks. Its purpose is to be a field-guide for FM practitioners working on deep space robotic missions, as well as a planning tool for project managers. Publication of this Deep Space Robotic FM Guidebook is expected in early 2015. The guidebook will be posted on NASA's Engineering Network on the FM Community of Practice

  10. Science Planning for the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenkert, Daniel D.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Eggemeyer, William Curtis; Hale, Amy Snyder; Kass, David; Martin, Terry Z.; Noland, Stephen J.; Safaeinili, Ali; Smrekar, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), launched on August 12, 2005, carries six science instruments, each with unique requirements for repetitive global monitoring, regional or global survey mapping, and/or targeted observations of Mars. Some prefer nadir-only observations, while other instruments require many off-nadir observations (especially for stereo viewing). Because the operations requirements are often incompatible, an interactive science planning process has been developed. This process is more complex than in some recent NASA Mars missions, but less complex (and more repetitive) than processes used by many large planetary missions. It takes full advantage of MRO's novel onboard processing capabilities, and uses simple electronic interactions between geographically distributed teams. This paper describes the process used during MRO's Primary Science Phase (PSP) to plan both interactive and non-interactive observations of Mars, and what has already been learned in the tests and rehearsals preparing for PSP.

  11. Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, Mission 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul D. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The first Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission, planned for late 1990, includes experiments in four areas: Atmospheric Science, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, and Astronomy. The atmospheric science investigations will study the composition of the atmosphere in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The solar physics investigations will measure the total energy output of the sun. The space plasma physics investigations will study the charged particle and plasma environment of the earth. The astronomy investigation will study astronomical sources of radiation in the ultraviolet wavelengths that are inaccessible to observers on earth. Most of the experimental equipment has been flown before on one of the Spacelab missions. Brief descriptions of the experiments are given.

  12. In-Space Propulsion Technology Products Ready for Infusion on NASA's Future Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing and delivering in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling, for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered. They have a broad applicability to future competed mission solicitations. The high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine, providing higher performance for lower cost, was completed in 2009. Two other ISPT technologies are nearing completion of their technology development phase: 1) NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 2) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; aerothermal effect models; and atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars and Venus. This paper provides status of the technology development, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies that have recently completed their technology development and will be ready for infusion into NASA s Discovery, New Frontiers, SMD Flagship, or technology demonstration missions.

  13. Mission Adaptive Uas Capabilities for Earth Science and Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.; Young, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are important assets for accessing high risk airspace and incorporate technologies for sensor coordination, onboard processing, tele-communication, unconventional flight control, and ground based monitoring and optimization. These capabilities permit adaptive mission management in the face of complex requirements and chaotic external influences. NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of Earth science remote sensing missions directed at the assessment of natural resources and here we describe two resource mapping problems having mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability extensible to other resource assessment challenges. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This constraint exists when collecting imaging spectroscopy data over vegetation for time series analysis or for the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the signal. Furthermore, the primary flight control imperative to minimize tracking error should compromise with the requirement to minimize aircraft motion artifacts in the spatial measurement distribution. A second example involves mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in recent Earth Science missions including the OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for spectral and radiometric reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magnetometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and

  14. Investigations Using Laboratory Testbeds to Interpret Flight Instrument Datasets from Mars Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Sutter, B.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Achilles, C. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has laboratory instrumentation that mimic the capabilities of corresponding flight instruments to enable interpretation of datasets returned from Mars robotic missions. The lab instruments have been and continue to be applied to datasets for the Moessbauer Spectrometer (MB) on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), the Thermal & Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) on the Mars Phoenix Scout, the CRISM instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Missions and will be applied to datasets for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) and Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instruments onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The laboratory instruments can analyze analog samples at costs that are substantially lower than engineering models of flight instruments, but their success to enable interpretation of flight data depends on how closely their capabilities mimic those of the flight instrument. The JSC lab MB instruments are equivalent to the MER instruments except without flight qualified components and no reference channel Co-57 source. Data from analog samples were critical for identification of Mg-Fe carbonate at Gusev crater. Fiber-optic VNIR spectrometers are used to obtain CRISM-like spectral data over the range 350-2500 nm, and data for Fephyllosilicates show irreversible behavior in the electronic transition region upon dessication. The MB and VNIR instruments can be operated within chambers where, for example, the absolute H2O concentration can be measured and controlled. Phoenix's TEGA consisted of a calorimeter coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS). The JSC laboratory testbed instrument consisted of a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) coupled to a MS configured to operate under total pressure (12 mbar), heating rate (20 C/min), and purge gas composition (N2) analogous to the flight TEGA. TEGA detected CO2 release at both low (400-680 C

  15. Towards a Multi-Mission, Airborne Science Data System Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S.; Law, E.; Freeborn, D.; Kay-Im, E.; Lau, G.; Oswald, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA earth science instruments are increasingly relying on airborne missions. However, traditionally, there has been limited common infrastructure support available to principal investigators in the area of science data systems. As a result, each investigator has been required to develop their own computing infrastructures for the science data system. Typically there is little software reuse and many projects lack sufficient resources to provide a robust infrastructure to capture, process, distribute and archive the observations acquired from airborne flights. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have been developing a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This includes improving data system interoperability across each instrument. A principal characteristic is being able to provide an agile infrastructure that is architected to allow for a variety of configurations of the infrastructure from locally installed compute and storage services to provisioning those services via the "cloud" from cloud computer vendors such as Amazon.com. Investigators often have different needs that require a flexible configuration. The data system infrastructure is built on the Apache's Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) suite of components which has been used for a number of spaceborne missions and provides a rich set of open source software components and services for constructing science processing and data management systems. In 2010, a partnership was formed between the ACCE team and the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to support the data processing and data management needs

  16. The Clementine Mission science return at the Moon and Geographos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Davies, M. E.; Horan, D. M.; Lucey, P. G.; Pieters, C. M.; Mcewen, A. S.; Nozette, S.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Squyres, S. W.; Thomas, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Clementine Mission is being built and flown by the Naval Research Laboratory under the sponsorship of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization of the United States Department of Defense in joint-cooperation with NASA, and will explore the Moon and the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 1620 Geographos with lightweight sensors developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A NASA Science Team for this mission will be selected by way of a NRA in April 1993. The instrument suite includes imaging cameras that cover a spectral range from the near-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, a laser ranger, and, potentially, a charged particle telescope. To be launched in early 1994, Clementine will be in lunar orbit from February through May 1994, at which time it will depart the Moon for a flyby of 1620 Geographos in August 1994. This mission represents an outstanding opportunity for scientists interested in the Moon and asteroids. It is anticipated that the data returned from this mission will permit: an assessment of global lunar crustal heterogeneity and a resolution of less than 1 km; an assessment of the lithologic heterogeneity of Geographos at a scale of 100 m or better; and an assessment of surface processes on Geographos on the order of 10 m. The basic mission of Clementine and some of the key scientific questions that will be addressed are described. Additional material on the Clementine mission, its data handling and processing, and its instrument suite is presented elsewhere.

  17. Starting a Robotics Program in Your County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    The current mission mandates of the National 4-H Headquarters are Citizenship, Healthy Living, and Science. Robotics programs are excellent in fulfilling the Science mandate. Robotics engages students in STEM (Science, Engineering, Technology, and Mathematics) fields by providing interactive, hands-on, minds-on, cross-disciplinary learning…

  18. Communicating the Science of Nasa's Maven Mission through Public Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, T.; Peticolas, L. M.; Wood, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    As education, public outreach, and communications professionals, we see the direct benefits of online outreach and other public engagement strategies in communicating complex scientific concepts. While public understanding of science and scientific literacy rates has stagnated at best, online engagement has never been more active. About 40% of Americans receive information about science and technology primarily from online sources; however, the ability to pursue enhanced learning opportunities is directly correlated with higher education and income. The MAVEN E/PO team has recognized an opportunity to bring the science of the mission to a growing, online community of engaged learners and potential supporters of future scientific research and data. We have taken a wide variety of approaches to educate the public—particularly non-traditional audiences—about a mission that is not as "sexy" as many other NASA missions, but is critical to understanding the evolution of Mars over time as part of an ongoing, long-term effort by NASA's Mars Exploration Program. We will highlight some of the tools—including online platforms—that we have used to share the science of MAVEN and will present preliminary evaluation results from our education and public outreach projects.

  19. The Autonomous Sciencecraft and applications to future science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, S.

    2006-05-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Software has operated the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Mission for over 5000 science observations [Chien et al. 2005a]. This software enables onboard analysis of data to drive: 1. production of rapid alerts summary products, 2. data editing, and 3. to inform subsequent observations. This methodology has been applied to more effectively study Volcano, Flooding, and Cryosphere processes on Earth. In this talk we discuss how this software enables new paradigms for science missions and discuss the types of science phenomena that can now be more readily studied (e.g. dynamic investigations, large scale searches for specific events). We also describe a range of Earth, Solar, and Space science applications under concept study for onboard autonomy. Finally, we describe ongoing work to link EO-1 with other spacecraft and in-situ sensor networks to enable a sensorweb for monitoring dynamic science events [Chien et al. 2005b]. S. Chien, R. Sherwood, D. Tran, B. Cichy, G. Rabideau, R. Castano, A. Davies, D. Mandl, S. Frye, B. Trout, S. Shulman, D. Boyer, "Using Autonomy Flight Software to Improve Science Return on Earth Observing One, Journal of Aerospace Computing, Information, & Communication, April 2005, AIAA. S. Chien, B. Cichy, A. Davies, D. Tran, G. Rabideau, R. Castano, R. Sherwood, D. Mandl, S. Frye, S. Shulman, J. Jones, S. Grosvenor, "An Autonomous Earth Observing Sensorweb," IEEE Intelligent Systems, May-June 2005, pp. 16- 24.

  20. Vanguard--a European robotic astrobiology-focussed Mars sub-surface mission proposal.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Alex; Ball, Andrew J; Cockell, Charles; Dickensheets, David; Edwards, Howell; Kolb, Christof; Lammer, Helmut; Patel, Manish; Richter, Lutz

    2005-02-01

    We present a new European Mars mission proposal to build on the UK-led Beagle2 Mars mission and continue its astrobiology-focussed investigation of Mars. The small surface element to be delivered to the Martian surface--Vanguard--is designed to be carried by a Mars Express-type spacecraft bus to Mars and adopts a similar entry, descent and landing system as Beagle2. The surface element comprises a triad of robotic devices--a lander, a micro-rover of the Sojourner class for surface mobility, and three ground-penetrating moles mounted onto the rover for sub-surface penetration to 5 m depth. The major onboard instruments on the rover include a Raman spectrometer/imager, a laser plasma spectrometer, an infrared spectrometer--these laser instruments provide the basis for in situ "remote" sensing of the sub-surface Martian environment within a powerful scientific package. The moles carry the instruments' sensor head array to the sub-surface. The moles are thus required to undergo a one-way trip down the boreholes without the need for recovery of moles or samples, eliminating much of the robotic complexity invoked by such operations.

  1. Science Objectives and Mission Concepts for Europa Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Senske, D. A.; Johnson, T. V.; Oberto, R.; Zimmerman, W.; JPL's Team-X Team

    2000-10-01

    Since the arrival of the Galileo spacecraft to the Jovian system in 1995, evidence indicating a liquid water ocean beneath the icy Europan crust has become much stronger. This evidence combined with the fact that Europa is greater than 90 wt% water [1] makes it a candidate body to harbor extant or extinct life. The outstanding Europa science questions [2] are to determine whether or not there is or has been a liquid water layer under the ice and whether or not liquid water currently exists on the surface or has in the geologically recent past, what geological processes create the ice rafts and other ice-tectonic processes that affect the surface, the composition of the deep interior , geochemical sources of energy, the nature of the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere, and the nature of the radiation environment, especially with regard to its implications for organic and biotic chemistry. In addition, in situ studies of the surface of Europa would offer the opportunity to characterize the chemistry of the ice including organics, pH, salinity, and redox potential. In order to address these scientific objectives, a Europa program, involving multiple spacecraft, is envisioned. The JPL Outer Planets program has been helping to lay the groundwork for such a program. This effort is being conducted with particular emphasis on compiling and identifying science objectives which will flow down to a Europa mission architecture. This poster will show the tracability of observational methods from the science objectives. Also in support of developing a Europa mission architecture, JPL's Team-X has conducted a variety of Europa mission studies . A comparison of the studies done to date will be presented, highlighting science objectives accomplished, technological challenges, and cost. A more detailed presentation will be given on a Europa Lander concept study. First, the science objectives and instrumentation will be shown, including instrument mass, power usage, volume, and data

  2. Mars mission program for primary students: Building student and teacher skills in science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Naomi; Pakakis, Michael; Christie, Ian

    2011-09-01

    The Victorian Space Science Education Centre (VSSEC) scenario-based programs, including the Mission to Mars and Mission to the Orbiting Space Laboratory, utilize methodologies such as hands-on applications, immersive learning, integrated technologies, critical thinking and mentoring. The use of a scenario provides a real-life context and purpose to what students might otherwise consider disjointed information. These programs engage students in the areas of maths and science, and highlight potential career paths in science and engineering. The introduction of a scenario-based program for primary students engages students in maths and science at a younger age, addressing the issues of basic numeracy and science literacy, thus laying the foundation for stronger senior science initiatives. Primary students absorb more information within the context of the scenario, and presenting information they can see, hear, touch and smell creates a memorable learning and sensory experience. The mission also supports development of teacher skills in the delivery of hands-on science and helps build their confidence to teach science. The Primary Mission to the Mars Base gives primary school students access to an environment and equipment not available in schools. Students wear flight suits for the duration of the program to immerse them in the experience of being an astronaut. Astronauts work in the VSSEC Space Laboratory, which is transformed into a Mars base for the primary program, to conduct experiments in areas such as robotics, human physiology, microbiology, nanotechnology and environmental science. Specialist mission control software has been developed by La Trobe University Centre for Games Technology to provide age appropriate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based problem solving and support the concept of a mission. Students in Mission Control observe the astronauts working in the space laboratory and talk to them via the AV system. This interactive

  3. Planning for the V&V of infused software technologies for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Fesq, Lorraine M.; Ingham, Michel D.; Klein, Suzanne L.; Nelson, Stacy D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission is planning to make use of advanced software technologies in order to support fulfillment of its ambitious science objectives. The mission plans to adopt the Mission Data System (MDS) as the mission software architecture, and plans to make significant use of on-board autonomous capabilities for the rover software.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope: Science and Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA for launch later this decade. The European and Canadian Space Agencies are mission partners. JWST will find and study the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and peer through dusty clouds to see star and planet formation at high spatial resolution. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of star formation and evolution in the Milky Way, including the Galactic Center, nearby galaxies, and the early universe. JWST will have a segmented primary mirror, approximately 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns. The JWST observatory will be placed in a L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5- year prime science mission, with consumables for 10 years of science operations.

  5. The Virtual Space Telescope: A New Class of Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav; Calhoun, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Many science investigations proposed by GSFC require two spacecraft alignment across a long distance to form a virtual space telescope. Forming a Virtual Space telescope requires advances in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) enabling the distribution of monolithic telescopes across multiple space platforms. The capability to align multiple spacecraft to an intertial target is at a low maturity state and we present a roadmap to advance the system-level capability to be flight ready in preparation of various science applications. An engineering proof of concept, called the CANYVAL-X CubeSat MIssion is presented. CANYVAL-X's advancement will decrease risk for a potential starshade mission that would fly with WFIRST.

  6. The Science Goals of the Constellation-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Weaver, Kimberly; Petre, Robert; Bookbinder, Jay

    2004-01-01

    The Constellation-X mission will address the questions: "What happens to matter close to a black hole?" and "What is Dark Energy?" These questions are central to the NASA Beyond Einstein Program, where Constellation-X plays a central role. The mission will address these questions by using high throughput X-ray spectroscopy to observe the effects of strong gravity close to the event horizon of black holes, and to observe the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies in order to precisely determine Cosmological parameters. To achieve these primary science goals requires a factor of 25-100 increase in sensitivity for high resolution spectroscopy. The mission will also perform routine high- resolution X-ray spectroscopy of faint and extended X-ray source populations. This will provide diagnostic information such as density, elemental abundances, velocity, and ionization state for a wide range of astrophysical problems. This has enormous potential for the discovery of new unexpected phenomena. The Constellation-X mission is a high priority in the National Academy of Sciences McKee-Taylor Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey of new Astrophysics Facilities for the first decade of the 21st century.

  7. SIM PlanetQuest: Science with the Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen (Editor); Turyshev, Slava (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    SIM - the Space Interferometry Mission - will perform precision optical astrometry on objects as faint as R magnitude 20. It will be the first space-based astrometric interferometer, operating in the optical band with a 10-m baseline. The Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, in close collaboration with two industry partners, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space, and TRW Inc., Space and Electronics Group. Launch of SIM is currently planned for 2009. In its wide-angle astrometric mode, SIM will yield 4 microarcsecond absolute position and parallax measurements. Astrometric planet searches will be done in a narrow-angle mode, with an accuracy of 4 microarcseconds or better in a single measurement. As a pointed rather than a survey instrument, SIM will maintain.its astrometric accuracy down to the faintest, magnitudes, opening up the opportunity for astrometry of active galactic nuclei to better than 10 pas. SIM will define a new astrometric reference frame, using a grid of approximately 1500 stars with positions accurate to 4 microarcseconds. The SIM Science Team comprises the Principal Investigators of ten Key Projects, and five Mission Scientists contributing their expertise to specific areas of the mission. Their science programs cover a wide range of topics in Galactic and extragalactic astronomy. They include: searches for low-mass planets - including analogs to our own solar system - tlie formation and dynamics of our Galaxy, calibration of the cosmic distance scale, and fundamental stellar astrophysics. All of the science observing on SIM is competitively awarded; the Science Team programs total about 40% of the total available, and the remainder will be assigned via future NASA competitions. This report is a compilation of science summaries by members of the Science Team, and it illustrates the wealth of scientific problems that microarcsecond-precision astrometry can contribute to. More information on SIM

  8. Infrared sensor system using robotics technology for inter-planetary mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hihara, Hiroki; Takano, Yousuke; Sano, Junpei; Iwase, Kaori; Kawakami, Satoko; Otake, Hisashi; Okada, Tatsuaki; Funase, Ryu; Takada, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Infrared sensor system is a major concern for inter-planetary missions in order to investigate the nature and the formation processes of planets and asteroids. Since it takes long time for the communication of inter-planetary probes, automatic and autonomous functions are essential for provisioning observation sequence including the setup procedures of peripheral equipment. Robotics technology which has been adopted on HAYABUSA2 asteroid probe provides functions for setting up onboard equipment, sensor signal calibration, and post signal processing. HAYABUSA2 was launched successfully in 2014 for the exploration of C class near-Earth asteroid 162173 (1999JU3). An optical navigation camera with telephoto lens (ONC-T), a thermal-infrared imager (TIR), and a near infrared spectrometer (NIRS3) have been developed for the observation of geology, thermo-physical properties, and organic or hydrated materials on the asteroid. ONC-T and TIR are used for those scientific purposes as well as assessment of landing site selection and safe descent operation onto the asteroid surface for sample acquisition. NIRS3 is used to characterize the mineralogy of the asteroid surface by observing the 3-micron band, where the particular diagnostic absorption features due to hydrated minerals appear. Modifications were required in order to apply robotics technology for the probe due to the difference of operation on satellites from robot operation environment. The major difference is time line consideration, because the standardized robotics operation software development system is based on event driven framework. The consistency between the framework of time line and event driven scheme was established for the automatic and autonomous operation for HAYABUSA2.

  9. Human and Robotic Space Mission Use Cases for High-Performance Spaceflight Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Some, Raphael; Doyle, Richard; Bergman, Larry; Whitaker, William; Powell, Wesley; Johnson, Michael; Goforth, Montgomery; Lowry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight computing is a key resource in NASA space missions and a core determining factor of spacecraft capability, with ripple effects throughout the spacecraft, end-to-end system, and mission. Onboard computing can be aptly viewed as a "technology multiplier" in that advances provide direct dramatic improvements in flight functions and capabilities across the NASA mission classes, and enable new flight capabilities and mission scenarios, increasing science and exploration return. Space-qualified computing technology, however, has not advanced significantly in well over ten years and the current state of the practice fails to meet the near- to mid-term needs of NASA missions. Recognizing this gap, the NASA Game Changing Development Program (GCDP), under the auspices of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate, commissioned a study on space-based computing needs, looking out 15-20 years. The study resulted in a recommendation to pursue high-performance spaceflight computing (HPSC) for next-generation missions, and a decision to partner with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) in this development.

  10. A Perspective of the Science and Mission Challenges in Aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.

    2010-01-01

    There are significant fundamental problems for which aeronomy can provide solutions and a critical role in applied science and space weather that only aeronomy can address. Examples of unresolved problems include the interaction of neutral and charged, the role of mass and energy transfer across Earth's interface with space, and the predictability of ionospheric density and composition variability. These and other problems impact the productivity of space assets and thus have a tangible applied dimension. This talk will explore open science problems and barriers to potential mission solutions in an era of constrained resources.

  11. Exo-C: Mission and Science Payload Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekens, Frank G.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Warfield, Keith; Unwin, Stephen C.; Exo-C Science; Technology Definition Team, Exo-C JPL Study Design Team

    2015-01-01

    We present NASA's Exoplanet Coronagraph (Exo-C) mission design and science payload completed as part of a probe-class concept study under consideration for launch following JWST. The payload consists of an unobscured Cassegrain telescope with a 1.4-m clear aperture, a barrel assembly, and an internal coronagraph instrument. The mission has a 3 year lifetime and is in a highly stable Earth-trailing orbit. The coronagraph instrument is mounted laterally on the anti-Sun side of the telescope, obviating the need for high incidence reflections and better isolating it from spacecraft disturbances. The instrument has both an Imaging Camera and an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). The former obtains filter imaging with 1e-9 raw contrast from 2 - 20 λ/D in radius, while the IFS delivers the same contrast with spectral resolution of R = 70 from 450 to 1000 nm, but with a reduced outer working angle.The Exo-C science performance requirements are achieved with a specialized observatory design enabled by several new technologies. The telescope is designed for precision pointing and high stability to maintain a slowly evolving speckle pattern. Vibration isolation is achieved with two stages between the reaction wheels and the science payload. The solar arrays and high gain antenna are body-fixed, and a stiff barrel assembly is used as the telescope metering structure. Telescope pointing is updated at a high rate by monitoring the bright science target star with a low order wavefront sensor and driving a fine steering mirror for compensation. Active thermal control is used to minimize thermal drifts of the telescope, instrument, and barrel assemblies. Stability analyses via modeling of the structural, thermal, and optical performance of this configuration show that the proposed mission configuration would enable unprecedented exoplanet and circumstellar disk science with direct imaging.

  12. A Global Robotic Telescope Network for Time-Domain Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, R. A.; Lister, T. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Shporer, A.; Bianco, F. B.; Fulton, B. J.; Howell, D. A.; Dilday, B.; Graham, M.; Sand, D.; Parent, J.; Brown, T.; Horne, K.; Dominik, M.; Browne, P.; Snodgrass, C.; Kains, N.; Bramich, D.; Law, N.; Steele, I.

    2012-04-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is currently building a new kind of general-purpose astronomical facility: a fully robotic network of telescopes of 2m, 1m and 0.4m apertures and homogeneous instrumentation. A pan-network approach to scheduling (rather than per individual telescope) offers redundancy in the event of poor weather or technical failure, as well as the ability to observe a target around the clock. Here we describe the network design and instrumentation under development, together with the main science programmes already being lead by LCOGT staff.

  13. Science Rationale for the Io Volcano Observer (IVO) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Alfred; Turtle, Elizabeth

    2012-07-01

    The Io Volcano Observer (IVO) mission can explore the rich array of interconnected orbital, geophysical, atmospheric, and plasma phenomena surrounding the most volcanically active world in the Solar System. Io is the only place in the Solar System (including Earth) where we can watch very large-scale silicate volcanic processes in action, and it provides unique insight into high-temperature and high effusion-rate volcanic processes that were important in the early histories of the terrestrial planets. Io is also the best target at which to study tidal heating, which greatly expands the habitable zones of planetary systems. Moreover, the coupled orbital-tidal evolution is key to understanding the thermal histories of Europa and Ganymede. Io is always inside the intense radiation belt of Jupiter, so a radiation-mitigation strategy has been developed. An inclined orbit that passes Io at high velocity (˜19 km/s) near its perijove point keeps the total ionizing dose to ˜10 krad (behind 2.5 mm or 100 mils Al) per encounter. Nevertheless, the dose rate is high near Io so some science instruments have special design considerations to minimize noise. The IVO spacecraft must be agile enough (rapid turning and settling) for high-stability targeted observations during close encounters. The inclined orbit provides nearly pole-to-pole flybys of Io, which enables some of the highest-priority Io science such as understanding the polar heat flow and electrical conductivity of Io's mantle (which may contain a magma ocean). Key science instruments include narrow- and wide-angle cameras, magnetometers, a thermal mapper, neutral mass spectrometers, and plasma ion analyzers. NASA's 2011 Decadal Survey for planetary science identified an Io mission similar to IVO as one of seven options for the next two New Frontiers mission opportunities. The Galileo (GLL) mission and payload were designed prior to the Voyager 1 flyby and discovery of Io's active volcanism, so they were not designed

  14. Accuracy and Intuition: The Mission of a Science Journalist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramling, Carolyn

    2004-07-01

    After years of experimenting with how to explain my thesis research to family and friends, I realized two things: (1) just because I was the presumed expert on a topic didn't mean I could easily break it down into absorbable nuggets of information; but (2) trying to do that was an absorbing challenge. It was more than a game; it was a sort of mission. How do I convince my audience that the underlying science isn't too esoteric-that science can be more fun than intimidating? The AAAS Mass Media Science and Engineering Fellowship program seemed like a perfect opportunity to undertake this mission. As a recent Ph.D. in marine geochemistry in the MIT/WHOI Joint Program for Oceanography, I had written and presented specialized papers geared toward scientists. However, as a science journalist, I imagined I would be a sort of interpreter, an intermediary between scientists and the general public, translating complicated scientific concepts into readable prose, while maintaining constant vigilance against jargon and assumptions. Something like that.

  15. Science Requirements for Hydrologic Storage Change from the SWOT Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Alsdorf, D.; Durand, M.; Duan, J.; Shum, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission has been selected by the NRC Decadal Survey for launch between 2014 and 2016. NASA and CNES have jointly endorsed SWOT and provided encouragement via the formation of a Science Working Group. It is critical to study the Level 1 SWOT hydrologic science requirements, which drive the mission design. Hydrologic requirements include estimates of surface water discharge and changes in storage. This paper focuses on describing current results of simulation studies aimed at quantifying specific SWOT science requirements on global hydrologic storage changes. The objectives of the study include the optimal spatial and temporal sampling of storage changes and the related height accuracies and radar pixel sizes for the SWOT instrument. (1) Storage changes in the Amazon and Siberian Arctic have been estimated from existing satellite measurements, in-situ data, and model outputs. (2) The changes in water surface elevations and areas are calculated by dividing the storage changes from Task 1 by classifications indicating water body locations (i.e., water masks). (3) The desired level of storage change accuracy needed for hydrologic science descriptions of the Level 1 requirements have been incorporated. (4) Orbital tracks with differing spatial and temporal samplings have been studied using the various storage change maps (generated from Task 1) to determine percentages of the total that are or are not measured. We report the results of weekly, monthly, and seasonal variations in water surface elevations and areas (from Task 2) to determine the required SWOT instrument accuracies.

