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Sample records for rockefeller hookworm campaigns

  1. Public health policy paradoxes: science and politics in the Rockefeller Foundation's hookworm campaign in Mexico in the 1920s.

    PubMed

    Birn, A E; Solórzano, A

    1999-11-01

    The origins of US international health endeavors are intertwined with the Progressive Era's faith in science as arbiter of humankind's secular problems. No agency better exemplifies the period's confidence in science than the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Board (IHB), which set out to export the new public health theory and practice around the world. An examination of the IHB's hookworm program in Mexico in the 1920s demonstrates that, notwithstanding the Rockefeller Foundation's (RF) self-conscious commitment to scientific neutrality, its programs continuously engaged political criteria, exhibiting the competition, coexistence, and inseparability of the worlds of science, politics, and international health policy. Analysis of the program's quotidian decisions and larger strategies further reveals the protean quality of RF science-politics, which enabled responses to parochial and broadly-conceived needs at multiple levels. In the focus on hookworm, the selection of campaign sites, hookworm diagnosis methods, treatment procedures, definition of cure, and the assignment of responsibility for prevention, scientific and political considerations were inextricably bound. The science-politics paradox was molded by the hookworm program's constituencies in Mexico, including political leaders, health bureaucrats, physicians, business interests, public health workers, peasants, and Rockefeller officers. The multiple, often contradictory, roles of the RF's hookworm campaign are characteristic of the policy paradoxes that emerge when science is summoned to drive policy. In Mexico the campaign served as a policy cauldron through which new knowledge could be demonstrated applicable to social and political problems on many levels. The repeated pledge of scientific neutrality belied the hookworm program's inherent aim of persuading government officials, the medical community, business interests, and the populace of the value of investing in public health as a means

  2. Public health policy paradoxes: science and politics in the Rockefeller Foundation's hookworm campaign in Mexico in the 1920s.

    PubMed

    Birn, A E; Solórzano, A

    1999-11-01

    The origins of US international health endeavors are intertwined with the Progressive Era's faith in science as arbiter of humankind's secular problems. No agency better exemplifies the period's confidence in science than the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Board (IHB), which set out to export the new public health theory and practice around the world. An examination of the IHB's hookworm program in Mexico in the 1920s demonstrates that, notwithstanding the Rockefeller Foundation's (RF) self-conscious commitment to scientific neutrality, its programs continuously engaged political criteria, exhibiting the competition, coexistence, and inseparability of the worlds of science, politics, and international health policy. Analysis of the program's quotidian decisions and larger strategies further reveals the protean quality of RF science-politics, which enabled responses to parochial and broadly-conceived needs at multiple levels. In the focus on hookworm, the selection of campaign sites, hookworm diagnosis methods, treatment procedures, definition of cure, and the assignment of responsibility for prevention, scientific and political considerations were inextricably bound. The science-politics paradox was molded by the hookworm program's constituencies in Mexico, including political leaders, health bureaucrats, physicians, business interests, public health workers, peasants, and Rockefeller officers. The multiple, often contradictory, roles of the RF's hookworm campaign are characteristic of the policy paradoxes that emerge when science is summoned to drive policy. In Mexico the campaign served as a policy cauldron through which new knowledge could be demonstrated applicable to social and political problems on many levels. The repeated pledge of scientific neutrality belied the hookworm program's inherent aim of persuading government officials, the medical community, business interests, and the populace of the value of investing in public health as a means

  3. Extending public health: the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission and hookworm in the American South.

    PubMed

    Elman, Cheryl; McGuire, Robert A; Wittman, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease (1909-1914) fielded a philanthropic public health project that had three goals: to estimate hookworm prevalence in the American South, provide treatment, and eradicate the disease. Activities covered 11 Southern states, and Rockefeller teams found that about 40% of the population surveyed was infected. However, the commission met strong resistance and lacked the time and resources to achieve universal county coverage and meet project goals. We explore how these constraints triggered project changes that systematically reshaped project operations and the characteristics of the counties surveyed and treated. We show that county selectivity reduced the project's initial potential to affect hookworm prevalence estimates, treatment, and eradication in the American South.

  4. Extending Public Health: The Rockefeller Sanitary Commission and Hookworm in the American South

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Robert A.; Wittman, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease (1909–1914) fielded a philanthropic public health project that had three goals: to estimate hookworm prevalence in the American South, provide treatment, and eradicate the disease. Activities covered 11 Southern states, and Rockefeller teams found that about 40% of the population surveyed was infected. However, the commission met strong resistance and lacked the time and resources to achieve universal county coverage and meet project goals. We explore how these constraints triggered project changes that systematically reshaped project operations and the characteristics of the counties surveyed and treated. We show that county selectivity reduced the project’s initial potential to affect hookworm prevalence estimates, treatment, and eradication in the American South. PMID:24228676

  5. Sowing the seeds of neo-imperialism: the Rockefeller Foundation's yellow fever campaign in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Solórzano, A

    1992-01-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation's campaign against yellow fever in Mexico sought to advance the economic and political interests of U.S. capitalism. The campaign was implemented at a time of strong anti-American sentiments on the part of the Mexican people. With no diplomatic relationships between Mexico and the United States, the Rockefeller Foundation presented its campaign as an international commitment. Thus, Foundation doctors became the most salient U.S. diplomats. At the same time they made sure that the Mexican yellow fever would not spread to the United States through the southern border. The by-products of the campaign went beyond the political arena. Special techniques to combat the vectors allowed the Rockefeller Foundation's brigades to change the anti-American sentiments of the people. When the campaign ended, the Foundation had already set in place the foundation for the modern Mexican health care system. Benefits from the campaign also accrued to President Obregón, who used the campaign to strengthen his position of power. Mexican doctors adopting a pro-American attitude also allied with the Rockefeller Foundation to gain reputation and power within the emerging Mexican State.

  6. The Rural School and Hookworm Disease. Bulletin, 1914, No. 20. Whole Number 593

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Jno A.

    1914-01-01

    In the Southern States one of the most common forms of disease, especially among children, is hookworm disease. The campaign for its eradication conducted by the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease is one of the most remarkable health campaigns ever waged in this country. It has shown conclusively the important…

  7. Disease and Development: Evidence from Hookworm Eradication in the American South*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of the successful eradication of hookworm disease from the American South. The hookworm-eradication campaign (c. 1910) began soon after (i) the discovery that a variety of health problems among Southerners could be attributed to the disease and (ii) the donation by John D. Rockefeller of a substantial sum to the effort. The Rockefeller Sanitary Commission (RSC) surveyed infection rates in the affected areas (eleven southern states) and found that an average of forty percent of school-aged children were infected with hookworm. The RSC then sponsored treatment and education campaigns across the region. Follow-up studies indicate that this campaign substantially reduced hookworm disease almost immediately. The sudden introduction of this treatment combines with the cross-area differences in pre-treatment infection rates to form the basis of the identification strategy. Areas with higher levels of hookworm infection prior to the RSC experienced greater increases in school enrollment, attendance, and literacy after the intervention. This result is robust to controlling for a variety of alternative factors, including differential trends across areas, changing crop prices, shifts in certain educational and health policies, and the effect of malaria eradication. No significant contemporaneous results are found for adults, who should have benefited less from the intervention owing to their substantially lower (prior) infection rates. A long-term follow-up of affected cohorts indicates a substantial gain in income that coincided with exposure to hookworm eradication. I also find evidence that eradication increased the return to schooling. PMID:24146438

  8. Hookworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... The last 2 types also occur in animals. Hookworm disease is common in the moist tropics and ...

  9. Rockefeller braces for Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Culliton, B J

    1990-01-26

    In the article "Rockefeller braces for Baltimore" by Barbara J. Culliton (News & Comment, 12 Jan., p. 148), the pictures of David Baltimore and Joshua Lederberg were incorrectly credited. The credit for the Baltimore picture should have read, "M. Lampert, Boton." The credit for the Lederberg picture should have read, "Rockefeller University."

  10. The control of hookworm disease in Commonwealth Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Tikasingh, Elisha S; Chadee, Dave D; Rawlins, Samuel C

    2011-01-01

    Like other countries around the globe where conditions existed for the parasites causing hookworm disease to thrive, this disease was a serious problem to settlers in countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean, i.e. those countries that were formerly part of the British Empire. Early in the 20th century, the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) assisted the southern United States in controlling this disease. Soon other countries requested assistance and the Rockefeller Foundation responded by creating their International Health Commission to target the problem. Guyana (then British Guiana) was the first country where work was started. Through a system of chemotherapy, sanitation with the provision of latrines and health education the RF assisted the Commonwealth Caribbean countries during the period 1914-1925 in controlling the disease. Most countries continued the programmes started by the Rockefeller Foundation and this paper provides evidence through a series of surveys to show that hookworm disease is no longer a public health problem.

  11. Zoonotic Hookworm FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... can I prevent animal hookworm infection? What is animal (zoonotic) hookworm infection in people? There are many ... larva migrans. What are the clinical manifestations of animal (zoonotic) hookworm in people? Cutaneous larval migrans (CLM) ...

  12. Migrant clinics and hookworm science: peripheral origins of International Health, 1840-1920.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a global history of hookworm disease based on the main scientific publications on hookworm disease (ankylostomiasis) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and archival sources from the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Board. The location of hookworm research is explained by the presence of large concentrations of migrant laborers who suffered from serious hookworm disease in frontier regions during the second industrial revolution. This hookworm disease pandemic was not the result of a linear spread of infection. The extraordinary labor conditions in these regions created ideal ecologies for the reproduction of the parasite, leading to levels of infection that produced ankylostomiasis. The major findings in hookworm science came from research-oriented physicians building new institutions of medical science in peripheral nation-states. In a number of Latin American states their work led to treatment programs conceived in national terms that preceded the interest of Rockefeller philanthropy in the disease. The Rockefeller Foundation incorporated these programs in order to launch its International Health hookworm eradication program in 1914.

  13. Pavlov and the Rockefeller Foundation.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G; Kuppers, J R

    1988-01-01

    Despite the tension between the United States and the Soviet Union in the early 1920's, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research found ways to assist I.P. Pavlov. In addition to providing scientific literature and financial aid, these institutions and their officers rendered important moral support to the scientific career of Pavlov during his later years. In 1923, as a guest of the Rockefeller Institute, Pavlov visited American scientific laboratories. In 1924, he requested and received a number of books on physiology, and during the 1930's the Foundation helped him to acquire equipment for his Leningrad laboratory.

  14. The Rockefeller Foundation's antimalarial program in Latin America: donating or dominating?

    PubMed

    Franco-Agudelo, S

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the origins, methods, and hidden objectives of the antimalarial campaigns carried out by the Rockefeller Foundation in Latin America. These campaigns are examined in the context of the imperialist domination of Latin America over the course of this century. The close relationship between prevailing economic, political, and military priorities and the thrust of the Foundation's work in the field of malaria is detailed. In spite of its relatively small financial investment in malaria research and eradication, the Rockefeller Foundation was able to reap enormous benefits from its work in this area. Not only was the Foundation able to increase the profit margins of the Rockefeller empire by ameliorating some of the dire economic consequences of malaria, but also it was able to use its participation to penetrate the public health field and consolidate the hegemony of scientific medicine. It is concluded that the Rockefeller Foundation's attention to the malaria problem reflected more than mere philanthropic concern.

  15. The Rockefeller Foundation and the prevention of malaria in Corsica, 1923-1951: support given to the French parasitologist Emile Brumpt.

    PubMed

    Opinel, A; Gachelin, G

    2004-09-01

    The role of the International Health Board of the Rockefeller Foundation in campaigns for malaria control in many countries has clearly been documented extensively. In contrast, the involvement of the Rockefeller Foundation in the control of malaria in France has not been reported yet. The present paper describes the way in which the Rockefeller Foundation got involved, along with the parasitologist Emile Brumpt, in the anti-malaria campaigns in Corsica, France, between 1924 and 1951. We analyze the scientific and technological strategies used for that purpose and the manner in which the Rockefeller Foundation policy had influenced Brumpt's actions. The unusually long support of the Rockefeller Foundation to Emile Brumpt (1924-1948) and to research and teaching Parasitology in the Faculté de Médecine de Paris is also discussed.

  16. The Human Hookworm Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bacon, Kristina M; Beaumier, Coreen; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Couto, Artur Roberto; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Homma, Akira; Lee, Bruce Y; Loukas, Alex; Loblack, Marva; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Russell, Philip K

    2013-04-18

    Hookworm infection is one of the world's most common neglected tropical diseases and a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. A Human Hookworm Vaccine is currently being developed by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and is in phase 1 clinical testing. The candidate vaccine is comprised of two recombinant antigens known as Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, each of which is an important parasite enzyme required for hookworms to successfully utilize host blood as a source of energy. The recombinant proteins are formulated on Alhydrogel(®) and are being tested in combination with a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist. The aim of the vaccine is to induce anti-enzyme antibodies that will reduce both host blood loss and the number of hookworms attached to the gut. Transfer of the manufacturing technology to the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)/Bio-Manguinhos (a Brazilian public sector developing country vaccine manufacturer) is planned, with a clinical development plan that could lead to registration of the vaccine in Brazil. The vaccine would also need to be introduced in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia, where hookworm infection is highly endemic. Ultimately, the vaccine could become an essential tool for achieving hookworm control and elimination, a key target in the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases.

