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Sample records for robust pore size

  1. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Lee, Elizabeth; Kallam, Alekhya; Majumdar, Partha; Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J.; Celina, Mathias C.; Bahr, James; Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  2. Tailoring the pore size of hypercrosslinked polymer foams

    SciTech Connect

    Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Mitchell, M.A.; Apen, P.G.

    1996-12-31

    Organic analogues to inorganic zeolites would be a significant step forward in engineered porous materials and would provide advantages in range, selectivity, tailorability and processing. Rigid molecular foams or organic zeolites would not be crystalline materials and could be tailored over a broader range of pore sizes and volumes. A novel process for preparing hypercrosslinked polymeric foams has been developed via a Friedel-Crafts polycondensation reaction. A series of rigid hypercrosslinked foams have been prepared using simple rigid polyaromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, biphenyl, m-terphenyl, diphenylmethane, and polystyrene, with p-dichloroxylene (DCX) or divinylbenzene (DVB) as the crosslinking agent. Transparent gels are formed suggesting a very small pore size. After drying the foams are robust and rigid. Densities of the resulting foams can range from 0.15 g/cc to 0.75 g/cc. Nitrogen adsorption studies have shown that by judiciously selecting monomers and crosslinking agent along with the level of crosslinking and the cure time of the resulting gel, the pore size, pore size distribution, and the total surface area of the foam can be tailored. Surface areas range from 160 to 1,200 m{sup 2}/g with pore sizes ranging from 6{angstrom} to 2,000{angstrom}. Further evidence of the uniformity of the foams and their pore sizes has been confirmed by high resolution TEM.

  3. Size dependent pore size distribution of shales by gas physisorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshan, Hamid; Andersen, Martin S.; Yu, Lu; Masoumi, Hossein; Arandian, Hamid

    2017-04-01

    Gas physisorption, in particular nitrogen adsorption-desorption, is a traditional technique for characterization of geomaterials including the organic rich shales. The low pressure nitrogen is used together with adsorption-desorption physical models to study the pore size distribution (PSD) and porosity of the porous samples. The samples are usually crushed to a certain fragment size to measure these properties however there is not yet a consistent standard size proposed for sample crushing. Crushing significantly increases the surface area of the fragments e.g. the created surface area is differentiated from that of pores using BET technique. In this study, we show that the smaller fragment sizes lead to higher cumulative pore volume and smaller pore diameters. It is also shown that some of the micro-pores are left unaccounted because of the correction of the external surface area. In order to illustrate this, the nitrogen physisorption is first conducted on the identical organic rich shale samples with different sizes: 20-25, 45-50 and 63-71 µm. We then show that such effects are not only a function of pore structure changes induced by crushing, but is linked to the inability of the physical models in differentiating between the external surface area (BET) and micro-pores for different crushing sizes at relatively low nitrogen pressure. We also discuss models currently used in nano-technology such as t-method to address this issue and their advantages and shortcoming for shale rock characterization.

  4. Preparation of mesoporous cadmium sulfide nanoparticles with moderate pore size

    SciTech Connect

    Han Zhaohui Zhu, Huaiyong; Shi, Jeffrey; Parkinson, Gordon; Lu, G.Q.

    2007-03-15

    The preparation of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles that have a moderate pore size is reported. This preparation method involves a hydrothermal process that produces a precursor mixture and a following acid treatment of the precursor to get the porous material. The majority of the particles have a pore size close to 20nm, which complements and fills in the gap between the existing cadmium sulfide materials, which usually have a pore size either less than 10nm or are well above 100nm.

  5. Decreasing transmembrane segment length greatly decreases perfringolysin O pore size

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Qingqing; Li, Huilin; Wang, Tong; London, Erwin

    2015-04-08

    Perfringolysin O (PFO) is a transmembrane (TM) β-barrel protein that inserts into mammalian cell membranes. Once inserted into membranes, PFO assembles into pore-forming oligomers containing 30–50 PFO monomers. These form a pore of up to 300 Å, far exceeding the size of most other proteinaceous pores. In this study, we found that altering PFO TM segment length can alter the size of PFO pores. A PFO mutant with lengthened TM segments oligomerized to a similar extent as wild-type PFO, and exhibited pore-forming activity and a pore size very similar to wild-type PFO as measured by electron microscopy and a leakage assay. In contrast, PFO with shortened TM segments exhibited a large reduction in pore-forming activity and pore size. This suggests that the interaction between TM segments can greatly affect the size of pores formed by TM β-barrel proteins. PFO may be a promising candidate for engineering pore size for various applications.

  6. Decreasing transmembrane segment length greatly decreases perfringolysin O pore size

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Qingqing; Li, Huilin; Wang, Tong; ...

    2015-04-08

    Perfringolysin O (PFO) is a transmembrane (TM) β-barrel protein that inserts into mammalian cell membranes. Once inserted into membranes, PFO assembles into pore-forming oligomers containing 30–50 PFO monomers. These form a pore of up to 300 Å, far exceeding the size of most other proteinaceous pores. In this study, we found that altering PFO TM segment length can alter the size of PFO pores. A PFO mutant with lengthened TM segments oligomerized to a similar extent as wild-type PFO, and exhibited pore-forming activity and a pore size very similar to wild-type PFO as measured by electron microscopy and a leakagemore » assay. In contrast, PFO with shortened TM segments exhibited a large reduction in pore-forming activity and pore size. This suggests that the interaction between TM segments can greatly affect the size of pores formed by TM β-barrel proteins. PFO may be a promising candidate for engineering pore size for various applications.« less

  7. Impact of pore size variability and network coupling on electrokinetic transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Shima; Bazant, Martin Z.; Mani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and validated an efficient and robust computational model to study the coupled fluid and ion transport through electrokinetic porous media, which are exposed to external gradients of pressure, electric potential, and concentration. In our approach a porous media is modeled as a network of many pores through which the transport is described by the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes equations. When the pore sizes are random, the interactions between various modes of transport may provoke complexities such as concentration polarization shocks and internal flow circulations. These phenomena impact mixing and transport in various systems including deionization and filtration systems, supercapacitors, and lab-on-a-chip devices. In this work, we present simulations of massive networks of pores and we demonstrate the impact of pore size variation, and pore-pore coupling on the overall electrokinetic transport in porous media.

  8. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga`s mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  9. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga's mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  10. Mechanical properties, pore size distribution, and pore solution of fly ash-belite cement mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, A.; Goni, S.; Macias, A.; Luxan, M.P.

    1999-11-01

    The mechanical properties, pore size distribution, and extracted pore solution of fly ash-belite cement (FABC) mortars were studied for a period of 200 days. The influence of the calcination temperature, which ranged from 700 to 900 C, of the fly ash-belite cement was discussed. The evolution with hydration time of the pore size distribution was followed by mercury intrusion porosimetry, and the results correlated with those of flexural and compressive strength. The pore solution was expressed and analyzed at different times of hydration.

  11. Effect of pore size on the performance of immobilised enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bayne, Lauren; Ulijn, Rein V; Halling, Peter J

    2013-12-07

    Porous materials are widely employed as supports in the immobilisation of enzymes. Traditionally macroporous materials with pore diameters >50 nm were believed to be the most suitable support material, ensuring no spatial restrictions upon enzyme molecules entering such large pores. In recent years however, there has been growing emphasis in the use of mesoporous supports with pore diameters ranging between 2 and 50 nm. It is thought this smaller pore range may offer enhanced conformational stability to immobilised enzymes while not being so small as to restrict enzyme access. Despite their increasing popularity, many argue that mesoporous materials have not yet proven superior to traditional macroporous supports for enzyme immobilisation. Through the design and application of a unique confidence rating system we were able to accurately compare data and establish trends between pore characteristics and protein loading. By analysing published data (182 experiments in total) and extracting pore characteristics and protein loading values, we have described three categories of pore diameters in which correlations between pore characteristics and protein loading are noted. With pore diameters less than 10 nm we see a general decrease in protein loading as the enzymes find physical restrictions in accessing the high surface offered in this pore diameter range. At pore sizes greater than 100 nm, protein loading generally decreases due to a concomitant reduction in available surface area. In the pore range of 10-100 nm there it is expected to see a decrease in protein loading level with increasing pore diameter. In fact protein loading in this range remains largely constant, suggesting some degree of protein-protein interaction blocking pores and restricting access to the increasing surface area available at decreasing pore diameters. No trends were established between pore characteristics and retention of activity.

  12. Pore size engineering applied to starved electrochemical cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    To maximize performance in starved, multiplate cells, the cell design should rely on techniques which widen the volume tolerance characteristics. These involve engineering capillary pressure differences between the components of an electrochemical cell and using these forces to promote redistribution of electrolyte to the desired optimum values. This can be implemented in practice by prescribing pore size distributions for porous back-up plates, reservoirs, and electrodes. In addition, electrolyte volume management can be controlled by incorporating different pore size distributions into the separator. In a nickel/hydrogen cell, the separator must contain pores similar in size to the small pores of both the nickel and hydrogen electrodes in order to maintain an optimum conductive path for the electrolyte. The pore size distributions of all components should overlap in such a way as to prevent drying of the separator and/or flooding of the hydrogen electrode.

  13. Size of diffusion pore of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, J; Nakae, T

    1988-01-01

    The diffusion pore of the outer membrane of Alcaligenes faecalis was shown to be substantially smaller than the Escherichia coli porin pore. In experiments with intact cells, pentoses and hexoses penetrated into the NaCl-expanded periplasm, whereas saccharides of Mr greater than 342 did not. Cells treated with 0.5 M saccharides of Mr greater than 342 weighed 33 to 38% less than cells treated with isotonic solution, suggesting that these saccharides do not permeate through the outer membrane. The diffusion rates of various solutes through the liposome membranes reconstituted from the Mr-43,000 outer membrane protein showed the following characteristics. (i) The relative diffusion rates of pentoses, hexoses, and methylhexoses appeared to be about 1.0, 0.6, and negligibly small, respectively. (ii) The diffusion rate of glucose appeared to be about 1/10th that with the E. coli B porin. (iii) The diffusion rate of gluconic acid was five to seven times higher than that of glucose. (iv) The diffusion rates of beta-lactam antibiotics appeared to be 40 to less than 10% of those with the E. coli B porin. Images PMID:2835003

  14. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    PubMed Central

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  15. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, David; Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías; Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K(+) channels discriminate K(+) over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K(+) channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K(+) channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K(+) channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance.

  16. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  17. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  18. A fast and robust new pore-network extraction method based on hybrid median axis and maximal inscribed ball techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofey, Sizonenko; Karsanina, Marina; Byuk, Irina; Gerke, Kirill

    2016-04-01

    To characterize pore structure relevant to single and multi-phase flow modelling it is of special interest to extract topology of the pore space. This is usually achieved using so-called pore-network models. Such models are useful not only to characterize pore space and pore size distributions, but also provide means to simulate flow and transport with very limited computational resources compared to other pore-scale modelling techniques. The main drawback of the pore-network approach is that they have first to simplify the pore space geometry. This crucial step is both time consuming and prone to numerous errors. Two most popular methods based on median axis or inscribed maximal balls have their own strong sides and disadvantages. To address aforementioned problems related to pore-network extraction here we propose a novel method utilizing the advantages of both popular approaches. Combining two algorithms resulted in much faster and robust extraction methodology. Moreover, we have found that accurate topology representation requires extension of the conventional pore-body and pore-throat classification. We test our new methodology using pore structures with "analytical solutions" such as different sphere packs. In addition, we rigorously compare it against inscribed maximal balls methodology's results using numerous 3D images of sandstone and carbonate rocks, soils and some other porous materials. Another verification includes permeability calculations which are also compared both against lab data and voxel based pore-scale modelling simulations. This work was partially supported by RFBR grant 15-34-20989 (X-ray tomography and image fusion) and RSF grant 14-17-00658 (image segmentation and pore-scale modelling).

  19. Porous Boron Nitride with Tunable Pore Size.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Wu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2014-01-16

    On the basis of a global structural search and first-principles calculations, we predict two types of porous boron-nitride (BN) networks that can be built up with zigzag BN nanoribbons (BNNRs). The BNNRs are either directly connected with puckered B (N) atoms at the edge (type I) or connected with sp(3)-bonded BN chains (type II). Besides mechanical stability, these materials are predicted to be thermally stable at 1000 K. The porous BN materials entail large surface areas, ranging from 2800 to 4800 m(2)/g. In particular, type-II BN material with relatively large pores is highly favorable for hydrogen storage because the computed hydrogen adsorption energy (-0.18 eV) is very close to the optimal adsorption energy (-0.15 eV) suggested for reversible hydrogen storage at room temperature. Moreover, the type-II materials are semiconductors with width-dependent direct bandgaps, rendering the type-II BN materials promising not only for hydrogen storage but also for optoelectronic and photonic applications.

  20. EFFECT OF PORE SIZE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPORS

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of pore size on pumping efficiency and zinc vapor trapping efficiency. A simple pumping efficiency test was conducted for all five pore diameters where it was observed that evacuation times were adversely affected by reducing the pore size below 5 {micro}m. Common test conditions for the zinc trapping efficiency experiments were used. These conditions resulted in some variability, to ascribe different efficiencies to the filter media. However, the data suggest that there is no significant difference in trapping efficiency for filter media with pores from 0.2 to 20 {micro}m with a thickness of 0.065-inch. Consequently, the 20 {micro}m pore filter media that is currently used at SRS is a suitable filter material for to utilize for future extractions. There is evidence that smaller pore filter will adversely affect the pumping times for the TEF and little evidence to suggest that a smaller pore diameters have significant impact on the trapping efficiency.

  1. Chitosan scaffolds: interconnective pore size and cartilage engineering.

    PubMed

    Griffon, Dominique J; Sedighi, M Reza; Schaeffer, David V; Eurell, Jo Ann; Johnson, Ann L

    2006-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of interconnective pore size on chondrocyte proliferation and function within chitosan sponges, and compare the potential of chitosan and polyglycolic acid (PGA) matrices for chondrogenesis. Six million porcine chondrocytes were seeded on each of 52 prewetted scaffolds consisting of chitosan sponges with (1) pores 10 microm in diameter (n=10, where n is the number of samples); (2) pores measuring 10-50 microm in diameter (n=10); and (3) pores measuring 70-120 microm in diameter (n=10), versus (4) polyglycolic acid mesh (n=22), as a positive control. Constructs were cultured for 28 days in a rotating bioreactor prior to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, and determination of their water, DNA, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen II contents. Parametric data was compared (p=0.05) with an ANOVA and Tukey's Studentized range test. PGA constructs consisted essentially of a matrix containing more cells than normal cartilage. Whereas very few remnants of PGA remained, chitosan scaffolds appeared intact. DNA and GAG concentrations were greater in PGA scaffolds than in any of the chitosan groups. However, chitosan sponges with the largest pores contained more chondrocytes, collagen II and GAG than the matrix with the smallest pores. Constructs produced with PGA contained less water and more GAG than all chitosan groups. Chondrocyte proliferation and metabolic activity improved with increasing interconnective pore size of chitosan matrices. In vitro chondrogenesis is possible with chitosan but the composition of constructs produced on PGA more closely approaches that of natural cartilage.

  2. Using radial NMR profiles to characterize pore size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deriche, Rachid; Treilhard, John

    2012-02-01

    Extracting information about axon diameter distributions in the brain is a challenging task which provides useful information for medical purposes; for example, the ability to characterize and monitor axon diameters would be useful in diagnosing and investigating diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)1 or autism.2 Three families of operators are defined by Ozarslan,3 whose action upon an NMR attenuation signal extracts the moments of the pore size distribution of the ensemble under consideration; also a numerical method is proposed to continuously reconstruct a discretely sampled attenuation profile using the eigenfunctions of the simple harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian: the SHORE basis. The work presented here extends Ozarlan's method to other bases that can offer a better description of attenuation signal behaviour; in particular, we propose the use of the radial Spherical Polar Fourier (SPF) basis. Testing is performed to contrast the efficacy of the radial SPF basis and SHORE basis in practical attenuation signal reconstruction. The robustness of the method to additive noise is tested and analysed. We demonstrate that a low-order attenuation signal reconstruction outperforms a higher-order reconstruction in subsequent moment estimation under noisy conditions. We propose the simulated annealing algorithm for basis function scale parameter estimation. Finally, analytic expressions are derived and presented for the action of the operators on the radial SPF basis (obviating the need for numerical integration, thus avoiding a spectrum of possible sources of error).

  3. Differences in soluble organic carbon chemistry in pore waters sampled from different pore size domains

    DOE PAGES

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Smith, A. P.; Tfaily, Malak; ...

    2017-01-11

    Spatial isolation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in different sized pores may be a mechanism by which otherwise labile carbon (C) could be protected in soils. When soil water content increases, the hydrologic connectivity of soil pores also increases, allowing greater transport of SOC and other resources from protected locations, to microbially colonized locations more favorable to decomposition. The heterogeneous distribution of specialized decomposers, C, and other resources throughout the soil indicates that the metabolism or persistence of soil C compounds is highly dependent on short-distance transport processes. The objective of this research was to characterize the complexity of Cmore » in pore waters held at weak and strong water tensions (effectively soil solution held behind coarse- and fine-pore throats, respectively) and evaluate the microbial decomposability of these pore waters. We saturated intact soil cores and extracted pore waters with increasing suction pressures to sequentially sample pore waters from increasingly fine pore domains. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry of the SOC was used to profile the major biochemical classes (i.e., lipids, proteins, lignin, carbohydrates, and condensed aromatics) of compounds present in the pore waters; some of these samples were then used as substrates for growth of Cellvibrio japonicus (DSMZ 16018), Streptomyces cellulosae (ATCC® 25439™), and Trichoderma reseei (QM6a) in 7 day incubations. The soluble C in finer pores was more complex than the soluble C in coarser pores, and the incubations revealed that the more complex C in these fine pores is not recalcitrant. The decomposition of this complex C led to greater losses of C through respiration than the simpler C from coarser pore waters. Our research suggests that soils that experience repeated cycles of drying and wetting may be accompanied by repeated cycles of increased CO2 fluxes that are driven by i) the transport of C from protected pools into

  4. Differences in soluble organic carbon chemistry in pore waters sampled from different pore size domains

    DOE PAGES

    Bailey, V. L.; Smith, A. P.; Tfaily, M.; ...

    2017-04-01

    Spatial isolation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in different sized pores may be a mechanism by which otherwise labile carbon (C) could be protected in soils. When soil water content increases, the hydrologic connectivity of soil pores also increases, allowing greater transport of SOC and other resources from protected locations, to microbially colonized locations more favorable to decomposition. The heterogeneous distribution of specialized decomposers, C, and other resources throughout the soil indicates that the metabolism or persistence of soil C compounds is highly dependent on short-distance transport processes. The objective of this research was to characterize the complexity of Cmore » in pore waters held at weak and strong water tensions (effectively soil solution held behind coarse- and fine-pore throats, respectively) and evaluate the microbial decomposability of these pore waters. We saturated intact soil cores and extracted pore waters with increasing suction pressures to sequentially sample pore waters from increasingly fine pore domains. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry of the SOC was used to profile the major biochemical classes (i.e., lipids, proteins, lignin, carbohydrates, and condensed aromatics) of compounds present in the pore waters; some of these samples were then used as substrates for growth of Cellvibrio japonicus (DSMZ 16018), Streptomyces cellulosae (ATCC® 25439™), and Trichoderma reseei (QM6a) in 7 day incubations. The soluble C in finer pores was more complex than the soluble C in coarser pores, and the incubations revealed that the more complex C in these fine pores is not recalcitrant. The decomposition of this complex C led to greater losses of C through respiration than the simpler C from coarser pore waters. Our research suggests that soils that experience repeated cycles of drying and wetting may result in patterns of CO2 fluxes that are driven by i) the transport of C from protected pools into active, ii) the chemical

  5. Pore-throat sizes in sandstones, tight sandstones, and shales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.

    2009-01-01

    Pore-throat sizes in silidclastic rocks form a continuum from the submillimeter to the nanometer scale. That continuum is documented in this article using previously published data on the pore and pore-throat sizes of conventional reservoir rocks, tight-gas sandstones, and shales. For measures of central tendency (mean, mode, median), pore-throat sizes (diameters) are generally greater than 2 μm in conventional reservoir rocks, range from about 2 to 0.03 μm in tight-gas sandstones, and range from 0.1 to 0.005 μm in shales. Hydrocarbon molecules, asphaltenes, ring structures, paraffins, and methane, form another continuum, ranging from 100 Å (0.01 μm for asphaltenes to 3.8 A (0.00038 μm) for methane. The pore-throat size continuum provides a useful perspective for considering (1) the emplacement of petroleum in consolidated siliciclastics and (2) fluid flow through fine-grained source rocks now being exploited as reservoirs.

  6. Pore size of agarose gels by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pernodet, N; Maaloum, M; Tinland, B

    1997-01-01

    The pore size of agarose gel in water at different concentrations was directly measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experiment was specially designed to work under aqueous conditions and allows direct observation of the "unperturbed" gel without invasive treatment. The pore size a as a function of gel concentration C shows a power law dependence a approximately C-gamma, where gamma lies between the prediction of the Ogston model for a random array of straight chains, 0.5, and the value predicted by De Gennes for a network of flexible chains, 0.75. We confirm that gels present a wide pore size distribution and show that it narrows as the concentration increases.

  7. Neutrons measure phase behavior in pores at Angstrom size

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoel, Agatha A; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have measured the phase behavior of green house gases in pores at the Angstrom-level, using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor. Yuri Melnichenko, an instrument scientist on the General Purpose Small Angle Neutron Scattering (GP SANS) Diffractometer at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor, his postdoctoral associate Lilin He and collaborators Nidia Gallego and Cristian Contescu from the Material Sciences Division (ORNL) were engaged in the work. They were studying nanoporous carbons to assess their attractiveness as storage media for hydrogen, with a view to potential use for on-board hydrogen storage for transportation applications. Nanoporous carbons can also serve as electrode material for supercapacitors and batteries. The researchers successfully determined that the most efficiently condensing pore size in a carbon nanoporous material for hydrogen storage is less than one nanometer. In a paper recently published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the collaborators used small angle neutron scattering to study how hydrogen condenses in small pores at ambient temperature. They discovered that the surface-molecule interactions create internal pressures in pores that may exceed the external gas pressure by a factor of up to 50. 'This is an exciting result,' Melnichenko said, 'as you achieve extreme densification in pores 'for free', i.e. without spending any energy. These results can be used to guide the development of new carbon adsorbents tailored to maximize hydrogen storage capacities.' Another important factor that defines the adsorption capacity of sub-nanometer pores is their shape. In order to get accurate structural information and maximize sorption capacity, it is important that pores are small and of approximately uniform size. In collaboration with Drexel University's Yury Gogotsi who supplied the samples, Melnichenko and his collaborators used the GP SANS

  8. Size effects of pore density and solute size on water osmosis through nanoporous membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kuiwen; Wu, Huiying

    2012-11-15

    Understanding the behavior of osmotic transport across nanoporous membranes at molecular level is critical to their design and applications, and it is also beneficial to the comprehension of the mechanism of biological transmembrane transport processes. Pore density is an important parameter for nanoporous membranes. To better understand the influence of pore density on osmotic transport, we have performed systematic molecular dynamics simulations on water osmosis across nanoporous membranes with different pore densities (i.e., number of pores per unit area of membrane). The simulation results reveal that significant size effects occur when the pore density is so high that the center-to-center distance between neighboring nanopores is comparable to the solute size. The size effects are independent of the pore diameter and solute concentration. A simple quantitative correlation between pore density, solute size, and osmotic flux has been established. The results are excellently consistent with the theoretical predictions. It is also shown that solute hydration plays an important role in real osmotic processes. Solute hydration strengthens the size effects of pore density on osmotic processes due to the enlarged effective solute size induced by hydration. The influence of pore density, solute size, and solute hydration on water osmosis through nanoporous membranes can be introduced to eliminate the deviations of real osmotic processes from ideal behavior.

  9. The Problem of Size in Robust Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Patrick N.; Allen, Janet K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Mavris, Dimitri

    1997-01-01

    To facilitate the effective solution of multidisciplinary, multiobjective complex design problems, a departure from the traditional parametric design analysis and single objective optimization approaches is necessary in the preliminary stages of design. A necessary tradeoff becomes one of efficiency vs. accuracy as approximate models are sought to allow fast analysis and effective exploration of a preliminary design space. In this paper we apply a general robust design approach for efficient and comprehensive preliminary design to a large complex system: a high speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft. Specifically, we investigate the HSCT wing configuration design, incorporating life cycle economic uncertainties to identify economically robust solutions. The approach is built on the foundation of statistical experimentation and modeling techniques and robust design principles, and is specialized through incorporation of the compromise Decision Support Problem for multiobjective design. For large problems however, as in the HSCT example, this robust design approach developed for efficient and comprehensive design breaks down with the problem of size - combinatorial explosion in experimentation and model building with number of variables -and both efficiency and accuracy are sacrificed. Our focus in this paper is on identifying and discussing the implications and open issues associated with the problem of size for the preliminary design of large complex systems.

  10. Pore size distribution in an uncompacted equilibrated ordinary chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, J.M.; Macke, R.J.; Wignarajah, D.P.; Rivers, M.L.; Britt, D.T.; Ebel, D.S.

    2008-05-30

    The extraordinarily uncompacted nature of the ordinary L chondrite fall Baszkowka gives a unique opportunity to investigate the potentially pre-compaction pore size distribution in an equilibrated ordinary chondrite. Using X-ray microtomography and helium pycnometry on two samples of Baszkowka, we have found that on average, two-thirds of the 19.0% porosity resides in inter- and intra-granular voids with volumes between {approx}3 x10{sup 05} and 3 mm{sup 3}. We show the cumulative number density of pore volumes observable by X-ray microtomography obeys a power law distribution function in this equilibrated ordinary chondrite. We foresee these data adding to our understanding of the impact processing of chondrites and their parent asteroids, where porosity and pore size play significant roles in the parameterization of impact events.

  11. Pore-size distributions of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Walther, D.H.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M. |

    1993-11-01

    Pore-size distributions have been measured for N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) hydrogels at 25 and 32{degrees}C with swelling capacities 11.3 and 6.0 g swollen gel per g dry gel. The mixed-solute-exclusion method (introduced by Kuga) was used to obtain the experimental solute-exclusion curve which represents the amount of imbibed liquid inside the gel inaccessible for a solute of radius r. The pore-size distributions were obtained by using Casassa`s Brownian-motion model and numerically solving the Fredholm integral equation. The pore-size distributions of temperature-sensitive NIPA hydrogels are strongly dependent on temperature which determines swelling capacity. With increasing swelling capacity (from 6.0 to 11.3), the pore-size distribution shifts to higher mode values (27.3 to 50.6 {angstrom}) and to higher variance (1.07{center_dot}10{sup 3} to 3.58{center_dot}10{sup 3} {angstrom}{sup 2}).

  12. A theoretical analysis and prediction of pore size and pore size distribution in electrospun multilayer nanofibrous materials.

    PubMed

    Bagherzadeh, Roohollah; Najar, Saeed Shaikhzadeh; Latifi, Masoud; Tehran, Mohammad Amani; Kong, Lingxue

    2013-07-01

    Electrospinning process can fabricate nanomaterials with unique nanostructures for potential biomedical and environmental applications. However, the prediction and, consequently, the control of the porous structure of these materials has been impractical due to the complexity of the electrospinning process. In this research, a theoretical model for characterizing the porous structure of the electrospun nanofibrous network has been developed by combining the stochastic and stereological probability approaches. From consideration of number of fiber-to-fiber contacts in an electrospun nanofibrous assembly, geometrical and statistical theory relating morphological and structural parameters of the network to the characteristic dimensions of interfibers pores is provided. It has been shown that these properties are strongly influenced by the fiber diameter, porosity, and thickness of assembly. It is also demonstrated that at a given network porosity, increasing fiber diameter and thickness of the network reduces the characteristic dimensions of pores. It is also discussed that the role of fiber diameter and number of the layer in the assembly is dominant in controlling the pore size distribution of the networks. The theory has been validated experimentally and results compared with the existing theory to predict the pore size distribution of nanofiber mats. It is believed that the presented theory for estimation of pore size distribution is more realistic and useful for further studies of multilayer random nanofibrous assemblies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Nanoporous carbide-derived carbon with tunable pore size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogotsi, Yury; Nikitin, Alexei; Ye, Haihui; Zhou, Wei; Fischer, John E.; Yi, Bo; Foley, Henry C.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2003-09-01

    Porous solids are of great technological importance due to their ability to interact with gases and liquids not only at the surface, but throughout their bulk. Although large pores can be produced and well controlled in a variety of materials, nanopores in the range of 2 nm and below (micropores, according to IUPAC classification) are usually achieved only in carbons or zeolites. To date, major efforts in the field of porous materials have been directed towards control of the size, shape and uniformity of the pores. Here we demonstrate that porosity of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) can be tuned with subångström accuracy in a wide range by controlling the chlorination temperature. CDC produced from Ti3SiC2 has a narrower pore-size distribution than single-wall carbon nanotubes or activated carbons; its pore-size distribution is comparable to that of zeolites. CDCs are produced at temperatures from 200-1,200 °C as a powder, a coating, a membrane or parts with near-final shapes, with or without mesopores. They can find applications in molecular sieves, gas storage, catalysts, adsorbents, battery electrodes, supercapacitors, water/air filters and medical devices.

  14. Nanoporous carbide-derived carbon with tunable pore size.

    PubMed

    Gogotsi, Yury; Nikitin, Alexei; Ye, Haihui; Zhou, Wei; Fischer, John E; Yi, Bo; Foley, Henry C; Barsoum, Michel W

    2003-09-01

    Porous solids are of great technological importance due to their ability to interact with gases and liquids not only at the surface, but throughout their bulk. Although large pores can be produced and well controlled in a variety of materials, nanopores in the range of 2 nm and below (micropores, according to IUPAC classification) are usually achieved only in carbons or zeolites. To date, major efforts in the field of porous materials have been directed towards control of the size, shape and uniformity of the pores. Here we demonstrate that porosity of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) can be tuned with subångström accuracy in a wide range by controlling the chlorination temperature. CDC produced from Ti3SiC2 has a narrower pore-size distribution than single-wall carbon nanotubes or activated carbons; its pore-size distribution is comparable to that of zeolites. CDCs are produced at temperatures from 200-1,200 degrees C as a powder, a coating, a membrane or parts with near-final shapes, with or without mesopores. They can find applications in molecular sieves, gas storage, catalysts, adsorbents, battery electrodes, supercapacitors, water/air filters and medical devices.

  15. Magnification of the pore size in biodegradable collagen sponges.

    PubMed

    Kuberka, M; von Heimburg, D; Schoof, H; Heschel, I; Rau, G

    2002-01-01

    In tissue engineering cells are often combined with a carrying structure with collagen being a suitable material to form a 3D-scaffold. A process to manufacture collagen sponges with an adjustable and homogeneous structure has been developed at the Helmholtz-Institute. Using this process, collagen suspensions are frozen directionally and subsequently vacuum-dried. One clinical application in which these scaffolds can be used is soft tissue reconstruction. Various soft tissue defects require an adequate replacement, e.g. in the case of severe burn wounds, or after tumour resections. Collagen (type I) sponges, which are cultured with preadipocytes, may be used to regenerate such defects. In this case, pore sizes of approximately 100 microm are desired to allow a complete differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Based on known technology to manufacture collagen sponges with an adjustable and homogeneous pore structure, research on the increase of pore size beyond the previous limit of 40 microm was necessary in order to enable soft tissue replacement. A scaffold with an average pore size of 100 microm was obtained.

  16. Multifractal Characteristics of Bimodal Mercury Pore Size Distribution Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Bonini, C.; Alves, M. C.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Characterization of Hg pore size distribution (PSDs) curves by monofractal or multifractal analysis has been demonstrated to be an useful tool, which allows a better understanding of the organization of the soil pore space. There are also evidences that multiscale analysis of different segments found in bimodal pore size distributions measured by Hg intrusion can provide further valuable information. In this study we selected bimodal PSDs from samples taken from an experimental area in São Paulo state, Brazil, where a revegetation trial was set up over saprolitic material. The saprolite was left abandoned after decapitation of an Oxisol for building purposes. The field trial consisted of various treatments with different grass species and amendments. Pore size distribution of the sampled aggregates was measured in the equivalent diameter range from 0.005 to about 50 μm and it was characterized by a bimodal pattern, so that two compartments, i.e. 0.005 to 0.2 μm and 0.2 to 50 μm, could be distinguished. The multifractal theory was used to analyse both segments. The scaling properties of these two segments could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. Multifractal parameters obtained for equivalent diameters for the segments > 0.2 and < 0.2 μm showed great differences. For example, entropy dimension, D1, values from the segment 0.005-0.2 μm were always lower than those for the segment 0.2-50 μm form NDI , whereas the Hólder exponent of order zero, α0, were higher for the former segment. These results indicate the probability different degrees of heterogeneity within the Hg pore size distributions studied.

  17. Simple thermal treatment for the size control of pore arrays in a polystyrene colloidal crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamiolkowski, Ryan M.; Fiorenza, Shane A.; Chen, Kevin; Tate, Alyssa M.; Pfeil, Shawn H.; Goldman, Yale E.

    Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) offers an attractive route to fabricating periodic structures with nanoscale features, without e-beam or deep UV lithography. In particular, it is uniquely suited to the low cost fabrication of large repeated arrays pores or pillars created by taking advantage of the interstitial spaces in close-packed monolayers of nano to micro-scale beads. However pore size, shape, and spacing cannot be controlled independently. We present both a robust method for producing large, approximately 1 cm2, hexagonally close packed monolayer films of 1 micron diameter polystyrene beads on glass substrates, and thermal treatment of these films near the glass temperature, Tg, of polystyrene to modify the pore size. This builds on earlier work showing that pore size can be modified for colloidal crystals formed at a liquid gas interface [2]. These processes promise a simple, reproducible, and low cost route to periodic pore arrays for nano-photonic applications such as zero mode waveguides (ZMWs) Funding: F30 AI114187 (RMJ), R01-GM080376 (YEG).

  18. Fabrication of Cell-Laden Macroporous Biodegradable Hydrogels with Tunable Porosities and Pore Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Lu, Steven; Lam, Johnny; Kasper, F. Kurtis

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigated a cytocompatible particulate leaching method for the fabrication of cell-laden macroporous hydrogels. We used dehydrated and uncrosslinked gelatin microspheres as leachable porogens to create macroporous oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogels. Varying gelatin content and size resulted in a wide range of porosities and pore sizes, respectively. Encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited high viability immediately following the fabrication process, and culture of cell-laden hydrogels revealed improved cell viability with increasing porosity. Additionally, the osteogenic potential of the encapsulated MSCs was evaluated over 16 days. Overall, this study presents a robust method for the preparation of cell-laden macroporous hydrogels with desired porosity and pore size for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25156274

  19. Relation between the ion size and pore size for an electric double-layer capacitor.

    PubMed

    Largeot, Celine; Portet, Cristelle; Chmiola, John; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Gogotsi, Yury; Simon, Patrice

    2008-03-05

    The research on electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC), also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors, is quickly expanding because their power delivery performance fills the gap between dielectric capacitors and traditional batteries. However, many fundamental questions, such as the relations between the pore size of carbon electrodes, ion size of the electrolyte, and the capacitance have not yet been fully answered. We show that the pore size leading to the maximum double-layer capacitance of a TiC-derived carbon electrode in a solvent-free ethyl-methylimmidazolium-bis(trifluoro-methane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI) ionic liquid is roughly equal to the ion size (approximately 0.7 nm). The capacitance values of TiC-CDC produced at 500 degrees C are more than 160 F/g and 85 F/cm(3) at 60 degrees C, while standard activated carbons with larger pores and a broader pore size distribution present capacitance values lower than 100 F/g and 50 F/cm(3) in ionic liquids. A significant drop in capacitance has been observed in pores that were larger or smaller than the ion size by just an angstrom, suggesting that the pore size must be tuned with sub-angstrom accuracy when selecting a carbon/ion couple. This work suggests a general approach to EDLC design leading to the maximum energy density, which has been now proved for both solvated organic salts and solvent-free liquid electrolytes.

  20. Molecular theory of size exclusion chromatography for wide pore size distributions.

    PubMed

    Sepsey, Annamária; Bacskay, Ivett; Felinger, Attila

    2014-02-28

    Chromatographic processes can conveniently be modeled at a microscopic level using the molecular theory of chromatography. This molecular or microscopic theory is completely general; therefore it can be used for any chromatographic process such as adsorption, partition, ion-exchange or size exclusion chromatography. The molecular theory of chromatography allows taking into account the kinetics of the pore ingress and egress processes, the heterogeneity of the pore sizes and polymer polydispersion. In this work, we assume that the pore size in the stationary phase of chromatographic columns is governed by a wide lognormal distribution. This property is integrated into the molecular model of size exclusion chromatography and the moments of the elution profiles were calculated for several kinds of pore structure. Our results demonstrate that wide pore size distributions have strong influence on the retention properties (retention time, peak width, and peak shape) of macromolecules. The novel model allows us to estimate the real pore size distribution of commonly used HPLC stationary phases, and the effect of this distribution on the size exclusion process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polyester scaffolds with bimodal pore size distribution for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sosnowski, Stanislaw; Woźniak, Piotr; Lewandowska-Szumieł, Małgorzata

    2006-06-16

    This paper presents a method for the preparation of porous poly(L-lactide)/poly[(L-lactide)-co-glycolide] scaffolds for tissue engineering. Scaffolds were prepared by a mold pressing-salt leaching technique from structured microparticles. The total porosity was in the range 70-85%. The pore size distribution was bimodal. Large pores, susceptible for osteoblasts growth and proliferation had the dimensions 50-400 microm. Small pores, dedicated to the diffusion of nutrients or/and metabolites of bone forming cells, as well as the products of hydrolysis of polyesters from the walls of the scaffold, had sizes in the range 2 nm-5 microm. The scaffolds had good mechanical strength (compressive modulus equal to 41 MPa and a strength of 1.64 MPa for 74% porosity). Scaffolds were tested in vitro with human osteoblast-like cells (MG-63). It was found that the viability of cells seeded within the scaffolds obtained using the mold pressing-salt leaching technique from structured microparticles was better when compared to cells cultured in scaffolds obtained by traditional methods. After 34 d of culture, cells within the tested scaffolds were organized in a tissue-like structure. Photos of section of macro- and mesoporous PLLA/PLGA scaffold containing 50 wt.-% of PLGA microspheres after 34 d of culture. Dark spots mark MG-63 cells, white areas belong to the scaffold. The specimen was stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Bar = 100 microm.

  2. Pore Size Determination Using Frequency-Dependent Electro-Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reppert, P. M.; Morgan, F. D.

    2001-12-01

    Frequency-dependent electro-osmosis has the potential for use as an alternative method for determining the average pore size of porous media. It has been previously shown for the frequency-dependent streaming potential case that the frequency response of the streaming potential coupling coefficient is directly related to the pore size of the rock. However, a drawback to using frequency-dependent streaming potentials is that it is difficult to generate sufficient pressures at intermediate frequencies where both mechanical and piezoelectric devices are not efficient. Frequency-dependent electro-osmosis does not have this problem since the driving electric field can efficiently be applied in the frequency range of interest. Although the underlying physics of both the frequency-dependent electro-osmosis and frequency-dependent streaming potential cases are similar, there are differences in their frequency responses. Similar to the frequency-dependent streaming potential case, it is shown that the electro-osmosis frequency-dependent coupling coefficient is constant with increasing frequency until the critical frequency is reached, at which time the coupling coefficient starts to decrease with increasing frequency. The frequency response of the electro-osmosis coupling coefficient is dependent on the capillary radius. As the capillary radius decreases, the rollover frequency increases. The theory is developed that demonstrates the rollover frequency for the electro-osmosis frequency response is higher than that for the related streaming potential frequency response for the same size capillary. It is shown that this higher rollover frequency is due to the presence of velocity zeros within the bulk fluid of the capillary which serve to reduce the effective radius of the capillary. Data is presented for a 0.127 mm capillary that supports the theoretical findings. Frequency-dependent electro-osmosis can be used for the laboratory determination of average pore sizes of rocks

  3. Determination of the pore size distribution and porosity of aerobic granules using size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Ming; Yu, Han-Qing

    2007-01-01

    The pore size distribution and porosity of aerobic granules with different diameters were evaluated using size-exclusion chromatography, in which polyethylene glycols and distilled water were, respectively, used as solute and mobile phase. The porosity of the aerobic granules varied from 68% to 93% and the exclusion limit, expressed as molecular mass, showed a significant difference. For the small-size granules with a diameter of 0.2-0.6mm, molecules greater than 137,000Da could not penetrate the pores, while the exclusion limits of the middle-size granules with a diameter of 0.6-0.9mm and large-size ones with a diameter of 0.9-1.5mm were 76,000 and 29,000Da, respectively. The extracellular polymeric substances of the granules might clog the pores and might be responsible for the reduced porosity. A correlation between the bioactivity and available porosity of the aerobic granules was found. The experimental results show that the size-exclusion chromatography was appropriate for elucidating the pore size distribution and porosity of the aerobic granules.

  4. An undulation theory for condensation in open end slit pores: critical hysteresis temperature & critical hysteresis pore size.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunyan; Zeng, Yonghong; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2014-06-28

    A new theory of condensation in an open end slit pore, based on the concept of temperature dependent undulation, at the interface separating the adsorbed phase and the gas-like region, is presented. The theory, describes, for the first time, the microscopic origin of the critical hysteresis temperature and the critical hysteresis pore size, properties which are not accessible to any classical theories.

  5. Effects of pore size on the adsorption of hydrogen in slit pores of constant width and varying height

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, J.T.; Natesakhawat, S.; Smith, M.R.; Bittner, E.W.; Matranga, C.S.; Bockrath, B.C.

    2007-08-01

    The effects of pore size on the hydrogen storage properties of a series of pillared layered solids were investigated at 77 K and 87 K up to a pressure of 1 atm. The isotherms were fit to the Langmuir-Freundlich equation and extrapolated to determine saturation values. The materials studied are based on the M(L)[M'(CN)4] structural motif, where M = Co or Ni, L = pyrazine (pyz), 4,4'bipyridine (bpy) or 4,4'-dipyridylacetylene (dpac), and M' = Ni, Pd or Pt. The compounds all possess slit like pores with constant inplane dimensions and pore heights that vary as a function of (L). The pyz pillared materials with the smallest pore dimensions store hydrogen at a pore density similar to the bulk liquid. The adsorbed hydrogen density drops by a factor of two as the relative pore size is tripled in the dpac material. The decreased storage efficiency diminishes the expected gravimetric gain in capacity for the larger pore materials. The heats of adsorption were found to range from 6 to 8 kJ/mol in the series, and weakly correlate with pore size.

  6. Sebum output as a factor contributing to the size of facial pores.

    PubMed

    Roh, M; Han, M; Kim, D; Chung, K

    2006-11-01

    Many endogenous and exogenous factors are known to cause enlarged pilosebaceous pores. Such factors include sex, genetic predisposition, ageing, chronic ultraviolet light exposure, comedogenic xenobiotics, acne and seborrhoea. This study was an attempt to determine the factors related to enlarged pores. To assess the relationship of sebum output, age, sex, hormonal factors and severity of acne with pore size. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. A total of 60 volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, were recruited for this study. Magnified images of pores were taken using a dermoscopic video camera and measured using an image analysis program. The sebum output level was measured with a Sebumeter. Using multiple linear regression analysis, increased pore size was significantly associated with increased sebum output level, sex and age. Among the variables, sebum output level correlated most with the pore size followed by male sex. In comparing male and female participants, males had higher correlation between the sebum output level and the pore size (male: r = 0.47, female: r = 0.38). Thus, additional factors seem to influence pore size in females. Pore size was significantly increased during the ovulation phase (P = 0.008), but severity of acne was not significantly associated with the pore size. Enlarged pore sizes are associated with increased sebum output level, age and male sex. In female patients, additional hormonal factors, such as those of the menstrual cycle, affect the pore size.

  7. Catalytic reforming catalyst with modified pore size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Unmuth, E.E.; Fleming, B.A.

    1987-10-27

    In a naphtha reforming catalyst having at least one catalytic metal deposited on a porous solid catalyst support, an improvement is described which comprises the catalyst having the following in combination: (A) a surface area above about 250M/sup 2//gram of catalyst; (B) A pore volume above about 0.4 cc/gram of catalyst in pores having diameters of from about 30 angstroms to about 38,000 angstroms; and (C) A pore volume distribution wherein about 70 percent or less of the pore volume is in pores having diameters of from about 30 angstroms to about 400 angstroms, and 30 percent or more of the pore volume is in pores having diameters of from about 400 angstroms to about 38,000 angstroms.

  8. Effect of pore size distribution on enzyme immobilization in porous supports

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.J.; Wu, T.C. ); Chiang, C.L. )

    1989-09-01

    The objective of this study is to improve Clark's model by incorporating a pore size distribution into the pore central core restricted diffusion model. By using a refined equation for the void cross-sectional area of pore, the authors recalculate the amount of enzyme immobilized vs. time on stream. In addition, a real pore size distribution of silica supports is measured to investigate the deviation of the loaded amount of enzyme predicted by Clark's model.

  9. Pore size and pore throat types in a heterogeneous dolostone reservoir, Devonian Grosmont formation, western Canada sedimentary basin

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, P.; Machel, H. G.

    1995-11-01

    The Devonian Grosmont Formation in northeastern Alberta, Canada, is a giant heavy-oil reservoir. The main reservoir rocks are dolomitized and karstified platform and ramp carbonates, and the best reservoir facies occur in the upper Grosmont (UGM) units 3 and 2. In these units, reservoir properties are highly heterogeneous. Hand specimen, thin section, UV, and SEM petrography, as well as grading scales, mercury capillary pressure curve analysis, and statistics, have been used to characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Our investigation led to a new pore size classification for carbonate reservoirs; this new classification has four pore sizes: microporosity (pore diameters <1 {mu}m), mesoporosity (pore diameters 1-1000 {mu}m), macroporosity (pore diameters 1-256 mm), and megaporosity (pore diameters >256 mm). A combination of microscopic observations and capillary pressure curve characteristics led to the recognition of four pore throat texture types on the microporosity scale, and to five types on the mesoporosity scale. Microporosity pore types include (1) intracrystal dissolution porosity, (2) pervasive intercrystal and intracrystal dissolution porosity, (3) intergranular and/or intercrystal porosity in grainstones, and (4) primary or solution microporosity in mud matrix (only in limestones). Mesoporosity pore types include (1) intercrystal porosity, (2) solution-enhanced intercrystal porosity, (3) oversized porosity, (4) intragranular solution porosity, and (5) intergranular solution porosity. Some of these types are homogeneous (e.g., non-fabric selective dissolution porosity and intercrystal primary porosity), whereas others are heterogeneous. Generally, hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is good in the homogeneous pore throat types, but poor in the heterogeneous types.

  10. Accurate relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation and the evaporation of nitrogen in cylindrical pores.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Tateishi, Masayoshi

    2006-04-25

    To examine the theoretical and semiempirical relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation or evaporation proposed so far, we constructed an accurate relation between the pore radius and the capillary condensation and evaporation pressure of nitrogen at 77 K for the cylindrical pores of the ordered mesoporous MCM-41 and SBA-15 silicas. Here, the pore size was determined from a comparison between the experimental and calculated X-ray diffraction patterns due to X-ray structural modeling recently developed. Among the many theoretical relations that differ from each other in the degree of theoretical improvements, a macroscopic thermodynamic approach based on Broekhoff-de Boer equations was found to be in fair agreement with the experimental relation obtained in the present study.

  11. Idealized Shale Sorption Isotherm Measurements to Determine Pore Volume, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R.; Wang, B.; Aljama, H.; Rupp, E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One method for mitigating the impacts of anthropogenic CO2-related climate change is the sequestration of CO2 in depleted gas and oil reservoirs, including shale. The accurate characterization of the heterogeneous material properties of shale, including pore volume, surface area, pore size distributions (PSDs) and composition is needed to understand the interaction of CO2 with shale. Idealized powdered shale sorption isotherms were created by varying incremental amounts of four essential components by weight. The first two components, organic carbon and clay, have been shown to be the most important components for CO2 uptake in shales. Organic carbon was represented by kerogen isolated from a Silurian shale, and clay groups were represented by illite from the Green River shale formation. The rest of the idealized shale was composed of equal parts by weight of SiO2 to represent quartz and CaCO3 to represent carbonate components. Baltic, Eagle Ford, and Barnett shale sorption measurements were used to validate the idealized samples. The idealized and validation shale sorption isotherms were measured volumetrically using low pressure N2 (77K) and CO2 (273K) adsorbates on a Quantachrome Autosorb IQ2. Gravimetric isotherms were also produced for a subset of these samples using CO2 and CH4adsorbates under subsurface temperature and pressure conditions using a Rubotherm magnetic suspension balance. Preliminary analyses were inconclusive in validating the idealized samples. This could be a result of conflicting reports of total organic carbon (TOC) content in each sample, a problem stemming from the heterogeneity of the samples and different techniques used for measuring TOC content. The TOC content of the validation samples (Eagle Ford and Barnett) was measured by Rock-Eval pyrolysis at Weatherford Laboratories, while the TOC content in the Baltic validation samples was determined by LECO TOC. Development of a uniform process for measuring TOC in the validation samples is

  12. Unified method for the total pore volume and pore size distribution of hierarchical zeolites from argon adsorption and mercury intrusion.

    PubMed

    Kenvin, Jeffrey; Jagiello, Jacek; Mitchell, Sharon; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2015-02-03

    A generalized approach to determine the complete distribution of macropores, mesopores, and micropores from argon adsorption and mercury porosimetry is developed and validated for advanced zeolite catalysts with hierarchically structured pore systems in powder and shaped forms. Rather than using a fragmented approach of simple overlays from individual techniques, a unified approach that utilizes a kernel constructed from model isotherms and model intrusion curves is used to calculate the complete pore size distribution and the total pore volume of the material. An added benefit of a single full-range pore size distribution is that the cumulative pore area and the area distribution are also obtained without the need for additional modeling. The resulting complete pore size distribution and the kernel accurately model both the adsorption isotherm and the mercury porosimetry. By bridging the data analysis of two primary characterization tools, this methodology fills an existing gap in the library of familiar methods for porosity assessment in the design of materials with multilevel porosity for novel technological applications.

  13. Prediction of Hydraulic Conductivity as Related to Pore Size Distribution in Unsaturated Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil pore volume as well as pore size, shape, type (i.e. biopore versus crack), continuity, and distribution in soil affect soil water and gas exchange. Vertical and lateral drainage of water by gravitational forces occurs through large, non-capillary soil pores, but redistribution and upward moveme...

  14. Direct Measurement of the Critical Pore Size in a Model Membrane.

    PubMed

    Ilton, Mark; DiMaria, Christian; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2016-12-16

    We study pore nucleation in a model membrane system, a freestanding polymer film. Nucleated pores smaller than a critical size close, while pores larger than the critical size grow. Holes of varying size were purposefully prepared in liquid polymer films, and their evolution in time was monitored using optical and atomic force microscopy to extract a critical radius. The critical radius scales linearly with film thickness for a homopolymer film. The results agree with a simple model which takes into account the energy cost due to surface area at the edge of the pore. The energy cost at the edge of the pore is experimentally varied by using a lamellar-forming diblock copolymer membrane. The underlying molecular architecture causes increased frustration at the pore edge resulting in an enhanced cost of pore formation.

  15. Direct Measurement of the Critical Pore Size in a Model Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilton, Mark; DiMaria, Christian; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2016-12-01

    We study pore nucleation in a model membrane system, a freestanding polymer film. Nucleated pores smaller than a critical size close, while pores larger than the critical size grow. Holes of varying size were purposefully prepared in liquid polymer films, and their evolution in time was monitored using optical and atomic force microscopy to extract a critical radius. The critical radius scales linearly with film thickness for a homopolymer film. The results agree with a simple model which takes into account the energy cost due to surface area at the edge of the pore. The energy cost at the edge of the pore is experimentally varied by using a lamellar-forming diblock copolymer membrane. The underlying molecular architecture causes increased frustration at the pore edge resulting in an enhanced cost of pore formation.

  16. Measurement of variation in soil solute tracer concentration across a range of effective pore sizes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Judson W.

    1993-01-01

    Solute transport concepts in soil are based on speculation that solutes are distributed nonuniformly within large and small pores. Solute concentrations have not previously been measured across a range of pore sizes and examined in relation to soil hydrological properties. For this study, modified pressure cells were used to measure variation in concentration of a solute tracer across a range of pore sizes. Intact cores were removed from the site of a field tracer experiment, and soil water was eluted from 10 or more discrete classes of pore size. Simultaneous changes in water content and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were determined on cores using standard pressure cell techniques. Bromide tracer concentration varied by as much as 100% across the range of pore sizes sampled. Immediately following application of the bromide tracer on field plots, bromide was most concentrated in the largest pores; concentrations were lower in pores of progressively smaller sizes. After 27 days, bromide was most dilute in the largest pores and concentrations were higher in the smaller pores. A sharp, threefold decrease in specific water capacity during elution indicated separation of two major pore size classes at a pressure of 47 cm H2O and a corresponding effective pore diameter of 70 μm. Variation in tracer concentration, on the other hand, was spread across the entire range of pore sizes investigated in this study. A two-porosity characterization of the transport domain, based on water retention criteria, only broadly characterized the pattern of variation in tracer concentration across pore size classes during transport through a macroporous soil.

  17. Meristem size contributes to the robustness of phyllotaxis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Landrein, Benoit; Refahi, Yassin; Besnard, Fabrice; Hervieux, Nathan; Mirabet, Vincent; Boudaoud, Arezki; Vernoux, Teva; Hamant, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Using the plant model Arabidopsis, the relationship between day length, the size of the shoot apical meristem, and the robustness of phyllotactic patterns were analysed. First, it was found that reducing day length leads to an increased meristem size and an increased number of alterations in the final positions of organs along the stem. Most of the phyllotactic defects could be related to an altered tempo of organ emergence, while not affecting the spatial positions of organ initiations at the meristem. A correlation was also found between meristem size and the robustness of phyllotaxis in two accessions (Col-0 and WS-4) and a mutant (clasp-1), independent of growth conditions. A reduced meristem size in clasp-1 was even associated with an increased robustness of the phyllotactic pattern, beyond what is observed in the wild type. Interestingly it was also possible to modulate the robustness of phyllotaxis in these different genotypes by changing day length. To conclude, it is shown first that robustness of the phyllotactic pattern is not maximal in the wild type, suggesting that, beyond its apparent stereotypical order, the robustness of phyllotaxis is regulated. Secondly, a role for day length in the robustness of the phyllotaxis was also identified, thus providing a new example of a link between patterning and environment in plants. Thirdly, the experimental results validate previous model predictions suggesting a contribution of meristem size in the robustness of phyllotaxis via the coupling between the temporal sequence and spatial pattern of organ initiations. PMID:25504644

  18. Pore invasion dynamics during fluid front displacement in porous media determine functional pore size distribution and phase entrapment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, F.; Or, D.

    2012-12-01

    Dynamics of fluid fronts in porous media shape transport properties of the unsaturated zone and affect management of petroleum reservoirs and their storage properties. What appears macroscopically as smooth and continuous motion of a displacement fluid front may involve numerous rapid interfacial jumps often resembling avalanches of invasion events. Direct observations using high-speed camera and pressure sensors in sintered glass micro-models provide new insights on the influence of flow rates, pore size, and gravity on invasion events and on burst size distribution. Fundamental differences emerge between geometrically-defined pores and "functional" pores invaded during a single burst (invasion event). The waiting times distribution of individual invasion events and decay times of inertial oscillations (following a rapid interfacial jump) are characteristics of different displacement regimes. An invasion percolation model with gradients and including the role of inertia provide a framework for linking flow regimes with invasion sequences and phase entrapment. Model results were compared with measurements and with early studies on invasion burst sizes and waiting times distribution during slow drainage processes by Måløy et al. [1992]. The study provides new insights into the discrete invasion events and their weak links with geometrically-deduced pore geometry. Results highlight factors controlling pore invasion events that exert strong influence on macroscopic phenomena such as front morphology and residual phase entrapment shaping hydraulic properties after the passage of a fluid front.

  19. Two micron pore size MCP-based image intensifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, John; Estrera, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Image intensifiers (I2) have many advantages as detectors. They offer single photon sensitivity in an imaging format, they're light in weight and analog I2 systems can operate for hours on a single AA battery. Their light output is such as to exploit the peak in color sensitivity of the human eye. Until recent developments in CMOS sensors, they also were one of the highest resolution sensors available. The closest all solid state solution, the Texas Instruments Impactron chip, comes in a 1 megapixel format. Depending on the level of integration, an Impactron based system can consume 20 to 40 watts in a system configuration. In further investing in I2 technology, L-3 EOS determined that increasing I2 resolution merited a high priority. Increased I2 resolution offers the system user two desirable options: 1) increased detection and identification ranges while maintaining field-of-view (FOV) or 2) increasing FOV while maintaining the original system resolution. One of the areas where an investment in resolution is being made is in the microchannel plate (MCP). Incorporation of a 2 micron MCP into an image tube has the potential of increasing the system resolution of currently fielded systems. Both inverting and non-inverting configurations are being evaluated. Inverting tubes are being characterized in night vision goggle (NVG) and sights. The non-inverting 2 micron tube is being characterized for high resolution I2CMOS camera applications. Preliminary measurements show an increase in the MTF over a standard 5 micron pore size, 6 micron pitch plate. Current results will be presented.

  20. A general diagram for estimating pore size of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1982-01-01

    A slit sieve model has been used to develop a general correlation between the average pore size of the upstream surface of a membrane and the molecular weight of the solute which it retains by better than 80%. The pore size is determined by means of the correlation using the high retention data from an ultrafiltration (UF) or a reverse osmosis (RO) experiment. The pore population density can also be calculated from the flux data via appropriate equations.

  1. A general diagram for estimating pore size of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1982-01-01

    A slit sieve model has been used to develop a general correlation between the average pore size of the upstream surface of a membrane and the molecular weight of the solute which it retains by better than 80%. The pore size is determined by means of the correlation using the high retention data from an ultrafiltration (UF) or a reverse osmosis (RO) experiment. The pore population density can also be calculated from the flux data via appropriate equations.

  2. Processing and Characterization of Porous Ti2AlC with Controlled Porosity and Pore Size

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-11

    fabricated by spark plasma sintering , were also characterized. The effects of porosity and/or pore size on the room temperature elastic moduli...pressureless- sintered without NaCl pore former, or fabricated by spark plasma sintering , were also characterized. The effects of porosity and/or pore size...as well as several samples sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS). Furthermore, we demon- strate that the developed methodology can be implemented

  3. Water and Solute Transport Governed by Tunable Pore Size Distributions in Nanoporous Graphene Membranes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Doojoon; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit

    2017-10-10

    Nanoporous graphene has the potential to advance membrane separations by offering high selectivity with minimal resistance to flow, but how mass transport depends on the structure of pores in this atomically thin membrane is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the relationship between tunable pore creation using ion bombardment and oxygen plasma etching, the resulting pore size distributions, and the consequent water and solute transport. Through tuning of the pore creation process, we demonstrate nanofiltration membranes that reject small molecules but offer high permeance to water or monovalent ions. Theoretical multiscale modeling of transport across the membranes reveals a disproportionate contribution of large pores to osmotic water flux and diffusive solute transport and captures the observed trends in transport measurements except for the smallest pores. This work provides insights into the effects of graphene pore size distribution and support layer on transport and presents a framework for designing atomically thin membranes.

  4. Study into the correlation of dominant pore throat size and SIP relaxation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruschwitz, Sabine; Prinz, Carsten; Zimathies, Annett

    2016-12-01

    There is currently a debate within the SIP community about the characteristic textural length scale controlling relaxation time of consolidated porous media. One idea is that the relaxation time is dominated by the pore throat size distribution or more specifically the modal pore throat size as determined in mercury intrusion capillary pressure tests. Recently new studies on inverting pore size distributions from SIP data were published implying that the relaxation mechanisms and controlling length scale are well understood. In contrast new analytical model studies based on the Marshall-Madden membrane polarization theory suggested that two relaxation processes might compete: the one along the short narrow pore (the throat) with one across the wider pore in case the narrow pores become relatively long. This paper presents a first systematically focused study into the relationship of pore throat sizes and SIP relaxation times. The generality of predicted trends is investigated across a wide range of materials differing considerably in chemical composition, specific surface and pore space characteristics. Three different groups of relaxation behaviors can be clearly distinguished. The different behaviors are related to clay content and type, carbonate content, size of the grains and the wide pores in the samples.

  5. Microporous polyphenylenes with tunable pore size for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shengwen; Dorney, Brian; White, Desiree; Kirklin, Scott; Zapol, Peter; Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia

    2010-07-07

    A series of highly porous polymers with similar BET surface areas of higher than 1000 m(2) g(-1) but tunable pore ranging from 0.7 nm to 0.9 nm were synthesized through facile ethynyl trimerization reaction to demonstrate the surface property-hydrogen adsorption relationship.

  6. Microporous polyphenylenes with tunable pore size for hydrogen storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, S.; Dorney, B.; White, D.; Kirklin, S.; Zapol, P.; Yu, L.; Liu, D. J.; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-01-01

    A series of highly porous polymers with similar BET surface areas of higher than 1000 m2 g-1 but tunable pore ranging from 0.7 nm to 0.9 nm were synthesized through facile ethynyl trimerization reaction to demonstrate the surface property-hydrogen adsorption relationship.

  7. Slow Desorption of Phenanthrene from Silica Particles: Influence of Pore Size, Pore Water, and Aging Time

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Fortman, Timothy J.; Riley, Robert G.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Wang, Zheming; Truex, Michael J.; Peyton, Brent M.

    2006-01-16

    When micro-porous and meso-porous silica particles were exposed to aqueous phenanthrene solutions for various durations it was observed that sorbed-phase phenanthrene concentrations increased with aging time only for meso-porous but not micro-porous silicas. Desorption equilibrium was reached almost instantaneously for the micro-porous particles while both the rate and extent of desorption decreased with increasing aging time for the meso-porous silicas. These findings indicate that phenanthrene can be sequestered within the internal pore-space of meso-porous silicas while the internal surfaces of micro-porous silicas are not accessible to phenanthrene sorption, possibly due to the presence of physi- or chemi-sorbed water that may sterically hinder the diffusion of phenanthrene inside water-filled micro-pores. By contrast, the internal surfaces of these micro-porous silicas are accessible to phenanthrene when aging methods are employed which assure that pores are devoid of physi-sorbed water. Consequently, when phenanthrene was incorporated into these particles using either supercritical CO2 or via solvent soaking, the aqueous desorption kinetics were extremely slow indicating effective sequestration of phenanthrene inside micro-porous particles. Finally, a two-compartment conceptual model is used to interpret the experimental findings.

  8. Study on pore characteristics and microstructure of sandstones with different grain sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huigui; Li, Huamin; Gao, Baobin; Wang, Wen; Liu, Chuang

    2017-01-01

    The grain sizes have a pronounced influence on the pore characteristics and microstructure of sandstone. This work examined the pore structure and characteristics of three kinds of sandstones with different grain sizes using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods and analyzed their grain size distributions, pore size distributions, T2-distributions, and porosity variations. The experimental results showed that sandstones with different grain sizes have significant differences in the microstructures grain size distribution, pore size distribution, T2-distribution, and porosity variation. The results show that coarse, medium and fine sandstones have two peaks in T2-distributions, mean grain size of 398.5, 145.1 and 25.1 μm, respectively, mean pore size of 46.3, 25.9, and 8.4 μm, respectively, porosity of 7.52%, 5.88% and 1.55%, respectively, indicating that both coarse and medium sandstones contain big pores, while fine sandstone contains small pores. This study is of significance for understanding of water migration characteristics in aquifers and gas in coal seams after the working face exploitation.