  16. Investigations using Laboratory Testbeds to Interpret Flight Instrument Datasets from Mars Robotic Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Sutter, B.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Achilles, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has laboratory instrumentation that mimic the capabilities of corresponding flight instruments to enable interpretation of datasets returned from Mars robotic missions. The lab instruments have been and continue to be applied to datasets for the Mössbauer Spectrometer (MB) on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), the Thermal & Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) on the Mars Phoenix Scout, the CRISM instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and will be applied to datasets for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) and Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instruments onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The laboratory instruments can analyze analog samples at costs that are substantially lower than engineering models of flight instruments, but their success to enable interpretation of flight data depends on how closely their capabilities mimic those of the flight instrument. The JSC lab MB instruments are equivalent to the MER instruments except without flight qualified components and no reference channel Co-57 source. Data from analog samples were critical for identification of Mg-Fe carbonate at Gusev crater. Fiber-optic VNIR spectrometers are used to obtain CRISM-like spectral data over the range 350-2500 nm, and data for Fe-phyllosilicates show irreversible behavior in the electronic transition region upon dessication. The MB and VNIR instruments can be operated within chambers where, for example, the absolute H2O concentration can be measured and controlled. Phoenix's TEGA consisted of a calorimeter coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS). The JSC laboratory testbed instrument consisted of a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) coupled to a MS configured to operate under total pressure (12 mbar), heating rate (20 °C/min), and purge gas composition (N2) analogous to the flight TEGA. TEGA detected CO2 release at both low (400-680 °C) and

  17. Radiation Beamline Testbeds for the Simulation of Planetary and Spacecraft Environments for Human and Robotic Mission Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    experimental areas associated with the above facilities. CRESSE has broad expertise in space radiation in the areas of space radiation environment modeling, Monte-Carlo radiation transport modeling, space radiation instrumentation and dosimetry, radiation effects on electronics, and multi-functional composite shielding materials. The BERT and ERNIE testbeds will be utilized in individual and collaborative research incorporating this expertise. The research goal is to maximize the technical readiness level (TRL) of radiation instrumentation for human and robotic missions, optimizing the return value of CRESSE for NASA exploration and international co-operative missions. Outcomes and knowledge from research utilizing BERT and ERNIE will be applied to a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines vital for safe and reliable execution of future space exploration missions, which can be negatively impacted by the space radiation environment. The testbeds will be central to a variety of university educational activities and educational goals of NASA. Specifically, BERT and ERNIE will enhance educational opportunities in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines for engineering and science students at PVAMU, a historically black college/university. Preliminary data on prototype testbed configurations, including simulated lunar regolith (JSC-1A stimulant based on Apollo 11 samples), regolith/polyethylene composites, and dry ice, will be presented to demonstrate the usefulness of BERT and ERNIE in radiation beam line experiments.

  18. Radiation beamline testbeds for the simulation of planetary and spacecraft environments for human and robotic mission risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Richard

    experimental areas associated with the above facilities. CRESSE has broad expertise in space radiation in the areas of space radiation environment modeling, Monte-Carlo radiation transport modeling, space radiation instrumentation and dosimetry, radiation effects on electronics, and multi-functional composite shielding materi-als. The BERT and ERNIE testbeds will be utilized in individual and collaborative research incorporating this expertise. The research goal is to maximize the technical readiness level (TRL) of radiation instrumentation for human and robotic missions, optimizing the return value of CRESSE for NASA exploration and international co-operative missions. Outcomes and knowledge from research utilizing BERT and ERNIE will be applied to a variety of scien-tific and engineering disciplines vital for safe and reliable execution of future space exploration missions, which can be negatively impacted by the space radiation environment. The testbeds will be central to a variety of university educational activities and educational goals of NASA. Specifically, BERT and ERNIE will enhance educational opportunities in science, technol-ogy, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines for engineering and science students at PVAMU, a historically black college/university. Preliminary data on prototype testbed configurations, including simulated lunar regolith (JSC-1A stimulant based on Apollo 11 samples), regolith/polyethylene composites, and dry ice, will be presented to demonstrate the usefulness of BERT and ERNIE in radiation beam line experiments.

  19. Bringing Space Science to the Undergraduate Classroom: NASA's USIP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, D.; Christian, J. A.; Keesee, A. M.; Spencer, E. A.; Gross, J.; Lusk, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    As part of its participation in NASA's Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP), a team of engineering and physics students at West Virginia University (WVU) built a series of sounding rocket and balloon missions. The first rocket and balloon missions were flown near-simultaneously in a campaign on June 26, 2014 (image). The second sounding rocket mission is scheduled for October 5, 2015. Students took a course on space science in spring 2014, and followup courses in physics and aerospace engineering departments have been developed since then. Guest payloads were flown from students affiliated with WV Wesleyan College, NASA's IV&V Facility, and the University of South Alabama. Students specialized in electrical and aerospace engineering, and space physics topics. They interacted regularly with NASA engineers, presented at telecons, and prepared reports. A number of students decided to pursue internships and/or jobs related to space science and technology. Outreach to the campus and broader community included demos and flight projects. The physics payload includes plasma density and temperature measurements using a Langmuir and a triple probe; plasma frequency measurements using a radio sounder (WVU) and an impedance probe (U.S.A); and a magnetometer (WVWC). The aerospace payload includes an IMU swarm, a GPS experiment (with TEC capability); a cubesat communications module (NASA IV&V), and basic flight dynamics. Acknowledgments: staff members at NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and at the Orbital-ATK Rocket Center, WV.

  20. Ikhana: A NASA UAS Supporting Long Duration Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, B.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Ikhana unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a General Atomics Ae ronautical Systems Inc. (San Diego, California) MQ-9 Predator-B modif ied to support the conduct of Earth science missions for the NASA Sci ence Mission Directorate and, through partnerships, other government agencies and universities. It can carry over 2000 lb of experiment p ayloads in the avionics bay and external pods and is capable of missi on durations in excess of 24 hours at altitudes above 40,000 ft. The aircraft is remotely piloted from a mobile ground control station (GC S) that is designed to be deployable by air, land, or sea. On-board s upport capabilities include an instrumentation system and an Airborne Research Test System (ARTS). The Ikhana project will complete GCS d evelopment, science support systems integration, external pod integra tion and flight clearance, and operations crew training in early 2007 . A large-area remote sensing mission is currently scheduled for Summ er 2007.

  1. Philae locating and science support by robotic vision techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remetean, E.; Dolives, B.; Souvannavong, F.; Germa, T.; Ginestet, JB.; Torres, A.; Mousset, T.

    2016-08-01

    The ROLIS, CIVA-P and OSIRIS instruments on-board the Philae lander and the Rosetta orbiter acquired high-resolution images during the lander's descent towards the targeted landing site Agilkia, during its unexpected rebounds and at the final landing site Abydos on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We, exploited these images, using robotic vision techniques, to locate the first touchdown on the surface of the comet nucleus, to reconstruct the lander's 3D trajectory during the descent and at the beginning of the first rebound, and to create local digital terrain models and depth maps of Agilkia and Abydos sites. Using the ROLIS close-up images we could also determine the actual movements of the lander between the beginning and the end of the First Science Sequence and we propose a new lander's bubble movement command meant to increase the probability for a successful drilling during a hypothetical future Long Term Science phase.

  2. Robot Science Autonomy in the Atacama Desert and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Wettergreen, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Science-guided autonomy augments rovers with reasoning to make observations and take actions related to the objectives of scientific exploration. When rovers can directly interpret instrument measurements then scientific goals can inform and adapt ongoing navigation decisions. These autonomous explorers will make better scientific observations and collect massive, accurate datasets. In current astrobiology studies in the Atacama Desert we are applying algorithms for science autonomy to choose effective observations and measurements. Rovers are able to decide when and where to take follow-up actions that deepen scientific understanding. These techniques apply to planetary rovers, which we can illustrate with algorithms now used by Mars rovers and by discussing future missions.

  3. Science data processing in the Mission to Planet Earth era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    The data-processing systems developed to support NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MPE) are described in an overview of the system architectures. The MPE program is discussed in terms of flight segments and data types to examine the required elements of the information systems. The data-processing segments are described for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, the Earth Observing System, and the Geostationary Earth Observatory. The data and information systems for the separate segments provide some redundant processing services. Distributed active archive centers are employed for each segment composed of three subelements: (1) a product-generation system, (2) a data archive and distribution system, and (3) an information management system. The data processing design for the MPE is expected to facilitate the understanding of the entire earth system on a global scale.

  4. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) : the US 2009 Mars rover mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, Frank; Tampari, Leslie; Steltzner, Adam; Umland, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory mission is the 2009 United States Mars Exploration Program rover mission. The MSL Project expects to complete its pre-Phase A definition activity this fiscal year (FY2003), investigations in mid-March 2004, launch in 2009, arrive at Mars in 2010 during Northern hemisphere summer and then complete a full 687 day Mars year of surface exploration. MSL will assess the potential for habitability (past and present) of a carefully selected landing region on Mars by exploring for the chemical building blocks of life, and seeking to understand quantitatively the chemical and physical environment with which these components have interacted over the geologic history of the planet. Thus, MSL will advance substantially our understanding of the history of Mars and potentially, its capacity to sustain life.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Angular Velocity Estimation During the Robotic Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie K.; Queen, Steven Z.; VanEepoel, John M.; Sanner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    During the Hubble Robotic Servicing Mission, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) attitude and rates are necessary to achieve the capture of HST by the Hubble Robotic Vehicle (HRV). The attitude and rates must be determined without the HST gyros or HST attitude estimates. The HRV will be equipped with vision-based sensors, capable of estimating the relative attitude between HST and HRV. The HST attitude is derived from the measured relative attitude and the HRV computed inertial attitude. However, the relative rate between HST and HRV cannot be measured directly. Therefore, the HST rate with respect to inertial space is not known. Two approaches are developed to estimate the HST rates. Both methods utilize the measured relative attitude and the HRV inertial attitude and rates. First, a nonlinear estimator is developed. The nonlinear approach estimates the HST rate through an estimation of the inertial angular momentum. Second, a linearized approach is developed. The linearized approach is based on more traditional Extended Kalman filter techniques. Simulation test results for both methods are given.

  6. LSPECS: A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared/submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared/submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. The presence of ice has been inferred independently from Clementine and Lunar Prospector, providing another incentive for a south polar mission. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Operation without the use of expendable cryogenics for cooling might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive

  7. An Ontology for Requesting Distant Robotic Action: A Case Study in Naming and Action Identification for Planning on the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, Roxana C.; Shalin, Valerie L.; Bass, Deborah S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and use of the abbreviated names as well as an emergent ontology associated with making requests for action of a distant robotic rover during the 2003-2004 NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, run by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The infancy of the domain of Martian telerobotic science, in which specialists request work from a rover moving through the landscape, as well as the need to consider the interdisciplinary teams involved in the work required an empirical approach. The formulation of this ontology is grounded in human behavior and work practice. The purpose of this paper is to identify general issues for an ontology of action (specifically for requests for action), while maintaining sensitivity to the users, tools and the work system within a specific technical domain. We found that this ontology of action must take into account a dynamic environment, changing in response to the movement of the rover, changes on the rover itself, as well as be responsive to the purposeful intent of the science requestors. Analysis of MER mission events demonstrates that the work practice and even robotic tool usage changes over time. Therefore, an ontology must adapt and represent both incremental change and revolutionary change, and the ontology can never be more than a partial agreement on the conceptualizations involved. Although examined in a rather unique technical domain, the general issues pertain to the control of any complex, distributed work system as well as the archival record of its accomplishments.

  8. A Mission Management Application Suite for Airborne Science Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, H. M.; Meyer, P. J.; Blakeslee, R.; Regner, K.; Hall, J.; He, M.; Conover, H.; Garrett, M.; Harper, J.; Smith, T.; Grewe, A.; Real Time Mission Monitor Team

    2011-12-01

    Collection of data during airborne field campaigns is a critically important endeavor. It is imperative to observe the correct phenomena at the right time - at the right place to maximize the instrument observations. Researchers at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have developed an application suite known as the Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM). This suite is comprised of tools for mission design, flight planning, aircraft visualization and tracking. The mission design tool allows scientists to set mission parameters such as geographic boundaries and dates of the campaign. Based on these criteria, the tool intelligently selects potential data sets from a data resources catalog from which the scientist is able to choose the aircraft, instruments, and ancillary Earth science data sets to be provided for use in the remaining tool suite. The scientists can easily reconfigure and add data sets of their choosing for use during the campaign. The flight planning tool permits the scientist to assemble aircraft flight plans and to plan coincident observations with other aircraft, spacecraft or in situ observations. Satellite and ground-based remote sensing data and modeling data are used as background layers to aid the scientist in the flight planning process. Planning is crucial to successful collection of data and the ability to modify the plan and upload to aircraft navigators and pilots is essential for the agile collection of data. Most critical to successful and cost effective collection of data is the capability to visualize the Earth science data (airborne instruments, radiosondes, radar, dropsondes, etc.) and track the aircraft in real time. In some instances, aircraft instrument data is provided to ground support personnel in near-real time to visualize with the flight track. This visualization and tracking aspect of RTMM provides a decision support capability in conjunction with scientific collaboration portals to allow for scientists on the ground to communicate

  9. NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission for Science and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail

    2016-04-01

    Water is fundamental to life on Earth. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, launched February 27, 2014, is an international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. The joint NASA-JAXA GPM Core Observatory serves as the cornerstone and anchor to unite the constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory carries a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is designed to (1) advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive microwave sensors, (2) advance the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and freshwater availability through better description of the space-time variability of global precipitation, and (3) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of instantaneous precipitation rates and time-integrated rainfall accumulation. Since launch, the instruments have been collecting outstanding precipitation data. New scientific insights resulting from GPM data, an overview of the GPM mission concept and science activities in the United States

  10. An Overview of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Science Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Richard W.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is the latest addition to the suite of missions on or orbiting Mars as part of the NASA Mars Exploration Program. Launched on 12 August 2005, the orbiter successfully entered Mars orbit on 10 March 2006 and finished aerobraking on 30 August 2006. Now in its near-polar, near-circular, low-altitude (approximately 300 km), 3 p.m. orbit, the spacecraft is operating its payload of six scientific instruments throughout a one-Mars-year Primary Science Phase (PSP) of global mapping, regional survey, and targeted observations. Eight scientific investigations were chosen for MRO, two of which use either the spacecraft accelerometers or tracking of the spacecraft telecom signal to acquire data needed for analysis. Six instruments, including three imaging systems, a visible-near infrared spectrometer, a shallow-probing subsurface radar, and a thermal-infrared profiler, were selected to complement and extend the capabilities of current working spacecraft at Mars. Whether observing the atmosphere, surface, or subsurface, the MRO instruments are designed to achieve significantly higher resolution while maintaining coverage comparable to the current best observations. The requirements to return higher-resolution data, to target routinely from a low-altitude orbit, and to operate a complex suite of instruments were major challenges successfully met in the design and build of the spacecraft, as well as by the mission design. Calibration activities during the seven-month cruise to Mars and limited payload operations during a three-day checkout prior to the start of aerobraking demonstrated, where possible, that the spacecraft and payload still had the functions critical to the science mission. Two critical events, the deployment of the SHARAD radar antenna and the opening of the CRISM telescope cover, were successfully accomplished in September 2006. Normal data collection began 7 November 2006 after solar conjunction. As part of its science

  11. Science mentor program at Mission Hill Junior High School

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlquist, K.

    1994-12-31

    Science graduate students from the University of California at Santa Cruz mentor a class of 7th graders from the Mission Hill Junior High School. The program`s purpose is: (1) to create a scientific learning community where scientists interact at different levels of the educational hierarchy; (2) to have fun in order to spark interest in science; and (3) to support girls and minority students in science. A total of seven mentors met with the students at least once a week after school for one quarter to tutor and assist with science fair projects. Other activities included a field trip to a university earth science lab, judging the science fair, and assisting during laboratory exercises. Graduate students run the program with minimal organization and funding, communicating by electronic mail. An informal evaluation of the program by the mentors has concluded that the most valuable and effective activities have been the field trip and assisting with labs. The actual {open_quotes}mentor meetings{close_quotes} after school did not work effectively because they had a vaguely defined purpose and the kids did not show up regularly to participate. Future directions include redefining ourselves as mentors for the entire school instead of just one class and better coordinating our activities with the teachers` curriculum. We will continue to assist with the labs and organize formal tutoring for students having problems with math and science. Finally, we will arrange more activities and field trips such as an amateur astronomy night. We will especially target girls who attended the {open_quotes}Expanding Your Horizons{trademark} in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering{close_quotes} career day for those activities.

  12. Life sciences get important new data from Spacelab mission. III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuiling, Roelof L.; Young, Steven

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of weightlessness on the human body is reported that was conducted on a flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Experiments are described regarding zero-gravity effects on the human perception of balance, the growth of lymphocytes, and general life-sciences examinations of body mass, body fluid, pulmonary parameters, and echocardiograph imaging. Specific attention is given to the day-to-day operations of the mission, and particular emphasis is given to the study of rodents and jellyfish reacting to microgravity.

  13. Science opportunity analyzer - a multi-mission approach to science planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, B. A.; Polanskey, C. A.; O'Reilly, T.; Colwell, J.

    2003-01-01

    In the past Science Planning for space missions has been comprised of using ad-hoc software toolscollected or reconstructed from previous missions, tools used by other groups who often speak a different 'technical' language or even 'the backs of envelopes'. In addition to the tools being rough, the work done with these tools often has had to be redone or at least re-entered when it came time to determine actual observations. Science Opportunity Analyzer (SOA), a Java-based application, has been built for scientists to enable them to identify/analyze observation opportunities and then, to create corresponding observation designs.

  14. Computational needs survey of NASA automation and robotics missions. Volume 1: Survey and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gloria J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's operational use of advanced processor technology in space systems lags behind its commercial development by more than eight years. One of the factors contributing to this is that mission computing requirements are frequently unknown, unstated, misrepresented, or simply not available in a timely manner. NASA must provide clear common requirements to make better use of available technology, to cut development lead time on deployable architectures, and to increase the utilization of new technology. A preliminary set of advanced mission computational processing requirements of automation and robotics (A&R) systems are provided for use by NASA, industry, and academic communities. These results were obtained in an assessment of the computational needs of current projects throughout NASA. The high percent of responses indicated a general need for enhanced computational capabilities beyond the currently available 80386 and 68020 processor technology. Because of the need for faster processors and more memory, 90 percent of the polled automation projects have reduced or will reduce the scope of their implementation capabilities. The requirements are presented with respect to their targeted environment, identifying the applications required, system performance levels necessary to support them, and the degree to which they are met with typical programmatic constraints. Volume one includes the survey and results. Volume two contains the appendixes.

  15. Computational needs survey of NASA automation and robotics missions. Volume 2: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gloria J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's operational use of advanced processor technology in space systems lags behind its commercial development by more than eight years. One of the factors contributing to this is the fact that mission computing requirements are frequency unknown, unstated, misrepresented, or simply not available in a timely manner. NASA must provide clear common requirements to make better use of available technology, to cut development lead time on deployable architectures, and to increase the utilization of new technology. Here, NASA, industry and academic communities are provided with a preliminary set of advanced mission computational processing requirements of automation and robotics (A and R) systems. The results were obtained in an assessment of the computational needs of current projects throughout NASA. The high percent of responses indicated a general need for enhanced computational capabilities beyond the currently available 80386 and 68020 processor technology. Because of the need for faster processors and more memory, 90 percent of the polled automation projects have reduced or will reduce the scope of their implemented capabilities. The requirements are presented with respect to their targeted environment, identifying the applications required, system performance levels necessary to support them, and the degree to which they are met with typical programmatic constraints. Here, appendixes are provided.

  16. HERRO: A Science-Oriented Strategy for Crewed Missions Beyond LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration strategy for human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the Moon that combines the best features of human and robotic spaceflight. This "Human Exploration using Real-time Robotic Operations" (HERRO) strategy refrains from placing humans on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars in the near-term. Rather, it focuses on sending piloted spacecraft and crews into orbit around exploration targets of interest, such as Mars, and conducting astronaut exploration of the surfaces using telerobots and remotely controlled systems. By eliminating the significant communications delay with Earth due to the speed of light limit, teleoperation provides scientists real-time control of rovers and other sophisticated instruments, in effect giving them a "virtual presence" on planetary surfaces, and thus expanding the scientific return at these destinations. It also eliminates development of the numerous man-rated landers, ascent vehicles and surface systems that are required to land humans on planetary surfaces. The propulsive requirements to travel from LEO to many destinations with shallow gravity-wells in the inner solar system are quite similar. Thus, a single spacecraft design could perform a variety of missions, including orbit-based surface exploration of the Moon, Mars and Venus, and rendezvous with Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), as well as Phobos and Deimos. Although HERRO bypasses many of the initial steps that have been historically associated with human space exploration, it opens the door to many new destinations that are candidates for future resource utilization and settlement. HERRO is a first step that takes humans to exciting destinations beyond LEO, while expanding the ability to conduct science within the inner solar system.

  17. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  18. Science performance of Gaia, ESA's space-astrometry mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.

    2012-09-01

    Gaia is the next astrometry mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), following up on the success of the Hipparcos mission. With a focal plane containing 106 CCD detectors, Gaia will survey the entire sky and repeatedly observe the brightest 1,000 million objects, down to 20th magnitude, during its 5-year lifetime. Gaia's science data comprises absolute astrometry, broad-band photometry, and low-resolution spectro-photometry. Spectroscopic data with a resolving power of 11,500 will be obtained for the brightest 150 million sources, down to 17th magnitude. The thermo-mechanical stability of the spacecraft, combined with the selection of the L2 Lissajous point of the Sun-Earth/Moon system for operations, allows stellar parallaxes to be measured with standard errors less than 10 micro-arcsecond (μas) for stars brighter than 12th magnitude, 25 μas for stars at 15th magnitude, and 300 μas at magnitude 20. Photometric standard errors are in the milli-magnitude regime. The spectroscopic data allows the measurement of radial velocities with errors of 15 km s-1 at magnitude 17. Gaia's primary science goal is to unravel the kinematical, dynamical, and chemical structure and evolution of the Milky Way. In addition, Gaia's data will touch many other areas of science, e.g., stellar physics, solar-system bodies, fundamental physics, and exo-planets. The Gaia spacecraft is currently in the qualification and production phase. With a launch in 2013, the final catalogue is expected in 2021. The science community in Europe, organised in the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC), is responsible for the processing of the data.

  19. Ground Contact Model for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Way, David

    2012-01-01

    The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2) has been successful in simulating the flight of launch vehicles and entry bodies on earth and other planets. POST 2 has been the primary simulation tool for the Entry Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of numerous Mars lander missions such as Mars Pathfinder in 1997, the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (MER-A and MER-B) in 2004, Mars Phoenix lander in 2007, and it is now the main trajectory simulation tool for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) in 2012. In all previous missions, the POST 2 simulation ended before ground impact, and a tool other than POST 2 simulated landing dynamics. It would be ideal for one tool to simulate the entire EDL sequence, thus avoiding errors that could be introduced by handing off position, velocity, or other fight parameters from one simulation to the other. The desire to have one continuous end-to-end simulation was the motivation for developing the ground interaction model in POST 2. Rover landing, including the detection of the postlanding state, is a very critical part of the MSL mission, as the EDL landing sequence continues for a few seconds after landing. The method explained in this paper illustrates how a simple ground force interaction model has been added to POST 2, which allows simulation of the entire EDL from atmospheric entry through touchdown.

  20. Identification and Classification of Common Risks in Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus M.; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Hanna, Robert A.; Port, Daniel; Eggleston, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Due to the highly constrained schedules and budgets that NASA missions must contend with, the identification and management of cost, schedule and risks in the earliest stages of the lifecycle is critical. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) it is the concurrent engineering teams that first address these items in a systematic manner. Foremost of these concurrent engineering teams is Team X. Started in 1995, Team X has carried out over 1000 studies, dramatically reducing the time and cost involved, and has been the model for other concurrent engineering teams both within NASA and throughout the larger aerospace community. The ability to do integrated risk identification and assessment was first introduced into Team X in 2001. Since that time the mission risks identified in each study have been kept in a database. In this paper we will describe how the Team X risk process is evolving highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches. The paper will especially focus on the identification and classification of common risks that have arisen during Team X studies of space based science missions.

  1. Relay Support for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D. Jr,; Bell, David J.; Gladden, Roy E.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Johnston, M. Daniel; Maxwell, Jennifer L.; Mendoza, Ricardo; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Potts, Christopher L.; Schratz, Brian C.; Shihabi, Mazen M.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Varghese, Phillip; Sanders, Stephen S.; Denis, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission landed the Curiosity Rover on the surface of Mars on August 6, 2012, beginning a one-Martian-year primary science mission. An international network of Mars relay orbiters, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and ESA's Mars Express Orbiter (MEX), were positioned to provide critical event coverage of MSL's Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). The EDL communication plan took advantage of unique and complementary capabilities of each orbiter to provide robust information capture during this critical event while also providing low-latency information during the landing. Once on the surface, ODY and MRO have provided effectively all of Curiosity's data return from the Martian surface. The link from Curiosity to MRO incorporates a number of new features enabled by the Electra and Electra-Lite software-defined radios on MRO and Curiosity, respectively. Specifically, the Curiosity-MRO link has for the first time on Mars relay links utilized frequency-agile operations, data rates up to 2.048 Mb/s, suppressed carrier modulation, and a new Adaptive Data Rate algorithm in which the return link data rate is optimally varied throughout the relay pass based on the actual observed link channel characteristics. In addition to the baseline surface relay support by ODY and MRO, the MEX relay service has been verified in several successful surface relay passes, and MEX now stands ready to provide backup relay support should NASA's orbiters become unavailable for some period of time.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Special Session: Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Special Session: Mars Missions" contained the following reports:Initial Results from the MER Athena Science Investigation at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum; Geomorphology of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) Landing Site from Observations by the Spirit Rover; Geology of Meridiani Planum as Inferred from Mars Exploration Rover: Observations;Preliminary Mineralogy and Geochemistry Results at the MER-A Landing Site in Gusev; A First Look at the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the MER-B Landing Site in Meridiani Planum; Mini-TES Observations of the Gusev and Meridiani Landing Sites; Preliminary Results of the Magnetic Properties Experiments on the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity; Pancam Imaging of the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites in Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum; Atmospheric Science with the Mars Exploration Rovers: Things are Looking Up; The Mars Express Mission:Initial Scientific Results from Orbit; The HRSC Experiment in Mars Orbit: First Results; The OMEGA/Mars Express First Results; and SPICAM on Mars Express: First Results and First Observations of Water Ice at South.

  3. Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Mission: Human Research Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B. (Editor); Walker, Karen R. (Editor); Hargens, Alan (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Life Sciences, Microgravity Science and Spacelab Mission contains a number of human experiments directed toward identifying the functional, metabolic and neurological characteristics of muscle weakness and atrophy during space flight. To ensure the successful completion of the flight experiments, a ground-based pilot study, designed to mimic the flight protocols as closely as possible, was carried out in the head-down tilt bed rest model. This report records the rationales, procedures, preliminary results and estimated value of the pilot study, the first of its kind, for 12 of the 13 planned experiments in human research. The bed rest study was conducted in the Human Research Facility at Ames Research Center from July 11 - August 28, 1995. Eight healthy male volunteers performed the experiments before, during and after 17 days bed rest. The immediate purposes of this simulation were to integrate the experiments, provide data in a large enough sample for publication of results, enable investigators to review individual experiments in the framework of a multi-disciplinary study and relay the experience of the pilot study to the mission specialists prior to launch.

  4. A Proposed Robotic Astronomy Mission to the Lunar South Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible mission to emplace a robotic infrared / submillimeter wave interferometer array near the lunar south pole. This region has now been investigated by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, and by Earth-based radar, and its topography and thermal environment are fairly well-known. The area would be exceptionally suitable for infrared / submillimeter astronomy because of the continually low temperatures, approaching that of liquid nitrogen (77K) in some places. A submillimeter spaceborne interferometer mission, Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of the Cosmic Structure (SPECS) has been proposed by John Mather and others, covering the 40 - 500 micron region with 3 formation flying telescopes. The present paper proposes a lunar adaptation of the SPECS concept, LSPECS. This adaptation would involve landing 4 telescopes on the area north of Shackleton crater at zero degrees longitude. This is in nearly year round darkness but is continually radar visible from Earth. The landed payload of LSPECS would include a telerobotic rover, 4 three meter submm telescopes, a solar power array to be emplaced on the continually sunlit north rim of Shackleton crater, and an S-band antenna for data relay to Earth. Passive cooling without the use of expendable cryogenics. might be possible, trading long exposure time for instrument temperatures above that of liquid helium. The LSPECS would permit long-term study of an extremely wide range of cosmic and solar system phenomena in the southern celestial hemisphere. For complete sky coverage, a similar installation near the north pole would be required. The LSPECS site would also be suitable other types of observation, such as optical interferometry or centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. The lunar south pole is also of great interest because of its extensive ice deposits, which may represent cometary infall with pre-biotic compounds.