  17. The Rockefeller Archive Center: A Reservoir of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Joseph W.

    1982-01-01

    The Rockefeller Archive Center was established in 1974 to bring together the records of The Rockefeller University, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Inc., the Rockefeller family, and others. This history of the Archive Center and description of its holdings focuses on those areas of special interest to educational researchers. (Author/BW)

  18. SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT OF HOOKWORM DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Oscar

    1920-01-01

    Dr. Dowling finds a need so urgent for funds for fighting hookworm that he advocates using some of the school allotments which even now are inadequate. The economic waste is evident of trying to educate there defective children. More important than economic losses, however, are the lowered ethical standards incident to hookworm disease conditions. PMID:18010341

  19. Internationalism and nationalism: the Rockefeller Foundation, public health, and malaria in Italy, 1923-1951.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, D H

    2000-06-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation's support of malaria control and public health in Italy over three decades, the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, was one of the foundation's most successful collaborations in its history. Nearly one-sixth of the funds the Rockefeller Foundation allocated for malaria programs was spent in Italy in those years. Outstanding research, a new and important institution, and decided improvements in public health were historically-significant results. The three most important episodes of this American-Italian relationship were the operations of the Stazione Sperimentale per la Lotta Antimalarica, the founding of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, and the campaign to eradicate mosquitoes in Sardinia. In each of these episodes there was a tension between the international aspects and national aspects of the partnership that to some degree limited its success.

  20. [Images of Brazil: a Rockefeller Archive Center collection].

    PubMed

    de Lacerda, Aline Lopes

    2002-01-01

    This article describes and comments on the collection of photographs of Brazil that belongs to the Rockefeller Foundation archives (Rockefeller Archive Center) in the United States. It also contains information about the origin of such documents and the way they were collected, as well as analyzes the context in which these visual documents were produced. They record the relationship between Rockefeller Foundation and Brazilian institutions engaged in the combat against yellow fever, malaria and ancyclostomaisis from 1920 to 1940.

  1. Hookworm - mouth of the organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This photograph shows the front section of the hookworm, and the mouth parts which it uses to ... blood for nourishment, are visible. Three species of hookworm cause infection in the United States, including this ...

  2. A Special Relationship: Rockefeller, Child Study, and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milar, Katherine S.

    In 1928, the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial granted funds to the University of Cincinnati to establish a child study and parent education program for African-Americans. This paper traces the origin of the idea for this program to a special relationship between the family of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. and Spelman College, an African-American…

  3. Toward a "Universal Heritage": Education and the Development of Rockefeller Philanthropy, 1884-1913.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Kenneth W.; Stapleton, Darwin H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the Rockefellers' educational philanthropy, specifically, the Rockefeller Foundation, University of Chicago, Rockefeller University, and Spelman College. Rockefeller created the agencies to handle the identification and development of a constituency, the capability to define and redefine missions, the creation of future leadership, and…

  4. Knowledge and power: the asymmetry of interests of Colombian and Rockefeller doctors in the construction of the concept of "jungle yellow fever," 1907-19381.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Emilio; Manosalva, Carolina; Tafur, Monica; Bedoya, Joanna; Matiz, Giovanna; Morales, Elquin

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the asymmetries among the different interests of officials and medical doctors who worked for the Rockefeller Foundation and their Colombian counterparts in the development and consolidation of the concept of "jungle yellow fever," as distinguished from the known urban form of yellow fever. We explore the research responses to a variety of disease outbreaks in Colombia in the context of the Rockefeller campaigns against yellow fever, from the time of Roberto Franco's initial description of "yellow fever of the forests" in 1907 until the consolidation of the concept of "jungle yellow fever" by Fred Soper in 1938.

  5. A special relationship: Race, child study, and Rockefeller philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Milar, Katharine S

    2010-01-01

    In 1928, the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial granted funds to the University of Cincinnati to establish a child study and parent education program for African Americans. This paper traces the origin of the idea for this program to a special relationship between the family of John D. Rockefeller, Sr., and Spelman College, an African American women's college in Atlanta, Georgia. This relationship embodied Rockefeller's interest in women and children, in Baptist charities, in higher education (especially in the South), and race. The case study of this relationship addresses the larger question: To what purpose was the African American woman to be educated?

  6. The immunology of human hookworm infections.

    PubMed

    McSorley, H J; Loukas, A

    2010-08-01

    Hookworms are one of the most prevalent parasites of humans in developing countries, but we know relatively little about the immune response generated to hookworm infection. This can be attributed to a lack of permissive animal models and a relatively small research community compared with those of the more high-profile parasitic diseases. However, recently, research has emerged on the development of vaccines to control hookworm infection and the use of hookworm to treat autoimmune and allergic disorders, contributing to a greater understanding of the strategies used by hookworms to modulate the host's immune response. A substantial body of research on the immunobiology of hookworms originates from Australia, so this review will summarize the current status of the field with a particular emphasis on research carried out 'down under'.

  7. Immune Responses in Hookworm Infections

    PubMed Central

    Loukas, Alex; Prociv, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Hookworms infect perhaps one-fifth of the entire human population, yet little is known about their interaction with our immune system. The two major species are Necator americanus, which is adapted to tropical conditions, and Ancylostoma duodenale, which predominates in more temperate zones. While having many common features, they also differ in several key aspects of their biology. Host immune responses are triggered by larval invasion of the skin, larval migration through the circulation and lungs, and worm establishment in the intestine, where adult worms feed on blood and mucosa while injecting various molecules that facilitate feeding and modulate host protective responses. Despite repeated exposure, protective immunity does not seem to develop in humans, so that infections occur in all age groups (depending on exposure patterns) and tend to be prolonged. Responses to both larval and adult worms have a characteristic T-helper type 2 profile, with activated mast cells in the gut mucosa, elevated levels of circulating immunoglobulin E, and eosinoophilia in the peripheral blood and local tissues, features also characteristic of type I hypersensitivity reactions. The longevity of adult hookworms is determined probably more by parasite genetics than by host immunity. However, many of the proteins released by the parasites seem to have immunomodulatory activity, presumably for self-protection. Advances in molecular biotechnology enable the identification and characterization of increasing numbers of these parasite molecules and should enhance our detailed understanding of the protective and pathogenetic mechanisms in hookworm infections. PMID:11585781

  8. A history of hookworm vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Brent; Jariwala, Amar R; Periago, Maria Victoria; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Bose, Swaroop N; Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David J; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2011-11-01

    The human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale remain among the most common infections of humans in areas of rural poverty in the developing regions of the world, with an estimated 1 billion people infected with one or more of these parasites. Herein, we review the nearly 100 years of research, development, animal testing, and fieldwork that have led to our current progress in recombinant hookworm vaccines. We begin with the identification of hookworm at the start of the 20th century in Southern US, then discuss the progress in developed countries to eliminate human hookworm infection, and then the industrial development and field use in the 1970s a canine hookworm vaccine(Ancylostoma caninum), and finally our progress to date in the development and clinical testing of an array of recombinant antigens to prevent human hookworm disease from N. americanus infection. Special attention is given to the challenges faced in the development of a vaccine against a blood-feeding nematode, including the epidemiology of infection (high prevalence of infection), pathogenesis (chronic infection that increases with the age of the host), and a robust immune response that fails to confer the protection in the host and a concomitant absence of correlates of protection by a successful vaccine could be developed and tested. Finally, we provide the optimal and acceptable profiles of a human hookworm vaccine, including the proposed indication, target population, and route of administration, as developed by the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative, the only group currently working on vaccines targeting this parasite.

  9. VIP interview: John D. (Jay) Rockefeller IV, United States Senator.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, J D

    1994-01-01

    John D. (Jay) Rockefeller IV has proudly served the people of West Virginia for nearly 30 years. After coming to the town of Emmons in 1964 as a VISTA worker, Jay Rockefeller made the Mountain State his home. In 1966, he was elected to a two-year term in the West Virginia House of Delegates. He then served four years as Secretary of State, three years as President of West Virginia Wesleyan College, and eight years as Governor of West Virginia. In 1984, he was elected to the United States Senate and was reelected in 1990.

  10. The President's Review and Annual Report 1973. The Rockefeller Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    This document presents the President's review and annual report of the activities of the Rockefeller Foundation for 1973. Following an overall review of the activities, emphasis is placed on specific activities the Foundation is involved with, including: conquest of hunger, problems of population, university development, conflict in international…

  11. Smooth Things: The Rockefeller Commission's Report on the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topf, Mel A.

    1981-01-01

    Notes the lack of definition of the term "humanities" and the four-part litany that comprises the usual rhetoric of humanities advocates. Considers the Rockefeller Commission report on the humanities in light of the nondefinition, the four-part litany, and the fragmentation of any argument espousing "more attention to the humanities." (RL)

  12. The Rockefeller University: College and University Systems Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1981

    1981-01-01

    With a unique organizational structure, the Rockefeller University's need for administrative information systems is different from most institutions of higher education. The financial reporting needs of the many different laboratories led the university to purchase a computer-based accounting system. (MLW)

  13. Arts, Education, and Americans: The Rockefeller Panel Releases Its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A major concern of music educators is the place of music education in the curriculum. An important contribution to the establishment of music as basic to a student's education has come in the Rockefeller Panel Report, "Coming to Our Senses". Describes that report and its importance for music educators. (Author/RK)

  14. Library Information at the Rockefeller University: A First Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Francis C.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the library at Rockefeller University and considers how it may be a model for future research libraries, i.e., the distributed library relying on remote resources. Highlights include resource sharing and interlibrary loan; research and scholarly interactions focused outside the library; decentralization of research information; and a…

  15. Rockefeller describes new era in science and technology policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockler, Susan Bucci

    The federal science and technology policy of today is being developed in a new historical context, said Jay Rockefeller (D-W.Va.), chairman of the Senate's Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space. According to Rockefeller, changes in policy are being shaped by three “phenomena”—the end of the Cold War, concern about our international economic competitiveness, and a new president willing to join Congress in responding to new challenges.Addressing the National Academy of Engineering in Washington, D.C., on October 7, Rockefeller said that the nation's security took precedence during the Cold War, and economic competitiveness was placed on a back burner. The nation now faces a deficit in that area, he said. Congress has begun a push for a redirection of federal science and technology, and the administration is moving in the same direction. “We should not be surprised to see the Clinton Administration and the Congress questioning old rationales for agency funding,” said Rockefeller.

  16. A history of hookworm vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Brent; Jariwala, Amar R.; Periago, Maria Victoria; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Bose, Swaroop N.; Hotez, Peter J.; Diemert, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale remain among the most common infections of humans in areas of rural poverty in the developing regions of the world, with an estimated 1 billion people infected with one or more of these parasites. Herein, we review the nearly 100 years of research, development, animal testing, and fieldwork that have led to our current progress in recombinant hookworm vaccines. We begin with the identification of hookworm at the start of the 20th century in Southern US, then discuss the progress in developed countries to eliminate human hookworm infection, and then the industrial development and field use in the 1970s a canine hookworm vaccine(Ancylostoma caninum), and finally our progress to date in the development and clinical testing of an array of recombinant antigens to prevent human hookworm disease from N. americanus infection. Special attention is given to the challenges faced in the development of a vaccine against a blood-feeding nematode, including the epidemiology of infection (high prevalence of infection), pathogenesis (chronic infection that increases with the age of the host), and a robust immune response that fails to confer the protection in the host and a concomitant absence of correlates of protection by a successful vaccine could be developed and tested. Finally, we provide the optimal and acceptable profiles of a human hookworm vaccine, including the proposed indication, target population, and route of administration, as developed by the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative, the only group currently working on vaccines targeting this parasite. PMID:22064562

  17. Patterning Your Department After Great Leaders: John D. Rockefeller.

    PubMed

    Loborec, Steven M; Weber, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    Learning through the examples of great leaders can provide pharmacy directors with guidance on how to shape their leadership style. John D. Rockefeller was one of the most successful businessmen in the world, and he is highly regarded as having been a great leader. His example of having the courage of his convictions will be necessary as pharmacy faces drastic changes ahead in pharmacy provider status and practice model changes. His management of his staff serves as an excellent example of the importance of staff retention programs. As health systems strive to do more with less, it is now more important than ever to scrutinize using resources and apply Rockefeller's attention to efficiency and effectiveness when growing patient-centered pharmacy services.

  18. The hookworm pharmacopoeia for inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Severine; Ferreira, Ivana; Loukas, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In the developed world, declining prevalence of parasitic infections correlates with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders. Current treatments for these chronic inflammatory conditions have little to no effect on their prevalence and are referred to as "controllers" rather than cures. There has been limited success in therapeutically targeting allergic and autoimmune pathways, leaving an unmet need for development of effective anti-inflammatories. We discuss the benefit of hookworm infections and the parasite's ability to condition the immune system to prevent allergic asthma and inflammatory bowel diseases. We then examine the immunomodulatory properties of selected hookworm-derived proteins in these two models of inflammation. While hookworm protein therapy has yet to be fully exploited, the identification of these proteins and the mechanisms by which they skew the immune system will provide new avenues for controlling and optimally reversing key pathological processes important in allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  19. The Rockefeller agenda for American/Philippines nursing relations.

    PubMed

    Brush, B L

    1995-10-01

    The Philippines leads all countries in global nurse emigration. Today, Filipino nurses represent over 75% of the foreign nurse labor force recruited to and working in American hospitals, most of which are inner-city municipally operated institutions with reported shortages of nursing personnel. This article examines the historical roots of the American/Philippines nursing relationship more generally and the particular role of the Rockefeller Foundation in the 20th-century emigration patterns and work practices of Filipino nurses. Examination of one group of nurse workers enhances an understanding of the ways in which social, cultural, economic, and political factors influence broader health care decisions.

  20. Communication Research, the Rockefeller Foundation, and Mobilization for the War on Words, 1938-1944.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Brett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Rockefeller Foundation served as an unofficial arm of the state from 1938 to 1944 by mobilizing social-scientific expertise to fight fascism when the Roosevelt Administration was politically unable to do so. Notes that Rockefeller Foundation officer John Marshall's role in the history of American mass communication research and the…

  1. Rockefeller and General Education Board Influences on Vocationalism in Education, 1880-1925.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Louise E.; Saslaw, Rita S.