  9. Changes in pore size distribution inside sludge under various ultrasonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Cheng, Daolai

    2017-09-01

    The pore size distribution is quite significant for determining the transport capacity of heat and moisture in sludge during the drying process. It is crucial to investigate the transformation of the pore size in sludge under sonication. In this paper, the microstructures of pores inside sludge before and after ultrasonic treatment with various ultrasonic conditions were observed using a microscope. Fractal geometry and image analysis were combined to quantitatively identify the evolution of pore size in sludge undergoing various acoustic energy densities and treatment times. The surface fractal dimension (df) was applied to characterize the pore size distribution of sludge. The results confirmed that sonication has a positive influence on the characteristics of pore structure inside the sludge and that the average pore size increases with increasing ultrasonic energy level, as determined by both acoustic energy density and treatment time. The df appropriately characterizes and quantifies the evolution of the pore size distribution of sludge under various ultrasonic conditions. This work is quite valuable for further investigating and evaluating moisture removal in the sludge drying process assisted by ultrasonic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pore-size distribution in loamy soils: A comparison between microtomographic and capillarimetric determination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shein, E. V.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Dembovetskii, A. V.; Abrosimov, K. N.; Il'in, L. I.; Shnyrev, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    Pore-size distribution in a soddy-podzolic silt loamy soil developing from mantle loesslike loam (Eutric Albic Retisol (Loamic, Cutanic)) was calculated from the water retention curve according to Jurin's equation and directly determined in microtomographic experiments. Rounded macropores with the diameter of their sections from 75 to 1000 μm predominate in horizontal sections if the studied soil samples. A larger part of the soil pores (>30-35%) belongs to micro- and nanopores, and they cannot be quantitatively determined by the tomographic method, because their sizes are smaller than the detection limit of the applied X-ray microtomography (8.75 μm per pixel). This leads to a significantly larger pore volume determined from the water retention curve in comparison with the "tomographic" pore volume. A comparative analysis of pore-size distribution curves obtained by these methods shows that the major regularities of the pore-size distribution in the range from 30 to 5000 μm are similar in both cases. Fine macropores and, partly, mesopores predominate. Common characteristics of the pore-size distribution curves obtained by these methods, including the coincidence of the peaks, attest to the validity of classical approaches, according to which the hydrology of soil pore space can be perceived as a physical model of cylindrical capillaries of different sizes with capillary-sorbed water.

  11. Pore size distribution, strength, and microstructure of portland cement paste containing metal hydroxide waste

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, Z.A.; Mahmud, H.; Shaaban, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification of hazardous wastes is used to convert hazardous metal hydroxide waste sludge into a solid mass with better handling properties. This study investigated the pore size development of ordinary portland cement pastes containing metal hydroxide waste sludge and rice husk ash using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The effects of acre and the addition of rice husk ash on pore size development and strength were studied. It was found that the pore structures of mixes changed significantly with curing acre. The pore size shifted from 1,204 to 324 {angstrom} for 3-day old cement paste, and from 956 to 263 {angstrom} for a 7-day old sample. A reduction in pore size distribution for different curing ages was also observed in the other mixtures. From this limited study, no conclusion could be made as to any correlation between strength development and porosity. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Effect on the Pore-Size Dependence of an Organic Electrolyte Supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Deen; Jin, Zhehui; Henderson, Douglous; Wu, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Organic electrolytes such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate dissolved in acetonitrile (TEA-BF{sub 4}/ACN) are widely used in commercial supercapacitors and academic research, but conflicting experimental results have been reported regarding the dependence of surface-area-normalized capacitance on the pore size. Here we show from a classical density functional theory the dependence of capacitance on the pore size from 0.5 to 3.0 nm for a model TEA-BF{sub 4}/ACN electrolyte. We find that the capacitance-pore size curve becomes roughly flat after the first peak around the ion diameter, and the peak capacitance is not significantly higher than the large-pore average. We attribute the invariance of capacitance with the pore size to the formation of an electric double-layer structure that consists of counterions and highly organized solvent molecules. This work highlights the role of the solvent molecules in modulating the capacitance and reconciles apparently conflicting experimental reports.

  13. Influence of stress-path on pore size distribution in granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arghya; Kumar, Abhinav

    2017-06-01

    Pore size distribution is an important feature of granular materials in the context of filtration and erosion in soil hydraulic structures. Present study focuses on the evolution characteristics of pore size distribution for numerically simulated granular assemblies while subjected to various compression boundary constrain, namely, conventional drained triaxial compression, one-dimensional or oedometric compression and isotropic compression. We consider the effects initial packing of the granular assembly, loose or dense state. A simplified algorithm based on Delaunay tessellation is used for the estimation of pore size distribution for the deforming granular assemblies at various stress states. The analyses show that, the evolution of pore size is predominantly governed by the current porosity of the granular assembly while the stress path or loading process has minimal influence. Further it has also been observed that pore volume distribution reaches towards a critical distribution at the critical porosity during shear enhanced loading process irrespective of the deformation mechanism either compaction or dilation.

  14. Adjustable virtual pore-size filter for automated sample preparation using acoustic radiation force

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, B; Fisher, K; Ness, K; Rose, K; Mariella, R

    2008-05-22

    We present a rapid and robust size-based separation method for high throughput microfluidic devices using acoustic radiation force. We developed a finite element modeling tool to predict the two-dimensional acoustic radiation force field perpendicular to the flow direction in microfluidic devices. Here we compare the results from this model with experimental parametric studies including variations of the PZT driving frequencies and voltages as well as various particle sizes and compressidensities. These experimental parametric studies also provide insight into the development of an adjustable 'virtual' pore-size filter as well as optimal operating conditions for various microparticle sizes. We demonstrated the separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MS2 bacteriophage using acoustic focusing. The acoustic radiation force did not affect the MS2 viruses, and their concentration profile remained unchanged. With optimized design of our microfluidic flow system we were able to achieve yields of > 90% for the MS2 with > 80% of the S. cerevisiae being removed in this continuous-flow sample preparation device.

  15. Meristem size contributes to the robustness of phyllotaxis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Landrein, Benoit; Refahi, Yassin; Besnard, Fabrice; Hervieux, Nathan; Mirabet, Vincent; Boudaoud, Arezki; Vernoux, Teva; Hamant, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Using the plant model Arabidopsis, the relationship between day length, the size of the shoot apical meristem, and the robustness of phyllotactic patterns were analysed. First, it was found that reducing day length leads to an increased meristem size and an increased number of alterations in the final positions of organs along the stem. Most of the phyllotactic defects could be related to an altered tempo of organ emergence, while not affecting the spatial positions of organ initiations at the meristem. A correlation was also found between meristem size and the robustness of phyllotaxis in two accessions (Col-0 and WS-4) and a mutant (clasp-1), independent of growth conditions. A reduced meristem size in clasp-1 was even associated with an increased robustness of the phyllotactic pattern, beyond what is observed in the wild type. Interestingly it was also possible to modulate the robustness of phyllotaxis in these different genotypes by changing day length. To conclude, it is shown first that robustness of the phyllotactic pattern is not maximal in the wild type, suggesting that, beyond its apparent stereotypical order, the robustness of phyllotaxis is regulated. Secondly, a role for day length in the robustness of the phyllotaxis was also identified, thus providing a new example of a link between patterning and environment in plants. Thirdly, the experimental results validate previous model predictions suggesting a contribution of meristem size in the robustness of phyllotaxis via the coupling between the temporal sequence and spatial pattern of organ initiations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Magnetic relaxation - coal swelling, extraction, pore size. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1994-10-26

    The aim of the contract was to employ electron and nuclear magnetic relaxation techniques to investigate solvent swelling of coals, solvent extraction of coals and molecular interaction with solvent coal pores. Many of these investigations have appeared in four major publications and a conference proceedings. Another manuscript has been submitted for publication. The set of Argonne Premium Coals was chosen as extensively characterized and representative samples for this project.

  17. Structure-Assisted Functional Anchor Implantation in Robust Metal–Organic Frameworks with Ultralarge Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jihye; Feng, Dawei; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-02-04

    A facile functionalization assisted by the structural attributes of PCN-333 has been studied while maintaining the integrity of the parent MOF including ultralarge pores, chemical robustness, and crystallinity. Herein we thoroughly analyzed ligand exchange phenomena in PCN-333 and demonstrate that the extent of exchange can be tailored by varying the exchange conditions as potential applications may require. Through this method a variety of functional groups are incorporated into PCN-333. To further show the capabilities of this system introduction of a BODIPY fluorophore as a secondary functionality was performed to the functionalized framework via a click reaction. We anticipate the PCN-333 with functional anchor can serve as a stable platform for further chemistry to be explored in future applications.

  18. Structure-Assisted Functional Anchor Implantation in Robust Metal-Organic Frameworks with Ultra large Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Feng, DW; Zhou, HC

    2015-02-04

    A facile functionalization assisted by the structural attributes of PCN-333 has been studied while maintaining the integrity of the parent MOF including ultralarge pores, chemical robustness, and crystallinity. Herein we thoroughly analyzed ligand exchange phenomena in PCN-333 and demonstrate that the extent of exchange can be tailored by varying the exchange conditions as potential applications may require. Through this method a variety of functional groups are incorporated into PCN-333. To further show the capabilities of this system introduction of a BODIPY fluorophore as a secondary functionality was performed to the functionalized framework via a click reaction. We anticipate the PCN-333 with functional anchor can serve as a stable platform for further chemistry to be explored in future applications

  19. Tailoring Pore Size and Chemical Interior of near 1 nm Sized Pores in a Nanoporous Polymer Based on a Discotic Liquid Crystal

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A triazine based disc shaped molecule with two hydrolyzable units, imine and ester groups, was polymerized via acyclic diene metathesis in the columnar hexagonal (Colhex) LC phase. Fabrication of a cationic nanoporous polymer (pore diameter ∼1.3 nm) lined with ammonium groups at the pore surface was achieved by hydrolysis of the imine linkage. Size selective aldehyde uptake by the cationic porous polymer was demonstrated. The anilinium groups in the pores were converted to azide as well as phenyl groups by further chemical treatment, leading to porous polymers with neutral functional groups in the pores. The pores were enlarged by further hydrolysis of the ester groups to create ∼2.6 nm pores lined with −COONa surface groups. The same pores could be obtained in a single step without first hydrolyzing the imine linkage. XRD studies demonstrated that the Colhex order of the monomer was preserved after polymerization as well as in both the nanoporous polymers. The porous anionic polymer lined with −COOH groups was further converted to the −COOLi, −COONa, −COOK, −COOCs, and −COONH4 salts. The porous polymer lined with −COONa groups selectively adsorbs a cationic dye, methylene blue, over an anionic dye. PMID:28416888

  20. Micron-pore-sized metallic filter tube membranes for filtration of particulates and water purification

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Tommy Joe; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Fagan, Lisa Anne; Bischoff, Brian L; Miller, Curtis Jack; Drake, Meghan M; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

    2008-01-01

    Robust filtering techniques capable of efficiently removing particulates and biological agents from water or air suffer from plugging, poor rejuvenation, low permeance, and high backpressure. Operational characteristics of pressure-driven separations are in part controlled by the membrane pore size, charge of particulates, transmembrane pressure and the requirement for sufficient water flux to overcome fouling. With long term use filters decline in permeance due to filter-cake plugging of pores, fouling, or filter deterioration. Though metallic filter tube development at ORNL has focused almost exclusively on gas separations, a small study examined the applicability of these membranes for tangential filtering of aqueous suspensions of bacterial-sized particles. A mixture of fluorescent polystyrene microspheres ranging in size from 0.5 to 6 {micro}m in diameter simulated microorganisms in filtration studies. Compared to a commercial filter, the ORNL 0.6 {micro}m filter averaged approximately 10-fold greater filtration efficiency of the small particles, several-fold greater permeance after considerable use and it returned to approximately 85% of the initial flow upon backflushing versus 30% for the commercial filter. After filtering several liters of the particle-containing suspension, the ORNL composite filter still exhibited greater than 50% of its initial permeance while the commercial filter had decreased to less than 20%. When considering a greater filtration efficiency, greater permeance per unit mass, greater percentage of rejuvenation upon backflushing (up to 3-fold), and likely greater performance with extended use, the ORNL 0.6 {micro}m filters can potentially outperform the commercial filter by factors of 100-1000 fold.

  1. Micron-pore-sized metallic filter tube membranes for filtration of particulates and water purification.

    PubMed

    Phelps, T J; Palumbo, A V; Bischoff, B L; Miller, C J; Fagan, L A; McNeilly, M S; Judkins, R R

    2008-07-01

    Robust filtering techniques capable of efficiently removing particulates and biological agents from water or air suffer from plugging, poor rejuvenation, low permeance, and high backpressure. Operational characteristics of pressure-driven separations are in part controlled by the membrane pore size, charge of particulates, transmembrane pressure and the requirement for sufficient water flux to overcome fouling. With long term use filters decline in permeance due to filter-cake plugging of pores, fouling, or filter deterioration. Though metallic filter tube development at ORNL has focused almost exclusively on gas separations, a small study examined the applicability of these membranes for tangential filtering of aqueous suspensions of bacterial-sized particles. A mixture of fluorescent polystyrene microspheres ranging in size from 0.5 to 6 microm in diameter simulated microorganisms in filtration studies. Compared to a commercial filter, the ORNL 0.6 microm filter averaged approximately 10-fold greater filtration efficiency of the small particles, several-fold greater permeance after considerable use and it returned to approximately 85% of the initial flow upon backflushing versus 30% for the commercial filter. After filtering several liters of the particle-containing suspension, the ORNL composite filter still exhibited greater than 50% of its initial permeance while the commercial filter had decreased to less than 20%. When considering a greater filtration efficiency, greater permeance per unit mass, greater percentage of rejuvenation upon backflushing (up to 3-fold), and likely greater performance with extended use, the ORNL 0.6 microm filters can potentially outperform the commercial filter by factors of 100-1,000 fold.

  2. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Rigid Three-Dimensional Hofmann Clathrate Derivatives: The Effects of Pore Size

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, J.T.; Natesakhawat, Sittichai; Smith, M.R.; Bittner, E.; Matranga, C.S.; Bockrath, B.

    2008-05-01

    The effects of pore size on the hydrogen storage properties of a series of pillared layered solids based on the M(L)[M'(CN)4] structural motif, where M ) Co or Ni, L ) pyrazine (pyz), 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy), or 4,4'-dipyridylacetylene (dpac), and M' ) Ni, Pd, or Pt, has been investigated. The compounds all possess slitlike pores with constant in-plane dimensions and similar organic functionality. The pore heights vary as a function of L and provide a means for a systematic investigation of the effects of pore dimension on hydrogen storage properties in porous materials. Hydrogen isotherms were measured at 77 and 87 K up to a pressure of 1 atm. The pyz pillared materials with the smallest pore dimensions store hydrogen at a pore density similar to that of liquid hydrogen. The adsorbed hydrogen density drops by a factor of 2 as the relative pore size is tripled in the dpac material. The decreased storage efficiency diminishes the expected gravimetric gain in capacity for the larger pore materials. The heats of adsorption were found to range from 6 to 8 kJ/mol in the series and weakly correlate with pore size.

  3. Quantifying pore size and density for membranes in the Knudsen and transitional-flow regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Richard; Purri, Matthew; Hernandez, Erick; Shan, Jerry; Bui, Ngoc; Chen, Chiati; Meshot, Eric; Fornasiero, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Membranes with well-controlled nanoscale pores have interest for applications as diverse as chemical separations, water purification, and "green" power generation. For instance, membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as through-pores have been shown to pass fluids orders-of-magnitude faster than predicted by theory. However, the efficient characterization of the pore size and density of membranes is an important area of focus, particularly for membranes fabricated from bulk nanotubes. Here, we report on a new technique to identify the pore size (d) and number of open pores (N) in membranes. A nanoporous membrane is characterized with a combination of pressure-driven gas flow, and electrical-conductance measurements in aqueous solution. For the conductance measurements, the electrical current passing through the membrane scales as d2 N . For pressurized gas flow, the scaling with molecular weight (M) and gas viscosity (μ) identifies the flow as either Poiseuille or Knudsen, scaling as either d4N/ μ or d3 N /M 1 / 2 , respectively. With this combination of measurements, the pore size and number of pores in the membrane can be calculated. We validate this technique using track-etched polycarbonate membranes and CNT membranes with known pores, and show that it can be used to count open pores and identify defects in CNT membranes. We would like to acknowledge DTRA for their funding and support of our research.

  4. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Rigid Three-Dimensional Hofmann Clathrate Derivatives: The Effects of Pore Size

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Jeffery T.; Natesakhawat, Sittichai; Smith, Milton R.; Bittner, Edward; Matranga, Christopher; Bockrath, Bradley

    2008-05-01

    The effects of pore size on the hydrogen storage properties of a series of pillared layered solids based on the M(L)[M'(CN)(4)] structural motif, where M = Co or Ni, L = pyrazine (pyz), 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy), or 4,4'-dipyridylacetylene (dpac), and M' = Ni, Pd, or Pt, has been investigated. The compounds all possess slitlike pores with constant in-plane dimensions and similar organic functionality. The pore heights vary as a function of L and provide a means for a systematic investigation of the effects of pore dimension on hydrogen storage properties in porous materials. Hydrogen isotherms were measured at 77 and 87 K up to a pressure of 1 atm. The pyz pillared materials with the smallest pore dimensions store hydrogen at a pore density similar to that of liquid hydrogen. The adsorbed hydrogen density drops by a factor of 2 as the relative pore size is tripled in the dpac material. The decreased storage efficiency diminishes the expected gravimetric gain in capacity for the larger pore materials. The heats of adsorption were found to range from 6 to 8 kJ/mol in the series and weakly correlate with pore size.

  5. Pore size--a key property for selective toxin removal in blood purification.

    PubMed

    Harm, Stephan; Falkenhagen, Dieter; Hartmann, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Extracorporeal blood purification systems based on combined membrane/adsorption technologies are used in acute liver failure to replace detoxification as well as to remove inflammatory mediators in sepsis patients. In addition to coating and chemical modification of the surface, pore size significantly controls the selectivity of adsorption materials. This study addresses the adsorption of albumin bound liver toxins, cytokines, and representative plasma compounds on three adsorbents which differ only in pore size distribution. All three adsorbents are based on hydrophobic poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) copolymer matrices and have mean pore sizes of 15, 30, and 100 nm. The pores of adsorbents act as molecular sieves and prevent the entry of molecules that are larger than their molecular cut-off. The results of this study reveal that adsorbents based on styrene-divinylbenzene polymers with 15 nm pores are suitable for cytokine removal, and the same adsorbents with 30-40 nm pores are the best choice for the removal of albumin-bound toxins in the case of liver failure. Adsorbents with very large pores lack selectivity which leads to uncontrolled adsorption of all plasma proteins. Therefore, hydrophobic adsorbents with large pores offer inadequate plasma compatibility and do not fulfill the requirements for blood purification. Biocompatibility and efficiency of adsorbents used for blood purification can improved by fine tuning of adsorbent surface pore distributions.

  6. Use of intradermal botulinum toxin to reduce sebum production and facial pore size.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anil R

    2008-09-01

    Review the safety profile and subjective efficacy of intradermal botulinum toxin type A in facial pore size and sebum production. Retrospective analysis of 20 patients. Twenty consecutive patients with a single application of intradermal botulinum toxin type A were examined: Patients (17/20) noted an improvement in sebum production and a decrease in pores size at 1 month after injection. No complications were observed, and 17/20 patients were satisfied with the procedure. Preliminary data suggests that intradermal botulinum toxin may play a role in decreasing sebum production. Further quantitive study may be necessary to determine effects of intradermal botulinum toxin on pore size.

  7. Controlling the pore sizes and related properties of inverse opal scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Regan, Kevin P; Xia, Younan

    2013-03-25

    Inverse opal scaffolds are finding widespread use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Herein, the way in which the pore sizes and related physical properties of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) inverse opal scaffolds are affected by the fabrication conditions is systematically investigated. It is found that the window size of an inverse opal scaffold is mainly determined by the annealing temperature rather than the duration of time, and the surface pore size is largely determined by the concentration of the infiltration solution. Although scaffolds with larger pore or window sizes facilitate faster migration of cells, they show slightly lower compressive moduli than scaffolds with smaller pore or window sizes. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Modulation of Asymmetric Flux in Heterotypic Gap Junctions by Pore Shape, Particle Size and Charge.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Abhijit; Sachse, Frank B; Moreno, Alonso P

    2017-01-01

    Gap junction channels play a vital role in intercellular communication by connecting cytoplasm of adjoined cells through arrays of channel-pores formed at the common membrane junction. Their structure and properties vary depending on the connexin isoform(s) involved in forming the full gap junction channel. Lack of information on the molecular structure of gap junction channels has limited the development of computational tools for single channel studies. Currently, we rely on cumbersome experimental techniques that have limited capabilities. We have earlier reported a simplified Brownian dynamics gap junction pore model and demonstrated that variations in pore shape at the single channel level can explain some of the differences in permeability of heterotypic channels observed in in vitro experiments. Based on this computational model, we designed simulations to study the influence of pore shape, particle size and charge in homotypic and heterotypic pores. We simulated dye diffusion under whole cell voltage clamping. Our simulation studies with pore shape variations revealed a pore shape with maximal flux asymmetry in a heterotypic pore. We identified pore shape profiles that match the in silico flux asymmetry results to the in vitro results of homotypic and heterotypic gap junction formed out of Cx43 and Cx45. Our simulation results indicate that the channel's pore-shape established flux asymmetry and that flux asymmetry is primarily regulated by the sizes of the conical and/or cylindrical mouths at each end of the pore. Within the set range of particle size and charge, flux asymmetry was found to be independent of particle size and directly proportional to charge magnitude. While particle charge was vital to creating flux asymmetry, charge magnitude only scaled the observed flux asymmetry. Our studies identified the key factors that help predict asymmetry. Finally, we suggest the role of such flux asymmetry in creating concentration imbalances of messenger

  9. Nuclear size, nuclear pore number and cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Iino, Haruki; Hihara, Saera; Imamoto, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is a complex and sophisticated organelle containing genomic DNA and supports essential cellular activities. Its surface contains many nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), channels for macromolecular transport between the cytoplasm and nucleus. It has been observed that the nuclear volume and the number of NPCs almost doubles during interphase in dividing cells, but the coordination of these events with the cell cycle was poorly understood, particularly in mammalian cells. Recently, we demonstrated that cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks) control interphase NPC formation in dividing human cells. Cdks drive the very early step of NPC formation because Cdk inhibition suppressed the generation of "nascent pores," which are considered to be immature NPCs, and disturbed expression and localization of some nucleoporins. Cdk inhibition did not affect nuclear volume, suggesting that these two processes have distinct regulatory mechanisms in the cell cycle. The details of our experimental systems and finding are discussed in more depth. With new findings recently reported, we also discuss possible molecular mechanisms of interphase NPC formation.

  10. Role of Pore Size Location in Determining Bacterial Activity during Predation by Protozoa in Soil.

    PubMed

    Wright, D A; Killham, K; Glover, L A; Prosser, J I

    1995-10-01

    The predation of a luminescence-marked strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens by the soil ciliate Colpoda steinii was studied in soil microcosms. Bacterial cells were introduced in either small (neck diameter, <6 (mu)m) or intermediate-sized (neck diameter, 6 to 30 (mu)m) pores in the soil by inoculation at appropriate matric potentials, and ciliates were introduced into large pores (neck diameter, 30 to 60 (mu)m). Viable cell concentrations of bacteria introduced into intermediate-sized pores decreased at a greater rate than those in small pores, with reductions in bacterial populations being accompanied by an increase in viable cell numbers of the ciliate. The data indicate that the location of bacteria in small pores provides significant protection from predation. In the absence of C. steinii, the level of metabolic activity of the bacterial population, measured by luminometry, decreased at a greater rate than cell number, and the level of luminescence cell(sup-1) consequently decreased. The decrease in levels of luminescence indicates a loss of activity due to starvation. During predation by C. steinii, the level of the activity of cells introduced into small pores fell in a similar manner. The level of cell activity was, however, significantly greater for cells introduced into intermediate-sized pores, despite their greater susceptibility to predation. The data suggest that increased activity arises from a release of nutrients by the predator and the greater accessibility of bacteria to nutrients in larger pores. Nutrient amendment of microcosms resulted in increases in bacterial populations to sustained, higher levels, while levels of luminescence increased transiently. The predation of cells introduced into intermediate-sized pores was greater, and there was also evidence that the level of activity of surviving bacteria was greater for bacteria in intermediate-sized but not small pores.

  11. Influence of the pore size of reversed phase materials on peptide purification processes.

    PubMed

    Gétaz, David; Dogan, Nihan; Forrer, Nicola; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2011-05-20

    The influence of the pore size of a chromatographic reversed phase material on the adsorption equilibria and diffusion of two industrially relevant peptides (i.e. a small synthetic peptide and insulin) has been studied using seven different reversed phase HPLC materials having pore sizes ranging from 90 Å to 300 Å. The stationary phase pore size distribution was obtained by inverse size exclusion measurement (iSEC). The effect of the pore size on the mass transfer properties of the materials was evaluated from Van Deemter experiments. It has been shown that the lumped mass transfer coefficient increases linearly with the average pore size. The Henry coefficient and the impurity selectivity were determined in diluted conditions. The saturation capacity of the main peptides was determined in overloaded conditions using the inverse method (i.e. peak fitting). It was shown that the adsorption equilibria of the peptides on the seven materials is well described by a surface-specific adsorption isotherm. Based on this a lumped kinetic model has been developed to model the elution profile of the two peptides in overloaded conditions and to simulate the purification of the peptide from its crude mixture. It has been found that the separation of insulin from its main impurity (i.e. desamido-insulin) was not affected by the pore size. On the other hand, in the case of the synthetic peptide, it was found that the adsorption of the most significant impurity decreases with the pore size. This decrease is probably due to an increase in silanol activity with decreasing pore size.

  12. Detection, 3-D positioning, and sizing of small pore defects using digital radiography and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Erik

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an algorithm that handles the detection, positioning, and sizing of submillimeter-sized pores in welds using radiographic inspection and tracking. The possibility to detect, position, and size pores which have a low contrast-to-noise ratio increases the value of the nondestructive evaluation of welds by facilitating fatigue life predictions with lower uncertainty. In this article, a multiple hypothesis tracker with an extended Kalman filter is used to track an unknown number of pore indications in a sequence of radiographs as an object is rotated. Each pore is not required to be detected in all radiographs. In addition, in the tracking step, three-dimensional (3-D) positions of pore defects are calculated. To optimize, set up, and pre-evaluate the algorithm, the article explores a design of experimental approach in combination with synthetic radiographs of titanium laser welds containing pore defects. The pre-evaluation on synthetic radiographs at industrially reasonable contrast-to-noise ratios indicate less than 1% false detection rates at high detection rates and less than 0.1 mm of positioning errors for more than 90% of the pores. A comparison between experimental results of the presented algorithm and a computerized tomography reference measurement shows qualitatively good agreement in the 3-D positions of approximately 0.1-mm diameter pores in 5-mm-thick Ti-6242.

  13. Pore-throat sizes in sandstones, siltstones, and shales: Reply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.

    2011-01-01

    In his discussion of my article (Nelson, 2009), W. K. Camp takes issue with the concept that buoyancy is not the dominant force in forming and maintaining the distribution of gas in tight-gas accumulations (Camp, 2011). I will restrict my response to the issues he raised regarding buoyant versus nonbuoyant drive and to a few comments regarding water saturation and production. I claim that the pressure generated in petroleum source rocks (Pg), instead of the buoyancy pressure (Pb), provides the energy to charge most tight sandstones with gas. The arguments are fourfold: (1) buoyant columns of sufficient height seldom exist in low-permeability sand-shale sequences, (2) tight-gas systems display a pressure profile that declines instead of increases upward, (3) gas is pervasive in overpressured systems, and (4) source rocks can generate pore pressures sufficiently high to charge tight sandstones.

  14. Fabrication of Aluminum Foams with Small Pore Size by Melt Foaming Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ying; Li, Yanxiang; Chen, Xiang; Shi, Tong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Ningzhen

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces an improvement to the fabrication of aluminum foams with small pore size by melt foaming method. Before added to the melt, the foaming agent (titanium hydride) was pretreated in two steps. It firstly went through the traditional pre-oxidation treatment, which delayed the decomposition of titanium hydride and made sure the dispersion stage was controllable. Then such pre-oxidized titanium hydride powder was mixed with copper powder in a planetary ball mill. This treatment can not only increase the number of foaming agent particles and make them easier to disperse in the melt, which helps to increase the number of pores, but also reduce the amount of hydrogen released in the foaming stage. Therefore, the pore size could be decreased. Using such a ball-milled foaming agent in melt foaming method, aluminum foams with small pore size (average size of 1.6 mm) were successfully fabricated.

  15. Fabrication of Aluminum Foams with Small Pore Size by Melt Foaming Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ying; Li, Yanxiang; Chen, Xiang; Shi, Tong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Ningzhen

    2017-04-01

    This article introduces an improvement to the fabrication of aluminum foams with small pore size by melt foaming method. Before added to the melt, the foaming agent (titanium hydride) was pretreated in two steps. It firstly went through the traditional pre-oxidation treatment, which delayed the decomposition of titanium hydride and made sure the dispersion stage was controllable. Then such pre-oxidized titanium hydride powder was mixed with copper powder in a planetary ball mill. This treatment can not only increase the number of foaming agent particles and make them easier to disperse in the melt, which helps to increase the number of pores, but also reduce the amount of hydrogen released in the foaming stage. Therefore, the pore size could be decreased. Using such a ball-milled foaming agent in melt foaming method, aluminum foams with small pore size (average size of 1.6 mm) were successfully fabricated.

  16. Effect of pore size distribution on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Grethlein, H.E.

    1985-02-01

    Hard and softwoods were pretreated by mild acid hydrolysis and their pore size distribution determined. Regardless of the substrate, the initial rate of hydrolysis using cellulase from Trichoderma reesei is linearly correlated with the pore volume of the substrate accessible to a nominal diameter of 51 Angstroms representative of the size of the cellulase. In contrast, crystallinity index has no relationship to the rate of hydrolysis. 21 references.

  17. Facile fabrication of BiVO4 nanofilms with controlled pore size and their photoelectrochemical performances.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chenchen; Jiao, Zhengbo; Li, Shaopeng; Zhang, Yan; Bi, Yingpu

    2015-12-28

    We demonstrate a facile method for the rational fabrication of pore-size controlled nanoporous BiVO(4) photoanodes, and confirmed that the optimum pore-size distributions could effectively absorb visible light through light diffraction and confinement functions. Furthermore, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals more efficient photoexcited electron-hole separation than conventional particle films, induced by light confinement and rapid charge transfer in the inter-crossed worm-like structures.

  18. Effects of calcination temperature on the pore size and wall crystalline structure of mesoporous alumina.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-Xi; Zheng, Ting-Ting; Bo, Qi-Bing; Du, Miao; Forsling, Willis

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, mesoporous alumina with different pore sizes and wall crystalline structures was synthesized at calcination temperatures over 550 degrees C. The characterization of the samples calcined at 550, 800, 1100, and 1300 degrees C, respectively, was performed using TEM, XRD, FTIR, TG/DTA, and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques. The correlation between pore size and wall crystalline structure on calcination temperature was systematically investigated.

  19. Flow rate through microfilters: Influence of the pore size distribution, hydrodynamic interactions, wall slip, and inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Valente, André X. C. N.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-05-01

    We examine the fluid mechanics of viscous flow through filters consisting of perforated thin plates. We classify the effects that contribute to the hydraulic resistance of the filter. Classical analyses assume a single pore size and account only for filter thickness. We extend these results to obtain an analytical formula for the pressure drop across the microfilter versus the flow rate that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of pore sizes, the hydrodynamic interactions between the pores given their layout pattern, and wall slip. Further, we discuss inertial effects and their order of scaling.

  20. Method of making metal oxide ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes is composed of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous ZnS with narrow size distribution of small pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, L. C.; Mateescu, C. D.; Birjega, R.; Nistor, S. V.

    2008-08-01

    Pure, nanocrystalline cubic ZnS forming a stable mesoporous structure was synthesized at room temperature by a non-toxic surfactant-assisted liquid liquid reaction, in the 9.5 10.5 pH range of values. The appearance of an X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak in the region of very small angles (˜ 2°) reveals the presence of a porous material with a narrow pore size distribution, but with an irregular arrangement of the pores, a so-called worm hole or sponge-like material. The analysis of the wide angle XRD diffractograms shows the building blocks to be ZnS nanocrystals with cubic structure and average diameter of 2 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations confirm the XRD results; ZnS crystallites of 2.5 nm with cubic (blende) structure are the building blocks of the pore walls with pore sizes from 1.9 to 2.5 nm, and a broader size distribution for samples with smaller pores. Textural measurements (N2 adsorption desorption isotherms) confirm the presence of mesoporous ZnS with a narrow range of small pore sizes. The relatively lower surface area of around 100 m2/g is attributed to some remaining organic molecules, which are filling the smallest pores. Their presence, confirmed by IR spectroscopy, seems to be responsible for the high stability of the resulting mesoporous ZnS as well.

  2. New general pore size distribution model by classical thermodynamics application: Activated carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lordgooei, M.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2001-01-01

    A model is developed using classical thermodynamics to characterize pore size distributions (PSDs) of materials containing micropores and mesopores. The thermal equation of equilibrium adsorption (TEEA) is used to provide thermodynamic properties and relate the relative pore filling pressure of vapors to the characteristic pore energies of the adsorbent/adsorbate system for micropore sizes. Pore characteristic energies are calculated by averaging of interaction energies between adsorbate molecules and adsorbent pore walls as well as considering adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. A modified Kelvin equation is used to characterize mesopore sizes by considering variation of the adsorbate surface tension and by excluding the adsorbed film layer for the pore size. The modified-Kelvin equation provides similar pore filling pressures as predicted by density functional theory. Combination of these models provides a complete PSD of the adsorbent for the micropores and mesopores. The resulting PSD is compared with the PSDs from Jaroniec and Choma and Horvath and Kawazoe models as well as a first-order approximation model using Polanyi theory. The major importance of this model is its basis on classical thermodynamic properties, less simplifying assumptions in its derivation compared to other methods, and ease of use.

  3. A thermal porosimetry method to estimate pore size distribution in highly porous insulating materials

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, V.; Jannot, Y.; Degiovanni, A.

    2012-05-15

    Standard pore size determination methods such as mercury porosimetry, nitrogen sorption, microscopy, or x-ray tomography are not always applicable to highly porous, low density, and thus very fragile materials. For this kind of materials, a method based on thermal characterization is proposed. Indeed, the thermal conductivity of a highly porous and insulating medium is significantly dependent on the thermal conductivity of the interstitial gas that depends on both gas pressure and size of the considered pore (Knudsen effect). It is also possible to link the pore size with the thermal conductivity of the medium. Thermal conductivity measurements are realized on specimens placed in an enclosure where the air pressure is successively set to different values varying from 10{sup -1} to 10{sup 5} Pa. Knowing the global porosity ratio, an effective thermal conductivity model for a two-phase air-solid material based on a combined serial-parallel model is established. Pore size distribution can be identified by minimizing the sum of the quadratic differences between measured values and modeled ones. The results of the estimation process are the volume fractions of the chosen ranges of pore size. In order to validate the method, measurements done on insulating materials are presented. The results are discussed and show that pore size distribution estimated by the proposed method is coherent.

  4. Pore size distribution, survival probability, and relaxation time in random and ordered arrays of fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomadakis, Manolis M.; Robertson, Teri J.

    2003-07-01

    We present a random walk based investigation of the pore size probability distribution and its moments, the survival probability and mean survival time, and the principal relaxation time, for random and ordered arrays of cylindrical fibers of various orientation distributions. The dimensionless mean survival time, principal relaxation time, mean pore size, and mean square pore size are found to increase with porosity, remain practically independent of the directionality of random fiber beds, and attain lower values for ordered arrays. Wide pore size distributions are obtained for random fiber structures and relatively narrow for ordered square arrays, all in very good agreement with theoretically predicted limiting values. Analytical results derived for the pore size probability and its lower moments for square arrays of fibers practically coincide with the corresponding simulation results. Earlier variational bounds on the mean survival time and principal relaxation time are obeyed by our numerical results in all cases, and are found to be quite sharp up to very high porosities. Dimensionless groups representing the deviation of such bounds from our simulation results vary in practically the same range as the corresponding values reported earlier for beds of spherical particles. A universal scaling expression of the literature relating the mean survival time to the mean pore size [S. Torquato and C. L. Y. Yeong, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8814 (1997)] agrees very well with our results for all types of fiber structures, thus validated for the first time for anisotropic porous media.

  5. Estimating the 3D Pore Size Distribution of Biopolymer Networks from Directionally Biased Data

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Nadine R.; Münster, Stefan; Metzner, Claus; Krauss, Patrick; Schürmann, Sebastian; Lange, Janina; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Friedrich, Oliver; Fabry, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The pore size of biopolymer networks governs their mechanical properties and strongly impacts the behavior of embedded cells. Confocal reflection microscopy and second harmonic generation microscopy are widely used to image biopolymer networks; however, both techniques fail to resolve vertically oriented fibers. Here, we describe how such directionally biased data can be used to estimate the network pore size. We first determine the distribution of distances from random points in the fluid phase to the nearest fiber. This distribution follows a Rayleigh distribution, regardless of isotropy and data bias, and is fully described by a single parameter—the characteristic pore size of the network. The bias of the pore size estimate due to the missing fibers can be corrected by multiplication with the square root of the visible network fraction. We experimentally verify the validity of this approach by comparing our estimates with data obtained using confocal fluorescence microscopy, which represents the full structure of the network. As an important application, we investigate the pore size dependence of collagen and fibrin networks on protein concentration. We find that the pore size decreases with the square root of the concentration, consistent with a total fiber length that scales linearly with concentration. PMID:24209841

  6. Optimal flexible sample size design with robust power.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanju; Cui, Lu; Yang, Bo

    2016-08-30

    It is well recognized that sample size determination is challenging because of the uncertainty on the treatment effect size. Several remedies are available in the literature. Group sequential designs start with a sample size based on a conservative (smaller) effect size and allow early stop at interim looks. Sample size re-estimation designs start with a sample size based on an optimistic (larger) effect size and allow sample size increase if the observed effect size is smaller than planned. Different opinions favoring one type over the other exist. We propose an optimal approach using an appropriate optimality criterion to select the best design among all the candidate designs. Our results show that (1) for the same type of designs, for example, group sequential designs, there is room for significant improvement through our optimization approach; (2) optimal promising zone designs appear to have no advantages over optimal group sequential designs; and (3) optimal designs with sample size re-estimation deliver the best adaptive performance. We conclude that to deal with the challenge of sample size determination due to effect size uncertainty, an optimal approach can help to select the best design that provides most robust power across the effect size range of interest. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Determination of an equivalent pore size from acoustic flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Linde; Liu, Jin; Garrett, Steven

    2005-09-01

    The hydraulic radius, rh, is defined as the ratio of a channel's cross-sectional area to its perimeter. This parameter is important for specification of the performance of a porous medium that can be used as a regenerator in a Stirling engine or refrigerator. It is easy to calculate rh for pores of regular geometry, but difficult in more complex media. Two techniques which use oscillating flow to determine this parameter will be presented and compared. One technique extracts rh by finding the low velocity limit of the standard expression for viscous pressure drop in the Poiseuille flow regime. The other involves a plot of the nondimensional viscous flow resistance, Δpvis/Δxωρu, versus the reciprocal of the viscous penetration depth, 1/δν, in the laminar flow regime. When rh<δν, the flow behavior is frequency independent and the dynamics is characterized by rh only. When rh>δν, the flow resistance is frequency dependent and the dynamics is characterized by both rh and δν. It is possible to identify an effective hydraulic radius by equating it to the value of δν where that transition occurs. [Work supported by ONR.

  8. Relation between pore size and the compressibility of a confined fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Siderius, Daniel W.; Krekelberg, William P.; Shen, Vincent K.; Rasmussen, Christopher J.; Bernstein, Noam

    2015-11-21

    When a fluid is confined to a nanopore, its thermodynamic properties differ from the properties of a bulk fluid, so measuring such properties of the confined fluid can provide information about the pore sizes. Here, we report a simple relation between the pore size and isothermal compressibility of argon confined in such pores. Compressibility is calculated from the fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble using two different simulation techniques: conventional grand-canonical Monte Carlo and grand-canonical ensemble transition-matrix Monte Carlo. Our results provide a theoretical framework for extracting the information on the pore sizes of fluid-saturated samples by measuring the compressibility from ultrasonic experiments.

  9. Relation Between Pore Size and the Compressibility of a Confined Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Siderius, Daniel W.; Rasmussen, Christopher J.; Krekelberg, William P.; Shen, Vincent K.; Bernstein, Noam

    2015-01-01

    When a fluid is confined to a nanopore, its thermodynamic properties differ from the properties of a bulk fluid, so measuring such properties of the confined fluid can provide information about the pore sizes. Here we report a simple relation between the pore size and isothermal compressibility of argon confined in these pores. Compressibility is calculated from the fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble using two different simulation techniques: conventional grand-canonical Monte Carlo and grand-canonical ensemble transition-matrix Monte Carlo. Our results provide a theoretical framework for extracting the information on the pore sizes of fluid-saturated samples by measuring the compressibility from ultrasonic experiments. PMID:26590541

  10. Relation between pore size and the compressibility of a confined fluid.

    PubMed

    Gor, Gennady Y; Siderius, Daniel W; Rasmussen, Christopher J; Krekelberg, William P; Shen, Vincent K; Bernstein, Noam

    2015-11-21

    When a fluid is confined to a nanopore, its thermodynamic properties differ from the properties of a bulk fluid, so measuring such properties of the confined fluid can provide information about the pore sizes. Here, we report a simple relation between the pore size and isothermal compressibility of argon confined in such pores. Compressibility is calculated from the fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble using two different simulation techniques: conventional grand-canonical Monte Carlo and grand-canonical ensemble transition-matrix Monte Carlo. Our results provide a theoretical framework for extracting the information on the pore sizes of fluid-saturated samples by measuring the compressibility from ultrasonic experiments.

  11. Protein adsorption on DEAE ion-exchange resins with different ligand densities and pore sizes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui-Li; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Zhu, Mi-Mi; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2012-11-01

    Ion exchange chromatography (IEC) is a common and powerful technique for the purification of proteins. The ligand density and pore properties of ion-exchange resins have significant effects on the separation behaviors of protein, however, the understandings are quite limited. In the present work, the adsorption isotherms of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated systematically with series of diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) ion-exchange resins, which have different ligand densities and pore sizes. The Langmuir equation was used to fit the experimental data and the influences of ligand density and pore size on the saturated adsorption capacity and the dissociation constant were discussed. The zeta potentials and hydrodynamic diameters of proteins at different pHs were also measured, and the surface charge characteristics of proteins and the adsorption mechanism were discussed. The results demonstrated that the ligand density, pore size, and protein properties affect the protein adsorption capacities in an integrative way. An integrative parameter was introduced to describe the complicated effects of ligand density and pore size on the protein adsorption. For a given protein, the ligand density and pore size should be optimized for improving the protein adsorption.

  12. Direct correlation of internal gradients and pore size distributions with low field NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Blümich, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Internal magnetic field gradients Gint, which arise from the magnetic susceptibility difference Δχ between solid matrix and fluid in porous media relate to the pore geometry. However, this relationship is complex and not well understood. Here we correlate internal-gradient distributions to pore-size distributions directly to examine internal gradients in detail at low field NMR. The pore-size distributions were obtained by the method of Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), and the internal-gradient distributions were measured with the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method. The internal-gradient-pore-size distributions correlation maps were obtained for water in packs of glass beads with different diameter and in a sandstone sample. The relationship between internal gradients and pore structure is analyzed in detail by considering the restricted diffusion of fluids in porous samples. For each case diffusion regimes are assigned by plotting normalized CPMG data and comparing the diffusion lengths, the dephasing lengths and pore diameters. In the free-diffusion limit, the correlation maps reveal the true relationship between pore structure and internal gradients so that Δχ can be approximated from the correlation maps. This limit is met most easily at low field. It provides information about porous media, which is expected to benefit the oil industry, in particular NMR well logging.

  13. Direct correlation of internal gradients and pore size distributions with low field NMR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Blümich, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Internal magnetic field gradients Gint, which arise from the magnetic susceptibility difference Δχ between solid matrix and fluid in porous media relate to the pore geometry. However, this relationship is complex and not well understood. Here we correlate internal-gradient distributions to pore-size distributions directly to examine internal gradients in detail at low field NMR. The pore-size distributions were obtained by the method of Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), and the internal-gradient distributions were measured with the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method. The internal-gradient-pore-size distributions correlation maps were obtained for water in packs of glass beads with different diameter and in a sandstone sample. The relationship between internal gradients and pore structure is analyzed in detail by considering the restricted diffusion of fluids in porous samples. For each case diffusion regimes are assigned by plotting normalized CPMG data and comparing the diffusion lengths, the dephasing lengths and pore diameters. In the free-diffusion limit, the correlation maps reveal the true relationship between pore structure and internal gradients so that Δχ can be approximated from the correlation maps. This limit is met most easily at low field. It provides information about porous media, which is expected to benefit the oil industry, in particular NMR well logging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Computationally-Guided Synthetic Control over Pore Size in Isostructural Porous Organic Cages

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The physical properties of 3-D porous solids are defined by their molecular geometry. Hence, precise control of pore size, pore shape, and pore connectivity are needed to tailor them for specific applications. However, for porous molecular crystals, the modification of pore size by adding pore-blocking groups can also affect crystal packing in an unpredictable way. This precludes strategies adopted for isoreticular metal–organic frameworks, where addition of a small group, such as a methyl group, does not affect the basic framework topology. Here, we narrow the pore size of a cage molecule, CC3, in a systematic way by introducing methyl groups into the cage windows. Computational crystal structure prediction was used to anticipate the packing preferences of two homochiral methylated cages, CC14-R and CC15-R, and to assess the structure–energy landscape of a CC15-R/CC3-S cocrystal, designed such that both component cages could be directed to pack with a 3-D, interconnected pore structure. The experimental gas sorption properties of these three cage systems agree well with physical properties predicted by computational energy–structure–function maps. PMID:28776015

  15. Anomalous or regular capacitance? The influence of pore size dispersity on double-layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäckel, N.; Rodner, M.; Schreiber, A.; Jeongwook, J.; Zeiger, M.; Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Presser, V.

    2016-09-01

    The energy storage mechanism of electric double-layer capacitors is governed by ion electrosorption at the electrode surface. This process requires high surface area electrodes, typically highly porous carbons. In common organic electrolytes, bare ion sizes are below one nanometer but they are larger when we consider their solvation shell. In contrast, ionic liquid electrolytes are free of solvent molecules, but cation-anion coordination requires special consideration. By matching pore size and ion size, two seemingly conflicting views have emerged: either an increase in specific capacitance with smaller pore size or a constant capacitance contribution of all micro- and mesopores. In our work, we revisit this issue by using a comprehensive set of electrochemical data and a pore size incremental analysis to identify the influence of certain ranges in the pore size distribution to the ion electrosorption capacity. We see a difference in solvation of ions in organic electrolytes depending on the applied voltage and a cation-anion interaction of ionic liquids in nanometer sized pores.

  16. Size-selective biocatalysis of myoglobin immobilized into a mesoporous metal-organic framework with hierarchical pore sizes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Lykourinou, Vasiliki; Hoang, Tran; Ming, Li-June; Ma, Shengqian

    2012-09-03

    The protein myoglobin has been successfully immobilized into a mesoporous metal-organic framework with hierarchical pore sizes, which demonstrates interesting size-selective biocatalysis as well as superior catalytic activities toward small substrate oxidation compared to its mesoporous silica material counterpart.

  17. New and conventional pore size tests in virus-removing membranes.

    PubMed

    Duek, Aviv; Arkhangelsky, Elizabeth; Krush, Ronit; Brenner, Asher; Gitis, Vitaly

    2012-05-15

    Microorganisms are retained by ultrafiltration (UF) membranes mainly due to size exclusion. The sizes of viruses and membrane pores are close to each other and retention of viruses can be guaranteed only if the precise pore diameter is known. Unfortunately and rather surprisingly, there is no direct method to determine the membrane pore size. As a result, the UF membranes are not trusted to remove the viruses, and the treatment plants are required to enhance viral disinfection. Here we propose a new, simple and effective method for UF pore size determination using aquasols of gold and silver nanoparticles. We synthesized highly monodispersed suspensions ranging in diameter from 3 to 50 nm, which were later transferred through polymer and ceramic UF membranes. The retention percentage was plotted against the particle diameter to determine the pore size for which a membrane has a retention capability of 50, 90 and 100%. The d(50), d(90) and d(100) values were compared with data obtained from conventional transmembrane flux, polyethylene glycol, and dextran tests, and with the retention of phi X 174 and MS2 bacteriophages. The absolute pore size, d(100), for the majority of tested UF membranes is within 40-50 nm, and can only be detected with the new tests. The average 1.2 log retention of hydrophilic phi X 174 was predicted accurately by models based on the virus hydrodynamic radii and d(100) pore size. The 2.5 log MS2 retention suggests hydrophobic interactions in addition to simple ball-through-cylinder geometry.

  18. Synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with large and tunable pore sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Yu, Meihua; Li, Yang; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Jing; Yu, Chengzhong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-07-01

    Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and small particle sizes may have excellent potential in drug/gene delivery.Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and

  19. Passive permeability and effective pore size of HeLa cell nuclear membranes.

    PubMed

    Samudram, Arunkarthick; Mangalassery, Bijeesh M; Kowshik, Meenal; Patincharath, Nandakumar; Varier, Geetha K

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear pore complexes in the nuclear membrane act as the sole gateway of transport of molecules from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and vice versa. Studies on biomolecular transport through nuclear membranes provide vital data on the nuclear pore complexes. In this work, we use fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran molecules as a model system and study the passive nuclear import of biomolecules through nuclear pore complexes in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells. Experiments are carried out under transient conditions in the time lapse imaging scheme using an in-house constructed confocal laser scanning microscope. Transport rates of dextran molecules having molecular weights of 4-70 kDa corresponding to Stokes radius of 1.4-6 nm are determined. Analyzing the permeability of the nuclear membrane for different sizes the effective pore radius of HeLa cell nuclear membrane is determined to be 5.3 nm, much larger than the value reported earlier using proteins as probe molecules. The range of values reported for the nuclear pore radius suggest that they may not be rigid structures and it is quite probable that the effective pore size of nuclear pore complexes is critically dependent on the probe molecules and on the environmental factors.

  20. Probing the SecYEG translocation pore size with preproteins conjugated with sizable rigid spherical molecules.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Francesco; Halza, Erik; Walko, Martin; Du Plessis, François; Nouwen, Nico; Feringa, Ben L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2011-05-10

    Protein translocation in Escherichia coli is mediated by the translocase that in its minimal form consists of the protein-conducting channel SecYEG, and the motor protein, SecA. SecYEG forms a narrow pore in the membrane that allows passage of unfolded proteins only. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the maximal width of the central pore of SecYEG is limited to . To access the functional size of the SecYEG pore, the precursor of outer membrane protein A was modified with rigid spherical tetraarylmethane derivatives of different diameters at a unique cysteine residue. SecYEG allowed the unrestricted passage of the precursor of outer membrane protein A conjugates carrying tetraarylmethanes with diameters up to , whereas a sized molecule blocked the translocation pore. Translocation of the protein-organic molecule hybrids was strictly proton motive force-dependent and occurred at a single pore. With an average diameter of an unfolded polypeptide chain of , the pore accommodates structures of at least , which is vastly larger than the predicted maximal width of a single pore by molecular dynamics simulations.

  1. Synaptotagmin IV Modulation of Vesicle Size and Fusion Pores in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Zhang, Zhen; Jackson, Meyer B.

    2010-01-01

    Many synaptotagmins are Ca2+-binding membrane proteins with functions in Ca2+-triggered exocytosis. Synaptotagmin IV (syt IV) has no Ca2+ binding activity, but nevertheless modulates exocytosis. Here, cell-attached capacitance recording was used to study single vesicle fusion and fission in control and syt IV overexpressing PC12 cells. Unitary capacitance steps varied widely in size, indicating that both microvesicles (MVs) and dense-core vesicles (DCVs) undergo fusion. Syt IV overexpression reduced the size of DCVs and endocytotic vesicles but not MVs. Syt IV also reduced the basal rate of Ca2+-induced fusion. During kiss-and-run, syt IV increased the conductance and duration of DCV fusion pores but not MV fusion pores. During full-fusion of DCVs syt IV increased the fusion pore conductance but not the duration. Syt IV overexpression increased the duration but not the conductance of fission pores during endocytosis. The effects of syt IV on fusion pores in PC12 cells resembled the effects on fusion pores in peptidergic nerve terminals. However, differences between these and results obtained with amperometry may indicate that amperometry and capacitance detect the fusion of different populations of vesicles. The effects of syt IV on fusion pores are discussed in terms of structural models and kinetic mechanisms. PMID:20303854

  2. Proapoptotic Bax and Bak Proteins Form Stable Protein-permeable Pores of Tunable Size

    PubMed Central

    Bleicken, Stephanie; Landeta, Olatz; Landajuela, Ane; Basañez, Gorka; García-Sáez, Ana J.

    2013-01-01

    The Bcl-2 proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak mediate the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane during apoptosis. Current models consider that Bax and Bak form pores at the mitochondrial outer membrane that are responsible for the release of cytochrome c and other larger mitochondrial apoptotic factors (i.e. Smac/DIABLO, AIF, and endoglycosidase G). However, the properties and nature of Bax/Bak apoptotic pores remain enigmatic. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the membrane permeabilizing activity of Bax and Bak at the single vesicle level. We directly visualized that cBid-activated Bax and BakΔC21 can form membrane pores large enough to release not only cytochrome c, but also allophycocyanine, a protein of 104 kDa. Interestingly, the size of Bax and BakΔC21 pores is not constant, as typically observed in purely proteinaceous channels, but evolves with time and depends on protein concentration. We found that Bax and BakΔC21 formed long-lived pores, whose areas changed with the amount of Bax/BakΔC21 but not with cardiolipin concentration. Altogether, our results demonstrate that Bax and BakΔC21 follow similar mechanisms of membrane permeabilization characterized by the formation of protein-permeable pores of dynamic size, in agreement with the proteolipidic nature of these apoptotic pores. PMID:24100034

  3. Aromatization of Ethanol Over Desilicated ZSM-5 Zeolites: Effect of Pore Size in the Mesoporous Region.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jong Won; Hasan, Zubair; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2016-05-01

    Mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites were obtained from microporous ZSM-5 by desilication using aqueous NaOH solutions, and their catalytic activity in the aromatization of ethanol was investigated in order to understand the effects of pore size, in the mesoporous region, on the product distribution and stability of the catalysts. Mesopores generally enhanced the selectivities towards aromatics and stability for aromatization. Mesopores with a maximum pore diameter of around 13 nm were the most effective in the aromatization process (especially for benzene and toluene), suggesting that pore-diameter optimization is necessary for efficient catalysis such as aromatization.

  4. Effect of pore size and surface area of carbide derived carbons on specific capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmiola, J.; Yushin, G.; Dash, R.; Gogotsi, Y.

    This work presents a systematic study on how pore size and specific surface area (SSA) of carbon effect specific capacitance and frequency response behavior. Carbide derived carbons (CDC) produced by leaching metals from TiC and ZrC at temperatures from 600 to 1200 °C have highly tailorable microstructure and porosity, allowing them to serve as excellent model systems for porous carbons in general. BET SSA and average pore size increased with synthesis temperature and was 600-2000 m 2 g -1 and 0.7-1.85 nm, respectively. Maximum specific capacitance in 1 M H 2SO 4 was found to occur at an intermediate synthesis temperature, 800 °C, for both ZrC and TiC derived carbons and was 190 and 150 F g -1, respectively. Volumetric capacitance for TiC and ZrC derived carbons was maximum at 140 and 110 F cm -3. These results contradict an oft-reported axiom that increasing pore size and SSA, all other things being held constant, increases specific capacitance. A correlation between specific capacitance and SSA of micropores (less than 2 nm in diameter) has been shown. As expected, increasing pore size was found to improve the frequency response. However, CDCs with similar pore size distributions but obtained from different starting materials showed noticeable differences in impedance behavior. This highlights the importance of not only the pore size and specific surface area measured using gas sorption techniques, but also the pore shape or tortuousity, which is non-trivial to characterize, on energy storage.

  5. Large pore size nanoporous materials from the self-assembly of asymmetric bottlebrush block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Justin; Bailey, Travis S; Rzayev, Javid

    2011-03-09

    Asymmetric polystyrene-polylactide (PS-PLA) bottlebrush block copolymers have been shown to self-assemble into a cylindrical morphology with large domain spacings. PLA cylinders can be selectively etched out of the shear-aligned polymer monoliths to generate nanoporous materials with an average cylindrical pore diameter of 55 nm. The remaining bottlebrush backbone provides a functional, hydrophilic coating inside the nanopores. This methodology significantly expands the range of pore sizes attainable in block copolymer based nanoporous materials.

  6. Controlling the Pore Size of Mesoporous Carbon Thin Films through Thermal and Solvent Annealing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengping; Liu, Guoliang

    2017-02-02

    Herein an approach to controlling the pore size of mesoporous carbon thin films from metal-free polyacrylonitrile-containing block copolymers is described. A high-molecular-weight poly(acrylonitrile-block-methyl methacrylate) (PAN-b-PMMA) is synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The authors systematically investigate the self-assembly behavior of PAN-b-PMMA thin films during thermal and solvent annealing, as well as the pore size of mesoporous carbon thin films after pyrolysis. The as-spin-coated PAN-b-PMMA is microphase-separated into uniformly spaced globular nanostructures, and these globular nanostructures evolve into various morphologies after thermal or solvent annealing. Surprisingly, through thermal annealing and subsequent pyrolysis of PAN-b-PMMA into mesoporous carbon thin films, the pore size and center-to-center spacing increase significantly with thermal annealing temperature, different from most block copolymers. In addition, the choice of solvent in solvent annealing strongly influences the block copolymer nanostructure and the pore size of mesoporous carbon thin films. The discoveries herein provide a simple strategy to control the pore size of mesoporous carbon thin films by tuning thermal or solvent annealing conditions, instead of synthesizing a series of block copolymers of various molecular weights and compositions.

  7. Modulation of Asymmetric Flux in Heterotypic Gap Junctions by Pore Shape, Particle Size and Charge

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Abhijit; Sachse, Frank B.; Moreno, Alonso P.

    2017-01-01

    Gap junction channels play a vital role in intercellular communication by connecting cytoplasm of adjoined cells through arrays of channel-pores formed at the common membrane junction. Their structure and properties vary depending on the connexin isoform(s) involved in forming the full gap junction channel. Lack of information on the molecular structure of gap junction channels has limited the development of computational tools for single channel studies. Currently, we rely on cumbersome experimental techniques that have limited capabilities. We have earlier reported a simplified Brownian dynamics gap junction pore model and demonstrated that variations in pore shape at the single channel level can explain some of the differences in permeability of heterotypic channels observed in in vitro experiments. Based on this computational model, we designed simulations to study the influence of pore shape, particle size and charge in homotypic and heterotypic pores. We simulated dye diffusion under whole cell voltage clamping. Our simulation studies with pore shape variations revealed a pore shape with maximal flux asymmetry in a heterotypic pore. We identified pore shape profiles that match the in silico flux asymmetry results to the in vitro results of homotypic and heterotypic gap junction formed out of Cx43 and Cx45. Our simulation results indicate that the channel's pore-shape established flux asymmetry and that flux asymmetry is primarily regulated by the sizes of the conical and/or cylindrical mouths at each end of the pore. Within the set range of particle size and charge, flux asymmetry was found to be independent of particle size and directly proportional to charge magnitude. While particle charge was vital to creating flux asymmetry, charge magnitude only scaled the observed flux asymmetry. Our studies identified the key factors that help predict asymmetry. Finally, we suggest the role of such flux asymmetry in creating concentration imbalances of messenger

  8. Pore size assessment during corneal endothelial cells permeabilization by femtosecond laser activated carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumelle, C.; Mauclair, C.; Houzet, J.; Bernard, A.; He, Z.; Piselli, S.; Perrache, C.; Egaud, G.; Baubeau, E.; Gain, P.; Thuret, G.

    2015-07-01

    Corneal therapeutic molecules delivery represents a promising solution to maintain human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) viability, but the difficulty is transport across cell membrane. A new delivery method published recently consists in ephemerally permeabilizing cell membranes using a photo-acoustic reaction produced by carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and femtosecond laser (FsL). The aim of this work is to investigate the size of pores formed at cell membrane by this technique. To induce cell permeabilization, HCECs were put in contact with CNPs and irradiated with a 500 μm diameter Ti:Sa FsL focalized spot. Four sizes of marker molecules were delivered into HCECs to investigate pore sizes: calcein (1.2 nm), FITC-Dextran 4kDa (2.8 nm) and FITC-Dextran 70kDa (12 nm) and FITC-Dextran 2MDa (50 nm). Delivery of each molecule was assessed by flow cytometry, a technique able to measure their presence into cells. We showed that the delivery rate was dependent of their size. Calcein was delivered in 56.1±8.2% of HCECs, FITC-Dextran 4kDa in 42.2±3.5%, FITC-Dextran 70 kDa in 21.5±2.7% and finally FITC-Dextran 2MDa in 12.9±2.0%. It means that a large number of pores in the size ranging from 1.2 to 2.8 nm were formed. However, 12 nm and larger pores were almost half more infrequent. Pore sizes formed at cell membrane by the technique of cell permeabilization by FsL activated CNPs was investigated. The results indicated that the pore sizes are large enough for the efficient delivery of small, medium and big therapeutics molecules on HCECs by this technique.

  9. Tricontinuous Cubic Nanostructure and Pore Size Patterning in Mesostructured Silica Films Templated with Glycerol Monooleate.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Darren R; Garcia, Fred L; Kaehr, Bryan; Khripin, Constantine Y; Collord, Andrew D; Baca, Helen K; Tate, Michael P; Hillhouse, Hugh W; Strzalka, Joseph W; Jiang, Zhang; Wang, Jin; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2011-04-26

    The fabrication of nanostructured films possessing tricontinuous minimal surface mesophases with well-defined framework and pore connectivity remains a difficult task. As a new route to these structures, we introduce glycerol monooleate (GMO) as a template for evaporation-induced self-assembly. As deposited, a nanostructured double gyroid phase is formed, as indicated by analysis of grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering data. Removal of GMO by UV/O(3) treatment or acid extraction induces a phase change to a nanoporous body-centered structure which we tentatively identify as based on the IW-P surface. To improve film quality, we add a co-surfactant to the GMO in a mass ratio of 1:10; when this co-surfactant is cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, we find an unusually large pore size (8-12 nm) in acid extracted films, while UV/O(3) treated films yield pores of only ca. 4 nm. Using this pore size dependence on film processing procedure, we create a simple method for patterning pore size in nanoporous films, demonstrating spatially-defined size-selective molecular adsorption.

  10. Silica mesostructures: control of pore size and surface area using a surfactant-templated hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Aparna; Ahmad, Tokeer; Ganguli, Ashok K

    2010-09-21

    The cooperative self-assembly of the silica precursor, tetraethyl ortho silicate (TEOS), with the surfactant molecule followed by the basic hydrolysis led to the formation of mesoporous silica with varying pore sizes. The pores are formed by the removal of the intermediate assemblies of the charged surfactant molecules. In the absence of formation of such assemblies of surfactants (example in the case of nonionic surfactants), the resulting mesostructures have very small pores, giving low surface area mesostructures. This study outlines the precise control of pore size in a wide size distribution (3.4-22 nm) by the systematic variation of the surfactant. The addition of polyethylene glycol (in situ) while carrying out the hydrolysis of TEOS results in the formation of large-sized cavities (∼40 nm). Uniform spherical particles with pores (different from the cavities) as large as 22 nm and surface areas of ∼1100 m(2)/g have been obtained by the combined effect of the hydrothermal conditions on the cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-templated synthesis.