  5. NASA Science Mission Directorate Science Education and Public Outreach Forums: A Six-Year Retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Denise Anne; Peticolas, Laura; Schwerin, Theresa; Shipp, Stephanie; Lawton, Brandon L.; Meinke, Bonnie; Manning, James G.; Bartolone, Lindsay; Schultz, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) created four competitively awarded Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (Astrophysics, Heliophysics, Planetary Science, Earth Science) in 2009. The NASA SMD education and public engagement community and Forum teams have worked together to share the science, the story, and the adventure of SMD's science missions with students, educators, and the public. In doing so, SMD's programs have emphasized collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. The goal of the Education Forums has been to maximize program efficiency, effectiveness, and coherence by organizing collaborations that reduce duplication of effort; sharing best practices; aligning products to national education standards; creating and maintaining the NASA Wavelength online catalog of SMD education products; and disseminating metrics and evaluation findings. We highlight examples of our activities over the past six years, along with the role of the scientist-educator partnership and examples of program impact. We also discuss our community’s coordinated efforts to expand the Astro4Girls pilot program into the NASA Science4Girls and Their Families initiative, which partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to engage underrepresented audiences in science.

  6. Analyses of robotic traverses and sample sites in the Schrödinger basin for the HERACLES human-assisted sample return mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenstra, Edgar S.; Martin, Dayl J. P.; McDonald, Francesca E.; Paisarnsombat, Sarinya; Venturino, Christian; O'Hara, Sean; Calzada-Diaz, Abigail; Bottoms, Shelby; Leader, Mark K.; Klaus, Kurt K.; van Westrenen, Wim; Needham, Debra H.; Kring, David A.

    2016-09-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) developed an integrated Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that outlines plans for human-assisted sample return from the lunar surface in ∼2024 and for human presence on the lunar surface in ∼2028. Previous studies have identified the Schrödinger basin, situated on the far side of the Moon, as a prime target for lunar science and exploration where a significant number of the scientific concepts reviewed by the National Research Council (NRC, 2007) can be addressed. In this study, two robotic mission traverses within the Schrödinger basin are proposed based on a 3 year mission plan in support of the HERACLES human-assisted sample return mission concept. A comprehensive set of modern remote sensing data (LROC imagery, LOLA topography, M3 and Clementine spectral data) has been integrated to provide high-resolution coverage of the traverses and to facilitate identification of specific sample localities. We also present a preliminary Concept of Operations (ConOps) study based on a set of notional rover capabilities and instrumental payload. An extended robotic mission to the Schrödinger basin will allow for significant sample return opportunities from multiple distinct geologic terrains and will address multiple high-priority NRC (2007) scientific objectives. Both traverses will offer the first opportunity to (i) sample pyroclastic material from the lunar farside, (ii) sample Schrödinger impact melt and test the lunar cataclysm hypothesis, (iii) sample deep crustal lithologies in an uplifted peak ring and test the lunar magma ocean hypothesis and (iv) explore the top of an impact melt sheet, enhancing our ability to interpret Apollo samples. The shorter traverse will provide the first opportunity to sample farside mare deposits, whereas the longer traverse has significant potential to collect SPA impact melt, which can be used to constrain the basin-forming epoch. These robotic missions will revalidate

  7. The Science of Asteroid Sample Return Mission Hayabusa2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Watanabe, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hayabusa2, which is the follow-on mission of Hayabusa, was launched on Dec. 3, 2014. The target asteroid is (162173) 1999 JU3, a C-type, small Near Earth Asteroid. The principal purpose of Hayabusa2 is to study the origin and evolution of the solar system, especially the origin of organic matters and waters on the earth. Hayabusa2 will arrive at 1999 JU3 in June or July 2018, stay there for about one and half years, leave there at the end of 2019, and come back to the earth at the end of 2020. The main mission is the sample return, taking the surface materials of 1999 JU3 and bringing them back to the earth. We will try to get the samples not only from the surface but also from the subsurface by creating a small crater on the surface of the asteroid (see the figure). Hayabusa2 has remote sensing instruments as follows: Optical Navigation Cameras (ONC-T/W1/W2), Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3), Thermal Infrared Imager (TIR), and Laser Altimeter (LIDAR). It has also three small rovers (MINERVA-II-1A/1B/2), and one small lander (MASCOT), which was provided by DLR and CNES. Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) is used to create a small crater and the impact event is observed by a deployable camera (DCAM3). Thus we can use a wide variety of data to study this C-type asteroid. And of course, we will analyze the samples in detail after the capsule of Hayabusa2 comes back to the earth. For the science researches, we have Hayabusa2 science team in Japan. As for the international science discussions we organized Hayabusa2 Joint Science Team (HJST). HJST is presently consists of Japanese science members and European members who are mostly related MASCOT. We had four general meetings up to now. In this year (2015), NASA announced Hayabusa2 Participating Scientist Program. If US scientists are selected, they will be the members of HJST. In addition to this, we have started discussions with OSIRIS-REx team for the science collaboration. We hope that Hayabusa2 will produce much more

  8. Automatic robotic arm operations and sampling in near zero gravity environment - functional tests results from Phobos-Grunt mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Tatiana; Karol Seweryn, D..; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kozlov, Oleg

    The sample return missions have made a very significant progress to understanding of geology, the extra-terrestrial materials, processes occurring on surface and subsurface level, as well as of interactions between such materials and mechanisms operating there. The various sample return missions in the past (e.g. Apollo missions, Luna missions, Hayabusa mission) have provided scientists with samples of extra-terrestrial materials allowing to discover answers to critical scientific questions concerning the origin and evolution of the Solar System. Several new missions are currently planned: sample return missions, e.g Russian Luna-28, ESA Phootprint and MarcoPolo-R as well as both robotic and manned exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. One of the key challenges in such missions is the reliable sampling process which can be achieved by using many different techniques, e.g. static excavating technique (scoop), core drilling, sampling using dynamic mechanisms (penetrators), brushes and pneumatic systems. The effectiveness of any sampling strategy depends on many factors, including the required sample size, the mechanical and chemical soil properties (cohesive, hard or porous regolith, stones), the environment conditions (gravity, temperature, pressure, radiation). Many sampling mechanism have been studied, designed and built in the past, two techniques to collect regolith samples were chosen for the Phobos-Grunt mission. The proposed system consisted of a robotic arm with a 1,2m reach beyond the lander (IKI RAN); a tubular sampling device designed for collecting both regolith and small rock fragments (IKI RAN); the CHOMIK device (CBK PAN) - the low velocity penetrator with a single-sample container for collecting samples from the rocky surface. The functional tests were essential step in robotic arm, sampling device and CHOMIK device development process in the frame of Phobos-Grunt mission. Three major results were achieved: (i) operation scenario for autonomous

  9. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission with Enceladus Science (TOAMES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C.; Cooper, J.; Mahaffy, P.; Fairbrother D.; dePater, I.; Schultze-Makuch, D.; Pitman, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cassini and Huygens have made exciting discoveries at Titan and Enceladus, and at the same time made us aware of how little we understand about these bodies. For example, the source, and/or recycling mechanism, of methane in Titan's atmosphere is still puzzling. Indeed, river beds (mostly dry) and lakes have been spotted, and occasional clouds have been seen, but the physics to explain the observations is still mostly lacking, since our "image" of Titan is still sketchy and quite incomplete. Enceladus, only -500 km in extent, is even more puzzling, with its fiery plumes of vapor, dust and ice emanating from its south polar region, "feeding" Saturn's E ring. Long term variability of magnetospheric plasma, neutral gas, E-ring ice grain density, radio emissions, and corotation of Saturn's planetary magnetic field in response to Enceladus plume activity are of great interest for Saturn system science. Both Titan and Enceladus are bodies of considerable astrobiological interest in view of high organic abundances at Titan and potential subsurface liquid water at Enceladus. We propose to develop a new mission to Titan and Enceladus, the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission with Enceladus Science (TOAMES), to address these questions using novel new technologies. TOAMES is a multi-faceted mission that starts with orbit insertion around Saturn using aerobraking with Titan's extended atmosphere. We then have an orbital tour around Saturn (for 1-2 years) and close encounters with Enceladus, before it goes into orbit around Titan (via aerocapture). During the early reconnaissance phase around Titan, perhaps 6 months long, the orbiter will use altimetry, radio science and remote sensing instruments to measure Titan's global topography, subsurface structure and atmospheric winds. This information will be used to determine where and when to release the Aerorover, so that it can navigate safely around Titan and identify prime sites for surface sampling and analysis. In situ instruments

  10. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission with Enceladus Science (TOAMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Mahaffy, P.; Fairbrother, D.; de Pater, I.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Pitman, J.

    2007-08-01

    same time made us aware of how little we understand about these bodies. For example, the source, and/or recycling mechanism, of methane in Titan's atmosphere is still puzzling. Indeed, river beds (mostly dry) and lakes have been spotted, and occasional clouds have been seen, but the physics to explain the observations is still mostly lacking, since our "image" of Titan is still sketchy and quite incomplete. Enceladus, only 500 km in extent, is even more puzzling, with its fiery plumes of vapor, dust and ice emanating from its south polar region, "feeding" Saturn's E ring. Long term variability of magnetospheric plasma, neutral gas, E-ring ice grain density, radio emissions, and corotation of Saturn's planetary magnetic field in response to Enceladus plume activity are of great interest for Saturn system science. Both Titan and Enceladus are bodies of considerable astrobiological interest in view of high organic abundances at Titan and potential subsurface liquid water at Enceladus. We propose to develop a new mission to Titan and Enceladus, the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission with Enceladus Science (TOAMES), to address these questions using novel new technologies. TOAMES is a multi-faceted mission that starts with orbit insertion around Saturn using aerobraking with Titan's extended atmosphere. We then have an orbital tour around Saturn (for 1-2 years) and close encounters with Enceladus, before it goes into orbit around Titan (via aerocapture). During the early reconnaissance phase around Titan, perhaps 6 months long, the orbiter will use altimetry, radio science and remote sensing instruments to measure Titan's global topography, subsurface structure and atmospheric winds. This information will be used to determine where and when to release the Aerorover, so that it can navigate safely around Titan and identify prime sites for surface sampling and analysis. In situ instruments will sample the upper atmosphere which may provide the seed population for the complex

  11. GLXP BMT: Lunar Lander Mission Definition & Opportunistic Science during Nominal Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenarejo, P.; Mammarella, M.; Zaballa, M.; Claramunt, X.; García, C.; Martínez, A.

    2012-09-01

    The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is the Barcelona Moon Team Lunar Lander and Lunar exploration mission within the GLXP initiative. GMV is the mission technical leader and is in charge of the primary mission analysis that will later derive into the different mission subsystems and elements requirements and specifications for design and manufacturing. The classical scientific missions pivot around the scientific requirement and most of the mission elements design have the final purpose of fulfilling with the scientific requirements. This has the advantage of producing a dedicated mission to cope with all the scientific objectives (design-toperformance). The main drawback being the usually high mission complexity and cost. The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is a low cost mission and, thus, design-to-cost approach is used instead. Even if the "MoonRaise" mission will have some dedicated scientific objectives and dedicated resources, the maximization of the scientific content of the mission is a challenge in itself, and emphasis has to be placed in the imagination and achievement of opportunistic science while in nominal (nonscientific) operational phases. This paper presents the GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission architecture and mission approach and will identify potential opportunistic science targets with minimum impact on the Lunar Lander module and Rover module systems and at quasi-zero cost. The first section/s will be devoted to analyse the mission aspects, while the later section/s will be devoted to identification of interesting opportunistic science.

  12. STS-111 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pictured here is the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission insignia. The International Space Station (ISS) recieved a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after a record-setting 196 days in space, when STS-111 visited in June 2002. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish additional mission objectives: the delivery and installation of a new platform for the ISS robotic arm, the Mobile Base System (MBS) which is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm; and unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  13. Options for a Geostationary Science Demonstration Mission (GSDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pougatchev, N. S.; Bingham, G. E.; Zollinger, L.; Hancock, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Geostationary ultraspectral imager with spectral resolution comparable with the ones of the current advanced LEO sounders such as AIRS and IASI brings the potential for significant new products to improve our lives and protect property. These include: improved severe weather warnings and hurricane track prediction, troposphere wind profiles at 2 Km vertical resolution, and pollutant and water vapor flux profiles. The GSDM data combined with OCO and GOSAT data can provide local and regional CO, CO2 emissions. The potential value of a GSDM is so great that the resent NASA/NOAA Decadal Survey recommended they “Complete the GIFTS instrument, deliver it to orbit via a cost-effective launch and spacecraft opportunity, and evaluate its potential to be a prototype for the HES instrument…”. GOES-R mission costs led to the cancellation of the HES program. Development of an entirely new instrument and flying it as an operational payload is clearly outside of the NOAA budget profile. However a joint NASA/NOAA An out-of-the-box, Venture Class style, PI-led mission to satisfy the NASA/NOAA Decadal Survey recommendation can be funded and managed with today’s budgets. An ideal NASA/NOAA mission would combine NOAA’s spare “Q” Imager and the upgraded GIFTS EDU hardware on a free flyer, launched in 2014 to the GOES East position and using the developing GOES-R downlink and communications system. Because the Ultraspectral Imager/Sounder data pixels are independent, GSDM data can be easily segmented into subimages, processed by massively parallel Linux computers, and analyzed by NASA and NOAA Algorithm working groups and science teams. A well calibrated Ultraspectral Imager/Sounder in a Geo orbit would also become the ultimate calibration transfer standard to support the WMO Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) effort. This poster reviews the science payoff of a GSDM, the measured GIFTS EDU hardware performance, and suggests an affordable mission strategy.

  14. Science opportunity analyzer - a multi-mission tool for planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, B. A.; Polanskey, C. A.; O'Reilly, T.; Colwell, J.

    2002-01-01

    For many years the diverse scientific community that supports JPL's wide variety ofinterplanetary space missions has needed a tool in order to plan and develop their experiments. The tool needs to be easily adapted to various mission types and portable to the user community. The Science Opportunity Analyzer, SOA, now in its third year of development, is intended to meet this need. SOA is a java-based application that is designed to enable scientists to identify and analyze opportunities for science observations from spacecraft. It differs from other planning tools in that it does not require an in-depth knowledge of the spacecraft command system or operation modes to begin high level planning. Users can, however, develop increasingly detailed levels of design. SOA consists of six major functions: Opportunity Search, Visualization, Observation Design, Constraint Checking, Data Output and Communications. Opportunity Search is a GUI driven interface to existing search engines that can be used to identify times when a spacecraft is in a specific geometrical relationship with other bodies in the solar system. This function can be used for advanced mission planning as well as for making last minute adjustments to mission sequences in response to trajectory modifications. Visualization is a key aspect of SOA. The user can view observation opportunities in either a 3D representation or as a 2D map projection. The user is given extensive flexibility to customize what is displayed in the view. Observation Design allows the user to orient the spacecraft and visualize the projection of the instrument field of view for that orientation using the same views as Opportunity Search. Constraint Checking is provided to validate various geometrical and physical aspects of an observation design. The user has the ability to easily create custom rules or to use official project-generated flight rules. This capability may also allow scientists to easily impact the cost to science if

  15. Simplified Ion Thruster Xenon Feed System for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    The successful implementation of ion thruster technology on the Deep Space 1 technology demonstration mission paved the way for its first use on the Dawn science mission, which launched in September 2007. Both Deep Space 1 and Dawn used a "bang-bang" xenon feed system which has proven to be highly successful. This type of feed system, however, is complex with many parts and requires a significant amount of engineering work for architecture changes. A simplified feed system, with fewer parts and less engineering work for architecture changes, is desirable to reduce the feed system cost to future missions. An attractive new path for ion thruster feed systems is based on new components developed by industry in support of commercial applications of electric propulsion systems. For example, since the launch of Deep Space 1 tens of mechanical xenon pressure regulators have successfully flown on commercial spacecraft using electric propulsion. In addition, active proportional flow controllers have flown on the Hall-thruster-equipped Tacsat-2, are flying on the ion thruster GOCE mission, and will fly next year on the Advanced EHF spacecraft. This present paper briefly reviews the Dawn xenon feed system and those implemented on other xenon electric propulsion flight missions. A simplified feed system architecture is presented that is based on assembling flight-qualified components in a manner that will reduce non-recurring engineering associated with propulsion system architecture changes, and is compared to the NASA Dawn standard. The simplified feed system includes, compared to Dawn, passive high-pressure regulation, a reduced part count, reduced complexity due to cross-strapping, and reduced non-recurring engineering work required for feed system changes. A demonstration feed system was assembled using flight-like components and used to operate a laboratory NSTAR-class ion engine. Feed system components integrated into a single-string architecture successfully operated

  16. Stratospheric Balloons for Planetary Science and the Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science (BOPPS) Mission Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremic, Tibor; Cheng, Andrew F.; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Dolloff, Matthew D.; Landis, Rob R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and the planetary science community have been exploring the potential contributions approximately 200 questions raised in the Decadal Survey have identified about 45 topics that are potentially suitable for addressing by stratospheric balloon platforms. A stratospheric balloon mission was flown in the fall of 2014 called BOPPS, Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science. This mission observed a number of planetary targets including two Oort cloud comets. The optical system and instrumentation payload was able to provide unique measurements of the intended targets and increase our understanding of these primitive bodies and their implications for us here on Earth. This paper will discuss the mission, instrumentation and initial results and how these may contribute to the broader planetary science objectives of NASA and the scientific community. This paper will also identify how the instrument platform on BOPPS may be able to contribute to future balloon-based science. Finally the paper will address potential future enhancements and the expected science impacts should those enhancements be implemented.

  17. Science Goal Driven Automation for NASA Missions: The Science Goal Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korathkar, Anuradha; Jones, Jeremy; Jung, John; Grosvenor, Sandy

    2003-01-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA s future missions will be essential not only to achieve substantial reduction in mission operations staff and costs, but also in order to both effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data and to successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives. Current spacecraft operations cannot respond to science driven events, such as intrinsically variable or short-lived phenomena in a timely manner. For such investigations, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists goals. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized.

  18. Back to the moon with robots? Low-cost lunar missions to spearhead the US Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Darren L.

    The initial series of precursor missions which comprise two Lunar Scout polar orbiters and one Artemis lunar lander scheduled to be launched in 1996-1997 are discussed. Two Lunar Scout missions are aimed at providing a cartographic data base required to support human exploration activities and data pertinent to the utilization of lunar resources for habitat construction. The Artemis robotic lunar lander which is being developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is considered to be the first step towards reestablishing the expertise needed to conduct human missions beyond LEO. Up to date Artemis and the two orbiter missions are just proposals, and will remain so unless the money can be found to carry them through completion.

  19. Coordinated science with the Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe Plus, Interhelioprobe and SPORT missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, Milan; Vourlidas, Angelos; Zimovets, Ivan; Velli, Marco; Zhukov, Andrei; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Liu, Ying; Bale, Stuart; Ming, Xiong

    The concurrent science operations of the ESA Solar Orbiter (SO), NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP), Russian Interhelioprobe (IHP) and Chinese SPORT missions will offer a truly unique epoch in heliospheric science. While each mission will achieve its own important science objectives, taken together the four missions will be capable of doing the multi-point measurements required to address many problems in Heliophysics such as the coronal origin of the solar wind plasma and magnetic field or the way the Solar transients drive the heliospheric variability. In this presentation, we discuss the capabilities of the four missions and the Science synergy that will be realized by concurrent operations

  20. Entry Guidance for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendeck, Gavin F.; Craig, Lynn E.

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory will be the first Mars mission to attempt a guided entry to safely deliver the rover to a touchdown ellipse of 25 km x 20 km. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control the range flown. For application to Mars landers which must make use of the tenuous Martian atmosphere, it is critical to balance the lift of the vehicle to minimize the range error while still ensuring a safe deploy altitude. An overview of the process to generate optimized guidance settings is presented, discussing improvements made over the last nine years. Key dispersions driving deploy ellipse and altitude performance are identified. Performance sensitivities including attitude initialization error and the velocity of transition from range control to heading alignment are presented.

  1. A Small Fission Power System for NASA Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Casani, John; Elliott, John; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; MacPherson, Duncan; Nesmith, William; Houts, Michael; Bechtel, Ryan; Werner, James; Kapernick, Rick; Poston, David; Qualls, Arthur Lou; Lipinski, Ron; Radel, Ross; Bailey, Sterling; Weitzberg, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    In March 2010, the Decadal Survey Giant Planets Panel (GPP) requested a short-turnaround study to evaluate the feasibility of a small Fission Power System (FPS) for future unspecified National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) science missions. FPS technology was considered a potential option for power levels that might not be achievable with radioisotope power systems. A study plan was generated and a joint NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) study team was formed. The team developed a set of notional requirements that included 1-kW electrical output, 15-year design life, and 2020 launch availability. After completing a short round of concept screening studies, the team selected a single concept for concentrated study and analysis. The selected concept is a solid block uranium-molybdenum reactor core with heat pipe cooling and distributed thermoelectric power converters directly coupled to aluminum radiator fins. This paper presents the preliminary configuration, mass summary, and proposed development program.

  2. A Small Fission Power System for NASA Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, L.; Casani, J.; Elliott, J.; Fleurial, J.-P.; Macpherson, D.; Nesmith, B.; Houts, M.; Bechtel, R.; Werner, J.; Kapernick, R.; Poston, D.; Qualls, L.; Lipinski, R.; Radel, R.; Bailey, S.; Weitzberg, A.

    In March 2010, the Decadal Survey Giant Planets Panel (GPP) requested a short-turnaround study to evaluate the feasibility of a small Fission Power System (FPS) for future unspecified National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) science missions. FPS technology was considered a potential option for power levels that might not be achievable with radioisotope power systems. A study plan was generated and a joint NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) study team was formed. The team developed a set of notional requirements that included 1-kW electrical output, 15-year design life, and 2020 launch availability. After completing a short round of concept screening studies, the team selected a single concept for concentrated study and analysis. The selected concept is a solid block uranium-molybdenum reactor core with heat pipe cooling and distributed thermoelectric power converters directly coupled to aluminum radiator fins. This paper presents the preliminary configuration, mass summary, and proposed development program.

  3. Sample Return Science by Hayabusa Near-Earth Asteroid Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Abe, M.; Kato, M.; Kushiro, I.; Mukai, T.; Okada, T.; Saito, J.; Sasaki, S.; Yano, H.; Yeomans, D.

    2004-01-01

    Assigning the material species to each asteroid spectral type and finding out the corresponding meteorite category is crucial to make the global material map in the whole asteroid belt and to understand the evolution of the asteroid belt. Recent direct observations by spacecrafts are revealing new intriguing aspects of asteroids which cannot be obtained solely from ground-based observations or meteorite studies. However identification of the real material species constituting asteroids and their corresponding meteorite analogs are still ambiguous. Space weathering makes difficult to identify the true material, and there is still a great gap between the remote sensing data on the global surface and the local microscopic data from meteorites. Sample return from asteroids are inevitable to solve these problems. For this purpose sample return missions to asteroids belonging to various spectral classes are required. The HAYABUSA spacecraft (prelaunch name is MUSESC) launched last year is the first attempt on this concept. This report presents outline of the mission with special stress on its science.

  4. Mission and Navigation Design for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amario, Louis A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Mars Science Laboratory mission will launch the next mobile science laboratory to Mars in the fall of 2009 with arrival at Mars occurring in the summer of 2010. A heat shield, parachute, and rocket-powered descent stage, including a sky crane, will be used to land the rover safely on the surface of Mars. The direction of the atmospheric entry vehicle lift vector will be controlled by a hypersonic entry guidance algorithm to compensate for entry trajectory errors and counteract atmospheric and aerodynamic dispersions. The key challenges for mission design are (1) develop a launch/arrival strategy that provides communications coverage during the Entry, Descent, and Landing phase either from an X-band direct-to-Earth link or from a Ultra High Frequency link to the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for landing latitudes between 30 deg North and 30 deg South, while satisfying mission constraints on Earth departure energy and Mars atmospheric entry speed, and (2) generate Earth-departure targets for the Atlas V-541 launch vehicle for the specified launch/arrival strategy. The launch/arrival strategy employs a 30-day baseline launch period and a 27-day extended launch period with varying arrival dates at Mars. The key challenges for navigation design are (1) deliver the spacecraft to the atmospheric entry interface point (Mars radius of 3522.2 km) with an inertial entry flight path angle error of +/- 0.20 deg (3 sigma), (2) provide knowledge of the entry state vector accurate to +/- 2.8 km (3 sigma) in position and +/- 2.0 m/s (3 sigma) in velocity for initializing the entry guidance algorithm, and (3) ensure a 99% probability of successful delivery at Mars with respect to available cruise stage propellant. Orbit determination is accomplished via ground processing of multiple complimentary radiometric data types: Doppler, range, and Delta-Differential One-way Ranging (a Very Long Baseline Interferometry measurement). The navigation strategy makes use of up to five

  5. Finding and Characterizing Candidate Targets for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, Paul; Gershman, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) is a proposed technology demonstration mission which would use high-power Solar Electric Propulsion to rendezvous with a 4-to-10-meter Near-Earth Asteroid, capture and despin it, and then guide it back towards one or more encounters with the Moon which would place it into a distant retrograde lunar orbit. Astronauts could then visit and explore the asteroid using the Orion spacecraft. Simulations suggest that the asteroid population includes thousands of candidate targets which are in the right size range and have the necessary Earth-like low delta-v orbits. Fourteen known asteroids satisfy the orbit and rough absolute magnitude requirements for ARRM candidates, including 2009 BD, which is the current baseline target. With several asteroid survey enhancements in process and new surveys coming online within the next 2 years, the ARRM candidate discovery rate should increase to ~5 per year. Accurate physical characterization of ARRM candidates is required to reduce uncertainties in size, mass and rotation state. Only 4 of the 14 known ARRM candidates have been (or will be) characterized so far, but little priority was placed on this activity until this year. Rapid response after discovery is critical, while a candidate is still very near the Earth. Radar is virtually essential to characterize size and rotation state, while long-arc high-precision astrometry can help characterize mass through estimation of the area-to-mass ratio. The rapid response characterization process was successfully demonstrated for ARRM candidate 2013 EC20, which turned out to be smaller than the desired size range.

  6. Autonomous charging to enable long-endurance missions for small aerial robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulgaonkar, Yash; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen an increased interest towards research involving Autonomous Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The predominant reason for this is their agility and ability to perform tasks too difficult or dangerous for their human counterparts and to navigate into places where ground robots cannot reach. Among MAVs, rotary wing aircraft such as quadrotors have the ability to operate in confined spaces, hover at a given point in space and perch1 or land on a flat surface. This makes the quadrotor a very attractive aerial platform giving rise to a myriad of research opportunities. The potential of these aerial platforms is severely limited by the constraints on the flight time due to limited battery capacity. This in turn arises from limits on the payload of these rotorcraft. By automating the battery recharging process, creating autonomous MAVs that can recharge their on-board batteries without any human intervention and by employing a team of such agents, the overall mission time can be greatly increased. This paper describes the development, testing, and implementation of a system of autonomous charging stations for a team of Micro Aerial Vehicles. This system was used to perform fully autonomous long-term multi-agent aerial surveillance experiments with persistent station keeping. The scalability of the algorithm used in the experiments described in this paper was also tested by simulating a persistence surveillance scenario for 10 MAVs and charging stations. Finally, this system was successfully implemented to perform a 9½ hour multi-agent persistent flight test. Preliminary implementation of this charging system in experiments involving construction of cubic structures with quadrotors showed a three-fold increase in effective mission time.

  7. Preparing to return to the Moon: Lessons from science-driven analogue missions to the Mistastin Lake impact structure, Canada, a unique lunar analogue site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Chanou, A.; Daly, M. G.; Francis, R.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E. M.; Moores, J. E.; Pickersgill, A.; Pontefract, A.; Preston, L.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Young, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Impact cratering is the dominant geological process on the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars - the objectives for the new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). Led by members of the Canadian Lunar Research Network (CLRN), funded by the Canadian Space Agency, and with participants from the U.S., we carried out a series of analogue missions on Earth in order to prepare and train for future potential robotic and human sample return missions. Critically, these analogue missions were driven by the paradigm that operational and technical objectives are conducted while conducting new science and addressing real overarching scientific objectives. An overarching operational goal was to assess the utility of a robotic field reconnaissance mission as a precursor to a human sortie sample return mission. Here, we focus on the results and lessons learned from a robotic precursor mission and follow on human-robotic mission to the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, northern Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The Mistastin structure was chosen because it represents an exceptional analogue for lunar craters. This site includes both an anorthositic target, a central uplift, well-preserved impact melt rocks - mostly derived from melting anorthosite - and is (or was) relatively unexplored. This crater formed ~36 million years ago and has a diameter of ~28 km. The scientific goals for these analogue missions were to further our understanding of impact chronology, shock processes, impact ejecta and potential resources within impact craters. By combining these goals in an analogue mission campaign key scientific requirements for a robotic precursor were determined. From the outset, these analogue missions were formulated and executed like an actual space mission. Sites of interest were chosen using remote sensing imagery without a priori knowledge of the site through a rigorous site selection process. The first deployment occurred in

  8. The GLObal Robotic telescopes Intelligent Array for e-science (GLORIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Sánchez Moreno, F. M.; Pérez del Pulgar, C. J.; Azócar, D.; Beskin, G.; Cabello, J.; Cedazo, R.; Cuesta, L.; Cunniffe, R.; González, E.; González-Rodríguez, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Hanlon, L.; Hudec, R.; Jakubek, M.; Janeĉek, P.; Jelínek, M.; Lara-Gil, O.; Linttot, C.; López-Casado, M. C.; Malaspina, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Maureira, E.; Maza, J.; Muñoz-Fernández, E.; Nicastro, L.; O'Boyle, E.; Palazzi, E.; Páta, P.; Pio, M. A.; Prouza, M.; Serena, F.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Simpson, R.; Sprimont, P.; Strobl, J.; Topinka, M.; Vitek, S.; Zarnecki, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    GLORIA is a collaborative web-2.0 project based on a network of robotic telescopes, which has become the first free-access network opened to the world for public outreach and specially for e-Science projects.