    Through philanthropic donations, John D. Rockefeller and the General Education Board (GEB) encouraged vocationalism in education during the years 1880-1925, the Progressive Era. Evidently, Rockefeller believed that the best education for poor youth was vocational, presumably so they would be able to maintain occupations in their adult lives. This…

  2. An interview with Senator John D. Rockefeller IV. Interview by Carmella Bocchino.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, J D

    1989-01-01

    Congress is faced with moving forward a pressing health care agenda while the federal deficit demands major budget cuts in Medicare. A pivotal player in this chess game is Senator John D. Rockefeller IV (D-WV). In this interview with Nursing Economic+, Sen. Rockefeller discusses catastrophic health insurance, Medicare, long-term care, and other health care issues.

  3. 36 CFR 7.21 - John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. 7.21 Section 7.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.21 John D. Rockefeller,...

  4. The disappearance of Dutch malaria and the Rockefeller Foundation.

    PubMed

    Verhave, J P

    2000-06-01

    Sixty years ago Professor Nico Swellengrebel wrote his famous book 'Malaria in the Netherlands' (Swellengrebel and de Buck, 1938). At that time tertian malaria was still endemic, with its epidemic ups and downs. Malaria disappeared as recently as 1960 and the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) contributed substantially to this effect. The Rockefeller Archives proved a valuable source of anecdotal information, which puts the scientific publications of the Dutch malariologists in a more vivid perspective. Following the course of history, first the already existing links with the RF are explained along with some peculiarities of tertian malaria in the Dutch temperate climate. The emergence of a new epidemic during the war years and the implication of new tools and principles for control as advocated by the RF are described. The subsequent shriveling of the vector population and the disappearance of malaria are presented, along with some details about the reluctance of WHO to declare the Netherlands malaria-free. Finally, recent unrest about possible return of malaria is put into perspective.

  5. Immunology of experimental and natural human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Gaze, S; Bethony, J M; Periago, M V

    2014-08-01

    Human hookworm infection is one amongst the most prevalent of the neglected tropical diseases. An informative experimental animal model, that is, one that parallels a human infection, is not available for the study of human hookworm infection. Much of our current understanding of the human immune response during hookworm infection relies on the studies from experimental infection of hookworm-naïve individuals or the natural infections from individuals residing in hookworm-endemic areas. The experimental human infections tend to be acute, dose-controlled infections, often with a low larval inoculum so that they are well tolerated by human volunteers. Natural hookworm infections usually occur in areas where hookworm transmission is constant and infection is chronic. In cases where there has been drug administration in an endemic area, re-infection often occurs quickly even amongst those who were treated. Hence, although many of the characteristics of experimental and natural hookworm infection differ, both models have elements in common: mainly an intense Th2 response with the production of total and specific IgE as well as elevated levels of eosinophilia, IL-5, IL-10 and TNF. While hookworm infection affects millions of individuals worldwide, much of the human immunology of this infection still needs to be studied and understood.

  6. Documentation of the history of malaria in Italy at the Rockefeller Archive Center.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, D H; Rose, K W

    1998-01-01

    The Rockefeller Archive Center holds approximately 50,000 pages of archival documents pertaining to the history of anti-malaria programs in Italy in the 20th century. Reports on the status of public health in Italy occur in the archives dating from 1915, but there was no sustained Rockefeller commitment to anti-malaria work in Italy until 1924. The article presents a brief description of the sources for the study of the history of malaria in Italy that are held at the Rockefeller Archive Center.

  7. Patterning Your Department After Great Leaders: John D. Rockefeller

    PubMed Central

    Loborec, Steven M.; Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Learning through the examples of great leaders can provide pharmacy directors with guidance on how to shape their leadership style. John D. Rockefeller was one of the most successful businessmen in the world, and he is highly regarded as having been a great leader. His example of having the courage of his convictions will be necessary as pharmacy faces drastic changes ahead in pharmacy provider status and practice model changes. His management of his staff serves as an excellent example of the importance of staff retention programs. As health systems strive to do more with less, it is now more important than ever to scrutinize using resources and apply Rockefeller’s attention to efficiency and effectiveness when growing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:26405315

  8. John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, J

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a profile of John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council. It is noted that Rockefeller took a broad view of population control as a means to address poverty and economic development rather than as an end in itself. In 1952 he initiated the convocation of the Conference on Population Problems held in Williamsburg, Virginia. The discussion focused on food supply, industrial development, depletion of natural resources, and political instability resulting from unchecked population growth. In 1967, Rockefeller initiated, lobbied for, and finally achieved a World Leaders' Statement signed by 30 heads of state including US President Lyndon Johnson. The document drew attention to population growth as a world problem and engendered political support for family planning as a solution. After 3 years the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future was established, and Rockefeller was made its chairman. Several issues were debated, including more safer fertility control and the legalization of abortion.

  9. Hookworm with hypereosinophilia: atypical presentation of a typical disease.

    PubMed

    Verboeket, Sebastiaan O; van den Berk, Guido E L; Arends, Joop E; van Dam, Alje P; Peringa, Jan; Jansen, Rogier R

    2013-01-01

    We describe a 55-year-old man returning from the Philippines infected with a hookworm, the novel bacterium Laribacter hongkongensis, and a Blastocystis hominis and presenting with both gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms. The high eosinophilia caused by the hookworm infection resulted in both gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, resembling a hypereosinophilic syndrome.

  10. Human hookworm infection in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This chapter reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across multiple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, ideally supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also on-going efforts to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines.

  11. Human Hookworm Infection in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across mutliple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost, and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also efforts underway to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines. PMID:15603764

  12. The Global Economic and Health Burden of Human Hookworm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Sarah M.; Hotez, Peter J.; Asti, Lindsey; Zapf, Kristina M.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Diemert, David J.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though human hookworm infection is highly endemic in many countries throughout the world, its global economic and health impact is not well known. Without a better understanding of hookworm’s economic burden worldwide, it is difficult for decision makers such as funders, policy makers, disease control officials, and intervention manufacturers to determine how much time, energy, and resources to invest in hookworm control. Methodology/Principle Findings We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic and health burden of hookworm infection in every country, WHO region, and globally, in 2016 from the societal perspective. Globally, hookworm infection resulted in a total 2,126,280 DALYs using 2004 disability weight estimates and 4,087,803 DALYs using 2010 disability weight estimates (excluding cognitive impairment outcomes). Including cognitive impairment did not significantly increase DALYs worldwide. Total productivity losses varied with the probability of anemia and calculation method used, ranging from $7.5 billion to $138.9 billion annually using gross national income per capita as a proxy for annual wages and ranging from $2.5 billion to $43.9 billion using minimum wage as a proxy for annual wages. Conclusion Even though hookworm is classified as a neglected tropical disease, its economic and health burden exceeded published estimates for a number of diseases that have received comparatively more attention than hookworm such as rotavirus. Additionally, certain large countries that are transitioning to higher income countries such as Brazil and China, still face considerable hookworm burden. PMID:27607360

  13. The potential economic value of a hookworm vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bacon, Kristina M; Bailey, Rachel; Wiringa, Ann E; Smith, Kenneth J

    2011-02-01

    Hookworm infection is a significant problem worldwide. As development of hookworm vaccine proceeds, it is essential for vaccine developers and manufacturers, policy makers, and other public health officials to understand the potential costs and benefits of such a vaccine. We developed a decision analytic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing a hookworm vaccine into two populations in Brazil: school-age children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Results suggest that a vaccine would provide not only cost savings, but potential health benefits to both populations. In fact, the most cost-effective intervention strategy may be to combine vaccine with current drug treatment strategies.

  14. New technologies for the control of human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Bethony, Jeff; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Diemert, David; Loukas, Alex

    2006-07-01

    Since the 1990s, the major approach to hookworm control has been morbidity reduction in school-aged children by periodic deworming with benzimidazoles. Now, efforts are underway to determine the feasibility of integrating deworming with control programs that target other neglected tropical diseases. However, the sustainability of benzimidazole deworming for hookworm is of concern because of the variable efficacy of mebendazole, high rates of post-treatment reinfection and possible development of drug resistance. This requires parallel efforts to develop new and complementary hookworm control tools, such as new anthelmintic drugs (e.g. tribendimidine) and a recombinant hookworm vaccine. It is hoped that, ultimately, anthelmintic vaccination will be linked to deworming as part of an expanded control package.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of hookworm disease: stealth, virulence, and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Mark S; Tribolet, Leon; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Periago, Maria Victoria; Valero, Maria Adela; Valerio, Maria Adela; Jariwala, Amar R; Hotez, Peter; Diemert, David; Loukas, Alex; Bethony, Jeffrey

    2012-07-01

    Hookworms produce a vast repertoire of structurally and functionally diverse molecules that mediate their long-term survival and pathogenesis within a human host. Many of these molecules are secreted by the parasite, after which they interact with critical components of host biology, including processes that are key to host survival. The most important of these interactions is the hookworm's interruption of nutrient acquisition by the host through its ingestion and digestion of host blood. This results in iron deficiency and eventually the microcytic hypochromic anemia or iron deficiency anemia that is the clinical hallmark of hookworm infection. Other molecular mechanisms of hookworm infection cause a systematic suppression of the host immune response to both the parasite and to bystander antigens (eg, vaccines or allergens). This is achieved by a series of molecules that assist the parasite in the stealthy evasion of the host immune response. This review will summarize the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms used by hookworms to survive for extended periods in the human host (up to 7 years or longer) and examine the pivotal contributions of these molecular mechanisms to chronic hookworm parasitism and host clinical outcomes.

  16. Advancing a vaccine to prevent hookworm disease and anemia.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-01

    A human hookworm vaccine is under development and in clinical trials in Africa and the Americas. The vaccine contains the Na-APR-1 and Na-GST-1 antigens. It elicits neutralizing antibodies that interfere with establishment of the adult hookworm in the gut and the ability of the parasite to feed on blood. The vaccine target product profile is focused on the immunization of children to prevent hookworm infection and anemia caused by Necator americanus. It is intended for use in low- and middle-income countries where hookworm is highly endemic and responsible for at least three million disability-adjusted life years. So far, the human hookworm vaccine is being developed in the non-profit sector through the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (PDP), in collaboration with the HOOKVAC consortium of European and African partners. We envision the vaccine to be incorporated into health systems as part of an elimination strategy for hookworm infection and other neglected tropical diseases, and as a means to reduce global poverty and address the Sustainable Development Goals.

  17. Advancing a vaccine to prevent hookworm disease and anemia.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-01

    A human hookworm vaccine is under development and in clinical trials in Africa and the Americas. The vaccine contains the Na-APR-1 and Na-GST-1 antigens. It elicits neutralizing antibodies that interfere with establishment of the adult hookworm in the gut and the ability of the parasite to feed on blood. The vaccine target product profile is focused on the immunization of children to prevent hookworm infection and anemia caused by Necator americanus. It is intended for use in low- and middle-income countries where hookworm is highly endemic and responsible for at least three million disability-adjusted life years. So far, the human hookworm vaccine is being developed in the non-profit sector through the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (PDP), in collaboration with the HOOKVAC consortium of European and African partners. We envision the vaccine to be incorporated into health systems as part of an elimination strategy for hookworm infection and other neglected tropical diseases, and as a means to reduce global poverty and address the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27040400

  18. Automatic Hookworm Detection in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Chen, Honghan; Gan, Tao; Chen, Junzhou; Ngo, Chong-Wah; Peng, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has become a widely used diagnostic technique to examine inflammatory bowel diseases and disorders. As one of the most common human helminths, hookworm is a kind of small tubular structure with grayish white or pinkish semi-transparent body, which is with a number of 600 million people infection around the world. Automatic hookworm detection is a challenging task due to poor quality of images, presence of extraneous matters, complex structure of gastrointestinal, and diverse appearances in terms of color and texture. This is the first few works to comprehensively explore the automatic hookworm detection for WCE images. To capture the properties of hookworms, the multi scale dual matched filter is first applied to detect the location of tubular structure. Piecewise parallel region detection method is then proposed to identify the potential regions having hookworm bodies. To discriminate the unique visual features for different components of gastrointestinal, the histogram of average intensity is proposed to represent their properties. In order to deal with the problem of imbalance data, Rusboost is deployed to classify WCE images. Experiments on a diverse and large scale dataset with 440 K WCE images demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves a promising performance and outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, the high sensitivity in detecting hookworms indicates the potential of our approach for future clinical application. PMID:26886971

  19. Public health and nutrition after the Spanish Civil War. An intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation.

    PubMed

    Del Cura, Isabel; Huertas, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies.

  20. Public Health and Nutrition After the SPANISH CIVIL WAR An Intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation

    PubMed Central

    del Cura, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies. PMID:19696398

  1. Research on Youth in an Age of Complexity: The Rockefeller Youth Task Force and Daniel Yankelovich, 1965-1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Theresa M.

    2008-01-01

    The period between 1965 and 1975 encompasses important events associated with the peak of the youth movement in the 1960s and its demise in the 1970s. The period was an "age of complexity" according to Daniel Yankelovich, a social scientist hired by John D. Rockefeller 3rd's Youth Task Force to study the wave of protests that Rockefeller felt…

  2. Norman Jolliffe, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the origins of the modern alcoholism movement.

    PubMed

    Roizen, R

    1994-07-01

    Archival sources shed new light on and offer a fuller picture of the story of Norman Jolliffe's early, but finally unsuccessful, effort to interest the Rockefeller Foundation's Division of Medical Sciences in funding a comprehensive program of alcoholism research in the late 1930s. New documentation also casts doubt on Mark Keller's contention that the Research Council on Problems of Alcohol--the organizational flagship of the "new scientific approach" to alcohol-related problems in this period--emerged directly from Jolliffe's failed Rockefeller Foundation request.