  11. Tricontinuous Cubic Nanostructure and Pore Size Patterning in Mesostructured Silica Films Templated with Glycerol Monooleate

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy, Darren R.; Garcia, Fred L.; Kaehr, Bryan; Khripin, Constantine Y.; Collord, Andrew D.; Baca, Helen K.; Tate, Michael P.; Hillhouse, Hugh W.; Strzalka, Joseph W.; Jiang, Zhang; Wang, Jin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of nanostructured films possessing tricontinuous minimal surface mesophases with well-defined framework and pore connectivity remains a difficult task. As a new route to these structures, we introduce glycerol monooleate (GMO) as a template for evaporation-induced self-assembly. As deposited, a nanostructured double gyroid phase is formed, as indicated by analysis of grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering data. Removal of GMO by UV/O3 treatment or acid extraction induces a phase change to a nanoporous body-centered structure which we tentatively identify as based on the IW-P surface. To improve film quality, we add a co-surfactant to the GMO in a mass ratio of 1:10; when this co-surfactant is cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, we find an unusually large pore size (8-12 nm) in acid extracted films, while UV/O3 treated films yield pores of only ca. 4 nm. Using this pore size dependence on film processing procedure, we create a simple method for patterning pore size in nanoporous films, demonstrating spatially-defined size-selective molecular adsorption. PMID:21572556

  12. Direct correlation of diffusion and pore size distributions with low field NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependent diffusion coefficient (D) is a powerful tool to probe microstructure in porous media, and can be obtained by the NMR method. In a real porous sample, molecular diffusion is very complex. Here we present a new method which directly measures the relationship between effective diffusion coefficients and pore size distributions without knowing surface relaxivity. This method is used to extract structural information and explore the relationship between D and a in porous media having broad pore size distributions. The diffusion information is encoded by the Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) method and the pore size distributions are acquired by the Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF) method. Two model samples were measured to verify this method. Restricted diffusion was analyzed, and shows that most fluid molecules experience pore wall. The D(a) curves obtained from correlation maps were fitted to the Padé approximant equation and a good agreement was found between the fitting lines and the measured data. Then a sandstone sample with unknown structure was measured. The state of confined fluids was analyzed and structural information, such as pore size distributions, were extracted. The D - T1 correlation maps were also obtained using the same method, which yielded surface relaxivities for different samples. All the experiments were conducted on 2 MHz NMR equipment to obtain accurate diffusion information, where internal gradients can be neglected. This method is expected to have useful applications in the oil industry, particularly for NMR logging in the future.

  13. Time-Dependent Model for Fluid Flow in Porous Materials with Multiple Pore Sizes.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Brian M; Chinthapatla, Rukesh; Ligler, Frances S; Walker, Glenn M

    2017-04-18

    An understanding of fluid transport through porous materials is critical for the development of lateral flow assays and analytical devices based on paper microfluidics. Models of fluid transport within porous materials often assume a single capillary pressure and permeability value for the material, implying that the material comprises a single pore size and that the porous material is fully saturated behind the visible wetted front. As a result, current models can lead to inaccuracies when modeling transport over long distances and/or times. A new transport model is presented that incorporates a range of pore sizes to more accurately predict the capillary transport of fluid in porous materials. The model effectively predicts the time-dependent saturation of rectangular strips of Whatman filter no. 1 paper using the manufacturer's data, published pore-size distribution measurements, and the fluid's properties.

  14. Strategies for Tailoring the Pore-Size Distribution of Virus Retention Filter Papers.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Simon; Mihranyan, Albert

    2016-06-08

    The goal of this work is to demonstrate how the pore-size distribution of the nanocellulose-based virus-retentive filter can be tailored. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. green algae using the hot-press drying at varying drying temperatures. The produced filters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and N2 gas sorption analysis. Further, hydraulic permeability and retention efficiency toward surrogate 20 nm model particles (fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene spheres) were assessed. It was shown that by controlling the rate of water evaporation during hot-press drying the pore-size distribution can be precisely tailored in the region between 10 and 25 nm. The mechanism of pore formation and critical parameters are discussed in detail. The results are highly valuable for development of advanced separation media, especially for virus-retentive size-exclusion filtration.

  15. Survival and relaxation time, pore size distribution moments, and viscous permeability in random unidirectional fiber structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomadakis, Manolis M.; Robertson, Teri J.

    2005-03-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for the mean survival time, principal relaxation time, mean pore size, and mean square pore size, for random porous structures consisting of parallel nonoverlapping or partially overlapping fibers. The numerical procedure is based on a discrete step-by-step random walk mechanism simulating the Brownian diffusion trajectories of molecules in the porous media. Numerical results on the viscous permeability of these structures are computed with a method based on electrical conduction principles and compared to a variational bound derived from the mean survival time. The results show that nonoverlapping fiber structures exhibit lower values of the dimensionless mean survival time, principal relaxation time, mean pore size, and mean square pore size than randomly overlapping fiber structures of the same porosity, while partially overlapping fiber structures show behavior intermediate to those of the two extreme cases. The mean square pore size (second moment of the pore size distribution) is found to be a very good predictor of the mean survival time for non-, partially, and randomly overlapping fiber structures. Dimensionless groups representing the deviation of variational bounds from our simulation results vary in practically the same range as the corresponding values reported earlier for beds of spherical particles. A universal scaling expression of the literature relating the mean survival time to structural properties [S. Torquato and C. L. Y. Yeong, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8814 (1997)] agrees very well with our results for all examined fiber structures, thus validated for the first time for porous media formed by partially overlapping particles. The permeability behavior of partially overlapping fiber structures resembles that of nonoverlapping fiber structures for flow parallel to the fibers, but not for transverse flow, where percolation phenomena prevail. The permeability results for beds of unidirectional partially

  16. Survival and relaxation time, pore size distribution moments, and viscous permeability in random unidirectional fiber structures.

    PubMed

    Tomadakis, Manolis M; Robertson, Teri J

    2005-03-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for the mean survival time, principal relaxation time, mean pore size, and mean square pore size, for random porous structures consisting of parallel nonoverlapping or partially overlapping fibers. The numerical procedure is based on a discrete step-by-step random walk mechanism simulating the Brownian diffusion trajectories of molecules in the porous media. Numerical results on the viscous permeability of these structures are computed with a method based on electrical conduction principles and compared to a variational bound derived from the mean survival time. The results show that nonoverlapping fiber structures exhibit lower values of the dimensionless mean survival time, principal relaxation time, mean pore size, and mean square pore size than randomly overlapping fiber structures of the same porosity, while partially overlapping fiber structures show behavior intermediate to those of the two extreme cases. The mean square pore size (second moment of the pore size distribution) is found to be a very good predictor of the mean survival time for non-, partially, and randomly overlapping fiber structures. Dimensionless groups representing the deviation of variational bounds from our simulation results vary in practically the same range as the corresponding values reported earlier for beds of spherical particles. A universal scaling expression of the literature relating the mean survival time to structural properties [S. Torquato and C. L. Y. Yeong, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8814 (1997)] agrees very well with our results for all examined fiber structures, thus validated for the first time for porous media formed by partially overlapping particles. The permeability behavior of partially overlapping fiber structures resembles that of nonoverlapping fiber structures for flow parallel to the fibers, but not for transverse flow, where percolation phenomena prevail. The permeability results for beds of unidirectional partially

  17. Strong pore-size dependence of the optical properties in porous alumina membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, C. H.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Han, J. K.; Choi, Y. C.; Bu, S. D.; Shin, H. Y.; Yoon, S.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the strong pore-size-dependent optical properties of porous alumina membranes (PAMs) by using the photoluminescence and the optical spectroscopic techniques. The pore diameters of our PAMs varied from 60 to 420 nm. All samples showed a sizable violet/blue emission with a strong temperature dependence. We found that the peak position of the emission shifted to higher energies with increasing pore diameter, which was in accord with the smaller binding energy extracted from the temperature dependence of the emission intensity. From the transmission spectra, we found that the effective bandgap of the PAMs shifted significantly to lower energies with increasing pore diameter, which indicated that the impurity states within the bandgap was affected strongly by the geometry of the PAM.

  18. Characterizing pore sizes and water structure in stimuli-responsive hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, A.S.; Antonsen, K.P.; Ashida, T.; Bohnert, J.L.; Dong, L.C.; Nabeshima, Y.; Nagamatsu, S.; Park, T.G.; Sheu, M.S.; Wu, X.S.; Yan, Q.

    1993-12-31

    Hydrogels have been extensively investigated as potential matrices for drug delivery. In particular, hydrogels responsive to pH and temperature changes have been of greatest interest most recently. Proteins and peptide drugs are especially relevant for delivery from such hydrogel matrices due to the relatively {open_quotes}passive{close_quotes} and biocompatible microenvironment which should exist within the hydrogel aqueous pores. The large molecular size of many proteins requires an interconnected large pore structure. Furthermore, the gel pore {open_quotes}walls{close_quotes} should not provide hydrophobic sites for strong interactions with proteins. In the special case of ion exchange release the protein would be attracted by opposite charges on the polymer backbones. Therefore, it is important both to control and to characterize the pore structure and the water character within a hydrogel to be used or protein or peptide drug delivery. This talk will critically review techniques for estimating these two key parameters in hydrogels.

  19. Pore size distribution and supercritical hydrogen adsorption in activated carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purewal, J. J.; Kabbour, H.; Vajo, J. J.; Ahn, C. C.; Fultz, B.

    2009-05-01

    Pore size distributions (PSD) and supercritical H2 isotherms have been measured for two activated carbon fiber (ACF) samples. The surface area and the PSD both depend on the degree of activation to which the ACF has been exposed. The low-surface-area ACF has a narrow PSD centered at 0.5 nm, while the high-surface-area ACF has a broad distribution of pore widths between 0.5 and 2 nm. The H2 adsorption enthalpy in the zero-coverage limit depends on the relative abundance of the smallest pores relative to the larger pores. Measurements of the H2 isosteric adsorption enthalpy indicate the presence of energy heterogeneity in both ACF samples. Additional measurements on a microporous, coconut-derived activated carbon are presented for reference.

  20. Pore-size dependent THz absorption of nano-confined water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chi-Kuang; You, Borwen; Huang, Yu-Ru; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Sato, Shusaku; Irisawa, Akiyoshi; Imamura, Motoki; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-06-15

    We performed a THz absorption spectroscopy study on liquid water confined in mesoporous silica materials, MCM-41-S-18 and MCM-41-S-21, of two different pore sizes at room temperatures. We found that stronger confinement with a smaller pore size causes reduced THz absorption, indicating reduced water mobility due to confinement. Combined with recent theoretical studies showing that the microscopic structure of water inside the nanopores can be separated into a core water region and an interfacial water region, our spectroscopy analysis further reveals a bulk-water-like THz absorption behavior in the core water region and a solid-like THz absorption behavior in the interfacial water region.

  1. Pore Size Control of Ultra-thin Silicon Membranes by Rapid Thermal Carbonization

    PubMed Central

    Fang, David Z.; Striemer, Christopher C.; Gaborski, Thomas R.; McGrath, James L.; Fauchet, Philippe M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid thermal carbonization in a dilute acetylene (C2H2) atmosphere has been used to chemically modify and precisely tune the pore size of ultrathin porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si). The magnitude of size reduction was controlled by varying the process temperature and time. Under certain conditions, the carbon coating displayed atomic ordering indicative of graphene layer formation conformal to the pore walls. Initial experiments show that carbonized membranes follow theoretical predictions for hydraulic permeability and retain the precise separation capabilities of untreated membranes. PMID:20839831

  2. Pore-size dependence and characteristics of water diffusion in slitlike micropores

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, S. O.

    2015-07-16

    The temperature dependence of the dynamics of water inside microporous activated carbon fibers (ACF) is investigated by means of incoherent elastic and quasielastic neutron-scattering techniques. The aim is to evaluate the effect of increasing pore size on the water dynamics in these primarily hydrophobic slit-shaped channels. Using two different micropore sizes (similar to 12 and 18 angstrom, denoted, respectively, ACF-10 and ACF-20), a clear suppression of the mobility of the water molecules is observed as the pore gap or temperature decreases. Suppression, we found, is accompanied by a systematic dependence of the average translational diffusion coefficient D-r and relaxation time [tau(0)] of the restricted water on pore size and temperature. We observed D-r values and tested against a proposed scaling law, in which the translational diffusion coefficient D-r of water within a porous matrix was found to depend solely on two single parameters, a temperature-independent translational diffusion coefficient D-c associated with the water bound to the pore walls and the ratio theta of this strictly confined water to the total water inside the pore, yielding unique characteristic parameters for water transport in these carbon channels across the investigated temperature range.

  3. Pore-size dependence and characteristics of water diffusion in slitlike micropores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, S. O.

    2015-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the dynamics of water inside microporous activated carbon fibers (ACF) is investigated by means of incoherent elastic and quasielastic neutron-scattering techniques. The aim is to evaluate the effect of increasing pore size on the water dynamics in these primarily hydrophobic slit-shaped channels. Using two different micropore sizes (˜12 and 18 Å, denoted, respectively, ACF-10 and ACF-20), a clear suppression of the mobility of the water molecules is observed as the pore gap or temperature decreases. This suppression is accompanied by a systematic dependence of the average translational diffusion coefficient Dr and relaxation time <τ0> of the restricted water on pore size and temperature. The observed Dr values are tested against a proposed scaling law, in which the translational diffusion coefficient Dr of water within a porous matrix was found to depend solely on two single parameters, a temperature-independent translational diffusion coefficient Dc associated with the water bound to the pore walls and the ratio θ of this strictly confined water to the total water inside the pore, yielding unique characteristic parameters for water transport in these carbon channels across the investigated temperature range.

  4. Pore-size dependence and characteristics of water diffusion in slitlike micropores

    DOE PAGES

    Diallo, S. O.

    2015-07-16

    The temperature dependence of the dynamics of water inside microporous activated carbon fibers (ACF) is investigated by means of incoherent elastic and quasielastic neutron-scattering techniques. The aim is to evaluate the effect of increasing pore size on the water dynamics in these primarily hydrophobic slit-shaped channels. Using two different micropore sizes (similar to 12 and 18 angstrom, denoted, respectively, ACF-10 and ACF-20), a clear suppression of the mobility of the water molecules is observed as the pore gap or temperature decreases. Suppression, we found, is accompanied by a systematic dependence of the average translational diffusion coefficient D-r and relaxation timemore » [tau(0)] of the restricted water on pore size and temperature. We observed D-r values and tested against a proposed scaling law, in which the translational diffusion coefficient D-r of water within a porous matrix was found to depend solely on two single parameters, a temperature-independent translational diffusion coefficient D-c associated with the water bound to the pore walls and the ratio theta of this strictly confined water to the total water inside the pore, yielding unique characteristic parameters for water transport in these carbon channels across the investigated temperature range.« less

  5. Pore-size dependence and characteristics of water diffusion in slitlike micropores.

    PubMed

    Diallo, S O

    2015-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the dynamics of water inside microporous activated carbon fibers (ACF) is investigated by means of incoherent elastic and quasielastic neutron-scattering techniques. The aim is to evaluate the effect of increasing pore size on the water dynamics in these primarily hydrophobic slit-shaped channels. Using two different micropore sizes (∼12 and 18 Å, denoted, respectively, ACF-10 and ACF-20), a clear suppression of the mobility of the water molecules is observed as the pore gap or temperature decreases. This suppression is accompanied by a systematic dependence of the average translational diffusion coefficient D(r) and relaxation time 〈τ(0)〉 of the restricted water on pore size and temperature. The observed D(r) values are tested against a proposed scaling law, in which the translational diffusion coefficient D(r) of water within a porous matrix was found to depend solely on two single parameters, a temperature-independent translational diffusion coefficient D(c) associated with the water bound to the pore walls and the ratio θ of this strictly confined water to the total water inside the pore, yielding unique characteristic parameters for water transport in these carbon channels across the investigated temperature range.

  6. A facile method to determine pore size distribution in porous scaffold by using image processing.

    PubMed

    Lo Re, G; Lopresti, F; Petrucci, G; Scaffaro, R

    2015-09-01

    Image processing permits scientists to investigate morphological properties of three-dimensional structures starting from their bi-dimensional gray-scale representation. In many cases porous structure with complex architecture has to be designed in order to attempt specific properties such in the case of scaffold for tissue engineering. Traditional morphological characterization, like scanning electron microscopy, should be coupled with quantitative information such as pore size distribution (PSD) in order to get a deeper understanding of the influence of the porous structure on tissue regeneration processes and on other related applications, it is remarkable to study a quantitative analysis of porosity and of pores dimension. In this work it was developed as a software able to accomplish the segmentation of images containing pores of any geometry in a semi-automatic way with the aim to measure the PSD. Case study constituted by PLA porous scaffolds with different pore size was adopted. Results indicate that image processing methods well fit the pore size features of PLA scaffolds, overcoming the limits of the more invasive porosimetry techniques.

  7. Self-supporting nanopore membranes with controlled pore size and shape.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe-Xue; Namboodiri, Arya; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2008-05-01

    Self-supporting membranes containing either isolated or organized arrays of nanosized pores have been prepared using a nonlithographic approach by coupling sol-gel processing, thin film preparation, and templating. Specifically, polystyrene latex spheres were doped into a hybrid sol prepared from tetraethoxysilane and dimethyldiethoxysilane and the resultant sol spin cast on a sacrificial support. Upon removal of the template and the sacrificial support, the self-supporting nanopore membranes were transferred to glass for characterization by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Through variations in the thickness of the membranes and the size of the polystyrene latex spheres, the geometry (cylinder-like to asymmetric-like) and the dimensions of the nanopores were altered. Pores with diameters that range from 35 to 2100 nm, aspect ratios (defined as the top pore diameter divided by the bottom pore diameter) from 1-4, and depths (effective film thickness) from 50 to 1500 nms have been prepared using templates that range in diameter from 100 to 3100 nm. The method described employs "wet-chemistry", is highly versatile, and is easily amenable to modification by utilizing templates of different sizes and geometries to create stable membranes with different pore geometries and sizes that can be used as platforms for nanofiltration and/or chemical sensors.

  8. Development of hierarchical, tunable pore size polymer foams for ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Christopher E.; Lee, Matthew Nicholson; Parra-Vasquez, A. Nicholas Gerardo

    2016-08-01

    In this study, one of the great challenges of inertial confinement fusion experiments is poor understanding of the effects of reactant heterogeneity on fusion reactions. The Marble campaign, conceived at Los Alamos National Laboratory, aims to gather new insights into this issue by utilizing target capsules containing polymer foams of variable pore sizes, tunable over an order of magnitude. Here, we describe recent and ongoing progress in the development of CH and CH/CD polymer foams in support of Marble. Hierarchical and tunable pore sizes have been achieved by utilizing a sacrificial porogen template within an open-celled poly(divinylbenzene) or poly(divinylbenzene-co-styrene) aerogel matrix, resulting in low-density foams (~30 mg/ml) with continuous multimodal pore networks.

  9. Effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration to pores size diameter of silicon membrane.

    PubMed

    Burham, Norhafizah; Hamzah, Azrul Azlan; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies parameters which affect the pore size diameter of a silicon membrane. Electrochemical etching is performed in characterise the parameter involved in this process. The parameter has been studied is volume ratio of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and ethanol as an electrolyte aqueous for electrochemical etch. This electrolyte aqueous solution has been mixed between HF and ethanol with volume ratio 3:7, 5:5, 7:3 and 9:1. As a result, the higher volume of HF in this electrolyte gives the smallest pore size diameter compared to the lower volume of HF. These samples have been dipped into HF and ethanol electrolyte aqueous with supplied 25 mA/cm2 current density for 20, 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The samples will inspect under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to execute the pore formations on silicon membrane surface.

  10. The effect of magnetic particles on pore size distribution in soft polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schümann, M.; Günther, S.; Odenbach, S.

    2014-07-01

    The combination of elastomeric matrices with magnetic particles to obtain magnetically controllable hybrid materials is an actual field of intense research. An important aspect in this context is the stiffness of the matrix, which determines the effectiveness of the magnetically driven changes in the material properties. In this paper an approach has been undertaken to use soft polyurethane foams as matrix material. By means of x-ray computed microtomography and digital image processing the pore size distribution has been determined to get information on how this distribution is affected by the introduction of magnetic microparticles. To do so, 20 000 to 40 000 pores per foam sample were evaluated. As a result, it could be proven that the pore sizes of the analysed foams clearly obey the Weibull distribution. Increasing the carbonyl iron particle concentrations leads to a decrement of the shape parameter of the distribution. Based on known particle stabilization mechanisms, an approach to explain the experimental results is proposed.

  11. Development of hierarchical, tunable pore size polymer foams for ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Christopher E.; Lee, Matthew Nicholson; Parra-Vasquez, A. Nicholas Gerardo

    2016-08-01

    In this study, one of the great challenges of inertial confinement fusion experiments is poor understanding of the effects of reactant heterogeneity on fusion reactions. The Marble campaign, conceived at Los Alamos National Laboratory, aims to gather new insights into this issue by utilizing target capsules containing polymer foams of variable pore sizes, tunable over an order of magnitude. Here, we describe recent and ongoing progress in the development of CH and CH/CD polymer foams in support of Marble. Hierarchical and tunable pore sizes have been achieved by utilizing a sacrificial porogen template within an open-celled poly(divinylbenzene) or poly(divinylbenzene-co-styrene) aerogel matrix, resulting in low-density foams (~30 mg/ml) with continuous multimodal pore networks.

  12. Development of hierarchical, tunable pore size polymer foams for ICF targets

    DOE PAGES

    Hamilton, Christopher E.; Lee, Matthew Nicholson; Parra-Vasquez, A. Nicholas Gerardo

    2016-08-01

    In this study, one of the great challenges of inertial confinement fusion experiments is poor understanding of the effects of reactant heterogeneity on fusion reactions. The Marble campaign, conceived at Los Alamos National Laboratory, aims to gather new insights into this issue by utilizing target capsules containing polymer foams of variable pore sizes, tunable over an order of magnitude. Here, we describe recent and ongoing progress in the development of CH and CH/CD polymer foams in support of Marble. Hierarchical and tunable pore sizes have been achieved by utilizing a sacrificial porogen template within an open-celled poly(divinylbenzene) or poly(divinylbenzene-co-styrene) aerogelmore » matrix, resulting in low-density foams (~30 mg/ml) with continuous multimodal pore networks.« less

  13. Improvement of endothelial progenitor outgrowth cell (EPOC)-mediated vascularization in gelatin-based hydrogels through pore size manipulation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiayin; Wiraja, Christian; Muhammad, Hamizan B; Xu, Chenjie; Wang, Dong-An

    2017-08-01

    In addition to chemical compositions, physical properties of scaffolds, such as pore size, can also influence vascularization within the scaffolds. A larger pore has been shown to improve host vascular tissue invasion into scaffolds. However, the influence of pore sizes on vascularization by endothelial cells directly encapsulated in hydrogels remains unknown. In this study, micro-cavitary hydrogels with different pore sizes were created in gelatin-methacrylate hydrogels with dissolvable gelatin microspheres (MS) varying in sizes. The effect of pore sizes on vascular network formation by endothelial progenitor outgrowth cells (EPOCs) encapsulated in hydrogels was then investigated both in vitro and in vivo. When cultured in vitro, vascular networks were formed around pore structures in micro-cavitary hydrogels. The middle pore size supported best differentiation of EPOCs and thus best hydrogel vascularization in vitro. When implantation in vivo, functional connections between encapsulated EPOCs and host vasculature micro-cavitary hydrogels were established. Vascularization in vivo was promoted best in hydrogels with the large pore size due to the increased vascular tissue invasion. These results highlight the difference between in vitro and in vivo culture conditions and indicate that pore sizes shall be designed for in vitro and in vivo hydrogel vascularization respectively. Pore sizes for hydrogel vascularization in vitro shall be middle ones and pore sizes for hydrogel vascularization in vivo shall be large ones. This study reveals that the optimal pore size for hydrogel vascularization in vitro and in vivo is different. The middle pore size supported best differentiation of EPOCs and thus best hydrogel vascularization in vitro, while vascularization in vivo was promoted best in hydrogels with the large pore size due to the increased vascular tissue invasion. These results highlight the difference between in vitro and in vivo culture conditions and indicate that

  14. An effective strategy to boost the robustness of metal-organic frameworks via introduction of size-matching ligand braces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuli; Gao, Wen-Yang; Luan, Jian; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-01-31

    Framework fragility upon the removal of guest solvent molecules has remained an issue for a substantial amount of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). To address this issue, in this work we illustrate a strategy for the introduction of size-matching ligands as braces that are deliberately anchored onto the open metal sites to support and segment the pores thereby boosting the framework robustness. This is exemplified by employing 4,4'-bipyridine as a brace to bridge two trigonal prismatic clusters of Co3(μ3-O)(COO)6, generating a robust MOF that exhibits permanent porosity and selective gas adsorption behaviors.

  15. Effects of pore size and dissolved organic matters on diffusion of arsenate in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulong; Wang, Shaofeng; Wang, Xin; Jia, Yongfeng

    2017-02-01

    Presented here is the influence of membrane pore size and dissolved organic matters on the diffusion coefficient (D) of aqueous arsenate, investigated by the diffusion cell method for the first time. The pH-dependent diffusion coefficient of arsenate was determined and compared with values from previous studies; the coefficient was found to decrease with increasing pH, showing the validity of our novel diffusion cell method. The D value increased dramatically as a function of membrane pore size at small pore sizes, and then increased slowly at pore sizes larger than 2.0μm. Using the ExpAssoc model, the maximum D value was determined to be 11.2565×10(-6)cm(2)/sec. The presence of dissolved organic matters led to a dramatic increase of the D of arsenate, which could be attributed to electrostatic effects and ionic effects of salts. These results improve the understanding of the diffusion behavior of arsenate, especially the important role of various environmental parameters in the study and prediction of the migration of arsenate in aquatic water systems.

  16. Induced polarization of volcanic rocks. 2. Influence of pore size and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Breton, M. Le; Niu, Q.; Wallin, E.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between complex conductivity spectra and both permeability and pore mean size and distribution of 22 core samples (21 volcanic rocks and one clayey sandstone). The volcanic core samples were extracted from a wellbore drilled for the Humu´ula Groundwater Research Project in the Humu´ula saddle region between Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa volcanoes (Hawaii). The quadrature conductivity spectra of volcanic rocks exhibit a subtle, but generally detectable, relaxation frequency in the range 0.3 Hz to 45 kHz similar to the relaxation frequency observed for clayey sandstones. We find a fair relationship between this relaxation frequency and the pore size determined by mercury porosimetry. Combined with the intrinsic formation factor of the core samples, the relaxation frequency can be used as an indicator of the permeability of the material. The predicted values of the permeability are grossly consistent with the permeability values to air (in the range 0.001-100 mD) within two orders of magnitude. The measured permeability values are highly correlated to the peak of the pore size distribution determined from mercury porosimetry divided by the intrinsic formation factor. By fitting the complex conductivity spectra with the pore size distribution, we obtain the normalized chargeability of the core samples, which is, in turn, highly correlated to the measured cation exchange capacity (CEC).

  17. Induced polarization of volcanic rocks. 2. Influence of pore size and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Breton, M. Le; Niu, Q.; Wallin, E.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the relationship between complex conductivity spectra and both permeability and pore mean size and distribution of 22 core samples (21 volcanic rocks and 1 clayey sandstone). The volcanic core samples were extracted from a wellbore drilled for the Humu`ula Groundwater Research Project in the Humu`ula saddle region between Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa volcanoes (Hawaii). The quadrature conductivity spectra of volcanic rocks exhibit a subtle, but generally detectable, relaxation frequency in the range 0.3 Hz to 45 kHz similar to the relaxation frequency observed for clayey sandstones. We find a fair relationship between this relaxation frequency and the pore size determined by mercury porosimetry. Combined with the intrinsic formation factor of the core samples, the relaxation frequency can be used as an indicator of the permeability of the material. The predicted values of the permeability are grossly consistent with the permeability values to air (in the range 0.001-100 mD) within two orders of magnitude. The measured permeability values are highly correlated to the peak of the pore size distribution determined from mercury porosimetry divided by the intrinsic formation factor. By fitting the complex conductivity spectra with the pore size distribution, we obtain the normalized chargeability of the core samples, which is, in turn, highly correlated to the measured cation exchange capacity.

  18. Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: The effect of pore size on CO2 capture performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Yao, Manli; Hu, Xin; Hu, Gengshen; Lu, Jiqing; Luo, Mengfei; Fan, Maohong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of current research is to investigate the effect of pore size of mesoporous silica supports on the CO2 capture performance of solid amine sorbents. Two ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) with different pore sizes (5.6 nm and 7.6 nm) were synthesized as tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) supports. A serious of techniques, such as physical adsorption, infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to characterize the solid amine sorbents. The CO2 capture performances of the sorbents were evaluated using breakthrough method with a fixed-bed reactor equipped with an online mass spectrometer. The experimental results indicate that the pore size has significant influence on CO2 capture performance. Larger pore size could decrease the mass transfer resistance and increase the interaction between CO2 and TEPA. Therefore, OMS-7.6 is better than OMS-5.6 as amine support. The highest CO2 sorption capacities achieved with OMS-7.6 with 50 wt% TEPA loading (OMS-7.6-50) in the absence and presence of moisture are 3.45 mmol/g and 4.28 mmol/g, respectively, under the conditions of 10.0% CO2/N2 mixture at 75 °C. Cyclic CO2 adsorption-desorption experiments indicate that the solid amine sorbents are fairly stable and regenerable.

  19. Validity of NMR pore-size analysis of cultural heritage ancient building materials containing magnetic impurities.

    PubMed

    Brai, M; Casieri, C; De Luca, F; Fantazzini, P; Gombia, M; Terenzi, C

    2007-12-01

    NMR relaxation time distributions, obtained with laboratory and portable devices, are utilized to characterize the pore-size distributions of building materials coming from the Roman remains of the Greek-Roman Theatre of Taormina. To validate the interpretation of relaxation data in terms of pore-size distribution, comparison of results from standard and in situ NMR experiments with results of the mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) has been made. Although the pore-size distributions can be obtained by NMR in terms of either longitudinal (T(1)) or transverse (T(2)) relaxation times distributions, the shorter duration of the T(2) measurement makes it, in principle, preferable, although the determination of T(2) distributions is not necessarily an easy alternative to finding T(1) distributions. Among other things, the T(1) distribution is almost independent of the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field, while the T(2) distribution is strongly influenced by it. This paper was aimed at answering two questions: what are the validity limits to interpret NMR data in terms of pore-size distributions and whether the portable device can successfully be applied as a non-destructive and non-invasive tool for in situ NMR analysis of building materials, particularly those of Cultural Heritage interest.

  20. Facile fabrication of BiVO4 nanofilms with controlled pore size and their photoelectrochemical performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chenchen; Jiao, Zhengbo; Li, Shaopeng; Zhang, Yan; Bi, Yingpu

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a facile method for the rational fabrication of pore-size controlled nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes, and confirmed that the optimum pore-size distributions could effectively absorb visible light through light diffraction and confinement functions. Furthermore, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals more efficient photoexcited electron-hole separation than conventional particle films, induced by light confinement and rapid charge transfer in the inter-crossed worm-like structures.We demonstrate a facile method for the rational fabrication of pore-size controlled nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes, and confirmed that the optimum pore-size distributions could effectively absorb visible light through light diffraction and confinement functions. Furthermore, in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals more efficient photoexcited electron-hole separation than conventional particle films, induced by light confinement and rapid charge transfer in the inter-crossed worm-like structures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06584d

  1. Size Control of Porous Silicon-Based Nanoparticles via Pore-Wall Thinning.

    PubMed

    Secret, Emilie; Leonard, Camille; Kelly, Stefan J; Uhl, Amanda; Cozzan, Clayton; Andrew, Jennifer S

    2016-02-02

    Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals are very attractive for biomedical and electronic applications. Here a new process is presented to synthesize photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with diameters smaller than 6 nm from a porous silicon template. These nanoparticles are formed using a pore-wall thinning approach, where the as-etched porous silicon layer is partially oxidized to silica, which is dissolved by a hydrofluoric acid solution, decreasing the pore-wall thickness. This decrease in pore-wall thickness leads to a corresponding decrease in the size of the nanocrystals that make up the pore walls, resulting in the formation of smaller nanoparticles during sonication of the porous silicon. Particle diameters were measured using dynamic light scattering, and these values were compared with the nanocrystallite size within the pore wall as determined from X-ray diffraction. Additionally, an increase in the quantum confinement effect is observed for these particles through an increase in the photoluminescence intensity of the nanoparticles compared with the as-etched nanoparticles, without the need for a further activation step by oxidation after synthesis.

  2. Estimation of the pore size of the large-conductance mechanosensitive ion channel of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, C C; Minchin, R F; Le Dain, A C; Martinac, B

    1997-01-01

    The open channel diameter of Escherichia coli recombinant large-conductance mechanosensitive ion channels (MscL) was estimated using the model of Hille (Hille, B. 1968. Pharmacological modifications of the sodium channels of frog nerve. J. Gen. Physiol. 51:199-219) that relates the pore size to conductance. Based on the MscL conductance of 3.8 nS, and assumed pore lengths, a channel diameter of 34 to 46 A was calculated. To estimate the pore size experimentally, the effect of large organic ions on the conductance of MscL was examined. Poly-L-lysines (PLLs) with a diameter of 37 A or larger significantly reduced channel conductance, whereas spermine (approximately 15 A), PLL19 (approximately 25 A) and 1,1'-bis-(3-(1'-methyl-(4,4'-bipyridinium)-1-yl)-propyl)-4,4'-b ipyridinium (approximately 30 A) had no effect. The smaller organic ions putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, and succinate all permeated the channel. We conclude that the open pore diameter of the MscL is approximately 40 A, indicating that the MscL has one of the largest channel pores yet described. This channel diameter is consistent with the proposed homohexameric model of the MscL. PMID:9336188

  3. Mouthpart conduit sizes of fluid-feeding insects determine the ability to feed from pores

    DOE PAGES

    Lehnert, Matthew S.; Bennett, Andrew; Reiter, Kristen E.; ...

    2017-01-04

    Fluid-feeding insects, such as butterflies, moths, and flies (20% of all animal species), are faced with the common selection pressure of having to remove and feed on trace amounts of fluids from porous surfaces. Insects able to acquire fluids that are confined to pores during drought conditions would have an adaptive advantage and increased fitness over other individuals. Here we performed feeding trials using solutions with magnetic nanoparticles to show that butterflies and flies have mouthparts adapted to pull liquids from porous surfaces using capillary action as the governing principle. In addition, the ability to feed on the liquids collectedmore » from pores depends on a relationship between the diameter of the mouthpart conduits and substrate pore size diameter; insects with mouthpart conduit diameters larger than the pores cannot successfully feed, thus there is a limiting substrate pore size from which each species can acquire liquids for fluid uptake. In conclusion, given that natural selection independently favored mouthpart architectures that support these methods of fluid uptake (Diptera and Lepidoptera share a common ancestor 280 mya that had chewing mouthparts), we suggest that the convergence of this mechanism advocates this as an optimal strategy for pulling trace amounts of fluids from porous surfaces.« less

  4. Investigations of surface acidities and pore size distributions of selected pillared layered materials

    SciTech Connect

    Odom, M.A.; Wade, K.L.; Morgan, D.M.; White, J.L.; Schroeder, N.C.

    1996-10-01

    Pillared Layered Materials (PLMs) are being designed for a variety of applications. Currently, PLMs are being prepared in this laboratory for the selective sorption of radionuclides from liquid-nuclear wastes. It is important to have a good understanding of characteristics, such as pore size distributions and surface acidities, in order to tailor there sizes and environments are manipulated by varying the layered materials and pillaring species used for preparing the PLM. A variety of techniques have been employed to study these characteristics. For this study the pore size distributions were derived by determining the sorption of hydrocarbons of various sizes and shapes into the PLMs. The surface acidities were probed by sorbing basic species, such as ammonia and pyridine, and assessing the interactions with the acid sites using FTIR spectroscopy.

  5. Pore size distributions in polyelectrolyte multilayers determined by nuclear magnetic resonance cryoporometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaca Chávez, Fabián; Schönhoff, Monika

    2007-03-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) are thin films, which are assembled one molecular layer at a time, by alternatingly adsorbing polycations and polyanions making use of their attractive electrostatic interaction. Since the porosity of PEMs is one of the properties of major interest, in the current work the first pore size distribution of PEMs in samples consisting of silica particles coated with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) is presented. To this end, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) cryoporometry technique was applied. The proton NMR signal of liquid water is analyzed assuming a log normal distribution of motional correlation times. From the results, it is possible to determine the size of water sites in the layers to around 1nm. In addition, a slight variation with the number of layers is found. The average pore size agrees with cutoff sizes found in permeation experiments.

  6. Investigation of pore size and energy distributions by statistical physics formalism applied to agriculture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouaini, Fatma; Knani, Salah; Yahia, Manel Ben; Bahloul, Neila; Ben Lamine, Abdelmottaleb; Kechaou, Nabil

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new investigation that allows determining the pore size distribution (PSD) in a porous medium. This PSD is achieved by using the desorption isotherms of four varieties of olive leaves. This is by the means of statistical physics formalism and Kelvin's law. The results are compared with those obtained with scanning electron microscopy. The effect of temperature on the distribution function of pores has been studied. The influence of each parameter on the PSD is interpreted. A similar function of adsorption energy distribution, AED, is deduced from the PSD.

  7. Three-Dimensional Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications: Role of Porosity and Pore Size

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Qiu Li

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering applications commonly encompass the use of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds to provide a suitable microenvironment for the incorporation of cells or growth factors to regenerate damaged tissues or organs. These scaffolds serve to mimic the actual in vivo microenvironment where cells interact and behave according to the mechanical cues obtained from the surrounding 3D environment. Hence, the material properties of the scaffolds are vital in determining cellular response and fate. These 3D scaffolds are generally highly porous with interconnected pore networks to facilitate nutrient and oxygen diffusion and waste removal. This review focuses on the various fabrication techniques (e.g., conventional and rapid prototyping methods) that have been employed to fabricate 3D scaffolds of different pore sizes and porosity. The different pore size and porosity measurement methods will also be discussed. Scaffolds with graded porosity have also been studied for their ability to better represent the actual in vivo situation where cells are exposed to layers of different tissues with varying properties. In addition, the ability of pore size and porosity of scaffolds to direct cellular responses and alter the mechanical properties of scaffolds will be reviewed, followed by a look at nature's own scaffold, the extracellular matrix. Overall, the limitations of current scaffold fabrication approaches for tissue engineering applications and some novel and promising alternatives will be highlighted. PMID:23672709

  8. A solid with a hierarchical tetramodal micro-meso-macro pore size distribution

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yu; Ma, Zhen; Morris, Russell E.; Liu, Zheng; Jiao, Feng; Dai, Sheng; Bruce, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous solids have an important role in addressing some of the major energy-related problems facing society. Here we describe a porous solid, α-MnO2, with a hierarchical tetramodal pore size distribution spanning the micro-, meso- and macro pore range, centred at 0.48, 4.0, 18 and 70 nm. The hierarchical tetramodal structure is generated by the presence of potassium ions in the precursor solution within the channels of the porous silica template; the size of the potassium ion templates the microporosity of α-MnO2, whereas their reactivity with silica leads to larger mesopores and macroporosity, without destroying the mesostructure of the template. The hierarchical tetramodal pore size distribution influences the properties of α-MnO2 as a cathode in lithium batteries and as a catalyst, changing the behaviour, compared with its counterparts with only micropores or bimodal micro/mesopores. The approach has been extended to the preparation of LiMn2O4 with a hierarchical pore structure. PMID:23764887

  9. Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas: functionalization, pore size, and morphology control.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Soo; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2006-01-01

    Topological design of mesoporous silica materials, pore architecture, pore size, and morphology are currently major issues in areas such as catalytic conversion of bulky molecules, adsorption, host-guest chemistry, etc. In this sense, we discuss the pore size-controlled mesostructure, framework functionalization, and morphology control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas by which we can improve the applicability of mesoporous materials. First, we explain that the sizes of hexagonal- and cubic-type pores in organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas are well controlled from 24.3 to 98.0 A by the direct micelle-control method using an organosilica precursor and surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths or triblock copolymers as templates and swelling agents incorporated in the formed micelles. Second, we describe that organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials with various functional groups form various external morphologies such as rod, cauliflower, film, rope, spheroid, monolith, and fiber shapes. Third, we discuss that transition metals (Ti and Ru) and rare-earth ions (Eu(3+) and Tb(3+)) are used to modify organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica materials. Such hybrid mesoporous silica materials are expected to be applied as excellent catalysts for organic reactions, photocatalysis, optical devices, etc. c) 2006 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Molecular tectonics: control of pore size and polarity in 3-D hexagonal coordination networks based on porphyrins and a zinc cation.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Elisabeth; Bulach, Véronique; Hosseini, Mir Wais

    2008-11-07

    In the crystalline phase, porphyrin derivatives based on two 4-pyridyl units at the 5 and 15 meso positions and two 4-aryl moieties bearing various groups (CN, OMe, OH and CF(3)) at the 10 and 20 meso positions lead, in the presence of a zinc dication, to the formation of robust 3-D networks presenting hexagonal channels: both the size and the polarity of the pores were tuned by the nature of the substituents attached to the two aryl groups.

  11. Virus-sized colloid transport in a single pore: model development and sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Seetha, N; Mohan Kumar, M S; Majid Hassanizadeh, S; Raoof, Amir

    2014-08-01

    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the transport and deposition of virus-sized colloids in a cylindrical pore throat considering various processes such as advection, diffusion, colloid-collector surface interactions and hydrodynamic wall effects. The pore space is divided into three different regions, namely, bulk, diffusion and potential regions, based on the dominant processes acting in each of these regions. In the bulk region, colloid transport is governed by advection and diffusion whereas in the diffusion region, colloid mobility due to diffusion is retarded by hydrodynamic wall effects. Colloid-collector interaction forces dominate the transport in the potential region where colloid deposition occurs. The governing equations are non-dimensionalized and solved numerically. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the virus-sized colloid transport and deposition is significantly affected by various pore-scale parameters such as the surface potentials on colloid and collector, ionic strength of the solution, flow velocity, pore size and colloid size. The adsorbed concentration and hence, the favorability of the surface for adsorption increases with: (i) decreasing magnitude and ratio of surface potentials on colloid and collector, (ii) increasing ionic strength and (iii) increasing pore radius. The adsorbed concentration increases with increasing Pe, reaching a maximum value at Pe=0.1 and then decreases thereafter. Also, the colloid size significantly affects particle deposition with the adsorbed concentration increasing with increasing particle radius, reaching a maximum value at a particle radius of 100nm and then decreasing with increasing radius. System hydrodynamics is found to have a greater effect on larger particles than on smaller ones. The secondary minimum contribution to particle deposition has been found to increase as the favorability of the surface for adsorption decreases. The sensitivity of the model to a given parameter will be high if

  12. Virus-sized colloid transport in a single pore: Model development and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetha, N.; Mohan Kumar, M. S.; Majid Hassanizadeh, S.; Raoof, Amir

    2014-08-01

    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the transport and deposition of virus-sized colloids in a cylindrical pore throat considering various processes such as advection, diffusion, colloid-collector surface interactions and hydrodynamic wall effects. The pore space is divided into three different regions, namely, bulk, diffusion and potential regions, based on the dominant processes acting in each of these regions. In the bulk region, colloid transport is governed by advection and diffusion whereas in the diffusion region, colloid mobility due to diffusion is retarded by hydrodynamic wall effects. Colloid-collector interaction forces dominate the transport in the potential region where colloid deposition occurs. The governing equations are non-dimensionalized and solved numerically. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the virus-sized colloid transport and deposition is significantly affected by various pore-scale parameters such as the surface potentials on colloid and collector, ionic strength of the solution, flow velocity, pore size and colloid size. The adsorbed concentration and hence, the favorability of the surface for adsorption increases with: (i) decreasing magnitude and ratio of surface potentials on colloid and collector, (ii) increasing ionic strength and (iii) increasing pore radius. The adsorbed concentration increases with increasing Pe, reaching a maximum value at Pe = 0.1 and then decreases thereafter. Also, the colloid size significantly affects particle deposition with the adsorbed concentration increasing with increasing particle radius, reaching a maximum value at a particle radius of 100 nm and then decreasing with increasing radius. System hydrodynamics is found to have a greater effect on larger particles than on smaller ones. The secondary minimum contribution to particle deposition has been found to increase as the favorability of the surface for adsorption decreases. The sensitivity of the model to a given parameter will be high

  13. A general approach to crystalline and monomodal pore size mesoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Poyraz, Altug S; Kuo, Chung-Hao; Biswas, Sourav; King'ondu, Cecil K; Suib, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous oxides attract a great deal of interest in many fields, including energy, catalysis and separation, because of their tunable structural properties such as surface area, pore volume and size, and nanocrystalline walls. Here we report thermally stable, crystalline, thermally controlled monomodal pore size mesoporous materials. Generation of such materials involves the use of inverse micelles, elimination of solvent effects, minimizing the effect of water content and controlling the condensation of inorganic frameworks by NO(x) decomposition. Nanosize particles are formed in inverse micelles and are randomly packed to a mesoporous structure. The mesopores are created by interconnected intraparticle voids and can be tuned from 1.2 to 25 nm by controlling the nanoparticle size. Such phenomena allow the preparation of multiple phases of the same metal oxide and syntheses of materials having compositions throughout much of the periodic table, with different structures and thermal stabilities as high as 800 °C.

  14. Porosity and pore size distribution in a sedimentary rock: Implications for the distribution of chlorinated solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Allen M.; Evans, Christopher E.; Hayes, Erin C.

    2017-08-01

    Characterizing properties of the rock matrix that control retention and release of chlorinated solvents is essential in evaluating the extent of contamination and the application of remediation technologies in fractured rock. Core samples from seven closely spaced boreholes in a mudstone subject to trichloroethene (TCE) contamination were analyzed using Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry to investigate porosity and pore size distribution as a function of mudstone characteristics, and depth and lateral extent in the aquifer; organic carbon content was also evaluated to identify the potential for adsorption. Porosity and retardation factor varied over two orders of magnitude, with the largest porosities and largest retardation factors associated with carbon-rich mudstone layers. Larger porosities were also measured in the shallow rock that has been subject to enhanced groundwater flow. Porosity also varied over more than an order of magnitude in spatially continuous mudstone layers. The analyses of the rock cores indicated that the largest pore diameters may be accessible to entry of the nonaqueous form of TCE. Although the porosity associated with the largest pore diameters is small ( 0.1%), that volume of TCE can significantly affect the total TCE that is retained in the rock matrix. The dimensions of the largest pore diameters may also be accessible to microbes responsible for reductive dechlorination; however, the small percentage of the pore space that can accommodate microbes may limit the extent of reductive dechlorination in the rock matrix.

  15. Porosity and pore size distribution in a sedimentary rock: Implications for the distribution of chlorinated solvents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Allen M.; Evans, Chrsitopher E.; Hayes, Erin C.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing properties of the rock matrix that control retention and release of chlorinated solvents is essential in evaluating the extent of contamination and the application of remediation technologies in fractured rock. Core samples from seven closely spaced boreholes in a mudstone subject to trichloroethene (TCE) contamination were analyzed using Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry to investigate porosity and pore size distribution as a function of mudstone characteristics, and depth and lateral extent in the aquifer; organic carbon content was also evaluated to identify the potential for adsorption. Porosity and retardation factor varied over two orders of magnitude, with the largest porosities and largest retardation factors associated with carbon-rich mudstone layers. Larger porosities were also measured in the shallow rock that has been subject to enhanced groundwater flow. Porosity also varied over more than an order of magnitude in spatially continuous mudstone layers. The analyses of the rock cores indicated that the largest pore diameters may be accessible to entry of the nonaqueous form of TCE. Although the porosity associated with the largest pore diameters is small (~ 0.1%), that volume of TCE can significantly affect the total TCE that is retained in the rock matrix. The dimensions of the largest pore diameters may also be accessible to microbes responsible for reductive dechlorination; however, the small percentage of the pore space that can accommodate microbes may limit the extent of reductive dechlorination in the rock matrix.

  16. Porosity and pore size distribution in a sedimentary rock: Implications for the distribution of chlorinated solvents.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Allen M; Evans, Christopher E; Hayes, Erin C

    2017-08-01

    Characterizing properties of the rock matrix that control retention and release of chlorinated solvents is essential in evaluating the extent of contamination and the application of remediation technologies in fractured rock. Core samples from seven closely spaced boreholes in a mudstone subject to trichloroethene (TCE) contamination were analyzed using Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry to investigate porosity and pore size distribution as a function of mudstone characteristics, and depth and lateral extent in the aquifer; organic carbon content was also evaluated to identify the potential for adsorption. Porosity and retardation factor varied over two orders of magnitude, with the largest porosities and largest retardation factors associated with carbon-rich mudstone layers. Larger porosities were also measured in the shallow rock that has been subject to enhanced groundwater flow. Porosity also varied over more than an order of magnitude in spatially continuous mudstone layers. The analyses of the rock cores indicated that the largest pore diameters may be accessible to entry of the nonaqueous form of TCE. Although the porosity associated with the largest pore diameters is small (~0.1%), that volume of TCE can significantly affect the total TCE that is retained in the rock matrix. The dimensions of the largest pore diameters may also be accessible to microbes responsible for reductive dechlorination; however, the small percentage of the pore space that can accommodate microbes may limit the extent of reductive dechlorination in the rock matrix. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Isoreticular Expansion of Metal-Organic Frameworks with Multiple Functionalities and Controlled Pore Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hexiang

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are made by linking organic and inorganic molecular building blocks into extended structures through strong bonds. With a judicious choice of inorganic joints and various functional groups available in organic links, a large number of MOFs have been synthesized in the past decade. Along with the fast expansion of the family of MOFs, important applications emerge including hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide capture, both of which address the most pressing societal demand for clean and sustainable energy resources. Although numerous MOFs are now known and they have found widespread applications, the introduction of more than one kind of building block into their crystal structures remains challenging. One of the main objectives of this study is to demonstrate the successful incorporating of multiple functional groups into MOFs. Here, a new strategy has been developed to achieve the synthesis of a series of eighteen multivariate MOFs (MTV-MOFs) containing up to eight distinct functional groups, while their parent topologies were fully preserved. The backbone of these MTV-MOFs was found to be ordered, while the orientation, number, relative position and ratio of the functionalities along the backbone could be controlled by virtue of the unchanged length of the link and its unaltered connectivity. This strategy allows us to endow the pores of these MOFs with a new level of complexity which far exceeds any held by that of the original mono-functional MOFs---an aspect that makes it possible to fine-tune the pore environment of a porous crystal with favorable implications. Indeed, one member of these MTV-MOFs has already shown an 87% improvement of the hydrogen uptake while another member demonstrated a 400% increase in CO2 selectivity comparing to their mono-functional counterparts. Another goal of this study has been to maximize MOF porosity and pore size. There were three major obstacles against expanding the pore size of porous crystals

  18. Ion-track membranes of fluoropolymers: Toward controlling the pore size and shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaki, T.; Nuryanthi, N.; Koshikawa, H.; Asano, M.; Sawada, S.; Hakoda, T.; Maekawa, Y.; Voss, K.-O.; Severin, D.; Seidl, T.; Trautmann, C.; Neumann, R.

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of varying the beam parameters and applying the effect of a pre-etching treatment for poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ion-track membranes was investigated with the goal of achieving enhanced track etching for effective control of the pore size and shape. Commercially available 25 μm-thick PVDF films were irradiated at room temperature with swift heavy ions from the JAEA's TIARA cyclotron and GSI's UNILAC linear accelerator. Irradiation with a higher linear energy transfer (LET) beam gave faster track etching and larger pores, suggesting that the LET could be the most crucial factor determining the pore size. In-situ infra-red absorption and residual gas analyses shed light on the detailed chemistry of not only the ion-induced degradation, but also post-irradiation reactions. The pre-etching treatment effect involved oxidation of the unsaturated bonds within the latent track, which accelerated the chemical dissolution for efficient pore evolution. In other words, exposure to a gaseous oxidant, i.e., ozone, shortened the breakthrough time.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance pore size determination for unconsolidated sediments with strong internal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschl, M.; Pohlmeier, A. J.; Galvosas, P.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water distribution and flow within porous media are mainly controlled by the pore space structure. Well established methods for the determination of pore sizes like multistep outflow and gas adsorption isotherms (BET) are often time consuming, expensive, or produce toxic waste. As an alternative fast and non-destructive technique, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used because it probes hydrogen and therefore the dynamics and interactions of water. Pore space is most easily characterized by NMR relaxometry where the total relaxation rate is controlled by the surface relaxivity ρ of the porous medium in combination with the surface-to-volume ratio (S/V) [1]. Furthermore, there are contributions of molecular diffusion through local magnetic field gradients which are created by susceptibility differences between solid and liquid phases [2] as well as by paramagnetic impurities [3]. Hence, surface to volume ratios and surface relaxivities of porous media cannot be measured individually with NMR relaxometry. Therefore, NMR diffusion measurements are applied to probe the S/V of pores without other contributions. In this study, we demonstrate that NMR diffusion measurements are feasible to determine the S/V ratio of the pore space of quartz sand coated with goethite (α-FeOOH) as paramagnetic impurity. Our findings were compared to BET measurements and we found no dependence of the S/V on the coating density with NMR diffusion and a clear dependence between coating density and S/V with krypton BET measurements. Possible explanations are the different characteristic length scales on which the pore space is probed, and the intrinsic fractal nature of porous media [4] together with the roughness of the pore surface on a nm-scale due to the coating process. After isolating the additional contribution of the paramagnetic impurities to the NMR relaxation and the calibration of the NMR relaxation signal for each coating density it was possible to use fast relaxometry

  20. Control of both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium alloy powders

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Christopher G.; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Stavila, Vitalie; Robinson, David B.

    2014-07-15

    Energy storage materials often involve chemical reactions with bulk solids. Porosity within the solids can enhance reaction rates. The porosity can be either within or between individual particles of the material. Greater control of the size and uniformity of both types of pore should lead to enhancements of charging and discharging rates in energy storage systems. Furthermore, to control both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium (Pd)-based hydrogen storage materials, first we created uniformly sized copper particles of about 1 μm diameter by the reduction of copper sulfate with ascorbic acid. In turn, these were used as reducing agents for tetrachloropalladate in the presence of a block copolymer surfactant. The copper reductant particles are geometrically self-limiting, so the resulting Pd particles are of similar size. The surfactant induces formation of 10 nm-scale pores within the particles. Some residual copper is alloyed with the Pd, reducing hydrogen storage capacity; use of a more reactive Pd salt can mitigate this. The reaction is conveniently performed in gram-scale batches.

  1. Control of both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium alloy powders

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Christopher G.; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Stavila, Vitalie; ...

    2014-07-15

    Energy storage materials often involve chemical reactions with bulk solids. Porosity within the solids can enhance reaction rates. The porosity can be either within or between individual particles of the material. Greater control of the size and uniformity of both types of pore should lead to enhancements of charging and discharging rates in energy storage systems. Furthermore, to control both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium (Pd)-based hydrogen storage materials, first we created uniformly sized copper particles of about 1 μm diameter by the reduction of copper sulfate with ascorbic acid. In turn, these were used as reducing agentsmore » for tetrachloropalladate in the presence of a block copolymer surfactant. The copper reductant particles are geometrically self-limiting, so the resulting Pd particles are of similar size. The surfactant induces formation of 10 nm-scale pores within the particles. Some residual copper is alloyed with the Pd, reducing hydrogen storage capacity; use of a more reactive Pd salt can mitigate this. The reaction is conveniently performed in gram-scale batches.« less

  2. Nanofiltration Membranes with Narrow Pore Size Distribution via Contra-Diffusion-Induced Mussel-Inspired Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Qiu, Wen-Ze; Lv, Yan; Wu, Jian; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2016-11-02

    Nanofiltration membranes (NFMs) are widely used in saline water desalination, wastewater treatment, and chemical product purification. However, conventional NFMs suffer from broad pore size distribution, which limits their applications for fine separation, especially in complete separation of molecules with slight differences in molecular size. Herein, defect-free composite NFMs with narrow pore size distribution are fabricated using a contra-diffusion method, with dopamine/polyethylenimine solution on the skin side and ammonium persulfate solution on the other side of the ultrafiltration substrate. Persulfate ions can diffuse through the ultrafiltration substrate into the other side and in situ trigger dopamine to form a codeposited coating with polyethylenimine. The codeposition is hindered on those sites completely covered by the polydopamine/polyethylenimine coating, although it is promoted at the defects or highly permeable regions because it is induced by the diffused persulfate ions. Such a "self-completion" process results in NFMs with highly uniform structures and narrow pore size distribution, as determined by their rejection of neutral solutes. These near electrically neutral NFMs show a high rejection of divalent ions with a low rejection of monovalent ions (MgCl2 rejection = 96%, NaCl rejection = 23%), majorly based on a steric hindrance effect. The as-prepared NFMs can be applied in molecular separation such as isolating cellulose hydrogenation products.

  3. Permeability-Selectivity Analysis of Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes: Effect of Pore Size and Shape Distribution and Membrane Stretching

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Usama; Arif, Abul Fazal Muhammad; Bashmal, Salem

    2016-01-01

    We present a modeling approach to determine the permeability-selectivity tradeoff for microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes with a distribution of pore sizes and pore shapes. Using the formulated permeability-selectivity model, the effect of pore aspect ratio and pore size distribution on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of the membrane is analyzed. A finite element model is developed to study the effect of membrane stretching on the distribution of pore sizes and shapes in the stretched membrane. The effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of membranes is also analyzed. The results show that increasing pore aspect ratio improves membrane performance while increasing the width of pore size distribution deteriorates the performance. It was also found that the effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff is greatly affected by the uniformity of pore distribution in the membrane. Stretching showed a positive shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve of membranes with well-dispersed pores while in the case of pore clustering, a negative shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve was observed. PMID:27509528

  4. Permeability-Selectivity Analysis of Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes: Effect of Pore Size and Shape Distribution and Membrane Stretching.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Usama; Arif, Abul Fazal Muhammad; Bashmal, Salem

    2016-08-06

    We present a modeling approach to determine the permeability-selectivity tradeoff for microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes with a distribution of pore sizes and pore shapes. Using the formulated permeability-selectivity model, the effect of pore aspect ratio and pore size distribution on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of the membrane is analyzed. A finite element model is developed to study the effect of membrane stretching on the distribution of pore sizes and shapes in the stretched membrane. The effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of membranes is also analyzed. The results show that increasing pore aspect ratio improves membrane performance while increasing the width of pore size distribution deteriorates the performance. It was also found that the effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff is greatly affected by the uniformity of pore distribution in the membrane. Stretching showed a positive shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve of membranes with well-dispersed pores while in the case of pore clustering, a negative shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve was observed.

  5. Improvement of the Kruk-Jaroniec-Sayari method for pore size analysis of ordered silicas with cylindrical mesopores.

    PubMed

    Jaroniec, Mietek; Solovyov, Leonid A

    2006-08-01

    In this work, the X-ray diffraction structure modeling was employed for analysis of hexagonally ordered large-pore silicas, SBA-15, to determine their pore width independently of adsorption measurements. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to evaluate the relative pressure of capillary condensation in cylindrical mesopores of these materials. This approach allowed us to extend the original Kruk-Jaroniec-Sayari (KJS) relation (Langmuir 1997, 13, 6267) between the pore width and capillary condensation pressure up to 10 nm instead of previously established range from 2 to 6.5 nm for a series of MCM-41 and to improve the KJS pore size analysis of large pore silicas.

  6. Water Desalination Using Nanoporous Single-Layer Graphene with Tunable Pore Size

    DOE PAGES

    Surwade, Sumedh P.; Smirnov, Sergei N.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; ...

    2015-03-23

    Graphene has great potential to serve as a separation membrane due to its unique properties such as chemical and mechanical stability, flexibility and most importantly its one-atom thickness. In this study, we demonstrate first experimental evidence of the use of single-layer porous graphene as a desalination membrane. Nanometer-sized pores are introduced into single layer graphene using a convenient oxygen plasma etching process that permits tuning of the pore size. The resulting porous graphene membrane exhibited high rejection of salt ions and rapid water transport, thus functioning as an efficient water desalination membrane. Salt rejection selectivity of nearly 100% and exceptionallymore » high water fluxes exceeding 105 g m-2 s-1 at 40 C were measured using saturated water vapor as a driving force.« less

  7. Pore size engineering applied to the design of separators for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Britton, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Pore size engineering in starved alkaline multiplate cells involves adopting techniques to widen the volume tolerance of individual cells. Separators with appropriate pore size distributions and wettability characteristics (capillary pressure considerations) to have wider volume tolerances and an ability to resist dimensional changes in the electrodes were designed. The separators studied for potential use in nickel-hydrogen cells consist of polymeric membranes as well as inorganic microporous mats. In addition to standard measurements, the resistance and distribution of electrolyte as a function of total cell electrolyte content were determined. New composite separators consisting of fibers, particles and/or binders deposited on Zircar cloth were developed in order to engineer the proper capillary pressure characteristics in the separator. These asymmetric separators were prepared from a variety of fibers, particles and binders.

  8. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  9. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Yu, Conrad M.; Raley, Norman F.

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  10. Water Desalination Using Nanoporous Single-Layer Graphene with Tunable Pore Size

    SciTech Connect

    Surwade, Sumedh P.; Smirnov, Sergei N.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng; Mahurin, Shannon Mark

    2015-03-23

    Graphene has great potential to serve as a separation membrane due to its unique properties such as chemical and mechanical stability, flexibility and most importantly its one-atom thickness. In this study, we demonstrate first experimental evidence of the use of single-layer porous graphene as a desalination membrane. Nanometer-sized pores are introduced into single layer graphene using a convenient oxygen plasma etching process that permits tuning of the pore size. The resulting porous graphene membrane exhibited high rejection of salt ions and rapid water transport, thus functioning as an efficient water desalination membrane. Salt rejection selectivity of nearly 100% and exceptionally high water fluxes exceeding 105 g m-2 s-1 at 40 C were measured using saturated water vapor as a driving force.

  11. 3D Scaffold of Electrosprayed Fibers with Large Pore Size for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jong Kyu; Madihally, Sundararajan V.

    2010-01-01

    Regeneration of tissues using biodegradable porous scaffolds has been an intensely investigated area. Since electrospinning can produce scaffolds mimicking nanofibrous architecture found in the body, it recently has gained widespread attention. However, a major problem is the lack of pore size necessary for infiltration of cells into the layers below the surface, restricting cell colonization to the surfaces only. This study describes a novel twist to the traditional electrospinning technology. In particular, collector plates are designed which allows forming very thin layers with pore sizes suitable for cell infiltration. Thin samples can be handled without mechanically damaging the structure and can be transferred into cell culture. These thin layers were stacked by layer-by-layer assembly to develop thick structures. Thirty day cultures of fibroblasts show attachment and spreading of cells in every layer. This concept is useful in regenerating thick tissues with uniformly distributed cells and others in vitro cell culture. PMID:20620245

  12. Pore size engineering applied to the design of separators for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Britton, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Pore size engineering in starved alkaline multiplate cells involves adopting techniques to widen the volume tolerance of individual cells. Separators with appropriate pore size distributions and wettability characteristics (capillary pressure considerations) to have wider volume tolerances and an ability to resist dimensional changes in the electrodes were designed. The separators studied for potential use in nickel-hydrogen cells consist of polymeric membranes as well as inorganic microporous mats. In addition to standard measurements, the resistance and distribution of electrolyte as a function of total cell electrolyte content were determined. New composite separators consisting of fibers, particles and/or binders deposited on Zircar cloth were developed in order to engineer the proper capillary pressure characteristics in the separator. These asymmetric separators were prepared from a variety of fibers, particles and binders. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24571

  13. In-situ method for determining pore size distribution, capillary pressure and permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-02-17

    A method is described for determining the pore sizes entered by the oil phase in an oil-bearing formation, comprising: logging the formation of interest with an induced polarization logging tool having at least one source electrode; computing from the induced polarization measurements obtained by the logging tool a normalized induced polarization response function; obtaining core material from the formation of interest; extracting the water and hydrocarbons from the core material; resaturating the core material with formation brine; measuring the normalized induced polarization response function for the core material; and determining the pore sizes containing oil in the formation by comparing the normalized induced polarization response function from the formation with the normalized induced polarization response function of the core.