  9. Relative Terrain Imaging Navigation (RETINA) Tool for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Cinnamon A.; Van Eepoel, John; Liounis, Andrew; Shoemaker, Michael; DeWeese, Keith; Getzandanner, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the NASA initiative to collect a boulder off of an asteroid and return it to Lunar orbit, the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) and NASA GSFC are developing an on-board relative terrain imaging navigation algorithm for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). After performing several flybys and dry runs to verify and refine the shape, spin, and gravity models and obtain centimeter level imagery, the spacecraft will descend to the surface of the asteroid to capture a boulder and return it to Lunar Orbit. The algorithm implements Stereophotoclinometry methods to register landmarks with images taken onboard the spacecraft, and use these measurements to estimate the position and orientation of the spacecraft with respect to the asteroid. This paper will present an overview of the ARRM GN&C system and concept of operations as well as a description of the algorithm and its implementation. These techniques will be demonstrated for the descent to the surface of the proposed asteroid of interest, 2008 EV5, and preliminary results will be shown.

  10. Science investigation options with a NASA New Frontiers Program Saturn entry probe mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atreya, S. K.; Atkinson, D. H.; Colaprete, A.; Coustenis, A.

    2012-09-01

    In 2011 the Space Studies Board of the US National Research Council released its report, "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013- 2022" [1] (PSDS). This document is intended to be the guiding document for NASA's planetary science and space flight mission priorities for that decade. The PSDS treats three classes of flight missions: small, medium, and large. Small missions are ones that could be flown within the resource constraints of NASA's Discovery Program, a program of PI-led, competed missions, including a US 500 million (FY 2015) recommended cost cap, excluding the launch vehicle. The PSDS makes no specific recommendations for science objectives or destinations for small missions. Medium missions could be flown under NASA's New Frontiers Program, also a program of PI-led, competed missions, with a recommended cost cap of US 1 billion excluding the launch vehicle. Both of these competed mission programs have been highly successful, with multiple spacecraft currently in flight and more either under development or in the final steps of competition. Large missions, generally called flagship missions, would have total mission costs exceeding US $1 billion and would be directed by NASA, not PI-led. Unlike Small class missions, the PSDS recommends specific science objectives for Medium class missions. Four Medium class mission concepts and their science objectives carry over from the previous PSDS [2]: • Comet Surface Sample Return • Lunar South-Pole Aitken Basin Sample Return • Trojan Tour and Rendezvous • Venus In Situ Explorer The current PSDS adds a fifth mission concept to the list for the next New Frontiers Program AO ("NF-4"), currently anticipated in 2016: a Saturn probe mission. This mission would deliver an atmospheric entry probe into Saturn's atmosphere to make composition and atmospheric structure measurements critical to understanding the materials, processes, and time scales of Saturn's formation, and by comparison to

  11. The Science and Technology of Future Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonati, A.; Fusi, R.; Longoni, F.

    1999-12-01

    processing. Powerful computers with customized architectures are designed and developed. High-speed intercommunication networks are studied and tested. In parallel to the hardware research activities, software development is undertaken for several purposes: digital and video compression algorithms, payload and spacecraft control and diagnostics, scientific processing algorithms, etc. Besides, embedded Java virtual machines are studied for tele-science applications (direct link between scientist console and scientific payload). At system engineering level, the demand for spacecraft autonomy is increased for planetology missions: reliable intelligent systems that can operate for long periods of time without human intervention from ground are requested and investigated. A technologically challenging but less glamorous area of development is represented by the laboratory equipment for end-to-end testing (on ground) of payload instruments. The main fields are cryogenics, laser and X-ray optics, microwave radiometry, UV and infrared testing systems.

  12. Implications of Wind-Assisted Aerial Navigation for Titan Mission Planning and Science Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfes, A.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Fathpour, N.; Blackmore, L.; Newman, C.; Kuwata, Y.; Wolf, M.; Assad, C.

    2010-01-01

    The recent Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) proposal incorporates a montgolfiere (hot air balloon) as part of its architecture. Standard montgolfiere balloons generate lift through heating of the atmospheric gases inside the envelope, and use a vent valve for altitude control. A Titan aerobot (robotic aerial vehicle) would have to use radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for electric power, and the excess heat generated can be used to provide thermal lift for a montgolfiere. A hybrid montgolfiere design could have propellers mounted on the gondola to generate horizontal thrust; in spite of the unfavorable aerodynamic drag caused by the shape of the balloon, a limited amount of lateral controllability could be achieved. In planning an aerial mission at Titan, it is extremely important to assess how the moon-wide wind field can be used to extend the navigation capabilities of an aerobot and thereby enhance the scientific return of the mission. In this paper we explore what guidance, navigation and control capabilities can be achieved by a vehicle that uses the Titan wind field. The control planning approach is based on passive wind field riding. The aerobot would use vertical control to select wind layers that would lead it towards a predefined science target, adding horizontal propulsion if available. The work presented in this paper is based on aerodynamic models that characterize balloon performance at Titan, and on TitanWRF (Weather Research and Forecasting), a model that incorporates heat convection, circulation, radiation, Titan haze properties, Saturn's tidal forcing, and other planetary phenomena. Our results show that a simple unpropelled montgolfiere without horizontal actuation will be able to reach a broad array of science targets within the constraints of the wind field. The study also indicates that even a small amount of horizontal thrust allows the balloon to reach any area of interest on Titan, and to do so in a fraction of the time needed

  13. Advances in Sensor Webs for NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, R.; Moe, K.; Smith, S.; Prescott, G.

    2007-12-01

    The world is slowly evolving into a web of interconnected sensors. Innovations such as camera phones that upload directly to the internet, networked devices with built-in GPS chips, traffic sensors, and the wireless networks that connect these devices are transforming our society. Similar advances are occurring in science sensors at NASA. NASA developed autonomy software has demonstrated the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events. This software has also enabled NASA satellites to coordinate with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor web. A vision for NASA sensor webs for Earth science is to enable "on-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit." Several technologies for improved autonomous science and sensor webs are being developed at NASA. Each of these technologies advances the state of the art in sensorwebs in different areas including enabling model interactions with sensorwebs, smart autonomous sensors, and sensorweb communications. Enabling model interactions in sensor webs is focused on the creation and management of new sensor web enabled information products. Specifically, the format of these data products and the sensor webs that use them must be standardized so that sensor web components can more easily communicate with each other. This standardization will allow new components such as models and simulations to be included within sensor webs. Smart sensing implies sophistication in the sensors themselves. The goal of smart sensing is to enable autonomous event detection and reconfiguration. This may include onboard processing, self-healing sensors, and self-identifying sensors. The goal of communication enhancements, especially session layer management, is to support dialog control for autonomous operations

  14. Autonomous Onboard Science Image Analysis for Future Mars Rover Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Ruzon, M. A.; Roush, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    To explore high priority landing sites and to prepare for eventual human exploration, future Mars missions will involve rovers capable of traversing tens of kilometers. However, the current process by which scientists interact with a rover does not scale to such distances. Specifically, numerous command cycles are required to complete even simple tasks, such as, pointing the spectrometer at a variety of nearby rocks. In addition, the time required by scientists to interpret image data before new commands can be given and the limited amount of data that can be downlinked during a given command cycle constrain rover mobility and achievement of science goals. Experience with rover tests on Earth supports these concerns. As a result, traverses to science sites as identified in orbital images would require numerous science command cycles over a period of many weeks, months or even years, perhaps exceeding rover design life and other constraints. Autonomous onboard science analysis can address these problems in two ways. First, it will allow the rover to transmit only "interesting" images, defined as those likely to have higher science content. Second, the rover will be able to anticipate future commands. For example, a rover might autonomously acquire and return spectra of "interesting" rocks along with a high resolution image of those rocks in addition to returning the context images in which they were detected. Such approaches, coupled with appropriate navigational software, help to address both the data volume and command cycle bottlenecks that limit both rover mobility and science yield. We are developing fast, autonomous algorithms to enable such intelligent on-board decision making by spacecraft. Autonomous algorithms developed to date have the ability to identify rocks and layers in a scene, locate the horizon, and compress multi-spectral image data. Output from these algorithms could be used to autonomously obtain rock spectra, determine which images should be

  15. The Effect of Robotics Competitions on High School Students' Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anita; Huffman, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of participating in an after-school robotics competition on high school students' attitudes toward science. Specifically, this study used the Test of Science-Related Attitude to measure students' social implications of science, normality of scientists, attitude toward scientific inquiry, adoption of…

  16. 76 FR 4133 - National Environmental Policy Act; Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission AGENCY... consideration of possible changes in the potential environmental impacts of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL...) for MSL Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National...

  17. Science ground segment for the ESA Euclid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasian, Fabio; Hoar, John; Sauvage, Marc; Dabin, Christophe; Poncet, Maurice; Mansutti, Oriana

    2012-09-01

    The Scientific Ground Segment (SGS) of the ESA M2 Euclid mission, foreseen to be launched in the fourth quarter of 2019, is composed of the Science Operations Center (SOC) operated by ESA and a number of Science Data Centers (SDCs) in charge of data processing, provided by a Consortium of 14 European countries. Many individuals, scientists and engineers, are and will be involved in the SGS development and operations. The distributed nature of the data processing and of the collaborative software development, the data volume of the overall data set, and the needed accuracy of the results are the main challenges expected in the design and implementation of the Euclid SGS. In particular, the huge volume of data (not only Euclid data but also ground based data) to be processed in the SDCs will require a distributed storage to avoid data migration across SDCs. The leading principles driving the development of the SGS are expected to be the simplicity of system design, a component-based software engineering, virtualization, and a data-centric approach to the system architecture where quality control, a common data model and the persistence of the data model objects play a crucial role. ESA/SOC and the Euclid Consortium have developed, and are committed to maintain, a tight collaboration in order to design and develop a single, cost-efficient and truly integrated SGS.

  18. The JWST science instrument payload: mission context and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 m2 aperture (6 m class) telescope that will achieve diffraction limited angular resolution at a wavelength of 2 um. The science instrument payload includes four passively cooled near-infrared instruments providing broad- and narrow-band imagery, coronography, as well as multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy over the 0.6 < λ < 5.0 um spectrum. An actively cooled mid-infrared instrument provides broad-band imagery, coronography, and integral-field spectroscopy over the 5.0 < λ < 29 um spectrum. The JWST is being developed by NASA, in partnership with the European and Canadian Space Agencies, as a general user facility with science observations proposed by the international astronomical community in a manner similar to the Hubble Space Telescope. Technology development and mission design are complete. Construction, integration and verification testing is underway in all areas of the program. The JWST is on schedule for launch during 2018.

  19. The Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the Earth System Science Pathfinder Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Mission is shown. The contents include: 1) Why CO2?; 2) What Processes Control CO2 Sinks?; 3) OCO Science Team; 4) Space-Based Measurements of CO2; 5) Driving Requirement: Precise, Bias-Free Global Measurements; 6) Making Precise CO2 Measurements from Space; 7) OCO Spatial Sampling Strategy; 8) OCO Observing Modes; 9) Implementation Approach; 10) The OCO Instrument; 11) The OCO Spacecraft; 12) OCO Will Fly in the A-Train; 13) Validation Program Ensures Accuracy and Minimizes Spatially Coherent Biases; 14) Can OCO Provide the Required Precision?; 15) O2 Column Retrievals with Ground-based FTS; 16) X(sub CO2) Retrieval Simulations; 17) Impact of Albedo and Aerosol Uncertainty on X(sub CO2) Retrievals; 18) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Seasonal Cycle; 19) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: The North-South Gradient in CO2; 20) Carbon Cycle Modeling Studies: Effect of Diurnal Biases; 21) Project Status and Schedule; and 22) Summary.

  20. Science Planning for the Solar Probe Plus NASA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterer, M. B.; Fox, N. J.; Turner, F. S.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    With a planned launch in 2018, there are a number of challenges for the Science Planning Team (SPT) of the Solar Probe Plus mission. The geometry of the celestial bodies and the spacecraft during some of the Solar Probe Plus mission orbits cause limited uplink and downlink opportunities. The payload teams must manage the volume of data that they write to the spacecraft solid-state recorders (SSR) for their individual instruments for downlink to the ground. The aim is to write the instrument data to the spacecraft SSR for downlink before a set of data downlink opportunities large enough to get the data to the ground and before the start of another data collection cycle. The SPT also intend to coordinate observations with other spacecraft and ground based systems. To add further complexity, two of the spacecraft payloads have the capability to write a large volumes of data to their internal payload SSR while sending a smaller "survey" portion of the data to the spacecraft SSR for downlink. The instrument scientists would then view the survey data on the ground, determine the most interesting data from their payload SSR, send commands to transfer that data from their payload SSR to the spacecraft SSR for downlink. The timing required for downlink and analysis of the survey data, identifying uplink opportunities for commanding data transfers, and downlink opportunities big enough for the selected data within the data collection period is critical. To solve these challenges, the Solar Probe Plus Science Working Group has designed a orbit-type optimized data file priority downlink scheme to downlink high priority survey data quickly. This file priority scheme would maximize the reaction time that the payload teams have to perform the survey and selected data method on orbits where the downlink and uplink availability will support using this method. An interactive display and analysis science planning tool is being designed for the SPT to use as an aid to planning. The

  1. World First MarsLink Mission Participants Learn and Enjoy Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how students learn and experience the excitement of science by actively participating in the MarsLink Space Mission, an educational component of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Mars Missions. This Mission has been made possible by Space Explorers, Inc., in collaboration with NASA. In the…

  2. Mixed-Initiative Planning and Scheduling for Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Karen L.; Wolverton, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this joint NASA Ames/JPL/SRI project was to develop mixed-initiative planning and scheduling technology that would enable more effective and efficient planning of science missions. The original intent behind the project was to have all three organizations work closely on the overall research and technology development objectives. Shortly after the project began, however, the Ames and JPL project members made a commitment to develop and field an operational mixed-initiative planning and scheduling tool called MAPGEN for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission [Ai-Chang et al. 2003]. Because of the tremendous amounts of time and effort that went into making that tool a success, the Ames and JPL personnel were mostly unavailable for collaboration on the joint objectives of the original proposal. Until November of 2002, SRI postponed work on the project in the hope that the Ames and JPL personnel would be able to find time for the planned collaborative research. During discussions between Dr. Karen Myers (the SRI institutional PI) and Dr. John Bresina (the project PI) during November of 2002, it was mutually agreed that SRI should work independently to achieve some of the research objectives for the project. In particular, Dr. Bresina identified explanation of plans and planner behavior as a critical area for research, based on feedback from demonstrating an initial prototype of MAPGEN to the operational community. For that reason, our focus from November of 2002 through the end of the project was on designing explanation methods to address this need.

  3. Science Enabling Exploration: Using LRO to Prepare for Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Stopar, J. D.; Speyerer, E. J.; Petro, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries from LRO have transformed our understanding of the Moon, but LRO's instruments were originally designed to collect the measurements required to enable future lunar surface exploration. A high lunar exploration priority is the collection of new samples and their return to Earth for comprehensive analysis. The importance of sample return from South Pole-Aitken is well-established [Jolliff et al., this conference], but there are numerous other locations where sample return will yield important advances in planetary science. Using new LRO data, we have defined an achievability envelope based on the physical characteristics of successful lunar landing sites. Those results were then used to define 1km x 1km regions of interest where sample return could be executed, including: the basalt flows in Oceanus Procellarum (22.1N, 53.9W), the Gruithuisen Domes (36.1N, 39.7W), the Dewar cryptomare (2.2S, 166.8E), the Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit (24.8N, 48.5W), the Sulpicius Gallus formation (19.9N, 10.3E), the Sinus Aestuum pyroclastic deposit (5.2N, 9.2W), the Compton-Belkovich volcanic complex (61.5N, 99.9E), the Ina Irregular Mare Patch (18.7N, 5.3E), and the Marius Hills volcanic complex (13.4N, 55.9W). All of these locations represent safe landing sites where sample returns are needed to advance our understanding of the evolution of the lunar interior and the timescales of lunar volcanism. If LRO is still active when any future mission reaches the surface, LRO's capability to rapidly place surface activities into broader geologic context will provide operational advantages. LRO remains a unique strategic asset that continues to address the needs of future missions.

  4. Concepts for Mars Polar Science in Current and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, R.; Campbell, B.; Diniega, S.; Beaty, D. W.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2016-09-01

    Mars polar/non-polar ice science has been identified as a high priority for current and future Mars missions. As a guide to ongoing and future mission planning, further discussion of needs and capabilities related to ice science is warranted.

  5. Transformative Multicultural Science curriculum: A case study of middle school robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Mary Katheryn

    Multicultural Science has been a topic of research and discourse over the past several years. However, most of the literature concerning this topic (or paradigm) has centered on programs in tribal or Indigenous schools. Under the framework of instructional congruence, this case study explored how elementary and middle school students in a culturally diverse charter school responded to a Multicultural Science program. Furthermore, this research sought to better understand the dynamics of teaching and learning strategies used within the paradigm of Multicultural Science. The school's Robotics class, a class typically stereotyped as fitting within the misconceptions associated with the Western Modern Science paradigm, was the center of this case study. A triangulation of data consisted of class observations throughout two semesters; pre and post student science attitude surveys; and interviews with individual students, Robotic student teams, the Robotics class instructor, and school administration. Three themes emerged from the data that conceptualized the influence of a Multicultural Science curriculum with ethnically diverse students in a charter school's Robotics class. Results included the students' perceptions of a connection between science (i.e., Robotics) and their personal lives, a positive growth in the students' attitude toward science (and engineering), and a sense of personal empowerment toward being successful in science. However, also evident in the findings were the students' stereotypical attitudes toward science (and scientists) and their lack of understanding of the Nature of Science. Implications from this study include suggestions toward the development of Multicultural Science curricula in public schools. Modifications in university science methods courses to include the Multicultural Science paradigm are also suggested.

  6. Deep Space Orbital Service Model for Virtual Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, J.

    2014-06-01

    An extension of the orbital service model, a technique for coordinating mission services between multiple spacecraft, is presented. This facilitates the creation of virtual uploadable ‘app’ missions to deep space probes.

  7. The First Year of Robotic Science with MINERVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrady, Nate; Johnson, John A.; Wright, Jason; Wittenmyer, Robert; Eastman, Jason; Beatty, Thomas G.; Bottom, Michael; Johnson, Samson

    2016-01-01

    Detection of low-mass exoplanets orbiting Sun-like stars requires high cadence, long time-baseline observations that are impossible to obtain on shared large telescopes. MINERVA is a dedicated observatory for exoplanet detection that consists of four robotic 0.7-meter PlaneWave telescopes located at Whipple Observatory on Mt Hopkins, Arizona. First light science began in May 2015 with photometric monitoring of transit and microlensing events. The four telescopes can observe different targets, or provide simultaneous multi-color light curves of a single event. We will add a purpose-built, temperature-stabilized, high precision iodine cell spectrometer from Callaghan Innovation in 2016 to facilitate velocimetric search for low-mass exoplanets around nearby stars. The flexibility of the MINERVA array provides a natural avenue for educational and public outreach activities. One telescope in the array can break formation to observe targets from a queue or respond to remote operations from astronomy courses at a partner institution. MINERVA is a collaboration among Harvard U., Penn State U., U. Montana, and U. New South Wales.

  8. Renewing Solar Science. The Solar Maximum Repair Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Valerie

    This publication describes the Solar Maximum Repair Mission for restoring the operational capability of the solar observatory in space by using the Space Shuttle. Major sections include: (1) "The Solar Maximum Mission" (describing the duties of the mission); (2) "Studying Solar Flares" (summarizing the major scientific accomplishments of the…

  9. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.

  10. Integrating the Teaching of Space Science, Planetary Exploration And Robotics In Elementary And Middle School with Mars Rover Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A.; Ramsey, J.; Smith, H.; Boyko, B. S.; Peck, S.; Arcenaux, W. H.

    2005-05-01

    The present aerospace engineering and science workforce is ageing. It is not clear that the US education system will produce enough qualified replacements to meet the need in the near future. Unfortunately, by the time many students get to high school, it is often too late to get them pointed toward an engineering or science career. Since some college programs require 6 units of high school mathematics for admission, students need to begin consciously preparing for a science or engineering curriculum as early as 6th or 7th grade. The challenge for educators is to convince elementary school students that science and engineering are both exciting, relevant and accessible career paths. This paper describes a program designed to help provide some excitement and relevance. It is based on the task of developing a mobile robot or "Rover" to explore the surface of Mars. There are two components to the program, a curriculum unit and a contest. The curriculum unit is structured as a 6-week planetary science unit for elementary school (grades 3-5). It can also be used as a curriculum unit, enrichment program or extracurricular activity in grades 6-8 by increasing the expected level of scientific sophistication in the mission design. The second component is a citywide competition to select the most outstanding models that is held annually at a local college or University. Primary (Grades 3-5) and middle school (Grades 6-8) students interested in science and engineering will design and build of a model of a Mars Rover to carry out a specific science mission on the surface of Mars. The students will build the models as part of a 6-week Fall semester classroom-learning or homework project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover, and be required to do basic research on Mars that will determine the operational objectives and structural features of their rover. This module may be used as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system

  11. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: Objectives, Approach, and Results of a Simulated Mission to Search for Life in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Cannon, Howard N.; Dunagan, Stephen E.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Glass, Brian J.; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  12. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  13. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding. PMID:19032053

  14. Join the NASA Science Mission Directorate Scientist Speaker's Bureau!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shupla, C. B.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker's Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. Aside from name, organization, location, bio, and (optional) photo and website, the information that scientists enter into this database will not be made public; instead, it will be used to help match scientists with the requests being placed. One of the most common ways for scientists to interact with students, adults, and general public audiences is to give presentations about or related to their science. However, most educators do not have a simple way to connect with those planetary scientists, Earth scientists, heliophysicists, and astronomers who are interested and available to speak with their audiences. This system is designed to help meet the need for connecting potential audiences to interested scientists. The information input into the database (availability to travel, willingness to present online or in person, interest in presenting to different age groups and sizes of audience, topics, and more) will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All NASA-funded Earth and space scientists engaged in active research are invited to fill out the short registration form, including those who are involved in missions, institutes, grants, and those who are using NASA science data in their research, and more. There is particular need for young scientists, such as graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, and women and people of diverse backgrounds. Submit your information at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  15. Mars Science Laboratory: Mission, Landing Site, and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, John; Blake, D.; Crisp, J.; Edgett, K.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D.; Mahaffy, P.; Malin, M.; Meyer, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R.

    2012-10-01

    Scheduled to land on August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will conduct an investigation of modern and ancient environments. Recent mission results will be discussed. Curiosity has a lifetime of at least one Mars year ( 23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. The MSL science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere; an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity; focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color; an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry; a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals; an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith; a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables; and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation. The 155-km diameter Gale Crater was chosen as Curiosity’s field site based on several attributes: an interior mound of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mound show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Gale’s regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments, represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars.

  16. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KARLE): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Devismes, D.; Miller, J. S.; Swindle, T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Isotopic dating is an essential tool to establish an absolute chronology for geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration events. The capability for in situ geochronology will open up the ability for geochronology to be accomplished as part of lander or rover complement, on multiple samples rather than just those returned. An in situ geochronology package can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache or return to Earth. The K-Ar Laser Experiment (KArLE) brings together a novel combination of several flight-proven components to provide precise measurements of potassium (K) and argon (Ar) that will enable accurate isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, measure the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using mass spectrometry (MS), and relate the two by measuring the volume of the ablated pit by optical imaging. Our work indicates that the KArLE instrument is capable of determining the age of planetary samples with sufficient accuracy to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science. Additional benefits derive from the fact that each KArLE component achieves analyses useful for most planetary surface missions.

  17. Reporting on Strategic Considerations About the Role of Science in Initial Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaty, David; Bass, Deborah; Thronson, Harley; Hays, Lindsay; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, Joe; Craig, Mark; Duggan, Matt; Drake, Bret; Stern, Jennifer; Zucker, Rick

    2016-07-01

    mission prior to a Mars surface mission should be initiated. 3. A well-planned set of science objectives for a future human-landed mission to Mars is essential in order to sustain coordination among the science and human spaceflight communities. In particular, while it is clear how humans on the surface of Mars would significantly accelerate the pace of the search for past life, it is unclear how humans would play a role in (and not serve as a hindrance to) the search for extant life. Further study should be supported. 4. Sustained formal collaboration among Mars scientists, engineers, technologists, and teams developing scenarios for Mars exploration should be supported. The human and robotic sides of the Mars exploration community need to become further engaged with each other, particularly as we enter a potential period of dual-purpose (science + human precursor) missions. Central to this era is generating mutual support for a Mars sample return architecture as a goal that has crucial value to both the human preparatory program and planetary science.

  18. Lunar polar rover science operations: Lessons learned and mission architecture implications derived from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) terrestrial field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Lim, Darlene; Deans, Matthew; Cook, Amanda; Roush, Ted; Skok, J. R.; Button, Nicole E.; Karunatillake, S.; Stoker, Carol; Marquez, Jessica J.; Shirley, Mark; Kobayashi, Linda; Lees, David; Bresina, John; Hunt, Rusty

    2016-08-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal of producing critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. Specifically, MVP focuses on studying a lunar mission analog to characterize the form and distribution of lunar volatiles. Although lunar volatiles are known to be present near the poles of the Moon, the three dimensional distribution and physical characteristics of lunar polar volatiles are largely unknown. A landed mission with the ability to traverse the lunar surface is thus required to characterize the spatial distribution of lunar polar volatiles. NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) mission is a lunar polar rover mission that will operate primarily in sunlit regions near a lunar pole with near-real time operations to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of volatiles. The MVP project was conducted as a field campaign relevant to the RP lunar mission to provide science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. To achieve these goals, the MVP project conducted a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural environment with an unknown volatile distribution within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon.

  19. Science Objectives of the FOXSI Small Explorer Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Alaoui, Meriem; Allred, Joel C.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Battaglia, Marina; Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; Drake, James; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Glesener, Lindsay; Grefenstette, Brian; Hannah, Iain; Holman, Gordon D.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Ireland, Jack; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Jeffrey, Natasha; Klimchuk, James A.; Kontar, Eduard; Krucker, Sam; Longcope, Dana; Musset, Sophie; Nita, Gelu M.; Ramsey, Brian; Ryan, Daniel; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Vilmer, Nicole; White, Stephen M.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    Impulsive particle acceleration and plasma heating at the Sun, from the largest solar eruptive events to the smallest flares, are related to fundamental processes throughout the Universe. While there have been significant advances in our understanding of impulsive energy release since the advent of RHESSI observations, there is a clear need for new X-ray observations that can capture the full range of emission in flares (e.g., faint coronal sources near bright chromospheric sources), follow the intricate evolution of energy release and changes in morphology, and search for the signatures of impulsive energy release in even the quiescent Sun. The FOXSI Small Explorer (SMEX) mission concept combines state-of-the-art grazing-incidence focusing optics with pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of hard X-rays for the first time on a solar observatory. We present the science objectives of FOXSI and how its capabilities will address and resolve open questions regarding impulsive energy release at the Sun. These questions include: What are the time scales of the processes that accelerate electrons? How do flare-accelerated electrons escape into the heliosphere? What is the energy input of accelerated electrons into the chromosphere, and how is super-heated coronal plasma produced?

  20. The first dedicated life sciences mission - Spacelab 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, D. R.; Reid, D. H.; Klein, H. P.