  3. Hookworm virulence factors: making the most of the host.

    PubMed

    Periago, Maria V; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2012-12-01

    Hookworm disease from Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale affects approximately 700 million people, with N. americanus being the predominant species. Unlike other pathogens (e.g., bacterial infections), where "virulence" is described in regards to acute pathogenesis and case-fatality, hookworms are well-evolved, multicellular parasites that establish long-term infections in their human hosts with a subtle and chronic, but insidious, pathogenesis, usually in the form of iron deficiency anemia from parasite blood feeding that, over time, has devastating effects on the human host especially when it involves children or women of child bearing years. As such, many of the typical terms for "virulence factors" used in other reviews in this special edition cannot be applied to hookworm (e.g., "colonization", "invasion", "or "toxicity"); rather the virulence of hookworm infection comes in terms of their ability to maintain a chronic blood-feeding infection in the lumen of relatively healthy human hosts, an infection that is usually measured in years but can sometimes be measured in decades. In the current manuscript, we describe the routes of invasion hookworms take into their human hosts and the means by which they modulate the human immune system to maintain this long-term parasitism. Little data on hookworm infection comes from actual human infections; instead, much of the data is derived from observations of laboratory animal models, in which hookworms fail to establish this distinctive "chronic infection," either due to physiological or immunological responses of these animal models. Hence, the mode and effects of chronic immunity must be extrapolated from this very different sort of infection to humans. Herein, we aim to synthesize immunological information from both types of models in the context of immune regulation and protection in order to identify future research focuses for the development of new treatment alternatives (i.e. drugs and vaccines).

  4. The Naked Piano Player: Or What the Rockefeller Report "Coming to Our Senses" Really Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1978-01-01

    States that the Rockefeller Report, "Coming to Our Senses", reflects the preferences of a particular interest group that has assumed power in cultural and educational matters during the past fifteen years. Critically examines the Report's weaknesses and deficiencies which, says the author, seriously disqualify it as a guide to policy. (Author/RK)

  5. Professorial Training and Institution Building in the Third World: Two Rockefeller Foundation Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    1984-01-01

    Compares two Rockefeller Foundation efforts to further the advanced professional education of prospective faculty members of Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, and National University, Zaire. Emphasizes the contrasts between the two efforts and the diversity among developing nations. Notes the effects of the sociopolitical-cultural environment…

  6. The human hookworm vaccine: recent updates and prospects for success.

    PubMed

    Bottazzi, M E

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 440 million people globally are afflicted by hookworm disease, one of the 17 WHO-recognized neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The iron-deficiency anaemia attributed to this disease contributes to at least 3.2 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) according to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The current WHO-recommended control strategies rely primarily on mass drug administration or preventive chemotherapy. However, evidence is starting to accumulate confirming that preventive chemotherapy alone will not be sufficient to reduce the reinfection rates of hookworm, especially in areas of heavy transmission. The global health and research community is currently building a consensus stressing the need for the advancement of research and innovation to bridge the gaps and identify new public health interventions for diseases such as hookworm and other NTDs. This paper presents the strategies used by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (Sabin PDP) in their ongoing endeavour for the development of a human hookworm vaccine. Recent updates and the current prospects for success of an effective human hookworm vaccine, as a new technology to be linked to or combined with drug interventions, are presented.

  7. Failure-as-success: multiple meanings of eradication in the Rockefeller Foundation Sardinia project, 1946-1951.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J

    1998-06-01

    In the history of malaria control programs there were important tensions between proponents of the concept of eradication and those of malaria control. In this debate the concept of eradication has had multiple meanings. This paper concerns the post-hoc interpretations of the outcomes of the Rockefeller International Health Foundation-sponsored project conducted in Sardinia between 1946 and 1951. The Ente Regionale per la Lotta Anti-Anofelica in Sardegna (regional agency for the anti-Anopheles struggle in Sardinia) (ERLAAS) project was conceived as a large-scale, field-based pilot demonstration project to test the feasibility of the strategy of "species eradication" in an area with an endemic malaria vector. Species eradication, a strategy championed by Soper, was aimed at the total annihilation of an anopheline vector from an area. Under the leadership of the Rockefeller Foundation, the ERLAAS project used postwar UNRRA funds to purchase local labor and imported DDT, oil-suspension, and war-surplus equipment in an "all-out" campaign against Anopheles labranchiae, even in sparsely populated areas. The original aim was entirely entomological; species eradication was expected to be completed in two years for a cost of $2.7 million. Ironically, malaria mortality on the island had already been lowered before WWII by a series of public health interventions. The ERLAAS project encountered severe technical and logistical difficulties; its ultimate failure was foreshadowed in the resignation of the first American director who doubted the feasibility of species eradication. Ultimately, the ERLAAS project was ended after four and a half years and an expenditure of $11.2 million. Although new malaria transmission on the island ended the project failed to eliminate A labranchiae. Finally, the regional government was counselled to continue mosquito control efforts; the continuation of a substantial mosquito control program for fifty years after this famous "malaria eradication

  8. [Massive hookworm infection as a cause of intestinal bleeding and severe anemia].

    PubMed

    Nair, Gayatri V; Cazorla, Ernesto; Choque, Henry; White, A Clinton; Cabada, Miguel M

    2016-01-01

    Overt gastrointestinal bleeding caused by hookworm infection is rarely reported. We present a 34 year old male with lower gastrointestinal bleeding with evidence of massive hookworm infection on colonoscopy and discuss the need to consider hookworm infection as a possible etiology of gastrointestinal bleed in endemic areas. PMID:27131948

  9. [Massive hookworm infection as a cause of intestinal bleeding and severe anemia].

    PubMed

    Nair, Gayatri V; Cazorla, Ernesto; Choque, Henry; White, A Clinton; Cabada, Miguel M

    2016-01-01

    Overt gastrointestinal bleeding caused by hookworm infection is rarely reported. We present a 34 year old male with lower gastrointestinal bleeding with evidence of massive hookworm infection on colonoscopy and discuss the need to consider hookworm infection as a possible etiology of gastrointestinal bleed in endemic areas.

  10. Prevalence and zoonotic potential of canine hookworms in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine hookworm infection is endemic in Southeast Asian countries with a prevalence ranging from 70% to 100%, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there are limited data available on the prevalence of canine hookworms in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hookworm and Ancylostoma species among dogs in Malaysia. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 221 dogs living in urban areas, rural areas and animal shelters in Selangor. Faecal samples were processed using the formal-ether concentration technique followed by wet mount preparation and iodine staining for the detection of hookworm eggs. Samples positive for hookworm eggs were examined using PCR, targeting ITS2 and 28 s rRNA region, and subsequently sequenced in both directions. The sequences were phylogenetically analysed using MrBayes for Bayesian Inference. Results The overall prevalence of hookworm among dogs was 48% (95%CI; 41.41–54.95). Rural stray dogs had the highest prevalence 71.4% (95%CI; 61.13–81.49) followed by urban stray dogs, recording 48% (95%CI; 34.15–61.85) and lastly dogs in shelters with 28.7% (95%CI; 19.56–37.84). Logistic regression identified rural stray dogs as a high risk group (OR = 4.55, 95%; 2.50–8.31) and keeping dogs in shelters as a protective factor (OR = 0.24, 95%; 0.14–0.43). Molecular methods identified both Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum with A. ceylanicum being predominant among urban stray dogs. Rural dogs had a higher prevalence of A. caninum than A. ceylanicum, while both species showed equal distribution among dogs in shelters. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. ceylanicum isolated from dogs in one group with A. ceylanicum human isolates. Conclusion This study indicates that dogs have the potential to act as reservoir hosts of human hookworm infection in Malaysia. This finding necessitates the inclusion of dogs in any interventions

  11. Towards the eradication of hookworm in an isolated Australian community.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C; Reynoldson, J A; Garrow, S C; McCarthy, J S; Behnke, J M

    2001-03-10

    Hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale) and other enteric parasites such as Giardia and Hymenolepis are common in Aboriginal communities in northem Australia, and their presence is associated with iron deficiency, anaemia, and failure to thrive. We report the outcome of a sustained, community-based control programme that used regular albendazole in one isolated community. Whereas hookworm has been effectively controlled by the programme, no sustained effect on the prevalence of Giardia and Hymenolepis was seen; the control of these parasites will depend on improvements in health education. This programme might serve as a model for community-based or population-based drug treatment programmes elsewhere.

  12. Cure of Hookworm Infection with a Cysteine Protease Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Jon J.; Lantz, Lorine D.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm disease is a major global health problem and principal among a number of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) for the chronic disability inflicted that impacts both personal and societal productivity. Mass drug administration most often employs single-dose therapy with just two drugs of the same chemical class to which resistance is a growing concern. New chemical entities with the appropriate single-dose efficacy are needed. Methods and Findings Using various life-cycle stages of the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum in vitro and a hamster model of infection, we report the potent, dose-dependent cidal activities of the peptidyl cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) K11002 (4-mopholino-carbonyl-phenylalanyl-homophenylalanyl- vinyl sulfone phenyl) and K11777 (N-methylpiperazine-phenylalanyl-homophenylalanyl-vinylsulfone phenyl). The latter is in late pre-clinical testing for submission as an Investigational New Drug (IND) with the US Federal Drug Administration as an anti-chagasic. In vitro, K11002 killed hookworm eggs but was without activity against first-stage larvae. The reverse was true for K11777 with a larvicidal potency equal to that of the current anti-hookworm drug, albendazole (ABZ). Both CPIs produced morbidity in ex vivo adult hookworms with the activity of K11777 again being at least the equivalent of ABZ. Combinations of either CPI with ABZ enhanced morbidity compared to single compounds. Strikingly, oral treatment of infected hamsters with 100 mg/kg K11777 b.i.d. (i.e., a total daily dose of 200 mg/kg) for one day cured infection: a single 100 mg/kg treatment removed >90% of worms. Treatment also reversed the otherwise fatal decrease in blood hemoglobin levels and body weights of hosts. Consistent with its mechanism of action, K11777 decreased by >95% the resident CP activity in parasites harvested from hamsters 8 h post-treatment with a single 100 mg/kg oral dose. Conclusion A new, oral single-dose anthelmintic that is active in an

  13. Acting the part. While Cover the Uninsured Week adds star power to its campaign, few viable solutions are in the works.

    PubMed

    Fong, Tony

    2004-05-10

    While Cover the Uninsured Week may have a celebrity spokesman in TV star Noah Wyle, the campaign is still lacking viable legislative solutions. As Sen. Jay Rockefeller, left, noted at a news conference kicking off the event, the "me-first" special interests of the various healthcare trade associations have made putting together a comprehensive approach to the uninsured problem nearly impossible.

  14. Multivalent anthelminthic vaccine to prevent hookworm and schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Brindley, Paul J; Loukas, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Hookworm infection and schistosomiasis are two of the world's most important human parasitic infections, affecting hundreds of millions of people in developing countries. Measured together in disability-adjusted life years, hookworm infection and schistosomiasis rank closely behind malaria as the most prevalent human parasitic diseases. A major approach for the control of these two helminth infections relies on periodic, mass chemotherapy with anthelminthics. However, high rates of post-treatment reinfection, the declining efficacy with repeated treatment, rebound morbidity (in the case of schistosomiasis) and the potential for the emergence of anthelminthic drug resistance threaten the sustainability of mass drug administration as the only form of control. Hence, there is a strong rationale for developing a vaccine that simultaneously targets both hookworms and schistosomes because of similarities in the pathobiology of both parasites, the ability of both helminths to cause anemia and their coendemicity in sub-Saharan Africa, Brazil and East Asia. A multivalent anthelminthic vaccine for hookworm infection and schistosomiasis would represent an important new tool for combating disease and poverty.

  15. A study of iron and protein deficiency in hookworm infestation.

    PubMed

    Saraya, A K; Tandon, B N; Ramachandran, K

    1970-09-01

    104 patients with positive stool for hookworm ova were studied in detail with regard to anemia, iron and protein deficiency, and their relation to hookworm ova load. A variable degree of anemia was seen in 80 of 104 patients. Hypochromia was noticed in 66 (64%). In 48 (46%), morphological changes due to vitamin B12 and/or folic acid deficiency were recorded. Iron deficiency was most common in anemic patients. Less than 15% saturation of transferrin was the most sensitive biochemical index of iron deficiency in these patients. Severity of anemia was significantly associated with iron deficiency. Hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin less than 3.25 g%) was found in 33 (32.6%) of the patients. Anemia and hypoalbuminemia were both significantly associated with the hookworm load. However, the association of hookworm load was seen with severe anemia (hemoglobin less than 5 g%) and hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin less than 2.75 g%). It has been suggested that besides parasitic factors, nutritional deficiencies of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid and protein are contributory factors in the pathogenesis of anemia and hypoalbuminemia respectively found in these patients.