  14. Pore-size distributions of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels varying in initial monomer concentration and cross-linker/monomer ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, M.; Pothmann, E.; Roessler, T.; Baker, J.; Yee, A.; Blanch, H.; Prausnitz, J.M. )

    1994-05-23

    Pore-size distributions have been measured for cationic acrylamide-based hydrogels. The authors use the experimental mixed-solute-exclusion method, MSE (introduced by Kuga), to obtain the solute-exclusion curve representing the amount of imbibed liquid inside the gel inaccessible for a solute of radius r. The authors use the Brownian motion model (developed by Cassasa) to convert the size-exclusion curve into the pore-size distribution, which gives the frequency of pore radius R as a function of R. This theoretically-based interpretation of MSE data leads to the Fredholm integral equation that they solve numerically. Results are reported for a series of hydrogels containing acrylamide and 3% MAPTAC; the hydrogels differed in extent of cross-linking and/or initial concentration of monomer. Pore-size distributions shift to lower pore sizes with rising initial monomer concentration and with rising cross-linker-to-monomer ratio.

  15. Controlling drug delivery kinetics from mesoporous titania thin films by pore size and surface energy.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Johan; Atefyekta, Saba; Andersson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The osseointegration capacity of bone-anchoring implants can be improved by the use of drugs that are administrated by an inbuilt drug delivery system. However, to attain superior control of drug delivery and to have the ability to administer drugs of varying size, including proteins, further material development of drug carriers is needed. Mesoporous materials have shown great potential in drug delivery applications to provide and maintain a drug concentration within the therapeutic window for the desired period of time. Moreover, drug delivery from coatings consisting of mesoporous titania has shown to be promising to improve healing of bone-anchoring implants. Here we report on how the delivery of an osteoporosis drug, alendronate, can be controlled by altering pore size and surface energy of mesoporous titania thin films. The pore size was varied from 3.4 nm to 7.2 nm by the use of different structure-directing templates and addition of a swelling agent. The surface energy was also altered by grafting dimethylsilane to the pore walls. The drug uptake and release profiles were monitored in situ using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and it was shown that both pore size and surface energy had a profound effect on both the adsorption and release kinetics of alendronate. The QCM-D data provided evidence that the drug delivery from mesoporous titania films is controlled by a binding-diffusion mechanism. The yielded knowledge of release kinetics is crucial in order to improve the in vivo tissue response associated to therapeutic treatments.

  16. First Synthesis of Continuous Mesoporous Copper Films with Uniformly Sized Pores by Electrochemical Soft Templating.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiling; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Zhongli; Li, Yunqi; Hossain, Md Shahriar A; Kim, Jung Ho; Takei, Toshiaki; Henzie, Joel; Dag, Ömer; Bando, Yoshio; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-10-04

    Although mesoporous metals have been synthesized by electrochemical methods, the possible compositions have been limited to noble metals (e.g., palladium, platinum, gold) and their alloys. Herein we describe the first fabrication of continuously mesoporous Cu films using polymeric micelles as soft templates to control the growth of Cu under sophisticated electrochemical conditions. Uniformly sized mesopores are evenly distributed over the entire film, and the pore walls are composed of highly crystalized Cu.

  17. Controlling drug delivery kinetics from mesoporous titania thin films by pore size and surface energy

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Johan; Atefyekta, Saba; Andersson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The osseointegration capacity of bone-anchoring implants can be improved by the use of drugs that are administrated by an inbuilt drug delivery system. However, to attain superior control of drug delivery and to have the ability to administer drugs of varying size, including proteins, further material development of drug carriers is needed. Mesoporous materials have shown great potential in drug delivery applications to provide and maintain a drug concentration within the therapeutic window for the desired period of time. Moreover, drug delivery from coatings consisting of mesoporous titania has shown to be promising to improve healing of bone-anchoring implants. Here we report on how the delivery of an osteoporosis drug, alendronate, can be controlled by altering pore size and surface energy of mesoporous titania thin films. The pore size was varied from 3.4 nm to 7.2 nm by the use of different structure-directing templates and addition of a swelling agent. The surface energy was also altered by grafting dimethylsilane to the pore walls. The drug uptake and release profiles were monitored in situ using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and it was shown that both pore size and surface energy had a profound effect on both the adsorption and release kinetics of alendronate. The QCM-D data provided evidence that the drug delivery from mesoporous titania films is controlled by a binding–diffusion mechanism. The yielded knowledge of release kinetics is crucial in order to improve the in vivo tissue response associated to therapeutic treatments. PMID:26185444

  18. Numerical simulation of pore size dependent anhydrite precipitation in geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mürmann, Mario; Kühn, Michael; Pape, Hansgeorg; Clauser, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Porosity and permeability of reservoirs are key parameters for an economical use of hot water from geothermal installations and can be significantly reduced by precipitation of minerals, such as anhydrite. The borehole Allermöhe 1 near Hamburg (Germany) represents a failed attempt of geothermal heat mining due to anhydrite precipitation (Baermann et al. 2000). For a risk assessment of future boreholes it is essential to understand how and when anhydrite cementation occurred under reservoir conditions. From core samples of the Allermöhe borehole it was determined that anhydrite precipitation took place in regions of relatively high porosity while regions of low porosity remained uncemented (Wagner et al. 2005). These findings correspond to the fact that e.g. halite precipitation in porous media is found only in relatively large pores (Putnis and Mauthe 2001). This study and others underline that pore size controls crystallization and that it is therefore necessary to establish a relation between pore size and nucleation. The work presented here is based on investigations of Emmanuel and Berkowitz (2007) who present such a relation by applying a thermodynamic approach. However this approach cannot explain the heterogeneous precipitation observed in the Allermöhe core samples. We chose an advanced approach by considering electric system properties resulting in another relation between pore size and crystallization. It is well known that a high fluid supersaturation can be maintained in porous rocks (Putnis and Mauthe 2001). This clearly indicates that a supersaturation threshold exists exceeding thermodynamic equilibrium considerably. In order to quantify spatially heterogeneous anhydrite cementation a theoretical approach was chosen which considered the electric interaction between surface charges of the matrix and calcium and sulphate ions in the fluid. This approach was implemented into the numerical code SHEMAT (Clauser 2003) and used to simulate anhydrite

  19. Impact of pore size on the sorption of uranyl under seawater conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Richard T.; Gorka, Joanna; Dai, Sheng

    2016-04-05

    The extraction of uranium from seawater has received significant interest recently, because of the possibility of a near-limitless supply of uranium to fuel the nuclear power industry. While sorbent development has focused primarily on polymeric sorbents, nanomaterials represent a new area that has the potential to surpass the current polymeric sorbents, because of the high surface areas that are possible. Mesoporous carbon materials are a stable, high-surface-area material capable of extracting various chemical species from a variety of environments. Herein, we report the use of a dual templating process to understand the effect of pore size on the adsorption of uranyl ions from a uranyl brine consisting of seawater-relevant sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions. It was found that pore size played a more significant role in the effective use of the grafted polymer, leading to higher uranium capacities than the surface area. Furthermore, the pore size must be tailored to meet the demands of the extraction medium and analyte metal to achieve efficacy as an adsorbent.

  20. Impact of pore size on the sorption of uranyl under seawater conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Mayes, Richard T.; Gorka, Joanna; Dai, Sheng

    2016-04-05

    The extraction of uranium from seawater has received significant interest recently, because of the possibility of a near-limitless supply of uranium to fuel the nuclear power industry. While sorbent development has focused primarily on polymeric sorbents, nanomaterials represent a new area that has the potential to surpass the current polymeric sorbents, because of the high surface areas that are possible. Mesoporous carbon materials are a stable, high-surface-area material capable of extracting various chemical species from a variety of environments. Herein, we report the use of a dual templating process to understand the effect of pore size on the adsorption ofmore » uranyl ions from a uranyl brine consisting of seawater-relevant sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions. It was found that pore size played a more significant role in the effective use of the grafted polymer, leading to higher uranium capacities than the surface area. Furthermore, the pore size must be tailored to meet the demands of the extraction medium and analyte metal to achieve efficacy as an adsorbent.« less

  1. Determining the dynamic range of MCPs based on pore size and strip current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, C.; Adrian, M. L.; Herrero, F.; James, P.; Jones, H. H.; Rodriguez, M.; Roman, P.; Shappirio, M.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-Channel Plates (MCPs) are used as detectors for almost all detectors measuring particles (both ions, electrons and neutrals) below 30 keV. Recent advances in the manufacturing technology of the MCPs have increased the number of options one has when selecting plates for an instrument. But it is not clear how many of these options affect the performance of the MCPs. In particular the dynamic range is not a clear cut calculation to make from the strip current. There is also some evidence that pore size and coating play a role. We measured the dynamic range and pulse height distribution of MCPs detector chevron stacks with a wide variety of strip currents from the low “normal” range in the EDR range. We also looked at the effects of varying the pore size from 25 microns to 10 microns, partial plating of the MCP surface and coating one surface on each MCP with gold rather than the standard zinc chromium. We will show how the dynamic range and pulse height distributions vary vs. strip current, pore size, and surface plating configurations.

  2. Pore size dependent molecular adsorption of cationic dye in biomass derived hierarchically porous carbon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Ji, Tuo; Mu, Liwen; Shi, Yijun; Wang, Huaiyuan; Zhu, Jiahua

    2017-03-08

    Hierarchically porous carbon adsorbents were successfully fabricated from different biomass resources (softwood, hardwood, bamboo and cotton) by a facile two-step process, i.e. carbonization in nitrogen and thermal oxidation in air. Without involving any toxic/corrosive chemicals, large surface area of up to 890 m(2)/g was achieved, which is comparable to commercial activated carbon. The porous carbons with various surface area and pore size were used as adsorbents to investigate the pore size dependent adsorption phenomenon. Based on the density functional theory, effective (E-SSA) and ineffective surface area (InE-SSA) was calculated considering the geometry of used probing adsorbate. It was demonstrated that the adsorption capacity strongly depends on E-SSA instead of total surface area. Moreover, a regression model was developed to quantify the adsorption capacities contributed from E-SSA and InE-SSA, respectively. The applicability of this model has been verified by satisfactory prediction results on porous carbons prepared in this work as well as commercial activated carbon. Revealing the pore size dependent adsorption behavior in these biomass derived porous carbon adsorbents will help to design more effective materials (either from biomass or other carbon resources) targeting to specific adsorption applications.

  3. Control of porosity and pore size of metal reinforced carbon nanotube membranes.

    PubMed

    Dumee, Ludovic; Velleman, Leonora; Sears, Kallista; Hill, Matthew; Schutz, Jurg; Finn, Niall; Duke, Mikel; Gray, Stephen

    2010-12-21

    Membranes are crucial in modern industry and both new technologies and materials need to be designed to achieve higher selectivity and performance. Exotic materials such as nanoparticles offer promising perspectives, and combining both their very high specific surface area and the possibility to incorporate them into macrostructures have already shown to substantially increase the membrane performance. In this paper we report on the fabrication and engineering of metal-reinforced carbon nanotube (CNT) Bucky-Paper (BP) composites with tuneable porosity and surface pore size. A BP is an entangled mesh non-woven like structure of nanotubes. Pure CNT BPs present both very high porosity (>90%) and specific surface area (>400 m2/g). Furthermore, their pore size is generally between 20-50 nm making them promising candidates for various membrane and separation applications. Both electro-plating and electroless plating techniques were used to plate different series of BPs and offered various degrees of success. Here we will report mainly on electroless plated gold/CNT composites. The benefit of this method resides in the versatility of the plating and the opportunity to tune both average pore size and porosity of the structure with a high degree of reproducibility. The CNT BPs were first oxidized by short UV/O3 treatment, followed by successive immersion in different plating solutions. The morphology and properties of these samples has been investigated and their performance in air permeation and gas adsorption will be reported.

  4. Control of Porosity and Pore Size of Metal Reinforced Carbon Nanotube Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Dumee, Ludovic; Velleman, Leonora; Sears, Kallista; Hill, Matthew; Schutz, Jurg; Finn, Niall; Duke, Mikel; Gray, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Membranes are crucial in modern industry and both new technologies and materials need to be designed to achieve higher selectivity and performance. Exotic materials such as nanoparticles offer promising perspectives, and combining both their very high specific surface area and the possibility to incorporate them into macrostructures have already shown to substantially increase the membrane performance. In this paper we report on the fabrication and engineering of metal-reinforced carbon nanotube (CNT) Bucky-Paper (BP) composites with tuneable porosity and surface pore size. A BP is an entangled mesh non-woven like structure of nanotubes. Pure CNT BPs present both very high porosity (>90%) and specific surface area (>400 m2/g). Furthermore, their pore size is generally between 20–50 nm making them promising candidates for various membrane and separation applications. Both electro-plating and electroless plating techniques were used to plate different series of BPs and offered various degrees of success. Here we will report mainly on electroless plated gold/CNT composites. The benefit of this method resides in the versatility of the plating and the opportunity to tune both average pore size and porosity of the structure with a high degree of reproducibility. The CNT BPs were first oxidized by short UV/O3 treatment, followed by successive immersion in different plating solutions. The morphology and properties of these samples has been investigated and their performance in air permeation and gas adsorption will be reported. PMID:24957493

  5. Multiscale characterization of pore size distributions using mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Tarquis, A. M.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Vidal Vázquez, E.

    2009-04-01

    The soil pore space is a continuum extremely variable in size, including structures smaller than nanometres and as large as macropores or cracks with millimetres or even centimetres size. Pore size distributions (PSDs) affects important soil functions, such as those related with transmission and storage of water, and root growth. Direct and indirect measurements of PSDs are becoming increasingly used to characterize soil structure. Mercury injection porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption isotherms are techniques commonly employed for assessing equivalent pore size diameters in the range from about 50 nm to 100 m and 2 to 500 nm, respectively. The multifractal formalism was used to describe Hg injection curves and N2 adsorption isotherms from two series of a Mollisol cultivated under no tillage and minimum tillage. Soil samples were taken from 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths in two experimental fields located in the north of Buenos Aires and South of Santa Fe provinces, Argentina. All the data sets analyzed from the two studied soil attributes showed remarkably good scaling trends as assessed by singularity spectrum and generalized dimension spectrum. Both, experimental Hg injection curves and N2 adsorption isotherms could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. A wide variety of singularity and generalized dimension spectra was found for the variables. The capacity dimensions, D0, for both Hg injection and N2 adsorption data were not significantly different from the Euclidean dimension. However, the entropy dimension, D1, and correlation dimension, D2, obtained from mercury injection and nitrogen adsorption data showed significant differences. So, D1 values were on average 0.868 and varied from 0.787 to 0.925 for Hg intrusion curves. Entropy dimension, D1, values for N2 adsorption isotherms were on average 0.582 significantly lower than those obtained when using the former technique. Twenty-three out of twenty-four N2 isotherms had D1 values in a

  6. Hydrophobic polymers modification of mesoporous silica with large pore size for drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Di; Yang, Na

    2009-04-01

    Mesostructure cellular foam (MCF) materials were modified with hydrophobic polyisoprene (PI) through free radical polymerization in the pores network, and the resulting materials (MCF-PI) were investigated as matrices for drug storage. The successful synthesis of PI inside MCF was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. It was interesting to find the resultant system held a relatively large pore size (19.5 nm) and pore volume (1.02 cm3 g-1), which would benefit for drug storage. Ibuprofen (IBU) and vancomycin were selected as model drugs and loaded onto unmodified MCF and modified MCF (MCF-PI). The adsorption capacities of these model drugs on MCF-PI were observed increase as compared to that of on pure MCF, due to the trap effects induced by polyisoprene chains inside the pores. The delivery system of MCF-PI was found to be more favorable for the adsorption of IBU (31 wt%, IBU/silica), possibly attributing to the hydrophobic interaction between IBU and PI formed on the internal surface of MCF matrix. The release of drug through the porous network was investigated by measuring uptake and release of IBU.

  7. Quantitative sizing of nano/microparticles with a tunable elastomeric pore sensor.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Robert; Willmott, Geoff; Kozak, Darby; Roberts, G Seth; Anderson, Will; Groenewegen, Linda; Glossop, Ben; Barnett, Anne; Turner, Ali; Trau, Matt

    2011-05-01

    The use of a "size-tunable" polyurethane resistive pulse sensor for quantitative sizing of nano- and microparticles is presented. A linear relationship, as first suggested by Maxwell, between particle volume and change in electric resistance across the pore was observed. Particle sizes were quantified for a given size-tunable membrane, by first creating a linear calibration curve to a series of monodisperse carboxylated polystyrene particles of various diameters and then applying this curve to calculate the size of "unknown" nanoparticles. The diameters of a selection of synthetic and biological particles, being PMMA and nonfunctionalized polystyrene particles, along with biological nanoparticles (adenovirus) were calculated using this methodology. Calculated particle diameters and coefficients of variation were shown to be in good agreement with both transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results.

  8. Importance of Pore Size Distribution of Fine-grained Sediments on Gas Hydrate Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, T. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, G. C.; Park, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Gas hydrates have been considered as a new source of natural gases. For the gas hydrate production, the gas hydrate reservoir should be depressurized below the equilibrium pressure of gas hydrates. Therefore, it is important to predict the equilibrium of gas hydrates in the reservoir conditions because it can be affected by the pore size of the host sediments due to the capillary effect. In this study, gas hydrates were synthesized in fine-grained sediment samples including a pure silt sample and a natural clayey silt sample cored from a hydrate occurrence region in Ulleung Basin, East Sea, offshore Korea. Pore size distributions of the samples were obtained by the nitrogen adsorption and desorption test and the mercury intrusion porosimetry. The equilibrium curve of gas hydrates in the fine-grained sediments were found to be significantly influenced by the clay fraction and the corresponding small pores (>50 nm in diameter). For the clayey silt sample, the equilibrium pressure was higher by ~1.4 MPa than the bulk equilibrium pressure. In most cases of oceanic gas hydrate reservoirs, sandy layers are found interbedded with fine-grained sediment layers while gas hydrates are intensively accumulated in the sandy layers. Our experiment results reveal the inhibition effect of fine-grained sediments against gas hydrate formation, in which greater driving forces (e.g., higher pressure or lower temperature) are required during natural gas migration. Therefore, gas hydrate distribution in interbedded layers of sandy and fine-grained sediments can be explained by such capillary effect induced by the pore size distribution of host sediments.

  9. Control of pore size and structure of tissue engineering scaffolds produced by supercritical fluid processing.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hongyun; Mather, Melissa L; Howard, Daniel; Wang, Wenxin; White, Lisa J; Crowe, John A; Morgan, Steve P; Chandra, Amit; Williams, David J; Howdle, Steven M; Shakesheff, Kevin M

    2007-12-17

    Tissue engineering scaffolds require a controlled pore size and structure to host tissue formation. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) processing may be used to form foamed scaffolds in which the escape of CO2 from a plasticized polymer melt generates gas bubbles that shape the developing pores. The process of forming these scaffolds involves a simultaneous change in phase in the CO2 and the polymer, resulting in rapid expansion of a surface area and changes in polymer rheological properties. Hence, the process is difficult to control with respect to the desired final pore size and structure. In this paper, we describe a detailed study of the effect of polymer chemical composition, molecular weight and processing parameters on final scaffold characteristics. The study focuses on poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as polymer classes with potential application as controlled release scaffolds for growth factor delivery. Processing parameters under investigation were temperature (from 5 to 55 degrees C) and pressure (from 60 to 230 bar). A series of amorphous PDLLA and PLGA polymers with various molecular weights (from 13 KD to 96 KD) and/or chemical compositions (the mole percentage of glycolic acid in the polymers was 0, 15, 25, 35 and 50 respectively) were employed. The resulting scaffolds were characterised by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro X-ray computed tomography (microCT). This is the first detailed study on using these series polymers for scaffold formation by supercritical technique. This study has demonstrated that the pore size and structure of the supercritical PDLLA and PLGA scaffolds can be tailored by careful control of processing conditions.

  10. Reversible control of pore size and surface chemistry of mesoporous silica through dynamic covalent chemistry: philicity mediated catalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Pavan Kumar, B V V S; Eswaramoorthy, M

    2015-08-28

    Here, we report the synthesis of adaptive hybrid mesoporous silica having the ability to reconfigure its pore properties such as pore size and philicity in response to the external environment. Decyl chains were reversibly appended to the pore walls of silica through imine motifs as dynamic covalent modules to switch the pore size and philicity in response to pH. This switching of pore properties was used to gate the access of reactants to the gold nanoparticles immobilized inside the nanopores, thus enabling us to turn-on/turn-off the catalytic reaction. The use of such dynamic covalent modules to govern pore properties would enable the realization of intelligent hybrids capable of controlling many such chemical processes in response to stimuli.

  11. Influence of the pore size in multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the hydrogen storage behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Park, Soo-Jin

    2012-10-15

    Activated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (A-MWCNTs) were prepared using a chemical activation method to obtain well-developed pore structures for use as hydrogen storage materials. The microstructure and crystallinity of the A-MWCNTs were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. The textural properties of the A-MWCNTs were investigated by nitrogen gas sorption analysis at 77 K. The hydrogen storage capacity of the A-MWCNTs was evaluated at 77 K and 1 bar. The results showed that the specific surface area of the MWCNTs increased from 327 to 495 m{sup 2}/g as the activation temperature was increased. The highest hydrogen storage capacity was observed in the A-MWCNTs sample activated at 900 Degree-Sign C (0.54 wt%). This was attributed to it having the narrowest microporosity, which is a factor closely related to the hydrogen storage capacity. This shows that the hydrogen storage behaviors depend on the pore volume. Although a high pore volume is desirable for hydrogen storage, it is also severely affected if the pore size in the A-MWCNTs for the hydrogen molecules is suitable for creating the activation process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AT-800 and AT-900 samples were prepared by a chemical activation method at activation temperature of 800 and 900 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AT-900 sample has the narrowest peak in comparison with the AT-800 sample, resulting from the overlap of the two peaks (Peak I and Peak II). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This overlapping effect is due to the newly created micropores or shrinkages of pores in Peak II. So, these determining characteristics are essential for designing materials that are suitable for molecular hydrogen storage.

  12. Porous carbon with defined pore size as anode of microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofen; Cui, Dan; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xianshu; Li, Weishan

    2015-07-15

    This paper reported a novel anode material, porous carbon with a defined pore size (DPC) matching bacteria, for microbial fuel cell (MFC). The DPC was prepared by using silica spheres as templates and sucrose as carbon precursor. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared DPC were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and its performance as anode of MFC based on Escherichia coli (E. coli) was evaluated with chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and polarization curve measurement. The result from SEM demonstrates that pores in the as-prepared DPC are well defined with an average diameter of 400nm, which is a little larger than that of E. coli, and the polarization curve measurement shows that the as-prepared DPC exhibits superior performance as anode material loaded on carbon felt, delivering a power output of 1606mWm(-2), compared to the 402mWm(-2) of naked carbon felt anode, in the solution containing 2g/L glucose. The excellent performance of the as-prepared DPC is attributed to its suitable pore size for accommodating E. coli strain, which facilitates the formation of bacterial biofilm and the electron transfer between bacteria and anode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Systematic Design of Pore Size and Functionality in Isoreticular MOFs and Their Application in Methane Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Kim, Jaheon; Rosi, Nathaniel; Vodak, David; Wachter, Joseph; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2002-01-01

    A strategy based on reticulating metal ions and organic carboxylate links into extended networks has been advanced to a point that allowed the design of porous structures in which pore size and functionality could be varied systematically. Metal-organic framework (MOF-5), a prototype of a new class of porous materials and one that is constructed from octahedral Zn-O-C clusters and benzene links, was used to demonstrate that its three-dimensional porous system can be functionalized with the organic groups -Br, -NH2, -OC3H7, -OC5H11, -C2H4, and -C4H4 and that its pore size can be expanded with the long molecular struts biphenyl, tetrahydropyrene, pyrene, and terphenyl. We synthesized an isoreticular series (one that has the same framework topology) of 16 highly crystalline materials whose open space represented up to 91.1% of the crystal volume, as well as homogeneous periodic pores that can be incrementally varied from 3.8 to 28.8 angstroms. One member of this series exhibited a high capacity for methane storage (240 cubic centimeters at standard temperature and pressure per gram at 36 atmospheres and ambient temperature), and others the lowest densities (0.41 to 0.21 gram per cubic centimeter) for a crystalline material at room temperature.

  14. Estimating the number and size of phloem sieve plate pores using longitudinal views and geometric reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bussières, Philippe

    2014-05-12

    Because it is difficult to obtain transverse views of the plant phloem sieve plate pores, which are short tubes, to estimate their number and diameters, a method based on longitudinal views is proposed. This method uses recent methods to estimate the number and the sizes of approximately circular objects from their images, given by slices perpendicular to the objects. Moreover, because such longitudinal views are obtained from slices that are rather close to the plate centres whereas the pore size may vary with the pore distance from the plate edge, a sieve plate reconstruction model was developed and incorporated in the method to consider this bias. The method was successfully tested with published longitudinal views of phloem of Soybean and an exceptional entire transverse view from the same tissue. The method was also validated with simulated slices in two sieve plates from Cucurbita and Phaseolus. This method will likely be useful to estimate and to model the hydraulic conductivity and the architecture of the plant phloem, and it could have applications for other materials with approximately cylindrical structures.

  15. Estimating the number and size of phloem sieve plate pores using longitudinal views and geometric reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Because it is difficult to obtain transverse views of the plant phloem sieve plate pores, which are short tubes, to estimate their number and diameters, a method based on longitudinal views is proposed. This method uses recent methods to estimate the number and the sizes of approximately circular objects from their images, given by slices perpendicular to the objects. Moreover, because such longitudinal views are obtained from slices that are rather close to the plate centres whereas the pore size may vary with the pore distance from the plate edge, a sieve plate reconstruction model was developed and incorporated in the method to consider this bias. The method was successfully tested with published longitudinal views of phloem of Soybean and an exceptional entire transverse view from the same tissue. The method was also validated with simulated slices in two sieve plates from Cucurbita and Phaseolus. This method will likely be useful to estimate and to model the hydraulic conductivity and the architecture of the plant phloem, and it could have applications for other materials with approximately cylindrical structures. PMID:24816291

  16. Reversible control of pore size and surface chemistry of mesoporous silica through dynamic covalent chemistry: philicity mediated catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Pavan Kumar, B. V. V. S.; Eswaramoorthy, M.

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report the synthesis of adaptive hybrid mesoporous silica having the ability to reconfigure its pore properties such as pore size and philicity in response to the external environment. Decyl chains were reversibly appended to the pore walls of silica through imine motifs as dynamic covalent modules to switch the pore size and philicity in response to pH. This switching of pore properties was used to gate the access of reactants to the gold nanoparticles immobilized inside the nanopores, thus enabling us to turn-on/turn-off the catalytic reaction. The use of such dynamic covalent modules to govern pore properties would enable the realization of intelligent hybrids capable of controlling many such chemical processes in response to stimuli.Here, we report the synthesis of adaptive hybrid mesoporous silica having the ability to reconfigure its pore properties such as pore size and philicity in response to the external environment. Decyl chains were reversibly appended to the pore walls of silica through imine motifs as dynamic covalent modules to switch the pore size and philicity in response to pH. This switching of pore properties was used to gate the access of reactants to the gold nanoparticles immobilized inside the nanopores, thus enabling us to turn-on/turn-off the catalytic reaction. The use of such dynamic covalent modules to govern pore properties would enable the realization of intelligent hybrids capable of controlling many such chemical processes in response to stimuli. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02959g

  17. Porosity, Pore Size, and Permeability of Sediments from Site C0002, IODP Expedition 338

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, B.; Huepers, A.; Song, I.; Kitajima, H.; Esteban, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) measurements were made on cuttings and core samples from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site C0002 to evaluate porosity, pore throat size, and permeability of mud(stone) at the centerpiece drill site of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE). Core samples from 221-464 meters below sea floor (mbsf) in the Kumano forearc basin have MICP-determined porosities from 40-56%, median pore radii from 0.077-0.205 microns, and permeability from 3.3x10-10 - 2.0x10-9 m2. The porosity of these core samples is similar to shipboard porosity determined from moisture and density (MAD) analyses. During IODP Expedition 338 cuttings samples were recovered from ~865-2005 mbsf during riser drilling at Site C0002F. MICP analyses of cuttings samples, greater than 4 mm size fraction, from 928-1980 mbsf in the inner wedge of the accretionary prism constrain porosities from 21-44%, median pore radii from 0.021-0.032 microns, and permeability from 1.2x10-11 - 1.6x10-10 m2. The porosity of these cuttings samples is consistently lower than the MAD-determined porosity on cuttings from the >4mm size fraction, however the values are consistent with core-based, MAD-derived porosity from Hole C0002B above 1057 mbsf and with cuttings-based, MAD-derived porosity on select samples from 1700-2000 mbsf that were determined to be intact formation and not influenced by drilling disturbance. These results suggest that select formation cuttings or MICP-analyses can help define in situ porosity. Additional post-expedition research will be used to better understand the ability of MICP data to define mudstone permeability and to constrain permeability-porosity and permeability-grain size-pore throat relations for sediments at Site C0002. A detailed model of permeability and porosity behavior will inform modeling studies of pore pressure generation and fluid and heat transport.

  18. Comprehensive pore structure characterization of silica monoliths with controlled mesopore size and macropore size by nitrogen sorption, mercury porosimetry, transmission electron microscopy and inverse size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lubda, Dieter; Lindner, Wolfgang; Quaglia, Milene; du Fresne von Hohenesche, Cedric; Unger, Klaus K

    2005-08-12

    The porosity of monolithic silica columns is measured by using different analytical methods. Two sets of monoliths were prepared with a given mesopore diameter of 10 and 25 nm, respectively and with gradated macropore diameters between 1.8 and 7.5 microm. After preparing the two sets of monolithic silica columns with different macro- and mesopores the internal, external and total porosity of these columns are determined by inverse size-exclusion chromatography (ISEC) using polystyrene samples of narrow molecular size distribution and known average molecular weight. The ISEC data from the 4.6 mm analytical monolithic silica columns are used to determine the structural properties of monolithic silica capillaries (100 microm I.D.) prepared as a third set of samples. The ISEC results illustrate a multimodal mesopore structure (mesopores are pores with stagnant zones) of the monoliths. It is found by ISEC that the ratio of the different types of pores is dependent on the change in diameter of the macropores (serve as flow-through pores). The porosity data achieved from the mercury penetration measurement and nitrogen adsorption as well of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) pictures are correlated with the results we calculated from the ISEC measurements. The ISEC results, namely the multimodal pore structure of the monoliths, reported in several publications, are not confirmed analyzing the pore structures of the different silica monoliths using all other analytical methods.

  19. Fabricating tubular scaffolds with a radial pore size gradient by a spinning technique.

    PubMed

    Harley, Brendan A; Hastings, Abel Z; Yannas, Ioannis V; Sannino, Alessandro

    2006-02-01

    A novel fabrication process has been developed to produce collagen-based, porous tubular scaffolds to facilitate the study of myofibroblast migration during peripheral nerve regeneration; however, this fabrication technique offers broader appeal for the production of a variety of tubular structures without the use of a complicated mold system. A collagen-glycosaminoglycan (CG) suspension in acetic acid was spun in a cylindrical copper mold about its longitudinal axis at variable angular velocities and for different times, resulting in variable relative sedimentation of the CG content towards the mold outer edge; after the specified spinning time, the spinning mold was placed into a bath of liquid nitrogen where the CG suspension was rapidly frozen. Due to the rapid solidification, the CG content remained sedimented while an interconnected network of ice crystals formed throughout. Sublimation of the frozen mass removed the solvent (acetic acid) content, producing a porous, tubular structure defined by sedimentation and ice crystal nucleation processes. A porous, tubular scaffold with a sharply defined inner tube wall can be produced; further, increasing the spinning time and/or spinning velocity increases the sedimentation effect leading to the production of a hollow tube with a larger inner diameter. The tube walls display a radially aligned pore structure, even in cases where sedimentation was not sufficient to produce a hollow tube. A gradient of porosity along the tube radius was also observed in cases of extreme sedimentation: the pore structure of the external portion of the tube wall had a larger solid volume fraction and a smaller mean pore size compared to the internal portion of the tube. This tubular structure may allow preferential cell migration from the inner tube lumen towards the outer tube edge while blocking cell entrance into the tube through its outer surface due to increased scaffold relative density and decreased pore size.

  20. Gel-impregnated pore membranes with mesh-size asymmetry for biohybrid artificial organs.

    PubMed

    Dai, W S; Barbari, T A

    2000-07-01

    Membranes based on mechanically supported poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels with mesh-size asymmetry were developed for potential application in biohybrid artificial organs. The pores of cellulose ester microfiltration membranes were impregnated with a PVA solution, which was lightly crosslinked with glutaraldehyde and then modified under a glutaraldehyde gradient to produce mesh-size asymmetry. Permeation experiments were performed with the resulting homogeneous and asymmetric gel-impregnated pore membranes (GIPMs). Creatinine (MW: 113), goat Fab (MW: 50 kD) and human IgG (MW: 150 kD) were used to simulate the molecular size of nutrients, therapeutic proteins, and immunological molecules, respectively. The transport properties of the GIPMs were compared to those of conventional ultrafiltration (UF) and dialysis membranes. Experimental results indicate that GIPMs with mesh-size asymmetry have thickness-normalized creatinine permeabilities that are slightly higher than those in cellulosic UF membranes but as much as 100% greater than those in polysulfone UF or cellulosic dialysis membranes. IgG permeabilities in the GIPMs are from 5 to 50 times lower than those in the UF membranes. Fab permeabilities are 6 to 40 times higher in the UF membranes than those in the GIPMs, but the required permeability for a therapeutic protein is application specific. GIPMs may also be suitable as an alternative for hemodialysis.

  1. Effect of pore sizes of PLGA scaffolds on mechanical properties and cell behaviour for nucleus pulposus regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Ha Neul; Lee, So Jin; Song, Jeong Eun; Kwon, Soon Yong; Chung, Jin Wha; Lee, Dongwon; Khang, Gilson

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of pore sizes of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds on the compressive strength of tissue-engineered biodiscs and selection of the best suitable pore size for cells to grow in vivo. PLGA scaffolds were fabricated by solvent casting/salt-leaching with pore sizes of 90-180, 180-250, 250-355 and 355-425 µm. Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were seeded on PLGA scaffolds with various pore sizes. Each sample was harvested at each time point, after retrieval of PLGA scaffolds seeded with NP cells, which were implanted into subcutaneous spaces in nude mice at 4 and 6 weeks. MTT assay, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assay, haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, safranin O staining and immunohistochemistry (for collagen type II) were performed at each time point. As the pores became smaller, the value of the compressive strength of the scaffold was increased. The group of scaffolds with pore sizes of 90-250 µm showed better cell proliferation and ECM production. These results demonstrated that the compressive strength of the scaffold was improved while the scaffold had pore sizes in the range 90-250 µm and good cell interconnectivity. Suitable space in the scaffold for cell viability is a key factor for cell metabolism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Jointly deriving NMR surface relaxivity and pore size distributions by NMR relaxation experiments on partially desaturated rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohnke, O.; Hughes, B.

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry is a geophysical method widely used in borehole and laboratory applications to nondestructively infer transport and storage properties of rocks and soils as it is directly sensitive to the water/oil content and pore sizes. However, for inferring pore sizes, NMR relaxometry data need to be calibrated with respect to a surface interaction parameter, surface relaxivity, which depends on the type and mineral constituents of the investigated rock. This study introduces an inexpensive and quick alternative to the classical calibration methods, e.g., mercury injection, pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR, or grain size analysis, which allows for jointly estimating NMR surface relaxivity and pore size distributions using NMR relaxometry data from partially desaturated rocks. Hereby, NMR relaxation experiments are performed on the fully saturated sample and on a sample partially drained at a known differential pressure. Based on these data, the (capillary) pore radius distribution and surface relaxivity are derived by joint optimization of the Brownstein-Tarr and the Young-Laplace equation assuming parallel capillaries. Moreover, the resulting pore size distributions can be used to predict water retention curves. This inverse modeling approach—tested and validated using NMR relaxometry data measured on synthetic porous borosilicate samples with known petrophysical properties (i.e., permeability, porosity, inner surfaces, pore size distributions)—yields consistent and reproducible estimates of surface relaxivity and pore radii distributions. Also, subsequently calculated water retention curves generally correlate well with measured water retention curves.

  3. The Influence of Pore Size on the Indentation Behavior of Metallic Nanoporous Materials: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Esqué-de Los Ojos, Daniel; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-05-11

    In general, the influence of pore size is not considered when determining the Young's modulus of nanoporous materials. Here, we demonstrate that the pore size needs to be taken into account to properly assess the mechanical properties of these materials. Molecular dynamics simulations of spherical indentation experiments on single crystalline nanoporous Cu have been undertaken in systems with: (i) a constant degree of porosity and variable pore diameter; and (ii) a constant pore diameter and variable porosity degree. The classical Gibson and Ashby expression relating Young's modulus with the relative density of the nanoporous metal is modified to include the influence of the pore size. The simulations reveal that, for a fixed porosity degree, the mechanical behavior of materials with smaller pores differs more significantly from the behavior of the bulk, fully dense counterpart. This effect is ascribed to the increase of the overall surface area as the pore size is reduced, together with the reduced coordination number of the atoms located at the pores edges.

  4. Pore-size effect on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells composed of mesoporous anatase-titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Tae Kwan; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Duckhyun; Hwang, Yong-Kyung; Huh, Seong; Bae, Jae Young; Won, Yong Sun

    The effect of the pore size of mesoporous anatase-TiO 2 on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is investigated. The mesoporous TiO 2 particles are synthesized by two different methods using a soft template of tri-block copolymer and a hard template of mesoporous ZnO/Zn(OH) 2-composite. These methods produce the same high surface area (S BET ∼ 210 m 2 g -1) but different pore sizes of 6.8 and 3.0 nm, respectively. With the mesoporous TiO 2 having larger pores, the photo-conversion efficiency (η) is increased significantly to 6.71%, compared with 5.62% that is typically achieved using P25 TiO 2 nanopowders. By comparison, only half the performance (3.05%) has been observed with mesoporous TiO 2 that has small pores. Mesoporous TiO 2 with suitable pore sizes (∼6.8 nm) makes the most of its high surface area and thereby allows a high uptake of dye to enhance the current density. In contrast, the low efficiency of mesoporous TiO 2 with small pores is attributed to the low uptake of dye due to the smaller pore size (∼3.0 nm), which blocks the diffusion and adsorption of dye molecules through the pores.

  5. The Influence of Pore Size on the Indentation Behavior of Metallic Nanoporous Materials: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Esqué-de los Ojos, Daniel; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In general, the influence of pore size is not considered when determining the Young’s modulus of nanoporous materials. Here, we demonstrate that the pore size needs to be taken into account to properly assess the mechanical properties of these materials. Molecular dynamics simulations of spherical indentation experiments on single crystalline nanoporous Cu have been undertaken in systems with: (i) a constant degree of porosity and variable pore diameter; and (ii) a constant pore diameter and variable porosity degree. The classical Gibson and Ashby expression relating Young’s modulus with the relative density of the nanoporous metal is modified to include the influence of the pore size. The simulations reveal that, for a fixed porosity degree, the mechanical behavior of materials with smaller pores differs more significantly from the behavior of the bulk, fully dense counterpart. This effect is ascribed to the increase of the overall surface area as the pore size is reduced, together with the reduced coordination number of the atoms located at the pores edges. PMID:28773476

  6. Biotemplating pores with size and shape diversity for Li-oxygen Battery Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dahyun; Ozgit-Akgun, Çagla; Akca, Esin; Thompson, Leslie E.; Tadesse, Loza F.; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Demirci, Gökhan; Miller, Robert D.; Maune, Hareem

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic porogens provide an easy way to create porous structures, but their usage is limited due to synthetic difficulties, process complexities and prohibitive costs. Here we investigate the use of bacteria, sustainable and naturally abundant materials, as a pore template. The bacteria require no chemical synthesis, come in variable sizes and shapes, degrade easier and are approximately a million times cheaper than conventional porogens. We fabricate free standing porous multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films using cultured, harmless bacteria as porogens, and demonstrate substantial Li-oxygen battery performance improvement by porosity control. Pore volume as well as shape in the cathodes were easily tuned to improve oxygen evolution efficiency by 30% and double the full discharge capacity in repeated cycles compared to the compact MWCNT electrode films. The interconnected pores produced by the templates greatly improve the accessibility of reactants allowing the achievement of 4,942 W/kg (8,649 Wh/kg) at 2 A/ge (1.7 mA/cm2). PMID:28374862

  7. Biotemplating pores with size and shape diversity for Li-oxygen Battery Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Dahyun; Ozgit-Akgun, Çagla; Akca, Esin; Thompson, Leslie E.; Tadesse, Loza F.; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Demirci, Gökhan; Miller, Robert D.; Maune, Hareem

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic porogens provide an easy way to create porous structures, but their usage is limited due to synthetic difficulties, process complexities and prohibitive costs. Here we investigate the use of bacteria, sustainable and naturally abundant materials, as a pore template. The bacteria require no chemical synthesis, come in variable sizes and shapes, degrade easier and are approximately a million times cheaper than conventional porogens. We fabricate free standing porous multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films using cultured, harmless bacteria as porogens, and demonstrate substantial Li-oxygen battery performance improvement by porosity control. Pore volume as well as shape in the cathodes were easily tuned to improve oxygen evolution efficiency by 30% and double the full discharge capacity in repeated cycles compared to the compact MWCNT electrode films. The interconnected pores produced by the templates greatly improve the accessibility of reactants allowing the achievement of 4,942 W/kg (8,649 Wh/kg) at 2 A/ge (1.7 mA/cm2).

  8. The effects of diatom pore-size on the structures and extensibilities of single mucilage molecules.

    PubMed

    Sanka, Immanuel; Suyono, Eko Agus; Alam, Parvez

    2017-08-07

    Diatoms secrete extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), or mucilage, around the cell wall that may serve to aid in motility and form a discrete layer that may help maintain thicker layers of EPS that have a greater role in adhesion. Mucilage molecules adhere to the diatom frustules, which are biosilica skeletons that develop from the diatom cell walls. Here, molecular dynamics methods were used to determine the characteristics of mucilage molecules as a function of pore size; notably 1,4-α-D-galacturonic acid, 1,4-β-glucuronic acid and 1,4-β-D-mannuronic acid. These uronic acids differ from each other in structure and extensibility as a function of their folding characteristics. Here, we find that when overlain upon a pore, mucilage molecules try to return to their native folded states but are restrained by their interactions with the silica surfaces. Furthermore, the extensibility of mucilage molecules over pore spaces affects the extent of mechanical energy required to straighten them. As such, different EPS molecules will affect sliding, friction and adhesion to subsequent layers of EPS in different ways. We conclude that higher EPS extensibility is homonymous with higher adhesive or frictive resistance since the molecules will be able to strain more before they reach the most extended (and thus rigid) conformation. The research herein is applicable to modern engineering as it yields insight into the biomimetic design of molecules and surfaces for improved adhesion or motility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Micro and nano-size pores of clay minerals in shale reservoirs: Implication for the accumulation of shale gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shangbin; Han, Yufu; Fu, Changqin; Zhang, han; Zhu, Yanming; Zuo, Zhaoxi

    2016-08-01

    A pore is an essential component of shale gas reservoirs. Clay minerals are the adsorption carrier second only to organic matter. This paper uses the organic maturity test, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to study the structure and effect of clay minerals on storing gas in shales. Results show the depositional environment and organic maturity influence the content and types of clay minerals as well as their structure in the three types of sedimentary facies in China. Clay minerals develop multi-size pores which shrink to micro- and nano-size by close compaction during diagenesis. Micro- and nano-pores can be divided into six types: 1) interlayer, 2) intergranular, 3) pore and fracture in contact with organic matter, 4) pore and fracture in contact with other types of minerals, 5) dissolved and, 6) micro-cracks. The contribution of clay minerals to the presence of pores in shale is evident and the clay plane porosity can even reach 16%, close to the contribution of organic matter. The amount of clay minerals and pores displays a positive correlation. Clay minerals possess a strong adsorption which is affected by moisture and reservoir maturity. Different pore levels of clay minerals are mutually arranged, thus essentially producing distinct reservoir adsorption effects. Understanding the structural characteristics of micro- and nano-pores in clay minerals can provide a tool for the exploration and development of shale gas reservoirs.

  10. IMPACT OF COMPOSITION AND HEAT TREATMENT ON PORE SIZE IN POROUS WALLED HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Erich Hansen, E; Ray Schumacher, R; David Peeler, D

    2007-12-04

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a new geometric form: hollow glass microspheres (HGMs), with unique porous walls. The new geometric form combines the existing technology of HGMs with basic glass science knowledge in the realm of glass-in-glass phase separation. Conceptually, the development of a HGM with porous walls (referred to as a PWHGM) provides a unique system in which various media or filling agents can be incorporated into the PWHGM (via transport through the porous walls) and ultimately has the capacity to serve as a functional delivery system in various industrial applications. Applications of these types of systems could range from hydrogen storage, molecular sieves, drug and bioactive delivery systems, to environmental, chemical and biological indicators, relevant to Energy, Environmental Processing and Homeland Security fields. As a specific example, previous studies at SRNL have introduced materials capable of hydrogen storage (as well as other materials) into the interior of the PWHGMs. The goal of this project was to determine if the microstructure (i.e., pore size and pore size distribution) of a PWHGM could be altered or tailored by varying composition and/or heat treatment (time and/or temperature) conditions. The ability to tailor the microstructure through composition or heat treatments could provide the opportunity to design the PWHGM system to accommodate different additives or fill agents. To meet this objective, HGMs of various alkali borosilicate compositions were fabricated using a flame forming apparatus installed at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory (ACTL). HGMs were treated under various heat treatment conditions to induce and/or enhance glass in glass phase separation. Heat treatment temperatures ranged from 580 C to 620 C, while heat treatment times were either 8 or 24 hours. Of the two primary variables assessed in this study, heat treatment temperature was determined to be most effective in changing the

  11. Determination of the pore size of woven structures through image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, R. A.

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents an experimental procedure developed for determination of the pore size, shape and distribution in a single layer woven fabric, for the construction of a virtual model to be incorporated in a future CFD software package. The procedure is based on non-destructive observation and analysis of woven samples. 14 different samples of gray fabrics of 100 % cotton in plain and twill weaves are investigated. The results obtained allow the creation of reality more realistic virtual model of the woven structure, and theoretical investigation of its porosity and permeability through computer simulation.

  12. Pore Size Distribution and Methane Equilibrium Conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihani, A. D.; Daigle, H.; Cook, A.; Glosser, D.; Shushtarian, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  13. Pore size distribution and methane equilibrium conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bihani, Abhishek; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann; Glosser, Deborah; Shushtarian, Arash

    2015-12-15

    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  14. Improving prediction of hydraulic conductivity by constraining capillary bundle models to a maximum pore size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iden, Sascha; Peters, Andre; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Soil hydraulic properties are required to solve the Richards equation, the most widely applied model for variably-saturated flow. While the experimental determination of the water retention curve does not pose significant challenges, the measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is time consuming and costly. The prediction of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve from the soil water retention curve by pore-bundle models is a cost-effective and widely applied technique. A well-known problem of conductivity prediction for retention functions with wide pore-size distributions is the sharp drop in conductivity close to water saturation. This problematic behavior is well known for the van Genuchten model if the shape parameter n assumes values smaller than about 1.3. So far, the workaround for this artefact has been to introduce an explicit air-entry value into the capillary saturation function. However, this correction leads to a retention function which is not continuously differentiable and thus a discontinuous water capacity function. We present an improved parametrization of the hydraulic properties which uses the original capillary saturation function and introduces a maximum pore radius only in the pore-bundle model. Closed-form equations for the hydraulic conductivity function were derived for the unimodal and multimodal retention functions of van Genuchten and have been tested by sensitivity analysis and applied in curve fitting and inverse modeling of multistep outflow experiments. The resulting hydraulic conductivity function is smooth, increases monotonically close to saturation, and eliminates the sharp drop in conductivity close to saturation. Furthermore, the new model retains the smoothness and continuous differentiability of the water retention curve. We conclude that the resulting soil hydraulic functions are physically more reasonable than the ones predicted by previous approaches, and are thus ideally suited for numerical simulations

  15. Effective pore size and radius of capture for K+ ions in K-channels

    PubMed Central

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; González-Nilo, Fernando; Naranjo, David

    2016-01-01

    Reconciling protein functional data with crystal structure is arduous because rare conformations or crystallization artifacts occur. Here we present a tool to validate the dimensions of open pore structures of potassium-selective ion channels. We used freely available algorithms to calculate the molecular contour of the pore to determine the effective internal pore radius (rE) in several K-channel crystal structures. rE was operationally defined as the radius of the biggest sphere able to enter the pore from the cytosolic side. We obtained consistent rE estimates for MthK and Kv1.2/2.1 structures, with rE = 5.3–5.9 Å and rE = 4.5–5.2 Å, respectively. We compared these structural estimates with functional assessments of the internal mouth radii of capture (rC) for two electrophysiological counterparts, the large conductance calcium activated K-channel (rC = 2.2 Å) and the Shaker Kv-channel (rC = 0.8 Å), for MthK and Kv1.2/2.1 structures, respectively. Calculating the difference between rE and rC, produced consistent size radii of 3.1–3.7 Å and 3.6–4.4 Å for hydrated K+ ions. These hydrated K+ estimates harmonize with others obtained with diverse experimental and theoretical methods. Thus, these findings validate MthK and the Kv1.2/2.1 structures as templates for open BK and Kv-channels, respectively. PMID:26831782

  16. Tuning Pore Size in Square-Lattice Coordination Networks for Size-Selective Sieving of CO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-Jie; Madden, David G; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Kumar, Amrit; Yang, Qing-Yuan; Xue, Wei; Space, Brian; Perry, John J; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2016-08-22

    Porous materials capable of selectively capturing CO2 from flue-gases or natural gas are of interest in terms of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and methane purification. Size-exclusive sieving of CO2 over CH4 and N2 has rarely been achieved. Herein we show that a crystal engineering approach to tuning of pore-size in a coordination network, [Cu(quinoline-5-carboxyate)2 ]n (Qc-5-Cu) ena+bles ultra-high selectivity for CO2 over N2 (SCN ≈40 000) and CH4 (SCM ≈3300). Qc-5-Cu-sql-β, a narrow pore polymorph of the square lattice (sql) coordination network Qc-5-Cu-sql-α, adsorbs CO2 while excluding both CH4 and N2 . Experimental measurements and molecular modeling validate and explain the performance. Qc-5-Cu-sql-β is stable to moisture and its separation performance is unaffected by humidity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Modelling the influence of pore size on the response of materials to infrared lasers An application to human enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila Verde, A.; Ramos, Marta M. D.

    2005-07-01

    We present an analytical model for a ceramic material (hydroxyapatite, HA) containing nanometre-scale water pores, and use it to estimate the pressure at the pore as a function of temperature at the end of a single 0.35 μs laser pulse by Er:YAG (2.94 μm) and CO 2 (10.6 μm) lasers. Our results suggest that the pressure at the pore is directly related to pore temperature, and that very high pressures can be generated simply by the thermal expansion of liquid water. Since the temperature reached in the pores at the end of the laser pulse is a strong function of pore size for Er:YAG lasers, but is independent of pore size for CO 2 lasers, our present results provide a possible explanation for the fact that human dental enamel threshold ablation fluences vary more for Er:YAG lasers than for CO 2 lasers. This suggests that experimentalists should analyse their results accounting for factors, like age or type of tooth, that may change the pore size distribution in their samples.

  18. Pore-size-dependent calcium carbonate precipitation controlled by surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stack, Andrew G; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro; Allard, Lawrence F; Bañuelos, José L; Rother, Gernot; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Cole, David R; Waychunas, Glenn A

    2014-06-03

    Induced mineral precipitation is potentially important for the remediation of contaminants, such as during mineral trapping during carbon or toxic metal sequestration. The prediction of precipitation reactions is complicated by the porous nature of rocks and soils and their interaction with the precipitate, introducing transport and confinement effects. Here X-ray scattering measurements, modeling, and electron microscopies were used to measure the kinetics of calcium carbonate precipitation in a porous amorphous silica (CPG) that contained two discrete distributions of pore sizes: nanopores and macropores. To examine the role of the favorability of interaction between the substrate and precipitate, some of the CPG was functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) similar to those known to enhance nucleation densities on planar substrates. Precipitation was found to occur exclusively in macropores in the native CPG, while simultaneous precipitation in nanopores and macropores was observed in the functionalized CPG. The rate of precipitation in the nanopores estimated from the model of the X-ray scattering matched that measured on calcite single crystals. These results suggest that the pore-size distribution in which a precipitation reaction preferentially occurs depends on the favorability of interaction between substrate and precipitate, something not considered in most studies of precipitation in porous media.

  19. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  20. Stable Covalently Photo-Crosslinked Poly(Ionic Liquid) Membrane with Gradient Pore Size.

    PubMed

    Dani, Alessandro; Täuber, Karoline; Zhang, Weiyi; Schlaad, Helmut; Yuan, Jiayin

    2017-08-01

    Porous polyelectrolyte membranes stable in a highly ionic environment are obtained by covalent crosslinking of an imidazolium-based poly(ionic liquid). The crosslinking reaction involves the UV light-induced thiol-ene (click) chemistry, and the phase separation, occurring during the crosslinking step, generates a fully interconnected porous structure in the membrane. The porosity is on the order of the micrometer scale and the membrane shows a gradient of pore size across the membrane cross-section. The membrane can separate polystyrene latex particles of different size and undergoes actuation in contact with acetone due to the asymmetric porous structure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Size and ability do matter! Influence of acidity and pore size on the synthesis of hindered halogenated meso-phenyl porphyrins catalysed by porous solid oxides.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mónica; Fernandes, Auguste; Bebiano, Suse S; Calvete, Mário J F; Ribeiro, M Filipa; Burrows, Hugh D; Pereira, Mariette M

    2014-06-25

    The rationalisation of the influence of acidity and pore size of several solid oxides so that they selectively act as supports for preparation of encapsulated porphyrin hybrid materials or as catalysts for synthesis of porphyrins in solution is discussed. Encapsulated porphyrin yields are dependent on both the acidity and the material pore size, Al-MCM-41 being the best fitting solid, with Lewis acidity of 120 μmol Py per g and a pore size 30 Å. On the other hand, when the goal is the synthesis of hindered mesoarylporphyrins in solution, the best solid porous catalyst is NaY, with Lewis acidity of 510 μmol Py per g and a pore size 14 Å. This method provides an appealing efficient, reusable and scalable catalyst alternative for one-pot synthesis of meso-arylporphyrins in high yields.

  2. The effect of pore size on tissue ingrowth and neovascularization in porous bioceramics of controlled architecture in vivo.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bai; Jinkang, Zhang; Zhen, Wang; Jianxi, Lu; Jiang, Chang; Jian, Liu; Guolin, Meng; Xin, Dong

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of pore size on tissue ingrowth and neovascularization in porous bioceramics under the accurate control of the pore parameters. For that purpose, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) cylinders with four different macropore sizes (300-400, 400-500, 500-600 and 600-700 µm) but the same interconnection size (120 µm) and unchangeable porosity were implanted into fascia lumbodorsalis in rabbits. The fibrous tissues and blood vessels formed in scaffolds were observed histologically and histomorphometrically. The vascularization of the porous bioceramics was analyzed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). It is found that pore size as an important parameter of a porous structure plays an important role in tissue infiltration into porous biomaterial scaffolds. The amount of fibrous tissue ingrowth increases with the decrease of the pore size. In four kinds of scaffolds with different macropore sizes (300-400, 400-500, 500-600 and 600-700 µm) and a constant interconnection size of 120 µm, the areas of fibrous tissue (%) were 60.5%, 52.2%, 41.3% and 37.3%, respectively, representing a significant decrease at 4 weeks (P < 0.01). The pore size of a scaffold is closely related to neovascularization of macroporous biomaterials implanted in vivo. A large pore size is beneficial for the growth of blood vessels, and the diameter of a pore smaller than 400 µm limits the growth of blood vessels and results in a smaller blood vessel diameter.

  3. Pore size controls on the base of the methane hydrate stability zone in the Kumano Basin, offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Hugh; Dugan, Brandon

    2014-11-01

    The base of the methane hydrate stability zone (MHSZ) in the Kumano Basin, offshore Japan, is marked by a bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) on seismic data. At Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site C0002, which penetrates this BSR, the in situ temperature profile combined with bulk seawater methane equilibrium conditions suggest that the base of the MHSZ is 428 m below seafloor (bsf), which is 28 m deeper than the observed BSR (400 m bsf). We found that submicron pore sizes determined by mercury injection capillary pressure are sufficiently small to cause 64% of the observed uplift of the base of the MHSZ by the Gibbs-Thomson effect. This is the most thorough characterization of pore sizes within the MHSZ performed to date and illustrates the extent to which pore size can influence MHSZ thickness. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering lithology and pore structure when assessing methane hydrate stability conditions in marine sediments.

  4. Pore Size Distributions Inferred from Modified Inversion Percolation Modeling of Drainage Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralus, D. E.; Wang, H. F.; Strand, T. E.; Glass, R. J.; Detwiler, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    Experiments have been conducted of drainage in sand packs. At equilibrium, the interface between the fluids forms a saturation transition fringe where the saturation decreases monotonically with height. This behavior was observed in a 1-inch thick pack of 20-30 sand contained front and back within two thin, 12-inch-by-24-inch glass plates. The translucent chamber was illuminated from behind by a bank of fluorescent bulbs. Acquired data were in the form of images captured by a CCD camera with resolution on the grain scale. The measured intensity of the transmitted light was used to calculate the average saturation at each point in the chamber. This study used a modified invasion percolation (MIP) model to simulate the drainage experiments to evaluate the relationship between the saturation-versus-height curve at equilibrium and the pore size distribution associated with the granular medium. The simplest interpretation of a drainage curve is in terms of a distribution of capillary tubes whose radii reproduce the the observed distribution of rise heights. However, this apparent radius distribution obtained from direct inversion of the saturation profile did not yield the assumed radius distribution. Further investigation demonstrated that the equilibrium height distribution is controlled primarily by the Bond number (ratio of gravity to capillary forces) with some influence from the width of the pore radius distribution. The width of the equilibrium fringe is quantified in terms of the ratio of Bond number to the standard deviation of the pore throat distribution. The normalized saturation-vs-height curves exhibit a power-law scaling behavior consistent with both Brooks-Corey and Van Genuchten type curves. Fundamental tenets of percolation theory were used to quantify the relationship between the apparent and actual radius distributions as a function of the mean coordination number and of the ratio of Bond number to standard deviation, which was supported by both MIP

  5. Characterization of pore scale NAPL morphology in homogeneous sands as a function of grain size and NAPL dissolution.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    In this study, we investigate pore scale morphology of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) trapped in different pore sizes using tracer techniques. Specific interfacial area and saturation of NAPL trapped in homogeneous sands were measured using the interfacial and partitioning tracer techniques. The observed NAPL-water interfacial areas increased in a log-linear fashion with decreasing sand grain size, but showed no clear trend with residual NAPL saturation formed in the various grain sizes. The measured values were used to calculate the NAPL morphology index, which characterizes the spatial NAPL distribution within the pore space. The NAPL morphology indices, increased exponentially with decreasing grain size, indicating that the NAPL becomes smaller, but more blobs. For a fixed grain size, the specific interfacial area and saturation of the NAPL were measured following changes caused by dissolution using alcohol. The observed interfacial areas showed a decrease linearly as a function of the NAPL saturation.

  6. Pore size distribution of a deeply excavated Oxisol after 19 years reclamation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Batista Bonini, Carolina; de Cássia Marchini, Débora; Alves, Marlene Cristina; García de Arruda, Otton; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Digging of the local soil and using it as a raw material for construction purposes has been identified as a non-negligible source of land degradation. Techniques aimed at soil profile reconstruction and ecological restoration of soils truncated by mechanical excavation using heavy machinery have been investigated Both, total soil porosity and pore size distribution are important properties for soil management as well as for assessing the recovery of soil function after land degradation. In this way, macropores are responsible for aeration, whereas water storage depends on soil meso- and micropores in the soil and the optimal pore-size distribution is also an indicator of soil quality. We investigated the changes in the pore size distribution of a soil that was beheaded to extract raw materials after a 19 year period of reclamation, which involved the use of green manures, gypsum and pasture for the purpose of profile recovery. The studied area is located in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brzil. A field trial was performed following a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and four replications. Starting 1992, the initial treatments were: 1) control (tilled bare soil), 2)Stizolobium aterrium, 3)Cajanus cajan, 4)lime+S. aterrimum, 5) lime+C. cajan, 6) lime + gypsum + S. aterrimum, 7) lime + gypsum+C. cajan. In 1994, all treatments with C. cajan were replaced by Canavalia ensiformis and in 1999, Brachiaria decumbens was implanted in all the experimental plots. Data from vegetated treatments were compared with bare soil (control) and native vegetation (Savannah). Soil samples were collected in 2011 at the 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m depths. Treatment differences were assessed by analysis of variance, following the Scott-Knott test (5%) of probability to compare averages. Macroporosity of the 0.00-0.10 m top layer was above the 0.10 m3m-3 threshold considered as critical for plant growth. On the 0.10-0.20 m layer only treatments with C

  7. Role of pore size and morphology in musculo-skeletal tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Perez, Roman A; Mestres, Gemma

    2016-04-01

    Biomaterials in the form of scaffolds hold great promise in the regeneration of diseased tissues. The scaffolds stimulate cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. While the scaffold composition will dictate their biocompatibility, their porosity plays a key role in allowing proper cell penetration, nutrient diffusion as well as bone ingrowth. Porous scaffolds are processed with the help of a wide variety of techniques. Designing scaffolds with the appropriate porosity is a complex issue since this may jeopardize other physico-chemical properties. From a macroscopic point of view, parameters such as the overall architecture, pore morphology, interconnectivity and pore size distribution, have unique roles in allowing bone ingrowth to take place. From a microscopic perspective, the adsorption and retention of proteins in the microporosities of the material will dictate the subsequent cell adhesion. Therefore, the microstructure of the substrate can determine cell proliferation as well as the expression of specific osteogenic genes. This review aims at discussing the effect of micro- and macroporosity on the physico-chemical and biological properties of scaffolds for musculo-skeletal tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A family of zeolites with controlled pore size prepared using a top-down method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wieslaw J.; Nachtigall, Petr; Morris, Russell E.; Wheatley, Paul S.; Seymour, Valerie R.; Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Chlubná, Pavla; Grajciar, Lukáš; Položij, Miroslav; Zukal, Arnošt; Shvets, Oleksiy; Čejka, Jiří

    2013-07-01

    The properties of zeolites, and thus their suitability for different applications, are intimately connected with their structures. Synthesizing specific architectures is therefore important, but has remained challenging. Here we report a top-down strategy that involves the disassembly of a parent zeolite, UTL, and its reassembly into two zeolites with targeted topologies, IPC-2 and IPC-4. The three zeolites are closely related as they adopt the same layered structure, and they differ only in how the layers are connected. Choosing different linkers gives rise to different pore sizes, enabling the synthesis of materials with predetermined pore architectures. The structures of the resulting zeolites were characterized by interpreting the X-ray powder-diffraction patterns through models using computational methods; IPC-2 exhibits orthogonal 12- and ten-ring channels, and IPC-4 is a more complex zeolite that comprises orthogonal ten- and eight-ring channels. We describe how this method enables the preparation of functional materials and discuss its potential for targeting other new zeolites.