    Spacelab is a large versatile laboratory carried in the bay of the Shuttle Orbiter. The first Spacelab mission dedicated entirely to Life Sciences is known as Spacelab 4. It is scheduled for launch in late 1985 and will remain aloft for seven days. This payload consists of 25 tentatively selected investigations combined into a comprehensive integrated exploration of the effects of acute weightlessness on living systems. An emphasis is placed on studying physiological changes that have been previously observed in manned space flight. This payload has complementary designs in the human and animal investigations in order to validate animal models of human physiology in weightlessness. The experimental subjects include humans, squirrel monkeys, laboratory rats, several species of plants, and frog eggs. The primary scientific objectives include study of the acute cephalic fluid shift, cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness, including postflight reductions in orthostatic tolerance and exercise capacity, and changes in vestibular function, including space motion sickness, associated with weightlessness. Secondary scientific objectives include the study of red cell mass reduction, negative nitrogen balance, altered calcium metabolism, suppressed in vitro lymphocyte reactivity, gravitropism and photropism in plants, and fertilization and early development in frog eggs. The rationale behind this payload, the selection process, and details of the individual investigations are presented in this paper.

  1. Initial Results of Radio Science in Akatsuki mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Akatsuki Radio Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Radio Science experiment (RS) in the Akatsuki mission of JAXA aims to determine the vertical structure of the Venus atmosphere, thereby complementing the imaging observations by onboard instruments. The physical quantities to be retrieved are the vertical distributions of the atmospheric temperature, the electron density, the sulfuric acid vapor density, and small-scale density fluctuations. The uniqueness of Akatsuki RS is quasi-simultaneous observations with multi-band cameras dedicated to meteorological study; the cameras can observe the locations probed by RS a short time before or after the occultations. An ultra-stable oscillator (USO) provides a stable reference frequency, which is used for the X-band downlink signal. The signal traverses the Venusian atmosphere near the limb and reaches the ground station, where it is sampled using an open-loop recording system. In the first radio occultation season of March-July, 2016, we plan 8 Venus occultation experiments in total (6 experiments have been done successfully till June). The temperature profiles cover the altitude region of 40-90 km, which enables studies of vertical coupling among different altitude levels and studies of the cloud system. Another target of Akatsuki RS is solar corona. During solar conjunction periods, the downlink signal that traverses the solar corona is recorded at the ground station. The data yields information on the solar wind velocity, plasma density fluctuations, and magnetic field fluctuations from Faraday rotation measurement. In the solar conjunction period of May-June, 2016, 11 occultation experiments were conducted.

  2. The first dedicated life sciences mission - Spacelab 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. R.; Reid, D. H.; Klein, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    The details of the payload and the experiments in Spacelab 4, the first Spacelab mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, are discussed. The payload of Spacelab 4, carried in the bay of the Shuttle Orbiter, consists of 25 tentatively selected investigations combined into a comprehensive integrated exploration of the effects of acute weightlessness on living systems. The payload contains complementary designs in the human and animal investigations in order to validate animal models of human physiology in weightlessness. Animals used as experimental subjects will include squirrel monkeys, laboratory rats, several species of plants, and frog eggs. The main scientific objectives of the investigations include the study of the acute cephalic fluid shift, cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness, including postflight reductions in orthostatic tolerance and exercise capacity, and changes in vestibular function, including space motion sickness, associated with weightlessness. Other scientific objective include the study of red cell mass reduction, negative nitrogen balance, altered calcium metabolism, suppressed in vitro lymphocyte reactivity, gravitropism and photropism in plants, and fertilization and early development in frog eggs.

  3. Present and future Solar System missions in the framework of the ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The Science Directorate is in charge of developing the "Science Mandatory Programme". Through the science programme, ESA implements scientific projects to achieve ambitious objectives. On this ground, science challenges and advancement in technologies work together in a synergistic endeavour. Both long-term science planning and mission calls are bottom-up processes, relying on broad community input and peer review. The Cosmic Vision program is since 2005 the implementation tool for the science mandatory programme. I will present an overview of the space missions in operation, under development and for study with particular emphasis on those visiting the Solar System.

  4. J-MAG: Magnetometer science on the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.

    2013-09-01

    The magnetometer instrument is one of the core instruments on the JUICE model payload and is critical for resolving prime science objectives of the mission. The importance of a magnetometer instrument on JUICE can be described under two separate themes: 1. The magnetic field drives the plasma processes occurring within the Jupiter system. Understanding such observations allows for a better understanding of dynamical plasma processes, of the generation of aurora and of the various current systems which arise within this rapidly rotating magnetosphere; the interactions of the magnetosphere of Ganymede within the Jovian magnetosphere within which it is embedded; to name but a few. 2. However the cutting edge magnetometer science which is unique to JUICE lies in being able to gain an understanding of the interior structure of the icy moons of Jupiter, specifically those of Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. Of particular interest are knowledge of the depth at which the liquid oceans reside beneath their icy surfaces, the strength of any internal magnetic fields such as at Ganymede and the strength of any induced magnetic fields arising within these oceans. The rapidly rotating Jovian magnetosphere provides one with an extensive laboratory in order to study fundamental astrophysical processes. The principal interaction between a planet and its plasma environment is mediated via the planetary magnetic field, and hence investigations of magnetic field data are crucial in understanding the dynamics and physical processes which arise. However the value of magnetic field measurements are not restricted to providing an overall picture of the fundamental physical processes occurring; in fact they are crucial in gaining an understanding of the internal structure of planetary bodies as well as allowing discoveries, such as the presence of a dynamic and exotic atmosphere at Saturn's small moon Enceladus. The primary science objectives of JUICE which will be constrained by magnetic

  5. STS-40 Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1): The first dedicated spacelab life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Successful exploration of space depends on the health and well-being of people who travel and work there. For this reason, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has dedicated several Space Shuttle missions to examine how living and working in space affects the human body. Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) is the first of these missions. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission is to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight and to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to gravity upon return to Earth. How does space flight influence the heart and circulatory system, metabolic processes, the muscles and bones, and the cells? If responses to weightlessness are undesirable, how can they be prevented or controlled? Will the human body maintain its physical and chemical equilibrium during months aboard a space station and years-long missions to Mars? When crews return to Earth, what can they expect to experience as their bodies readjust to Earth's gravity? With the SLS-1 experiments, NASA is addressing some of these questions. Various aspects of the SLS-1 are discussed.

  6. A Titan exploration study: Science, technology and mission planning options, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tindle, E. L.; Manning, L. A.; Sadin, S. R.; Edsinger, L. E.; Weissman, P. R.; Swenson, B. L.

    1976-01-01

    Mission concepts and technology advancements that can be used in the exploration of the outer planet satellites were examined. Titan, the seventh satellite of Saturn was selected as the target of interest. Science objectives for Titan exploration were identified, and recommended science payloads for four basic mission modes were developed (orbiter, atmospheric probe, surface penetrator and lander). Trial spacecraft and mission designs were produced for the various mission modes. Using these trial designs as a base, technology excursions were then made to find solutions to the problems resulting from these conventional approaches and to uncover new science, technology and mission planning options. Several mission modes were developed that take advantage of the unique conditions expected at Titan. They include a combined orbiter, atmosphere probe and lander vehicle, a combined probe and surface penetrator configuration and concepts for advanced remote sensing orbiters.

  7. Development of a Deep-Penetrating, Compact Geothermal Heat Flow System for Robotic Lunar Geophysical Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagihara, Seiichi; Zacny, Kris; Hedlund, Magnus; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow measurements are a high priority for the future lunar geophysical network missions recommended by the latest Decadal Survey of the National Academy. Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of two separate measurements of geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity of the regolith/soil interval penetrated by the instrument. The Apollo 15 and 17 astronauts deployed their heat flow probes down to 1.4-m and 2.3-m depths, respectively, using a rotary-percussive drill. However, recent studies show that the heat flow instrument for a lunar mission should be capable of excavating a 3-m deep hole to avoid the effect of potential long-term changes of the surface thermal environment. For a future robotic geophysical mission, a system that utilizes a rotary/percussive drill would far exceed the limited payload and power capacities of the lander/rover. Therefore, we are currently developing a more compact heat flow system that is capable of 3-m penetration. Because the grains of lunar regolith are cohesive and densely packed, the previously proposed lightweight, internal hammering systems (the so-called moles ) are not likely to achieve the desired deep penetration. The excavation system for our new heat flow instrumentation utilizes a stem which winds out of a pneumatically driven reel and pushes its conical tip into the regolith. Simultaneously, gas jets, emitted from the cone tip, loosen and blow away the soil. Lab tests have demonstrated that this proboscis system has much greater excavation capability than a mole-based heat flow system, while it weighs about the same. Thermal sensors are attached along the stem and at the tip of the penetrating cone. Thermal conductivity is measured at the cone tip with a short (1- to 1.5-cm long) needle sensor containing a resistance temperature detector (RTD) and a heater wire. When it is inserted into the soil, the heater is activated. Thermal conductivity of the soil is obtained from the rate of temperature

  8. The Mars Science Laboratory Mission: Early Results from Gale Crater Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatow, I.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Blake, D.; Crisp, J. A.; Edgett, K. S.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Malin, M. C.; Meyer, M. A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A. R.; Wiens, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD; Cruise measurements began on December 6, 2011). The MARDI descent camera is being evaluated for use in the surface mission. The Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem is responsible for the acquisition of rock and soil samples from the Martian surface and the processing of these samples into fine particles that are then distributed to the analytical science instruments (CheMin and SAM). The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments (APXS, MAHLI) on rock and soil targets. SA/SPaH consists of a robotic arm and turret-mounted devices on the end of the arm, which include a drill, brush, soil scoop, sample processing device, and the mechanical and electrical interfaces to the two contact science instruments. SA/SPaH also includes two spare drill bits, five organic check material samples, and an observation tray, which are all mounted on the front of the rover, and inlet cover mechanisms that are placed over the SAM and CheMin solid sample inlet tubes on the rover top deck. Recent mission results will be discussed. The first month or two of the mission is designed as a Commissioning Activity Period (CAP) in which each science instrument and rover subsystem is tested in sequence, but done in a fashion that insures science measurements also are obtained.

  9. Engaging Students Through Classroom Connection Webinars to Improve Their Understanding of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige V.; Achilles, Cherie

    2013-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions to other worlds, like Mars, can generate a lot of excitement and wonder for the public. The Mars Science Laboratory Mission is one of the latest planetary missions that has intrigued the public perhaps more than most. How can scientists and educational specialists capitalize on the allure of this mission and involve students and teachers in a way that not only shares the story of the mission, but actively engages classrooms with scientists and improves their understanding of the science? The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program [1], facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate Education Program at the NASA Johnson Space Center achieves this by facilitating MSL mission focused classroom connection webinars. Five MSL-focused webinars facilitated through EEAB during the 2012 fall semester engaged almost 3000 students and teachers. Involved STEM experts/role models helped translate the science behind the Mars Science Laboratory mission in a comprehensive, exciting, and engaging manner. These virtual events captured participants attention while increasing their science awareness and understanding of the MSL mission.

  10. Ares V: an Enabling Capability for Future Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    The potential capability offered by an Ares V launch vehicle completely changes the paradigm for future space astrophysics missions. This presentation examines some details of this capability and its impact on potential missions. A specific case study is presented: implementing a 6 to 8 meter class monolithic UV/Visible telescope at an L2 orbit. Additionally discussed is how to extend the mission life of such a telescope to 30 years or longer.

  11. Using Internet-Based Robotic Telescopes to Engage Non-Science Majors in Astronomical Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryhill, K. J.; Coble, K.; Slater, T. F.; McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    Responding to national science education reform documents calling for students to have more opportunities for authentic research experiences, several national projects have developed online telescope networks to provide students with Internet-access to research grade telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier in the past. Internet-based robotic telescopes allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005) and undergraduate programs (e.g., McLin et al. 2009). This project looks at the educational value of using Internet-based robotic telescopes in a general education introductory astronomy course at the undergraduate level. Students at a minority-serving institution in the midwestern United States conducted observational programs using the Global Telescope Network (GTN). The project consisted of the use of planetarium software to determine object visibility, observing proposals (with abstract, background, goals, and dissemination sections), peer review (including written reviews and panel discussion according to NSF intellectual merit and broader impacts criteria), and classroom presentations showing the results of the observation. The GTN is a network of small telescopes funded by the Fermi mission to support the science of high energy astrophysics. It is managed by the NASA E/PO Group at Sonoma State University and is controlled using SkyNet. Data includes course artifacts (proposals, reviews, panel summaries, presentations, and student reflections) for six semesters plus student interviews. Using a grounded theory approach

  12. The effect of the FIRST Robotics Competition on high school students' attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Anita G.

    This study measured the impact of participation in the FIRST Robotics Competition on student attitude toward science using the seven attitudinal categories of the TOSRA survey. Specifically, it was anticipated that students' participating in FIRST Robotics would have a statistically significant increase in attitudes and interests in the seven categories related to attitudes toward science. It was further anticipated that gender, ethnicity, age, location of high school, and performance in science classes would be related to their views of science. A convenience sample of students from the greater Kansas City metropolitan area was used in this study. Data were colleted using the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TORSA) pre- and post-survey. Student participants completed the pre-survey in December 2006, just prior to the beginning of the six-week build season. Students completed the post-survey at the end of the build season and prior to attending regional competitions. Data was collected from students participating in FIRST Robotics and from a comparison group of students from the same school not participating in FIRST Robotics. The effect of the FIRST Robotics Competition, as evaluated in this study, did provide statistically significant outcomes in four of the seven primary areas examined: Social Implication of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, and Adoption of Scientific Attitudes. The study did not reflect an effect on a change of attitude toward science based on gender, ethnicity, length of time associated with a team, or location of the high school. This study does offer some evidence that the FIRST Robotics Competition has an attitudinal impact on students regarding views toward science.

  13. Exoplanet Science from NASA’s Kepler Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason

    2012-09-12

    NASA's exoplanet mission is the world's premier instrument for the discovery and study of planets orbiting distant stars. As the nominal mission comes to a close, Kepler has discovered nearly 2500 planet candidates, confirmed dozens of multi-planet systems, provided important insights into the orbital architectures of planetary systems, identified specific systems that challenge theories of planet formation and dynamical evolution, has revolutionized our understanding of stellar interiors, and is gearing to measure the frequency of Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars in its extended mission phase. I present the most recent results from the Kepler mission.

  14. Life Sciences Issues for a Mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP5 includes short reports on: (1) Cardiovascular Concerns for a Mars Mission: Autonomic and Biomechanical Effects; (2) Reducing the Risk of Space Radiation Induced Bioeffects: Vehicle Design and Protectant Molecules; (3) Musculoskeletal Issues for Long Duration Mission: Muscle Mass Preservation, Renal Stone Risk Factors, Countermeasures, and Contingency Treatment Planning; (4) Psychological Issues and Crew Selection for a Mars Mission: Maximizing the Mix for the Long Haul; and (5) Issues in Crew Health, Medical Selection and Medical Officer (CMO) Training for a Mission to Mars.

  15. Definition phase of Grand Tour missions/radio science investigations study for outer planets missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    Scientific instrumentation for satellite communication and radio tracking systems in the outer planet exploration mission is discussed. Mission planning considers observations of planetary and satellite-masses, -atmospheres, -magnetic fields, -surfaces, -gravitational fields, solar wind composition, planetary radio emissions, and tests of general relativity in time delay and ray bending experiments.

  16. Communication of Science Plans in the Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Albrecht; Grieger, Björn; Völk, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Rosetta is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to rendez-vous with comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in mid-2014. The trajectories and their corresponding operations are both flexible and particularly complex. To make informed decisions among the many free parameters, novel ways to communicate operations to the community have been explored. To support science planning by communicating operational ideas and disseminating operational scenarios, the science ground segment makes use of Web-based visualisation technologies. To keep the threshold to analysing operations proposals as low as possible, various implementation techniques have been investigated. An important goal was to use the Web to make the content as accessible as possible. By adopting the recent standard WebGL and generating static pages of time-dependent three-dimensional views of the spacecraft as well as the corresponding field-of-views of instruments, directly from the operational and for-study files, users are given the opportunity to explore interactively in their Web browsers what is being proposed in addition to using the traditional file products and analysing them in detail. The scenes and animations can be viewed in any modern Web browser and be combined with other analyses. This is to facilitate verification and cross-validation of complex products, often done by comparing different independent analyses and studies. By providing different timesteps in animations, it is possible to focus on long-term planning or short-term planning without distracting the user from the essentials. This is particularly important since the information that can be displayed in a Web browser is somewhat related to data volume that can be transferred across the wire. In Web browsers, it is more challenging to do numerical calculations on demand. Since requests for additional data have to be passed through a Web server, they are more complex and also require a more complex infrastructure. The volume of data that

  17. Science from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Noble, Sarah; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. The spacecraft impacted the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE’s science objectives were twofold: (1) Determine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for particles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exospheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) acquired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wavelength range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. Among the preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longitudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lunar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization processes. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent “shroud” of small dust particles between 0

  18. GPM Mission Overview and U.S. Science Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Azarbarzin, Art; Skofronick, Gail; Carlisle, Candace

    2012-01-01

    PM Core Observatory into orbit from Tanegashima Island, Japan in 2014. The GPM constellation is envisioned to comprise 8 or more microwave sensors provided by partners, including both conical imagers and cross-track sounders. GPM is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Additional partnerships are under development to include microwave radiometers on the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques satellite and U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, as well as humidity sounders or precipitation sensors on operational satellites such as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), NOAA-NASA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) satellites, European MetOp satellites, and DMSP follow-on sensors. In addition, data from Chinese and Russian microwave radiometers may be available through international cooperation under the auspices of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and Group on Earth Observations (GEO). GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits in the following areas: (1) Improved knowledge of the Earth's water cycle and its link to climate change (2) New insights into precipitation microphysics, storm structures and large-scale atmospheric processes (3) Better understanding of climate sensitivity and feedback processes (4) Extended capabilities in monitoring and predicting hurricanes and other extreme weather events (5) Improved forecasting capabilities for natural hazards, including floods, droughts and landslides. (6) Enhanced numerical prediction skills for weather and climate (7) Better agricultural crop forecasting and monitoring of freshwater resources. An overview of the GPM mission concept and science activities in the United States, together with an update on international collaborations in radiometer intercalibration and ground validation, will be presented.

  19. MPACT: Architecture and Design of a COTS Science Co-Processor for Space Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.; Ling, J. C.; Katz, D. S.; Johnson, M. A.; Bhat, M. K.; Boardsen, S. A.; Atwater, T. W.

    2001-12-01

    As Space Science moves steadily towards missions involving greater numbers of spacecraft and increasingly more capable instrumentation, greater and greater demands are placed on mission communications and operations. However the resource envelopes for these multi spacecraft missions are not likely to be substantially greater than the resource envelopes required to produce and operate single spacecraft missions today. Therefore, the task is to learn how to develop and operate multi spacecraft missions for the cost of single spacecraft missions today. Automation and autonomy will play central roles in achieving the required operational efficiencies. As with most ground-based endeavors, the field of system automation has taken advantage of the rapid advance of computing power in recent years. Some of these techniques are making their way into space missions, but their implementation on board spacecraft is hampered by the retarded progress of space-worthy electronics. Improvements in spacecraft reliability and autonomy have been obtained over the decades, but it is still difficult to make up for the fact that radiation hardened electronics is typically two generations behind Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) equipment. NASA/HPCC's Remote Exploration and Experimentation Project (REE) researched ways to bring state-of-the-art COTS computing technology to spacecraft implementation. Focusing on mission applications that require intensive, general purpose computing, REE developed radiation effects models for important COTS components, examined methods of hardware and software implemented fault tolerance, developed a fault-injector testbed, and developed application software to move some science data processing onto spacecraft. We discuss the results of this work and its implications for onboard computation and its resource requirements. To validate the REE approach and to obtain flight heritage, a Science Co-Processor experiment, named the Magnetospheric Plasma Analysis

  20. The Constellation-X Mission: Science Prospects and Technology Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This talk will describe the Constellation-X mission. It will present the key scientific goals, relating to strong gravity, dark energy, ultra-dense matter and cosmic structure. The mission configuration will be described. Emphasis will be placed on the design and anticipated implementation of the X-ray mirror system.

  1. Renewing solar science: The solar maximum repair mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, V.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Maximum Repair Mission is to restore the operational capacity of the satellite by replacing the attitude control system module and servicing two of the scientific instruments on board. The mission will demonstrate the satellite servicing capacity of the Space Shuttle for the first time.

  2. Using Robots to Motivate At-Risk Learners in Science over the Ninth Grade Hurdle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerge, Dora

    The ninth grade is a pivotal year in an adolescent's academic career; however, educators have failed to find a remedy for the high failure and dropout rates at this grade level. Students who lack basic skills and support as they enter high school can experience repeated failures, which often lead to a decrease in motivation and dropping out of school. Up to 15% of all ninth graders repeat ninth grade and 36% of all U. S. dropouts are ninth graders. It is imperative that researchers and educators find new ways to motivate at-risk students and augment basic skills in order to mitigate the dropout problem at this grade level. Robot teachers could be a viable solution to increase student motivation and achievement. However, before such strategies could be recommended for implementation, information about their efficacy in a high school setting is needed. The purpose of this quantitative, two-group experimental, pretest-posttest study was to determine the effects of a robot teacher/instructor on science motivation and science achievement in ninth grade at-risk learners. Approximately 40 at-risk, repeating ninth graders, ranging in age from 13 to 17 years old from one high school in the United States Virgin Islands, participated in the study. Half of the students received a robot teacher/instructor manipulation whereby a robot taught a science lesson for physical science assessments (experimental group), and the other half received the same instruction from a human teacher (control group). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the science achievement posttest scores, as measured by test scores, and science motivation posttest scores, as measured by the SMTSL, between the experimental and the control groups, while controlling for the pretest scores (covariate). The results demonstrated that posttest motivation and achievement scores in the human teacher condition were not significantly different than posttest motivation scores in the robot teacher

  3. A lunar L2-Farside exploration and science mission concept with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and a teleoperated lander/rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Kring, David A.; Hopkins, Joshua B.; Norris, Scott; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Kasper, Justin

    2013-07-01

    A novel concept is presented in this paper for a human mission to the lunar L2 (Lagrange) point that would be a proving ground for future exploration missions to deep space while also overseeing scientifically important investigations. In an L2 halo orbit above the lunar farside, the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Vehicle would travel 15% farther from Earth than did the Apollo astronauts and spend almost three times longer in deep space. Such a mission would serve as a first step beyond low Earth orbit and prove out operational spaceflight capabilities such as life support, communication, high speed re-entry, and radiation protection prior to more difficult human exploration missions. On this proposed mission, the crew would teleoperate landers/rovers on the unexplored lunar farside, which would obtain samples from the geologically interesting farside and deploy a low radio frequency telescope. Sampling the South Pole-Aitken basin, one of the oldest impact basins in the solar system, is a key science objective of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Observations at low radio frequencies to track the effects of the Universe's first stars/galaxies on the intergalactic medium are a priority of the 2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Such telerobotic oversight would also demonstrate capability for human and robotic cooperation on future, more complex deep space missions such as exploring Mars.

  4. Introduction to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments, Mission Overviews, and Expected Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. H.; Tamppari, L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Boynton, W.; Carswell, A.; Catling, D.; Clark, B.; Duck, T.; DeJong, E.; Fisher, D.; Goetz, W.; Gunnlaugsson, P.; Hecht, M.; Hipkin, V.; Hoffman, J.; Hviid, S.; Keller, H.; Kounaves, S.; Lange, C. F.; Lemmon, M.; Madsen, M.; Malin, M.; Markiewicz, W.; Marshall, J.; McKay, C.; Mellon, M.; Michelangeli, D.; Ming, D.; Morris, R.; Renno, N.; Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Stoker, C.; Taylor, P.; Whiteway, J.; Young, S.; Zent, A.

    2008-10-01

    Phoenix, the first Mars Scout mission, capitalizes on the large NASA investments in the Mars Polar Lander and the Mars Surveyor 2001 missions. On 4 August 2007, Phoenix was launched to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on a Delta 2 launch vehicle. The heritage derived from the canceled 2001 lander with a science payload inherited from MPL and 2001 instruments gives significant advantages. To manage, build, and test the spacecraft and its instruments, a partnership has been forged between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of Arizona (home institution of principal investigator P. H. Smith), and Lockheed Martin in Denver; instrument and scientific contributions from Canada and Europe have augmented the mission. The science mission focuses on providing the ground truth for the 2002 Odyssey discovery of massive ice deposits hidden under surface soils in the circumpolar regions. The science objectives, the instrument suite, and the measurements needed to meet the objectives are briefly described here with reference made to more complete instrument papers included in this special section. The choice of a landing site in the vicinity of 68°N and 233°E balances scientific value and landing safety. Phoenix will land on 25 May 2008 during a complex entry, descent, and landing sequence using pulsed thrusters as the final braking strategy. After a safe landing, twin fan-like solar panels are unfurled and provide the energy needed for the mission. Throughout the 90-sol primary mission, activities are planned on a tactical basis by the science team; their requests are passed to an uplink team of sequencing engineers for translation to spacecraft commands. Commands are transmitted each Martian morning through the Deep Space Network by way of a Mars orbiter to the spacecraft. Data are returned at the end of the Martian day by the same path. Satisfying the mission's goals requires digging and providing samples of interesting layers to three on-deck instruments. By

  5. Kilowatt-Class Fission Power Systems for Science and Human Precursor Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Gibson, Marc Andrew; Poston, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power provides an enabling capability for NASA missions that might otherwise be constrained by power availability, mission duration, or operational robustness. NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing fission power technology to serve a wide range of future space uses. Advantages include lower mass, longer life, and greater mission flexibility than competing power system options. Kilowatt-class fission systems, designated "Kilopower," were conceived to address the need for systems to fill the gap above the current 100-W-class radioisotope power systems being developed for science missions and below the typical 100-k We-class reactor power systems being developed for human exploration missions. This paper reviews the current fission technology project and examines some Kilopower concepts that could be used to support future science missions or human precursors.

  6. Kilowatt-Class Fission Power Systems for Science and Human Precursor Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Gibson, Marc; Poston, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power provides an enabling capability for NASA missions that might otherwise be constrained by power availability, mission duration, or operational robustness. NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing fission power technology to serve a wide range of future space uses. Advantages include lower mass, longer life, and greater mission flexibility than competing power system options. Kilowatt-class fission systems, designated "Kilopower," were conceived to address the need for systems to fill the gap above the current 100-Wclass radioisotope power systems being developed for science missions and below the typical 100-kWe-class reactor power systems being developed for human exploration missions. This paper reviews the current fission technology project and examines some Kilopower concepts that could be used to support future science missions or human precursors.

  7. The ISIS Mission Concept: An Impactor for Surface and Interior Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Elliot, John O.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Lam, Try; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-01-01

    The Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) mission concept is a kinetic asteroid impactor mission to the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx (Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer) asteroid sample return mission. The ISIS mission concept calls for the ISIS spacecraft, an independent and autonomous smart impactor, to guide itself to a hyper-velocity impact with 1999 RQ36 while the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft observes the collision. Later the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descends to reconnoiter the impact site and measure the momentum imparted to the asteroid through the impact before departing on its journey back to Earth. In this paper we discuss the planetary science, human exploration and impact mitigation drivers for mission, and we describe the current mission concept and flight system design.

  8. Be/X-ray Binary Science for Future X-ray Timing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2011-01-01

    For future missions, the Be/X-ray binary community needs to clearly define our science priorities for the future to advocate for their inclusion in future missions. In this talk, I will describe current designs for two potential future missions and Be X-ray binary science enabled by these designs. The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT) is an X-ray timing mission selected in February 2011 for the assessment phase from the 2010 ESA M3 call for proposals. The Advanced X-ray Timing ARray (AXTAR) is a NASA explorer concept X-ray timing mission. This talk is intended to initiate discussions of our science priorities for the future.

  9. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  10. New Horizons Science Photos from NASA's Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE provided the power supply for NASA's New Horizons Mission, a mission to the Pluto and Charon, a double-planet system, and the Kuiper Belt. There are science photos posted on the New Horizons website, along with mission photos, spacecraft images, launch photos, posters and renderings that are both scientific and artistic. The images can be searched by keywords, by date, or by subject topic. They can also be browsed as an entire list. Each image has a detailed description.

  11. Future Requirements For Small Deep Space And Landed Modules Power Systems In Science And Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Jens Biele; Van Zoest, Tim; Grundmann, Jan Thimo

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses various power concepts for small missions to deep space requiring low (typically < 100 W) average power. Particular emphasis is on landed devices, e.g., for the Moon, Mars, or small bodies. We present the status and the future power system requirements for such modules in science and exploration missions. We outline the developments where we see potential for a significant increase in power system performance (mass, robustness, predictability) for the mission types mentioned.