  16. Role for Nitric Oxide in Hookworm-Associated Immune Suppression▿

    PubMed Central

    Dondji, Blaise; Bungiro, Richard D.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Vermeire, Jon J.; Bifulco, Carlo; McMahon-Pratt, Diane; Cappello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in resource-poor countries. Human and animal studies suggest that infection with these intestinal nematodes is associated with impaired cellular immunity, characterized by reduced lymphocyte proliferation in response to both parasite and heterologous antigens. We report here data from studies aimed at defining mechanisms through which hookworms modulate the host cellular immune response. Splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from hamsters infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum showed minimal proliferation in response to mitogen at days 20 and 30 postinfection (p.i.), with partial recovery noted at day 70 p.i. The proliferative capacity of enriched splenocyte T-cell preparations from infected animals following stimulation with hookworm antigens was partially restored in the presence of antigen-presenting cells from uninfected hamsters. Analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that hookworm infection is associated with reduced percentages of both CD4+ and surface immunoglobulin G-positive lymphocytes in the spleen and MLN cells. Splenocytes from infected hamsters also secreted more nitric oxide (NO) in culture than did those from naïve animals. Inhibition of NO secretion was associated with partial restoration of the proliferative capacity of splenocytes from infected animals in response to concanavalin A, suggesting a role for NO in mediating this effect. Together, these data demonstrate that hookworm infection is associated with impaired function of antigen-presenting cells and depletion of important lymphocyte subpopulations and also suggests a role for NO in parasite-induced immunosuppression. PMID:18347036

  17. Technology and malaria control, 1930-1960: the career of Rockefeller Foundation engineer Frederick W. Knipe.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, D H

    2000-06-01

    Frederick W. Knipe was a malaria-control engineer with the Rockefeller Foundation, serving in Bulgaria, Albania, India, Mexico, Italy, and the United States. There were two phases to his career: from 1930 to 1943 he focused on drainage works that reduced or eliminated mosquito habitat, and from 1944 to 1960 he supervised DDT spraying programs. His appointments to the WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides, 1948-55, demonstrate that his contributions to malaria-control were highly regarded by his peers.

  18. Campaign graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    We define a class of geometrical constructions in the plane in which each (unextended) line lies on (precisely) k points, and every point is an endpoint of (precisely) one line. We will refer to any construction satisfying these conditions as a campaign graph, or as a k-campaign graph if the value of k isn't clear from the context. A k-campaign graph, G, is said to be critical if no subgraph of G is also a k-campaign graph. 11 figs.

  19. Hookworm Anemia in a Peritoneal Dialysis Patient in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fuquan; Xu, Ying; Xia, Min; Ying, Guanghui; Shou, Zhangfei

    2016-01-01

    Hookworm infections as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic in China. In this case, a 70-year-old male showed symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath, and both lower extremities edema. The diagnostic result was chronic renal insufficiency, chronic kidney disease (5th stage), and renal anemia at first. Then, he received treatment with traditional drugs. However, this treatment did not help to alleviate the symptoms of the patient significantly. The results of gastroendoscopy showed hookworms in the duodenum, also confirmed by pathology examination. Anemia was markedly ameliorated after eliminating the parasites. The results mentioned above suggested that ancylostomiasis was the leading causes of anemia in this patient, and the etiology of anemia in uremic patients should be systematically considered. Especially when anemia could not be cured by regular treatments, rare diseases should be investigated. PMID:27417086

  20. Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans acquired in the UK.

    PubMed

    Baple, Katy; Clayton, James

    2015-11-13

    Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a skin disease caused by infection with the larvae of animal hookworms. With conditions for infection more favourable in tropical climates, HrCLM in the UK is classically diagnosed in the returning traveller. We present two cases of clinically diagnosed UK-acquired HrCLM from a district general hospital in the south of England. A 68-year-old woman presented with a pruritic serpiginous tract on the right hand. She was a keen gardener and had been handling compost. A 50-year-old man, a long distance runner, presented with a similar lesion on the dorsum of his foot. Both patients were treated with a single dose of albendazole. These cases may represent an emerging infection in the UK. In the absence of a suggestive travel history, early recognition followed by efficient access to therapy is vital for treating HrCLM transmitted in the UK.

  1. Hookworm Anemia in a Peritoneal Dialysis Patient in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuquan; Xu, Ying; Xia, Min; Ying, Guanghui; Shou, Zhangfei

    2016-06-01

    Hookworm infections as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic in China. In this case, a 70-year-old male showed symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath, and both lower extremities edema. The diagnostic result was chronic renal insufficiency, chronic kidney disease (5th stage), and renal anemia at first. Then, he received treatment with traditional drugs. However, this treatment did not help to alleviate the symptoms of the patient significantly. The results of gastroendoscopy showed hookworms in the duodenum, also confirmed by pathology examination. Anemia was markedly ameliorated after eliminating the parasites. The results mentioned above suggested that ancylostomiasis was the leading causes of anemia in this patient, and the etiology of anemia in uremic patients should be systematically considered. Especially when anemia could not be cured by regular treatments, rare diseases should be investigated. PMID:27417086

  2. The genome and transcriptome of the zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum identify infection-specific gene families.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Erich M; Hu, Yan; Antoshechkin, Igor; Miller, Melanie M; Sternberg, Paul W; Aroian, Raffi V

    2015-04-01

    Hookworms infect over 400 million people, stunting and impoverishing them. Sequencing hookworm genomes and finding which genes they express during infection should help in devising new drugs or vaccines against hookworms. Unlike other hookworms, Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects both humans and other mammals, providing a laboratory model for hookworm disease. We determined an A. ceylanicum genome sequence of 313 Mb, with transcriptomic data throughout infection showing expression of 30,738 genes. Approximately 900 genes were upregulated during early infection in vivo, including ASPRs, a cryptic subfamily of activation-associated secreted proteins (ASPs). Genes downregulated during early infection included ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors; this downregulation was observed in both parasitic and free-living nematodes. Later, at the onset of heavy blood feeding, C-lectin genes were upregulated along with genes for secreted clade V proteins (SCVPs), encoding a previously undescribed protein family. These findings provide new drug and vaccine targets and should help elucidate hookworm pathogenesis.

  3. Parasitic diseases. Other roundworms. Trichuris, hookworm, and Strongyloides.

    PubMed

    Walden, J

    1991-03-01

    Trichuriasis may be asymptomatic or, in heavy infection, lead to profuse, bloody diarrhea and rectal prolapse. Diagnosis is made by finding the distinctive barrel shaped eggs in the stool or in the heavily infested patient, by anoscopy and identification of worms attached to reddened and ulcerated rectal mucosa. Mebendazole is the drug of choice in treatment. Capillariasis, a parasitic infection encountered mainly in the Philippine Islands, is of interest in that the eggs may be confused with the eggs of trichuris. Hookworm disease is generally asymptomatic, but in heavy infection, leads to iron deficiency and hypochromic, microcytic anemia. Diagnosis is made by finding the characteristic hookworm eggs on a examination of a direct fecal film. Accidental invasion of humans by dog and cat hookworm leads to cutaneous larva migrans, also known as "creeping eruption." Human hookworm is treated most effectively with mebendazole, while the rash produced by creeping eruption responds to topical thiabendazole. Strongyloides is fairly common in rural areas of the southeastern United States and may be seen in the urban setting among inmates of mental institutions, prisons, and in immigrants who formerly resided in endemic tropical regions. Because of its remarkable capacity for dissemination of larvae throughout the body, this parasite is now recognized as a serious problem for the patient who is immunocompromised. Diagnosis is made by finding larvae in the stool or by the Enterotest. All infected patients should be treated with thiabendazole. I consider the issue on Drugs For Parasitic Infections, published annually or biannually by The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics, to be the single best source of information on the treatment of parasitic diseases for primary care physicians.

  4. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  5. Historical perspectives on malaria: the Rockefeller antimalaria strategy in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Darwin H

    2009-10-01

    Malaria, a serious disease for all of human history, was not effectively handled until methods for control of its insect vector, the Anopheles mosquito, were developed at the beginning of the 20th century. The Rockefeller Foundation's antimalaria program spread vector-control strategies throughout the world, and its adoption of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane during World War II created an especially powerful and effective malaria control strategy. However, insect resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and restrictions on dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane use due to its long-term environmental effects are factors in the persistence of malaria as a serious health problem. Mt Sinai J Med 76:468-473, 2009. (c) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  6. The Maudsley Hospital and the Rockefeller Foundation: the impact of philanthropy on research and training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edgar; Rahman, Shahina

    2009-07-01

    Opened in February 1923 to raise the status of academic psychiatry in the UK, the Maudsley Hospital struggled to secure grant income. Without a track record of published research and lacking internationally recognized clinicians, it failed to impress the British Medical Research Council. To challenge leading U.S. and German departments of neuropsychiatry, Edward Mapother, the medical superintendent, looked overseas for investment in an "institute of psychiatry." Intense lobbying and a modified strategy for research and training designed to meet the Rockefeller Foundation's prioritization of psychiatry and medical specialization ultimately led to a significant endowment. Alan Gregg and Daniel O'Brien at the Foundation played a pivotal role in re-defining the Maudsley's programs of research and teaching. Pressure on Mapother to attract funding was matched by that on administrators required to show that their philanthropy had yielded tangible gains in public health. While wealthy charities, like the Rockefeller, often had a vision of the direction that they wished to pull medical science, and they provided much needed income, the impact of their policy agenda was not without drawbacks. Institutions unwilling to embrace a charity's philosophy were unlikely to secure grants, while those that did might find themselves drawn into less optimal areas.

  7. The Maudsley Hospital and the Rockefeller Foundation: The Impact of Philanthropy on Research and Training

    PubMed Central

    JONES, EDGAR; RAHMAN, SHAHINA

    2009-01-01

    Opened in February 1923 to raise the status of academic psychiatry in the UK, the Maudsley Hospital struggled to secure grant income. Without a track record of published research and lacking internationally recognized clinicians, it failed to impress the British Medical Research Council. To challenge leading U.S. and German departments of neuropsychiatry, Edward Mapother, the medical superintendent, looked overseas for investment in an “institute of psychiatry.” Intense lobbying and a modified strategy for research and training designed to meet the Rockefeller Foundation’s prioritization of psychiatry and medical specialization ultimately led to a significant endowment. Alan Gregg and Daniel O’Brien at the Foundation played a pivotal role in re-defining the Maudsley’s programs of research and teaching. Pressure on Mapother to attract funding was matched by that on administrators required to show that their philanthropy had yielded tangible gains in public health. While wealthy charities, like the Rockefeller, often had a vision of the direction that they wished to pull medical science, and they provided much needed income, the impact of their policy agenda was not without drawbacks. Institutions unwilling to embrace a charity’s philosophy were unlikely to secure grants, while those that did might find themselves drawn into less optimal areas. PMID:18996947

  8. Molecular Characterization of Ancylostoma braziliense Larvae in a Patient with Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    PubMed Central

    Joncour, Alexandre Le; Lacour, Sandrine A.; Lecso, Gabriel; Regnier, Stéphanie; Guillot, Jacques; Caumes, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans diagnosed microscopically. Viable hookworm larvae were found by microscopic examination of a skin scraping from follicular lesions. Amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 allowed the specific identification of the larvae as Ancylostoma braziliense. PMID:22556085

  9. Incidence and risk factors of hookworm infection in a rural community of central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jiraanankul, Vittaya; Aphijirawat, Wongwarit; Mungthin, Mathirut; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Rangsin, Ram; Traub, Rebecca J; Piyaraj, Phunlerd; Naaglor, Tawee; Taamasri, Paanjit; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2011-04-01

    A cohort study to identify incidence and risk factors of hookworm infection was conducted in a rural community, central Thailand from November 2005 to February 2007. Stool specimens were examined for hookworm eggs using wet preparation, Kato thick smear, and water-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The incidence rate of hookworm infection was 7.5/100 person-years. The independent risk factors for acquiring hookworm infection were barefoot walking (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-14.5) and raising buffaloes around the house (IRR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.9-11.8). Sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal RNA gene were performed for identifying species of hookworm. Necator americanus was the most common hookworm identified in this population. Ancylostoma duodenale and A. ceylanicum were also detected. Our data suggest transmission of both human and animal hookworms in this community. Thus, prevention and control strategies of hookworm infection should cover both human and animal infection.

  10. Copro-molecular identification of infections with hookworm eggs in rural Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sato, Megumi; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Keomoungkhoun, Malaythong; Phimmayoi, Inthava; Boupa, Boungnong; Moji, Kazuhiko; Waikagul, Jitra

    2010-09-01

    The prevalence of hookworm eggs in fecal samples, by modified cellophane thick-smear technique, was found to be 30.0% (61/203 samples) in Lahanam Village, Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. The hookworm eggs were morphologically heterogeneous, so that identification was confirmed by copro-PCR with specific primers for hookworms and Trichostrongylus spp.; 12 samples were positive for Necator americanus, 19 for Ancylostoma spp., with one mixed infection of both. Sequencing of the Ancylostoma spp. copro-PCR products found A. duodenale, and also the animal hookworms, A. caninum and A. ceylanicum. Moreover, Trichostrongylus spp.-specific copro-PCR revealed a significant rate of infection (43/203; 21.2%). Sequencing confirmed the zoonotic species, T. colubriformis. PCR/sequencing is useful for differentiating parasite species. The positives by the Kato-Katz method, and by the combined hookworm/Trichostrongylus specific-PCR, were comparable, although the agreement between the two methodologies was only 50%.