  9. A family of zeolites with controlled pore size prepared using a top-down method.

    PubMed

    Roth, Wieslaw J; Nachtigall, Petr; Morris, Russell E; Wheatley, Paul S; Seymour, Valerie R; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Chlubná, Pavla; Grajciar, Lukáš; Položij, Miroslav; Zukal, Arnošt; Shvets, Oleksiy; Cejka, Jiří

    2013-07-01

    The properties of zeolites, and thus their suitability for different applications, are intimately connected with their structures. Synthesizing specific architectures is therefore important, but has remained challenging. Here we report a top-down strategy that involves the disassembly of a parent zeolite, UTL, and its reassembly into two zeolites with targeted topologies, IPC-2 and IPC-4. The three zeolites are closely related as they adopt the same layered structure, and they differ only in how the layers are connected. Choosing different linkers gives rise to different pore sizes, enabling the synthesis of materials with predetermined pore architectures. The structures of the resulting zeolites were characterized by interpreting the X-ray powder-diffraction patterns through models using computational methods; IPC-2 exhibits orthogonal 12- and ten-ring channels, and IPC-4 is a more complex zeolite that comprises orthogonal ten- and eight-ring channels. We describe how this method enables the preparation of functional materials and discuss its potential for targeting other new zeolites.

  10. Evaluation of borate bioactive glass scaffolds with different pore sizes in a rat subcutaneous implantation model.

    PubMed

    Deliormanli, Aylin M; Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2014-01-01

    Borate bioactive glass has been shown to convert faster and more completely to hydroxyapatite and enhance new bone formation in vivo when compared to silicate bioactive glass (such as 45S5 and 13-93 bioactive glass). In this work, the effects of the borate glass microstructure on its conversion to hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro and its ability to support tissue ingrowth in a rat subcutaneous implantation model were investigated. Bioactive borate glass scaffolds, designated 13-93B3, with a grid-like microstructure and pore widths of 300, 600, and 900 µm were prepared by a robocasting technique. The scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously for 4 weeks in Sprague Dawley rats. Silicate 13-93 glass scaffolds with the same microstructure were used as the control. The conversion of the scaffolds to HA was studied as a function of immersion time in a simulated body fluid. Histology and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate conversion of the bioactive glass implants to hydroxyapatite, as well as tissue ingrowth and blood vessel formation in the implants. The pore size of the scaffolds was found to have little effect on tissue infiltration and angiogenesis after the 4-week implantation.

  11. Single molecule FRET reveals pore size and opening mechanism of a mechano-sensitive ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Yanxin; DeBerg, Hannah A; Nomura, Takeshi; Hoffman, Melinda Tonks; Rohde, Paul R; Schulten, Klaus; Martinac, Boris; Selvin, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, which serves as a model system for mechanosensitive channels, has previously been crystallized in the closed form, but not in the open form. Ensemble measurements and electrophysiological sieving experiments show that the open-diameter of the channel pore is >25 Å, but the exact size and whether the conformational change follows a helix-tilt or barrel-stave model are unclear. Here we report measurements of the distance changes on liposome-reconstituted MscL transmembrane α-helices, using a ‘virtual sorting’ single-molecule fluorescence energy transfer. We observed directly that the channel opens via the helix-tilt model and the open pore reaches 2.8 nm in diameter. In addition, based on the measurements, we developed a molecular dynamics model of the channel structure in the open state which confirms our direct observations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01834.001 PMID:24550255

  12. A pore-hindered diffusion and reaction model can help explain the importance of pore size distribution in enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass.

    PubMed

    Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Parlange, Jean-Yves; Walker, Larry P

    2013-01-01

    Until now, most efforts to improve monosaccharide production from biomass through pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis have used empirical optimization rather than employing a rational design process guided by a theory-based modeling framework. For such an approach to be successful a modeling framework that captures the key mechanisms governing the relationship between pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis must be developed. In this study, we propose a pore-hindered diffusion and kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. When compared to data available in the literature, this model accurately predicts the well-known dependence of initial cellulose hydrolysis rates on surface area available to a cellulase-size molecule. Modeling results suggest that, for particles smaller than 5 × 10(-3) cm, a key rate-limiting step is the exposure of previously unexposed cellulose occurring after cellulose on the surface has hydrolyzed, rather than binding or diffusion. However, for larger particles, according to the model, diffusion plays a more significant role. Therefore, the proposed model can be used to design experiments that produce results that are either affected or unaffected by diffusion. Finally, by using pore size distribution data to predict the biomass fraction that is accessible to degradation, this model can be used to predict cellulose hydrolysis with time using only pore size distribution and initial composition data.

  13. Pore size dependent behavior of hydrated Ag+ ions confined in mesoporous MCM-41 materials under synchrotron X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kanae; Yoshida, Koji; Kittaka, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of hydrated Ag+ ions in a 1.5 mol dm(-3) AgNO3 aqueous solution confined in mesoporous silica MCM-41 with different pore sizes was characterized by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The hydrated Ag+ ions are stabilized in 4-fold coordination down to 195 K in the pores (21 Å in diameter), whereas in the larger pores (28 Å) the hydrated Ag+ ions are reduced to Ag0 to form nano clusters with the Ag-Ag interactions of 2.80 Å.

  14. Pore size distribution analysis of activated carbons prepared from coconut shell using methane adsorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadpour, A.; Okhovat, A.; Darabi Mahboub, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    The application of Stoeckli theory to determine pore size distribution (PSD) of activated carbons using high pressure methane adsorption data is explored. Coconut shell was used as a raw material for the preparation of 16 different activated carbon samples. Four samples with higher methane adsorption were selected and nitrogen adsorption on these adsorbents was also investigated. Some differences are found between the PSD obtained from the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms and their PSD resulting from the same analysis using methane adsorption data. It is suggested that these differences may arise from the specific interactions between nitrogen molecules and activated carbon surfaces; therefore caution is required in the interpretation of PSD obtained from the nitrogen isotherm data.

  15. Physiologic upper limits of pore size of different blood capillary types and another perspective on the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Much of our current understanding of microvascular permeability is based on the findings of classic experimental studies of blood capillary permeability to various-sized lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules. According to the classic small pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the transcapillary flow rates of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused endogenous macromolecules, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall takes place through a single population of small pores that are approximately 6 nm in diameter; whereas, according to the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the accumulation of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused non-endogenous macromolecules in the locoregional tissue lymphatic drainages, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall also takes place through a separate population of large pores, or capillary leaks, that are between 24 and 60 nm in diameter. The classification of blood capillary types on the basis of differences in the physiologic upper limits of pore size to transvascular flow highlights the differences in the transcapillary exchange routes for the transvascular transport of endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules across the capillary walls of different blood capillary types. Methods The findings and published data of studies on capillary wall ultrastructure and capillary microvascular permeability to lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous molecules from the 1950s to date were reviewed. In this study, the blood capillary types in different tissues and organs were classified on the basis of the physiologic upper limits of pore size to the transvascular flow of lipid-insoluble molecules. Blood capillaries were classified as non-sinusoidal or sinusoidal on the basis of capillary wall basement membrane layer

  16. Effect of pore size on the condensation/evaporation transition of confined water in equilibrium with saturated bulk water.

    PubMed

    Brovchenko, Ivan; Oleinikova, Alla

    2011-08-25

    The effect of pore size on the condensation/evaporation transition of confined water upon varying the strength of the water-surface interaction is studied under conditions of equilibrium with saturated bulk. Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble were used to determine water density in spherical pores of radius R(p) = 9, 12, 15, 20, and 25 Å in the temperature range from T = 270 K to the bulk critical temperature. The critical values of the well depth of the water-surface interaction potential, which mark the limits of the metastability of vapor and liquid phases in pores (U(0)(cond) and U(0)(evap), respectively), were determined. U(0)(cond) strongly depends on temperature, practically does not depend on the pore size, and corresponds to some particular density of water vapor near a surface. In contrast, U(0)(evap) only slightly depends on temperature, depends strongly on pore size, and corresponds to the density in the pore interior by about 2% below the bulk value. The critical water-pore interaction U(0)(c), which separates regimes of capillary condensation and capillary evaporation, is found to be changed from -1.75 to -0.94 kcal/mol when the pore radius R(p) increases from 9 to 25 Å. The size dependence of U(0)(c) is attributed to the change of the contact angle due to the line tension effect. Extrapolation of the dependence U(0)(c)(R(p)) to the flat surface gives the critical value U(0)(c)(∞) ≈ -0.61 kcal/mol. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Single-Crystalline, Nanoporous Gallium Nitride Films With Fine Tuning of Pore Size for Stem Cell Engineering.

    PubMed

    Han, Lin; Zhou, Jing; Sun, Yubing; Zhang, Yu; Han, Jung; Fu, Jianping; Fan, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Single-crystalline nanoporous gallium nitride (GaN) thin films were fabricated with the pore size readily tunable in 20-100 nm. Uniform adhesion and spreading of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on these thin films peak on the surface with pore size of 30 nm. Substantial cell elongation emerges as pore size increases to ∼80 nm. The osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs occurs preferentially on the films with 30 nm sized nanopores, which is correlated with the optimum condition for cell spreading, which suggests that adhesion, spreading, and stem cell differentiation are interlinked and might be coregulated by nanotopography.

  18. Acoustic particle filter with adjustable effective pore size for automated sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Byoungsok; Fisher, Karl; Ness, Kevin D; Rose, Klint A; Mariella, Raymond P

    2008-11-15

    This article presents analysis and optimization of a microfluidic particle filter that uses acoustic radiation forces to remove particles larger than a selected size by adjusting the driving conditions of the piezoelectric transducer (PZT). Operationally, the acoustic filter concentrates microparticles to the center of the microchannel, minimizing undesirable particle adsorption to the microchannel walls. Finite element models predict the complex two-dimensional acoustic radiation force field perpendicular to the flow direction in microfluidic devices. We compare these results with experimental parametric studies including variations of the PZT driving frequencies and voltages as well as various particle sizes (0.5-5.0 microm in diameter). These results provide insight into the optimal operating conditions and show the efficacy of our device as a filter with an adjustable effective pore size. We demonstrate the separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from MS2 bacteriophage using our acoustic device. With optimized design of our microfluidic flow system, we achieved yields of greater than 90% for the MS2 with greater than 80% removal of the S. cerevisiae in this continuous-flow sample preparation device.

  19. Pore size distribution of soil near saturation as affected by soil type, land use, and soil amendments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Storage and flow of water in soil voids, which are related to the size and geometry of the voids and flow rate are usually controlled by the void of the smallest size. Another reason for the complexity of water flow in soils is the intricate nature and change of the soil pores due to the modificatio...

  20. Application of SAXS and SANS in evaluation of porosity, pore size distribution and surface area of coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radlinski, A.P.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hinde, A.L.; Hainbuchner, M.; Rauch, H.; Baron, M.; Lin, J.S.; Fan, L.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques for determining the porosity, pore size distribution and internal specific surface area in coals. The method is noninvasive, fast, inexpensive and does not require complex sample preparation. It uses coal grains of about 0.8 mm size mounted in standard pellets as used for petrographic studies. Assuming spherical pore geometry, the scattering data are converted into the pore size distribution in the size range 1 nm (10 A??) to 20 ??m (200,000 A??) in diameter, accounting for both open and closed pores. FTIR as well as SAXS and SANS data for seven samples of oriented whole coals and corresponding pellets with vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values in the range 0.55% to 5.15% are presented and analyzed. Our results demonstrate that pellets adequately represent the average microstructure of coal samples. The scattering data have been used to calculate the maximum surface area available for methane adsorption. Total porosity as percentage of sample volume is calculated and compared with worldwide trends. By demonstrating the applicability of SAXS and SANS techniques to determine the porosity, pore size distribution and surface area in coals, we provide a new and efficient tool, which can be used for any type of coal sample, from a thin slice to a representative sample of a thick seam. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of mica content on pore-size distribution and porosity of sandy sediment using proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, S.

    2015-12-01

    As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we performed a study on effect of mica content on pore size distribution and porosity of sandy sediment. This study used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to measure the pore-size distribution and porosity of specimen to investigate mica content effect in sandy sediment. A mixture of silica sand No. 7 and mica (mica of 0 wt. %, 5 wt. % and 20 wt. %) was used in this study. The median D50 by laser diffraction method was obtained as 215.7 μm of silica sand No. 7 and 278.9 μm of mica. Pore-size distributions of specimens by the distribution of transverse magnetic relaxation time (T2) measurement by NMR were performed for the water-saturated sample under effective confining pressure of 1.0 MPa. The peaks of pore-size distribution curves decreased and showed finer shifts with increasing of mica content. The porosity of silica sand No. 7 specimen was 46.3%, and that of mica 5% and 20 % were 45.9% and 42.2%m, respectively. A change in pore-size distribution and porosity were observed with an increasing ratio of mica.

  2. Catalytic reforming catalyst with modified pore size distribution and a process using the same

    SciTech Connect

    Unmuth, E.E.; Fleming, B.A.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a catalytic reforming process for conversion of a naptha hydrocarbon at reforming conditions using a catalyst comprising at least one catalytic metal and alumina. The improvement comprises using a catalyst having the following properties in combination: a surface area above about 250 M/sup 2//gram of catalyst; a pore volume above about 0.44 cc/gram of catalyst in pores having diameters of from about 30 angstroms to about 38,000 angstroms; and a pore volume distribution wherein about 70 percent or less of the pore volume is in pores having diameters of from about 30 angstroms to about 400 angstroms. About 30 percent or more pore volume is in pores having diameters of from about 400 angstroms to about 38,000 angstroms.

  3. Effect of membrane polymeric materials on relationship between surface pore size and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Taro; Yuasa, Kotaku; Ishigami, Toru; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Kamio, Eiji; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Saeki, Daisuke; Ni, Jinren; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the effect of different membrane polymeric materials on the relationship between membrane pore size and development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Membranes with different pore sizes were prepared using three different polymeric materials, cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and the development of membrane fouling in each membrane was evaluated by batch filtration tests using a mixed liquor suspension obtained from a laboratory-scale MBR. The results revealed that the optimal membrane pore size to mitigate membrane fouling differed depending on membrane polymeric material. For PVDF membranes, the degree of membrane fouling decreased as membrane pore size increased. In contrast, CAB membranes with smaller pores had less fouling propensity than those with larger ones. Such difference can be attributed to the difference in major membrane foulants in each membrane; in PVDF, they were small colloids or dissolved organics in which proteins are abundant, and in CAB, microbial flocs. The results obtained in this study strongly suggested that optimum operating conditions of MBRs differ depending on the characteristics of the used membrane.

  4. Estimation of pore size in a microstructure phantom using the optimised gradient waveform diffusion weighted NMR sequence.

    PubMed

    Siow, Bernard; Drobnjak, Ivana; Chatterjee, Aritrick; Lythgoe, Mark F; Alexander, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques that are sensitive to diffusion of molecules containing NMR visible nuclei for the estimation of microstructure parameters. A microstructure parameter of particular interest is pore radius distribution. A recent in silico study optimised the shape of the gradient waveform in diffusion weighted spin-echo experiments for estimating pore size. The study demonstrated that optimised gradient waveform (GEN) protocols improve pore radius estimates compared to optimised pulse gradient spin-echo (PGSE) protocols, particularly at shorter length scales. This study assesses the feasibility of implementing GEN protocols on a small bore 9.4 T scanner and verifies their additional sensitivity to pore radius. We implement GEN and PGSE protocols optimised for pore radii of 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 μm and constrained to maximum gradient strengths of 40, 80, 200 mT m(-1). We construct microstructure phantoms, which have a single pore radius for each phantom, using microcapillary fibres. The measured signal shows good agreement with simulated signal, strongly indicating that the GEN waveforms can be implemented on a 9.4 T system. We also demonstrate that GEN protocols provide improved sensitivity to the smaller pore radii when compared to optimised PGSE protocols, particularly at the lower gradient amplitudes investigated in this study. Our results suggest that this improved sensitivity of GEN protocols would be reflected in clinical scenarios.

  5. A direct and quantitative three-dimensional reconstruction of the internal structure of disordered mesoporous carbon with tailored pore size.

    PubMed

    Balach, Juan; Soldera, Flavio; Acevedo, Diego F; Mücklich, Frank; Barbero, César A

    2013-06-01

    A new technique that allows direct three-dimensional (3D) investigations of mesopores in carbon materials and quantitative characterization of their physical properties is reported. Focused ion beam nanotomography (FIB-nt) is performed by a serial sectioning procedure with a dual beam FIB-scanning electron microscopy instrument. Mesoporous carbons (MPCs) with tailored mesopore size are produced by carbonization of resorcinol-formaldehyde gels in the presence of a cationic surfactant as a pore stabilizer. A visual 3D morphology representation of disordered porous carbon is shown. Pore size distribution of MPCs is determined by the FIB-nt technique and nitrogen sorption isotherm methods to compare both results. The obtained MPCs exhibit pore sizes of 4.7, 7.2, and 18.3 nm, and a specific surface area of ca. 560 m(2)/g.

  6. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of Sphagnum moss and peat reveal trimodal pore-size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Iden, Sascha C.; Durner, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    In ombrotrophic peatlands, the moisture content of the vadose zone (acrotelm) controls oxygen diffusion rates, redox state, and the turnover of organic matter. Whether peatlands act as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon thus relies on variably saturated flow processes. The Richards equation is the standard model for water flow in soils, but it is not clear whether it can be applied to simulate water flow in live Sphagnum moss. Transient laboratory evaporation experiments were conducted to observe evaporative water fluxes in the acrotelm, containing living Sphagnum moss, and a deeper layer containing decomposed moss peat. The experimental data were evaluated by inverse modeling using the Richards equation as process model for variably-saturated flow. It was tested whether water fluxes and time series of measured pressure heads during evaporation could be simulated. The results showed that the measurements could be matched very well providing the hydraulic properties are represented by a suitable model. For this, a trimodal parametrization of the underlying pore-size distribution was necessary which reflects three distinct pore systems of the Sphagnum constituted by inter-, intra-, and inner-plant water. While the traditional van Genuchten-Mualem model led to great discrepancies, the physically more comprehensive Peters-Durner-Iden model which accounts for capillary and noncapillary flow, led to a more consistent description of the observations. We conclude that the Richards equation is a valid process description for variably saturated moisture fluxes over a wide pressure range in peatlands supporting the conceptualization of the live moss as part of the vadose zone.

  7. A macromolecular crowding study of RNA folding and activity: polymer pore size matters! (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, Richard; Fiorini, Erica; Paudel, Bishnu; Rueda, David; Sigel, Roland K. O.

    2016-03-01

    Catalytic RNAs, like the group IIB intron ribozyme of S. cerevesiae, require a high magnesium(II) concentration to show folding and function in vitro [1]. In contrast, in vivo conditions are characterized by a highly crowded cellular environment and much lower ion concentration. Molecular crowding agents are a widespread tool to mimic cellular crowding [2]. However, particular physical/chemical properties explaining the crowders influence are mostly not understood. In this study, we gain new insights on how polymer properties like viscosity, pore size etc. influence the activity and folding of a large RNA. We combined bulk activity assays and single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer experiments, screening the PEG volume fraction (%) and molecular weight (MW). Our results revealed that upon the influence of crowding agents, a compaction of the underlying structure depends on the PEG % and the presence of different PEG MW and % unveiled an optimal pore size in terms of catalytic activity. In summary, an increasing density of the crowding environment shifts the RNA towards the most compact state, but the ribozyme is only active if the crowders network matches its size [4]. We interpret the most compact state as necessary, but not sufficient, to keep the ribozyme active. Financial support from the European Research Council (MIRNA N° 259092, to RKOS), the Swiss National Fund (SNF), and the Forschungskredit Grant of the University of Zürich (FK-14-096 and 15-092 to RB) are gratefully acknowledged. [1] Swisher J.F., Su L.J., Brenowitz M., Anderson V.E., Pyle A.M., J. Mol. Bio., 315, 297-310 (2002). [2] Kilburn D., Roh J.H., Guo L., Briber R.M., Woodson S.A., JACS, 132, 8690-6 (2010). [3] Steiner M., Karunatilaka K.S., Sigel R.K.O., Rueda D., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.,105, 13853-8 (2008). [4] aBörner R, Fiorini E, Sigel R.K.O., Chimia, 69, 207-212 (2015).; bFiorini E., Paudel B., Börner R., Rueda D., Sigel R.K.O., submitted. [5] König S.L.B., Hadzic M

  8. Substantial Expansion of Detectable Size Range in Ionic Current Sensing through Pores by Using a Microfluidic Bridge Circuit.

    PubMed

    Yasaki, Hirotoshi; Yasui, Takao; Yanagida, Takeshi; Kaji, Noritada; Kanai, Masaki; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kawai, Tomoji; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2017-09-07

    Measuring ionic currents passing through nano- or micro-pores has shown great promise for the electrical discrimination of various biomolecules, cells, bacteria, and viruses. However, conventional measurements have shown there is an inherent limitation to the detectable particle volume (1% of the pore volume), which critically hinders applications to real mixtures of biomolecule samples with a wide size range of suspended particles. Here we propose a rational methodology which can detect samples with the detectable particle volume of 0.01% of the pore volume by measuring a transient current generated from the potential differences in a microfluidic bridge circuit. Our method substantially suppresses the background ionic current from the µA level to the pA level, which essentially lowers the detectable particle volume limit even for relatively large pore structures. Indeed, utilizing a microscale long pore structure (volume of 5.6 × 10(4) aL; height and width of 2.0 × 2.0 µm; length of 14 µm), we successfully detected various samples including polystyrene nanoparticles (volume: 4 aL), bacteria, cancer cells, and DNA molecules. Our method will expand the applicability of ionic current sensing systems for various mixed biomolecule samples with a wide size range, which have been difficult to measure by previously existing pore technologies.

  9. Critical assessment of the pore size distribution in the rim region of high burnup UO2 fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappia, F.; Pizzocri, D.; Schubert, A.; Van Uffelen, P.; Paperini, G.; Pellottiero, D.; Macián-Juan, R.; Rondinella, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    A new methodology is introduced to analyse porosity data in the high burnup structure. Image analysis is coupled with the adaptive kernel density estimator to obtain a detailed characterisation of the pore size distribution, without a-priori assumption on the functional form of the distribution. Subsequently, stereological analysis is carried out. The method shows advantages compared to the classical approach based on the histogram in terms of detail in the description and accuracy within the experimental limits. Results are compared to the approximation of a log-normal distribution. In the investigated local burnup range (80-200 GWd/tHM), the agreement of the two approaches is satisfactory. From the obtained total pore density and mean pore diameter as a function of local burnup, pore coarsening is observed starting from ≈100 GWd/tHM, in agreement with a previous investigation.

  10. Determination of pore size distributions in capillary-channeled polymer fiber stationary phases by inverse size-exclusion chromatography and implications for fast protein separations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengxin; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2014-07-18

    Capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers have been utilized as liquid chromatography stationary phases, primarily for biomacromolecule separations on the analytical and preparative scales. The collinear packing of the eight-channeled C-CP fibers provides for very efficient flow, allowing operation at high linear velocity (u>100mm s(-1)) and low backpressure (<2000psi) in analytical-scale separations. To take advantage of these fluid transport properties, there must not be mass transfer limitations as would be imposed by having an appreciably porous phase, wherein solute diffusion limits the overall mass transport rates. To better understand the physical nano-/micro- structure of C-CP fibers, inverse size exclusion chromatography (iSEC) has been employed to determine the pore size distribution (PSD) within C-CP fibers. A diversity of test species (from metal ions to large proteins) was used as probes under non-retaining conditions to obtain a response curve reflecting the apparent partition coefficient (Kd) versus hydrodynamic radii (rm). A mean pore radius (rp) of 4.2nm with standard deviation (sp) of ±1.1nm was calculated by fitting the Kd versus rm data to model equations with a Gaussian pore size distribution, and a pore radius of 4.0±0.1nm was calculated based on a log-normal distribution. The derived mean pore radius is much smaller than traditional support materials, with the standard deviation showing a relatively uniform pore distribution. van Deemter plots were analyzed to provide practical confirmation of the structural implications. Large molecules (e.g., proteins) that are fully excluded from pores have no significant C-terms in the van Deemter plots whereas small molecules that can access the pore volumes display appreciable C-terms, as expected. Fitting of retention data to the Knox equation suggests that the columns operate with a characteristic particle diameter (dp) of ∼53μm.

  11. Pore size is a critical parameter for obtaining sustained protein release from electrochemically synthesized mesoporous silicon microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Ester L.; Reguera-Nuñez, Elaine; Matveeva, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous silicon has become a material of high interest for drug delivery due to its outstanding internal surface area and inherent biodegradability. We have previously reported the preparation of mesoporous silicon microparticles (MS-MPs) synthesized by an advantageous electrochemical method, and showed that due to their inner structure they can adsorb proteins in amounts exceeding the mass of the carrier itself. Protein release from these MS-MPs showed low burst effect and fast delivery kinetics with complete release in a few hours. In this work, we explored if tailoring the size of the inner pores of the particles would retard the protein release process. To address this hypothesis, three new MS-MPs prototypes were prepared by electrochemical synthesis, and the resulting carriers were characterized for morphology, particle size, and pore structure. All MS-MP prototypes had 90 µm mean particle size, but depending on the current density applied for synthesis, pore size changed between 5 and 13 nm. The model protein α-chymotrypsinogen was loaded into MS-MPs by adsorption and solvent evaporation. In the subsequent release experiments, no burst release of the protein was detected for any prototype. However, prototypes with larger pores (>10 nm) reached 100% release in 24–48 h, whereas prototypes with small mesopores (<6 nm) still retained most of their cargo after 96 h. MS-MPs with ∼6 nm pores were loaded with the osteogenic factor BMP7, and sustained release of this protein for up to two weeks was achieved. In conclusion, our results confirm that tailoring pore size can modify protein release from MS-MPs, and that prototypes with potential therapeutic utility for regional delivery of osteogenic factors can be prepared by convenient techniques. PMID:26557423

  12. Furthering Chemical and Geophysical Computations: Analysis of SACROC SEM and CT images to obtain pore percentage, size, and connectivity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mur, A. J.; Purcell, C. C.; Harbert, W. P.; Soong, Y.; Kutchko, B. G.; Kennedy, S.; McIntryre, D.

    2009-12-01

    methods to calculate porosity giving us a large range (13% - 45%). The high average can be attributed to a percentage of small lighter colored calcite crystals and polygons that share sides yet are connected pores. This increases the average pore perimeter. The lower estimate was formulated by using the maximum pore perimeter as the average pore size. By using the 13% porosity model and assuming spherical pores, we calculated that a 1cm3 sample of SACROC limestone would have a surface area of 6.7838 cm2. Along with the permeability measurements found through CT imagery, this new method of SEM analysis with ArcMap will be helpful in formulating a rate of reaction estimate for a planned experiment that will emulate underground time exposure of CO2 to limestone. As more images are analyzed and compared to lab measurements of porosity, this method could potentially be used as a faster, cheaper way to obtain pore information from SEM images.

  13. Ångstrom-size exocytotic fusion pore: Implications for pituitary hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Kreft, Marko; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Stenovec, Matjaž; Zorec, Robert

    2017-04-27

    In the past, vesicle content release was thought to occur immediately and completely after triggering of exocytosis. However, vesicles may merge with the plasma membrane to form an Ångstrom diameter fusion pore that prevents the exit of secretions from the vesicle lumen. The advantage of such a narrow pore is to minimize the delay between the trigger and the release. Instead of stimulating a sequence of processes, leading to vesicle merger with the plasma membrane and a formation of a fusion pore, the stimulus only widens the pre-established fusion pore. The fusion pore may be stable and may exhibit repetitive opening of the vesicle lumen to the cell exterior accompanied by a content discharge. Such release of vesicle content is partial (subquantal), and depends on fusion pore open time, diameter and the diffusibility of the cargo. Such transient mode of fusion pore opening was not confirmed until the development of the membrane capacitance patch-clamp technique, which enables high-resolution measurement of changes in membrane surface area. It allows millisecond dwell-time measurements of fusion pores with subnanometer diameters. Currently, the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins are considered to be key entities in end-stage exocytosis, and the SNARE complex assembly/disassembly may regulate the fusion pore. Moreover, lipids or other membrane constituents with anisotropic (non-axisymmetric) geometry may also favour the establishment of stable narrow fusion pores, if positioned in the neck of the fusion pore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pore-size dependent effects on structure and vibrations of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate in nanoporous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thürmer, Stephan; Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Ohba, Tomonori; Kanoh, Hirofumi

    2015-09-01

    We report XRD and IR measurements of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI-BF4) adsorbed in activated carbons, molecular sieving carbon, and single wall carbon nanohorn, where we specifically chose a wide range of pore sizes from 0.5 nm to 2.5 nm. Electron radial distribution function analysis reveals denser packing upon adsorption in two steps, for pore widths larger and comparable to the ion size. Average ion-distance was decreased by 0.05 nm in the latter case. With support of DFT calculations we identify a suppression of specific vibrational modes, which are interpreted as constrainment by the pore walls. Possible consequences for supercapacitor application are discussed.

  15. Phase behavior and molecular mobility of n-octylcyanobiphenyl confined to molecular sieves: dependence on the pore size.

    PubMed

    Frunza, Ligia; Frunza, Stefan; Kosslick, Hendrik; Schönhals, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    The molecular dynamics of 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) confined inside the pores of a series of AlMCM-41 samples with the same structure, constant composition (SiAl=14.7) but different pore sizes (diameter between 2.3 and 4.6 nm) was investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (10(-2)-10(9) Hz) in a large temperature interval. Two relaxation processes are observed: one has a bulklike behavior and is assigned to the 8CB in the pore center. The relaxation time of the second relaxation process is essentially slower than that of the former one and this process is related to the dynamics of molecules in a surface layer with a paranematic order. Both relaxation processes are specifically influenced by the interaction of the molecules with the surface and by the confinement. Above the clearing temperature the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate of the bulklike process obeys the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) law. The Vogel temperature increases with decreasing pore size. This is explained by increasing influence of paranematic potential of the surface layer with decreasing pore size. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate of the surface layer follows also the VFT formula and the Vogel temperature decreases with decreasing pore size. This temperature dependence is controlled by both the interaction of the 8CB molecules with the surface via hydrogen bonding and by spatial confinement effects. To discriminate between both effects the data for the surface layer of 8CB confined to the molecular sieves are compared with results concerning 8CB adsorbed as a quasimonolayer on the surface of silica spheres of aerosil. On this basis a confinement parameter is defined and discussed.

  16. Effect of pore size on bone ingrowth into porous titanium implants fabricated by additive manufacturing: An in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Naoya; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Otsuki, Bungo; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique with the ability to produce metallic scaffolds with accurately controlled pore size, porosity, and interconnectivity for orthopedic applications. However, the optimal pore structure of porous titanium manufactured by SLM remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pore size with constant porosity on in vivo bone ingrowth in rabbits into porous titanium implants manufactured by SLM. Three porous titanium implants (with an intended porosity of 65% and pore sizes of 300, 600, and 900μm, designated the P300, P600, and P900 implants, respectively) were manufactured by SLM. A diamond lattice was adapted as the basic structure. Their porous structures were evaluated and verified using microfocus X-ray computed tomography. Their bone-implant fixation ability was evaluated by their implantation as porous-surfaced titanium plates into the cortical bone of the rabbit tibia. Bone ingrowth was evaluated by their implantation as cylindrical porous titanium implants into the cancellous bone of the rabbit femur for 2, 4, and 8weeks. The average pore sizes of the P300, P600, and P900 implants were 309, 632, and 956μm, respectively. The P600 implant demonstrated a significantly higher fixation ability at 2weeks than the other implants. After 4weeks, all models had sufficiently high fixation ability in a detaching test. Bone ingrowth into the P300 implant was lower than into the other implants at 4weeks. Because of its appropriate mechanical strength, high fixation ability, and rapid bone ingrowth, our results indicate that the pore structure of the P600 implant is a suitable porous structure for orthopedic implants manufactured by SLM.

  17. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Alexandra B; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities.

  18. Synthesis of silica aerogel monoliths with controlled specific surface areas and pore sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bingying; Lu, Shaoxiang; Kalulu, Mulenga; Oderinde, Olayinka; Ren, Lili

    2017-07-01

    To replace traditional preparation methods of silica aerogels, a small-molecule 1,2-epoxypropane (PO) has been introduced into the preparation process instead of using ammonia as the cross-linking agent, thus generating a lightweight, high porosity, and large surface area silica aerogel monolithic. We put forward a simple solution route for the chemical synthesis of silica aerogels, which was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), TEM, XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method In this paper, the effect of the amount of PO on the microstructure of silica aerogels is discussed. The BET surface areas and pore sizes of the resulting silica aerogels can be freely adjusted by changing the amount of PO, which will be helpful in promoting the development of silica aerogels to fabricate other porous materials with similar requirements. We also adopted a new organic solvent sublimation drying (OSSD) method to replace traditional expensive and dangerous drying methods such as critical point drying and freeze drying. This simple approach is easy to operate and has good repeatability, which will further facilitate actual applications of silica aerogels.

  19. Determination of filter pore size for use in HB line phase II production of plutonium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shehee, T.; Crowder, M.; Rudisill, T.

    2014-08-01

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of plutonium oxide (PuO2) from a feed of plutonium (Pu) metal. The PuO2 will provide feed material for the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, plans are to transfer the solution to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Anion exchange will be followed by plutonium(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination to form PuO2. The filtrate solutions, remaining after precipitation, contain low levels of Pu ions, oxalate ions, and may include solids. These solutions are transferred to H-Canyon for disposition. To mitigate the criticality concern of Pu solids in a Canyon tank, past processes have used oxalate destruction or have pre-filled the Canyon tank with a neutron poison. The installation of a filter on the process lines from the HB-Line filtrate tanks to H-Canyon Tank 9.6 is proposed to remove plutonium oxalate solids. This report describes SRNL’s efforts to determine the appropriate pore size for the filters needed to perform this function. Information provided in this report aids in developing the control strategies for solids in the process.

  20. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-08-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5–2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9–1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO• is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique.

  1. Tailoring the porosity and pore size of electrospun synthetic human elastin scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Wise, Steven G; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K M; Young, Cara J; Wang, Yiwei; Weiss, Anthony S

    2011-10-01

    We obtained low and high porosity synthetic human elastin scaffolds by adapting low (1 mL/h) and high (3 mL/h) flow rates respectively during electrospinning. Physical, mechanical and biological properties of these scaffolds were screened to identify the best candidates for the bioengineering of dermal tissue. SHE scaffolds that were electrospun at the higher flow rate presented increased fiber diameter and greater average pore size and over doubling of overall scaffold porosity. Both types of scaffold displayed Young's moduli comparable to that of native elastin, but the high porosity scaffolds possessed higher tensile strength. Low and high porosity scaffolds supported early attachment, spreading and proliferation of primary dermal fibroblasts, but only high porosity scaffolds supported active cell migration and infiltration into the scaffold. High porosity SHE scaffolds promoted cell persistence and scaffold remodeling in vitro with only moderate scaffold contraction. The scaffolds persisted for at least 6 weeks in a mouse subcutaneous implantation study with fibroblasts on the exterior and infiltrating, evidence of scaffold remodeling including de novo collagen synthesis and early stage angiogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical physics studies of multilayer adsorption isotherm in food materials and pore size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouaini, F.; Knani, S.; Ben Yahia, M.; Ben Lamine, A.

    2015-08-01

    Water sorption isotherms of foodstuffs are very important in different areas of food science engineering such as for design, modeling and optimization of many processes. The equilibrium moisture content is an important parameter in models used to predict changes in the moisture content of a product during storage. A formulation of multilayer model with two energy levels was based on statistical physics and theoretical considerations. Thanks to the grand canonical ensemble in statistical physics. Some physicochemical parameters related to the adsorption process were introduced in the analytical model expression. The data tabulated in literature of water adsorption at different temperatures on: chickpea seeds, lentil seeds, potato and on green peppers were described applying the most popular models applied in food science. We also extend the study to the newest proposed model. It is concluded that among studied models the proposed model seems to be the best for description of data in the whole range of relative humidity. By using our model, we were able to determine the thermodynamic functions. The measurement of desorption isotherms, in particular a gas over a solid porous, allows access to the distribution of pore size PSD.

  3. Improvement of Methane-Framework Interaction by Controlling Pore Size and Functionality of Pillared MOFs.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Sayed Ali Akbar; Masoomi, Mohammad Yaser; Islamoglu, Timur; Morsali, Ali; Xu, Yan; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Wang, Jun; Junk, Peter C

    2017-03-06

    The rational design of functionalized porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for gas adsorption applications has been applied using three spacer ligands H2DPT (3,6-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1,4-dihydro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine), DPT (3,6-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine), and BPDH (2,5-bis(4-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene) to synthesize TMU-34, [Zn(OBA)(H2DPT)0.5]n·DMF, TMU-34(-2H), [Zn(OBA)(DPT)0.5]n·DMF, and TMU-5, [Zn(OBA)(BPDH)0.5]n·1.5DMF, respectively. By controlling the pore size and chemical functionality of these three MOFs, we can improve the interactions between CO2 and especially CH4 with the frameworks. Calculated Qst(CH4) for TMU-5, TMU-34, and TMU-34(-2H) are 27, 23, and 22 kJ mol(-1), respectively. These Qst values are among the highest for CH4-framework interactions. For systematic comparison, two reported frameworks, TMU-4 and TMU-5, have been compared with TMU-34 and TMU-34(-2H) in CO2 adsorption.

  4. Facile synthesis of diverse graphene nanomeshes based on simultaneous regulation of pore size and surface structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Song, Huaibing; Zeng, Dawen; Wang, Hao; Qin, Ziyu; Xu, Keng; Pang, Aimin; Xie, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene nanomesh (GNM) has attracted great attentions due to its unique porous structure, abundant active sites, finite band gap and possesses potential applications in the fields of electronics, gas sensor/storage, catalysis, etc. Therefore, diverse GNMs with different physical and chemical properties are required urgently to meet different applications. Herein we demonstrate a facile synthetic method based on the famous Fenton reaction to prepare GNM, by using economically fabricated graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material. By precisely controlling the reaction time, simultaneous regulation of pore size from 2.9 to 11.1 nm and surface structure can be realized. Ultimately, diverse GNMs with tunable band gap and work function can be obtained. Specially, the band gap decreases from 4.5–2.3 eV for GO, which is an insulator, to 3.9–1.24 eV for GNM-5 h, which approaches to a semiconductor. The dual nature of electrophilic addition and oxidizability of HO• is responsible for this controllable synthesis. This efficient, low-cost, inherently scalable synthetic method is suitable for provide diverse and optional GNMs, and may be generalized to a universal technique. PMID:27561350

  5. Size Dependent Pore Formation in Germanium Nanowires Undergoing Reversible Delithiation Observed by In Situ TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaotang; He, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Wang, Chong-min; Korgel, Brian A.

    2016-12-22

    Germanium (Ge) nanowires coated with an amorphous silicon (Si) shell undergoing lithiation and delithiation were studied using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Delithiation creates pores in nanowires with diameters larger than ~25 nm, but not in smaller diameter nanowires. The formation of pores in Ge nanowires undergoing delithiation has been observed before in in situ TEM experiments, but there has been no indication that a critical diameter exists below which pores do not form. Pore formation occurs as a result of fast lithium diffusion compared to vacancy migration. We propose that a short diffusion path for vacancies to the nanowire surface plays a role in limiting pore formation even when lithium diffusion is fast.

  6. Pore size distribution of OPC and SRPC mortars in presence of chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Suryavanshi, A.K.; Scantlebury, J.D.; Lyon, S.B.

    1995-07-01

    The pore structure of chloride-free ordinary portland cement (OPC) and sulphate resistant portland cement (SRPC) mortars are compared with the corresponding mortars with NaCl and CaCl{sub 2} added during mixing. In both OPC and SRPC mortars the addition of chlorides reduced the total accessible pore volumes compared to the corresponding chloride-free mortars. Also, in the presence of chlorides, the number of coarse pores were increased. These changes in the pore structure are believed to be due to dense calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel morphology formed in the presence of chlorides. The SRPC showed greater changes in pore structures than the OPC with equivalent amounts of chlorides added. This may be due to the lower chloride binding capacity of the SRPC and hence the higher availability of free chlorides to modify the gel morphology.

  7. Comparison of polytetrafluoroethylene flat-sheet membranes with different pore sizes in application to submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nittami, Tadashi; Hitomi, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Kanji; Nakamura, Kazuho; Ikeda, Takaharu; Setoguchi, Yoshihiro; Motoori, Manabu

    2012-06-01

    This study focused on phase separation of activated sludge mixed liquor by flat-sheet membranes of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). A 20 liter working volume lab-scale MBR incorporating immersed PTFE flat-sheet membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 μm) was operated for 19 days treating a synthetic wastewater. The experiment was interrupted twice at days 5 and 13 when the modules were removed and cleaned physically and chemically in sequence. The pure water permeate flux of each membrane module was measured before and after each cleaning step to calculate membrane resistances. Results showed that fouling of membrane modules with 0.3 μm pore size was more rapid than other membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.5 and 1.0 μm). On the other hand, it was not clear whether fouling of the 0.5 μm membrane module was more severe than that of the 1.0 μm membrane module. This was partly because of the membrane condition after chemical cleaning, which seemed to determine the fouling of those modules over the next period. When irreversible resistance (Ri) i.e., differences in membrane resistance before use and after chemical cleaning was high, the transmembrane pressure increased quickly during the next period irrespective of membrane pore size.

  8. Tailoring Pore Size of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Confi ning Sulfur in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Weidong; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Quiglin; Abruna, Hector D.; He, Yang; Wang, Jiangwei; Mao, Scott X.; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-08-19

    Three types of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with different pore sized porous shells are prepared to investigate the performance of sulfur confinement. The reason that why no sulfur is observed in previous research is determined and it is successfully demonstrated that the sulfur/polysulfide will overflow the porous carbon during the lithiation process.

  9. Origin and heterogeneity of pore sizes in the Mount Simon Sandstone and Eau Claire Formation: Implications for multiphase fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, Peter S.; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The Mount Simon Sandstone and Eau Claire Formation represent a principal reservoir - caprock system for wastewater disposal, geologic CO2 storage, and compressed air energy storage (CAES) in the Midwestern United States. Of primary concern to site performance is heterogeneity in flow properties that could lead to non-ideal injectivity and distribution of injected fluids (e.g., poor sweep efficiency). Using core samples from the Dallas Center Structure, Iowa, we investigate pore structure that governs flow properties of major lithofacies of these formations. Methods include gas porosimetry and permeametry, mercury intrusion porosimetry, thin section petrography, and X-ray diffraction. The lithofacies exhibit highly variable intra- and inter-informational distributions of pore throat and body sizes. Based on pore-throat size, samples fall into four distinct groups. Micropore-throat dominated samples are from the Eau Claire Formation, whereas the macropore-, mesopore-, and uniform-dominated samples are from the Mount Simon Sandstone. Complex paragenesis governs the high degree of pore and pore-throat size heterogeneity, due to an interplay of precipitation, non-uniform compaction, and later dissolution of cements. Furthermore, the cement dissolution event probably accounts for much of the current porosity in the unit. The unusually heterogeneous nature of the pore networks in the Mount Simon Sandstone indicates that there is a greater-than-normal opportunity for reservoir capillary trapping of non-wetting fluids — as quantified by CO2 and air column heights — which should be taken into account when assessing the potential of the reservoir-caprock system for CO2 storage and CAES.

  10. Origin and heterogeneity of pore sizes in the Mount Simon Sandstone and Eau Claire Formation: Implications for multiphase fluid flow

    DOE PAGES

    Mozley, Peter S.; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; ...

    2016-01-01

    The Mount Simon Sandstone and Eau Claire Formation represent a principal reservoir - caprock system for wastewater disposal, geologic CO2 storage, and compressed air energy storage (CAES) in the Midwestern United States. Of primary concern to site performance is heterogeneity in flow properties that could lead to non-ideal injectivity and distribution of injected fluids (e.g., poor sweep efficiency). Using core samples from the Dallas Center Structure, Iowa, we investigate pore structure that governs flow properties of major lithofacies of these formations. Methods include gas porosimetry and permeametry, mercury intrusion porosimetry, thin section petrography, and X-ray diffraction. The lithofacies exhibit highlymore » variable intra- and inter-informational distributions of pore throat and body sizes. Based on pore-throat size, samples fall into four distinct groups. Micropore-throat dominated samples are from the Eau Claire Formation, whereas the macropore-, mesopore-, and uniform-dominated samples are from the Mount Simon Sandstone. Complex paragenesis governs the high degree of pore and pore-throat size heterogeneity, due to an interplay of precipitation, non-uniform compaction, and later dissolution of cements. Furthermore, the cement dissolution event probably accounts for much of the current porosity in the unit. The unusually heterogeneous nature of the pore networks in the Mount Simon Sandstone indicates that there is a greater-than-normal opportunity for reservoir capillary trapping of non-wetting fluids — as quantified by CO2 and air column heights — which should be taken into account when assessing the potential of the reservoir-caprock system for CO2 storage and CAES.« less

  11. The phenotype of cancer cell invasion controlled by fibril diameter and pore size of 3D collagen networks.

    PubMed

    Sapudom, Jiranuwat; Rubner, Stefan; Martin, Steve; Kurth, Tony; Riedel, Stefanie; Mierke, Claudia T; Pompe, Tilo

    2015-06-01

    The behavior of cancer cells is strongly influenced by the properties of extracellular microenvironments, including topology, mechanics and composition. As topological and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix are hard to access and control for in-depth studies of underlying mechanisms in vivo, defined biomimetic in vitro models are needed. Herein we show, how pore size and fibril diameter of collagen I networks distinctively regulate cancer cell morphology and invasion. Three-dimensional collagen I matrices with a tight control of pore size, fibril diameter and stiffness were reconstituted by adjustment of concentration and pH value during matrix reconstitution. At first, a detailed analysis of topology and mechanics of matrices using confocal laser scanning microscopy, image analysis tools and force spectroscopy indicate pore size and not fibril diameter as the major determinant of matrix elasticity. Secondly, by using two different breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), we demonstrate collagen fibril diameter--and not pore size--to primarily regulate cell morphology, cluster formation and invasion. Invasiveness increased and clustering decreased with increasing fibril diameter for both, the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells with mesenchymal migratory phenotype and the MCF-7 cells with amoeboid migratory phenotype. As this behavior was independent of overall pore size, matrix elasticity is shown to be not the major determinant of the cell characteristics. Our work emphasizes the complex relationship between structural-mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix and invasive behavior of cancer cells. It suggests a correlation of migratory and invasive phenotype of cancer cells in dependence on topological and mechanical features of the length scale of single fibrils and not on coarse-grained network properties.

  12. Robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R.

    1993-01-01

    Robustness is a buzz word common to all newly proposed space systems design as well as many new commercial products. The image that one conjures up when the word appears is a 'Paul Bunyon' (lumberjack design), strong and hearty; healthy with margins in all aspects of the design. In actuality, robustness is much broader in scope than margins, including such factors as simplicity, redundancy, desensitization to parameter variations, control of parameter variations (environments flucation), and operational approaches. These must be traded with concepts, materials, and fabrication approaches against the criteria of performance, cost, and reliability. This includes manufacturing, assembly, processing, checkout, and operations. The design engineer or project chief is faced with finding ways and means to inculcate robustness into an operational design. First, however, be sure he understands the definition and goals of robustness. This paper will deal with these issues as well as the need for the requirement for robustness.

  13. Atomic-Sized Pores Enhanced Electrocatalysis of TaS2 Nanosheets for Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Tan, Yongwen; Liu, Pan; Guo, Chenguang; Luo, Min; Han, Jiuhui; Lin, Tianquan; Huang, Fuqiang; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-10-01

    A plasma oxidation method is developed to fabricate atomic-scale pores in the basal planes of electrochemically inert TaS2 nanosheets to functionalize the 2D crystals with high electrocatalysis for hydrogen evolution reaction. Quantitative measurements of under-coordinated atoms at edges of the pores by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy reveal the intrinsic correlation between the defective atomic sites and electrocatalytic activities of 2D TaS2 .

  14. Beer Clarification by Novel Ceramic Hollow-Fiber Membranes: Effect of Pore Size on Product Quality.

    PubMed

    Cimini, Alessio; Moresi, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the crossflow microfiltration performance of rough beer samples was assessed using ceramic hollow-fiber (HF) membrane modules with a nominal pore size ranging from 0.2 to 1.4 μm. Under constant operating conditions (that is, transmembrane pressure difference, TMP = 2.35 bar; feed superficial velocity, vS = 2.5 m/s; temperature, T = 10 °C), quite small steady-state permeation fluxes (J(*) ) of 32 or 37 L/m(2) /h were achieved using the 0.2- or 0.5-μm symmetric membrane modules. Both permeates exhibited turbidity <1 EBC unit, but a significant reduction in density, viscosity, color, extract, and foam half-life with respect to their corresponding retentates. The 0.8-μm asymmetric membrane module might be selected, its corresponding permeate having quite a good turbidity and medium reduction in the aforementioned beer quality parameters. Moreover, it exhibited J(*) values of the same order of magnitude of those claimed for the polyethersulfone HF membrane modules currently commercialized. The 1.4-μm asymmetric membrane module yielded quite a high steady-state permeation flux (196 ± 38 L/m(2) /h), and a minimum decline in permeate quality parameters, except for the high levels of turbidity at room temperature and chill haze. In the circumstances, such a membrane module might be regarded as a real valid alternative to conventional powder filters on condition that the resulting permeate were submitted to a final finishing step using 0.45- or 0.65-μm microbially rated membrane cartridges prior to aseptic bottling. A novel combined beer clarification process was thus outlined.

  15. Pore-scale simulations of drainage in granular materials: Finite size effects and the representative elementary volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chao; Chareyre, Bruno; Darve, Félix

    2016-09-01

    A pore-scale model is introduced for two-phase flow in dense packings of polydisperse spheres. The model is developed as a component of a more general hydromechanical coupling framework based on the discrete element method, which will be elaborated in future papers and will apply to various processes of interest in soil science, in geomechanics and in oil and gas production. Here the emphasis is on the generation of a network of pores mapping the void space between spherical grains, and the definition of local criteria governing the primary drainage process. The pore space is decomposed by Regular Triangulation, from which a set of pores connected by throats are identified. A local entry capillary pressure is evaluated for each throat, based on the balance of capillary pressure and surface tension at equilibrium. The model reflects the possible entrapment of disconnected patches of the receding wetting phase. It is validated by a comparison with drainage experiments. In the last part of the paper, a series of simulations are reported to illustrate size and boundary effects, key questions when studying small samples made of spherical particles be it in simulations or experiments. Repeated tests on samples of different sizes give evolution of water content which are not only scattered but also strongly biased for small sample sizes. More than 20,000 spheres are needed to reduce the bias on saturation below 0.02. Additional statistics are generated by subsampling a large sample of 64,000 spheres. They suggest that the minimal sampling volume for evaluating saturation is one hundred times greater that the sampling volume needed for measuring porosity with the same accuracy. This requirement in terms of sample size induces a need for efficient computer codes. The method described herein has a low algorithmic complexity in order to satisfy this requirement. It will be well suited to further developments toward coupled flow-deformation problems in which evolution of the

  16. Effects of population size and mutation rate on the evolution of mutational robustness.

    PubMed

    Elena, Santiago F; Wilke, Claus O; Ofria, Charles; Lenski, Richard E

    2007-03-01

    It is often assumed that the efficiency of selection for mutational robustness would be proportional to mutation rate and population size, thus being inefficient in small populations. However, Krakauer and Plotkin (2002) hypothesized that selection in small populations would favor robustness mechanisms, such as redundancy, that mask the effect of deleterious mutations. In large populations, by contrast, selection is more effective at removing deleterious mutants and fitness would be improved by eliminating mechanisms that mask the effect of deleterious mutations and thus impede their removal. Here, we test whether these predictions are supported in experiments with evolving populations of digital organisms. Digital organisms are self-replicating programs that inhabit a virtual world inside a computer. Like their organic counterparts, digital organisms mutate, compete, evolve, and adapt by natural selection to their environment. In this study, 160 populations evolved at different combinations of mutation rate and population size. After 10(4) generations, we measured the mutational robustness of the most abundant genotype in each population. Mutational robustness tended to increase with mutation rate and to decline with population size, although the dependence with population size was in part mediated by a negative relationship between fitness and robustness. These results are independent of whether genomes were constrained to their original length or allowed to change in size.

  17. Preparation, characterization, and silanization of 3D microporous PDMS structure with properly sized pores for endothelial cell culture.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Reyhaneh; Nourmohammadi, Jhamak; Amoabediny, Ghassem

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, application of porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structure in biomedical is becoming widespread, and many methods have been established to create such structure. Although the pores created through these methods are mostly developed on the outer surface of PDMS membrane, this study offers a simple and cost-efficient technique for creating three-dimensional (3D) microporous PDMS structure with appropriate pore size for endothelial cell culture. In this study, combination of gas foaming and particulate leaching methods, with NaHCO3 as effervescent salt and NaCl as progen are used to form a 3D PDMS sponge. The in situ chemical reaction between NaHCO3 and HCl resulted in the formation of small pores and channels. Moreover, soaking the samples in HCl solution temporarily improved the hydrophilicity of PDMS, which then facilitated the penetration of water for further leaching of NaCl. The surface chemical modification process was performed by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane to culture endothelial cells on porous PDMS matrix. The results are an indication of positive response of endothelial cells to the fabricated PDMS sponge. Because of simplicity and practicality of this method for preparing PDMS sponge with appropriate pore size and biological properties, the fabricated matrix can perfectly be applied to future studies in blood-contacting devices. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Isolating the effect of pore size distribution on electrochemical double-layer capacitance using activated fluid coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuliani, Jocelyn E.; Tong, Shitang; Kirk, Donald W.; Jia, Charles Q.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) use physical ion adsorption in the capacitive electrical double layer of high specific surface area (SSA) materials to store electrical energy. Previous work shows that the SSA-normalized capacitance increases when pore diameters are less than 1 nm. However, there still remains uncertainty about the charge storage mechanism since the enhanced SSA-normalized capacitance is not observed in all microporous materials. In previous studies, the total specific surface area and the chemical composition of the electrode materials were not controlled. The current work is the first reported study that systematically compares the performance of activated carbon prepared from the same raw material, with similar chemical composition and specific surface area, but different pore size distributions. Preparing samples with similar SSAs, but different pores sizes is not straightforward since increasing pore diameters results in decreasing the SSA. This study observes that the microporous activated carbon has a higher SSA-normalized capacitance, 14.1 μF cm-2, compared to the mesoporous material, 12.4 μF cm-2. However, this enhanced SSA-normalized capacitance is only observed above a threshold operating voltage. Therefore, it can be concluded that a minimum applied voltage is required to induce ion adsorption in these sub-nanometer micropores, which increases the capacitance.

  19. Daptomycin forms cation- and size-selective pores in model membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, TianHua; Muraih, Jawad K; MacCormick, Ben; Silverman, Jared; Palmer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic that is used clinically to treat severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Its bactericidal action involves the calcium-dependent binding to membranes containing phosphatidylglycerol, followed by the formation of membrane-associated oligomers. Bacterial cells exposed to daptomycin undergo membrane depolarization, suggesting the formation of channels or pores in the target membranes. We here used a liposome model to detect and characterize the permeability properties of the daptomycin pores. The pores are selective for cations, with permeabilities being highest for Na(+), K(+), and other alkali metal ions. The permeability is approximately twice lower for Mg(++), and lower again for the organic cations choline and hexamethonium. Anions are excluded, as is the zwitterion cysteine. These observations account for the observed depolarization of bacterial cells by daptomycin and suggest that under typical in vivo conditions depolarization is mainly due to sodium influx.

  20. Detection and identification of groundwater bacteria capable of escaping entrapment on 0.45-micron-pore-size membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Shirey, J J; Bissonnette, G K

    1991-08-01

    Rural drinking water systems supplied by untreated groundwater were examined to determine whether coliform or heterotrophic plate count bacteria are capable of escaping entrapment on standard porosity (0.45-micron-pore-size) membrane filters. Filterable bacteria were present in 42% of the 24 groundwater sources examined by using nonselective media (R2A, full strength m-HPC, and 0.1x m-HPC agars). Pseudomonads were the most frequently identified group of filterable bacteria detected. Flavobacterium, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter, and Achromobacter isolates were also identified. Total coliforms were not recovered from any of the 24 groundwater samples following filtration through 0.45-micron-pore-size membrane filters by using selective M-Endo LES agar or mT7 agar. In addition, none of the isolates identified from nonselective media were coliforms. Similarly, neither total coliforms nor specifically Escherichia coli were detected in these filtrates when Colilert P/A medium was used.

  1. Estimating the surface relaxivity as a function of pore size from NMR T2 distributions and micro-tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Francisco; Leiderman, Ricardo; Souza, Andre; Carneiro, Giovanna; Bagueira, Rodrigo

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, we formulate and solve an inverse problem to recover the surface relaxivity as a function of pore size. The input data for our technique are the T2 distribution measurement and the micro-tomographic image of the rock sample under investigation. We simulate the NMR relaxation signal for a given surface relaxivity function using the random walk method and rank different surface relaxivity functions according to the correlation of the resulting simulated T2 distributions with the measured T2 distribution. The optimization is performed using genetic algorithms and determines the surface relaxivity function whose corresponding simulated T2 distribution best matches the measured T2 distribution. In the proposed methodology, pore size is associated with a number of collisions in the random walk simulations. We illustrate the application of the proposed method by performing inversions from synthetic and laboratory input data and compare the obtained results with those obtained using the uniform relaxivity assumption.

  2. Synthesis of hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles with tunable shell thickness and pore size using amphiphilic block copolymers as core templates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojun; Cheng, Xiao; Feng, Wei; Qiu, Kexin; Chen, Liang; Nie, Wei; Yin, Zhiqi; Mo, Xiumei; Wang, Hongsheng; He, Chuanglong

    2014-08-21

    This paper presents a facile method for the fabrication of uniform hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) with tunable shell thickness and pore size. In this method, a series of amphiphilic block copolymers of polystyrene-b-poly (acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) with different hydrophobic block (PS) lengths were first synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The as-synthesized PS-b-PAA and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were subsequently used as co-templates to fabricate HMSNs. This approach allows the control of shell thickness and pore size distribution of the synthesized HMSNs simply by changing the amounts of PS-b-PAA and CTAB, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolysis assays demonstrated that the synthesized HMSNs had a low and shell thickness-dependent cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity. Therefore, these HMSNs have great potential for biomedical applications due to their good biocompatibility and ease of synthesis.

  3. Development of gelatin-chitosan-hydroxyapatite based bioactive bone scaffold with controlled pore size and mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Maji, Kanchan; Dasgupta, Sudip; Kundu, Biswanath; Bissoyi, Akalabya

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite-chitosan/gelatin (HA:Chi:Gel) nanocomposite scaffold has potential to serve as a template matrix to regenerate extra cellular matrix of human bone. Scaffolds with varying composition of hydroxyapatite, chitosan, and gelatin were prepared using lyophilization technique where glutaraldehyde (GTA) acted as a cross-linking agent for biopolymers. First, phase pure hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocrystals were in situ synthesized by coprecipitation method using a solution of 2% acetic acid dissolved chitosan and aqueous solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate [Ca(NO3)2,4H2O] and diammonium hydrogen phosphate [(NH4)2H PO4]. Keeping solid loading constant at 30 wt% and changing the composition of the original slurry of gelatin, HA-chitosan allowed control of the pore size, its distribution, and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Microstructural investigation by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a well interconnected porous scaffold with a pore size in the range of 35-150 μm. The HA granules were uniformly dispersed in the gelatin-chitosan network. An optimal composition in terms of pore size and mechanical properties was obtained from the scaffold with an HA:Chi:Gel ratio of 21:49:30. The composite scaffold having 70% porosity with pore size distribution of 35-150 μm exhibited a compressive strength of 3.3-3.5 MPa, which is within the range of that exhibited by cancellous bone. The bioactivity of the scaffold was evaluated after conducting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) - materials interaction and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using MSCs. The scaffold found to be conducive to MSC's adhesion as evident from lamellipodia, filopodia extensions from cell cytoskeleton, proliferation, and differentiation up to 14 days of cell culture.

  4. Pore size distribution of soil near saturation as affected by soil type, land use, and soil amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, A. I.; Wagner, L. E.; Levy, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    Storage and flow of water in soil voids, which are related to the size and geometry of the voids and flow rate are usually controlled by the void of the smallest size. Another reason for the complexity of water flow in soils is the intricate nature and change of the soil pores due to the modification of soil structure under different agricultural management and climatic conditions. Shrinking and swelling stresses enhance breakdown of aggregates and to subsequent collapse of pores, thus adversely affecting the movement of water and solutes in the soil. Our objective was to study the role of soil type, nature of cultivation, waste and soil stabilizers application, and soil condition on disturbed soil pore-size distribution, drainable porosity and water holding capacity at near saturation (infiltration porosity) using the high energy moisture characteristic method. In this method, the wetting process of the aggregates is accurately controlled, and the energy of hydration and entrapped air are the main forces responsible for aggregate breakdown. We studied a large number (> 300) of soil samples from different climatic regions varying (i) in their inherent properties (clay mineralogy, dispersion potential, texture, organic matter, Fe and Al oxides content), and; (ii) the conditions prevailing in the soil (water quality, salinity, sodicity, redox potential, type of tillage); and finally that were subjected to the addition of different soil amendments (polymers, gypsum, manure, sludge). The results showed that structural stability and pore size distribution strongly depended on soil type, conditions prevailing in the soil and the type of amendment used. Detailed analyses of the results provided valuable information on inter- and intra- aggregate porosities that may have vital bearing on the understanding of (i) solution transport processes in different soil types under different treatments or with different solute concentration, and (ii) down-profile transport of soil

  5. Pore size regulates operating stomatal conductance, while stomatal densities drive the partitioning of conductance between leaf sides

    PubMed Central

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Giday, Habtamu; Milla, Rubén; Pieruschka, Roland; Kjaer, Katrine H.; Bolger, Marie; Vasilevski, Aleksandar; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fiorani, Fabio; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf gas exchange is influenced by stomatal size, density, distribution between the leaf adaxial and abaxial sides, as well as by pore dimensions. This study aims to quantify which of these traits mainly underlie genetic differences in operating stomatal conductance (gs) and addresses possible links between anatomical traits and regulation of pore width. Methods Stomatal responsiveness to desiccation, gs-related anatomical traits of each leaf side and estimated gs (based on these traits) were determined for 54 introgression lines (ILs) generated by introgressing segments of Solanum pennelli into the S. lycopersicum ‘M82’. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for stomatal traits was also performed. Key Results A wide genetic variation in stomatal responsiveness to desiccation was observed, a large part of which was explained by stomatal length. Operating gs ranged over a factor of five between ILs. The pore area per stomatal area varied 8-fold among ILs (2–16 %), and was the main determinant of differences in operating gs between ILs. Operating gs was primarily positioned on the abaxial surface (60–83 %), due to higher abaxial stomatal density and, secondarily, to larger abaxial pore area. An analysis revealed 64 QTLs for stomatal traits in the ILs, most of which were in the direction of S. pennellii. Conclusions The data indicate that operating and maximum gs of non-stressed leaves maintained under stable conditions deviate considerably (by 45–91 %), because stomatal size inadequately reflects operating pore area (R2 = 0·46). Furthermore, it was found that variation between ILs in both stomatal sensitivity to desiccation and operating gs is associated with features of individual stoma. In contrast, genotypic variation in gs partitioning depends on the distribution of stomata between the leaf adaxial and abaxial epidermis. PMID:25538116

  6. Effect of Pore Size and Porosity on the Biomechanical Properties and Cytocompatibility of Porous NiTi Alloys.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yu-Tao; Yang, Yue; Tian, Tian; Stanford, Clark; Zhang, Xin-Ping; Zhao, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Five types of porous Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) alloy samples of different porosities and pore sizes were fabricated. According to compressive and fracture strengths, three groups of porous NiTi alloy samples underwent further cytocompatibility experiments. Porous NiTi alloys exhibited a lower Young's modulus (2.0 GPa ~ 0.8 GPa). Both compressive strength (108.8 MPa ~ 56.2 MPa) and fracture strength (64.6 MPa ~ 41.6 MPa) decreased gradually with increasing mean pore size (MPS). Cells grew and spread well on all porous NiTi alloy samples. Cells attached more strongly on control group and blank group than on all porous NiTi alloy samples (p < 0.05). Cell adhesion on porous NiTi alloys was correlated negatively to MPS (277.2 μm ~ 566.5 μm; p < 0.05). More cells proliferated on control group and blank group than on all porous NiTi alloy samples (p < 0.05). Cellular ALP activity on all porous NiTi alloy samples was higher than on control group and blank group (p < 0.05). The porous NiTi alloys with optimized pore size could be a potential orthopedic material.