  12. [Presentation of the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP) is the host program for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate's (ESMD) lunar robotic precursor missions to the Moon. The program includes two missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). Both missions will provide the required lunar information to support development and operations of those systems required for Human lunar return. LPRP is developing a lunar mapping plan, Called the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, to create the capability to archive and present all data from LRO, LCROSS, historical lunar missions, and international lunar missions for future mission planning and operations. LPRP is also developing its educational and public outreach activities for the Vision for Space Exploration's first missions. LPRP is working closely with the Science Mission Directorate as their lunar activities come into focus.

  13. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Mavris, C.; Michalski, J. R.; Rumsey, M. S.; Russell, S. S.; Jones, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  14. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Ballentine, C. J.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Slater, G.; Moser, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  15. Earth Observing System. Science and Mission Requirements, Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a planned NASA program, which will carry the multidisciplinary Earth science studies employing a variety of remote sensing techniques in the 1990's, as a prime mission, using the Space Station polar platform. The scientific rationale, recommended observational needs, the broad system configuration and a recommended implementation strategy to achieve the stated mission goals are provided.

  16. Maximizing Mission Science Return Through Use of Spacecraft Autonomy: Active Volcanism and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.; Chien, S.; Baker, V.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Doggett, T.; Dohm, J. M.; Greeley, R.; Ip, F.; Rabideau, G.

    2005-01-01

    ASE has successfully demonstrated that a spacecraft can be driven by science analysis and autonomously controlled. ASE is available for flight on other missions. Mission hardware design should consider ASE requirements for available onboard data storage, onboard memory size and processor speed.

  17. 76 FR 42682 - China Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission-Clarification and Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... publishing this supplement to the Notice of the Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China, 76 FR 17,621..., 76 FR 17621, Mar. 30, 2011, are revised to read October 14-18, 2011. In addition, revise the Proposed... Trade Mission to China, 76 FR 17,621, Mar. 30, 2011, is amended to read as follows: Timeframe...

  18. Evaluation of radioisotope electric propulsion for selected interplanetary science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Cupples, Mike; Belcher, Jeremy; Witzberger, Kevin; Fiehler, Douglas; Robinson Artis, Gwen

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the benefits and applicability of REP to missions relevant to the In-Space Propulsion Program (ISPP) using first and second generation RPS with specific powers of 4 We/kg and 8 We/kg, respectively. Three missions representing small body targets, medium outer planet class, and main belt asteroids and comets were evaluated. Those missions were a Trojan Asteroid Orbiter, Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR), and Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Probes (JPOP). For each mission, REP cost and performance was compared with solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) and SOA chemical propulsion system (SCPS) cost and performance. The outcome of the analysis would be a determinant for potential inclusion in the ISPP investment portfolio.

  19. The OCO-3 Mission : Overview of Science Objectives and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, Annmarie; Bennett, Matthew; Basilio, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3) is a space instrument that will investigate important questions about the distribution of carbon dioxide on Earth as it relates to growing urban populations and changing patterns of fossil fuel combustion. OCO-3 will explore, for the first time, daily variations in the release and uptake of carbon dioxide by plants and trees in the major tropical rainforests of South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, the largest stores of aboveground carbon on our planet. NASA will develop and assemble the instrument using spare materials from OCO-2 and host the instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) (earliest launch readiness in early 2018.) The low-inclination ISS orbit lets OCO-3 sample the tropics and sub-tropics across the full range of daylight hours with dense observations at northern and southern mid-latitudes (+/- 52°). At the same time, OCO-3 will also collect measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) over these areas. The combination of these dense CO2 (expected to have a precision of 1 parts per mission) and SIF measurements provides continuity of data for global flux estimates as well as a unique opportunity to address key deficiencies in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The instrument utilizes an agile, 2-axis pointing mechanism (PMA), providing the capability to look towards the bright reflection from the ocean and validation targets. The PMA also allows for a snapshot mapping mode to collect dense datasets over 100km by 100km areas. Measurements over urban centers could aid in making estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. This is critical because the largest urban areas (25 megacities) account for 75% of the global total fossil fuel CO2 emissions, and rapid growth (> 10% per year) is expected in developing regions over the coming 10 years. Similarly, the snapshot mapping mode can be used to sample regions of interest for the terrestrial carbon cycle. For example, snapshot

  20. The OCO-3 Mission : Overview of Science Objectives and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, A.; Basilio, R. R.; Bennett, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3) is a space instrument that will investigate important questions about the distribution of carbon dioxide on Earth as it relates to growing urban populations and changing patterns of fossil fuel combustion. OCO-3 will explore, for the first time, daily variations in the release and uptake of carbon dioxide by plants and trees in the major tropical rainforests of South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, the largest stores of aboveground carbon on our planet. NASA will develop and assemble the instrument using spare materials from OCO-2 and host the instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) (earliest launch readiness in early 2018.) The low-inclination ISS orbit lets OCO-3 sample the tropics and sub-tropics across the full range of daylight hours with dense observations at northern and southern mid-latitudes (+/- 52º). At the same time, OCO-3 will also collect measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) over these areas. The combination of these dense CO2 (expected to have a precision of 1 parts per mission) and SIF measurements provides continuity of data for global flux estimates as well as a unique opportunity to address key deficiencies in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The instrument utilizes an agile, 2-axis pointing mechanism (PMA), providing the capability to look towards the bright reflection from the ocean and validation targets. The PMA also allows for a snapshot mapping mode to collect dense datasets over 100km by 100km areas. Measurements over urban centers could aid in making estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. This is critical because the largest urban areas (25 megacities) account for 75% of the global total fossil fuel CO2 emissions, and rapid growth (> 10% per year) is expected in developing regions over the coming 10 years. Similarly, the snapshot mapping mode can be used to sample regions of interest for the terrestrial carbon cycle. For example, snapshot

  1. Why, from a Life Sciences Perspective, This Mission to Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mars may have had water and life early in its history and this make it a key target for robotic and human exploration. Extensive human exploration of Mars will of necessity depend on life support systems that rely on agricultural plants. If current concept for recreating, a biosphere on Mars are implemented this would involve widespread use of plants, particularly species from Arctic and alpine environments.

  2. A Hard X-Ray Telescope Science Enhancement Package for the Constellation X-Ray Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian; Gorenstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Details of a hard-x-ray science enhancement package for the Constellation-X mission are presented. A scientific case is made for the inclusion of such an instrument on the planned mission and a detailed design is presented that will satisfy science requirements yet fall within the ground rules for enhancement packages: a cost of less than $100M and a mass of no more than 100 kg.

  3. Exploring the Possibilities: Earth and Space Science Missions in the Context of Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara; Calabrese, Michael; Kirkpatrick, James; Malay, Jonathan T.

    2006-01-01

    According to Dr. Edward J. Weiler, Director of the Goddard Space Flight Center, "Exploration without science is tourism". At the American Astronautical Society's 43rd Annual Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium it was quite apparent to all that NASA's current Exploration Initiative is tightly coupled to multiple scientific initiatives: exploration will enable new science and science will enable exploration. NASA's Science Mission Directorate plans to develop priority science missions that deliver science that is vital, compelling and urgent. This paper will discuss the theme of the Goddard Memorial Symposium that science plays a key role in exploration. It will summarize the key scientific questions and some of the space and Earth science missions proposed to answer them, including the Mars and Lunar Exploration Programs, the Beyond Einstein and Navigator Programs, and the Earth-Sun System missions. It will also discuss some of the key technologies that will enable these missions, including the latest in instruments and sensors, large space optical system technologies and optical communications, and briefly discuss developments and achievements since the Symposium. Throughout history, humans have made the biggest scientific discoveries by visiting unknown territories; by going to the Moon and other planets and by seeking out habitable words, NASA is continuing humanity's quest for scientific knowledge.

  4. Techniques and software for optimum and efficient mission science sequence development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Highly successful mission operations require efficient and cost-effective science sequence development. Of key importance is the Science Planning and Operations Team's (SPOT's) ability to complete science observation design and integration early in the sequence development process (i.e., before the sequence enters into a formal change control process). Once under formal change control, careful change paper documentation, Flight Team checks, and mission software checks make sequence changes more labor-intensive. This paper discusses team organization, strategies, scheduling, and software employed by the Voyager and Galileo SPOT's to complete science observation design and integration early in the sequence development process.

  5. Evaluation of robot deployment in live missions with the military, police, and fire brigade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Carl; Reinhold, Roger; Christensen, Henrik I.

    2007-04-01

    Robots have been successfully deployed within bomb squads all over the world for decades. Recent technical improvements are increasing the prospects to achieve the same benefits also for other high risk professions. As the number of applications increase issues of collaboration and coordination come into question. Can several groups deploy the same type of robot? Can they deploy the same methods? Can resources be shared? What characterizes the different applications? What are the similarities and differences between different groups? This paper reports on a study of four areas in which robots are already, or are about to be deployed: Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT), Military and Police Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD), Military Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear contamination control (CBRN), and Fire Fighting (FF). The aim of the study has been to achieve a general overview across the four areas to survey and compare their similarities and differences. It has also been investigated to what extent it is possible for the them to deploy the same type of robot. It was found that the groups share many requirements, but, that they also have a few individual hard constrains. A comparison across the groups showed the demands of man-portability, ability to access narrow premises, and ability to handle objects of different weight to be decisive; two or three different sizes of robots will be needed to satisfy the need of the four areas.

  6. The Mars 2020 Rover Mission: EISD Participation in Mission Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M.; Bhartia, R.; Beegle, L.; Burton, A. S.; Ross, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars 2020 Rover mission will search for potential biosignatures on the martian surface, use new techniques to search for and identify tracelevel organics, and prepare a cache of samples for potential return to Earth. Identifying trace organic compounds is an important tenet of searching for potential biosignatures. Previous landed missions have experienced difficulty identifying unambiguously martian, unaltered organic compounds, possibly because any organic species have been destroyed on heating in the presence of martian perchlorates and/or other oxidants. The SHERLOC instrument on Mars 2020 will use ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy to identify trace organic compounds without heating the samples.

  7. Tools to Support the Reuse of Software Assets for the NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris A.; Downs, Robert R.; Marshall, James J.; Most, Neal F.; Samadi, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group (SRWG) is chartered with the investigation, production, and dissemination of information related to the reuse of NASA Earth science software assets. One major current objective is to engage the NASA decadal missions in areas relevant to software reuse. In this paper we report on the current status of these activities. First, we provide some background on the SRWG in general and then discuss the group s flagship recommendation, the NASA Reuse Readiness Levels (RRLs). We continue by describing areas in which mission software may be reused in the context of NASA decadal missions. We conclude the paper with pointers to future directions.

  8. Science exploration opportunities for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, Phobos, and an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.; Plescia, Jeffrey; Cintala, Mark; Levine, Joel; Lowman, Paul; Mancinelli, Rocco; Mendell, Wendell; Stoker, Carol; Suess, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Scientific exploration opportunities for human missions to the Moon, Phobos, Mars, and an asteroid are addressed. These planetary objects are of prime interest to scientists because they are the accessible, terresterial-like bodies most likely to be the next destinations for human missions beyond Earth orbit. Three categories of science opportunities are defined and discussed: target science, platform science, and cruise science. Target science is the study of the planetary object and its surroundings (including geological, biological, atmospheric, and fields and particle sciences) to determine the object's natural physical characteristics, planetological history, mode of origin, relation to possible extant or extinct like forms, surface environmental properties, resource potential, and suitability for human bases or outposts. Platform science takes advantage of the target body using it as a site for establishing laboratory facilities and observatories; and cruise science consists of studies conducted by the crew during the voyage to and from a target body. Generic and specific science opportunities for each target are summarized along with listings of strawman payloads, desired or required precursor information, priorities for initial scientific objectives, and candidate landing sites. An appendix details the potential use of the Moon for astronomical observatories and specialized observatories, and a bibliography compiles recent work on topics relating to human scientific exploration of the Moon, Phobos, Mars, and asteroids. It is concluded that there are a wide variety of scientific exploration opportunities that can be pursued during human missions to planetary targets but that more detailed studies and precursor unmanned missions should be carried out first.

  9. The art and science of mission patches and their origins in society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfitt, A.; Thompson, L. A.; Raitt, D.

    2008-06-01

    Space exploration utilizes some of the latest and highest technology available to human kind; synonymous with space exploration is the mission patch. This specialized art form popularizes the exploration of space with millions of mission patches sold around the world. Space tourism and education centres like the Kennedy Space Centre rely heavily on each space shuttle launch to support their merchandising of mission patches, from the traditional sew on badge to T shirts. Do mission patches tell a story? Are they Art? What is the origin and role of this art form in society? The art form of space mission patches combines the 21st century relevance with heraldic origins predating the ninth century. The space mission patch is designed by the astronauts themselves if it is a manned mission. As an education tool teachers and educators use the space mission patch to engage their students in the excitement of space exploration, the mission patch design is utilized as an education tool in literature, science and art. The space mission patch is a particularly powerful message medium. This paper looks at the origins of the space mission patch, its relevance to art and its impact on society.

  10. Geopotential research mission, science, engineering and program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, T. (Editor); Taylor, P. (Editor); Kahn, W. (Editor); Lerch, F. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is based upon the accumulated scientific and engineering studies pertaining to the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The scientific need and justification for the measurement of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon the studies and conclusions of scientific organizations and NASA advisory groups. The engineering design and investigations performed over the last 4 years are described, and a spacecraft design capable of fulfilling all scientific objectives is presented. In addition, critical features of the scientific requirements and state-of-the-art limitations of spacecraft design, mission flight performance, and data processing are discussed.

  11. Space Shuttle to deploy Magellan planetary science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of Space Shuttle Mission STS-30 are described along with major flight activities, prelaunch and launch operations, trajectory sequence of events, and landing and post-landing operations. The primary objective of STS-30 is to successfully deploy the Magellan spacecraft into low earth orbit. Following deployment, Magellan will be propelled to its Venus trajectory by an Inertial Upper Stage booster. The objectives of the Magellan mission are to obtain radar images of more than 70 percent of Venus' surface, a near-global topographic map, and near-global gravity field data. Secondary STS-30 payloads include the Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA) and the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE).

  12. A Lunar L2-Farside Exploration and Science Mission Concept with the ORion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and a Teleoperated Lander/Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Kring, David; Norris, Scott; Hopkins, Josh; Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin

    2012-01-01

    A novel concept is presented in this paper for a human mission to the lunar L2 (Lagrange) point that would be a proving ground for future exploration missions to deep space while also overseeing scientifically important investigations. In an L2 halo orbit above the lunar farside, the astronauts would travel 15% farther from Earth than did the Apollo astronauts and spend almost three times longer in deep space. Such missions would validate the Orion MPCV's life support systems, would demonstrate the high-speed re-entry capability needed for return from deep space, and would measure astronauts' radiation dose from cosmic rays and solar flares to verify that Orion would provide sufficient protection, as it is designed to do. On this proposed mission, the astronauts would teleoperate landers and rovers on the unexplored lunar farside, which would obtain samples from the geologically interesting farside and deploy a low radio frequency telescope. Sampling the South Pole-Aitkin basin (one of the oldest impact basins in the solar system) is a key science objective of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Observations of the Universe's first stars/galaxies at low radio frequencies are a priority of the 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Such telerobotic oversight would also demonstrate capability for human and robotic cooperation on future, more complex deep space missions.

  13. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  14. Throttling Impacts on Hall Thruster Performance, Erosion, and Qualification for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; DeHoyos, Amado

    2007-01-01

    With the SMART-1, Department of Defense, and commercial industry successes in Hall thruster technologies, NASA has started considering Hall thrusters for science missions. The recent Discovery proposals included a Hall thruster science mission and the In-Space Propulsion Project is investing in Hall thruster technologies. As the confidence in Hall thrusters improve, ambitious multi-thruster missions are being considered. Science missions often require large throttling ranges due to the 1/r(sup 2) power drop-off from the sun. Deep throttling of Hall thrusters will impact the overall system performance. Also, Hall thrusters can be throttled with both current and voltage, impacting erosion rates and performance. Last, electric propulsion thruster lifetime qualification has previously been conducted with long duration full power tests. Full power tests may not be appropriate for NASA science missions, and a combination of lifetime testing at various power levels with sufficient analysis is recommended. Analyses of various science missions and throttling schemes using the Aerojet BPT-4000 and NASA 103M HiVHAC thruster are presented.

  15. Preparing project managers for faster-better-cheaper robotic planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowler, P.; Atkins, K.

    2003-01-01

    The authors have developed and implemented a week-long workshop for Jet Propulsion Laboratory Project Managers, designed around the development phases of the JPL Project Life Cycle. The workshop emphasizes the specific activities and deliverables that pertain to JPL managers of NASA robotic space exploration and instrument development projects.

  16. Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Squyres, Steven

    2007-10-05

    One of the most important scientific goals of the mission was to find and identify a variety of rocks and soils that provide evidence of the past presence of water on the planet. To obtain this information, Squyres is studying the data obtained on Mars by several sophisticated scientific instruments.

  17. Maximizing Science Capability for Far-Infrared Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Leisawitz, Dave; Moseley, Harvey; Staguhn, Johannes; Voellmer, George

    2004-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter region (20 microns-800 microns) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the far-IR is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80-100 microns. At the highest known galaxy redshifts (z approximately equal to 6) this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 microns. Existing and planned missions have a broad range of capabilities, defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, angular resolution, mapping speed, and sensitivity. In this 5-dimensional parameter space, the far-IR is substantially be-hind most other wavelength bands. The opportunity for future missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will be well-suited to answering fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory. Ultimately, a long baseline submillimeter interferometer is necessary to provide sensitivity and angular resolution.

  18. Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    ScienceCinema

    Squyres, Steven [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States

    2016-07-12

    One of the most important scientific goals of the mission was to find and identify a variety of rocks and soils that provide evidence of the past presence of water on the planet. To obtain this information, Squyres is studying the data obtained on Mars by several sophisticated scientific instruments.

  19. Teaching of Computer Science Topics Using Meta-Programming-Based GLOs and LEGO Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štuikys, Vytautas; Burbaite, Renata; Damaševicius, Robertas

    2013-01-01

    The paper's contribution is a methodology that integrates two educational technologies (GLO and LEGO robot) to teach Computer Science (CS) topics at the school level. We present the methodology as a framework of 5 components (pedagogical activities, technology driven processes, tools, knowledge transfer actors, and pedagogical outcomes) and…

  20. Early development of Science Opportunity Analysis tools for the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Vallat, Claire; Altobelli, Nicolas; Frew, David; Llorente, Rosario; Costa, Marc; Almeida, Miguel; Witasse, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    JUICE is the first large mission in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. JUICE will survey the Jovian system with a special focus on three of the Galilean Moons: Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.The mission has recently been adopted and big efforts are being made by the Science Operations Center (SOC) at the European Space and Astronomy Centre (ESAC) in Madrid for the development of tools to provide the necessary support to the Science Working Team (SWT) for science opportunity analysis and early assessment of science operation scenarios. This contribution will outline some of the tools being developed within ESA and in collaboration with the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at JPL.The Mission Analysis and Payload Planning Support (MAPPS) is developed by ESA and has been used by most of ESA's planetary missions to generate and validate science observation timelines for the simulation of payload and spacecraft operations. MAPPS has the capability to compute and display all the necessary geometrical information such as the distances, illumination angles and projected field-of-view of an imaging instrument on the surface of the given body and a preliminary setup is already in place for the early assessment of JUICE science operations.NAIF provides valuable SPICE support to the JUICE mission and several tools are being developed to compute and visualize science opportunities. In particular the WebGeoCalc and Cosmographia systems are provided by NAIF to compute time windows and create animations of the observation geometry available via traditional SPICE data files, such as planet orbits, spacecraft trajectory, spacecraft orientation, instrument field-of-view "cones" and instrument footprints. Other software tools are being developed by ESA and other collaborating partners to support the science opportunity analysis for all missions, like the SOLab (Science Operations Laboratory) or new interfaces for observation definitions and

  1. Mission Overview STS-107: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences.

  2. Planetary data system requirements: Multi-mission radio science requirements for the 1978 to 1988 era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, H. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The functional and performance requirements for support of multimission radio science are established. The classes of radio science investigation are described and the needed data is discussed. This document is for a sliding ten year period and will be iterated as the mission set evolves.

  3. Mission Overview STS-107: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences.

  4. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission: Mission Status and Initial Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission is a component of the NASA Discovery Program. GRAIL is a twin-spacecraft lunar gravity mission that has two primary objectives: to determine the structure of the lunar interior, from crust to core; and to advance understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. GRAIL launched successfully from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 10, 2011, executed a low-energy trajectory to the Moon, and inserted the twin spacecraft into lunar orbit on December 31, 2011 and January 1, 2012. A series of maneuvers brought both spacecraft into low-altitude (55-km), near-circular, polar lunar orbits, from which they perform high-precision satellite-to-satellite ranging using a Ka-band payload along with an S-band link for time synchronization. Precise measurements of distance changes between the spacecraft are used to map the lunar gravity field. GRAIL completed its primary mapping mission on May 29, 2012, collecting and transmitting to Earth >99.99% of the possible data. Spacecraft and instrument performance were nominal and has led to the production of a high-resolution and high-accuracy global gravity field, improved over all previous models by two orders of magnitude on the nearside and nearly three orders of magnitude over the farside. The field is being used to understand the thickness, density and porosity of the lunar crust, the mechanics of formation and compensation states of lunar impact basins, and the structure of the mantle and core. GRAIL s three month-long-extended mission will initiate on August 30, 2012 and will consist of global gravity field mapping from an average altitude of 22 km.

  5. Aquarius Satellite Salinity Measurement Mission Status, and Science Results from the initial 3-Year Prime Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Kao, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Aquarius satellite microwave sensor, launched June 2011, as part of the US-Argentina joint Aquarius/SAC-D mission, and commenced observations on 25 Aug2011, and completed three years of ocean surface salinity measurements in late August 2014. The Aquarius measurement objectives are to describe unknown features in the sea surface salinity (SSS) field, and document seasonal and interannual variations on regional and basin scales. This presentation will first describe the structure of the mean annual global salinity field compared with the previous in situ climatology and contemporary in situ measurements , including small persistent biases of opposite sign in high latitudes versus low latitudes, currently under intense investigation, as well as global and regional error statistics. Then we summarize highlights of various studies and papers submitted to the JGR-Oceans special section on satellite salinity (2014). The most prominent seasonal variations, most notably the extant and variability of the SSS signature of the Atlantic and Pacific inter-tropical convergence zones, Amazon-Orinoco and other major rivers, and other important regional patterns of seasonal variability. Lastly we will examine the trends observed during the three Sep-Aug measurement years beginning Sep2011, Sep2012 and Sep2013, respectively, in relation to ENSO and other climate indices, as the first step in analyzing interannual SSS variability. An outline for extended mission operations beyond the initial three-year prime mission will be presented.

  6. Vision science and technology for supervised intelligent space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1990-01-01

    The focus of recent work in robotic vision for application in intelligent space robots such as the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever is in visual function, that is, how information about the space world is derived and then conveyed to cognition. The goal of this work in visual function is first to understand how the relevant structure of the surrounding world is evidenced by regularities among the pixels of images, then to understand how these regularities are mapped on the premises that form the primitive elements of cognition, and then to apply these understandings with the elements of visual processing (algorithms) and visual mechanism (machine organization) to intelligent space robot simulations and test beds. Since visual perception is the process of recognizing regularities in images that are known on the basis of a model of the world to be reliable related to causal structure in the environment (because perception attaches meaning to the link between a conception of the environment and the objective environment), the work involves understanding generic, generally applicable models of world structure (not merely objects) and how that structure evidences itself in images.

  7. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  8. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  9. The Japanese lunar mission SELENE: Science goals and present status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Sasaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Iijima, Y.; Takizawa, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The Japanese lunar mission SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer) has been in development to target launch scheduled 2007 summer by H-IIA rocket. The SELENE is starting final integration test after SAR (System Acceptance Review), SRR (System Reliability Review) and instrument environment test. The SELENE is a remote-sensing mission orbiting 100 km altitude of the Moon for nominal one year and extended some months to collect the data for studying the origin and evolution of the Moon. Fourteen instruments and experiment systems are preparing for studies of the Moon, in the Moon, and from the Moon; global element and mineral compositions, topological structure, gravity field of whole moon, and electromagnetic and particle environment of the Moon. The new data center SOAC (SELENE Operation and data Analysis Center) are completed to construct in JAXA Sagamihara campus, and end-to-end test will be carried out between SOAC and data downlink stations.

  10. The SELENE mission: science goals and present status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Sasaki, S.; Takizawa, Y.

    Japanese lunar mission SELENE has been in development to target launch scheduled 2007 summer by H-IIA rocket The SELENE is starting final integration test after SAR System Acceptance Review SRR System Reliability Review and individual environment test The SELENE is a remote-sensing mission orbiting 100 km altitude of the Moon for nominal one year and extended some months to collect the data for studying the origin and evolution of the Moon Fourteen instruments and experiment systems are preparing for studies of the Moon in the Moon and from the Moon global element and mineral compositions topological structure gravity field of whole moon and electromagnetic and particle environment of the Moon The new data center SOAC SELENE Operation and data Analysis Center are almost completed to construct in JAXA Sagamihara campus and end-to end test will be soon carried out between SOAC and data-downlink stations

  11. Comet Science Working Group report on the Halley Intercept Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Halley Intercept Mission is described and the scientific benefits expected from the program are defined. One characteristic of the mission is the optical navigation and resulting accurate delivery of the spacecraft to a desired point near the nucleus. This accuracy of delivery has two important implications: (1) high probability that the mass spectrometers and other in situ measurement devices will reach the cometary ionosphere and the zone of parent molecules next to the nucleus; (2) high probability that sunlit, high resolution images of Halley's nucleus will be obtained under proper lighting conditions. In addition an observatory phase is included during which high quality images of the tail and coma structure will be obtained at progressively higher spatial resolutions as the spacecraft approaches the comet. Complete measurements of the comet/solar wind interaction can be made around the time of encounter. Specific recommendations are made concerning project implementation and spacecraft requirements.

  12. KEPLER MISSION DESIGN, REALIZED PHOTOMETRIC PERFORMANCE, AND EARLY SCIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, David G.; Borucki, William J.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey; Batalha, Natalie M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; DeVore, Edna; Jenkins, Jon; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Gould, Alan; Kondo, Yoji; Monet, David

    2010-04-20

    The Kepler Mission, launched on 2009 March 6, was designed with the explicit capability to detect Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars using the transit photometry method. Results from just 43 days of data along with ground-based follow-up observations have identified five new transiting planets with measurements of their masses, radii, and orbital periods. Many aspects of stellar astrophysics also benefit from the unique, precise, extended, and nearly continuous data set for a large number and variety of stars. Early results for classical variables and eclipsing stars show great promise. To fully understand the methodology, processes, and eventually the results from the mission, we present the underlying rationale that ultimately led to the flight and ground system designs used to achieve the exquisite photometric performance. As an example of the initial photometric results, we present variability measurements that can be used to distinguish dwarf stars from red giants.

  13. Crew activities, science, and hazards of manned missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    1988-01-01

    The crew scientific and nonscientific activities that will occur at each stage of a mission to Mars are examined. Crew activities during the interplanetary flight phase will include simulations, maintenance and monitoring, communications, upgrading procedures and operations, solar activity monitoring, cross-training and sharpening of skills, physical conditioning, and free-time activities. Scientific activities will address human physiology, human psychology, sociology, astronomy, space environment effects, manufacturing, and space agriculture. Crew activities on the Martian surface will include exploration, construction, manufacturing, food production, maintenance and training, and free time. Studies of Martian geology and atmosphere, of the life forms that may exist there, and of the Martian moons will occur on the planet's surface. Crew activities and scientific studies that will occur in Mars orbit, and the hazards relevant to each stage of the mission, are also addressed.

  14. Science opportunities from the Topex/Poseidon mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R.; Fu, L. L.; Lefebvre, M.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) propose to conduct a Topex/Poseidon Mission for studying the global ocean circulation from space. The mission will use the techniques of satellite altimetry to make precise and accurate measurements of sea level for several years. The measurements will then be used by Principal Investigators (selected by NASA and CNES) and by the wider oceanographic community working closely with large international programs for observing the Earth, on studies leading to an improved understanding of global ocean dynamics and the interaction of the ocean with other processes influencing life on Earth. The major elements of the mission include a satellite carrrying an altimetric system for measuring the height of the satellite above the sea surface; a precision orbit determination system for referring the altimetric measurements to geodetic coordinates; a data analysis and distribution system for processing the satellite data, verifying their accuracy, and making them available to the scientific community; and a principal investigator program for scientific studies based on the satellite observations. This document describes the satellite, its sensors, its orbit, the data analysis system, and plans for verifying and distributing the data. It then discusses the expected accuracy of the satellite's measurements and their usefulness to oceanographic, geophysical, and other scientific studies. Finally, it outlines the relationship of the Topex/Poseidon mission to other large programs, including the World Climate Research Program, the U.S. Navy's Remote Ocean Sensing System satellite program and the European Space Agency's ERS-1 satellite program.