  11. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages

    PubMed Central

    Chami, Goylette F.; Fenwick, Alan; Bulte, Erwin; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women. Methods We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5–90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic, village, and parasitological data were collected. Infection risk factors were compared in ordinal logistic regressions. Anaemia and infection intensities were analyzed in multilevel models, and population attributable fractions were estimated. Findings Household and village-level predictors of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm were opposite in direction or significant for single infections. S. mansoni was found primarily in children, whereas hookworm was prevalent amongst the elderly. Anaemia was more prevalent in individuals with S. mansoni and increased by 2.86 fold (p-value<0.001) with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity. Individuals with heavy hookworm were 1.65 times (p-value = 0.008) more likely to have anaemia than uninfected participants. Amongst individuals with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity, 32.0% (p-value<0.001) of anaemia could be attributed to S. mansoni. For people with heavy hookworm infections, 23.7% (p-value = 0.002) of anaemia could be attributed to hookworm. A greater fraction of anaemia (24.9%, p-value = 0.002) was attributable to heavy hookworm infections in adults (excluding pregnant women) as opposed to heavy hookworm infections in school-aged children and pregnant women (20.2%, p-value = 0.001). Conclusion Community-based surveys captured anaemia in children and adults affected by S. mansoni and hookworm infections. For areas endemic with schistosomiasis or hookworm infections, WHO guidelines should include adults for treatment in helminth control programmes. PMID:26513151

  12. The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government: From State to National Focus on Political and Policy Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gais, Thomas; Lawrence, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Describes the early years, shift toward greater autonomy, and current structure and roles of the Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, a public policy research institute of State University of New York. Founded to facilitate relationships between the university system and state government, it has emerged as a more autonomous research…

  13. John D. Rockefeller's General Education Board and the Rural School Problem in the Midwest, 1900-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, James H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1923 John D. Rockefeller's General Education Board (GED) undertook a project to reform the public schools in two rural Indiana counties. The GED demonstration project developed from more than two decades of concern about America's rural problems. The attempt by cosmopolitan outside experts to change the rural schools is described. (RM)

  14. Observations in 2001 on hookworms ( Uncinaria spp.) in otariid pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Spraker, T R; Melin, S R; Tolliver, S C

    2003-04-01

    Uncinaria spp. were recovered from the milk of California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus) collected from the: (1) teats of a cow just after parturition (one parasitic third-stage larva, L(3)), (2) stomach of her nursing pup (two L(3)), and (3) stomach of a dead pup about 2 days old (one L(3), one headless, probably L(3), and four L(4)) on San Miguel Island, California in May 2001. This, in addition to earlier research, indicates transmammary transmission of hookworms in this host. Uncinaria spp. were found in dead northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) in the: (1) intestines of 2 of 75 pups (either one or two adult specimens in each infected pup) and (2) ventral abdominal blubber of 3 of 78 subadult males (one to seven L(3) in each infected seal) on St. Paul Island (SPI), Alaska in July and August 2001. These findings verify the low current prevalence of Uncinariaspp. in fur seals on SPI. Rectal fecal samples taken from 50 live Steller sea lion ( Eumetopias jubatus) pups, about 1 month old, on Rogue Reef in Curry County, Oregon in July 2001, were all negative for the eggs of Uncinaria spp. The apparent zero infection rate in these pups is possibly because the rocky terrain of this rookery is not suitable for hookworm transmission.

  15. Lipopeptide Nanoparticles: Development of Vaccines against Hookworm Parasite.

    PubMed

    Fuaad, Abdullah A H Ahmad; Pearson, Mark S; Pickering, Darren A; Becker, Luke; Zhao, Guangzu; Loukas, Alex C; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2015-10-01

    Necator americanus (hookworm) infects over half a billion people worldwide. Anthelminthic drugs are commonly used to treat the infection; however, vaccination is a more favorable strategy to combat this parasite. We designed new B-cell peptide epitopes based on the aspartic protease of N. americanus (Na-APR-1). The peptides were conjugated to self-adjuvanting lipid core peptide (LCP) systems via stepwise solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and copper catalyst azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions. The LCP vaccine candidates were able to self-assemble into nanoparticles, were administered to mice without the use of additional adjuvant, and generated antibodies that recognized the parent epitope. However, only one LCP derivative was able to produce a high titer of antibodies specific to Na-APR-1; circular dichroism analyses of this compound showed a β-sheet conformation for the incorporated epitope. This study provides important insight in epitope and delivery system design for the development of a vaccine against hookworm infections.

  16. Mini review: Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H; Schuster, A

    2012-06-01

    Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a parasitic skin disease caused by the migration of animal hookworm larvae in the epidermis. Since these larvae cannot penetrate the basal membrane of human skin, they remain confined to the epidermis and are unable to develop and complete their lifecycle. By consequence, HrCLM is a self-limiting disease. However, if not treated promptly, the skin pathology may persist for months. HrCLM is endemic in many resource-poor communities in the developing world. In high-income countries, HrCLM occurs sporadically or in the form of small epidemics. Travelers account for the great majority of cases seen by health-care professionals in high-income countries. Transmission occurs when naked skin comes into contact with contaminated soil. Exposure may also occur indoors. Exceptionally, larvae may be transmitted through fomites. The first clinical sign is a small reddish papule. Thereafter, the characteristic serpiginous, slightly elevated, erythematous track becomes visible. Itching becomes more and more intense. Excoriations induced by scratching facilitate bacterial superinfection of the lesion. The diagnosis is essentially clinical. It is supported by a recent travel history and the possibility of exposure. The drug of choice is ivermectin in a single dose (200 μg per kg bodyweight). Repeated treatments with albendazole (400 mg daily) are a good alternative in countries where ivermectin is not available.

  17. Investigating hookworm genomes by comparative analysis of two Ancylostoma species

    PubMed Central

    Mitreva, Makedonka; McCarter, James P; Arasu, Prema; Hawdon, John; Martin, John; Dante, Mike; Wylie, Todd; Xu, Jian; Stajich, Jason E; Kapulkin, Wadim; Clifton, Sandra W; Waterston, Robert H; Wilson, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    Background Hookworms, infecting over one billion people, are the mostly closely related major human parasites to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Applying genomics techniques to these species, we analyzed 3,840 and 3,149 genes from Ancylostoma caninum and A. ceylanicum. Results Transcripts originated from libraries representing infective L3 larva, stimulated L3, arrested L3, and adults. Most genes are represented in single stages including abundant transcripts like hsp-20 in infective L3 and vit-3 in adults. Over 80% of the genes have homologs in C. elegans, and nearly 30% of these were with observable RNA interference phenotypes. Homologies were identified to nematode-specific and clade V specific gene families. To study the evolution of hookworm genes, 574 A. caninum / A. ceylanicum orthologs were identified, all of which were found to be under purifying selection with distribution ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous amino acid substitutions similar to that reported for C. elegans / C. briggsae orthologs. The phylogenetic distance between A. caninum and A. ceylanicum is almost identical to that for C. elegans / C. briggsae. Conclusion The genes discovered should substantially accelerate research toward better understanding of the parasites' basic biology as well as new therapies including vaccines and novel anthelmintics. PMID:15854223

  18. Merger campaign.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Through using the Web, TV, radio, and print advertisements, The Hospital of Central Connecticut announced in October 2006 its new name and the merger of two hospitals: New Britain General Hospital and Bradley Memorial Hospital. A campaign consisting of TV and radio ads was created to promote the merger. The ads are also featured on the hospital's Web site. PMID:17450950

  19. The Rockefeller University Hospital (1910-2010): creating the science of medicine.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jules

    2011-01-01

    The year 2010 marked the centennial of the Rockefeller University Hospital, one of the great philanthropic achievements of 20th-century science. For 100 years, the Hospital played a central role in the development and growth of medical science by enabling physician-scientists to make intensive study of human biology and disease. With ingenuity and devotion, they greatly enriched clinical medicine as well as basic biological science. This account emphasizes the founding and first half-century of the Hospital as it became a germinal center for clinical investigation. The second half of the century saw rapid change in medicine and health care with vexing problems, many yet unsolved. This history should serve as a call to arms for maintaining the linkage of science and medicine, supporting patient-oriented research as a basic discipline of medicine.

  20. Unexpected absence of genetic separation of a highly diverse population of hookworms from geographically isolated hosts.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Benjamin T; Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gongora, Jaime; Gray, Rachael; Šlapeta, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The high natal site fidelity of endangered Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) along the southern Australian coast suggests that their maternally transmitted parasitic species, such as hookworms, will have restricted potential for dispersal. If this is the case, we would expect to find a hookworm haplotype structure corresponding to that of the host mtDNA haplotype structure; that is, restricted among geographically separated colonies. In this study, we used a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene to investigate the diversity of hookworms (Uncinaria sanguinis) in N. cinerea to assess the importance of host distribution and ecology on the evolutionary history of the parasite. High haplotype (h=0.986) and nucleotide diversity (π=0.013) were seen, with 45 unique hookworm mtDNA haplotypes across N. cinerea colonies; with most of the variation (78%) arising from variability within hookworms from individual colonies. This is supported by the low genetic differentiation co-efficient (GST=0.007) and a high gene flow (Nm=35.25) indicating a high migration rate between the populations of hookworms. The haplotype network demonstrated no clear distribution and delineation of haplotypes according to geographical location. Our data rejects the vicariance hypothesis; that female host natal site fidelity and the transmammary route of infection restrict hookworm gene flow between N. cinerea populations and highlights the value of studies of parasite diversity and dispersal to challenge our understanding of parasite and host ecology.

  1. DNA technological progress toward advanced diagnostic tools to support human hookworm control.

    PubMed

    Gasser, R B; Cantacessi, C; Loukas, A

    2008-01-01

    Blood-feeding hookworms are parasitic nematodes of major human health importance. Currently, it is estimated that 740 million people are infected worldwide, and more than 80 million of them are severely affected clinically by hookworm disease. In spite of the health problems caused and the advances toward the development of vaccines against some hookworms, limited attention has been paid to the need for improved, practical methods of diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and genetic characterization of hookworms is central to their effective control. While traditional diagnostic methods have considerable limitations, there has been some progress toward the development of molecular-diagnostic tools. The present article provides a brief background on hookworm disease of humans, reviews the main methods that have been used for diagnosis and describes progress in establishing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the specific diagnosis of hookworm infection and the genetic characterisation of the causative agents. This progress provides a foundation for the rapid development of practical, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic and analytical tools to be used in improved hookworm prevention and control programmes.

  2. An enzymatically inactivated hemoglobinase from Necator americanus induces neutralizing antibodies against multiple hookworm species and protects dogs against heterologous hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Mark S; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Pickering, Darren A; de Oliveira, Luciana M; Jariwala, Amar; Santiago, Helton; Miles, Aaron P; Zhan, Bin; Jiang, Desheng; Ranjit, Najju; Mulvenna, Jason; Tribolet, Leon; Plieskatt, Jordan; Smith, Tracey; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Jones, Kathryn; Keegan, Brian; Hotez, Peter J; Loukas, Alex

    2009-09-01

    Hookworms digest hemoglobin from erythrocytes via a proteolytic cascade that begins with the aspartic protease, APR-1. Ac-APR-1 from the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, protects dogs against hookworm infection via antibodies that neutralize enzymatic activity and interrupt blood-feeding. Toward developing a human hookworm vaccine, we expressed both wild-type (Na-APR-1(wt)) and mutant (Na-APR-1(mut)-mutagenesis of the catalytic aspartic acids) forms of Na-APR-1 from the human hookworm, Necator americanus. Refolded Na-APR-1(wt) was catalytically active, and Na-APR-1(mut) was catalytically inactive but still bound substrates. Vaccination of canines with Na-APR-1(mut) and heterologous challenge with A. caninum resulted in significantly reduced parasite egg burdens (P=0.034) and weight loss (P=0.022). Vaccinated dogs also had less gut pathology, fewer adult worms, and reduced blood loss compared to controls but these did not reach statistical significance. Vaccination with Na-APR-1(mut) induced antibodies that bound the native enzyme in the parasite gut and neutralized enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1(wt) and APR-1 orthologues from three other hookworm species that infect humans. IgG1 against Na-APR-1(mut) was the most prominently detected antibody in sera from people resident in high-transmission areas for N. americanus, indicating that natural boosting may occur in exposed humans. Na-APR-1(mut) is now a lead antigen for the development of an antihematophagy vaccine for human hookworm disease.

  3. Bed bugs, leeches and hookworm larvae in the skin.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Hengge, Ulrich R

    2009-01-01

    Bed bugs, leeches, and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans are skin infestations that are usually considered of minor importance because they produce discomfort rather than cause or transmit disease. Bed bugs have been increasing tremendously in high-income countries in recent years, causing distress to affected individuals and economic loss. Infestation by land leeches causes mainly unpleasant skin reactions, whereas infestation by aquatic leeches may be more dangerous, leading to anemia and in severe cases, to death. Cutaneous larva migrans produces an intense pruritus that can be exasperating for the patient and cause sleep disturbance. An overview is given of these three infestations with a discussion of the causative agents, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  4. [Case report: hookworm infection in a patient with severe anemia].

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Ciçek, Mutalip; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a patient who was hospitalized with a severe anemia in the Internal Medicine Clinic of the Health Research and Application Hospital of Yüzüncü Yil University for one week is presented. The patient had fatigue, paleness and dizziness for one month and approximately 12 kg weight lost for four mounts previous to admission.. Severe iron deficiency anemia was diagnosed in the patient by laboratory analyses. Because there were no hematologic factors associated with severe anemia, the stool examination was also performed. In the Parasitology Laboratory, stool microscopy of the patient revealed numerous ova of hookworm. General condition of the patient well improved with anti-parasitic and anti-anemia treatment. It was concluded that patients with iron deficiency anemia diagnosed in health centers should be also examined for the intestinal parasitic diseases encountered rarely, and physicians should consider non-endemic parasitic diseases in their provinces.

  5. Hookworm infections in human and laboratory animals--differences and similarities in immune responses.

    PubMed

    Długosz, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Hookworm infection is one of the most important parasitic infections of humans. About 740 million people are infected with Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus in the tropics and subtropics. Unlike most other human helminth infections, neither age nor exposure-related immunity develops in the majority of infected people. This review presents the contemporary knowledge concerning the immune response to this complex eukaryotic parasite, recent findings on the human cellular immune responses to hookworms, as well as mechanisms used by the parasite to modulate the immune response in its favor. Also immunological responses in animal models of hookworm infection are presented. Animals in contrast to humans seem to easily deal with hookworm infections and gain protection during re-exposure.