  7. A simple semi-quantitative approach studying the in vivo degradation of regenerated silk fibroin scaffolds with different pore sizes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongwei; Chen, Zhongchun; Wen, Jianchuan; Jia, Minghui; Shao, Zhengzhong; Zhao, Xia

    2017-10-01

    The biocompatibility and in vivo degradation rate of biomaterials represent critical control points in the long-term success of scaffolds for tissue restoration. In this study, new three-dimensional (3D) regenerated silk fibroin scaffolds (RSFs) were prepared by the freezing-defrosting procedure, and then were implanted beneath the dorsal skin of rats. This study aims to develop a kinetic semi-quantitative approach to assess in vivo degradation rate and biocompatibility of this kind of RSFs with different pore sizes for the first time, and to evaluate the relationship between the biodegradation and tissue responses by measuring the thickness of residual scaffolds, fibrous capsules and infiltrated tissues through integrated techniques of histology, optical imaging and image analysis. Our results showed that scaffolds with both pore sizes (74.35±10.84μm and 139.23±44.93μm, respectively) were well tolerated by host animals and pore size was found to be the rate limiting factor to the biodegradation in the subcutaneous implantation model. In addition, the biodegradation of RSFs was inflammation-mediated to a certain degree and fibroblasts may play a critical role in this process. Overall, such semi-quantitative approach was demonstrated to be a simple and effective method to assess the in vivo degradation rate, and the prepared RSFs were presented to have promising potential in tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploitation of 3D face-centered cubic mesoporous silica as a carrier for a poorly water soluble drug: influence of pore size on release rate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenquan; Wan, Long; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Yikun; Zheng, Xin; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present work were to explore the potential application of 3D face-centered cubic mesoporous silica (FMS) with pore size of 16.0nm as a delivery system for poorly soluble drugs and investigate the effect of pore size on the dissolution rate. FMS with different pore sizes (16.0, 6.9 and 3.7nm) was successfully synthesized by using Pluronic block co-polymer F127 as a template and adjusting the reaction temperatures. Celecoxib (CEL), which is a BCS class II drug, was used as a model drug and loaded into FMS with different pore sizes by the solvent deposition method at a drug-silica ratio of 1:4. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to systematically investigate the drug loading process. The results obtained showed that CEL was in a non-crystalline state after incorporation of CEL into the pores of FMS-15 with pore size of 16.0nm. In vitro dissolution was carried out to demonstrate the effects of FMS with different pore sizes on the release of CEL. The results obtained indicated that the dissolution rate of CEL from FMS-15 was significantly enhanced compared with pure CEL. This could be explained by supposing that CEL encountered less diffusion resistance and its crystallinity decreased due to the large pore size of 16.0nm and the nanopore channels of FMS-15. Moreover, drug loading and pore size both play an important role in enhancing the dissolution properties for the poorly water-soluble drugs. As the pore size between 3.7 and 16.0nm increased, the dissolution rate of CEL from FMS gradually increased. © 2013.

  9. Fast two-dimensional bubble analysis of biopolymer filamentous networks pore size from confocal microscopy thin data stacks.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Matteo; Magatti, Davide; Cardinali, Barbara; Rocco, Mattia; Ferri, Fabio

    2013-03-05

    The average pore size ξ0 of filamentous networks assembled from biological macromolecules is one of the most important physical parameters affecting their biological functions. Modern optical methods, such as confocal microscopy, can noninvasively image such networks, but extracting a quantitative estimate of ξ0 is a nontrivial task. We present here a fast and simple method based on a two-dimensional bubble approach, which works by analyzing one by one the (thresholded) images of a series of three-dimensional thin data stacks. No skeletonization or reconstruction of the full geometry of the entire network is required. The method was validated by using many isotropic in silico generated networks of different structures, morphologies, and concentrations. For each type of network, the method provides accurate estimates (a few percent) of the average and the standard deviation of the three-dimensional distribution of the pore sizes, defined as the diameters of the largest spheres that can be fit into the pore zones of the entire gel volume. When applied to the analysis of real confocal microscopy images taken on fibrin gels, the method provides an estimate of ξ0 consistent with results from elastic light scattering data.

  10. Phase-field simulations of the impact of bimodal pore size distributions on solid-state densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Bruce E.; Millett, Paul C.

    2017-08-01

    The densification behavior of a porous body subjected to elevated temperature is relevant to many nuclear fuel performance metrics. The diffusional processes that govern such densification occur on microscopic length scales, and depend on the type of material and the nature of the porosity. In this study, we explore how bimodal pore size distributions impact diffusion-based densification relative to monomodal pore sizes for a given overall value of porosity. We utilize a Cahn-Hilliard phase-field model implemented with the MOOSE framework to simulate densification evolution with a range of overall porosities and a variety of porosity distributions between small and large pores. The results demonstrate that bimodal porosity can resist densification to a much greater extent than monomodal porosity. These findings have implications for the microstructural design of metallic nuclear fuels, in which an initial, bimodal porosity may resist early-stage densification and therefore provide collection sites for fission gases, thus reducing in-pile fission gas swelling.

  11. Effective porosity and pore-throat sizes of Conasauga Group mudrock: Application, test and evaluation of petrophysical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsch, J.; Katsube, T.J.; Sanford, W.E. |; Dugan, B.E.; Tourkow, L.M.

    1996-04-01

    Effective porosity (specifically referring to the interconnected pore space) was recently recognized as being essential in determining the effectiveness and extent of matrix diffusion as a transport mechanism within fractured low-permeability rock formations. The research presented in this report was performed to test the applicability of several petrophysical techniques for the determination of effective porosity of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. In addition, the aim was to gather quantitative data on the effective porosity of Conasauga Group mudrock from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The quantitative data reported here include not only effective porosities based on diverse measurement techniques, but also data on the sizes of pore throats and their distribution, and specimen bulk and grain densities. The petrophysical techniques employed include the immersion-saturation method, mercury and helium porosimetry, and the radial diffusion-cell method.

  12. How robust are the size measurements of high-redshift compact galaxies?

    SciTech Connect

    Davari, Roozbeh; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Huang, Song

    2014-05-20

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 are apparently much more compact than galaxies of comparable mass today. How robust are these size measurements? We perform comprehensive simulations to determine possible biases and uncertainties in fitting single-component light distributions to real galaxies. In particular, we examine the robustness of the measurements of the luminosity, size, and other structural parameters. We devise simulations with increasing realism to systematically disentangle effects due to the technique (specifically using GALFIT) and the intrinsic structures of the galaxies. By accurately capturing the detailed substructures of nearby elliptical galaxies and then rescaling their sizes and signal-to-noise to mimic galaxies at different redshifts, we confirm that the massive quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 are significantly more compact intrinsically than their local counterparts. Their observed compactness is not a result of missing faint outer light due to systematic errors in modeling. In fact, we find that fitting multi-component galaxies with a single Sérsic profile, the procedure most commonly adopted in the literature, biases the inferred sizes higher by up to 10%-20%, which accentuates the amount of size evolution required. If the sky estimation has been done robustly and the model for the point-spread function is fairly accurate, GALFIT can retrieve the properties of single-component galaxies over a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios without introducing any systematic errors.

  13. Preparation of Porous Stainless Steel Hollow-Fibers through Multi-Modal Particle Size Sintering towards Pore Engineering.

    PubMed

    Allioux, Francois-Marie; David, Oana; Etxeberria Benavides, Miren; Kong, Lingxue; Pacheco Tanaka, David Alfredo; Dumée, Ludovic F

    2017-08-04

    The sintering of metal powders is an efficient and versatile technique to fabricate porous metal elements such as filters, diffusers, and membranes. Neck formation between particles is, however, critical to tune the porosity and optimize mass transfer in order to minimize the densification process. In this work, macro-porous stainless steel (SS) hollow-fibers (HFs) were fabricated by the extrusion and sintering of a dope comprised, for the first time, of a bimodal mixture of SS powders. The SS particles of different sizes and shapes were mixed to increase the neck formation between the particles and control the densification process of the structure during sintering. The sintered HFs from particles of two different sizes were shown to be more mechanically stable at lower sintering temperature due to the increased neck area of the small particles sintered to the large ones. In addition, the sintered HFs made from particles of 10 and 44 μm showed a smaller average pore size (<1 μm) as compared to the micron-size pores of sintered HFs made from particles of 10 μm only and those of 10 and 20 μm. The novel HFs could be used in a range of applications, from filtration modules to electrochemical membrane reactors.

  14. Impact of the carbon pore size and topology on the equilibrium quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes at zero coverage and finite pressures.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2009-04-08

    Carbonaceous slit-shaped and square-shaped pores efficiently differentiate adsorbed hydrogen isotopes at 77 and 33 K. Extensive path integral Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the square-shaped carbon pores enhanced the selectivity of deuterium over hydrogen in comparison to equivalent slit-shaped carbon pores at zero coverage as well as at finite pressures (i.e. quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes is pore-topology-dependent). We show that this enhancement of the D(2)/H(2) equilibrium selectivity results from larger localization of hydrogen isotopes in square-shaped pores. The operating pressures for efficient quantum sieving of hydrogen isotopes are strongly dependent on the topology as well as on the size of the carbon pores. However, for both considered carbon pore topologies the highest D(2)/H(2) separation factor is observed at zero-coverage limit. Depending on carbon pore size and topology we predicted monotonic decreasing and non-monotonic shape of the D(2)/H(2) equilibrium selectivity at finite pressures. For both kinds of carbonaceous pores of molecular sizes we predict high compression of hydrogen isotopes at 77 and 33 K (for example, the pore density of compressed hydrogen isotopes at 77 K and 0.25 MPa in a square-shaped carbon pore of size 2.6 Å exceeds 60 mmol cm(-3); for comparison, the liquid density of para-H(2) at 30 K and 30 MPa is 42 mmol cm(-3)). Finally, by direct comparison of simulation results with experimental data it is explained why 'ordinary' carbonaceous materials are not efficient quantum sieves.

  15. Antimicrobial performance of mesoporous titania thin films: role of pore size, hydrophobicity, and antibiotic release.

    PubMed

    Atefyekta, Saba; Ercan, Batur; Karlsson, Johan; Taylor, Erik; Chung, Stanley; Webster, Thomas J; Andersson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Implant-associated infections are undesirable complications that might arise after implant surgery. If the infection is not prevented, it can lead to tremendous cost, trauma, and even life threatening conditions for the patient. Development of an implant coating loaded with antimicrobial substances would be an effective way to improve the success rate of implants. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of mesoporous titania thin films used as a novel antimicrobial release coating was evaluated. Mesoporous titania thin films with pore diameters of 4, 6, and 7 nm were synthesized using the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. The films were characterized and loaded with antimicrobial agents, including vancomycin, gentamicin, and daptomycin. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used to evaluate their effectiveness toward inhibiting bacterial colonization. Drug loading and delivery were studied using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, which showed successful loading and release of the antibiotics from the surfaces. Results from counting bacterial colony-forming units showed reduced bacterial adhesion on the drug-loaded films. Interestingly, the presence of the pores alone had a desired effect on bacterial colonization, which can be attributed to the documented nanotopographical effect. In summary, this study provides significant promise for the use of mesoporous titania thin films for reducing implant infections.

  16. Antimicrobial performance of mesoporous titania thin films: role of pore size, hydrophobicity, and antibiotic release

    PubMed Central

    Atefyekta, Saba; Ercan, Batur; Karlsson, Johan; Taylor, Erik; Chung, Stanley; Webster, Thomas J; Andersson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Implant-associated infections are undesirable complications that might arise after implant surgery. If the infection is not prevented, it can lead to tremendous cost, trauma, and even life threatening conditions for the patient. Development of an implant coating loaded with antimicrobial substances would be an effective way to improve the success rate of implants. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of mesoporous titania thin films used as a novel antimicrobial release coating was evaluated. Mesoporous titania thin films with pore diameters of 4, 6, and 7 nm were synthesized using the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. The films were characterized and loaded with antimicrobial agents, including vancomycin, gentamicin, and daptomycin. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used to evaluate their effectiveness toward inhibiting bacterial colonization. Drug loading and delivery were studied using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, which showed successful loading and release of the antibiotics from the surfaces. Results from counting bacterial colony-forming units showed reduced bacterial adhesion on the drug-loaded films. Interestingly, the presence of the pores alone had a desired effect on bacterial colonization, which can be attributed to the documented nanotopographical effect. In summary, this study provides significant promise for the use of mesoporous titania thin films for reducing implant infections. PMID:27022263

  17. Gradients in pore size enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in three-dimensional scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Luca, Andrea; Ostrowska, Barbara; Lorenzo-Moldero, Ivan; Lepedda, Antonio; Swieszkowski, Wojcech; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    Small fractures in bone tissue can heal by themselves, but in case of larger defects current therapies are not completely successful due to several drawbacks. A possible strategy relies on the combination of additive manufactured polymeric scaffolds and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). The architecture of bone tissue is characterized by a structural gradient. Long bones display a structural gradient in the radial direction, while flat bones in the axial direction. Such gradient presents a variation in bone density from the cancellous bone to the cortical bone. Therefore, scaffolds presenting a gradient in porosity could be ideal candidates to improve bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we present a construct with a discrete gradient in pore size and characterize its ability to further support the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, we studied the behaviour of hMSCs within the different compartments of the gradient scaffolds, showing a correlation between osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization, and pore dimensions. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content increased with increasing pore dimensions. Our results indicate that designing structural porosity gradients may be an appealing strategy to support gradual osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells.

  18. Thermal Investigations of Periodically Nanoporous Si Films -- The Impact of Structure Sizes and Pore-Edge Amorphization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongchao; Zhao, Hongbo; Hao, Qing

    In recent years, nanoporous Si films have been intensively studied as promising thermoelectric materials, which mainly benefits from their dramatically reduced lattice thermal conductivity kL and bulk-like electrical properties.1,2 Despite many encouraging results, challenges still exist in the theoretical explanation of the observed low kL.3 Existing studies mainly attribute the low kL to 1) phonon bandstructure modification by coherent phonon processes in a periodic structure (phononic effects), and/or 2) pore-edge defects. In this work, temperature-dependent kL is measured for nanoporous Si films with different pore sizes and spacing to compare with model predictions. For systematic studies, two fabrication techniques are used to drill the nanopores: 1) reactive ion etching, and 2) a focus ion beam to introduce more pore-edge defects. The results from this work will provide guidance for phonon engineering in general materials with periodic interfaces or boundaries. References: 1. Tang et al., Nano Letters 10, 4279-4283 (2010). 2. Yu et al., Nature Nanotechnology 5, 718-721 (2010). 3. Cahill et al., Applied Physics Reviews 1, 011305/1-45 (2014) Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003-2012.

  19. Impact of electrospun conduit fiber diameter and enclosing pouch pore size on vascular constructs grown within rat peritoneal cavities.

    PubMed

    Bashur, Chris A; Eagleton, Matthew J; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2013-04-01

    The generation of vascular grafts by recruiting autologous cells within the peritoneal cavity has shown promise. However, the microenvironment affects cell differentiation and elastic matrix production. Therefore, this study determined the impact of systematic changes in the average fiber diameter of electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) conduits, and the pore size of pouches used to enclose the conduits, on recruited cells. After 2 weeks in the peritoneal cavity, fibrous capsules formed containing macrophages, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)(+) and SM22α(+) myofibroblastic or smooth muscle like-cells, and what appeared to be mesothelial cells on the outer surfaces. These cells infiltrated and deposited matrix (e.g., collagen, hyaluoronan, and limited elastin) within conduit walls. Constructs enclosed within the largest pore pouches exhibited significantly better tissue generation responses (e.g., better cell infiltration, elongation, and matrix deposition). Additionally, the healing response was impacted by the conduit average fiber diameter, and consequently, the effective pore diameter, with the largest diameter fibers promoting the most positive healing response (e.g., greater total cellularity, extracellular matrix deposition, and α-SMA(+) cells). Six weeks post-intra-aortal grafting, constructs were occluded, but significant remodeling also occurred in the arterial microenvironment. Overall, these results demonstrate the importance of microenvironmental cues on recruited peritoneal cells and the necessity of developing strategies to further improve elastic matrix synthesis.

  20. Gradients in pore size enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in three-dimensional scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Di Luca, Andrea; Ostrowska, Barbara; Lorenzo-Moldero, Ivan; Lepedda, Antonio; Swieszkowski, Wojcech; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Small fractures in bone tissue can heal by themselves, but in case of larger defects current therapies are not completely successful due to several drawbacks. A possible strategy relies on the combination of additive manufactured polymeric scaffolds and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). The architecture of bone tissue is characterized by a structural gradient. Long bones display a structural gradient in the radial direction, while flat bones in the axial direction. Such gradient presents a variation in bone density from the cancellous bone to the cortical bone. Therefore, scaffolds presenting a gradient in porosity could be ideal candidates to improve bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we present a construct with a discrete gradient in pore size and characterize its ability to further support the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, we studied the behaviour of hMSCs within the different compartments of the gradient scaffolds, showing a correlation between osteogenic differentiation and ECM mineralization, and pore dimensions. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content increased with increasing pore dimensions. Our results indicate that designing structural porosity gradients may be an appealing strategy to support gradual osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells. PMID:26961859

  1. Experimental Study of Porosity Changes in Shale Caprocks Exposed to CO2-Saturated Brines I: Evolution of Mineralogy, Pore Connectivity, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    DOE PAGES

    Mouzakis, Katherine M.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Rother, Gernot; ...

    2016-07-18

    Carbon capture, utilization, and storage, one proposed method of reducing anthropogenic emissions of CO2, relies on low permeability formations, such as shales, above injection formations to prevent upward migration of the injected CO2. Porosity in caprocks evaluated for sealing capacity before injection can be altered by geochemical reactions induced by dissolution of injected CO2 into pore fluids, impacting long-term sealing capacity. Therefore, long-term performance of CO2 sequestration sites may be dependent on both initial distribution and connectivity of pores in caprocks, and on changes induced by geochemical reaction after injection of CO2, which are currently poorly understood. This paper presentsmore » results from an experimental study of changes to caprock porosity and pore network geometry in two caprock formations under conditions relevant to CO2 sequestration. Pore connectivity and total porosity increased in the Gothic Shale; while total porosity increased but pore connectivity decreased in the Marine Tuscaloosa. Gothic Shale is a carbonate mudstone that contains volumetrically more carbonate minerals than Marine Tuscaloosa. Carbonate minerals dissolved to a greater extent than silicate minerals in Gothic Shale under high CO2 conditions, leading to increased porosity at length scales <~200 nm that contributed to increased pore connectivity. In contrast, silicate minerals dissolved to a greater extent than carbonate minerals in Marine Tuscaloosa leading to increased porosity at all length scales, and specifically an increase in the number of pores >~1 μm. Mineral reactions also contributed to a decrease in pore connectivity, possibly as a result of precipitation in pore throats or hydration of the high percentage of clays. Finally, this study highlights the role that mineralogy of the caprock can play in geochemical response to CO2 injection and resulting changes in sealing capacity in long-term CO2 storage projects.« less

  2. Effects of particle size and forming pressure on pore properties of Fe-Cr-Al porous metal by pressureless sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon-Uk; Yi, Yujeong; Lee, Minjeong; Kim, Byoung-Kee

    2017-03-01

    With increased hydrogen consumption in ammonia production, refining and synthesis, fuel cells and vehicle industries, development of the material components related to hydrogen production is becoming an important factor in industry growth. Porous metals for fabrication of hydrogen are commonly known for their relative excellence in terms of large area, lightness, lower heat capacity, high toughness, and permeability. Fe-Cr-Al alloys not only have high corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and chemical stability but also ductility, excellent mechanical properties. In order to control powder size and sintering temperature effects of Fe-Cr-Al porous metal fabrication, Fe-Cr-Al powder was classified into 25-35 μm, 35-45 μm, 45-75 μm using an auto shaking sieve machine and then classified Fe-Cr-Al powders were pressed into disk shapes using a uniaxial press machine and CIP. The pelletized Fe-Cr-Al specimens were sintered at various temperatures in high vacuum. Properties such as pore size, porosity, and air permeability were evaluated using perm-porosimetry. Microstructure and phase changes were observed with SEM and XRD. Porosity and relative density were proportionated to increasing sintering temperature. With sufficient sintering at increasing temperatures, the pore size is expected to be gradually reduced. Porosity decreased with increasing sintering temperature and gradually increased necking of the powder.

  3. Nanometer scale pores similar in size to the entrance of the ribosomal exit cavity are a common feature of large RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Mario; Tran, Quyen; Fox, George E.

    2013-01-01

    The highly conserved peptidyl transferase center (PTC) of the ribosome contains an RNA pore that serves as the entrance to the exit tunnel. Analysis of available ribosome crystal structures has revealed the presence of multiple additional well-defined pores of comparable size in the ribosomal (rRNA) RNAs. These typically have dimensions of 1–2 nm, with a total area of ∼100 Å2 or more, and most are associated with one or more ribosomal proteins. The PTC example and the other rRNA pores result from the packing of helices. However, in the non-PTC cases the nitrogenous bases do not protrude into the pore, thereby limiting the potential for hydrogen bonding within the pore. Instead, it is the RNA backbone that largely defines the pore likely resulting in a negatively charged environment. In many but not all cases, ribosomal proteins are associated with the pores to a greater or lesser extent. With the exception of the PTC case, the large subunit pores are not found in what are thought to be the evolutionarily oldest regions of the 23S rRNA. The unusual nature of the PTC pore may reflect a history of being created by hybridization between two or more RNAs early in evolution rather than simple folding of a single RNA. An initial survey of nonribosomal RNA crystal structures revealed additional pores, thereby showing that they are likely a general feature of RNA tertiary structure. PMID:23940386

  4. Sediment grain size estimation using airborne remote sensing, field sampling, and robust statistic.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Elena; Pereda, Raúl; Luis, Julio Manuel de; Medina, Raúl; Viguri, Javier

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing has been used since the 1980s to study parameters in relation with coastal zones. It was not until the beginning of the twenty-first century that it started to acquire imagery with good temporal and spectral resolution. This has encouraged the development of reliable imagery acquisition systems that consider remote sensing as a water management tool. Nevertheless, the spatial resolution that it provides is not adapted to carry out coastal studies. This article introduces a new methodology for estimating the most fundamental physical property of intertidal sediment, the grain size, in coastal zones. The study combines hyperspectral information (CASI-2 flight), robust statistic, and simultaneous field work (chemical and radiometric sampling), performed over Santander Bay, Spain. Field data acquisition was used to build a spectral library in order to study different atmospheric correction algorithms for CASI-2 data and to develop algorithms to estimate grain size in an estuary. Two robust estimation techniques (MVE and MCD multivariate M-estimators of location and scale) were applied to CASI-2 imagery, and the results showed that robust adjustments give acceptable and meaningful algorithms. These adjustments have given the following R(2) estimated results: 0.93 in the case of sandy loam contribution, 0.94 for the silty loam, and 0.67 for clay loam. The robust statistic is a powerful tool for large dataset.

  5. Optimization of protein fractionation by skim milk microfiltration: Choice of ceramic membrane pore size and filtration temperature.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Camilla Elise; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Rukke, Elling-Olav; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Schüller, Reidar B; Skeie, Siv B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how ceramic membrane pore size and filtration temperature influence the protein fractionation of skim milk by cross flow microfiltration (MF). Microfiltration was performed at a uniform transmembrane pressure with constant permeate flux to a volume concentration factor of 2.5. Three different membrane pore sizes, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20µm, were used at a filtration temperature of 50°C. Furthermore, at pore size 0.10µm, 2 different filtration temperatures were investigated: 50 and 60°C. The transmission of proteins increased with increasing pore size, giving the permeate from MF with the 0.20-µm membrane a significantly higher concentration of native whey proteins compared with the permeates from the 0.05- and 0.10-µm membranes (0.50, 0.24, and 0.39%, respectively). Significant amounts of caseins permeated the 0.20-µm membrane (1.4%), giving a permeate with a whitish appearance and a casein distribution (αS2-CN: αS1-CN: κ-CN: β-CN) similar to that of skim milk. The 0.05- and 0.10-µm membranes were able to retain all caseins (only negligible amounts were detected). A permeate free from casein is beneficial in the production of native whey protein concentrates and in applications where transparency is an important functional characteristic. Microfiltration of skim milk at 50°C with the 0.10-µm membrane resulted in a permeate containing significantly more native whey proteins than the permeate from MF at 60°C. The more rapid increase in transmembrane pressure and the significantly lower concentration of caseins in the retentate at 60°C indicated that a higher concentration of caseins deposited on the membrane, and consequently reduced the native whey protein transmission. Optimal protein fractionation of skim milk into a casein-rich retentate and a permeate with native whey proteins were obtained by 0.10-µm MF at 50°C.

  6. Quantification of pore size distribution in reservoir rocks using MRI logging: A case study of South Pars Gas Field.

    PubMed

    Ghojogh, Jalal Neshat; Esmaili, Mohammad; Noruzi-Masir, Behrooz; Bakhshi, Puyan

    2017-09-23

    Pore size distribution (PSD) is an important factor for controlling fluid transport through porous media. The study of PSD can be applicable in areas such as hydrocarbon storage, contaminant transport, prediction of multiphase flow, and analysis of the formation damage by mud infiltration. Nitrogen adsorption, centrifugation method, mercury injection, and X-ray computed tomography are commonly used to measure the distribution of pores. A core sample is occasionally not available because of the unconsolidated nature of reservoirs, high cost of coring operation, and program limitations. Magnetic resonance imaging logging (MRIL) is a proper logging technique that allows the direct measurement of the relaxation time of protons in pore fluids and correlating T2 distribution to PSD using proper mathematical equations. It is nondestructive and fast and does not require core samples. In this paper, 8 core samples collected from the Dalan reservoir in South Pars Gas Field were studied by processing MRIL data and comparing them by PSD determined in the laboratory. By using the MRIL method, variation in PSD corresponding to the depth for the entire logged interval was determined. Moreover, a detailed mineralogical composition of the reservoir samples related to T2 distribution was obtained. A good correlation between MRIL and mercury injection data was observed. High degree of similarity was also observed between T2 distribution and PSD (R(2) = 0.85 to 0.91). Based on the findings from the MRIL method, the obtained values for clay bond water varied between 1E-6 and 1E-3µm, a range that is comprehended from an extra peak on the PSD curve. The frequent pore radius was determined to be 1µm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metal(loid) speciation and size fractionation in sediment pore water depth profiles examined with a new meso profiling system.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Henning; Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Ecker, Dennis; Ternes, Thomas A; Duester, Lars

    2017-03-23

    In an exemplary incubation study with an anaerobic sediment sampled at an oxbow of the river Lahn in Germany (50°18'56.87″N; 7°37'41.25″E) and contaminated by former mining activity, a novel meso profiling and sampling system (messy) is presented. Messy enables a low invasive, automated sampling of pore water profiles across the sediment water interface (SWI), down to ∼20 cm depth with a spacial resolution of 1 cm. In parallel to the pore water sampling it measures physicochemical sediment parameters such as redox potential and pH value. In an incubation experiment of 151 days the ability of the setup was proven to address several different aspects relevant for fresh water and marine sediment studies: (i) The influence of mechanical disturbance and oxygen induced acidification on the mobility of 13 metals and metalloids (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, U, V, Zn) was quantified based on 11 profiles. The analytes were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Three groups of elements were identified with respect to the release into the pore water and the overlying water under different experimental conditions. (ii) The capability to investigate the impacts of changing physicochemical sediment properties on arsenic and antimony (III/V) speciation is shown. (iii) An approach to obtain information on size fractionation effects and to address the colloidal pore water fractions (0.45 μm-16 μm) was successfully conducted for the elements Ag, As, Cu, Fe and Mn.

  8. Analysis and Visualization of 2D and 3D Grain and Pore Size ofFontainebleau Sandstone Using Digital Rock Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latief, FDE

    2016-08-01

    Fontainebleau sandstone is sandstone found in one of the cities in France. This sandstone has unique characteristics, which is a clean-fme sandstone, composed of 99% quartz, virtually devoid of clay, with the grain size of about 200 μm. Fontainebleau sandstone is widely used as a reference in the study of rock microstructure analysis and modelling. In this work analysis regarding the grain and pore size of Fontainebleau is presented. Calculation of 2D pore size and grain size distribution were done on the 299 slice of digital image of the Fontainebleau sandstone using Feret's diameters, equivalent diameters (d = 4A/P), and by means of local thickness/separation using plate model. For the 3D grain and pore size distribution, calculation of local thickness and local separation of the structure were used. Two dimensional analysis by means of Feret's diameter and equivalent diameter reveal that both grain and pore size distributions are in the form of reverse-J shaped (right skewed) while the local thickness/separation approach produces almost similar to symmetric Gaussian distribution. Three dimensional analysis produces fairly symmetric Gaussian distribution for both the grain and pore size. Further image processing were conducted and were succeed in producing three dimensional visual of the colour coded structure thickness (grain related) and structure separation (pore related).

  9. Relationships between specific surface area and pore size in electrospun polymer fibre networks.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, S J; Sampson, W W

    2010-04-06

    From consideration of the extent of contact between fibres in electrospun polymer networks, we provide theory relating the specific surface area of the network to the characteristic dimensions of interfibre voids. We show that these properties are strongly influenced by the cross-sectional morphologies of fibres. Whereas porosity has a strong influence on pore dimensions, in the range of porosities typically obtained in real networks, its influence on specific surface area is weak. By considering reference geometries of collapsed ribbons and fibres with circular cross sections, we demonstrate that at a given network porosity, fibre parameters that increase the specific surface area reduce the characteristic dimensions of voids. The implications of the theory, mainly in the context of cell proliferation on electrospun polymer scaffolds, are discussed; the theory has relevance also to future applications of these materials in composites.

  10. Polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers as templates for stacked, spherical large-mesopore silica coatings: dependence of silica pore size on the PS/PEO ratio

    PubMed Central

    Magnacca, Giuliana; Jadhav, Sushilkumar A; Scalarone, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Summary Large-mesopore silica films with a narrow pore size distribution and high porosity have been obtained by a sol–gel reaction of a silicon oxide precursor (TEOS) and using polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) copolymers as templates in an acidic environment. PS-b-PEO copolymers with different molecular weight and composition have been studied in order to assess the effects of the block length on the pore size of the templated silica films. The changes in the morphology of the porous systems have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and a systematic analysis has been carried out, evidencing the dependence between the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio of the two polymer blocks and the size of the final silica pores. The obtained results prove that by tuning the PS/PEO ratio, the pore size of the templated silica films can be easily and finely predicted. PMID:27826520

  11. Robust cell size checkpoint from spatiotemporal positive feedback loop in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jie; Ni, Xin; Yang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Cells must maintain appropriate cell size during proliferation. Size control may be regulated by a size checkpoint that couples cell size to cell division. Biological experimental data suggests that the cell size is coupled to the cell cycle in two ways: the rates of protein synthesis and the cell polarity protein kinase Pom1 provide spatial information that is used to regulate mitosis inhibitor Wee1. Here a mathematical model involving these spatiotemporal regulations was developed and used to explore the mechanisms underlying the size checkpoint in fission yeast. Bifurcation analysis shows that when the spatiotemporal regulation is coupled to the positive feedback loops (active Cdc2 promotes its activator, Cdc25, and suppress its inhibitor, Wee1), the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) exhibits a bistable steady-state relationship with the cell size. The switch-like response from the positive feedback loops naturally generates the cell size checkpoint. Further analysis indicated that the spatial regulation provided by Pom1 enhances the robustness of the size checkpoint in fission yeast. This was consistent with experimental data.

  12. The effects of salt, particle and pore size on the process of carbon dioxide hydrate formation: A critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, Hosein; Ayoub, Muhammad; Bhat, A. H.; Mahmood, Syed Mohammad; Akbari, Saeed; Murshid, Ghulam

    2016-11-01

    Hydration is an alternative method for CO2 capture. In doing so, some researchers use porous media on an experimental scale. This paper tries to gather the researches on the formation of CO2 hydrate in different types of porous media such as silica sand, quartz sand, Toyoura, pumice, and fire hardened red clay. This review has attempted to examine the effects of salt and particle sizes as two major factors on the induction time, water to hydrate conversion, gas uptake (or gas consumption), and the rate of CO2 hydrate formation. By performing a critical assessment of previous research works, it was observed that the figure for the gas uptake (or gas consumption) and water to hydrate conversion in porous media was decreased by increasing the particle size provided that the pore size was constant. Although, salt can play a role in hydrate formation as the thermodynamic inhibitor, the results show that salt can be regarded as the kinetic growth inhibitor and kinetic promoter. Because of the fact that the gas uptake in seawater is lower than pure water at the end of experiment, the salt can act as a kinetic growth inhibitor. However, since gas uptake (after the nucleation period and for a short period) and the initial rate of hydrate formation in saline water were more than that of pure water, salt can play a promoter role in the kinetic reaction, too. Besides these, in the case of pure water and within a certain particle size, the amount of the hydrate formation rate has been seen to be greater in smaller particles (provided that the pore size is constant), however this has not been observed for seawater.

  13. An Interface Coassembly in Biliquid Phase: Toward Core-Shell Magnetic Mesoporous Silica Microspheres with Tunable Pore Size.

    PubMed

    Yue, Qin; Li, Jialuo; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Wang, Xiqing; Wang, Chun; Li, Wei; Cheng, Xiaowei; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Abdullah, Aboubakr M; Deng, Yonghui; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2015-10-21

    Core-shell magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres (Magn-MSMs) with tunable large mesopores in the shell are highly desired in biocatalysis, magnetic bioseparation, and enrichment. In this study, a shearing assisted interface coassembly in n-hexane/water biliquid systems is developed to synthesize uniform Magn-MSMs with magnetic core and mesoporous silica shell for an efficient size-selective biocatalysis. The synthesis features the rational control over the electrostatic interaction among cationic surfactant molecules, silicate oligomers, and Fe3O4@RF microspheres (RF: resorcinol formaldehyde) in the presence of shearing-regulated solubilization of n-hexane in surfactant micelles. Through this multicomponent interface coassembly, surfactant-silica mesostructured composite has been uniformly deposited on the Fe3O4@RF microspheres, and core-shell Magn-MSMs are obtained after removing the surfactant and n-hexane. The obtained Magn-MSMs possess excellent water dispersibility, uniform diameter (600 nm), large and tunable perpendicular mesopores (5.0-9.0 nm), high surface area (498-623 m(2)/g), large pore volume (0.91-0.98 cm(3)/g), and high magnetization (34.5-37.1 emu/g). By utilization of their large and open mesopores, Magn-MSMs with a pore size of about 9.0 nm have been demonstrated to be able to immobilize a large bioenzyme (trypsin with size of 4.0 nm) with a high loading capacity of ∼97 μg/mg via chemically binding. Magn-MSMs with immobilized trypsin exhibit an excellent convenient and size selective enzymolysis of low molecular proteins in the mixture of proteins of different sizes and a good recycling performance by using the magnetic separability of the microspheres.

  14. Comparative analysis of histopathologic effects of synthetic meshes based on material, weight, and pore size in mice.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, Sean B; Saberski, Ean R; Kreutzer, Donald L; Novitsky, Yuri W

    2012-08-01

    While synthetic prosthetics have essentially become mandatory for hernia repair, mesh-induced chronic inflammation and scarring can lead to chronic pain and limited mobility. Mesh propensity to induce such adverse effects is likely related to the prosthetic's material, weight, and/or pore size. We aimed to compare histopathologic responses to various synthetic meshes after short- and long-term implantations in mice. Samples of macroporous polyester (Parietex [PX]), heavyweight microporous polypropylene (Trelex[TX]), midweight microporous polypropylene (ProLite[PL]), lightweight macroporous polypropylene (Ultrapro[UP]), and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (DualMesh[DM]) were implanted subcutaneously in mice. Four and 12 wk post-implantation, meshes were assessed for inflammation, foreign body reaction (FBR), and fibrosis. All meshes induced varying levels of inflammatory responses. PX induced the greatest inflammatory response and marked FBR. DM induced moderate FBR and a strong fibrotic response with mesh encapsulation at 12 wk. UP and PL had the lowest FBR, however, UP induced a significant chronic inflammatory response. Although inflammation decreased slightly for TX, marked FBR was present throughout the study. Of the three polypropylene meshes, fibrosis was greatest for TX and slightly reduced for PL and UP. For UP and PL, there was limited fibrosis within each mesh pore. Polyester mesh induced the greatest FBR and lasting chronic inflammatory response. Likewise, marked fibrosis and encapsulation was seen surrounding ePTFE. Heavier polypropylene meshes displayed greater early and persistent fibrosis; the reduced-weight polypropylene meshes were associated with the least amount of fibrosis. Mesh pore size was inversely proportional to bridging fibrosis. Moreover, reduced-weight polypropylene meshes demonstrated the smallest FBR throughout the study. Overall, we demonstrated that macroporous, reduced-weight polypropylene mesh exhibited the highest degree of

  15. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin

    PubMed Central

    LEE, BO MI; AN, SUNGKWAN; KIM, SOO-YEON; HAN, HYUN JOO; JEONG, YU-JIN; LEE, KYOUNG-ROK; ROH, NAM KYUNG; AHN, KYU JOONG; AN, IN-SOOK; CHA, HWA JUN

    2015-01-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20–50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin. PMID:26137233

  16. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Mi; An, Sungkwan; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Rok; Roh, Nam Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2015-05-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20-50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm(3) (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin.

  17. Dynamic adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in passive sampling relates to pore size distribution of aromatic adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Ma, Feifei; Song, Xiuli; Yu, Rencheng

    2011-03-18

    Solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology was developed as an effective passive sampling method for dissolved diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in seawater. HP20 and SP700 resins have been reported as preferred adsorption substrates for lipophilic algal toxins and are recommended for use in SPATT testing. However, information on the mechanism of passive adsorption by these polymeric resins is still limited. Described herein is a study on the adsorption of OA and DTX1 toxins extracted from Prorocentrum lima algae by HP20 and SP700 resins. The pore size distribution of the adsorbents was characterized by a nitrogen adsorption method to determine the relationship between adsorption and resin porosity. The Freundlich equation constant showed that the difference in adsorption capacity for OA and DTX1 toxins was not determined by specific surface area, but by the pore size distribution in particular, with micropores playing an especially important role. Additionally, it was found that differences in affinity between OA and DTX1 for aromatic resins were as a result of polarity discrepancies due to DTX1 having an additional methyl moiety.

  18. Multi-scale analysis in carbonates by X-ray microtomography: Characterization of the porosity and pore size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Jaquiel S.; Nagata, Rodrigo; Moreira, Anderson C.; Fernandes, Celso P.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2013-05-01

    The porous systems of reservoir rocks present a complex geometry, involving aspects of shape of pores (morphology) and connectivity between the pores (topology). The macroscopic physical properties of these materials are strongly dependent of their microstructures. Based on these aspects, the present study has as main objective the characterization of the porous system geometry and computational determination of petrophysics properties of carbonate reservoir rocks through the X-ray microtomography methodology. Samples were microtomographed with the microtomographs Skyscan model 1172, installed at the PETROBRAS Research and Development Center (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil and model 1173, installed at Sedimentary Geology Laboratory (LAGESD) in the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Two samples of carbonates were measured, Travertine and Dolomite, with spatial resolutions of 7 μm and 9.8 μm and 1.3 μm, 7 μm and 17 μm, respectively for the travertine and dolomite. With the data collected in the acquisitions, 900 transversal sections were reconstructed for each one of the referred resolutions. For the sample of dolomite, the average porosity found was 21.64%, 20.92% and 15.97% for resolutions of 1.3 μm, 7 μm and 17 μm, respectively. For the sample of travertine, the average porosity was 7.80 % and 7.52 % for resolutions of 7 μm and 9.8 μm, respectively. For the sample of dolomite, the pore size distribution showed that 50 % of the porous phase has pores with radius up to 37.6 μm, 84.6 μm and 84.4 μm, for the spatial resolutions of 1.3 μm, 7 μm and 17 μm, respectively. For the sample of travertine, 50 % of the pores have radius up to 148.1 μm and 158.1 μm, for the spatial resolutions of 7 μm and 9.8 μm.

  19. Terahertz time-domain spectra of aromatic carboxylic acids incorporated in nano-sized pores of mesoporous silicate.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yuko; Ajito, Katsuhiro

    2007-07-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used to study the intra- and intermolecular vibrational modes of aromatic carboxylic acids, for example, o-phthalic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid, which form either intra- or intermolecular hydrogen bond(s) in different ways. Incorporating the target molecules in nano-sized spaces in mesoporous silicate (SBA-16) is found to be effective for the separate detection of intramolecular hydrogen bonding modes and intermolecular modes. The results are supported by an analysis of the differences in the peak shifts, which depend on temperature, caused by the different nature of the THz absorption. Raman spectra revealed that incorporating the molecules in the nano-sized pores of SBA-16 slightly changes the molecular structures. In the future, THz-TDS using nanoporous materials will be used to analyze the intra- and intermolecular vibrational modes of molecules with larger hydrogen bonding networks such as proteins or DNA.

  20. Finite-size effects in the microscopic structure of a hard-sphere fluid in a narrow cylindrical pore.

    PubMed

    Román, F L; White, J A; González, A; Velasco, S

    2006-04-21

    We examine the microscopic structure of a hard-sphere fluid confined to a small cylindrical pore by means of Monte Carlo simulation. In order to analyze finite-size effects, the simulations are carried out in the framework of different statistical mechanics ensembles. We find that the size effects are specially relevant in the canonical ensemble where noticeable differences are found with the results in the grand canonical ensemble (GCE) and the isothermal isobaric ensemble (IIE) which, in most situations, remain very close to the infinite system results. A customary series expansion in terms of fluctuations of either the number of particles (GCE) or the inverse volume (IIE) allows us to connect with the results of the canonical ensemble.

  1. The effect of increasing the pore size of nanofibrous scaffolds on the osteogenic cell culture using a combination of sacrificial agent electrospinning and ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Aghajanpoor, Mahdiyeh; Hashemi-Najafabadi, Sameereh; Baghaban-Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Bagheri, Fatemeh; Mohammad Mousavi, Seyyed; Azam Sayyahpour, Foruogh

    2017-03-03

    One of the major problems associated with the electrospun scaffolds is their small pore size, which limits the cellular infiltration for bone tissue engineering. In this study, the effect of increasing the pore size on cellular infiltration was studied in poly/nanohydroxyapatite electrospun scaffolds, which were modified using ultrasonication, co-electrospinning with poly (ethylene oxide), and a combination of both. Ultrasonic process was optimized by central composite design. The ultrasonic output power and time of the process were considered as the effective parameters. The pore size of the scaffolds was evaluated by scanning electron microscope. The optimum conditions, according to the pore area and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were selected, and finally the groups that had the highest pore size and mechanical strength were selected for the combined method. Increasing the pore size enhanced the cellular proliferation, extension and infiltration, as well as the osteodifferentiation of stem cells. At the optimum condition, the average cellular infiltration was 36.51 µm compared to the control group with no cellular infiltration. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of osteocalcin and collagen I (COL I) were, respectively, 1.86, 2.54, and 2.16 fold compared to the control group on day 14. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2017.

  2. Pore size effect on the dynamics of excimer formation for chemically attached pyrene on various silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dabestani, Reza T; Kidder, Michelle; Buchanan III, A C

    2008-01-01

    Excimer formation by pyrene is a well-known process in solution and on solid surfaces. In solution, excimer formation is highly dependent on the concentration of pyrene. When adsorbed on solid surfaces (i.e., silica surfaces), pyrene has been shown to form ground-state pairs which lead to static excimer emission even at very low surface coverages as a result of a solvent pooling effect induced during solvent removal from the surface. Ground-state pairing on silica surfaces results from a {pi}-{pi} interaction between two adjacent pyrene molecules and can not be avoided even by slow evaporation of the solvent from the surface as the molecules diffuse toward one another during the process. One possible method to alleviate the pairing of pyrene molecules and hence the formation of excimer is to chemically attach pyrene molecules to the silica surface. Chemical attachment, however, does not allow effective control over the spacing between the pyrene molecules to avoid ground-state pairing. To circumvent this, spacer molecules can be incorporated onto the surface by chemical attachment to control the spacing between two adjacent pyrene molecules. Furthermore, by using surfaces that provide various pore sizes, it is possible to control the number of pyrene molecules that can be grafted onto and confined to the pore surface, as well as the steric environment in which the molecules can rotate. Cabosil (fumed silica with no pores) and mesoporous silica surfaces with various pore diameters (i.e., MCM-41) are ideal candidates to examine the feasibility of controlling the spacing between pyrene molecules on a flat surface and confined inside the pores using a cografted spacer molecule (i.e., biphenyl). We have now used such an approach to examine the extent of excimer formation as the ratio of spacer/pyrene molecules is varied on nonporous silica surfaces as well as mesoporous silica surfaces with various pore diameters. Our results show that a decrease in the ratio of spacer

  3. Robust grain size end-members inferred from Quaternary lacustrine sediments across the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Elisabeth; Diekmann, Bernhard; Henkel, Karoline; Herb, Christian; Kasper, Thomas; Opitz, Stephan; Zhang, Weilin; Haberzettl, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    The detrital grain size composition of sediments can be explained by different transport processes, each of them sorting sediments in a characteristic way. Transport processes are typically linked to distinct environmental, mainly hydrological variations. However, also tectonic and anthropogenic influence can significantly alter them. Lake basins act as final sediment sinks, where sediments that were sorted by different processes get mixed. This results in multi-modal grain-size distributions of lake sediments. To interpret these distributions descriptive grain size analysis (e.g., the method of moments) may lead to misinterpretations. End-member modelling analysis (EMMA) allows a mathematical unmixing of grain size compositions to geoscientifically-interpretable end-members and quantifying these end-members in space and time. Lakes of different sizes and catchment configurations from the northern, north-eastern, and southern Tibetan Plateau are studied here, including Late Quaternary sediments from Lakes Donggi Cona, Nam Co, Tangra Yum Co and up to 2.7 Ma old lake sediments from the Qaidam basin. Grain size distributions from lake sediments are analysed using EMMA. The most robust grain-size end-members are determined by a variety of similarly-likely model runs. Their relation provides valuable and quantitative information on the most prominent past sediment transport processes and, hence, on past hydrological variations for different times throughout the Quaternary independent of time scale and resolution of the respective lake sediment archive.

  4. Slip-weakening zone sizes at nucleation of catastrophic subaerial and submarine landslides by gradually increasing pore pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesca, R. C.; Rice, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    We address the nucleation of dynamic landslide rupture in response to gradual pore pressure increases. Nucleation marks the onset of acceleration of the overlying slope mass due to the suddenly rapid enlargement of a sub-surface zone of shear failure, previously deforming quasi-statically. We model that zone as a planar surface undergoing initially linear slip-weakening frictional failure within a bordering linear-elastic medium. The results are also relevant to earthquake nucleation. The sub-surface rupture zone considered runs parallel to the free surface of a uniform slope, under a 2D plane-strain deformation state. We show results for ruptures with friction coefficients following linear slip weakening (i.e., the residual friction is not yet reached). For spatially broad increases in pore pressure, the nucleation length depends on a ratio of depth to a cohesive zone length scale. In the very broad-increase limit, a direct numerical solution for nucleation lengths compares well with solutions to a corresponding eigenvalue problem (similar to Uenishi and Rice [JGR '03]), in which spatial variations in normal stress are neglected. We estimate nucleation lengths for subaerial and submarine conditions using data [e.g., Bishop et al., Géotech. '71; Stark et al., JGGE '05] from ring-shear tests on sediments (peak friction fp = 0.5, frictional slip-weakening rate within the range w = -df/d(slip) = 0.1/cm-1/cm). We assume that only pre-stresses, and not material properties, vary with depth. With such fp and w, we find for a range of subsurface depths and shear moduli μ that nucleation lengths are typically several hundred meters long for shallow undersea slopes, and up to an order of magnitude less for steeper slopes on the Earth's surface. In the submarine case, this puts nucleation lengths in a size range comparable to observed pore-pressure-generated seafloor disturbances as pockmarks [e.g., Gay et al., MG '06].

  5. Pore and ligament size control, thermal stability and mechanical properties of nanoporous single crystals of gold.

    PubMed

    Koifman Khristosov, Maria; Dishon, Shiri; Noi, Imrit; Katsman, Alex; Pokroy, Boaz

    2017-10-05

    Nanoporous gold is widely used in research and nanotechnology because of its diverse properties, including high surface area and catalytic activity. The ligament size is usually considered as one of the main parameters controlling thermal stability and mechanical properties of nanoporous gold. Recently we developed a method for creating nanoporous single crystal gold particles using eutectic decomposition of Au-Ge, followed by selective etching of Ge. Here, we used this novel method to create nanoporous gold particles with controlled ligament sizes by changing the initial sample's relative concentrations of gold and germanium. When investigated over 1-4 h at 250-400 °C the material was thermally stable up to 350 °C, which is higher than the thermal stability of "classical" nanoporous gold prepared by dealloying. Mechanical properties were examined utilizing nanoindentation of nanoporous gold before and after annealing. For smaller ligament sizes, hardness increased with annealing temperature up to 300 °C and then strongly decreased. For larger ligament sizes, hardness decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Young's modulus was unchanged up to 300 °C.

  6. Relating pore size variation of poly (ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds to molecular weight of porogen and evaluation of scaffold properties after degradation.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Soumya; Krishnan, Lissy K; Kalliyana Krishnan, V

    2014-05-01

    The major challenge in designing a scaffold for fabricating tissue engineered blood vessels is optimization of its microstructure for supporting uniform cellular in-growth with good mechanical integrity and degradation kinetics suitable for long-term implantation. In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of varying the pore size of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold by altering the molecular weight of porogen and studied the effect of degradation on morphological characteristics and mechanical properties of scaffolds by correlating to the extent of degradation. Scaffolds with two different pore sizes were prepared by solvent casting and particulate leaching where poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) porogens having two molecular weights (3400 and 8000) were used and subjected to in vitro degradation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) upto six months. Microcomputed tomography studies of scaffolds revealed narrower pore size distribution when PEG-3400 was used as porogen and had 78% pores in the 12-24 µ range, whereas incorporation of PEG-8000 resulted in broader distribution with only 65% pores in the same range. Degradation resulted in scaffolds with narrower pore size distribution to have better retention of morphological and mechanical characteristics compared to scaffolds with broader distribution. Gravimetric and molecular weight studies also showed that scaffold degradation in both cases was only in initial stages after 6 months and PCL scaffolds had potential to be recommended for vascular tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fabrication of porous polymer microparticles with tunable pore size and density through the combination of phase separation and emulsion-solvent evaporation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanqin; Cai, Mingle; Deng, Renhua; Wang, Jianying; Liang, Ruijing; Zhu, Jintao

    2014-02-01

    A facile and versatile route to prepare porous polymer microparticles with tunable pore size and density through the combination of phase separation and emulsion-solvent evaporation method is demonstrated. When volatile organic solvent ( e.g., chloroform) diffuses through the aqueous phase containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and evaporates, n-hexadecane (HD) and polystyrene (PS) in oil-in-water emulsion droplets occur to phase separate due to the incompatibility between PS and HD, ultimately yielding microparticles with porous structures. Interestingly, density of the pores (pore number) on the shell of microparticles can be tailored from one to hundreds by simply varying the HD concentration and/ or the rate of solvent evaporation. Moreover, this versatile approach for preparing porous microparticles with tunable pore size and density can be applied to other types of hydrophobic polymers, organic solvents, and alkanes, which will find potential applications in the fields of pharmaceutical, catalyst carrier, separation, and diagnostics.

  8. Pore size, zinc penetration, and zinc diffusion studies on PPQ/CA separators. Research and development report

    SciTech Connect

    Angres, I.; Parkhurst, W.

    1981-02-02

    Studies were performed of some properties of co-polymeric polyphenylquinoxaline/cellulose acetate (PPQ/CA-60/40) membranes that are candidate separator materials for secondary alkaline batteries. Pore size measurements were obtained by bubble pressure, mercury porosimetry and electron microscopy methods. Zinc penetration measurements and measurements of zinc ion diffusion through the membrane were obtained in aqueous potassium hydroxide media using standardized electrolysis methods. For comparison purposes, dendrite penetration and zinc diffusion measurements were also obtained for two conventional cellulosic separator materials. It was concluded that the methods chosen are valid and useful for assessing the quality of separator materials. It was also concluded that PPQ/CA-60/40 membranes compare favorably with conventional separator materials.

  9. Non-linear behaviour of electrical parameters in porous, water-saturated rocks: a model to predict pore size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallbauer-Zadorozhnaya, Valeriya; Santarato, Giovanni; Abu Zeid, Nasser

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, two separate but related goals are tackled. The first one is to demonstrate that in some saturated rock textures the non-linear behaviour of induced polarization (IP) and the violation of Ohm's law not only are real phenomena, but they can also be satisfactorily predicted by a suitable physical-mathematical model, which is our second goal. This model is based on Fick's second law. As the model links the specific dependence of resistivity and chargeability of a laboratory sample to the injected current and this in turn to its pore size distribution, it is able to predict pore size distribution from laboratory measurements, in good agreement with mercury injection capillary pressure test results. This fact opens up the possibility for hydrogeophysical applications on a macro scale. Mathematical modelling shows that the chargeability acquired in the field under normal conditions, that is at low current, will always be very small and approximately proportional to the applied current. A suitable field test site for demonstrating the possible reliance of both resistivity and chargeability on current was selected and a specific measuring strategy was established. Two data sets were acquired using different injected current strengths, while keeping the charging time constant. Observed variations of resistivity and chargeability are in agreement with those predicted by the mathematical model. These field test data should however be considered preliminary. If confirmed by further evidence, these facts may lead to changing the procedure of acquiring field measurements in future, and perhaps may encourage the design and building of a new specific geo-resistivity meter. This paper also shows that the well-known Marshall and Madden's equations based on Fick's law cannot be solved without specific boundary conditions.

  10. Modified Landweber algorithm for robust particle sizing by using Fraunhofer diffraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Wei, Tianxiao; Zhou, Jiayi; Cao, Zhang

    2014-09-20

    In this paper, a robust modified Landweber algorithm was proposed to retrieve the particle size distributions from Fraunhofer diffraction. Three typical particle size distributions, i.e., Rosin-Rammler, lognormal, and bimodal normal distributions for particles ranging from 4.8 to 96 μm, were employed to verify the performance of the algorithm. To show its merits, the proposed algorithm was compared with the Tikhonov regularization algorithm and the ℓ1-norm-based algorithm. Simulation results showed that, for noise-free data, both the modified Landweber algorithm and the ℓ1-norm-based algorithm were better than the Tikhonov regularization algorithm in terms of accuracy. When the data was noise-contaminated, the modified Landweber algorithm was superior to the other two algorithms in both accuracy and speed. An experimental setup was also established and the results validated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Easy-to-Fabricate and High-Sensitivity LSPR Type Specific Protein Detection Sensor Using AAO Nano-Pore Size Control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae-Wan; Lee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Won; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Kwon, Jin-Beom; Kim, Ok-Sik; Kim, Ju-Seong; Kim, Eung-Soo; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-04-13

    In this study, we developed a pore size/pore area-controlled optical biosensor-based anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructure. As the pore size of AAO increases, the unit cell of AAO increases, which also increases the non-pore area to which the antibody binds. The increase in the number of antibodies immobilized on the surface of the AAO enables effective detection of trace amounts of antigen, because increased antigen-antibody bonding results in a larger surface refractive index change. High sensitivity was thus achieved through amplification of the interference wave of two vertically-incident reflected waves through the localized surface plasmon resonance phenomenon. The sensitivity of the fabricated sensor was evaluated by measuring the change in wavelength with the change in the refractive index of the device surface, and sensitivity was increased with increasing pore-size and non-pore area. The sensitivity of the fabricated sensor was improved and up to 11.8 ag/mL serum amyloid A1 antigen was detected. In addition, the selectivity of the fabricated sensor was confirmed through a reaction with a heterogeneous substance, C-reactive protein antigen. By using hard anodization during fabrication of the AAO, the fabrication time of the device was reduced and the AAO chip was fabricated quickly and easily.

  12. Easy-to-Fabricate and High-Sensitivity LSPR Type Specific Protein Detection Sensor Using AAO Nano-Pore Size Control

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae-Wan; Lee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Won; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Kwon, Jin-Beom; Kim, Ok-Sik; Kim, Ju-Seong; Kim, Eung-Soo; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a pore size/pore area-controlled optical biosensor-based anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructure. As the pore size of AAO increases, the unit cell of AAO increases, which also increases the non-pore area to which the antibody binds. The increase in the number of antibodies immobilized on the surface of the AAO enables effective detection of trace amounts of antigen, because increased antigen-antibody bonding results in a larger surface refractive index change. High sensitivity was thus achieved through amplification of the interference wave of two vertically-incident reflected waves through the localized surface plasmon resonance phenomenon. The sensitivity of the fabricated sensor was evaluated by measuring the change in wavelength with the change in the refractive index of the device surface, and sensitivity was increased with increasing pore-size and non-pore area. The sensitivity of the fabricated sensor was improved and up to 11.8 ag/mL serum amyloid A1 antigen was detected. In addition, the selectivity of the fabricated sensor was confirmed through a reaction with a heterogeneous substance, C-reactive protein antigen. By using hard anodization during fabrication of the AAO, the fabrication time of the device was reduced and the AAO chip was fabricated quickly and easily. PMID:28406469

  13. A Robust Diffusion Estimation Algorithm with Self-Adjusting Step-Size in WSNs.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaodan; Chen, Feng; Ye, Qing; Duan, Shukai

    2017-04-10

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), each sensor node can estimate the global parameter from the local data in a distributed manner. This paper proposed a robust diffusion estimation algorithm based on a minimum error entropy criterion with a self-adjusting step-size, which are referred to as the diffusion MEE-SAS (DMEE-SAS) algorithm. The DMEE-SAS algorithm has a fast speed of convergence and is robust against non-Gaussian noise in the measurements. The detailed performance analysis of the DMEE-SAS algorithm is performed. By combining the DMEE-SAS algorithm with the diffusion minimum error entropy (DMEE) algorithm, an Improving DMEE-SAS algorithm is proposed for a non-stationary environment where tracking is very important. The Improving DMEE-SAS algorithm can avoid insensitivity of the DMEE-SAS algorithm due to the small effective step-size near the optimal estimator and obtain a fast convergence speed. Numerical simulations are given to verify the effectiveness and advantages of these proposed algorithms.

  14. Robust Variance Estimation with Dependent Effect Sizes: Practical Considerations Including a Software Tutorial in Stata and SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Tipton, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Methodologists have recently proposed robust variance estimation as one way to handle dependent effect sizes in meta-analysis. Software macros for robust variance estimation in meta-analysis are currently available for Stata (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA) and SPSS (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), yet there is little guidance for authors regarding…

  15. Robust Variance Estimation with Dependent Effect Sizes: Practical Considerations Including a Software Tutorial in Stata and SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Tipton, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Methodologists have recently proposed robust variance estimation as one way to handle dependent effect sizes in meta-analysis. Software macros for robust variance estimation in meta-analysis are currently available for Stata (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA) and SPSS (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), yet there is little guidance for authors regarding…

  16. A multifunctional role of trialkylbenzenes for the preparation of aqueous colloidal mesostructured/mesoporous silica nanoparticles with controlled pore size, particle diameter, and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hironori; Ujiie, Hiroto; Urata, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Eisuke; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2015-11-01

    Both the pore size and particle diameter of aqueous colloidal mesostructured/mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMSS/CMPS) derived from tetrapropoxysilane were effectively and easily controlled by the addition of trialkylbenzenes (TAB). Aqueous highly dispersed CMPS with large pores were successfully obtained through removal of surfactants and TAB by a dialysis process. The pore size (from 4 nm to 8 nm) and particle diameter (from 50 nm to 380 nm) were more effectively enlarged by the addition of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) than 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), and the enlargement did not cause the variation of the mesostructure and particle morphology. The larger molecular size and higher hydrophobicity of TIPB than TMB induce the incorporation of TIPB into micelles without the structural change. When TMB was used as TAB, the pore size of CMSS was also enlarged while the mesostructure and particle morphology were varied. Interestingly, when tetramethoxysilane and TIPB were used, CMSS with a very small particle diameter (20 nm) with concave surfaces and large mesopores were obtained, which may strongly be related to the initial nucleation of CMSS. A judicious choice of TAB and Si sources is quite important to control the mesostructure, size of mesopores, particle diameter, and morphology.Both the pore size and particle diameter of aqueous colloidal mesostructured/mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMSS/CMPS) derived from tetrapropoxysilane were effectively and easily controlled by the addition of trialkylbenzenes (TAB). Aqueous highly dispersed CMPS with large pores were successfully obtained through removal of surfactants and TAB by a dialysis process. The pore size (from 4 nm to 8 nm) and particle diameter (from 50 nm to 380 nm) were more effectively enlarged by the addition of 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) than 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), and the enlargement did not cause the variation of the mesostructure and particle morphology. The larger molecular size

  17. Sample size and robust marginal methods for cluster-randomized trials with censored event times.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yujie; Cook, Richard J

    2015-03-15

    In cluster-randomized trials, intervention effects are often formulated by specifying marginal models, fitting them under a working independence assumption, and using robust variance estimates to address the association in the responses within clusters. We develop sample size criteria within this framework, with analyses based on semiparametric Cox regression models fitted with event times subject to right censoring. At the design stage, copula models are specified to enable derivation of the asymptotic variance of estimators from a marginal Cox regression model and to compute the number of clusters necessary to satisfy power requirements. Simulation studies demonstrate the validity of the sample size formula in finite samples for a range of cluster sizes, censoring rates, and degrees of within-cluster association among event times. The power and relative efficiency implications of copula misspecification is studied, as well as the effect of within-cluster dependence in the censoring times. Sample size criteria and other design issues are also addressed for the setting where the event status is only ascertained at periodic assessments and times are interval censored.

  18. Mesoporous Silica Gel–Based Mixed Matrix Membranes for Improving Mass Transfer in Forward Osmosis: Effect of Pore Size of Filler

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jian-Yuan; Wang, Yining; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Huo, Fengwei

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of forward osmosis (FO) process is generally limited by the internal concentration polarization (ICP) of solutes inside its porous substrate. In this study, mesoporous silica gel (SG) with nominal pore size ranging from 4–30 nm was used as fillers to prepare SG-based mixed matrix substrates. The resulting mixed matrix membranes had significantly reduced structural parameter and enhanced membrane water permeability as a result of the improved surface porosity of the substrates. An optimal filler pore size of ~9 nm was observed. This is in direct contrast to the case of thin film nanocomposite membranes, where microporous nanoparticle fillers are loaded to the membrane rejection layer and are designed in such a way that these fillers are able to retain solutes while allowing water to permeate through them. In the current study, the mesoporous fillers are designed as channels to both water and solute molecules. FO performance was enhanced at increasing filler pore size up to 9 nm due to the lower hydraulic resistance of the fillers. Nevertheless, further increasing filler pore size to 30 nm was accompanied with reduced FO efficiency, which can be attributed to the intrusion of polymer dope into the filler pores. PMID:26592565

  19. Mesoporous Silica Gel-Based Mixed Matrix Membranes for Improving Mass Transfer in Forward Osmosis: Effect of Pore Size of Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jian-Yuan; Wang, Yining; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Huo, Fengwei

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency of forward osmosis (FO) process is generally limited by the internal concentration polarization (ICP) of solutes inside its porous substrate. In this study, mesoporous silica gel (SG) with nominal pore size ranging from 4-30 nm was used as fillers to prepare SG-based mixed matrix substrates. The resulting mixed matrix membranes had significantly reduced structural parameter and enhanced membrane water permeability as a result of the improved surface porosity of the substrates. An optimal filler pore size of ~9 nm was observed. This is in direct contrast to the case of thin film nanocomposite membranes, where microporous nanoparticle fillers are loaded to the membrane rejection layer and are designed in such a way that these fillers are able to retain solutes while allowing water to permeate through them. In the current study, the mesoporous fillers are designed as channels to both water and solute molecules. FO performance was enhanced at increasing filler pore size up to 9 nm due to the lower hydraulic resistance of the fillers. Nevertheless, further increasing filler pore size to 30 nm was accompanied with reduced FO efficiency, which can be attributed to the intrusion of polymer dope into the filler pores.