  15. VLBI as a tool for planetary science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvits, L. I.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Avruch, I. M.

    The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique exploits the fundamental principles of optics to achieve ultimately high angular resolution in detecting signals from remote celestial sources. Originally it was developed for studies of natural celestial sources, but has a long and successful record of precise tracking of deep space missions. Higher data rates, lower noise temperatures of radio telescopes, advanced data processing equipment and algorithms enable VLBI tracking of distant planetary missions in the outer Solar System. Recently, this potential has been demonstrated by VLBI tracking of the Huygens probe during its parachute descent in the atmosphere and after touch-down on the surface of Titan. The key element of the experiment was a specially designed software VLBI processor (correlator) able to process signals arriving from the source in the optical near field (an unusual situation for a traditional VLBI processor. A spin-off of this development includes high spectral resolution tracking of the Smart-1 spacecraft and observations aimed at detection of water vapour in the Saturnian system. Prospective applications of the VLBI technique for tracking future planetary and deep space missions using the next generation of Earth-based radio facilities will be reviewed.

  16. The Planning and Execution of NASA’s Strategic Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, Lennard A.

    2014-08-01

    Strategic science missions are NASA’s largest and most challenging satellite missions, with costs well in excess of $1 billion, e.g. Mars Science Laboratory and the James Webb Space Telescope. These missions must be endorsed, with high priority, by the Decadal Survey process of the National Research Council (NRC), and are the most difficult ones for the NRC to properly estimate the final cost. Strategic missions are requirement driven missions, in which the requirements, often very challenging, are fixed and the ultimate cost is adjusted to meet the fixed requirements. This should be contrasted with smaller cost-capped missions, where the cost is fixed and the requirements adjusted. Strategic missions, by definition, have the most technical and management challenges. Ironically, the most challenging technologies of strategic missions have usually been done very well, since they get the most management attention, whereas on-orbit problems are usually associated with the less challenging technologies, which get less management attention, e.g. the Hubble mirror.

  17. Martian Multimedia: The Agony and Ecstasy of Communicating Real-Time, Authentic Science During the Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, C.; Buxner, S. R.

    2009-03-01

    The Phoenix Mars Mission faced robust communication challenges requiring real-time solutions. Managing the message from Mars and ensuring the highest quality of science data and news releases were our top priorities during mission surface operations.

  18. Software for Secondary-School Learning About Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Truong, Dat; Hodgson, Terry R.

    2005-01-01

    The ROVer Ranch is an interactive computer program designed to help secondary-school students learn about space-program robotics and related basic scientific concepts by involving the students in simplified design and programming tasks that exercise skills in mathematics and science. The tasks involve building simulated robots and then observing how they behave. The program furnishes (1) programming tools that a student can use to assemble and program a simulated robot and (2) a virtual three-dimensional mission simulator for testing the robot. First, the ROVer Ranch presents fundamental information about robotics, mission goals, and facts about the mission environment. On the basis of this information, and using the aforementioned tools, the student assembles a robot by selecting parts from such subsystems as propulsion, navigation, and scientific tools, the student builds a simulated robot to accomplish its mission. Once the robot is built, it is programmed and then placed in a three-dimensional simulated environment. Success or failure in the simulation depends on the planning and design of the robot. Data and results of the mission are available in a summary log once the mission is concluded.

  19. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  20. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  1. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Preparing the Next Generation of Planetary Mission Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.; Wheeler, T.; Urban, A.; NASA Planetary Science Summer School Team

    2011-12-01

    Sponsored by NASA's Planetary Science Division, and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Planetary Science Summer School prepares the next generation of engineers and scientists to participate in future solar system exploration missions. Participants learn the mission life cycle, roles of scientists and engineers in a mission environment, mission design interconnectedness and trade-offs, and the importance of teamwork. For this professional development opportunity, applicants are sought who have a strong interest and experience in careers in planetary exploration, and who are science and engineering post-docs, recent PhDs, and doctoral students, and faculty teaching such students. Disciplines include planetary science, geoscience, geophysics, environmental science, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, and materials science. Participants are selected through a competitive review process, with selections based on the strength of the application and advisor's recommendation letter. Under the mentorship of a lead engineer (Dr. Charles Budney), students select, design, and develop a mission concept in response to the NASA New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity. They develop their mission in the JPL Advanced Projects Design Team (Team X) environment, which is a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of professional engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. About 36 students participate each year, divided into two summer sessions. In advance of an intensive week-long session in the Project Design Center at JPL, students select the mission and science goals during a series of six weekly WebEx/telecons, and develop a preliminary suite of instrumentation and a science traceability matrix. Students assume both a science team and a mission development role with JPL Team X mentors. Once at JPL, students participate in a series of Team X project design sessions

  2. (abstract) Science-Project Interaction in the Low-Cost Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Stephen D.

    1994-01-01

    Large, complex, and highly optimized missions have performed most of the preliminary reconnaisance of the solar system. As a result we have now mapped significant fractions of its total surface (or surface-equivalent) area. Now, however, scientific exploration of the solar system is undergoing a major change in scale, and existing missions find it necessary to limit costs while fulfilling existing goals. In the future, NASA's Discovery program will continue the reconnaisance, exploration, and diagnostic phases of planetary research using lower cost missions, which will include lower cost mission operations systems (MOS). Historically, one of the more expensive functions of MOS has been its interaction with the science community. Traditional MOS elements that this interaction have embraced include mission planning, science (and engineering) event conflict resolution, sequence optimization and integration, data production (e.g., assembly, enhancement, quality assurance, documentation, archive), and other science support services. In the past, the payoff from these efforts has been that use of mission resources has been highly optimized, constraining resources have been generally completely consumed, and data products have been accurate and well documented. But because these functions are expensive we are now challenged to reduce their cost while preserving the benefits. In this paper, we will consider ways of revising the traditional MOS approach that might save project resources while retaining a high degree of service to the Projects' customers. Pre-launch, science interaction can be made simplier by limiting numbers of instruments and by providing greater redundancy in mission plans. Post launch, possibilities include prioritizing data collection into a few categories, easing requirements on real-time of quick-look data delivery, and closer integration of scientists into the mission operation.

  3. Distributed Operations for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission with the Science Activity Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, Justin V.; Callas, John L.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Vona, Marsette A., III

    2005-01-01

    Due to the length of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission, most scientists were unable to stay at the central operations facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This created a need for distributed operations software, in the form of the Distributed Science Activity Planner. The distributed architecture saved a considerable amount of money and increased the number of individuals who could be actively involved in the mission, contributing to its success.

  4. The MAVEN mission to Mars: Creating pathways for connecting to science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, T.; Renfrow, S.; Wood, E. L.; Christofferson, R.

    2011-12-01

    While science literacy rates in the U.S. have recently increased, overall levels remain remarkably low. There are opportunities for the public to learn about science and to engage directly with real-life practitioners. It is the responsibility of EPO professionals to provide these opportunities and to assess the effectiveness of each platform. At the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), we utilize a diverse, well-tested approach to introducing the public to science and giving scientists access to the broadest possible audience. This poster will focus on NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars to highlight the many avenues through which we introduce rather complex science concepts to the public. Through the use of social media outlets, crowdsourcing activities, public lectures, and interactive question and answer and video sessions, MAVEN scientists are capitalizing on recent excitement surrounding Mars science and the public's fascination with the search for life to bring the science of the mission directly to a variety of audiences. Our EPO professionals are using cross-platform, transportable content to maximize exposure for the mission, while minimizing time and effort. In doing so, we are creating pathways for two-way interactions between our audience and mission experts and building a community that will join us in the MAVEN journey and its important discoveries.

  5. Passive ZBO storage of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen applied to space science mission concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, D. W.; Christie, R. J.; Jurns, J. M.; Kittel, P.

    2006-02-01

    Liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic propulsion and storage were recently considered for application to Titan Explorer and Comet Nuclear Sample Return space science mission investigations. These missions would require up to 11 years of cryogenic storage. We modeled and designed cryogenic propellant storage concepts for these missions. By isolating the propellant tank’s view to deep space, we were able to achieve zero boil-off for both liquid hydrogen and oxygen propellant storage without cryocoolers. Several shades were incorporated to protect the tanks from the sun and spacecraft bus, and to protect the hydrogen tank from the warmer oxygen tank. This had a dramatic effect on the surface temperatures of the propellant tank insulation. These passive storage concepts for deep space missions substantially improved this application of cryogenic propulsion. It is projected that for missions requiring larger propellant tank sizes, the results would be even more dramatic.

  6. Autonomous Onboard Science Data Analysis for Comet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Tran, Daniel Q.; McLaren, David; Chien, Steve A.; Bergman, Larry; Castano, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Estlin, Tara; Lenda, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Coming years will bring several comet rendezvous missions. The Rosetta spacecraft arrives at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. Subsequent rendezvous might include a mission such as the proposed Comet Hopper with multiple surface landings, as well as Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) and Coma Rendezvous and Sample Return (CRSR). These encounters will begin to shed light on a population that, despite several previous flybys, remains mysterious and poorly understood. Scientists still have little direct knowledge of interactions between the nucleus and coma, their variation across different comets or their evolution over time. Activity may change on short timescales so it is challenging to characterize with scripted data acquisition. Here we investigate automatic onboard image analysis that could act faster than round-trip light time to capture unexpected outbursts and plume activity. We describe one edge-based method for detect comet nuclei and plumes, and test the approach on an existing catalog of comet images. Finally, we quantify benefits to specific measurement objectives by simulating a basic plume monitoring campaign.

  7. Telescience testbedding for life science missions on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, D.; Mian, A.; Bosley, J.

    1988-01-01

    'Telescience', defined as the ability of distributed system users to perform remote operations associated with NASA Space Station life science operations, has been explored by a developmental testbed project allowing rapid prototyping to evaluate the functional requirements of telescience implementation in three areas: (1) research planning and design, (2) remote operation of facilities, and (3) remote access to data bases for analysis. Attention is given to the role of expert systems in telescience, its use in realistic simulation of Space Shuttle payload remote monitoring, and remote interaction with life science data bases.

  8. An adaptable product for material processing and life science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wassick, Gregory; Dobbs, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Experiment Control System II (ECS-II) is designed to make available to the microgravity research community the same tools and mode of automated experimentation that their ground-based counterparts have enjoyed for the last two decades. The design goal was accomplished by combining commercial automation tools familiar to the experimenter community with system control components that interface with the on-orbit platform in a distributed architecture. The architecture insulates the tools necessary for managing a payload. By using commercial software and hardware components whenever possible, development costs were greatly reduced when compared to traditional space development projects. Using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components also improved the usability documentation, and reducing the need for training of the system by providing familiar user interfaces, providing a wealth of readily available documentation, and reducing the need for training on system-specific details. The modularity of the distributed architecture makes it very amenable for modification to different on-orbit experiments requiring robotics-based automation.

  9. Evolution of Science Operations after 10 years of the Mars Express Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Martin, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    The Mars Express mission was launched in June 2003 and has been providing great amounts of data since its arrival to Mars in Christmas 2003, covering a wide range of science objectives at all levels, from the surface and sub-surface geology, atmosphere dynamics and composition, up to the interaction with the magnetosphere and the characterization of the Martian sytem including its two moons, Phobos and Deimos. In these last 10 years, the Mars Express Science Operations Center has been responsible for the coordination of the scientific requirements and the implementation of the science plan, aiming to obtain the maximum scientific return of the mission while respecting the operational constraints. In this contribution we will show some of the operational challenges of the mission, focusing on the improvements and adaptations of the past years, not only in terms of technical and scientific requirements which have been varying with time, but also the optimization of the interfaces with all the teams involved.

  10. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Preparing the Next Generation of Planetary Mission Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, C. J.; Lowes, L. L.; Sohus, A.; Wheeler, T.; Wessen, A.; Scalice, D.

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored by NASA’s Planetary Science Division, and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Planetary Science Summer School prepares the next generation of engineers and scientists to participate in future solar system exploration missions. Participants learn the mission life cycle, roles of scientists and engineers in a mission environment, mission design interconnectedness and trade-offs, and the importance of teamwork. For this professional development opportunity, applicants are sought who have a strong interest and experience in careers in planetary exploration, and who are science and engineering post-docs, recent PhDs, and doctoral students, and faculty teaching such students. Disciplines include planetary science, geoscience, geophysics, environmental science, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, and materials science. Participants are selected through a competitive review process, with selections based on the strength of the application and advisor’s recommendation letter. Under the mentorship of a lead engineer (Dr. Charles Budney), students select, design, and develop a mission concept in response to the NASA New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity. They develop their mission in the JPL Advanced Projects Design Team (Team X) environment, which is a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of professional engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. About 36 students participate each year, divided into two summer sessions. In advance of an intensive week-long session in the Project Design Center at JPL, students select the mission and science goals during a series of six weekly WebEx/telecons, and develop a preliminary suite of instrumentation and a science traceability matrix. Students assume both a science team and a mission development role with JPL Team X mentors. Once at JPL, students participate in a series of Team X project design

  11. Outstanding Science at Neptune: Aerocapture Implementation of NASA's "Neptune Orbiter With Probes" Vision Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    After successfully proposing to NASA's "Vision Missions Studies" NRA (NRA-03-OSS-01-VM) the authors are studying an implementation option for the "Neptune Orbiter With Probes" mission that performs Cassini-level science without fission-based electric power or propulsion. Our Study Team includes a Science Team composed of experienced planetary scientists, many of whom helped draft the Neptune discussions in the Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey, and an Implementation Team with experienced engineers and technologists from multiple NASA Centers and JPL. The key characteristics of our mission concept are a mix of Solar Electric Propulsion and gravity assists to reach Neptune in 12 years or less, aerocapture into an eccentric Neptune orbit for a Triton-driven orbital tour, and a well designed set of science objectives guiding a very capable science payload including multiple Neptune entry probes. Significant pathfinding work done in 2002-03 by NASA's Aerocapture Systems Analysis Team allowed focusing quickly on principal issues. By the end of May 2004 the Science Team had drafted a thorough and coherent set of science objectives, leading to our first series of design sessions with JPL's "Team X" in early June. The initial design options studied in those sessions produced flight system designs that all fit easily on soon-to-be-operational launch vehicles. Since then, students working in Caltech's Laboratory for Space Mission Design have studied the potential benefits of incorporating new technologies into those initial designs. Later this year another series of Team X sessions will incorporate the most beneficial technologies into the best design options. The poster will discuss the mission's science objectives, and summarize study results to date. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its parent institution, the California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA's Office of Space Science.

  12. Outstanding Science in the Neptune System From an Aerocaptured Vision Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2004-11-01

    In 2003 the authors successfully proposed to NASA's ``Vision Missions Studies" NRA (NRA-03-OSS-01-VM) to study an implementation option for the ``Neptune Orbiter with Probes" mission that does Cassini-level science without fission-based electric power or propulsion. Our Study Team includes a Science Team composed of experienced planetary scientists, many of whom helped draft the Neptune discussions in the Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey, and an Implementation Team with experienced engineers and technologists from multiple NASA Centers and JPL. The key characteristics of our mission concept are a mix of Solar Electric Propulsion and gravity assists to reach Neptune in 12 years or less, aerocapture into an eccentric Neptune orbit for a Triton-driven orbital tour, and a well designed set of science objectives guiding a very capable science payload that includes multiple Neptune entry probes. We leveraged the significant pathfinding work done in 2002-03 by NASA's Aerocapture Systems Analysis Team to focus quickly on principal issues. By the end of May 2004 the Science Team had drafted a thorough and coherent set of science objectives, leading to our first series of design sessions with JPL's ``Team X" in early June. The initial design options studied in those sessions produced flight system designs that all fit easily on soon-to-be-operational launch vehicles. Since then, students working in Caltech's Laboratory for Space Mission Design have studied the potential benefits of incorporating new technologies into those initial designs. Later this year another series of Team X sessions will incorporate the most beneficial technologies into the best design options. The poster will discuss the mission's science objectives, and summarize study results to date. This work was done at multiple NASA Centers and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA's Office of Space Science.

  13. The ExoMars 2016 mission in the new ESA Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tanya

    2015-12-01

    ExoMars 2016 will be the first operational ESA mission to use PDS4 the new version of the NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The data produced will be housed in the new Planetary Science Archive (PSA) which is currently under development at ESAC. This talk will introduce the ExoMars 2016 mission and its payload. The adaptation of the PDS4 standard for ExoMars 2016 and other future missions in the PSA will be discussed along with a progress report on the new PSA development.

  14. NASA's Planetary Science Summer School: Training Future Mission Leaders in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Summer School (PSSS) is an intensive program for postdocs and advanced graduate students in science and engineering fields with a keen interest in planetary exploration. The goal is to train the next generation of planetary science mission leaders in a hands-on environment involving a wide range of engineers and scientists. It was established in 1989, and has undergone several incarnations. Initially a series of seminars, it became a more formal mission design experience in 1999. Admission is competitive, with participants given financial support. The competitively selected trainees develop an early mission concept study in teams of 15-17, responsive to a typical NASA Science Mission Directorate Announcement of Opportunity. They select the mission concept from options presented by the course sponsors, based on high-priority missions as defined by the Decadal Survey, prepare a presentation for a proposal authorization review, present it to a senior review board and receive critical feedback. Each participant assumes multiple roles, on science, instrument and project teams. They develop an understanding of top-level science requirements and instrument priorities in advance through a series of reading assignments and webinars help trainees. Then, during the five day session at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, they work closely with concurrent engineers including JPL's Advanced Projects Design Team ("Team X"), a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. All are mentored and assisted directly by Team X members and course tutors in their assigned project roles. There is a strong emphasis on making difficult trades, simulating a real mission design process as accurately as possible. The process is intense and at times dramatic, with fast-paced design sessions and late evening study sessions. A survey of PSSS alumni

  15. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  16. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 6: Master index volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; Ross, Patricia A.; King, Joseph H.

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA, and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains the Master Index. The following spacecraft are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  17. A Surface Science Paradigm for a Post-Huygens Titan Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Lunine, Jonathan; Lorenz, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    With the Cassini-Huygens atmospheric probe drop-off mission fast approaching, it is essential that scientists and engineers start scoping potential follow-on surface science missions. This paper provides a summary of the first year of a two year design study which examines in detail the desired surface science measurements and resolution, potential instrument suite, and complete payload delivery system. Also provided are design concepts for both an aerial inflatable mobility platform and deployable instrument sonde. The tethered deployable sonde provides the capability to sample near surface atmosphere, sub-surface liquid (if it exists), and surface solid material. Actual laboratory tests of the amphibious sonde prototype are also presented.

  18. A Surface Science Paradigm for a Post-Huygens Titan Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Lunine, Jonathan; Lorenz, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    With the Cassini-Huygens atmospheric probe drop-off mission fast approaching, it is essential that scientists and engineers start scoping potential follow-on surface science missions. This paper provides a summary of the first year of a two year design study which examines in detail the desired surface science measurements and resolution, potential instrument suite, and complete payload delivery system. Also provided are design concepts for both an aerial inflatable mobility platform and deployable instrument sonde. The tethered deployable sonde provides the capability to sample nearsurface atmosphere, sub-surface liquid (if it exists), and surface solid material. Actual laboratory tests of the amphibious sonde prototype are also presented.

  19. Exploring the High Energy Universe: GLAST Mission and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2007-01-01

    GLAST, the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope, is NASA's next-generation high-energy gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in Autumn 2007. GLAST will allow measurements of cosmic gamma-ray sources in t he 10 MeV to 100 GeV energy band to be made with unprecedented sensi tivity. Amongst its key scientific objectives are to understand part icle acceleration in Active Galactic Nuclei, Pulsars and Supernovae Remnants, to provide high resolution measurements of unidentified ga mma-ray sources, to study transient high energy emission from objects such as gamma-ray bursts, and to probe Dark Matter and the early Uni verse. Dr. McEnery will present an overview of the GLAST mission and its scientific goals.

  20. Exploring the High Energy Universe: GLAST Mission and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2007-01-01

    GLAST, the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope, is NASA's next-generation high-energy gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in Autumn 2007. GLAST will allow measurements of cosmic gamma-ray sources in the 10 MeV to 100 GeV energy band to be made with unprecedented sensitivity. Amongst its key scientific objectives are to understand particle acceleration in Active Galactic Nuclei, Pulsars and Supernovae Remnants, to provide high resolution measurements of unidentified gamma-ray sources, to study transient high energy emission from objects such as gamma-ray bursts, and to probe Dark Matter and the early Universe. Dr. McEnery will present an overview of the GLAST mission and its scientific goals.

  1. NASA Intelligent Systems Project: Results, Accomplishments and Impact on Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coughlan, Joseph C.

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems Project was responsible for much of NASA's programmatic investment in artificial intelligence and advanced information technologies. IS has completed three major project milestones which demonstrated increased capabilities in autonomy, human centered computing, and intelligent data understanding. Autonomy involves the ability of a robot to place an instrument on a remote surface with a single command cycle. Human centered computing supported a collaborative, mission centric data and planning system for the Mars Exploration Rovers and data understanding has produced key components of a terrestrial satellite observation system with automated modeling and data analysis capabilities. This paper summarizes the technology demonstrations and metrics which quantify and summarize these new technologies which are now available for future Nasa missions.

  2. Analytical Laboratory Science on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    The Odyssey Missions orbital maps of near surface ice abundance using neutron spectroscopy (Boynton et al., 2002), the Mars Exploration Rover s confirmation of aqueous processing (Squyres et al., 2004), and the Mars Express detailed infrared maps of specific mineral types that were likely formed in aqueous environments (Bibring et al., 2005) have dramatically expanded our tool set for understanding of aqueous processes on Mars. The 2009 Mars Science Laboratory is designed to extend the "follow the water" crosscutting theme of the Mars Exploration Program toward an even more detailed exploration of habitability - the potential of the Mars environment to support life. The next steps in understanding the habitability of Mars are a more detailed in situ analysis of the chemical state of elements such as C, H, O, N, S, P, Ca, and Fe that are essential for terrestrial life. Of particular interest are experiments that establish definitive mineralogy for a wider range of compounds and those that implement a more comprehensive and sensitive search for organic molecules both in the atmosphere and in surface or near surface rocks, soils, and fines. The recent reports of atmospheric methane in the Martian atmosphere make the organics exploration even more compelling. The substantial mass and power resources of MSL combined with its mobility and powerful sample acquisition and processing tools will enable it to locate a variety of near-surface samples and analyze these in some detail. NASA is presently considering the possibility of landing a second MSL rover in 2011.

  3. Science case for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): A component of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Cheng, A.; Küppers, M.; Pravec, P.; Blum, J.; Delbo, M.; Green, S. F.; Rosenblatt, P.; Tsiganis, K.; Vincent, J. B.; Biele, J.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Ulamec, S.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Benner, L.; Naidu, S. P.; Barnouin, O. S.; Richardson, D. C.; Rivkin, A.; Scheirich, P.; Moskovitz, N.; Thirouin, A.; Schwartz, S. R.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Yu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to test the kinetic impactor technique to deflect an asteroid. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is set to rendezvous with the asteroid system to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near-Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Having direct information on the surface and internal properties of small asteroids will allow us to understand how the various processes they undergo work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. Making these measurements from up close and comparing them with ground-based data from telescopes will also allow us to calibrate remote observations and improve our data interpretation of other systems. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the target by AIM, the mission will be the first fully documented impact experiment at asteroid scale, which will include the characterization of the target's properties and the outcome of the impact. AIDA will thus offer a great opportunity to test and refine our understanding and models at the actual scale of an asteroid, and to check whether the current extrapolations of material strength from laboratory-scale targets to the scale of AIDA's target are valid. Moreover, it will offer a first check of the

  4. Planned Data Products and Science Processing Paradigm for the Proposed NASA-ISRO SAR Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The proposed NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or NISAR, Mission will make global integrated measurements of the causes and consequences of land surface changes. NISAR would provide a means of disentangling highly spatial and temporally complex processes ranging from ecosystem disturbances, to ice sheet collapse and natural hazards including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides. The mission would capable of performing repeat-pass interferometry and collecting polarimetric data. The core of the payload would consist of an L-band SAR to meet all of the NASA science requirements. A secondary S-band SAR would be contributed by ISRO, the Indian Space Research Organisation. The instrument would comprise a large diameter deployable reflector and a dual frequency antenna feed and associated electronics to implement the fine-resolution, polarimetric, 240-km swath imaging system. Combined with an ambitious data acquisition plan that supports continuous mapping of Earth's land and ice-covered surfaces at every opportunity over the life of the mission, the mission would generate over 1 Petabyte of raw data each year, which expands to greater data volumes for higher level products. Since many of the science requirements propose time-series analysis, which often involve combinatorial manipulation of images acquired over time, it would be impractical and inadvisable to create global time-series science products. As a result, the processing plan for the mission would be for the project to create a complete set of products through Level 2, and only selected Level 3 products over extended areas of calibration and validation. These sites would be chosen to be scientifically interesting, so that the mission products would include significant scientific results. In addition, the project will develop higher-level processing software to the community that will allow scientists to apply the mission data from Level 0 to 2 to their science problems.

  5. Cleaning at the Edge of Science: NASA's Genesis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Eileen K.; Biesinger, Paul H.

    2000-01-01

    As part of NASA's continuing exploration of the origins of our solar system, the California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Johnson Space Center are working together to develop the Genesis mission to return solar matter for analysis in terrestrial laboratories. These samples will be used to define a baseline for the chemical and isotopic composition of the solar nebula. Deviations from the baseline resulted as the solar system evolved; thus, providing a tracer for materials incorporated into meteorites, comets and planetary bodies. These differences represent "fossil residues" that provide invaluable insight into how the solar nebula evolved to form the planets. We cannot collect a sample of the Sun as we would for a planet; fortunately, solar material comes to us in the form of the solar wind. Ultrapure materials will be exposed at the Earth-Sun L1, outside the Earth's magnetic influence, where solar wind nuclei will be captured for 2 years before returning to Earth in January 2001. The key challenge to obtaining a good sample of solar wind, uncontaminated by terrestrial atoms, is a clean collection surface in a clean sample canister and clean facilities with which to handle the samples for allocation and future reference. The Johnson Space Center QSQ is responsible for contamination control for the mission, for ensuring the cleanliness of collection surfaces and providing a clean environment for their subsequent handling. The level of cleanliness required is high; at the time of analysis (after sample return), the surface contamination by C, N, O must each be less than 10(exp 15) atoms per centimeter squared and for elements other than C, N, O, the number of atoms per centimeter squared of each surface contaminant shall not exceed the estimated solar wind fluence of the species (varies by element between U at approx. 10 (exp 4) atoms per centimeter squared to Fe, Si, Mg, and

  6. Characteristics and Early Science Results of the Virgin Islands Robotic Telescope at the Etelman Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, David C.; Neff, J. E.; Hakkila, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    The Virgin Islands Robotic Telescope is an 0.5m robotic telescope located at the easternmost and southernmost optical observatory in the United States at a latitude of 18.5N and longitude of 65W. The observatory is located on the island of St Thomas in the USVI. Astronomers from the College of Charleston and the University of the Virgin Islands collaborate to maintain and operate the facility. Science goals of the facility include optical follow-up of high-energy transients, extra-solar planet observations, and near-Earth asteroid searches. The facility also supports a wide-reaching education and outreach program dedicated to raising the level of STEM engagement and enrichment in the USVI. We detail the characteristics, capabilities, and early results from the observatory. The observatory is growing its staff and science activities and potential topics for collaboration will be discussed.