  6. Molecular identification of human hookworm infections in economically disadvantaged communities in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Ching, Lee Soo; Kai, Tan Tiong; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2012-05-01

    Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009-2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison found that N. americanus (87.2%) was the most predominant hookworm identified, followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (23.4%). No A. duodenale infection was detected in this study. Detection of A. ceylanicum in humans highlighted the zoonotic transmission among humans living near dogs. Thus, implementation of effective control measures for hookworm infections in future should seriously consider this zoonotic implication.

  7. [Hookworm discovered in a patient presenting with severe iron-deficiency anemia].

    PubMed

    Basset, D; Rullier, P; Segalas, F; Sasso, M

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a case involving severe anemia in a patient from New Caledonia. Endoscopic discovery of adult hematophagic hookworms in mainland France is novel because it is exceptional. However, this case also reminds us that hookworm disease is extremely widespread in the world. It often goes unrecognized causing progressive, insidious anemia that can be severe though long-term tolerance is good.

  8. Appearance of a reservoir of hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans in Brittany?

    PubMed

    Veraldi, S; Persico, M C; Francia, C; La Vela, V

    2012-12-01

    We describe two cases of hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans acquired in Brittany (North-Western France). The patients were a 23-year-old woman and a 28-year-old man. In both patients the feet were involved. In the second patient, a superinfection due to Staphylococcus aureus was recorded. The appearance in Brittany of a reservoir of nematodes capable of causing hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans is hypothesized.

  9. The origin of the medical research grant in the United States: the Rockefeller Foundation and the NIH Extramural Funding Program.

    PubMed

    Schneider, William H

    2015-04-01

    The establishment of National Institutes of Health (NIH) extramural grants in the second half of the twentieth century marked a signal shift in support for medical research in the United States and created an influential model for the rest of the world. A similar landmark development occurred in the first half of the twentieth century with the creation of the Rockefeller Foundation and its funding programs for medical research. The programs and support of the foundation had a dramatic impact on medical research in the United States and globally. This paper examines early connections between these two developments. The NIH grants have usually been seen as having their roots primarily in the government programs of the Second World War. This article finds direct and indirect influence by the Rockefeller Foundation, as well as parallel developments in these two monumental programs of support for medical research.

  10. Competency to be resentenced and the Rockefeller Drug Law reform act: how does it affect the mentally Ill?

    PubMed

    Ford, Elizabeth; Winkler, Barry; Barber-Rioja, Virginia; Dell'anno, Christina; Cohen, Shelly

    2009-01-01

    Many of the mentally ill prisoners in this country have been convicted of drug crimes. New York State's Rockefeller Drug Laws from the 1970s established harsh sentences for drug crimes to quell a perceived epidemic. These laws were reformed in 2004 to allow the option of resentencing, with the possibility of lighter sentences. However, there is no formal mechanism in New York for a postconviction hearing for competency to be resentenced, thus affecting the severely mentally ill who were sentenced under the old Rockefeller laws. The purpose of this article is to highlight the psychiatric and legal difficulties that can arise without an option for a resentencing competency hearing and to argue that despite the low number of inmates to whom this would apply, there is an important duty to ensure due process to the mentally ill.

  11. Expression, purification, and characterization of the Necator americanus aspartic protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) antigen, a component of the bivalent human hookworm vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Seid, Christopher A; Curti, Elena; Jones, R Mark; Hudspeth, Elissa; Rezende, Wanderson; Pollet, Jeroen; Center, Lori; Versteeg, Leroy; Pritchard, Sonya; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Yusibov, Vidadi; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Over 400 million people living in the world's poorest developing nations are infected with hookworms, mostly of the genus Necator americanus. A bivalent human hookworm vaccine composed of the Necator americanus Glutathione S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) and the Necator americanus Aspartic Protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) is currently under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (Sabin PDP). Both monovalent vaccines are currently in Phase 1 trials. Both Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 antigens are expressed as recombinant proteins. While Na-GST-1 was found to express with high yields in Pichia pastoris, the level of expression of Na-APR-1 in this host was too low to be suitable for a manufacturing process. When the tobacco plant Nicotiana benthamiana was evaluated as an expression system, acceptable levels of solubility, yield, and stability were attained. Observed expression levels of Na-APR-1 (M74) using this system are ∼300 mg/kg. Here we describe the achievements and obstacles encountered during process development as well as characterization and stability of the purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein and formulated vaccine. The expression, purification and analysis of purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein obtained from representative 5 kg reproducibility runs performed to qualify the Na-APR-1 (M74) production process is also presented. This process has been successfully transferred to a pilot plant and a 50 kg scale manufacturing campaign under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) has been performed. The 50 kg run has provided a sufficient amount of protein to support the ongoing hookworm vaccine development program of the Sabin PDP. PMID:25905574

  12. The dawn of DDT and its experimental use by the Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico, 1943-1952.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, D H

    1998-06-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation played an important early role in promoting the use of DDT for malaria control. During World War II the Foundation helped test DDT in the United States. North Africa and Italy. From 1945 to 1952 the Foundation carried out an experimental anti-malaria program in Mexico as part of its global mission to diffuse knowledge of how to control malaria-bearing mosquitoes with DDT.

  13. The genome and transcriptome of the zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum identify infection-specific gene families

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Erich M; Hu, Yan; Antoshechkin, Igor; Miller, Melanie M; Sternberg, Paul W; Aroian, Raffi V

    2015-01-01

    Hookworms infect over 400 million people, stunting and impoverishing them1–3. Sequencing hookworm genomes and finding which genes they express during infection should help in devising new drugs or vaccines against hookworms4,5. Unlike other hookworms, Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects both humans and other mammals, providing a laboratory model for hookworm disease6,7. We determined an A. ceylanicum genome sequence of 313 Mb, with transcriptomic data throughout infection showing expression of 30,738 genes. Approximately 900 genes were upregulated during early infection in vivo, including ASPRs, a cryptic subfamily of activation-associated secreted proteins (ASPs)8. Genes downregulated during early infection included ion channels and G protein–coupled receptors; this downregulation was observed in both parasitic and free-living nematodes. Later, at the onset of heavy blood feeding, C-lectin genes were upregulated along with genes for secreted clade V proteins (SCVPs), encoding a previously undescribed protein family. These findings provide new drug and vaccine targets and should help elucidate hookworm pathogenesis. PMID:25730766

  14. Hookworm infection, anaemia and genetic variability of the New Zealand sea lion

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Petetti, Laura; Duignan, Padraig; Castinel, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    Hookworms are intestinal blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize and cause high levels of mortality in a wide range of mammals, including otariid pinnipeds. Recently, an empirical study showed that inbreeding (assessed by individual measures of multi-locus heterozygosity) is associated with hookworm-related mortality of California sea lions. If inbreeding increases susceptibility to hookworms, effects would expectedly be stronger in small, fragmented populations. We tested this assumption in the New Zealand sea lion, a threatened otariid that has low levels of genetic variability and high hookworm infection rates. Using a panel of 22 microsatellites, we found that average allelic diversity (5.9) and mean heterozygosity (0.72) were higher than expected for a small population with restricted breeding, and we found no evidence of an association between genetic variability and hookworm resistance. However, similar to what was observed for the California sea lion, homozygosity at a single locus explained the occurrence of anaemia and thrombocytopenia in hookworm-infected pups (generalized linear model, F = 11.81, p < 0.001) and the effect was apparently driven by a particular allele (odds ratio = 34.95%; CI: 7.12–162.41; p < 0.00001). Our study offers further evidence that these haematophagus parasites exert selective pressure on otariid blood-clotting processes. PMID:19605394

  15. "The Attila the Hun law": New York's Rockefeller drug laws and the making of a punitive state.

    PubMed

    Kohler-Hausmann, Julilly

    2010-01-01

    In 1973, New York's Governor Nelson Rockefeller responded to panic about soaring heroin use by renouncing his aggressive treatment programs and enacting the most punitive drug policy in the United States. His "Rockefeller Drug Laws" mandated sentences up to life in prison for selling any narcotics. These punishments, comparable to the penalties for murder, served as models for subsequent "War on Drugs" policies enacted across the nation.This article explores the ideological and political work accomplished by this high profile legislation—for policy makers, for members of the general public who clamored for "get tough" strategies, and for the drug users targeted by the statutes. The laws were a repudiation of liberal treatment programs and specialists' expertise, and provided a forum to remake the much-maligned welfare state into a stern, macho vehicle for establishing order in society. Increasingly punitive policies constricted the rights of drug users by rhetorically constructing "addicts" and "pushers" as outside of the polity and as the antithesis of full citizens. Therefore, the Rockefeller Drug Laws not only had devastating effects on drug offenders, but also were instrumental in the profound renegotiation of the state's role and responsibilities.

  16. Comparison of concentration methods for rapid detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    Hookworm infection contributes around 700 million infections worldwide especially in developing nations due to increased use of wastewater for crop production. The effective recovery of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices is difficult due to their low concentrations and heterogeneous distribution. In this study, we compared the recovery rates of (i) four rapid hookworm ova concentration methods from municipal wastewater, and (ii) two concentration methods from sludge samples. Ancylostoma caninum ova were used as surrogate for human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Known concentration of A. caninum hookworm ova were seeded into wastewater (treated and raw) and sludge samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Brisbane and Perth, Australia. The A. caninum ova were concentrated from treated and raw wastewater samples using centrifugation (Method A), hollow fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) (Method B), filtration (Method C) and flotation (Method D) methods. For sludge samples, flotation (Method E) and direct DNA extraction (Method F) methods were used. Among the four methods tested, filtration (Method C) method was able to recover higher concentrations of A. caninum ova consistently from treated wastewater (39-50%) and raw wastewater (7.1-12%) samples collected from both WWTPs. The remaining methods (Methods A, B and D) yielded variable recovery rate ranging from 0.2 to 40% for treated and raw wastewater samples. The recovery rates for sludge samples were poor (0.02-4.7), although, Method F (direct DNA extraction) provided 1-2 orders of magnitude higher recovery rate than Method E (flotation). Based on our results it can be concluded that the recovery rates of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices, especially sludge samples, can be poor and highly variable. Therefore, choice of concentration method is vital for the sensitive detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices.

  17. Micronutrient-Fortified Rice Can Increase Hookworm Infection Risk: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Chamnan, Chhoun; de Boer, Michiel R.; Parker, Megan E.; Burja, Kurt; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Berger, Jacques; Polman, Katja; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fortification of staple foods is considered an effective and safe strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies, thereby improving health. While improving micronutrient status might be expected to have positive effects on immunity, some studies have reported increases in infections or inflammation after iron supplementation. Objective To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. Methods A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program. Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice n = 506). Intestinal parasite infection was measured in fecal samples by Kato-Katz method at baseline and after three and seven months. In a subgroup (N = 330), fecal calprotectin was measured by ELISA as a marker for intestinal inflammation. Results Baseline prevalence of hookworm infection was 18.6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where baseline prevalence was high (>15%), and only by UltraRice_original in schools with low baseline prevalence. Neither hookworm infection nor fortified rice was related to fecal calprotectin. Conclusions Consumption of rice fortified with micronutrients can increase hookworm prevalence, especially in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of

  18. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm.

    PubMed

    Bethony, Jeffrey; Brooker, Simon; Albonico, Marco; Geiger, Stefan M; Loukas, Alex; Diemert, David; Hotez, Peter J

    2006-05-01

    The three main soil-transmitted helminth infections, ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm, are common clinical disorders in man. The gastrointestinal tract of a child living in poverty in a less developed country is likely to be parasitised with at least one, and in many cases all three soil-transmitted helminths, with resultant impairments in physical, intellectual, and cognitive development. The benzimidazole anthelmintics, mebendazole and albendazole, are commonly used to remove these infections. The use of these drugs is not limited to treatment of symptomatic soil-transmitted helminth infections, but also for large-scale prevention of morbidity in children living in endemic areas. As a result of data showing improvements in child health and education after deworming, and the burden of disease attributed to soil-transmitted helminths, the worldwide community is awakening to the importance of these infections. Concerns about the sustainability of periodic deworming with benzimidazole anthelmintics and the emergence of resistance have prompted efforts to develop and test new control tools.