  20. Mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with mesopore size and pore volume influence hMSC behaviors by load and sustained release of rhBMP-2

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenhua; Li, Xiangde; Qian, Jun; Lv, Guoyu; Yan, Yonggang; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with a pore size of 15 nm (MCS-15) and pore volume of 1.43 cm3/g were synthesized by using 1,3,5-mesitylene (TMB) as the pore-expanding agent. The MCS-15 exhibited good degradability with the weight loss of 50 wt% after soaking in Tris-HCl solution for 56 days, which was higher than the 30 wt% loss shown by mesoporous calcium–silicon xerogels with a pore size of 4 nm (MCS-4). The pore size and pore volume of MCS-15 had significant influences on load and release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). The MCS-15 had a higher capacity to encapsulate a large amount of rhBMP-2; it could adsorb 45 mg/g of rhBMP-2 in phosphate-buffered saline after 24 hours, which was more than twice that with MCS-4 (20 mg/g). Moreover, the MCS-15 system exhibited sustained release of rhBMP-2 as compared with MCS-4 system (showing a burst release). The MCS-15/rhBMP-2 system could promote the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, showing good cytocompatibility and bioactivity. The results indicated that MCS-15, with larger mesopore size and higher pore volume, might be a promising carrier for loading and sustained release of rhBMP-2, which could be used as bone repair material with built-in osteoinduction function in bone reconstruction. PMID:25784801

  1. Capsid Protein VP4 of Human Rhinovirus Induces Membrane Permeability by the Formation of a Size-Selective Multimeric Pore

    PubMed Central

    Panjwani, Anusha; Strauss, Mike; Gold, Sarah; Wenham, Hannah; Jackson, Terry; Chou, James J.; Rowlands, David J.; Stonehouse, Nicola J.; Hogle, James M.; Tuthill, Tobias J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. The mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. Human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. During picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein VP4 is released from the virus, interacts with the cell membrane and is implicated in the delivery of the viral RNA genome into the cytoplasm to initiate replication. In this study, we have produced recombinant C-terminal histidine-tagged human rhinovirus VP4 and shown it can induce membrane permeability in liposome model membranes. Dextran size-exclusion studies, chemical crosslinking and electron microscopy demonstrated that VP4 forms a multimeric membrane pore, with a channel size consistent with transfer of the single-stranded RNA genome. The membrane permeability induced by recombinant VP4 was influenced by pH and was comparable to permeability induced by infectious virions. These findings present a molecular mechanism for the involvement of VP4 in cell entry and provide a model system which will facilitate exploration of VP4 as a novel antiviral target for the picornavirus family. PMID:25102288

  2. On dependence of mechanical properties of brittle material on partial concentrations of different sized pores in its structure in a wide range of porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, Igor S.; Smolin, Alexey Yu.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2015-10-01

    2D and 3D models of mechanical behavior of brittle porous material under uniaxial compression loading were developed in the framework of the movable cellular automaton method. The considered material was characterized by pore size distribution function having two maxima. On the basis of simulation results the dependence of the strength properties of brittle porous material on its total porosity and partial porosities corresponding to pores with different size was revealed. The change in internal structure of material in a wide range of mentioned parameters was analyzed. The main structural factors influencing compression strength of the material at various combinations of values of porosity parameters were identified.

  3. Pore size modulation in electrochemically etched macroporous p-type silicon monitored by FFT impedance spectroscopy and Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Quiroga-González, Enrique; Carstensen, Jürgen; Glynn, Colm; O'Dwyer, Colm; Föll, Helmut

    2014-01-07

    The understanding of the mechanisms of macropore formation in p-type Si with respect to modulation of the pore diameter is still in its infancy. In the present work, macropores with significantly modulated diameters have been produced electrochemically in p-type Si. The effect of the current density and the amount of surfactant in the etching solution are shown to influence the modulation in pore diameter and morphology. Data obtained during the etching process by in situ FFT impedance spectroscopy correlate the pore diameter variation with certain time constants found in the kinetics of the dissolution process. Raman scattering and electron microscopy confirm the mesoscopic structure and roughening of the pore walls. Spectroscopic and microscopic methods confirm that the pore wall morphology is correlated with the conditions of pore modulation.

  4. Fabrication of amphiphilic gold nanoparticles of well-defined size, high concentration and robust colloidal stability.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Lu, Wensheng; Jiang, Long

    2009-10-01

    Herein, we reported an efficient and universal protocol to prepare gold nanoparticles capped by a dodecanethiol and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide interdigitated bilayer which could be dispersed well in either aqueous or organic solvents without additional phase transfer reagents. The gold nanoparticles were synthesized in a micro-emulsion method with transferring the precursor hydrophobic dodecanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles into cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide aqueous solution. The advantage of this work consists in controlling the diameter of the core gold nanoparticles by capping of dodecanethiol, obtaining high concentration and robust colloidal stability monodisperse amphiphilic gold nanoparticles of various sizes in 2 nm, 5 nm and 7.5 nm, which is very difficult to realize with other methods as far as we known. Very few change existed in the size and intrinsic optical property during the conversion from the aqueous phase to the organic phase and back to aqueous phase, showing these size-controllable amphiphilic gold nanoparticles can be applied not only in biological labeling and sensing, design of diagnostic and therapeutic due to their aqueous soluble biological compatibility, but also in assembling ordered 2D or 3D superlattice due to their monodispersity and high concentration.

  5. Power and sample size calculation for paired recurrent events data based on robust nonparametric tests.

    PubMed

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chung, Chia-Hua; Wang, Yu-Wen; Chi, Yunchan; Chang, Ying-Ju

    2017-05-20

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a formula for calculating the required sample size for paired recurrent events data. The developed formula is based on robust non-parametric tests for comparing the marginal mean function of events between paired samples. This calculation can accommodate the associations among a sequence of paired recurrent event times with a specification of correlated gamma frailty variables for a proportional intensity model. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method with comprehensive simulations including the impacts of paired correlations, homogeneous or nonhomogeneous processes, marginal hazard rates, censoring rate, accrual and follow-up times, as well as the sensitivity analysis for the assumption of the frailty distribution. The use of the formula is also demonstrated using a premature infant study from the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary center in southern Taiwan. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Transform Domain Robust Variable Step Size Griffiths' Adaptive Algorithm for Noise Cancellation in ECG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Veena; Deekshit, Ravishankar; Satyanarayana, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used for diagnosis of heart diseases. Good quality of ECG is utilized by physicians for interpretation and identification of physiological and pathological phenomena. However, in real situations, ECG recordings are often corrupted by artifacts or noise. Noise severely limits the utility of the recorded ECG and thus needs to be removed, for better clinical evaluation. In the present paper a new noise cancellation technique is proposed for removal of random noise like muscle artifact from ECG signal. A transform domain robust variable step size Griffiths' LMS algorithm (TVGLMS) is proposed for noise cancellation. For the TVGLMS, the robust variable step size has been achieved by using the Griffiths' gradient which uses cross-correlation between the desired signal contaminated with observation or random noise and the input. The algorithm is discrete cosine transform (DCT) based and uses symmetric property of the signal to represent the signal in frequency domain with lesser number of frequency coefficients when compared to that of discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The algorithm is implemented for adaptive line enhancer (ALE) filter which extracts the ECG signal in a noisy environment using LMS filter adaptation. The proposed algorithm is found to have better convergence error/misadjustment when compared to that of ordinary transform domain LMS (TLMS) algorithm, both in the presence of white/colored observation noise. The reduction in convergence error achieved by the new algorithm with desired signal decomposition is found to be lower than that obtained without decomposition. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is better than traditional adaptive filter using LMS algorithm in the aspects of retaining geometrical characteristics of ECG signal.

  7. The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, A.; O'Neill, M.A.; Ehwald, R.

    1999-11-01

    The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells resulted in B binding to the wall, the formation of dRG-II-B from mRG-II, and a reduction in wall pore size within 10 min. The wall pore size of denatured B-grown cells was increased by treatment at pH {le} 2.0 or by treatment with Ca{sup 2+}-chelating agents. The acid-mediated increase in wall pore size was prevented by boric acid alone at pH 2.0 and by boric acid together with Ca{sup 2+}, but not by Na{sup +} or Mg{sup 2+} ions at pH 1.5. The Ca{sup 2+}-chelator-mediated increase in pore size was partially reduced by boric acid. Their results suggest that B-mediated cross-linking of RG-II in the walls of living plant cells generates a pectin network with a decreased size exclusion limit for polymers. The formation, stability, and possible functions of a borate ester cross-linked pectic network in the primary walls of nongraminaceous plant cells are discussed.

  8. The Pore Size of Non-Graminaceous Plant Cell Walls Is Rapidly Decreased by Borate Ester Cross-Linking of the Pectic Polysaccharide Rhamnogalacturonan II1

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Axel; O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Ehwald, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan II (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells resulted in B binding to the wall, the formation of dRG-II-B from mRG-II, and a reduction in wall pore size within 10 min. The wall pore size of denatured B-grown cells was increased by treatment at pH ≤ 2.0 or by treatment with Ca2+-chelating agents. The acid-mediated increase in wall pore size was prevented by boric acid alone at pH 2.0 and by boric acid together with Ca2+, but not by Na+ or Mg2+ ions at pH 1.5. The Ca2+-chelator-mediated increase in pore size was partially reduced by boric acid. Our results suggest that B-mediated cross-linking of RG-II in the walls of living plant cells generates a pectin network with a decreased size exclusion limit for polymers. The formation, stability, and possible functions of a borate ester cross-linked pectic network in the primary walls of nongraminaceous plant cells are discussed. PMID:10557231

  9. Effect of rock composition and texture on pore size distributions in shales: Applications in low field nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidian, Milad

    There are various methods to assess the pore size distribution (PSD) of porous materials; amongst all, NMR is the only technique that can be utilized for subsurface applications. The key parameter to transform NMR time domain response to PSD size domain data is surface relaxivity. The common practice is to consider a constant surface relaxivity throughout a well, formation or rock type regardless of the variations in rock compositions; this results in inaccurate PSD estimation using NMR log data. In this thesis I established a methodology to calculate the surface relaxivity in shales considering the rock composition and texture. I present the steps to achieve this goal in three steps: (a) Understanding the challenges of NMR acquisition, analysis and interpretation in shales, (b) Measuring the porosity, PSD and surface area and providing a practice to check the reliability of these measurements in shales, (c) Developing a methodology to calculate the surface relaxivity honoring the variations paramagnetic mineral content, susceptibility, distribution and texture. Application of NMR in unconventional rocks requires adjustment of NMR data acquisition and analysis to the unique properties of these rocks such as high level of heterogeneity, complex pore structure, fine grains, and presence of nano-scale pores. Identifying these challenges improves our understanding of NMR response in shales and increases the quality of the acquired and analyzed data. Calculation of surface relaxivity, as a measure of how fluids and rock surfaces react, requires reliable measurement of different petrophysical properties of the rock such as porosity, total specific surface area, and PSD using other techniques. I studied the reliability of different techniques to measure these petrophysical properties for shales by performing a thorough comparative study of porosity and PSD for different shale formations. The result of my study showed that clay type and content, total organic carbon (TOC

  10. Robust design of adenovirus purification by two-column, simulated moving-bed, size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nestola, Piergiuseppe; Silva, Ricardo J S; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Mota, José P B

    2015-11-10

    A simple, yet efficient, two-column simulated moving-bed (2CSMB) process for purifying adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is presented and validated experimentally, and a general procedure for its robust design under parameter uncertainty is described. The pilot-scale run yielded a virus recovery of 86 percent and DNA and HCP clearances of 90 and 89 percent, respectively, without any fine tuning of the operating parameters. This performance compares very favorably against that of single-column batch chromatography for the same volume of size-exclusion resin. To improve the robustness of the 2CSMB-SEC process the best set of operating parameters is selected only among candidate solutions that are robust feasible, that is, remain feasible for all parameter perturbations within their uncertainty intervals. This robust approach to optimal design replaces the nominal problem by a worst case problem. Computational tractability is ensured by formulating the robust design problem with only the vertices of the uncertainty region that have the worst effect on the product purity and recovery. The robust design is exemplified on the case where the column volume and interparticle porosity are subject to uncertainty. As expected, to increase the robustness of the 2CSMB-SEC process it is necessary to reduce its productivity and increase its solvent consumption. Nevertheless, the design solution given by our robust approach is the least detrimental of all feasible operating conditions for the 2CSMB-SEC process.

  11. Laboratory investigation of the factors impact on bubble size, pore blocking and enhanced oil recovery with aqueous Colloidal Gas Aphron.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shenglong; Wang, Yefei; Li, Zhongpeng; Chen, Qingguo; Zhao, Zenghao

    Colloidal Gas Aphron as a mobility control in enhanced oil recovery is becoming attractive; it is also designed to block porous media with micro-bubbles. In this paper, the effects of surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, temperature and salinity on the bubble size of the Colloidal Gas Aphron were studied. Effects of injection rates, Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition, heterogeneity of reservoir on the resistance to the flow of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid through porous media were investigated. Effects of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition and temperature on residual oil recovery were also studied. The results showed that bubble growth rate decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, and decreasing temperature, while it decreased and then increased slightly with increasing salinity. The obvious increase of injection pressure was observed as more Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was injected, indicating that Colloidal Gas Aphron could block the pore media effectively. The effectiveness of the best blend obtained through homogeneous sandpack flood tests was modestly improved in the heterogeneous sandpack. The tertiary oil recovery increased 26.8 % by Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid as compared to 20.3 % by XG solution when chemical solution of 1 PV was injected into the sandpack. The maximum injected pressure of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was about three times that of the XG solution. As the temperature increased, the Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid became less stable; the maximum injection pressure and tertiary oil recovery of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid decreased.

  12. Effects of pretreatment on the surface chemistry and pore size properties of nitrogen functionalized and alkylated granular activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiajun; Zhai, Yunbo; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, granular activated carbon (GAC) from coconut shell was pretreated by HNO3, H2O2 and urea-formaldehyde resin, respectively. Then the obtained materials were functionalized in the same way for nitrogen group, and then alkylated. Effects of pretreatment on the surface chemistry and pore size of modified GACs were studied. Surface area and micropore volume of modified GAC which pretreated by HNO3 were 723.88 m2/g and 0.229 cm3/g, respectively, while virgin GAC were 742.34 m2/g and 0.276 cm3/g. Surface area and micropore volume decrease of the modified GACs which pretreated by the others two methods were more drastically. The types of groups presented were analyzed by electrophoresis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Nsbnd CH3 group and Cdbnd N group were detected on the surfaces of these three kinds of modified GACs. Results of XPS showed that the nitrogen functions of modified GAC which pretreated by H2O2 was 4.07%, it was more than that of the others two pretreatment methods. However, the modified GAC which pretreated by urea-formaldehyde resin was fixed more pyridine structure, which structure percentage was 45.88%, in addition, there were more basic groups or charge on the surface than the others.

  13. Synthesis of porous polymer based solid amine adsorbent: Effect of pore size and amine loading on CO2 adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenglei; Chen, Shuixia; Gao, Yanting

    2017-11-15

    A series of porous polymers was synthesized by a suspension polymerization of divinylbenzene (DVB) and ethylene glycol dimethyl acrylate (EGDMA), which was further functionalized with polyethyleneimine (PEI) for CO2 capture. The results showed that the synthesized DVB and EGDMA (DE) copolymers were an effective support for loading PEI because of its larger pore size and specific surfaces area. It was found that DE (30, 10) loaded with 30wt% PEI exhibited a higher CO2 adsorption amount of 3.28mmol/g at 25°C under dry condition. The CO2 adsorption capacity would decline gradually as the temperature continuously raised, for the reaction between CO2 and amine groups was an exothermic reaction. The kinetics study showed that Avrami kinetic model could accurately describe the whole CO2 adsorption process, suggesting that both physical adsorption and chemical adsorption were involved with the CO2 adsorption process. The intraparticle diffusion and Boyd's film diffusion models were applied to investigate the CO2 diffusion mechanism, the intraparticle diffusion model could well distinguish the rate-limiting step during CO2 adsorption process. This solid amine adsorbent could be regenerated with nitrogen stream at 75°C, and it kept stable CO2 adsorption capacity after eight adsorption-desorption cycles. All these features indicated that this porous polymer based adsorbent has a high potential for CO2 capture and separation from flue gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Visible-light absorption in 2D covalent triazine framework: enhanced by interlayer coupling and pore size increasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jijun; Dalian University of Technology Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Compared with traditional bulk materials, two-dimensional (2D) crystals have some intrinsic advantages as photocatalysis owing to the limited thickness and large surface area. So far, many monolayer materials have been shown to be potential photocatalysis for water splitting from both theoretical calculations and experiments; while most of them are inorganic materials. In contrast, g-carbon nitride, as a starting successful case, motivates us to explore 2D organic semiconductors, which have not yet well investigated. Using first principles calculations, we predicted a family of 2D covalent triazine framework (CTF) as a promising visible-light-driven photocatalyst by studying their electronic structures, work function, CBM/VBM position, and optical absorption spectra. Moreover, we found that multilayer CTF have much better visible-light adsorption than a single layer induced by the interlayer coupling. In addition, controlled construction of such CTF from suitable organic subunit pave the way for connection between the optical energy gap of CTF and pore size. The insights from our study not only enrich the family of organic semiconductor photocatalyst, but also are very helpful in designing and assembling CTF subunits for optimal performance.

  15. Nonlinear Effect of Moisture Content on Effective Thermal Conductivity of Building Materials with Different Pore Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Ma, Chao; Wang, Dengjia; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the quantitative relationship between the effective thermal conductivity and the moisture content of a material is required to accurately calculate the envelope heat and mass transfer and, subsequently, the building energy consumption. We experimentally analyzed the pore size distributions and porosities of common building materials and the influence of the moisture content on the effective thermal conductivity of building materials. We determined the quantitative relationship between the effective thermal conductivity and moisture content of building materials. The results showed that a larger porosity led to a more significant effect of the moisture content on the effective thermal conductivity. When the volumetric moisture content reached 10 %, the thermal conductivities of foam concrete and aerated concrete increased by approximately 200 % and 100 %, respectively. The effective thermal conductivity increased rapidly in the low moisture content range and increased slowly in the high moisture content range. The effective thermal conductivity is related to the moisture content of the materials through an approximate power function. As the moisture content in the walls of a new building stabilizes, the effective thermal conductivity of normal concrete varies only slightly, whereas that of aerated concrete varies more significantly. The effective thermal conductivity of the material is proportional to the relative humidity of the environment. This trend is most noticeable when the wall material is aerated concrete.

  16. Relationship between Pore-size Distribution and Flexibility of Adsorbent Materials: Statistical Mechanics and Future Material Characterization Techniques.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Daniel W; Mahynski, Nathan A; Shen, Vincent K

    2017-05-01

    Measurement of the pore-size distribution (PSD) via gas adsorption and the so-called "kernel method" is a widely used characterization technique for rigid adsorbents. Yet, standard techniques and analytical equipment are not appropriate to characterize the emerging class of flexible adsorbents that deform in response to the stress imparted by an adsorbate gas, as the PSD is a characteristic of the material that varies with the gas pressure and any other external stresses. Here, we derive the PSD for a flexible adsorbent using statistical mechanics in the osmotic ensemble to draw analogy to the kernel method for rigid materials. The resultant PSD is a function of the ensemble constraints including all imposed stresses and, most importantly, the deformation free energy of the adsorbent material. Consequently, a pressure-dependent PSD is a descriptor of the deformation characteristics of an adsorbent and may be the basis of future material characterization techniques. We discuss how, given a technique for resolving pressure-dependent PSDs, the present statistical mechanical theory could enable a new generation of analytical tools that measure and characterize certain intrinsic material properties of flexible adsorbents via otherwise simple adsorption experiments.

  17. Protein sieving characteristics of sub-20-nm pore size filters at varying ionic strength during nanofiltration of Coagulation Factor IX.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Clint J; Jorba, Nuria; Shitanishi, Kenneth T; Herring, Steven W

    2013-05-01

    Nanofiltration assures that protein therapeutics are free of adventitious agents such as viruses. Nanofilter pores must allow passage of protein drugs but be small enough to retain viruses. Five nanofilters have been evaluated to identify those that can be used interchangeably to yield a high purity Coagulation Factor IX product. When product preparations prior to nanofiltration were analyzed using electrophoresis, Western blot, liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry and size exclusion HPLC, factor IX, inter - α - trypsin inhibitor and C4b binding protein (C4BP) were observed. C4BP was removed from product by all five nanofilters when nanofiltration was performed at physiological ionic strength. However, at high ionic strength, C4BP was removed by only two nanofilters. HPLC indicated that the Stokes radius of C4BP was larger at low ionic strength than at high ionic strength. The results suggest that C4BP exists in an open conformation at physiological ionic strength and is removed by nanofiltration whereas, at high ionic strength, the protein collapses to an extent that allows passage through some nanofilters. Manufacturers should be aware that protein contaminants in other nanofiltered protein drugs could behave similarly and conditions of nanofiltration must be evaluated to ensure consistent product purity.

  18. gitter: a robust and accurate method for quantification of colony sizes from plate images.

    PubMed

    Wagih, Omar; Parts, Leopold

    2014-03-20

    Colony-based screens that quantify the fitness of clonal populations on solid agar plates are perhaps the most important source of genome-scale functional information in microorganisms. The images of ordered arrays of mutants produced by such experiments can be difficult to process because of laboratory-specific plate features, morphed colonies, plate edges, noise, and other artifacts. Most of the tools developed to address this problem are optimized to handle a single setup and do not work out of the box in other settings. We present gitter, an image analysis tool for robust and accurate processing of images from colony-based screens. gitter works by first finding the grid of colonies from a preprocessed image and then locating the bounds of each colony separately. We show that gitter produces comparable colony sizes to other tools in simple cases but outperforms them by being able to handle a wider variety of screens and more accurately quantify colony sizes from difficult images. gitter is freely available as an R package from http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/gitter under the LGPL. Tutorials and demos can be found at http://omarwagih.github.io/gitter.

  19. Cationic osteogenic peptide P15-CSP coatings promote 3-D osteogenesis in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) scaffolds of distinct pore size.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Mehr, Nima Ghavidel; Guzmán-Morales, Jessica; Favis, Basil D; De Crescenzo, Gregory; Yakandawala, Nanda; Hoemann, Caroline D

    2017-04-05

    P15-CSP is a biomimetic cationic fusion peptide that stimulates osteogenesis and inhibits bacterial biofilm formation when coated on 2-D surfaces. This study tested the hypothesis that P15-CSP coatings enhance 3-D osteogenesis in a porous but otherwise hydrophobic poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold. Scaffolds of 84 µm and 141 µm average pore size were coated or not with Layer-by-Layer polyelectrolytes followed by P15-CSP, seeded with adult primary human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and cultured 10 days in proliferation medium, then 21 days in osteogenic medium. Atomic analyses showed that P15-CSP was successfully captured by LbL. After 2 days of culture, MSCs adhered and spread more on P15-CSP coated pores than PCL-only. At day 10, all constructs contained non-mineralized tissue. At day 31, all constructs became enveloped in a "skin" of tissue that, like 2-D cultures, underwent sporadic mineralization in areas of high cell density that extended into some 141 µm edge pores. By quantitative histomorphometry, 2.5-fold more tissue and biomineral accumulated in edge pores versus inner pores. P15-CSP specifically promoted tissue-scaffold integration, 4-fold higher overall biomineralization, and more mineral deposits in the outer 84 µm and inner 141 µm pores than PCL-only (p<0.05). 3-D Micro-CT revealed asymmetric mineral deposition consistent with histological calcium staining. This study provides proof-of-concept that P15-CSP coatings are osteoconductive in PCL pore surfaces with 3-D topography. Biomineralization deeper than 150 µm from the scaffold edge was optimally attained with the larger 141 µm peptide-coated pores. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonparametric pore size distribution using d-PFG: Comparison to s-PFG and migration to MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamini, Dan; Komlosh, Michal E.; Basser, Peter J.; Nevo, Uri

    2014-09-01

    Here we present the successful translation of a pore size distribution (PSD) estimation method from NMR to MRI. This approach is validated using a well-characterized MRI phantom consisting of stacked glass capillary arrays (GCA) having different diameters. By employing a double pulsed-field gradient (d-PFG) MRI sequence, this method overcomes several important theoretical and experimental limitations of previous single-PFG (s-PFG) based MRI methods by allowing the relative diffusion gradients’ direction to vary. This feature adds an essential second dimension in the parameters space, which can potentially improve the reliability and stability of the PSD estimation. To infer PSDs from the MRI data in each voxel an inverse linear problem is solved in conjunction with the multiple correlation function (MCF) framework, which can account for arbitrary experimental parameters (e.g., long diffusion pulses). This scheme makes no a priori assumptions about the functional form of the underlying PSD. Creative use of region of interest (ROI) analysis allows us to create different underlying PSDs using the same GCA MRI phantom. We show that an s-PFG experiment on the GCA phantom fails to accurately reconstruct the size distribution, thus demonstrating the superiority of the d-PFG experiment. In addition, signal simulations corrupted by different noise levels were used to generate continuous and complex PSDs, which were then successfully reconstructed. Finally, owing to the reduced q- or b- values required to measure microscopic PSDs via d-PFG MRI, this method will be better suited to biomedical and clinical applications, in which gradient strength of scanners is limited.

  1. Effects of pore-scale dispersion, degree of heterogeneity, sampling size, and source volume on the concentration moments of conservative solutes in heterogeneous formations

    Treesearch

    Daniele Tonina; Alberto Bellin

    2008-01-01

    Pore-scale dispersion (PSD), aquifer heterogeneity, sampling volume, and source size influence solute concentrations of conservative tracers transported in heterogeneous porous formations. In this work, we developed a new set of analytical solutions for the concentration ensemble mean, variance, and coefficient of variation (CV), which consider the effects of all these...

  2. Passage of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli subtypes through 0.45 and 0.65 µm pore size nitro-cellulose filters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Campylobacter can be difficult to recover from complex samples due to overgrowth by background bacteria. A 0.45 or 0.65 µm pore size filter overlaid on agar plates can be used as a means to separate Campylobacter from confounding non-Campylobacter cells, facilitating detection on solid plating medi...

  3. The pore size of PLGA bone implants determines the de novo formation of bone tissue in tibial head defects in rats.

    PubMed

    Penk, Anja; Förster, Yvonne; Scheidt, Holger A; Nimptsch, Ariane; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Ahnert, Peter; Schiller, Jürgen; Rammelt, Stefan; Huster, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The influence of the pore size of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds on bone regeneration was investigated. Cylindrical poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds were implanted into a defect in the tibial head of rats. Pore sizes of 100-300, 300-500, and 500-710 μm were tested and compared to untreated defects as control. Two and four weeks after implantation, the specimens were explanted and defect regeneration and de novo extracellular matrix generation were investigated by MRI, quantitative solid-state NMR, and mass spectrometry. The pore size of the scaffolds had a pronounced influence on the quantity of the extracellular matrix synthesized in the graft; most collagen was synthesized within the first 2 weeks of implantation, while the amount of hydroxyapatite increased in the second 2 weeks. After 4 weeks, the scaffolds contained large quantities of newly formed lamellar bone while the control defects were filled by inhomogenous woven bone. Best results were obtained for scaffolds of a pore size of 300-500 μm. Our analysis showed that the structure and dynamics of the regenerated extracellular matrix was very similar to that of the native bone, suggesting that biomineralization was significantly enhanced by the choice of the most appropriate implant material. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Macroporous poly(L-lactide) of controlled pore size derived from the annealing of co-continuous polystyrene/poly(L-lactide) blends.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhenhua; Favis, Basil D

    2004-05-01

    A detailed study on the static annealing of co-continuous polystyrene/poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) blends is presented. The effects of temperature, time at temperature, viscosity of the phases and interfacial modification on the coarsening of the blend are discussed. In this paper, polystyrene and PLLA are blended at compositions of 50/50 and 60/40 to form co-continuous morphologies. These co-continuous morphologies are coarsened under quiescent annealing conditions, and the subsequent removal of the polystyrene phase leaves a macroporous PLLA structure. The microstructure is analyzed using three different techniques: the BET nitrogen adsorption technique, mercury intrusion porosimetry and SEM combined with image analysis. It is shown that static annealing can be used to generate a series of co-continuous networks with controlled pore sizes ranging from 1 to hundreds of microns. A non-linear pore size growth rate is observed for these systems due to the degradation of PLLA and this study indicates that controlled degradation can be used as an additional tool for morphology control. Compatibilized polystyrene/PLLA blends demonstrate significantly reduced coarsening effects due to the reduction of interfacial tension. The coarsening rate of the co-continuous structure was examined in terms of the pore size, R and this growth rate is discussed in terms of a previously proposed coarsening mechanism. This approach is a route towards the preparation of a macroporous PLLA structure with pore sizes in the range required for scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

  5. Robust Cross-correlation-based Measurement of Clump Sizes in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamran; Obreschkow, Danail; Fisher, David B.; Glazebrook, Karl; Damjanov, Ivana; Abraham, Roberto G.; Bassett, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Stars form in molecular complexes that are visible as giant clouds (˜ {10}5-6 {M}⊙ ) in nearby galaxies and as giant clumps (˜ {10}8-9 {M}⊙ ) in galaxies at redshifts z≈ 1-3. Theoretical inferences on the origin and evolution of these complexes often require robust measurements of their characteristic size, which is hard to measure at limited resolution and often ill-defined due to overlap and quasi-fractal substructure. We show that maximum and luminosity-weighted sizes of clumps seen in star formation maps (e.g., Hα) can be recovered statistically using the two-point correlation function (2PCF) if an approximate stellar surface density map is taken as the normalizing random field. After clarifying the link between Gaussian clumps and the 2PCF analytically, we design a method for measuring the diameters of Gaussian clumps with realistic quasi-fractal substructure. This method is tested using mock images of clumpy disk galaxies at different spatial resolutions and perturbed by Gaussian white noise. We find that the 2PCF can recover the input clump scale at ˜ 20 % accuracy, as long as this scale is larger than the spatial resolution. We apply this method to the local spiral galaxy NGC 5194, as well as to three clumpy turbulent galaxies from the DYNAMO-HST sample. In both cases, our statistical measurements of Hα clump size agree with previous measurements and with the estimated Jeans lengths. However, the new measurements are free from subjective choices when fitting individual clumps.

  6. Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems

    PubMed Central

    Baaske, Philipp; Weinert, Franz M.; Duhr, Stefan; Lemke, Kono H.; Russell, Michael J.; Braun, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We simulate molecular transport in elongated hydrothermal pore systems influenced by a thermal gradient. We find extreme accumulation of molecules in a wide variety of plugged pores. The mechanism is able to provide highly concentrated single nucleotides, suitable for operations of an RNA world at the origin of life. It is driven solely by the thermal gradient across a pore. On the one hand, the fluid is shuttled by thermal convection along the pore, whereas on the other hand, the molecules drift across the pore, driven by thermodiffusion. As a result, millimeter-sized pores accumulate even single nucleotides more than 108-fold into micrometer-sized regions. The enhanced concentration of molecules is found in the bulk water near the closed bottom end of the pore. Because the accumulation depends exponentially on the pore length and temperature difference, it is considerably robust with respect to changes in the cleft geometry and the molecular dimensions. Whereas thin pores can concentrate only long polynucleotides, thicker pores accumulate short and long polynucleotides equally well and allow various molecular compositions. This setting also provides a temperature oscillation, shown previously to exponentially replicate DNA in the protein-assisted PCR. Our results indicate that, for life to evolve, complicated active membrane transport is not required for the initial steps. We find that interlinked mineral pores in a thermal gradient provide a compelling high-concentration starting point for the molecular evolution of life. PMID:17494767

  7. Superficially porous particles with 1000Å pores for large biomolecule high performance liquid chromatography and polymer size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Brian M; Schuster, Stephanie A; Boyes, Barry E; Shields, Taylor J; Miles, William L; Haynes, Mark J; Moran, Robert E; Kirkland, Joseph J; Schure, Mark R

    2017-03-17

    To facilitate mass transport and column efficiency, solutes must have free access to particle pores to facilitate interactions with the stationary phase. To ensure this feature, particles should be used for HPLC separations which have pores sufficiently large to accommodate the solute without restricted diffusion. This paper describes the design and properties of superficially porous (also called Fused-Core(®), core shell or porous shell) particles with very large (1000Å) pores specifically developed for separating very large biomolecules and polymers. Separations of DNA fragments, monoclonal antibodies, large proteins and large polystyrene standards are used to illustrate the utility of these particles for efficient, high-resolution applications.

  8. Pore size and concentration effect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles on the coefficient of thermal expansion and optical transparency of poly(ether sulfone) films.

    PubMed

    Vo, Nhat Tri; Patra, Astam K; Kim, Dukjoon

    2017-01-18

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with uniform size (<50 nm) yet with different pore diameters were synthesized, and used as fillers in poly(ether sulfone) (PES) films in order to decrease their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) without sacrificing optical transparency. Here, both CTE and optical transparency of the MSN/PES nanocomposite films gradually decreased with increasing MSN concentration. The PES films containing MSNs with larger pores showed the best performance in CTE and optical transparency. While the CTE decreased by 32.3% with increasing MSN content up to 0.5 wt%, the optical transparency decreased by only less than 6.9% because of the small and uniform particle size of less than 50 nm, which minimizes light scattering. This pore size effect is more clearly observed via an annealing process, which enables the polymer chains to slowly move and fill in the free volume in the pores of the MSN, and thus restricts the thermal motion. The effect of the silica nanoparticles was investigated not only on the thermal stability but also on the mechanical stability. We expect the MSNs synthesized in this study to be used as a promising filler to enhance the thermal and mechanical stability of the PES substrate without sacrificing its optical transparency.

  9. Robust SMES controller design for stabilization of inter-area oscillation considering coil size and system uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is able to quickly exchange active and reactive power with the power system. The SMES is expected to be the smart storage device for power system stabilization. Although the stabilizing effect of SMES is significant, the SMES is quite costly. Particularly, the superconducting magnetic coil size which is the essence of the SMES, must be carefully selected. On the other hand, various generation and load changes, unpredictable network structure, etc., cause system uncertainties. The power controller of SMES which is designed without considering such uncertainties, may not tolerate and loses stabilizing effect. To overcome these problems, this paper proposes the new design of robust SMES controller taking coil size and system uncertainties into account. The structure of the active and reactive power controllers is the 1st-order lead-lag compensator. No need for the exact mathematical representation, system uncertainties are modeled by the inverse input multiplicative perturbation. Without the difficulty of the trade-off of damping performance and robustness, the optimization problem of control parameters is formulated. The particle swarm optimization is used for solving the optimal parameters at each coil size automatically. Based on the normalized integral square error index and the consideration of coil current constraint, the robust SMES with the smallest coil size which still provides the satisfactory stabilizing effect, can be achieved. Simulation studies in the two-area four-machine interconnected power system show the superior robustness of the proposed robust SMES with the smallest coil size under various operating conditions over the non-robust SMES with large coil size.

  10. Effect of Pore Size Distribution on Humidity Sensing Properties of MgO doped ZrO2-TiO2 Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M. K.; Bhatnagar, M. C.; Sharma, G. L.

    2000-01-01

    The MgO doped ZrO2-TiO2 composite is studied for its humidity sensing characteristics. Though dc electrical properties show very high sensitivity to humidity, it is not useful for practical applications because of the charging effect. The ac conductivity vs relative humidity characteristics of the pellet becomes linear with an increase in sintering temperature. The post treatment at high temperature and high humidity is found to accelerate initial ageing of the pellet and therefore, stabilizes the characteristics more quickly. A physical model has been proposed to correlate initial ageing, effect of sintering temperature and response time with pore size distribution. Pores below 300 Å radii are present in abundance near the ZrTiO4 phase formation temperature. These pores are responsible for higher sensitivity in low humidity region and linear characteristics.

  11. Size of seismic events during borehole injections: the effects of source mechanisms, stress and pore pressure distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Ondovcin, T.; Zhao, P.

    2012-12-01

    The fluid injection in boreholes is usually carried out during industrial operations targeted to permeability enhacement of hydrocarbon reservoirs and geothermal heat exchangers. Pressures in the order of 10 MPa are used in order to decrease the effective normal stress that results in shearing of preexisting fractures and/or creating new tensile fractures. A part of the deformation is brittle, which is expressed in the form of small seismic events. In most cases only microearthquakes with manitudes below 2 are generated, which is namely the case of treatments in hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, treatments of geothermal fields are often associated with small magnitude earthquakes (ML from 2 to 4), which represents a concern for the seismic risk of these operations. This happened in the Soultz (France), Basel (Switzerland) and also Berlin (Salvador) geothermal projects. Interestingly, the largest events occurred after shut-in of the well, or during the latest phase of injection. However, increased seismicity usually continues even long after bleeding-off the well. The largest events occur not only late during the injections, but also far from the injection well, at the edge of the seismically activated rock volume. Recent results of the frequency-magnitude analysis of the Basel seismicity show anticorrelation of b-value with the distance from the well, which proves the tendency of larger events to occurr far from the well. Other studies show the increase of stress drops with the distance to the injection, which might indicate a common intrinsic mechanism reposnsible for these two observations. The existing data point to two apparent discrepancies: (i) the largest events occur at larger distances where the stress field is less perturbed by the fluid injection and (ii) the largest events occur after injection when the fluid pressure in the rock volume is decreasing. We use the available results of fluid injection seismicity and apply our own analyses of frequency size

  12. Robust variance estimation with dependent effect sizes: practical considerations including a software tutorial in Stata and spss.

    PubMed

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Tipton, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Methodologists have recently proposed robust variance estimation as one way to handle dependent effect sizes in meta-analysis. Software macros for robust variance estimation in meta-analysis are currently available for Stata (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA) and spss (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), yet there is little guidance for authors regarding the practical application and implementation of those macros. This paper provides a brief tutorial on the implementation of the Stata and spss macros and discusses practical issues meta-analysts should consider when estimating meta-regression models with robust variance estimates. Two example databases are used in the tutorial to illustrate the use of meta-analysis with robust variance estimates. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of high-surface-area millimeter-sized silica beads with hierarchical multi-modal pore structure by the addition of agar

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yosep; Choi, Junhyun; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2014-04-01

    Millimeter-sized spherical silica foams (SSFs) with hierarchical multi-modal pore structure featuring high specific surface area and ordered mesoporous frameworks were successfully prepared using aqueous agar addition, foaming and drop-in-oil processes. The pore-related properties of the prepared spherical silica (SSs) and SSFs were systematically characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), Hg intrusion porosimetry, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherm measurements. Improvements in the BET surface area and total pore volume were observed at 504 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and 5.45 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}, respectively, after an agar addition and foaming process. Despite the increase in the BET surface area, the mesopore wall thickness and the pore size of the mesopores generated from the block copolymer with agar addition were unchanged based on the SAXRD, TEM, and BJH methods. The SSFs prepared in the present study were confirmed to have improved BET surface area and micropore volume through the agar loading, and to exhibit interconnected 3-dimensional network macropore structure leading to the enhancement of total porosity and BET surface area via the foaming process. - Highlights: • Millimeter-sized spherical silica foams (SSFs) are successfully prepared. • SSFs exhibit high BET surface area and ordered hierarchical pore structure. • Agar addition improves BET surface area and micropore volume of SSFs. • Foaming process generates interconnected 3-D network macropore structure of SSFs.

  14. Improving stability of virus-like particles by ion-exchange chromatographic supports with large pore size: advantages of gigaporous media beyond enhanced binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengran; Li, Yan; Zhang, Songping; Li, Xiunan; Yang, Yanli; Chen, Yi; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2014-02-28

    Limited binding capacity and low recovery of large size multi-subunits virus-like particles (VLPs) in conventional agarose-gel based chromatographic supports with small pores have long been a bottleneck limiting the large scale purification and application of VLPs. In this study, four anion exchange media including DEAE-Sepharose FF (DEAE-FF), DEAE-Capto, gigaporous DEAE-AP-120nm and DEAE-AP-280nm with average pore diameters of 32nm, 20nm, 120nm and 280nm, respectively, were applied for purification of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) VLPs. Pore size effects of media on the VLPs adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetics, dynamic binding capacity (DBC), and recovery were investigated in detail. According to the confocal laser scanning microscopy observation, adsorption of the VLPs in DEAE-FF and DEAE-Capto was mostly confined to a thin shell on the outer surface of the beads, leaving the underlying pore space and the binding sites inaccessibly, while the large pores in gigaporous media enabled the VLPs to access to the interior pore spaces by diffusion transport efficiently. Compared to the most widely used DEAE-FF, gigaporous media DEAE-AP-280nm gained about 12.9 times increase in static adsorption capacity, 8.0 times increase in DBC, and 11.4 times increase in effective pore diffusivity. Beyond increasing the binding capacity and enhancing the mass transfer, the gigaporous structure also significantly improved the stability of the VLPs during intensive adsorption-desorption process by lowing the multi-point interaction between the VLPs and binding sites in the pores. At 2.0mg/mL-media loading quantity, about 85.5% VLPs were correctly self-assembled after the chromatography with DEAE-AP-280nm media; oppositely about 85.2% VLPs lost their normal assembly with DEAE-FF due to irreversible disassembly. Comparative investigation was made to study the purifying performance of these four chromatographic media for actual VLPs purification from recombinant

  15. Fine Tuning of Nanocrystal and Pore Sizes of TiO2 Submicrospheres toward High Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Ding, Yong; Mo, Li-E; Hu, Lin-Hua; Wu, Ji-Huai; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2015-10-14

    In general, the properties and performance of mesoporous TiO2 are greatly dependent on its crystal size, crystallinity, porosity, surface area, and morphology; in this regard, design and fine-tuning the crystal and pore sizes of the TiO2 submicrospheres and investigating the effect of these factors on the properties and photoelectric performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is essential. In this work, uniform TiO2 submicrospheres were synthesized by a two-step procedure containing hydrolysis and solvothermal process. The crystal and pore sizes of the TiO2 submicrospheres were fine-tuned and controlled in a narrow range by adjusting the quantity of NH4OH during the solvothermal process. The effect of crystal and pore size of TiO2 submicrosphere on the performance of the DSSCs and their properties including dye-loading capacity, light scattering effect, power conversion efficiency (PCE), incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies (IPCEs), and electron recombination were compared and analyzed. The results show that increasing pore size plays a more significant role in improving the dye-loading capacity and PCE than increasing surface area, and an overall PCE value of 8.62% was obtained for the device with a 7.0 μm film thickness based on the TiO2 submicrospheres treated with 0.6 mL of NH4OH. Finally, the best TiO2 submicrosphere based photoanode film was optimized by TiCl4 treatment, and increasing film thickness and a remarkable PCE up to 11.11% were achieved.

  16. Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes Enlarge the Pore Size of Intervessel Pit Membranes in Healthy and Xylella fastidiosa-Infected Grapevines1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Donoso, Alonso G.; Sun, Qiang; Roper, M. Caroline; Greve, L. Carl; Kirkpatrick, Bruce; Labavitch, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The pit membrane (PM) is a primary cell wall barrier that separates adjacent xylem water conduits, limiting the spread of xylem-localized pathogens and air embolisms from one conduit to the next. This paper provides a characterization of the size of the pores in the PMs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). The PM porosity (PMP) of stems infected with the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was compared with the PMP of healthy stems. Stems were infused with pressurized water and flow rates were determined; gold particles of known size were introduced with the water to assist in determining the size of PM pores. The effect of introducing trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), oligogalacturonides, and polygalacturonic acid into stems on water flux via the xylem was also measured. The possibility that cell wall-degrading enzymes could alter the pore sizes, thus facilitating the ability of X. fastidiosa to cross the PMs, was tested. Two cell wall-degrading enzymes likely to be produced by X. fastidiosa (polygalactuoronase and endo-1,4- β -glucanase) were infused into stems, and particle passage tests were performed to check for changes in PMP. Scanning electron microscopy of control and enzyme-infused stem segments revealed that the combination of enzymes opened holes in PMs, probably explaining enzyme impacts on PMP and how a small X. fastidiosa population, introduced into grapevines by insect vectors, can multiply and spread throughout the vine and cause Pierce's disease. PMID:20107028

  17. Mesoporous TiO₂ thin films exhibiting enhanced thermal stability and controllable pore size: preparation and photocatalyzed destruction of cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinshu; Li, Hui; Li, Hongyi; Zou, Chen; Wang, Hong; Li, Dasheng

    2014-02-12

    Ordered mesostructured TiO2 thin films were constructed through a method that combined sol-gel with evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA). It was found that the calcination temperature, as well as the type of block copolymer, could vary the TiO2 mesoporous structure. Based on tension stress calculated by the surface energy of crystallites and the compression calculated by interface energy between the crystallites, the thermodynamic study for the sample had been carried out and the critical crystallite size expression of the mesoporous film was presented for the prediction of the thermal stability of the mesoporous structure at high temperature. It was also found that varying the mass ratio of templating agent to inorganic precursor could adjust the pore size of mesoporous TiO2. The pore size regulating mechanism had been discussed. The sample calcined at 450-500 °C, which had a higher specific surface area and larger pore size, exhibited higher photocatalyzed destruction capability of Methylene Blue.

  18. Cell wall-degrading enzymes enlarge the pore size of intervessel pit membranes in healthy and Xylella fastidiosa-infected grapevines.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Donoso, Alonso G; Sun, Qiang; Roper, M Caroline; Greve, L Carl; Kirkpatrick, Bruce; Labavitch, John M

    2010-03-01

    The pit membrane (PM) is a primary cell wall barrier that separates adjacent xylem water conduits, limiting the spread of xylem-localized pathogens and air embolisms from one conduit to the next. This paper provides a characterization of the size of the pores in the PMs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). The PM porosity (PMP) of stems infected with the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was compared with the PMP of healthy stems. Stems were infused with pressurized water and flow rates were determined; gold particles of known size were introduced with the water to assist in determining the size of PM pores. The effect of introducing trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), oligogalacturonides, and polygalacturonic acid into stems on water flux via the xylem was also measured. The possibility that cell wall-degrading enzymes could alter the pore sizes, thus facilitating the ability of X. fastidiosa to cross the PMs, was tested. Two cell wall-degrading enzymes likely to be produced by X. fastidiosa (polygalactuoronase and endo-1,4- beta -glucanase) were infused into stems, and particle passage tests were performed to check for changes in PMP. Scanning electron microscopy of control and enzyme-infused stem segments revealed that the combination of enzymes opened holes in PMs, probably explaining enzyme impacts on PMP and how a small X. fastidiosa population, introduced into grapevines by insect vectors, can multiply and spread throughout the vine and cause Pierce's disease.

  19. Evaluation of the "DSPM" model on a titania membrane: measurements of charged and uncharged solute retention, electrokinetic charge, pore size, and water permeability.

    PubMed

    Labbez, C; Fievet, P; Thomas, F; Szymczyk, A; Vidonne, A; Foissy, A; Pagetti, P

    2003-06-01

    The DSPM (Donnan steric partitioning pore model) was evaluated in the case of a titania membrane with "nanofiltration properties" by measuring the electrokinetic charge, pore size, and water permeability of the membrane, along with charged and uncharged solute retention. The zeta potential values (zeta) were determined from measurements of the electrophoretic mobility (EM) of titania powder forming the filtering layer of the membrane. Zeta potential values were converted into membrane volume charge (X) by assuming two limiting cases: a constant surface charge (sigma(s)(cst)) and a constant surface potential (psi(s)(cst)). The mean pore radius and thickness/porosity ratio of the membrane were determined by permporometry and from water permeability measurements, respectively. Retention measurements were carried out as a function of the permeate volume flux for both neutral solutes (polyethylene glycol PEG of different size) and salts (KCl, MgSO4, K2SO4, and MgCl2) at various pH values. Ionic retentions showed minimum values near the IEP of the membrane. Retention data were analyzed using the DSPM. Very good agreement was found between the pore radius calculated by the model and that determined by permporometry. X values calculated from fitting retention data using the DSPM were also in satisfactorily agreement with X values calculated from EM measurements assuming a constant surface potential for a large pH range. Furthermore, the DSPM leads to X values (X(DSPM)) between those calculated from EM (X(EM)) using the two limiting bounds. In other words, X(DSPM) was higher than X(EM) assuming psi(s)(cst) at pH values far from the isoelectric point (IEP) and lower than X(EM) assuming sigma(s)(cst). These results show that the DSPM is in qualitative agreement with the charge regulation theory (increase of the pore surface potential and decrease of the pore surface charge density with decreasing the pore size). On the other hand, the thickness/porosity ratio of the membrane

  20. Predictive models of gas sorption in a metal-organic framework with open-metal sites and small pore sizes.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Franz, Douglas M; Guo, Zhiyong; Chen, Banglin; Space, Brian

    2017-07-19

    Simulations of CO2 and H2 sorption were performed in UTSA-20, a metal-organic framework (MOF) having zyg topology and composed of Cu(2+) ions coordinated to 3,3',3'',5,5',5''-benzene-1,3,5-triyl-hexabenzoate (BHB) linkers. Previous experimental studies have shown that this MOF displays remarkable CO2 sorption properties and exhibits one of the highest gravimetric H2 uptakes at 77 K/1.0 atm (2.9 wt%) [Z. Guo, et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 3178-3181]. For both sorbates, the simulations were executed with the inclusion of explicit many-body polarization interactions, which was necessary to reproduce sorption onto the open-metal sites. Non-polarizable potentials were also utilized for simulations of CO2 sorption as a control. The simulated excess sorption isotherms for both CO2 and H2 are in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental data over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, thus demonstrating the accuracy and predictive power of the polarizable potentials used herein. The theoretical isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) values are also in good agreement with the newly reported experimental Qst values for the respective sorbates in UTSA-20. Sorption onto the more positively charged Cu(2+) ion of the [Cu2(O2CR)4] cluster was observed for both CO2 and H2. However, a binding site with energetics comparable to that for an open-metal site was also discovered for both sorbates. A radial distribution function (g(r)) analysis about the preferential Cu(2+) ions for CO2 and H2 revealed that both sorbates display different trends for the relative occupancy about such sites upon increasing/decreasing the pressure in the MOF. Overall, this study provides insights into the CO2 and H2 sorption mechanisms in this MOF containing open-metal sites and small pore sizes for the first time through a classical polarizable force field.

  1. Oriented bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds with controllable pore size by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions: microstructure and mechanical response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 2P2O5, 54SiO2; mol %), containing oriented pores with controllable diameter, were prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions (10 vol% particles) on a cold substrate (−196°C or 3°C). By varying the annealing time (0–72 h) to coarsen the camphene phase, constructs with the same porosity (86 ± 1%) but with controllable pore diameters (15–160 μm) were obtained after sublimation of the camphene. The pore diameters had a self-similar distribution that could be fitted by a diffusion-controlled coalescence model. Sintering (1 h at 690°C) was accompanied by a decrease in the porosity and pore diameter, the magnitude of which depended on the pore size of the green constructs, giving scaffolds with a porosity of 20–60% and average pore diameter of 6–120 μm. The compressive stress vs. deformation response of the sintered scaffolds in the orientation direction was linear, followed by failure. The compressive strength and elastic modulus in the orientation direction varied from 180 MPa and 25 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 20%) to 16 MPa and 4 GPa, respectively, (porosity = 60%), which were 2–3 times larger than the values in the direction perpendicular to the orientation. The potential use of these 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for the repair of large defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in long bones, is discussed. PMID:20807594

  2. Designing a Highly Active Metal-Free Oxygen Reduction Catalyst in Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Alkaline Fuel Cells: Effects of Pore Size and Doping-Site Position.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonggyu; Choun, Myounghoon; Ye, Youngjin; Lee, Jaeyoung; Mun, Yeongdong; Kang, Eunae; Hwang, Jongkook; Lee, Young-Ho; Shin, Chae-Ho; Moon, Seung-Hyeon; Kim, Soo-Kil; Lee, Eunsung; Lee, Jinwoo

    2015-08-03

    To promote the oxygen reduction reaction of metal-free catalysts, the introduction of porous structure is considered as a desirable approach because the structure can enhance mass transport and host many catalytic active sites. However, most of the previous studies reported only half-cell characterization; therefore, studies on membrane electrode assembly (MEA) are still insufficient. Furthermore, the effect of doping-site position in the structure has not been investigated. Here, we report the synthesis of highly active metal-free catalysts in MEAs by controlling pore size and doping-site position. Both influence the accessibility of reactants to doping sites, which affects utilization of doping sites and mass-transport properties. Finally, an N,P-codoped ordered mesoporous carbon with a large pore size and precisely controlled doping-site position showed a remarkable on-set potential and produced 70% of the maximum power density obtained using Pt/C.

  3. Isoreticular metal-organic frameworks, process for forming the same, and systematic design of pore size and functionality therein, with application for gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Li, Hailian; Kim, Jaheon; Rosi, Nathaniel

    2005-08-16

    An isoreticular metal-organic framework (IRMOF) and method for systematically forming the same. The method comprises the steps of dissolving at least one source of metal cations and at least one organic linking compound in a solvent to form a solution; and crystallizing the solution under predetermined conditions to form a predetermined IRMOF. At least one of functionality, dimension, pore size and free volume of the IRMOF is substantially determined by the organic linking compound.

  4. Relationship between pore size and reversible and irreversible immobilization of ionic liquid electrolytes in porous carbon under applied electric potential

    SciTech Connect

    Mahurin, Shannon M.; Mamontov, Eugene; Thompson, Matthew W.; Zhang, Pengfei; Turner, C. Heath; Cummings, Peter T.; Dai, Sheng

    2016-10-04

    Transport of electrolytes in nanoporous carbon-based electrodes largely defines the function and performance of energy storage devices. Here, using molecular dynamics simulation and quasielastic neutron scattering, we investigate the microscopic dynamics of a prototypical ionic liquid electrolyte, [emim][Tf2N], under applied electric potential in carbon materials with 6.7 nm and 1.5 nm pores. The simulations demonstrate the formation of dense layers of counter-ions near the charged surfaces, which is reversible when the polarity is reversed. In the experiment, the ions immobilized near the surface manifest themselves in the elastic scattering signal. The experimentally observed ion immobilization near the wall is fully reversible as a function of the applied electric potential in the 6.7 nm, but not in the 1.5 nm nanopores. In the latter case, remarkably, the first application of the electric potential leads to apparently irreversible immobilization of cations or anions, depending on the polarity, near the carbon pore walls. This unexpectedly demonstrates that in carbon electrode materials with the small pores, which are optimal for energy storage applications, the polarity of the electrical potential applied for the first time after the introduction of an ionic liquid electrolyte may define the decoration of the small pore walls with ions for prolonged periods of time and possibly for the lifetime of the electrode.

  5. Relationship between pore size and reversible and irreversible immobilization of ionic liquid electrolytes in porous carbon under applied electric potential

    SciTech Connect

    Mahurin, Shannon M.; Mamontov, Eugene; Thompson, Matthew W.; Zhang, Pengfei; Turner, C. Heath; Cummings, Peter T.; Dai, Sheng

    2016-10-04

    Transport of electrolytes in nanoporous carbon-based electrodes largely defines the function and performance of energy storage devices. Here, using molecular dynamics simulation and quasielastic neutron scattering, we investigate the microscopic dynamics of a prototypical ionic liquid electrolyte, [emim][Tf2N], under applied electric potential in carbon materials with 6.7 nm and 1.5 nm pores. The simulations demonstrate the formation of dense layers of counter-ions near the charged surfaces, which is reversible when the polarity is reversed. In the experiment, the ions immobilized near the surface manifest themselves in the elastic scattering signal. The experimentally observed ion immobilization near the wall is fully reversible as a function of the applied electric potential in the 6.7 nm, but not in the 1.5 nm nanopores. In the latter case, remarkably, the first application of the electric potential leads to apparently irreversible immobilization of cations or anions, depending on the polarity, near the carbon pore walls. This unexpectedly demonstrates that in carbon electrode materials with the small pores, which are optimal for energy storage applications, the polarity of the electrical potential applied for the first time after the introduction of an ionic liquid electrolyte may define the decoration of the small pore walls with ions for prolonged periods of time and possibly for the lifetime of the electrode.

  6. Relationship between pore size and reversible and irreversible immobilization of ionic liquid electrolytes in porous carbon under applied electric potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahurin, Shannon M.; Mamontov, Eugene; Thompson, Matthew W.; Zhang, Pengfei; Turner, C. Heath; Cummings, Peter T.; Dai, Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Transport of electrolytes in nanoporous carbon-based electrodes largely defines the function and performance of energy storage devices. Using molecular dynamics simulation and quasielastic neutron scattering, we investigate the microscopic dynamics of a prototypical ionic liquid electrolyte, [emim][Tf2N], under applied electric potential in carbon materials with 6.7 nm and 1.5 nm pores. The simulations demonstrate the formation of dense layers of counter-ions near the charged surfaces, which is reversible when the polarity is reversed. In the experiment, the ions immobilized near the surface manifest themselves in the elastic scattering signal. The experimentally observed ion immobilization near the wall is fully reversible as a function of the applied electric potential in the 6.7 nm, but not in the 1.5 nm nanopores. In the latter case, remarkably, the first application of the electric potential leads to apparently irreversible immobilization of cations or anions, depending on the polarity, near the carbon pore walls. This unexpectedly demonstrates that in carbon electrode materials with the small pores, which are optimal for energy storage applications, the polarity of the electrical potential applied for the first time after the introduction of an ionic liquid electrolyte may define the decoration of the small pore walls with ions for prolonged periods of time and possibly for the lifetime of the electrode.

  7. Relationship between pore size and reversible and irreversible immobilization of ionic liquid electrolytes in porous carbon under applied electric potential

    DOE PAGES

    Mahurin, Shannon M.; Mamontov, Eugene; Thompson, Matthew W.; ...

    2016-10-04

    Transport of electrolytes in nanoporous carbon-based electrodes largely defines the function and performance of energy storage devices. Here, using molecular dynamics simulation and quasielastic neutron scattering, we investigate the microscopic dynamics of a prototypical ionic liquid electrolyte, [emim][Tf2N], under applied electric potential in carbon materials with 6.7 nm and 1.5 nm pores. The simulations demonstrate the formation of dense layers of counter-ions near the charged surfaces, which is reversible when the polarity is reversed. In the experiment, the ions immobilized near the surface manifest themselves in the elastic scattering signal. The experimentally observed ion immobilization near the wall is fullymore » reversible as a function of the applied electric potential in the 6.7 nm, but not in the 1.5 nm nanopores. In the latter case, remarkably, the first application of the electric potential leads to apparently irreversible immobilization of cations or anions, depending on the polarity, near the carbon pore walls. This unexpectedly demonstrates that in carbon electrode materials with the small pores, which are optimal for energy storage applications, the polarity of the electrical potential applied for the first time after the introduction of an ionic liquid electrolyte may define the decoration of the small pore walls with ions for prolonged periods of time and possibly for the lifetime of the electrode.« less

  8. Increasing the pore sizes of bone-mimetic electrospun scaffolds comprised of polycaprolactone, collagen I and hydroxyapatite to enhance cell infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Matthew C.; Clem, William C.; Grunda, Jessica M.; Clines, Gregory A.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Bone-mimetic electrospun scaffolds consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL), collagen I and nanoparticulate hydroxyapatite (HA) have previously been shown to support the adhesion, integrin-related signaling and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), suggesting these matrices serve as promising degradable substrates for osteoregeneration. However, the small pore sizes in electrospun scaffolds hinder cell infiltration in vitro and tissue-ingrowth into the scaffold in vivo, limiting their clinical potential. In this study, three separate techniques were evaluated for their capability to increase the pore size of the PCL/col I/nanoHA scaffolds: limited protease digestion, decreasing the fiber packing density during electro-spinning, and inclusion of sacrificial fibers of the water-soluble polymer PEO. The PEO sacrificial fiber approach was found to be the most effective in increasing scaffold pore size. Furthermore, the use of sacrificial fibers promoted increased MSC infiltration into the scaffolds, as well as greater infiltration of endogenous cells within bone upon placement of scaffolds within calvarial organ cultures. These collective findings support the use of sacrificial PEO fibers as a means to increase the porosity of complex, bone-mimicking electrospun scaffolds, thereby enhancing tissue regenerative processes that depend upon cell infiltration, such as vascularization and replacement of the scaffold with native bone tissue. PMID:22014462

  9. A feasible way for the fabrication of single walled carbon nanotube/polypyrrole composite film with controlled pore size for neural interface.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hengyang; Zhang, Min; Xiao, Yinghong; Che, Jianfei

    2015-02-01

    Single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/polypyrrole (PPy) composite films with controlled pore size and strong adhesive force was prepared as electrode material for improving the performance of neural electrodes. SWNT film with controlled pore size was first fabricated through electrophoresis with a merit that the pore size can be well tuned by changing the concentration of metal ions in the electrolyte. An ultrathin conformal PPy layer around SWNT bundles in a uniform manner within the entire films was subsequently obtained by pulsed electropolymerization. The adhesion of the SWNT coated electrodes was tested by repeatedly inserting the coated electrode into agar gel to demonstrate the better adhesive force of the coating. Electrochemical results showed that the SWNT/PPy coated metal electrodes have much lower impedance and higher charge storage capacity than the bare metal substrates. Further in vitro culture of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells revealed that the porous SWNT/PPy composite film was non-toxic and well supported the growth of neurons. We demonstrate that the prepared composite film has potential applications in chronic implantable neural electrodes for neural stimulation and recording.