  7. Generic procedure for designing and implementing plan management systems for space science missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaizy, P. A.; Dimbylow, T. G.; Allan, P. M.; Hapgood, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper is one of the components of a larger framework of activities whose purpose is to improve the performance and productivity of space mission systems, i.e. to increase both what can be achieved and the cost effectiveness of this achievement. Some of these activities introduced the concept of Functional Architecture Module (FAM); FAMs are basic blocks used to build the functional architecture of Plan Management Systems (PMS). They also highlighted the need to involve Science Operations Planning Expertise (SOPE) during the Mission Design Phase (MDP) in order to design and implement efficiently operation planning systems. We define SOPE as the expertise held by people who have both theoretical and practical experience in operations planning, in general, and in space science operations planning in particular. Using ESA's methodology for studying and selecting science missions we also define the MDP as the combination of the Mission Assessment and Mission Definition Phases. However, there is no generic procedure on how to use FAMs efficiently and systematically, for each new mission, in order to analyse the cost and feasibility of new missions as well as to optimise the functional design of new PMS; the purpose of such a procedure is to build more rapidly and cheaply such PMS as well as to make the latter more reliable and cheaper to run. This is why the purpose of this paper is to provide an embryo of such a generic procedure and to show that the latter needs to be applied by people with SOPE during the MDP. The procedure described here proposes some initial guidelines to identify both the various possible high level functional scenarii, for a given set of possible requirements, and the information that needs to be associated with each scenario. It also introduces the concept of catalogue of generic functional scenarii of PMS for space science missions. The information associated with each catalogued scenarii will have been identified by the above procedure and

  8. Independent Review Support for Phoenix Mars Mission Robotic Arm Brush Motor Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManamen, John P.; Pellicciotti, Joseph; DeKramer, Cornelis; Dube, Michael J.; Peeler, Deborah; Muirhead, Brian K.; Sevilla, Donald R.; Sabahi, Dara; Knopp, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix Project requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent peer review of the Robotic Arm (RA) Direct Current (DC) motor brush anomalies that originated during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project and recurred during the Phoenix Project. The request was to evaluate the Phoenix Project investigation efforts and provide an independent risk assessment. This includes a recommendation for additional work and assessment of the flight worthiness of the RA DC motors. Based on the investigation and findings contained within this report, the IRT concurs with the risk assessment Failure Cause / Corrective Action (FC/CA) by the project, "Failure Effect Rating "3"; Major Degradation or Total Loss of Function, Failure Cause/Corrective Action Rating Currently "4"; Unknown Cause, Uncertainty in Corrective Action."

  9. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The Potassium (K) - Argon (Ar) Laser Experiment (KArLE) will make in situ noble-gas geochronology measurements aboard planetary robotic landers and roverss. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to measure the K abun-dance in a sample and to release its noble gases; the evolved Ar is measured by mass spectrometry (MS); and rela-tive K content is related to absolute Ar abundance by sample mass, determined by optical measurement of the ablated volume. KArLE measures a whole-rock K-Ar age to 10% or better for rocks 2 Ga or older, sufficient to resolve the absolute age of many planetary samples. The LIBS-MS approach is attractive because the analytical components have been flight proven, do not require further technical development, and provide complementary measurements as well as in situ geochronology.

  10. Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B.H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R. L.; Sibek, D. G.; Ukhorskiy, A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission addresses how populationsof high energy charged particles are created, vary, and evolve in space environments,and specifically within Earths magnetically trapped radiation belts. RBSP, with a nominallaunch date of August 2012, comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for atleast 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 5.8 RE, 10).The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal effects over spatial scales rangingfrom 0.1 to 5 RE. The uniquely comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the twospacecraft, measures all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields (E and B),and wave distributions (dE and dB) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions.Here we summarize the high level science objectives for the RBSP mission, providehistorical background on studies of Earth and planetary radiation belts, present examples ofthe most compelling scientific mysteries of the radiation belts, present the mission design ofthe RBSP mission that targets these mysteries and objectives, present the observation andmeasurement requirements for the mission, and introduce the instrumentation that will deliverthese measurements. This paper references and is followed by a number of companionpapers that describe the details of the RBSP mission, spacecraft, and instruments.

  11. Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R. L.; Sibeck, D. G.; Ukhorskiy, A.

    2013-11-01

    The NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission addresses how populations of high energy charged particles are created, vary, and evolve in space environments, and specifically within Earth's magnetically trapped radiation belts. RBSP, with a nominal launch date of August 2012, comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1×5.8 RE, 10∘). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal effects over spatial scales ranging from ˜0.1 to 5 RE. The uniquely comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the two spacecraft, measures all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields ( E and B), and wave distributions ( d E and d B) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions. Here we summarize the high level science objectives for the RBSP mission, provide historical background on studies of Earth and planetary radiation belts, present examples of the most compelling scientific mysteries of the radiation belts, present the mission design of the RBSP mission that targets these mysteries and objectives, present the observation and measurement requirements for the mission, and introduce the instrumentation that will deliver these measurements. This paper references and is followed by a number of companion papers that describe the details of the RBSP mission, spacecraft, and instruments.

  12. Design of small Stirling Dynamic Isotope Power System for robotic space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bents, David J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Withrow, Colleen A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    Design of a multihundred-watt Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) based on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) technology is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to Space Exploration Initiative precursor missions. Power level for these missions is less than a kilowatt. Unlike previous DIPS designs which were based on turbomachinery conversion (e.g. Brayton), this small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled down to multihundred-watt unit size while preserving size and mass competitiveness with RTGs. Preliminary characterization of units in the output power ranges 200-600 We indicate that on an electrical watt basis the GPHS/small Stirling DIPS will be roughly equivalent to an advanced RTG in size and mass but require less than a third of the isotope inventory.

  13. Design of small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for robotic space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Schreiber, J. G.; Withrow, C. A.; Mckissock, B. I.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    Design of a multihundred-watt Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) based on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) technology is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to Space Exploration Initiative precursor missions. Power level for these missions is less than a kilowatt. Unlike previous DIPS designs which were based on turbomachinery conversion (e.g. Brayton), this small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled down to multihundred-watt unit size while preserving size and mass competitiveness with RTG's. Preliminary characterization of units in the output power ranges 200-600 We indicate that on an electrical watt basis the GPHS/small Stirling DIPS will be roughly equivalent to an advanced RTG in size and mass but require less than a third of the isotope inventory.

  14. NASA Science Mission Directorate's Year of the Solar System: An Opportunity for Scientist Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Heather; Shipp, S.; Boonstra, D.; Shupla, C.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; LaConte, K.; Ristvey, J.; Wessen, A.; Zimmerman-Bachman, R.; Science E/PO Community, Planetary

    2010-10-01

    Between October 2010 and August 2012 - across a Martian year - a large number of Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) planetary missions will pass milestones (e.g., EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, MESSENGER, Dawn, Juno, GRAIL, and Mars Science Laboratory), with many other missions continuing to explore (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Express, Cassini, New Horizons, and Voyager). This Year of the Solar System (YSS) offers the Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) community an opportunity to collaborate with each other and the science community. Based on audience needs from formal and informal educators, YSS is structured to have monthly thematic topics that are driven by mission milestones, as well as observing opportunities. YSS will connect to ongoing and planned events nationwide. A website for YSS is in development and will be hosted off of the existing JPL Solar System website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/index.cfm). Once live, scientists, educators, and E/PO professionals will have a place to interact and collaborate. YSS will tie to NASA's Big Questions in Planetary Science - how did the Sun's family of planets and minor bodies originate and how have they evolved? - how did life begin and evolve on Earth, is it elsewhere, and what characteristics of the solar system lead to the origins of life? The thematic topics are broad in order to encompass many missions and planetary bodies each month, as well as address the Big Questions. YSS will kick off in October with the theme "Solar System Components and Scale” and a national event involving building solar system scale models across the country. Scientists are encouraged to contact schools, museums, planetaria, etc. in their communities to give presentations, provide science content, and collaborate on educational materials and events related to YSS.

  15. Implementation science: a reappraisal of our journal mission and scope.

    PubMed

    Foy, Robbie; Sales, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Aarons, Gregory A; Flottorp, Signe; Kent, Bridie; Michie, Susan; O'Connor, Denise; Rogers, Anne; Sevdalis, Nick; Straus, Sharon; Wilson, Paul

    2015-04-17

    The implementation of research findings into healthcare practice has become increasingly recognised as a major priority for researchers, service providers, research funders and policymakers over the past decade. Nine years after its establishment, Implementation Science, an international online open access journal, currently publishes over 150 articles each year. This is fewer than 30% of those submitted for publication. The majority of manuscript rejections occur at the point of initial editorial screening, frequently because we judge them to fall outside of journal scope. There are a number of common reasons as to why manuscripts are rejected on grounds of scope. Furthermore, as the field of implementation research has evolved and our journal submissions have risen, we have, out of necessity, had to become more selective in what we publish. We have also expanded our scope, particularly around patient-mediated and population health interventions, and will monitor the impact of such changes. We hope this editorial on our evolving priorities and common reasons for rejection without peer review will help authors to better judge the relevance of their papers to Implementation Science.

  16. Outstanding Science in the Neptune System from an Aerocaptured NASA "Vision Mission"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Spilker, L. J.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 NASA released its Vision Mission Studies NRA (NRA-03-OSS-01-VM) soliciting proposals to study any one of 17 Vision Missions described in the NRA. The authors, along with a team of scientists and engineers, sucessfully proposed a study of the Neptune Orbiter With Probes (NOP) option, a mission that performs Cassini-level science in the Neptune system without fission-based electric power or propulsion. The Study Team includes a Science Team composed of experienced planetary scientists, many of whom helped draft the Neptune discussions in the 2003 Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey (SSEDS), and an Implementation Team with experienced engineers and technologists from multiple NASA Centers and JPL.

  17. Development of Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems for NASA's Future Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A. K.

    2005-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of NASA's current efforts on development of advanced radioisotope power systems (RPS) for future science missions. The current efforts include development of flight qualified Multimission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) systems with nominal 100 watts power level and capability to operate in both deep space and planetary environments. In addition, advanced technology development efforts are being conducted to increase the specific power of both RTG and SRG systems to enable future science missions. The efforts also include new technologies that have the potential to provide significant increases in specific power of RPS system. A notional RPS technology development roadmap will be presented and various potential mission opportunities identified.

  18. Enabling Communication and Navigation Technologies for Future Near Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Heckler, Gregory; Menrad, Robert; Hudiburg, John; Boroson, Don; Robinson, Bryan; Cornwell, Donald

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the Earth Regimes Network Evolution Study (ERNESt) proposed an architectural concept and technologies that evolve to enable space science and exploration missions out to the 2040 timeframe. The architectural concept evolves the current instantiations of the Near Earth Network and Space Network with new technologies to provide a global communication and navigation network that provides communication and navigation services to a wide range of space users in the near Earth domain. The technologies included High Rate Optical Communications, Optical Multiple Access (OMA), Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), User Initiated Services (UIS), and advanced Position, Navigation, and Timing technology. This paper describes the key technologies and their current technology readiness levels. Examples of science missions that could be enabled by the technologies and the projected operational benefits of the architecture concept to missions are also described.

  19. A family of analog and mixed signal VLSI ASICs for NASA science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos P.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents several analog and mixed signal VLSI chips that have been successfully developed over the past several years at JHU/APL for space science missions. The chips have applications for spacecraft avionics and several types of instrumentation. The family of the chips include: the TRIO smart sensor multiplexed ADC chip for spacecraft/instrument avionics, the time-of-flight (TOF) chip for precise time interval measurement, the CFD chip for time discrimination, the energy chip for low-noise particle/photon measurement, a commandable discriminator pulse high analyzer, event accumulator, a radiation hardened voltage reference, an ADC and other. This paper addresses some design, radiation hard by design, design for testability, testing, and space qualification issues. The paper also briefly describes the spacecraft and instrument applications of these chips including: the NASA missions CASSINI, IMAGE, CONTOUR, MESSENGER, STEREO, PLUTO, oncoming funded missions MMS, JUNO, RBSP, as well as planned planetary and moon missions.

  20. A comprehensive mission to planet Earth: Woods Hole Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee Planning Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is described in this set of visuals presented in Massachusetts on July 29, 1991. The problem presented in this document is that the earth system is changing and that human activity accelerates the rate of change resulting in increased greenhouse gases, decreasing levels of stratospheric ozone, acid rain, deforestation, decreasing biodiversity, and overpopulation. Various national and international organizations are coordinating global change research. The complementary space observations for this activity are sun-synchronous polar orbits, low-inclination, low altitude orbits, geostationary orbits, and ground measurements. The Geostationary Earth Observatory is the major proposed mission of MTPE. Other proposed missions are EOS Synthetic Aperture Radar, ARISTOTELES Magnetic Field Experiment, and the Global Topography Mission. Use of the NASA DC-8 aircraft is outlined as carrying out the Airborne Science and Applications Program. Approved Earth Probes Program include the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Other packages for earth observation are described.

  1. On the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM): Bringing NASA's Earth System Science Program to the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is the first mission dedicated to measuring tropical and subtropical rainfall using a variety of remote sensing instrumentation, including the first spaceborne rain-measuring radar. Since the energy released when tropical rainfall occurs is a primary "fuel" supply for the weather and climate "engine"; improvements in computer models which predict future weather and climate states may depend on better measurements of global tropical rainfall and its energy. In support of the STANYS conference theme of Education and Space, this presentation focuses on one aspect of NASA's Earth Systems Science Program. We seek to present an overview of the TRMM mission. This overview will discuss the scientific motivation for TRMM, the TRMM instrument package, and recent images from tropical rainfall systems and hurricanes. The presentation also targets educational components of the TRMM mission in the areas of weather, mathematics, technology, and geography that can be used by secondary school/high school educators in the classroom.

  2. NASA Earth Science Mission Control Center Enterprise Emerging Technology Study Study (MCC Technology Study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan; Horan, Stephen; Royer, Don; Sullivan, Don; Moe, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of the study to identify technologies that could have a significant impact on Earth Science mission operations when looking out at the 5-15 year horizon (through 2025). The potential benefits of the new technologies will be discussed, as well as recommendations for early research and development, prototyping, or analysis for these technologies.

  3. Maximizing Science Return from Future Mars Missions with Onboard Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Bandari, E. B.; Roush, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed two new techniques to enhance science return and to decrease returned data volume for near-term Mars missions: 1) multi-spectral image compression and 2) autonomous identification and fusion of in-focus regions in an image series.

  4. Advances in Laser/Lidar Technologies for NASA's Science and Exploration Mission's Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Laser Risk Reduction Program, begun in 2002, has achieved many technology advances in only 3.5 years. The recent selection of several lidar proposals for Science and Exploration applications indicates that the LRRP goal of enabling future space-based missions by lowering the technology risk has already begun to be met.

  5. Enabling Laser and Lidar Technologies for NASA's Science and Exploration Mission's Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Laser Risk Reduction Program, begun in 2002, has achieved many technology advances in only 3.5 years. The recent selection of several lidar proposals for Science and Exploration applications indicates that the LRRP goal of enabling future space-based missions by lowering the technology risk has already begun to be met.

  6. SeaWinds on QuikSCAT Mission and Early Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Wu-Yang; Graf, James E.

    2000-01-01

    SeaWinds on QuikSCAT (QSCAT) is a dedicated satellite remote sensing mission for measuring ocean surface wind speed and direction, using a spinning, pencil-beam Ku-band scatterometer. It is a replacement mission for NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT), which was launched on board of the Japan's Advanced Earth Observation System (ADEOS-1) in August 1996 and returned 10 months of high quality data before the mission was terminated in June, 1997 due to the failure of the ADEOS-1 spacecraft. Since the next NASA scatterometer mission, SeaWinds on ADEOS-2 (SeaWinds), will not be launched until November 2000, NASA decided to fill the data gap by launching the QSCAT mission. Furthermore, after year 2000. the potential exists for using both the QSCAT and SeaWinds to provide approximately 6 hours global coverage of the marine winds. QSCAT is currently scheduled for launch in April, 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, using Titan-II launch vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to first present the mission objectives, the spacecraft and instrument design, ground receiving systems, the science data processing system, and the data products. We will then present the post-launch calibration and verification results of the QSCAT end-to-end sensor system. Finally, we present some of the key results obtained from the first two months of the mission, which include ocean surface wind measurements, ice detection and classification, global snow cover detection, and flood detection.

  7. Observatory-class science with a low-cost EUV astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Kowalski, M. P.; Eves, S.; Casewell, S. L.; Wood, K.; Bannister, N. P.; Navarthinam, N.

    2012-09-01

    The various demands on funding agencies make it difficult to sustain the level of expenditure required to provide the broad range of space astronomy missions that the research community would like to have available. Multi-billion pound/dollar observatories such Chandra, XMM-Newton and HST have been enormously successful, but JWST has been delayed and plans for an equivalent large X-ray mission seem to be on-hold. Furthermore, the medium size ESA and NASA missions provide only a small number of opportunities over the next decade. Much exciting and important science, by default, will not be done. If satellite mission costs could be reduced significantly, by a factor of 5-10, we would open up a new parameter space of opportunity that is not currently offered by any agency. Significant improvement in instrument technology coupled with simplification of optical systems and the development of efficient, high performance small satellite platforms and ground systems has led to the prospect of the development of some low-cost opportunities. In this paper, we outline one such possible mission, based on a successful sounding rocket-borne payload. This comprises a high throughput normal incidence extreme ultraviolet spectrometer, with the design adapted for accommodation on the SSTL 300 platform. We make use of a segmented diffraction grating to provide an overall wavelength coverage from ~170-260Å by tuning the multi-layers of the individual elements to different, overlapping ranges. We outline the capability and science goals of the mission, and how they influence the design and operation of the satellite platform. We conclude with a discussion of how missions of this type operating both as constellations and as formation flying sparse apertures, could offer a scientifically viable alternative to monolothic 'great observatory' missions in the future.

  8. In-Situ Operations and Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Robotic Arm: The First 200 Sols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M.; Collins, C.; Leger, P.; Carsten, J.; Tompkins, V.; Hartman, F.; Yen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for more than 200 Martian solar days (or sols) since the Mars Science Laboratory rover touched down in Gale Crater on August 5, 2012. During the first seven months on Mars the robotic arm has performed multiple contact science sols including the positioning of the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) and/or Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) with respect to rocks or loose regolith targets. The RA has supported sample acquisition using both the scoop and drill, sample processing with CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for In- Situ Martian Rock Analysis), and delivery of sample portions to the observation tray, and the SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars) and CHEMIN (Chemistry and Mineralogy) science instruments. This paper describes the planning and execution of robotic arm activities during surface operations, and reviews robotic arm performance results from Mars to date.

  9. Selection and characterization of landing sites for the upcoming Russian robotic missions to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Head, James; Bazilevskiy, Alexander; Dolgopolov, Vladimir

    Russian missions Luna-Glob, Luna-Resource and Luna-Grunt are considered to be a sequence of landers aimed, in particular, to study physical conditions at the lunar poles, lunar volatiles both in situ and delivered to Earth laboratories, opportunities for utilization of lunar resources and to perform technological experiments for future lunar exploration [Zelenyi et al.,2013, 2014]. The first of these missions, tentatively planned for 2016, along with partial accomplishment of these tasks, is also devoted to test new-generation technologies for soft landing. The second one (~2018) addresses most of the mentioned tasks. The major task of the third mission is cryogenic sample return from the polar area. The potential landing sites had to accommodate the 15x30 km landing ellipses and be within 70-85N, 30W-60E and 70-85S, 0-60E [Basilevsky et al., 2013]. In these regions a search based on analysis of LOLA altimetry, LROC NAC and WAC images and Mini-RF data led to finding several spots with rather smooth surfaces which then were tested by the LEND team [Mitrofanov 2011, 2012] to see if they show signatures of enrichment in H/H2O. At the next stage of the studies a floor of the 95-km crater Boguslavsky was studied. The H2O content here is not high, but this place is convenient for the test of the new soft landing technologies. These morphometric studies rely mostly on the data acquired by instruments of the U.S. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and their availability and usage were significantly facilitated through the Brown-Vernadsky/SSERVI interaction.

  10. Mission and Instrument Design Trades for a Space-based Gravitational Wave Observatory to Maximize Science Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey; Baker, John; Stebbins, Robin; Thorpe, James; Larson, Shane; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    A space-based gravitational wave observatory is required to access the rich array of astrophysical sources expected at frequencies between 0.0001 and 0.1 Hz. The European Space Agency (ESA) chose the Gravitational Universe as the science theme of its L3 launch opportunity. A call for mission proposals will be released soon after the completion of the LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission. LPF is scheduled to start science operations in March 2016, and finish by the end of the year, so an optimized mission concept is needed now. There are a number of possible design choices for both the instrument and the mission. One of the goals for a good mission design is to maximize the science return while minimizing risk and keeping costs low. This presentation will review some of the main design choices for a LISA-like laser interferometry mission and the impact of these choices on cost, risk, and science return.

  11. Cluster Science Archive: the ESA long term archive of the Cluster mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Arnaud; Escoubet, C. Philippe; Laakso, Harri

    2014-05-01

    The science data archive of the Cluster mission is a major contribution of the European Space Agency (ESA) to the International Living With a Star program. Known as the Cluster Active Archive (CAA), its availability since 2006 has resulted in a significant increase of the scientific return of this on-going mission. The Cluster science archive (CSA) has been developed in parallel to CAA over the last few years at the European Space Astronomy Center of ESA in Madrid, Spain. It is the long-term science archive of the Cluster mission developed and managed along with all the other ESA science missions data archives. CSA design and data services are based on the CAA interface and its user-friendly services. Publicly opened in November 2013, CSA is available in parallel to CAA during a transition period until CAA will be closed in spring 2014. It is the purpose of this presentation to first provide an overview of the various services offered by the Cluster Science Archive, including: data visualisation, VO support and command line capabilities (which enables data access via Matlab or IDL softwares). Upcoming services will then be presented (e.g. data streaming, particle distribution plot visualisation...). Support data related to on-going FP7 projects such as ECLAT and MAARBLE will be soon available on the CSA and will be briefly presented. Possible new services such as data mining will finally be evoked. This last point will hopefully lead to an open and lively debate about which services shall be offered to the scientific community by a space agency for a specific type of mission and what should be left to the community to develop.

  12. The Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR): Low Cost Science and Technology Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruddace, R. G.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cash, W.; Eberspeaker, P.; Figer, D.; Figueroa, O.; Harris, W.; Kowalski, M.; Maddox, R.; Martin, C.; McCammon, D.; Nordsieck, K.; Polidan, R.; Sanders, W.; Wilkinson, E.; Asrat

    2011-12-01

    The 50-year old NASA sounding rocket (SR) program has been successful in launching scientific payloads into space frequently and at low cost with a 85% success rate. In 2008 the NASA Astrophysics Sounding Rocket Assessment Team (ASRAT), set up to review the future course of the SR program, made four major recommendations, one of which now called Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR). ASRAT recommended a system capable of launching science payloads (up to 420 kg) into low Earth orbit frequently (1/yr) at low cost, with a mission duration of approximately 30 days. Payload selection would be based on meritorious high-value science that can be performed by migrating sub-orbital payloads to orbit. Establishment of this capability is a essential for NASA as it strives to advance technical readiness and lower costs for risk averse Explorers and flagship missions in its pursuit of a balanced and sustainable program and achieve big science goals within a limited fiscal environment. The development of a new generation of small, low-cost launch vehicles (SLV), primarily the SpaceX Falcon 1 and the Orbital Sciences Minotaur I has made this concept conceivable. The NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF)conducted a detailed engineering concept study, aimed at defining the technical characteristics of all phases of a mission, from design, procurement, assembly, test, integration and mission operations. The work was led by Dr. Raymond Cruddace, a veteran of the SR program and the prime mover of the EDSR concept. The team investigated details such as, the "FAA licensed contract" for launch service procurement, with WFF and NASA SMD being responsible for mission assurance which results in a factor of two cost savings over the current approach. These and other creative solutions resulted in a proof-of-concept Class D mission design that could have a sustained launch rate of at least 1/yr, a mission duration of up to about 3 months, and a total cost of $25-30 million for each mission

  13. The SMART Theory and Modeling Team: An Integrated Element of Mission Development and Science Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, J.; Denton, Richard E.; Drake, J.; Gombosi, T.; Hoshino, M.; Matthaeus, B.; Sibeck, D.

    2005-01-01

    When targeting physical understanding of space plasmas, our focus is gradually shifting away from discovery-type investigations to missions and studies that address our basic understanding of processes we know to be important. For these studies, theory and models provide physical predictions that need to be verified or falsified by empirical evidence. Within this paradigm, a tight integration between theory, modeling, and space flight mission design and execution is essential. NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is a pathfinder in this new era of space research. The prime objective of MMS is to understand magnetic reconnection, arguably the most fundamental of plasma processes. In particular, MMS targets the microphysical processes, which permit magnetic reconnection to operate in the collisionless plasmas that permeate space and astrophysical systems. More specifically, MMS will provide closure to such elemental questions as how particles become demagnetized in the reconnection diffusion region, which effects determine the reconnection rate, and how reconnection is coupled to environmental conditions such as magnetic shear angles. Solutions to these problems have remained elusive in past and present spacecraft missions primarily due to instrumental limitations - yet they are fundamental to the large-scale dynamics of collisionless plasmas. Owing to the lack of measurements, most of our present knowledge of these processes is based on results from modern theory and modeling studies of the reconnection process. Proper design and execution of a mission targeting magnetic reconnection should include this knowledge and have to ensure that all relevant scales and effects can be resolved by mission measurements. The SMART mission has responded to this need through a tight integration between instrument and theory and modeling teams. Input from theory and modeling is fed into all aspects of science mission design, and theory and modeling activities are tailored

  14. Precision Astrometry with SIM PlanetQuest: Science and Mission Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Unwin, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a science and mission update of precision Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) PlanetQuest. The topics include: 1) SIM PlanetQuest - the World s First Long- Baseline Optical Interferometer in Space; 2) National Academy of Sciences / NRC endorses SIM PlanetQuest; 3) Astrometry with an Interferometer; 4) Overall Configuration (deployed); 5) SIM Planet Finding Capabilities; 6) Planet detection with SIM - minimum masses; 7) Searching for Terrestrial Planets with SIM; 8) Planets around Young Stars; 9) SIM PlanetQuest Science Team; 10) SIM Astrophysics; 11) SIM's Reach Extends Across our Entire Galaxy to do Precision Astrophysics; 12) Dynamics of Galaxy Groups within 5 Mpc; 13) Galactic tidal tails; 14) Dark Halo of our Galaxy; 15) Probing Active Galactic Nuclei with Astrometry; 16) Sample tile for relative astrometry; 17) Astrometric signatures of AGN; 18) Snapshot Observing Mode: Astrometry for the masses; and 19) SIM Technology Development is Complete.

  15. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission: From Launch to the Primary Science Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Martin D.; Graf, James E.; Zurek, Richard W.; Eisen, Howard J.; Jai, Benhan; Erickson, James K.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA, aboard an Atlas V-401 launch vehicle on August 12, 2005. The MRO spacecraft carries a very sophisticated scientific payload. Its primary science mission is to to provide global, regional survey, and targeted observations from a low altitude orbit for one Martian year (687 Earth days). After a seven month interplanetary transit, the spacecraft fired its six main engines and established a highly elliptical capture orbit at Mars. During the post-MOI early check-out period, four instruments acquired engineering-quality data. This was followed by five months of aerobraking operations. After aerobraking was terminated, a series of propulsive maneuvers were used to establish the desired low altitude science orbit. As the spacecraft is readied for its primary science mission, spacecraft and instrument checkout and deployment activities have continued.

  16. C3 Performance of the Ares-I Launch Vehicle and its Capabilities for Lunar and Interplanetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. Dan

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Ares-I launch vehicle will be built to deliver the Orion spacecraft to Low-Earth orbit, servicing the International Space Station with crew-transfer and helping humans begin longer voyages in conjunction with the larger Ares-V. While there are no planned missions for Ares-I beyond these, the vehicle itself offers an additional capability for robotic exploration. Here we present an analysis of the capability of the Ares-I rocket for robotic missions to a variety of destinations, including lunar and planetary exploration, should such missions become viable in the future. Preliminary payload capabilities using both single and dual launch architectures are presented. Masses delivered to the lunar surface are computed along with throw capabilities to various Earth departure energies (i.e. C3s). The use of commercially available solid rocket motors as additional payload stages were analyzed and will also be discussed.

  17. Quantum vacuum polarization, nanotechnology and a robotic mission to Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    In order to achieve an interstellar flight mission it is necessary powerful propulsion technologies. The space between stars and the time for a flight are highly vast. As an example, the closest star to the Sun is α Cen C (known as Proxima Centauri) distant 4.2 light-years. It is a star with spectral type dM5e (a "reddish dwarf"), which makes part of a quasi-triple gravitational star system -together with α Cen A and α Cen B. Based on theoretical models and observa-tional data on stellar and planetary systems evolution, Proxima Centauri has the possibility of having a non-stellar companion (perhaps a Mars or Moon-sized object) orbiting close to it. So, here in this paper, I propose as a first interstellar flight reconnaissance mission, for testing new technologies and gathering of scientific data, it would be interesting a flyby-and-rendezvous mission to Proxima Centauri. . .