  10. The role of fine material and grain size distribution on excess pore pressure dissipation and particle support mechanisms in granular deposits based in large-scale physical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palucis, M. C.; Kaitna, R.; Tewoldebrhan, B.; Hill, K. M.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    The dominant mechanisms behind sustained mobilization in granular debris flows are poorly understood, and experiments are needed to determine the conditions under which the fluid can fully support the coarse fraction. However, field-scale studies are difficult to instrument and constrain and laboratory studies suffer from scaling issues. A 4-m rotating drum located at UC Berkeley's Richmond Field Station allowed us to perform reproducible experiments with materials similar to those in the field to explore mechanisms relevant to slow pore fluid pressure dissipation. Specifically, we performed a series of experiments to assess the role of fines and grain size distribution on the rate of pore fluid pressure dissipation upon deposition of a granular mass. For each experiment we kept the total mass of the gravel particles constant and varied the amount of fines (from no fines to amounts found in an actual debris flow deposit) and the gravel particle size distribution (from a single grain size to a range found in natural flows). We first rotated each mixture in the drum, during which we monitored fluid pressures at the base of the flows (near the wall of the drum and at the center). Then we stopped the drum and continued to monitor the fluid pressures. Immediately upon stopping, the pore fluid pressure was nearly hydrostatic for the gravel-water flows, and any elevated pore pressure quickly dissipated. On the other hand, the mixtures with fines contents close to those found in actual debris flows had elevated pore pressures indicating they were almost fully liquefied. Furthermore, the rate of pore pressure dissipation was an order of magnitude slower than when no fines were present; the grain size distribution of the coarse fraction did not strongly influence the dissipation rates in either case. We also placed a cobble upon a fines-rich mixture after cessation of motion above the center pressure sensor, and observed that the pore fluid pressure rose instantly, bearing

  11. Modulation of the nanometer pore size improves magnesium adsorption into mesoporous titania coatings and promotes bone morphogenic protein 4 expression in adhering osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, Francesca; Atefyekta, Saba; Wennerberg, Ann; Andersson, Martin; Jimbo, Ryo; Davies, Julia R

    2016-07-01

    Mesoporous (MP) titania films used as implant coatings have recently been considered as release systems for controlled administration of magnesium to enhance initial osteoblast proliferation in vitro. Tuning of the pore size in such titania films is aimed at increasing the osteogenic potential through effects on the total loading capacity and the release profile of magnesium. In this study, evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) was used with different structure-directing agents to form three mesoporous films with average pore sizes of 2nm (MP1), 6nm (MP2) and 7nm (MP3). Mg adsorption and release was monitored using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The film surfaces were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of different Mg release on osteogenesis was investigated in human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) using pre-designed osteogenesis arrays and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed a sustained release from all the films investigated, with higher magnesium adsorption into MP1 and MP3 films. No significant differences were observed in the surface nanotopography of the films, either with or without the presence of magnesium. MP3 films (7nm pore size) had the greatest effect on osteogenesis, up-regulating 15 bone-related genes after 1 week of hFOB growth and significantly promoting bone morphogenic protein (BMP4) expression after 3 weeks of growth. The findings indicate that the increase in pore width on the nano scale significantly enhanced the bioactivity of the mesoporous coating, thus accelerating osteogenesis without creating differences in surface roughness. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication of three-dimensional porous scaffolds with controlled filament orientation and large pore size via an improved E-jetting technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin Lan; Cai, Yan Li; Guo, Yi Lin; Fuh, Jerry Ying Hsi; Sun, Jie; Hong, Geok Soon; Lam, Ruey Na; Wong, Yoke San; Wang, Wilson; Tay, Bee Yen; Thian, Eng San

    2014-05-01

    Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering as a platform for cell proliferation and subsequent tissue regeneration. Conventional microextrusion methods for three-dimensional (3D) scaffold fabrication were limited by their low resolution. Electrospinning, a form of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing, is an attractive method due to its capability of fabricating high-resolution scaffolds at the nanometer/micrometer scale level. However, the scaffold was composed of randomly orientated filaments which could not guide the cells in a specific direction. Furthermore, the pores of the electrospun scaffold were small, thus preventing cell infiltration. In this study, an alternative EHD jet printing (E-jetting) technique has been developed and employed to fabricate 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with desired filament orientation and pore size. The effect of PCL solution concentration was evaluated. Results showed that solidified filaments were achieved at concentration >70% (w/v). Uniform filaments of diameter 20 μm were produced via the E-jetting technique, and X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses revealed that there was no physicochemical changes toward PCL. Scaffold with a pore size of 450 μm and porosity level of 92%, was achieved. A preliminary in vitro study illustrated that live chondrocytes were attaching on the outer and inner surfaces of collagen-coated E-jetted PCL scaffolds. E-jetted scaffolds increased chondrocytes extracellular matrix secretion, and newly formed matrices from chondrocytes contributed significantly to the mechanical strength of the scaffolds. All these results suggested that E-jetting is an alternative scaffold fabrication technique, which has the capability to construct 3D scaffolds with aligned filaments and large pore sizes for tissue engineering applications.

  13. Influence of pore size of porous titanium fabricated by vacuum diffusion bonding of titanium meshes on cell penetration and bone ingrowth.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bei; Song, Wen; Han, Tianxiao; Yan, Jun; Li, Fuping; Zhao, Lingzhou; Kou, Hongchao; Zhang, Yumei

    2016-03-01

    The present work assesses the potential of three-dimensional (3D) porous titanium (pore size of 188-390 μm and porosity of 70%) fabricated by vacuum diffusion bonding of titanium meshes for applications in bone engineering. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were used to investigate the proliferation and differentiation of cells on titanium scaffolds with different pore sizes at day 7, day 14 and day 21 based on DNA contents, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen (COL) secretion and osteogenic gene expressions including ALP, COL-1, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), osteopontin (OPN), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), using smooth solid titanium plate as reference material. The rabbit models with distal femoral condyles defect were used to investigate the bone ingrowth into the porous titanium. All samples were subjected to Micro-CT and histological analysis after 4 and 12 weeks of healing. A one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc tests was used to analyze the data. It was found that the differentiation stage of cells on the porous titanium delayed compared with the smooth solid titanium plate and Ti 188 was more inclined to promote cell differentiation at the initial stage (day 14) while cell proliferation (day 1, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21) and bone ingrowth (4 and 12 weeks) were biased to Ti 313 and Ti 390. The study indicates that the hybrid porous implant design which combines the advantages of different pore sizes may be meaningful and promising for bone defect restoration. One of the significant challenges in bone defect restoration is the integration of biomaterials and surrounding bone tissue. Porous titanium may be a promising choice for bone ingrowth and mineralization with appropriate mechanical and biological properties. In this study, based on porous titanium fabricated by vacuum diffusion bonding of titanium meshes, we have evaluated the influence of various pore sizes on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (r

  14. Alkali metal ion storage properties of sulphur and phosphorous molecules encapsulated in nanometer size carbon cylindrical pores

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Yosuke Sakamoto, Yuki; Song, Hayong; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nishiwaki, Yoshiki; Al-zubaidi, Ayar; Kawasaki, Shinji

    2016-03-15

    We investigated the physical and chemical stabilities of sulfur and phosphorus molecules encapsulated in a mesoporous carbon (MPC) and two kinds of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) having different cylindrical pore diameters. The sublimation temperatures of sulfur molecules encapsulated in MPC and the two kinds of SWCNTs were measured by thermo-gravimetric measurements. It was found that the sublimation temperature of sulfur molecules encapsulated in SWCNTs having mean tube diameter of 1.5 nm is much higher than any other molecules encapsulated in larger pores. It was also found that the capacity fading of lithium-sulfur battery can be diminished by encapsulation of sulfur molecules in SWCNTs. We also investigated the electrochemical properties of phosphorus molecules encapsulated in SWCNTs (P@SWCNTs). It was shown that P@SWCNT can adsorb and desorb both Li and Na ions reversibly.

  15. Magnetic relaxation - coal swelling, extraction, pore size. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1994-08-01

    Work this quarter involved a CW EPR examination of the density separated fractions of the Lewiston-Stockton Argonne Coal and the initiation of EPR studies to probe molecular motion in coal pores. Eighteen densities between 1.24 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.56 g/cm{sup 3} were separated and combined into seven density ranges. Radicals with a narrow EPR line appear only in the samples with densities above 1.48 g/cm{sup 3}.

  16. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, FREE ELECTRON LASER, APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, ETC.: Identification of pore size in porous SiO2 thin film by positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Qin, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Dan-Ni; Yu, Run-Sheng; Wang, Qiao-Zhan; Ma, Yan-Yun; Wang, Bao-Yi

    2009-02-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of annihilation line techniques have been used to obtain information about the small pore structure and size of porous SiO2 thin film produced by sputtered Al-Si thin film and etched Al-Si thin film. The film is prepared by an Al/Si 75:25 at.-% (Al75Si25) target with the radiofrequency (RF) power of 66 W at room temperature. A 5 wt.-% phosphoric acid solution is used to etch the Al cylinders. All the Al cylinders dissolved in the solution after 15 h at room temperature, and the sample is subsequently rinsed in pure water. In this way, the porous SiO2 on the Si substrate is produced. From our results, the values of all lifetime components in the spectra of Al-Si thin film are less than 1 ns, but the value of one of the lifetime components in the spectra of porous SiO2 thin film is τ = 7.80 ns. With these values of lifetime, RTE (Rectangular Pore Extension) model has been used to analyze the pore size.

  17. Atomic layer deposition-based tuning of the pore size in mesoporous thin films studied by in situ grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendooven, Jolien; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Ide, Matthias; GrandfieldPresent Address: Department Of Materials Science; Engineering, Mcmaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada., Kathryn; Kurttepeli, Mert; Ludwig, Karl F.; Bals, Sara; van der Voort, Pascal; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables the conformal coating of porous materials, making the technique suitable for pore size tuning at the atomic level, e.g., for applications in catalysis, gas separation and sensing. It is, however, not straightforward to obtain information about the conformality of ALD coatings deposited in pores with diameters in the low mesoporous regime (<10 nm). In this work, it is demonstrated that in situ synchrotron based grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) can provide valuable information on the change in density and internal surface area during ALD of TiO2 in a porous titania film with small mesopores (3-8 nm). The results are shown to be in good agreement with in situ X-ray fluorescence data representing the evolution of the amount of Ti atoms deposited in the porous film. Analysis of both datasets indicates that the minimum pore diameter that can be achieved by ALD is determined by the size of the Ti-precursor molecule.

  18. Atomic layer deposition-based tuning of the pore size in mesoporous thin films studied by in situ grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, Jolien; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Ide, Matthias; Grandfield, Kathryn; Kurttepeli, Mert; Ludwig, Karl F; Bals, Sara; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-12-21

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables the conformal coating of porous materials, making the technique suitable for pore size tuning at the atomic level, e.g., for applications in catalysis, gas separation and sensing. It is, however, not straightforward to obtain information about the conformality of ALD coatings deposited in pores with diameters in the low mesoporous regime (<10 nm). In this work, it is demonstrated that in situ synchrotron based grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) can provide valuable information on the change in density and internal surface area during ALD of TiO(2) in a porous titania film with small mesopores (3-8 nm). The results are shown to be in good agreement with in situ X-ray fluorescence data representing the evolution of the amount of Ti atoms deposited in the porous film. Analysis of both datasets indicates that the minimum pore diameter that can be achieved by ALD is determined by the size of the Ti-precursor molecule.

  19. Co2(OH)2CO3 Nanosheets and CoO Nanonets with Tailored Pore Sizes as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianlong; Zhong, Yiren; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Jinping; Zhou, Zhen

    2015-06-10

    Co2(OH)2CO3 nanosheets were prepared and initially tested as anode materials for Li ion batteries. Benefiting from hydroxide and carbonate, the as-prepared sample delivered a high reversible capacity of 800 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 200 mA g(-1) and long-cycling capability of 400 mAh g(-1) even at 1 A g(-1). Annealed in Ar, monoclinic Co2(OH)2CO3 nanosheets were transformed into cubic CoO nanonets with rich pores. The pore size had apparent influence on the high-rate performances of CoO. CoO with appropriate pore sizes exhibited greatly enhanced Li storage performances, stable capacity of 637 mAh g(-1) until 200 cycles at 1 A g(-1). More importantly, after many fast charge-discharge cycles, the highly porous nanonets were still maintained. Our results indicate that Co2(OH)2CO3 nanosheets and highly porous CoO nanonets are both promising candidate anode materials for high-performance Li ion batteries.

  20. A Generally Robust Approach for Testing Hypotheses and Setting Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keselman, H. J.; Algina, James; Lix, Lisa M.; Wilcox, Rand R.; Deering, Kathleen N.

    2008-01-01

    Standard least squares analysis of variance methods suffer from poor power under arbitrarily small departures from normality and fail to control the probability of a Type I error when standard assumptions are violated. This article describes a framework for robust estimation and testing that uses trimmed means with an approximate degrees of…

  1. Effects of coarse grain size distribution and fine particle content on pore fluid pressure and shear behavior in experimental debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaitna, Roland; Palucis, Marisa C.; Yohannes, Bereket; Hill, Kimberly M.; Dietrich, William E.

    2016-02-01

    Debris flows are typically a saturated mixture of poorly sorted particles and interstitial fluid, whose density and flow properties depend strongly on the presence of suspended fine sediment. Recent research suggests that grain size distribution (GSD) influences excess pore pressures (i.e., pressure in excess of predicted hydrostatic pressure), which in turn plays a governing role in debris flow behaviors. We report a series of controlled laboratory experiments in a 4 m diameter vertically rotating drum where the coarse particle size distribution and the content of fine particles were varied independently. We measured basal pore fluid pressures, pore fluid pressure profiles (using novel sensor probes), velocity profiles, and longitudinal profiles of the flow height. Excess pore fluid pressure was significant for mixtures with high fines fraction. Such flows exhibited lower values for their bulk flow resistance (as measured by surface slope of the flow), had damped fluctuations of normalized fluid pressure and normal stress, and had velocity profiles where the shear was concentrated at the base of the flow. These effects were most pronounced in flows with a wide coarse GSD distribution. Sustained excess fluid pressure occurred during flow and after cessation of motion. Various mechanisms may cause dilation and contraction of the flows, and we propose that the sustained excess fluid pressures during flow and once the flow has stopped may arise from hindered particle settling and yield strength of the fluid, resulting in transfer of particle weight to the fluid. Thus, debris flow behavior may be strongly influenced by sustained excess fluid pressures controlled by particle settling rates.

  2. Comparative DNA isolation behaviours of silica and polymer based sorbents in batch fashion: monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution as a new sorbent for DNA isolation.

    PubMed

    Günal, Gülçin; Kip, Çiğdem; Eda Öğüt, S; İlhan, Hasan; Kibar, Güneş; Tuncel, Ali

    2017-03-22

    Monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore-size distribution were proposed as a high performance sorbent for DNA isolation in batch fashion under equilibrium conditions. The proposed sorbent including both macroporous and mesoporous compartments was synthesized 5.1 μm in-size, by a "staged shape templated hydrolysis and condensation method". Hydrophilic polymer based sorbents were also obtained in the form of monodisperse-macroporous microspheres ca 5.5 μm in size, with different functionalities, by a developed "multi-stage microsuspension copolymerization" technique. The batch DNA isolation performance of proposed material was comparatively investigated using polymer based sorbents with similar morphologies. Among all sorbents tried, the best DNA isolation performance was achieved with the monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution. The collocation of interconnected mesoporous and macroporous compartments within the monodisperse silica microspheres provided a high surface area and reduced the intraparticular mass transfer resistance and made easier both the adsorption and desorption of DNA. Among the polymer based sorbents, higher DNA isolation yields were achieved with the monodisperse-macroporous polymer microspheres carrying trimethoxysilyl and quaternary ammonium functionalities. However, batch DNA isolation performances of polymer based sorbents were significantly lower with respect to the silica microspheres.

  3. Large pore size and high porosity of TiO2 photoanode for excellent photovoltaic performance of CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Shen, Heping; Lin, Hong; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Yizhu; Oron, Dan

    2013-02-01

    While holding great potential as sunlight absorbers, quantum dots (QDs), which are generally much larger than dye molecule in size, which makes it more difficult to deposit them on the surface of TiO2. As a result, relatively low QD loading is now one of the most challenging issues for improving the photovoltaic performance of QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSSC). In this study, TiO2 photoanodes with different pore sizes and porosities were constructed by systematically varying the solid content of the TiO2 paste. It was confirmed that reducing the solid content resulted in both larger pore sizes and higher porosities. CdS quantum dots were then deposited on these different electrodes by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, with either 4 or 7 repetitive cycles. By correlating the photovoltaic performances of QDSSCs with different solid contents of TiO2 paste and number of SILAR cycles of CdS QD deposition, it was found that the combination of 7 SILAR cycles with 10% electrode solid content yielded the highest overall energy conversion efficiency. In particular this cell exhibited an outstanding open-circuit photovoltage up to 640 mV using a polysulfide electrolyte, which currently ranks the highest among reported literature. This outcome is due to the fact that a 10%-solid-content provided the largest pore sizes and the highest porosity for the QDs deposition, while the 7 SILAR cycles guaranteed the sufficient CdS QD loading which is favorable for light harvesting.

  4. A size-based emphysema severity index: robust to the breath-hold-level variations and correlated with clinical parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jeongeun; Lee, Minho; Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Sang Young; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the power-law exponents (D) of emphysema hole-size distributions as a competent emphysema index. Robustness to extreme breath-hold-level variations and correlations with clinical parameters for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were investigated and compared to a conventional emphysema index (EI%). Patients and methods A total of 100 patients with COPD (97 males and three females of mean age 67±7.9 years) underwent multidetector row computed tomography scanning at full inspiration and full expiration. The diameters of the emphysematous holes were estimated and quantified with a fully automated algorithm. Power-law exponents (D) of emphysematous hole-size distribution were evaluated. Results The diameters followed a power-law distribution in all cases, suggesting the scale-free nature of emphysema. D of inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography of patients showed intraclass correlation coefficients >0.8, indicating statistically absolute agreement of different breath-hold levels. By contrast, the EI% failed to agree. Bland–Altman analysis also revealed the superior robustness of D to EI%. D also significantly correlated with clinical parameters such as airflow limitation, diffusion capacity, exercise capacity, and quality of life. Conclusion The D of emphysematous hole-size distribution is robust to breath-hold-level variations and sensitive to the severity of emphysema. This measurement may help rule out the confounding effects of variations in breath-hold levels. PMID:27536095

  5. Development of a new, robust and accurate, spectroscopic metric for scatterer size estimation in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassinopoulos, Michalis; Pitris, Costas

    2016-03-01

    The modulations appearing on the backscattering spectrum originating from a scatterer are related to its diameter as described by Mie theory for spherical particles. Many metrics for Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) take advantage of this observation in order to enhance the contrast of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images. However, none of these metrics has achieved high accuracy when calculating the scatterer size. In this work, Mie theory was used to further investigate the relationship between the degree of modulation in the spectrum and the scatterer size. From this study, a new spectroscopic metric, the bandwidth of the Correlation of the Derivative (COD) was developed which is more robust and accurate, compared to previously reported techniques, in the estimation of scatterer size. The self-normalizing nature of the derivative and the robustness of the first minimum of the correlation as a measure of its width, offer significant advantages over other spectral analysis approaches especially for scatterer sizes above 3 μm. The feasibility of this technique was demonstrated using phantom samples containing 6, 10 and 16 μm diameter microspheres as well as images of normal and cancerous human colon. The results are very promising, suggesting that the proposed metric could be implemented in OCT spectral analysis for measuring nuclear size distribution in biological tissues. A technique providing such information would be of great clinical significance since it would allow the detection of nuclear enlargement at the earliest stages of precancerous development.

  6. Tunable Rare Earth fcu-MOF Platform: Access to Adsorption Kinetics Driven Gas/Vapor Separations via Pore Size Contraction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dong-Xu; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Jiang, Hao; Adil, Karim; Cairns, Amy J; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-04-22

    Reticular chemistry approach was successfully employed to deliberately construct new rare-earth (RE, i.e., Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Y(3+)) fcu metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with restricted window apertures. Controlled and selective access to the resultant contracted fcu-MOF pores permits the achievement of the requisite sorbate cutoff, ideal for selective adsorption kinetics based separation and/or molecular sieving of gases and vapors. Predetermined reaction conditions that permitted the formation in situ of the 12-connected RE hexanuclear molecular building block (MBB) and the establishment of the first RE-fcu-MOF platform, especially in the presence of 2-fluorobenzoic acid (2-FBA) as a modulator and a structure directing agent, were used to synthesize isostructural RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOFs based on a relatively bulkier 2-connected bridging ligand, namely 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate (1,4-NDC). The subsequent RE-1,4-NDC-fcu-MOF structural features, contracted windows/pores and high concentration of open metal sites combined with exceptional hydrothermal and chemical stabilities, yielded notable gas/solvent separation properties, driven mostly by adsorption kinetics as exemplified in this work for n-butane/methane, butanol/methanol, and butanol/water pair systems.

  7. Size-Dependent Filling Behavior of UV-Curable Di(meth)acrylate Resins into Carbon-Coated Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores of around 20 nm.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Masaru; Nakaya, Akifumi; Hoshikawa, Yasuto; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Kyotani, Takashi

    2016-11-09

    Ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography is a promising nanofabrication technology with cost efficiency and high throughput for sub-20 nm size semiconductor, data storage, and optical devices. To test formability of organic resist mask patterns, we investigated whether the type of polymerizable di(meth)acrylate monomer affected the fabrication of cured resin nanopillars by UV nanoimprinting using molds with pores of around 20 nm. We used carbon-coated, porous, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films prepared by electrochemical oxidation and thermal chemical vapor deposition as molds, because the pore diameter distribution in the range of 10-40 nm was suitable for combinatorial testing to investigate whether UV-curable resins comprising each monomer were filled into the mold recesses in UV nanoimprinting. Although the UV-curable resins, except for a bisphenol A-based one, detached from the molds without pull-out defects after radical photopolymerization under UV light, the number of cured resin nanopillars was independent of the viscosity of the monomer(s) in each resin. The number of resin nanopillars increased and their diameter decreased as the number of hydroxy groups in the aliphatic diacrylate monomers increased. It was concluded that the filling of the carbon-coated pores having diameters of around 20 nm with UV-curable resins was promoted by the presence of hydroxy groups in the aliphatic di(meth)acrylate monomers.

  8. Healing of rabbit calvarial bone defects using biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics made of submicron-sized grains with a hierarchical pore structure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Eun-Suk; Jang, Je-Hee; Suh, Jo-Young; Park, Kwang-Bum; Hanawa, Takao

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of new bone graft substitutes - biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP) made of submicron-sized grains with fully interconnected wide-range micron-scale pores in two different macrodesigns: donut shaped with a 300-400 microm central macropore (n-BCP-1) or rod-shaped (n-BCP-2)--in the healing of rabbit calvarial defects, and compared their bone-healing properties with those of various commercial bone substitutes, which included substitutes with similar BCP composition (MBCP and Osteon), anorganic bovine bone (Bio-Oss), and beta-TCP (Cerasorb). The surface morphology of the bone substitutes was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Defects 8 mm in diameter were created in the calvaria of 30 adult male New Zealand White rabbits and were filled with six types of bone substitutes. The percentage of newly formed bone (NB%) was evaluated histomorphometrically 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. SEM observation showed submicron-sized grains with fully interconnected micropore structures in the n-BCP-1 and n-BCP-2 groups; these groups also showed considerable new bone formation in inner micropores as well as on the outer surfaces. The n-BCP-1 group exhibited enhanced new bone formation and direct ingrowth of bone tissue with blood vessels into central pores. Histomorphometric analysis showed significantly greater NB% in the n-BCP-1 group when compared with the other groups at 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.05). A new BCP ceramics made of submicron-sized grains with a hierarchical pore structure was an effective osteoconductive material for the treatment of osseous defects of rabbit calvaria.

  9. Field and pore size dependence of the electrophoretic mobility of DNA: a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and electric birefringence measurements.

    PubMed

    Tinland, B; Pernodet, N; Weill, G

    1996-06-01

    By combining an electrophoretic cell with a setup of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) we can measure the electrophoretic mobility mu of double-stranded lambda DNA in agarose gel as a function of electric field E and gel concentration C. Mobility varies linearly with the field in agreement with the biased reptation model with fluctuations. The slopes are analyzed in term of orientation and compared with birefringence results. The mobility extrapolated at zero field follows the prediction of the reptation theory; we deduced the variation of the pore size with the agarose concentration. With a special use of our setup, we measure directly the free-mobility mu 0 of the DNA.

  10. Robust covariate-adjusted log-rank statistics and corresponding sample size formula for recurrent events data.

    PubMed

    Song, Rui; Kosorok, Michael R; Cai, Jianwen

    2008-09-01

    Recurrent events data are frequently encountered in clinical trials. This article develops robust covariate-adjusted log-rank statistics applied to recurrent events data with arbitrary numbers of events under independent censoring and the corresponding sample size formula. The proposed log-rank tests are robust with respect to different data-generating processes and are adjusted for predictive covariates. It reduces to the Kong and Slud (1997, Biometrika 84, 847-862) setting in the case of a single event. The sample size formula is derived based on the asymptotic normality of the covariate-adjusted log-rank statistics under certain local alternatives and a working model for baseline covariates in the recurrent event data context. When the effect size is small and the baseline covariates do not contain significant information about event times, it reduces to the same form as that of Schoenfeld (1983, Biometrics 39, 499-503) for cases of a single event or independent event times within a subject. We carry out simulations to study the control of type I error and the comparison of powers between several methods in finite samples. The proposed sample size formula is illustrated using data from an rhDNase study.

  11. Robust Covariate-Adjusted Log-Rank Statistics and Corresponding Sample Size Formula for Recurrent Events Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Rui; Kosorok, Michael R.; Cai, Jianwen

    2009-01-01

    Summary Recurrent events data are frequently encountered in clinical trials. This article develops robust covariate-adjusted log-rank statistics applied to recurrent events data with arbitrary numbers of events under independent censoring and the corresponding sample size formula. The proposed log-rank tests are robust with respect to different data-generating processes and are adjusted for predictive covariates. It reduces to the Kong and Slud (1997, Biometrika 84, 847–862) setting in the case of a single event. The sample size formula is derived based on the asymptotic normality of the covariate-adjusted log-rank statistics under certain local alternatives and a working model for baseline covariates in the recurrent event data context. When the effect size is small and the baseline covariates do not contain significant information about event times, it reduces to the same form as that of Schoenfeld (1983, Biometrics 39, 499–503) for cases of a single event or independent event times within a subject. We carry out simulations to study the control of type I error and the comparison of powers between several methods in finite samples. The proposed sample size formula is illustrated using data from an rhDNase study. PMID:18162107

  12. Robust organelle size extractions from elastic scattering measurements of single cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannaday, Ashley E.; Draham, Robert; Berger, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this project is to estimate non-nuclear organelle size distributions in single cells by measuring angular scattering patterns and fitting them with Mie theory. Simulations have indicated that the large relative size distribution of organelles (mean:width≈2) leads to unstable Mie fits unless scattering is collected at polar angles less than 20 degrees. Our optical system has therefore been modified to collect angles down to 10 degrees. Initial validations will be performed on polystyrene bead populations whose size distributions resemble those of cell organelles. Unlike with the narrow bead distributions that are often used for calibration, we expect to see an order-of-magnitude improvement in the stability of the size estimates as the minimum angle decreases from 20 to 10 degrees. Scattering patterns will then be acquired and analyzed from single cells (EMT6 mouse cancer cells), both fixed and live, at multiple time points. Fixed cells, with no changes in organelle sizes over time, will be measured to determine the fluctuation level in estimated size distribution due to measurement imperfections alone. Subsequent measurements on live cells will determine whether there is a higher level of fluctuation that could be attributed to dynamic changes in organelle size. Studies on unperturbed cells are precursors to ones in which the effects of exogenous agents are monitored over time.

  13. Ovariectomized rats' femur treated with fibrates and statins. Assessment of pore-size distribution by ¹H-NMR relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Şipoş, Remus Sebastian; Fechete, Radu; Chelcea, Ramona Ioana; Moldovan, Dumitriţa; Pap, Zsuzsánna; Pávai, Zoltán; Demco, Dan Eugen

    2015-01-01

    The effects of two wonder drugs, simvastatins and fenofibrates on the proximal part of the femoris of a series of ovariectomized and non-ovariectomized Wistar albino rats was estimated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively by the modern method of 1D 1H-NMR T2-distribution. The 72 rats subjected to this study were divided in six groups and were sacrificed at two, four, six and eight weeks after ovariectomy and the proximal part of femoris was harvested. The CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) echoes train curves were measured for the bones fully saturated with water during two months after two months of natural drying. These decays were analyzed by Laplace inversion and an average of normalized T2-distributions was considered for all rat's groups. The 1D averaged T2-distributions present four peaks, which were associated with protons in four major environments, from which the free water protons are used as spy molecules to explore the boundaries of cavities. In the approximation of spherical pores, the averaged T2-distributions were transformed in distributions of pores diameters. These were found in the range from 2 μm up to 2 mm. The relative amplitudes, widths and position of deconvoluted distributions of small, medium and large cavities are used for a qualitatively analysis of the effect of our lipid-lowering drugs. For a semi-quantitatively analysis, we chose the diameter d of proximal part of femoris' trabecular cavities. We show that the positive or negative effects of treatments with simvastatins and fenofibrates are strongly dependent on the duration of treatment. Moreover, the treatment of healthy bone is generally counter-indicated.

  14. Do adults show a curse of knowledge in false-belief reasoning? A robust estimate of the true effect size.

    PubMed

    Ryskin, Rachel A; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Seven experiments use large sample sizes to robustly estimate the effect size of a previous finding that adults are more likely to commit egocentric errors in a false-belief task when the egocentric response is plausible in light of their prior knowledge. We estimate the true effect size to be less than half of that reported in the original findings. Even though we found effects in the same direction as the original, they were substantively smaller; the original study would have had less than 33% power to detect an effect of this magnitude. The influence of plausibility on the curse of knowledge in adults appears to be small enough that its impact on real-life perspective-taking may need to be reevaluated.

  15. Do Adults Show a Curse of Knowledge in False-Belief Reasoning? A Robust Estimate of the True Effect Size

    PubMed Central

    Ryskin, Rachel A.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Seven experiments use large sample sizes to robustly estimate the effect size of a previous finding that adults are more likely to commit egocentric errors in a false-belief task when the egocentric response is plausible in light of their prior knowledge. We estimate the true effect size to be less than half of that reported in the original findings. Even though we found effects in the same direction as the original, they were substantively smaller; the original study would have had less than 33% power to detect an effect of this magnitude. The influence of plausibility on the curse of knowledge in adults appears to be small enough that its impact on real-life perspective-taking may need to be reevaluated. PMID:24667826

  16. Pleural effusion lipoproteins measured by NMR spectroscopy for diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions: a novel tool for pore-size estimation.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ching-Wan; Law, Chun-Yiu

    2014-09-05

    High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry of biofluids has been increasingly used in laboratory diagnosis of various diseases. In this study, we extended the use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions using pleural fluids. We compared this new NMR-based test with Light's criteria, the current gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions. We analyzed 67 samples of pleural effusions from patients with pulmonary malignancy (N = 32), pulmonary tuberculosis (N = 18), and congestive heart failure (N = 17). The metabolomes of pleural effusions were analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy on a Bruker 600 MHz spectrometer. Through a metabolome-wide association approach with filtering of insignificant markers (p value <4 × 10(-6)) and multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis), lipoprotein was found to be the best biomarker that distinguished exudates from transudates. Using NMR-based lipoprotein profiling to classify exudative pleural effusions from transudates, the area-under-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 with sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 88%, and accuracy of 98%. In contrast, the current gold standard, Light's criteria, give a specificity of only 65% at the same sensitivity level of 98%. Using the principle of size exclusion, NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of pleural fluids has an unprecedented diagnostic performance superiority over the Light's criteria. The capillary leaks secondary to inflammation result in a larger pleural pore-size, which allows the large-sized lipoproteins to accumulate in exudative pleural effusions. In contrast, the pleural permeability is intact in transudates, which allow only small-sized lipoproteins to pass into the pleural effusions. The average capillary pore-size of the pleura can therefore be determined by using NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of

  17. Determination of pore sizes and relative porosity in porous nanoshell architectures using dextran retention with single monomer resolution and proton permeation.

    PubMed

    Muhandiramlage, Thusitha P; Cheng, Zhiliang; Roberts, David L; Keogh, John P; Hall, Henry K; Aspinwall, Craig A

    2012-11-20

    Unilamellar phospholipid vesicles prepared using the polymerizable lipid bis-sorbylphosphatidylcholine (bis-SorbPC) yield three-dimensional nanoarchitectures that are highly permeable to small molecules. The resulting porous phospholipid nanoshells (PPNs) are potentially useful for a range of biomedical applications including nanosensors and nanodelivery vehicles for cellular assays and manipulations. The uniformity and size distribution of the pores, key properties for sensor design and utilization, have not previously been reported. Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) was utilized to assess the nominal molecular weight cutoff limit (NMCL) of the PPN via analysis of retained dextran with single monomer resolution. The NMCL of PPNs prepared from pure bis-SorbPC was equivalent to a 1800 Da linear dextran, corresponding to a maximum pore diameter of 2.6 nm. Further investigation of PPNs prepared using binary mixtures of bis-SorbPC and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) revealed a similar NMCL when the bis-SorbPC content exceeded 30 mol %, whereas different size-dependent permeation was observed below this composition. Below 30 mol % bis-SorbPC, dextran retention provided insufficient mass resolution (162 Da) to observe porosity on the experimental time scale; however, proton permeability showed a marked enhancement for bis-SorbPC ≥ 10 mol %. Combined, these data suggest that the NMCL for native pores in bis-SorbPC PPNs results from an inherent property within the lipid assembly that can be partially disrupted by dilution of bis-SorbPC below a critical value for domain formation. Additionally, the analytical method described herein should prove useful for the challenging task of elucidating porosity in a range of three-dimensional nanomaterials.

  18. Impact of Pore Size on Fenton Oxidation of Methyl Orange Adsorbed on Magnetic Carbon Materials: Trade-Off between Capacity and Regenerability.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ye; Hill, Josephine M

    2017-04-18

    The economic cleanup of wastewater continues to be an active area of research. In this study, the influence of pore size on regeneration by Fenton oxidation for carbon materials with adsorbed methyl orange (MO) was investigated. More specifically three carbon supports, with pore sizes ranging from mainly microporous to half microporous-half mesoporous to mainly mesoporous, were impregnated with γ-Fe2O3 to make them magnetic and easy to separate from solution. The carbon samples were characterized before adsorption and after regeneration with hydrogen peroxide at 20 °C. In addition, adsorption kinetics and isotherms were collected, and the Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion model and Freundlich isotherm model fit to the data. The adsorption capacity increased with increasing microporosity while the regeneration efficiency increased with increasing mesoporosity. Further experiments with varying regeneration and adsorption conditions suggested that the regeneration process may be kinetically limited. The MO adsorbed in the micropores was strongly adsorbed and difficult to remove unlike the MO adsorbed in the mesopores, which could be reacted under relatively mild conditions. Thus, there was a trade-off between adsorption capacity and regeneration.

  19. Effect of seawater salinity on pore-size distribution on a poly(styrene)-based HP20 resin and its adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin; Sun, Geng; Qiu, Jiangbing; Ma, Qimin; Hess, Philipp; Li, Aifeng

    2014-12-19

    In the present study, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were spiked into artificial seawater at low, medium and high estuarine salinities (9‰, 13.5‰ and 27‰). Passive samplers (HP20 resin) used for solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology were exposed in these seawaters for 12-h periods. Adsorption curves well fitted a pseudo-secondary kinetics model. The highest initial sorption rates of both toxins occurred in the seawater of medium salinity, followed by seawater of low and high estuarine salinity. Pore volumes of micropores (<2 nm) and small mesopores (2 nmsize) in seawaters of high and low salinity. More toxin or other matrix agglomerates were displayed on the surface of resin deployed in the seawater of medium salinity. Taking into consideration the pore-size distribution and surface images, it appears that intra-particle diffusion governs toxin adsorption in seawater at high salinity while film diffusion mainly controls the adsorption process in seawater at medium salinity. This is the first study to confirm that molecules of OA and DTX1 are able to enter into micropores (<2nm) and small mesopores (2-10nm) of HP20 resin in estuarine seawater with high salinity (∼27‰).

  20. Effects of pore sizes and oxygen-containing functional groups on desulfurization activity of Fe/NAC prepared by ultrasonic-assisted impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Song; Guo, Jia-Xiu; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Yin, Hua-Qiang; Luo, De-Ming

    2016-01-01

    A series of Fe-loaded activated carbons treated by HNO3 (Fe/NAC) were prepared by incipient impregnation method with or without ultrasonic assistance and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with energy disperse spectroscope (SEM-EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorption/desorption. The desulfurization activities were evaluated at a fixed bed reactor under a mixed gas simulated from flue gas. The results showed that desulfurization activity from excellent to poor is as follows: Fe/NAC-60 > Fe/NAC-80 > Fe/NAC-30 > Fe/NAC-15 > Fe/NAC-0 > Fe/NAC-100 > NAC. Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity and has breakthrough sulfur capacity of 319 mg/g and breakthrough time of 540 min. The introduction of ultrasonic oscillation does not change the form of Fe oxides on activated carbon but can change the dispersion and relative contents of Fe3O4. The types of oxygen-containing functional groups have no obvious change for all samples but the texture properties show some differences when they are oscillated for different times. The fresh Fe/NAC-60 has a surface area of 1045 m2/g and total pore volume of 0.961 cm3/g with micropore volume of 0.437 cm3/g and is larger than Fe/NAC-0 (823 m2/g, 0.733 and 0.342 cm3/g). After desulfurization, surface area and pore volume of all samples decrease significantly, and those of the exhausted Fe/NAC-60 decrease to 233 m2/g and 0.481 cm3/g, indicating that some byproducts deposit on surface to cover pores. Pore size distribution influences SO2 adsorption, and fresh Fe/NAC-60 has more pore widths centralized at about 0.7 nm and 1.0⿿2.0 nm and corresponds to an excellent desulfurization activity, showing that micropore is conducive to the removal of SO2.

  1. Use of Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava penetration to quantitatively assess the impact of filtration parameters for 0.2-micrometer-pore-size filters.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; McVey, J; Faustino, P; Lute, S; Sweeney, N; Pawar, V; Khan, M; Brorson, K; Hussong, D

    2010-02-01

    Filters rated as having a 0.2-microm pore size (0.2-microm-rated filters) are used in laboratory and manufacturing settings for diverse applications of bacterial and particle removal from process fluids, analytical test articles, and gasses. Using Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava, a diminutive bacterium with an unusual geometry (i.e., it is very thin), we evaluated passage through 0.2-microm-rated filters and the impact of filtration process parameters and bacterial challenge density. We show that consistent H. pseudoflava passage occurs through 0.2-microm-rated filters. This is in contrast to an absence of significant passage of nutritionally challenged bacteria that are of similar size (i.e., hydrodynamic diameter) but dissimilar geometry.

  2. A Probability-Based Measure of Effect Size: Robustness to Base Rates and Other Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, John

    2008-01-01

    Calculating and reporting appropriate measures of effect size are becoming standard practice in psychological research. One of the most common scenarios encountered involves the comparison of 2 groups, which includes research designs that are experimental (e.g., random assignment to treatment vs. placebo conditions) and nonexperimental (e.g.,…

  3. Experimental Estimates of the Impacts of Class Size on Test Scores: Robustness and Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Weili; Lehrer, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of class size reductions (CSRs) draw heavily on the results from Project Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio to support their initiatives. Adding to the political appeal of these initiative are reports that minority and economically disadvantaged students received the largest benefits from smaller classes. We extend this research in two…

  4. Experimental Estimates of the Impacts of Class Size on Test Scores: Robustness and Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Weili; Lehrer, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of class size reductions (CSRs) draw heavily on the results from Project Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio to support their initiatives. Adding to the political appeal of these initiative are reports that minority and economically disadvantaged students received the largest benefits from smaller classes. We extend this research in two…

  5. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of well-organised carbon nanotubes using nanoporous anodic alumina with different pore diameters.

    PubMed

    Mezni, Amine; Altalhi, Tariq; Saber, Nesrine Ben; Aldalbahi, Ali; Boulehmi, Seifeddine; Santos, Abel; Losic, Dusan

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at introducing the synthesis process of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) inside nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) templates adopting a catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach under different conditions. The nanotubular structure of NAA is prepared according to tow-step anodization process. This provides a unique platform to grow CNTs with precisely controlled geometric features. The structural features, crystalline structures and chemical composition of the resulting CNTs-NAA composites were systematically characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as Raman spectroscopy. Preparing the CNTs according to this template technique allows us to obtain nanotubes which are open at one/both end(s) with a uniform diameter (10-200nm) along the pore length (1-100μm) without using any metal catalyst.

  6. Screening metal-organic frameworks for selective noble gas adsorption in air: effect of pore size and framework topology.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Marie V; Staiger, Chad L; Perry, John J; Allendorf, Mark D; Greathouse, Jeffery A

    2013-06-21

    The adsorption of noble gases and nitrogen by sixteen metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) was investigated using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. The MOFs were chosen to represent a variety of net topologies, pore dimensions, and metal centers. Three commercially available MOFs (HKUST-1, AlMIL-53, and ZIF-8) and PCN-14 were also included for comparison. Experimental adsorption isotherms, obtained from volumetric and gravimetric methods, were used to compare krypton, argon, and nitrogen uptake with the simulation results. Simulated trends in gas adsorption and predicted selectivities among the commercially available MOFs are in good agreement with experiment. In the low pressure regime, the expected trend of increasing adsorption with increasing noble gas polarizabilty is seen. For each noble gas, low pressure adsorption correlates with several MOF properties, including free volume, topology, and metal center. Additionally, a strong correlation exists between the Henry's constant and the isosteric heat of adsorption for all gases and MOFs considered. Finally, we note that the simulated and experimental gas selectivities demonstrated by this small set of MOFs show improved performance compared to similar values reported for zeolites.

  7. The effects of CeO{sub 2} addition on crystallization behavior and pore size in microporous calcium titanium phosphate glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Soleimani, F.; Rezvani, M.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► We prepare a phosphate glass ceramic in the system of CaO–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and add 2 to 6 mol% CeO{sub 2} to it. We determine the optimum percentage of CeO{sub 2} addition. ► We study phase separation, suitable time and temperature for crystallization in the microporous Calcium Titanium Phosphate Glass Ceramics utilizing DTA, SEM and XRD. ► We investigate on pore size utilizing BET and SEM techniques before and after CeO{sub 2} addition. ► CeO{sub 2} increases the pore size in the Calcium Titanium Phosphate Glass Ceramics. -- Abstract: In this research the effect of the addition of CeO{sub 2} to microporous Calcium Titanium Phosphate glass ceramics was studied. Different molar percentages of CeO{sub 2} were added to three samples of a base glass whose composition was P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 30, CaO 45, TiO{sub 2} 25 (mol%). The first sample had 2 mol% CeO{sub 2}, the second sample had 4 mol% CeO{sub 2}, and the third sample had 6 mol% CeO{sub 2}. The fourth sample did not contain any CeO{sub 2}. The glass samples were melted and crystallized to bulk glass ceramics by a conventional method. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) was utilized to determine the appropriate nucleation and crystallization temperatures. Among the samples, the DTA curve of the sample which had 2 mol% CeO{sub 2} had the sharpest crystallization peak. Therefore, this sample was chosen to prepare the glass ceramics. Using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) it was found that in all samples β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and CaTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} were the major phases. The β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase was dissolved away by soaking the glass ceramics in HCl, leaving a porous skeleton of CaTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}. CeO{sub 2} addition increased the glass transition temperature and decreased the crystallization time and temperature. It was shown that CeO{sub 2} addition resulted in an increase in the mean pore diameter while the specific surface area decreased

  8. Soft landing of cell-sized vesicles on solid surfaces for robust vehicle capture/release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dehui; Wu, Zhengfang; Gao, Aiting; Zhang, Weihong; Kang, Chengying; Tao, Qi; Yang, Peng

    2015-04-28

    Based on a concept of a smooth and steady landing of fragile objects without destruction via a soft cushion, we have developed a model for the soft landing of deformable lipid giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) on solid surfaces. The foundation for a successful soft landing is a solid substrate with a two-layer coating, including a bottom layer of positively charged lysozymes and an upper lipid membrane layer. We came to a clear conclusion that anionic GUVs when sedimented on a surface, the vesicle rupture occurs upon the direct contact with the positively charged lysozyme layer due to the strong coulombic interactions. In contrast, certain separation distances was achieved by the insertion of a soft lipid membrane cushion between the charged GUVs and the lysozyme layer, which attenuated the coulombic force and created a mild buffer zone, ensuring the robust capture of GUVs on the substrate without their rupture. The non-covalent bonding facilitated a fully reversible stimuli-responsive capture/release of GUVs from the biomimetic solid surface, which has never been demonstrated before due to the extreme fragility of GUVs. Moreover, the controllable capture/release of cells has been proven to be of vital importance in biotechnology, and similarity the present approach to capture/release cells is expected to open the previously inaccessible avenues of research.

  9. Model Pores of Molecular Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, J. A.; Anderson, J. L.; Ho, W. S.; Petzny, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Extremely uniform pores of near molecular dimension can be formed by the irradiation-etching technique first demonstrated by Price and Walker. The technique has now been developed to the stage where it can be used to fabricate model membranes for examining the various steric, hydrodynamic, and electrodynamic phenomena encountered in transport through molecular-size pores. Methods for preparing and characterizing membranes with pores as small as 25 A (radius) are described in this paper. Results on pore size determination via Knudsen gas flow and electrolyte conduction are compared. Pore wall modification by monolayer deposition is also discussed. PMID:4339801

  10. Sample-size calculation and reestimation for a semiparametric analysis of recurrent event data taking robust standard errors into account.

    PubMed

    Ingel, Katharina; Jahn-Eimermacher, Antje

    2014-07-01

    In some clinical trials, the repeated occurrence of the same type of event is of primary interest and the Andersen-Gill model has been proposed to analyze recurrent event data. Existing methods to determine the required sample size for an Andersen-Gill analysis rely on the strong assumption that all heterogeneity in the individuals' risk to experience events can be explained by known covariates. In practice, however, this assumption might be violated due to unknown or unmeasured covariates affecting the time to events. In these situations, the use of a robust variance estimate in calculating the test statistic is highly recommended to assure the type I error rate, but this will in turn decrease the actual power of the trial. In this article, we derive a new sample-size formula to reach the desired power even in the presence of unexplained heterogeneity. The formula is based on an inflation factor that considers the degree of heterogeneity and characteristics of the robust variance estimate. Nevertheless, in the planning phase of a trial there will usually be some uncertainty about the size of the inflation factor. Therefore, we propose an internal pilot study design to reestimate the inflation factor during the study and adjust the sample size accordingly. In a simulation study, the performance and validity of this design with respect to type I error rate and power are proven. Our method is applied to the HepaTel trial evaluating a new intervention for patients with cirrhosis of the liver. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Dip TIPS as a facile and versatile method for fabrication of polymer foams with controlled shape, size and pore architecture for bioengineering applications.

    PubMed

    Kasoju, Naresh; Kubies, Dana; Kumorek, Marta M; Kříž, Jan; Fábryová, Eva; Machová, Lud'ka; Kovářová, Jana; Rypáček, František

    2014-01-01

    The porous polymer foams act as a template for neotissuegenesis in tissue engineering, and, as a reservoir for cell transplants such as pancreatic islets while simultaneously providing a functional interface with the host body. The fabrication of foams with the controlled shape, size and pore structure is of prime importance in various bioengineering applications. To this end, here we demonstrate a thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) based facile process for the fabrication of polymer foams with a controlled architecture. The setup comprises of a metallic template bar (T), a metallic conducting block (C) and a non-metallic reservoir tube (R), connected in sequence T-C-R. The process hereinafter termed as Dip TIPS, involves the dipping of the T-bar into a polymer solution, followed by filling of the R-tube with a freezing mixture to induce the phase separation of a polymer solution in the immediate vicinity of T-bar; Subsequent free-drying or freeze-extraction steps produced the polymer foams. An easy exchange of the T-bar of a spherical or rectangular shape allowed the fabrication of tubular, open- capsular and flat-sheet shaped foams. A mere change in the quenching time produced the foams with a thickness ranging from hundreds of microns to several millimeters. And, the pore size was conveniently controlled by varying either the polymer concentration or the quenching temperature. Subsequent in vivo studies in brown Norway rats for 4-weeks demonstrated the guided cell infiltration and homogenous cell distribution through the polymer matrix, without any fibrous capsule and necrotic core. In conclusion, the results show the "Dip TIPS" as a facile and adaptable process for the fabrication of anisotropic channeled porous polymer foams of various shapes and sizes for potential applications in tissue engineering, cell transplantation and other related fields.

  12. Dip TIPS as a Facile and Versatile Method for Fabrication of Polymer Foams with Controlled Shape, Size and Pore Architecture for Bioengineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kasoju, Naresh; Kubies, Dana; Kumorek, Marta M.; Kříž, Jan; Fábryová, Eva; Machová, Lud'ka; Kovářová, Jana; Rypáček, František

    2014-01-01

    The porous polymer foams act as a template for neotissuegenesis in tissue engineering, and, as a reservoir for cell transplants such as pancreatic islets while simultaneously providing a functional interface with the host body. The fabrication of foams with the controlled shape, size and pore structure is of prime importance in various bioengineering applications. To this end, here we demonstrate a thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) based facile process for the fabrication of polymer foams with a controlled architecture. The setup comprises of a metallic template bar (T), a metallic conducting block (C) and a non-metallic reservoir tube (R), connected in sequence T-C-R. The process hereinafter termed as Dip TIPS, involves the dipping of the T-bar into a polymer solution, followed by filling of the R-tube with a freezing mixture to induce the phase separation of a polymer solution in the immediate vicinity of T-bar; Subsequent free-drying or freeze-extraction steps produced the polymer foams. An easy exchange of the T-bar of a spherical or rectangular shape allowed the fabrication of tubular, open- capsular and flat-sheet shaped foams. A mere change in the quenching time produced the foams with a thickness ranging from hundreds of microns to several millimeters. And, the pore size was conveniently controlled by varying either the polymer concentration or the quenching temperature. Subsequent in vivo studies in brown Norway rats for 4-weeks demonstrated the guided cell infiltration and homogenous cell distribution through the polymer matrix, without any fibrous capsule and necrotic core. In conclusion, the results show the “Dip TIPS” as a facile and adaptable process for the fabrication of anisotropic channeled porous polymer foams of various shapes and sizes for potential applications in tissue engineering, cell transplantation and other related fields. PMID:25275373

  13. Scaling range sizes to threats for robust predictions of risks to biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Keith, David A; Akçakaya, H Resit; Murray, Nicholas J

    2017-07-13

    Assessments of risk to biodiversity often rely on spatial distributions of species and ecosystems. Range size metrics used extensively in these assessments, such as Area of Occupancy (AOO), are sensitive to measurement scale, prompting proposals to measure them at finer scales, or a variery of different scales based on the shape of the distribution or ecological characteristics of the biota. Despite its dominant role in Red List assessments for decades, appropriate spatial scales of AOO for predicting risks of species extinction or ecosystem collapse remain untested and contentious. There are no quantitative evaluations of the scale-sensitivity of AOO as a predictor of risks, the relationship between optimal AOO scale and threat scale, or the effect of grid uncertainty. Here we present new empirical evidence that AOO is a good predictor of risk and performs optimally when measured with grid cells 0.1-1 times the area of the largest plausible threat event. Contrary to previous assertions, finer scale estimates resulted in lower predictive performance; the optimal scale depends on the spatial scales of threats more than the shape or size of biotic distributions. Although we show appreciable potential for grid measurement errors, current IUCN guidelines for estimating AOO neutralize geometric uncertainty and incorporate effective scaling procedures for assessing risks posed by landscape-scale threats to species and ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting the adsorption of organic pollutants from water onto activated carbons based on the pore size distribution and molecular connectivity index.

    PubMed

    Bunmahotama, Warisa; Hung, Wei-Nung; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2015-11-15

    A new model approach is developed to predict the adsorption isotherms of low-molecular-weight nonpolar organic compounds (LMWNPOCs) onto activated carbons (ACs). The model is based on the Polanyi-Dubinin (PD) equation, with the limiting pore volume of adsorbent estimated from the pore size distribution (PSD) data, and the adsorption affinity of adsorbate described by the molecular connectivity index (MCI). To obtain the MCI parameters, the model was first tested for the adsorption of 34 LMWNPOCs primarily on F400 AC from 3 reports. The models fit the experimental data well, with only 39.2% of errors. The approach was further employed to predict the adsorption capacity of 40 LMWNPOCs on F400 AC, 12 LMWNPOCs onto 9 other ACs, and 8 LMWNPOCs onto 5 ACs with unknown PSD, with the errors of 41.9%, showing the model being reasonable. The model approach may provide a simple means for predicting adsorption capacities of LMWNPOCs onto different ACs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    PubMed Central

    Suteewong, Teeraporn; Sai, Hiroaki; Cohen, Roy; Wang, Suntao; Bradbury, Michelle; Baird, Barbara; Gruner, Sol M.; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some times. Here we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3̄n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, e.g. for co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously uptaken by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21158438

  16. Influence of finite size and wetting on nematic and smectic phase behavior of liquid crystal confined to controlled-pore matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutnjak, Zdravko; Kralj, Samo; Lahajnar, Gojmir; Žumer, Slobodan

    2004-11-01

    The high-resolution calorimetric study was carried out on octylcyanobiphenyl liquid crystal (LC) confined to various controlled-pore glass (CPG) matrices with silane-treated surface. The diameter of the voids cross section ranged between 23.7 and 395nm . The results are compared to those obtained previously on CPG voids nontreated with silane. We found a striking similarity between the shifts in the isotropic to nematic and nematic to smectic- A phase transition temperatures as a function of the void radius in which order parameter variations at the LC-void interface play the dominant role. Weaker temperature shifts are observed in silane-treated samples, where surface ordering tendency is larger. In nontreated samples, a finite-size scaling law in the maximum value of the heat capacity at the nematic to smectic- A transition was observed for void diameters larger than 20nm . In silane-treated samples, this behavior is considerably changed by surface wetting interactions.

  17. The study of Xe adsorption behavior in meso-size pores of carbon black materials using laser-polarized 129Xe NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Koji; Kimura, Atsuomi; Fujiwara, Hideaki

    2003-01-01

    The meso size pores of carbon black materials with Pt critically affect catalysts which play an important role for fuel cells of electric vehicles. Time-consuming BET methods are usually used to measure the physisorption enthalpy which determines the characteristics of catalysts. The laser polarized method enhances 129Xe polarization by 4 orders of magnitude, overcoming a low sensitivity, making this measurement technique faster than conventional experiments. In this paper, we first demonstrate Laser-Polarized 129Xe NMR Spectroscopy for studying carbon black materials with Pt of fuel cells of electric vehicles in order to determine the physisorption enthalpy. At the same time, T1 experiments using Laser-Polarized 129Xe will be discussed in order to clarify the surface condition and adsorption behavior.

  18. Effect of variation of average pore size and specific surface area of ZnO electrode (WE) on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Nitin A.; Singh, Pramod K.; Rhee, Hee Woo; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

    2014-10-01

    Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J- V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments.

  19. Effect of variation of average pore size and specific surface area of ZnO electrode (WE) on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nitin A; Singh, Pramod K; Rhee, Hee Woo; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m(2)/g which was 5.54 m(2)/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m(2)/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J-V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments.

  20. Robust quantitation of basic-protein higher-order aggregates using size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gervais, David; Downer, Andrew; King, Darryl; Kanda, Patrick; Foote, Nicholas; Smith, Stuart

    2017-05-30

    Detection of higher-order aggregates (HOA) using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) was found to be variable for a basic protein, using exposed-silanol or diol-silica-based SEC columns. Preparations of the tetrameric biopharmaceutical enzyme Erwinia chrysanthemil-asparaginase (ErA), which has an isoelectric point of 8.6, were analysed using a diol-silica SEC column. Although the proportions of ErA main peak and octamer species were unaffected, HOA recovery and detection were extremely variable and had poor agreement with an orthogonal measurement technique, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). The observation that only HOA was selectively affected by non-specific silanol interactions was unexpected, so alternatives were sought. Coated-silica SEC columns improved the resolution and reproducibility of HOA detection for this alkaline-pI protein, and improved the agreement of HOA with the AUC method. Basic proteins, such as ErA, should be thoroughly evaluated in SEC method development, to ensure that resolution of larger aggregate species is not compromised.

  1. Robust Wireless Power Transmission to mm-Sized Free-Floating Distributed Implants.

    PubMed

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Yeon, Pyungwoo; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an inductive link for wireless power transmission (WPT) to mm-sized free-floating implants (FFIs) distributed in a large three-dimensional space in the neural tissue that is insensitive to the exact location of the receiver (Rx). The proposed structure utilizes a high-Q resonator on the target wirelessly powered plane that encompasses randomly positioned multiple FFIs, all powered by a large external transmitter (Tx). Based on resonant WPT fundamentals, we have devised a detailed method for optimization of the FFIs and explored design strategies and safety concerns, such as coil segmentation and specific absorption rate limits using realistic finite element simulation models in HFSS including head tissue layers, respectively. We have built several FFI prototypes to conduct accurate measurements and to characterize the performance of the proposed WPT method. Measurement results on 1-mm receivers operating at 60 MHz show power transfer efficiency and power delivered to the load at 2.4% and 1.3 mW, respectively, within 14-18 mm of Tx-Rx separation and 7 cm(2) of brain surface.

  2. Experimental Study of Porosity Changes in Shale Caprocks Exposed to CO2-Saturated Brines I: Evolution of Mineralogy, Pore Connectivity, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    SciTech Connect

    Mouzakis, Katherine M.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Rother, Gernot; Bañuelos, José Leobardo; Wang, Xiuyu; Kaszuba, John P.; Heath, Jason E.; Miller, Quin R. S.; Alvarado, Vladimir; McCray, John E.

    2016-07-18

    Carbon capture, utilization, and storage, one proposed method of reducing anthropogenic emissions of CO2, relies on low permeability formations, such as shales, above injection formations to prevent upward migration of the injected CO2. Porosity in caprocks evaluated for sealing capacity before injection can be altered by geochemical reactions induced by dissolution of injected CO2 into pore fluids, impacting long-term sealing capacity. Therefore, long-term performance of CO2 sequestration sites may be dependent on both initial distribution and connectivity of pores in caprocks, and on changes induced by geochemical reaction after injection of CO2, which are currently poorly understood. This paper presents results from an experimental study of changes to caprock porosity and pore network geometry in two caprock formations under conditions relevant to CO2 sequestration. Pore connectivity and total porosity increased in the Gothic Shale; while total porosity increased but pore connectivity decreased in the Marine Tuscaloosa. Gothic Shale is a carbonate mudstone that contains volumetrically more carbonate minerals than Marine Tuscaloosa. Carbonate minerals dissolved to a greater extent than silicate minerals in Gothic Shale under high CO2 conditions, leading to increased porosity at length scales <~200 nm that contributed to increased pore connectivity. In contrast, silicate minerals dissolved to a greater extent than carbonate minerals in Marine Tuscaloosa leading to increased porosity at all length scales, and specifically an increase in the number of pores >~1 μm. Mineral reactions also contributed to a decrease in pore connectivity, possibly as a result of precipitation in pore throats or hydration of the high percentage of clays. Finally, this study highlights the role that mineralogy of the caprock can play in geochemical response to CO2 injection and resulting changes in

  3. Experimental Study of Porosity Changes in Shale Caprocks Exposed to CO2-Saturated Brines I: Evolution of Mineralogy, Pore Connectivity, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    SciTech Connect

    Mouzakis, Katherine M.; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Rother, Gernot; Bañuelos, José Leobardo; Wang, Xiuyu; Kaszuba, John P.; Heath, Jason E.; Miller, Quin R. S.; Alvarado, Vladimir; McCray, John E.

    2016-07-18

    Carbon capture, utilization, and storage, one proposed method of reducing anthropogenic emissions of CO2, relies on low permeability formations, such as shales, above injection formations to prevent upward migration of the injected CO2. Porosity in caprocks evaluated for sealing capacity before injection can be altered by geochemical reactions induced by dissolution of injected CO2 into pore fluids, impacting long-term sealing capacity. Therefore, long-term performance of CO2 sequestration sites may be dependent on both initial distribution and connectivity of pores in caprocks, and on changes induced by geochemical reaction after injection of CO2, which are currently poorly understood. This paper presents results from an experimental study of changes to caprock porosity and pore network geometry in two caprock formations under conditions relevant to CO2 sequestration. Pore connectivity and total porosity increased in the Gothic Shale; while total porosity increased but pore connectivity decreased in the Marine Tuscaloosa. Gothic Shale is a carbonate mudstone that contains volumetrically more carbonate minerals than Marine Tuscaloosa. Carbonate minerals dissolved to a greater extent than silicate minerals in Gothic Shale under high CO2 conditions, leading to increased porosity at length scales <~200 nm that contributed to increased pore connectivity. In contrast, silicate minerals dissolved to a greater extent than carbonate minerals in Marine Tuscaloosa leading to increased porosity at all length scales, and specifically an increase in the number of pores >~1 μm. Mineral reactions also contributed to a decrease in pore connectivity, possibly as a result of precipitation in pore throats or hydration of the high percentage of clays. Finally, this study highlights the role that mineralogy of the caprock can play in geochemical response to CO2 injection and resulting changes in

  4. Isoreticular metal-organic frameworks, process for forming the same, and systematic design of pore size and functionality therein, with application for gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Li, Hailian; Kim, Jaheon; Rosi, Nathaniel

    2007-03-27

    The ability to design and construct solid-state materials with pre-determined structures is a grand challenge in chemistry. An inventive strategy based on reticulating metal ions and organic carboxylate links into extended networks has been advanced to a point that has allowed the design of porous structures in which pore size and functionality can be varied systematically. MOF-5, a prototype of a new class of porous materials and one that is constructed from octahedral Zn--O--C clusters and benzene links, was used to demonstrate that its 3-D porous system can be functionalized with the organic groups, --Br, --NH2, --OC3H7, --OC5H11, --H4C2, and --H4C4, and its pore size expanded with the long molecular struts biphenyl, tetrahydropyrene, pyrene, and terphenyl. The ability to direct the formation of the octahedral clusters in the presence of a desired carboxylate link is an essential feature of this strategy, which resulted in the design of an isoreticular (having the same framework topology) series of sixteen well-defined materials whose crystals have open space representing up to 91.1% of the crystal volume, and homogeneous periodic pores that can be incrementally varied from 3.8 to 28.8 angstroms. Unlike the unpredictable nature of zeolite and other molecular sieve syntheses, the deliberate control exercised at the molecular level in the design of these crystals is expected to have tremendous implications on materials properties and future technologies. Indeed, data indicate that members of this series represent the first monocrystalline mesoporous organic/inorganic frameworks, and exhibit the highest capacity for methane storage (155 cm3/cm3 at 36 atm) and the lowest densities (0.41 to 0.21 g/cm3) attained to date for any crystalline material at room temperature.

  5. Multi-functional integration of pore P25@C@MoS2 core-double shell nanostructures as robust ternary anodes with enhanced lithium storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Biao; Zhao, Naiqin; Wei, Chaopeng; Zhou, Jingwen; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Liu, Enzuo

    2017-04-01

    Ternary anodes have attracted more and more attention due to the characteristic advantages resulting from the effect integration of three different materials on the lithium storage mechanism with functional interfaces interaction. However, clarifying the distribution and interaction of carbon, MoS2 and TiO2 in the MoS2/C/TiO2 composite, which is helpful for the understanding of the formation and lithium storage mechanism of the ternary anodes, is a well-known challenge. Herein, a novel pore core-double shell nanostructure of P25@carbon network supported few-layer MoS2 nanosheet (P25@C@FL-MoS2) is successfully synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal approach. The distribution and interaction of the carbon, MoS2 and TiO2 in the obtained P25@C@FL-MoS2 hybrid are systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis et al. It is found that the carbon serves as binder, which supports few-layer MoS2 shell and coats the P25 core via Tisbnd Osbnd C bonds at the same time. Such multi-functional integration with smart structure and strong interfacial contact generates favorable structure stability and interfacial pseudocapacity-like storage mechanism. As a consequence, superior cycling and rate capacity of the muti-functional integration ternary P25@C@FL-MoS2 anode are achieved.

  6. Transport of viruses in water saturated columns packed with sand: Effect of pore water velocity, sand grain size, and suspended colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syngouna, V.; Chrysikopoulos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the attachment behavior of model viruses (bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174) onto quartz sand of three different grain sizes for various pore water velocities with and without the presence of suspended model clay colloids (kaolinite: KGa-1b and montmorillonite: STx-1b) were evaluated. No obvious relationships between virus mass recoveries and water velocity or grain size could be established from the experimental results. The observed mean dispersivity values for each sand grain size were higher for MS2 than ΦX174. The interaction of viruses with KGa-1b and STx-1b was investigated with batch as well as virus-clay cotransport experiments. The batch experimental data suggested that virus attachment onto KGa-1b and STx-1b is adequately described by the Freundlich isotherm equation. The presence of suspended colloids was shown to significantly influence virus deposition. In both batch and co-transport experiments, MS2 and ΦX174 were attached in greater amounts onto KGa-1b than STx-1b with MS2 having greater affinity than ΦX174 for both clays. Furthermore, extended-DLVO interaction energy calculations explained that the attachment of viruses onto model clay colloids was primarily caused by hydrophobic interaction. The theoretical and experimental results of this study were found to be in good agreement with previous findings.