  19. Molecular Identification of Hookworm Isolates in Humans, Dogs and Soil in a Tribal Area in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    George, Santosh; Levecke, Bruno; Kattula, Deepthi; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Roy, Sheela; Geldhof, Peter; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) remain a major public health problem worldwide. Infections with hookworms (e.g., A. caninum, A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense) are also prevalent in dogs, but the role of dogs as a reservoir for zoonotic hookworm infections in humans needs to be further explored. Methodology/Principal Findings As part of an open-label community based cluster-randomized trial in a tribal area in Tamil Nadu (India; 2013–2015), a total of 143 isolates of hookworm eggs from human stool were speciated based on a previously described PCR-RFLP methodology. The presence of hookworm DNA was confirmed in 119 of 143 human samples. N. americanus (100%) was the most prevalent species, followed by A. caninum (16.8%) and A. duodenale (8.4%). Because of the high prevalence of A. caninum in humans, dog samples were also collected to assess the prevalence of A. caninum in dogs. In 68 out of 77 canine stool samples the presence of hookworms was confirmed using PCR-RFLP. In dogs, both A. caninum (76.4%) and A. ceylanicum (27.9%) were identified. Additionally, to determine the contamination of soil with zoonotic hookworm larvae, topsoil was collected from defecating areas. Hookworm DNA was detected in 72 out of 78 soil samples that revealed presence of hookworm-like nematode larvae. In soil, different hookworm species were identified, with animal hookworms being more prevalent (A. ceylanicum: 60.2%, A. caninum: 29.4%, A. duodenale: 16.6%, N. americanus: 1.4%, A. braziliense: 1.4%). Conclusions/Significance In our study we regularly detected the presence of A. caninum DNA in the stool of humans. Whether this is the result of infection is currently unknown but it does warrant a closer look at dogs as a potential reservoir. PMID:27486798

  20. Molecular identification of hookworms in stray and shelter dogs from Guangzhou city, China using ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y J; Zheng, G C; Zhang, P; Alsarakibi, M; Zhang, X H; Li, Y W; Liu, T; Ren, S N; Chen, Z X; Liu, Y L; Li, S J; Li, G Q

    2015-03-01

    Canine hookworm infections are endemic worldwide, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. This study aimed to investigate hookworm infection and identify the prevalent species from stray and shelter dogs in Guangzhou city, southern China by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. From March 2011 to July 2012, fresh faecal samples from a total of 254 dogs were obtained from five locations, namely Conghua, Baiyun, Liwan, Haizhu and Panyu, in Guangzhou. These samples were screened for the presence of hookworm eggs using light microscopy, with an overall prevalence of 29.53% being recorded. The highest prevalence of 45.28% was found in suburban dogs from Conghua compared with lower values recorded in urban dogs in Haizhu (21.43%), Baiyun (18.97%), Panyu (18.18%) and Liwan (15%). The prevalence in stray dogs was significantly higher than that in shelter dogs. PCR-RFLP analysis showed that 57.33% were detected as single hookworm infections with Ancyclostoma caninum, and 22.67% as A. ceylanicum, while 20% were mixed infections. This suggests that high prevalences of both hookworm species in stray and shelter dogs in China pose a potential risk of transmission from pet dogs to humans.

  1. Modelling the ecological niche of hookworm in Brazil based on climate.

    PubMed

    Mudenda, Ntombi B; Malone, John B; Kearney, Michael T; Mischler, Paula D; Nieto, Prixia del Mar; McCarroll, Jennifer C; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2012-09-01

    The distribution of hookworm in schistosomiasis-endemic areas in Brazil was mapped based on climate suitability. Known biological requirements of hookworm were fitted to data in a monthly long-term normal climate grid (18 x 18 km) using geographical information systems. Hookworm risk models were produced using the growing degree day (GDD) water budget (WB) concept. A moisture-adjusted model (MA-GDD) was developed based on accumulation of monthly temperatures above a base temperature of 15 °C (below which there is no lifecycle progression of Necator americanus) conditional on concurrent monthly values (rain/potential, evapotranspiration) of over 0.4. A second model, designated the gradient index, was calculated based on the monthly accumulation of the product of GDD and monthly WB values (GDD x WB). Both parameters had a significant positive correlation to hookworm prevalence. In the northeastern part of Brazil (the Caatinga), low hookworm prevalence was due to low soil moisture content, while the low prevalence in southern Brazil was related to low mean monthly temperatures. Both environmental temperature and soil moisture content were found to be important parameters for predicting the prevalence of N. americanus.

  2. Characterising the mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Gaze, Soraya; McSorley, Henry J; Daveson, James; Jones, Di; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Oliveira, Luciana M; Speare, Richard; McCarthy, James S; Engwerda, Christian R; Croese, John; Loukas, Alex

    2012-02-01

    The mucosal cytokine response of healthy humans to parasitic helminths has never been reported. We investigated the systemic and mucosal cytokine responses to hookworm infection in experimentally infected, previously hookworm naive individuals from non-endemic areas. We collected both peripheral blood and duodenal biopsies to assess the systemic immune response, as well as the response at the site of adult worm establishment. Our results show that experimental hookworm infection leads to a strong systemic and mucosal Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13) and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β) response, with some evidence of a Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2) response. Despite upregulation after patency of both IL-15 and ALDH1A2, a known Th17-inducing combination in inflammatory diseases, we saw no evidence of a Th17 (IL-17) response. Moreover, we observed strong suppression of mucosal IL-23 and upregulation of IL-22 during established hookworm infection, suggesting a potential mechanism by which Th17 responses are suppressed, and highlighting the potential that hookworms and their secreted proteins offer as therapeutics for human inflammatory diseases.

  3. Sequence data mining in search of hookworm (Necator americanus) microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Abhijeet P; Mittal, Smriti P K

    2016-09-30

    The new world hookworm, Necator americanus is a soil-transmitted nematode responsible for Necatoriasis (a type of helminthiasis) in hosts such as humans, dogs, and cats. N. americanus genome and transcriptome has been sequenced and a draft assembly analysis has been published highlighting protein coding genes and possible drug target proteins. Hookworm microRNA identification, annotations and their public release is yet to be attempted. The same is evident from lack of hookworm miRNA information in related popular public nucleotide sequence repositories such as miRBase, GenBank, WormBase etc. Therefore, in the present study we addressed these issues using EST and assembled transcript sequence information of hookworm. Using computational approaches, we identified three miRNAs precursor sequences and their mature forms. We also identified their potential targets from hookworm ESTs and transcripts, and from human transcriptome. Overall, the results indicate presence of nematode specific miRNA homologs in N. americanus and shades light on their putative targets in worm itself and the human host. PMID:27259664

  4. Restoration of hookworm egg development after prolonged storage in stool suspension.

    PubMed

    Na-Ek, Prasit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Jongthawin, Jurairat; Anamnart, Witthaya; Intapan, Pewpan M; Chamavit, Pennapa; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-07-01

    Hookworm infection is still prevalent in southern Thailand despite control measures. Hookworm eggs submerged for an extended period under water from rainfall or in latrines may not survive, but they may recover their ability to develop into infective larvae when exposed to atmospheric air. This study examined the survival of the hookworm eggs in stool suspension and the restoration of development capability after prolonged storage. In stool mass, eggs developed normally and yielded infective filariform larvae (FL) in 7 days. On the contrary, in 1:10 stool suspension, hookworm eggs were found to remain at the 4-8 cell stage; degenerated eggs were observed after 15 days of storage, and the number of degenerated eggs reached 80 % on day 30. Aeration of the suspension, or transferring to a Petri dish or agar plate, restored the capacity of eggs stored for up to 15 days to develop into FL; thereafter, the capacity declined sharply. Retardation of egg development under water or in stool suspension may be due to a lack of atmospheric air. Use of "night soil" from latrines as fertilizer may be one factor in maintaining hookworm transmission, as worm eggs can undergo normal development upon exposure to atmospheric air. PMID:27053130

  5. Sequence data mining in search of hookworm (Necator americanus) microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Abhijeet P; Mittal, Smriti P K

    2016-09-30

    The new world hookworm, Necator americanus is a soil-transmitted nematode responsible for Necatoriasis (a type of helminthiasis) in hosts such as humans, dogs, and cats. N. americanus genome and transcriptome has been sequenced and a draft assembly analysis has been published highlighting protein coding genes and possible drug target proteins. Hookworm microRNA identification, annotations and their public release is yet to be attempted. The same is evident from lack of hookworm miRNA information in related popular public nucleotide sequence repositories such as miRBase, GenBank, WormBase etc. Therefore, in the present study we addressed these issues using EST and assembled transcript sequence information of hookworm. Using computational approaches, we identified three miRNAs precursor sequences and their mature forms. We also identified their potential targets from hookworm ESTs and transcripts, and from human transcriptome. Overall, the results indicate presence of nematode specific miRNA homologs in N. americanus and shades light on their putative targets in worm itself and the human host.

  6. CD4+ T cells mediate mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental hookworm infection

    PubMed Central

    DONDJI, B.; SUN, T.; BUNGIRO, R. D.; VERMEIRE, J. J.; HARRISON, L. M.; BIFULCO, C.; CAPPELLO, M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Hookworm infection is associated with anaemia and malnutrition in many resource-limited countries. Ancylostoma hookworms have previously been shown to modulate host cellular immune responses through multiple mechanisms, including reduced mitogen-mediated lymphocyte proliferation, impaired antigen presentation/processing, and relative reductions in CD4+ T cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Syrian hamsters were depleted of CD4+ for up to 9 days following intraperitoneal injection (200 μg) of a murine anti-mouse CD4 monoclonal IgG (clone GK1·5). CD4+ T-cell-depleted hamsters infected with the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum exhibited a threefold higher mean intestinal worm burden and more severe anaemia than animals that received isotype control IgG. In addition, depletion of CD4+ T cells was associated with impaired cellular and humoral (serum and mucosal) immune responses to hookworm antigens. These data demonstrate an effector role for CD4+ T cells in hookworm immunity and disease pathogenesis. Ultimately, these studies may yield important insights into the relationship between intestinal nematode infections and diseases that are associated with CD4+ T-cell depletion, including HIV. PMID:20500671

  7. [The Rockefeller Foundation, the Carlsberg Foundation and Danish medical biology in the interwar years. Effects on research and education throughout the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L

    1999-01-01

    Three large scientific institutes were built in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 1928 and 1938 supported by the Rockefeller Foundation in New York. The three institutes were: the Rockefeller Institute of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej, the Biological Institute of the Carlsberg Foundation, and the Institute of Human Genetics, both on Tagensvej (The Carlsberg Foundation in Copenhagen participated in the financing of the two first ones.) In the same period the Rockefeller Foundation supported the construction of a cyclotron at Niels Bohr's Institute of Theoretical Physics. These institutes in Copenhagen sent many co-workers both to the Rockefeller University in New York and to other places in the world for further education supported by stipends from the Rockefeller Foundation. The scientific nucleus around which these activities crystallized included: the physiologist (and Nobel Prize winner) Aug. Krogh, the physicist (and Nobel Prize winner) Niels Bohr, the chemist S.P.L. Sorensen, the geneticist W. Johannsen, the plant physiologist Peter Boysen Jensen, and the cell culturist Albert Fischer. The international co-operation between the two foundations began early in the 20th century and it can be traced in Danish medical/biological science through the rest of that century.

  8. Foreign intervention in medical education: a case study of the Rockefeller Foundation's involvement in a Thai medical school.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, P J

    1976-01-01

    A case study of the process of foreign intervention in medical education in the developing world is presented. Material collected from the Rockefeller Foundation Archives on a Foundation program in Thailand is used to analyze the conditions under which foreign agencies and their personnel intervene in the development of medical professionals in the Third World and to study the problems that may occur as a result of such intervention. The importance of value consensus and the competitive advantage foreigners have in the marketing of professional models are highlighted as reasons for the diffusion of Western models of medical education throughout the developing world. PMID:939621

  9. Foreign intervention in medical education: a case study of the Rockefeller Foundation's involvement in a Thai medical school.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, P J

    1976-01-01

    A case study of the process of foreign intervention in medical education in the developing world is presented. Material collected from the Rockefeller Foundation Archives on a Foundation program in Thailand is used to analyze the conditions under which foreign agencies and their personnel intervene in the development of medical professionals in the Third World and to study the problems that may occur as a result of such intervention. The importance of value consensus and the competitive advantage foreigners have in the marketing of professional models are highlighted as reasons for the diffusion of Western models of medical education throughout the developing world.

  10. Epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the fundamental factors influencing the epidemiology of wildlife disease is essential to determining the impact of disease on individual health and population dynamics. The host-pathogen-environment relationship of the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) and the parasitic hookworm, Uncinaria sanguinis, was investigated in neonatal pups during summer and winter breeding seasons at two biogeographically disparate colonies in South Australia. The endemic occurrence of hookworm infection in Australian sea lion pups at these sites was 100% and post-parturient transmammary transmission is likely the predominant route of hookworm infection for pups. The prepatent period for U. sanguinis in Australian sea lion pups was determined to be 11-14 days and the duration of infection approximately 2-3 months. The mean hookworm infection intensity in pups found dead was 2138 ± 552 (n = 86), but a significant relationship between infection intensity and faecal egg count was not identified; infection intensity in live pups could not be estimated from faecal samples. Fluctuations in infection intensity corresponded to oscillations in the magnitude of colony pup mortality, that is, higher infection intensity was significantly associated with higher colony pup mortality and reduced pup body condition. The dynamic interaction between colony, season, and host behaviour is hypothesised to modulate hookworm infection intensity in this species. This study provides a new perspective to understanding the dynamics of otariid hookworm infection and provides evidence that U. sanguinis is a significant agent of disease in Australian sea lion pups and could play a role in population regulation in this species.

  11. Epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the fundamental factors influencing the epidemiology of wildlife disease is essential to determining the impact of disease on individual health and population dynamics. The host-pathogen-environment relationship of the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) and the parasitic hookworm, Uncinaria sanguinis, was investigated in neonatal pups during summer and winter breeding seasons at two biogeographically disparate colonies in South Australia. The endemic occurrence of hookworm infection in Australian sea lion pups at these sites was 100% and post-parturient transmammary transmission is likely the predominant route of hookworm infection for pups. The prepatent period for U. sanguinis in Australian sea lion pups was determined to be 11-14 days and the duration of infection approximately 2-3 months. The mean hookworm infection intensity in pups found dead was 2138 ± 552 (n = 86), but a significant relationship between infection intensity and faecal egg count was not identified; infection intensity in live pups could not be estimated from faecal samples. Fluctuations in infection intensity corresponded to oscillations in the magnitude of colony pup mortality, that is, higher infection intensity was significantly associated with higher colony pup mortality and reduced pup body condition. The dynamic interaction between colony, season, and host behaviour is hypothesised to modulate hookworm infection intensity in this species. This study provides a new perspective to understanding the dynamics of otariid hookworm infection and provides evidence that U. sanguinis is a significant agent of disease in Australian sea lion pups and could play a role in population regulation in this species. PMID:25056940

  12. Risk Profiling of Hookworm Infection and Intensity in Southern Lao People’s Democratic Republic Using Bayesian Models

    PubMed Central

    Forrer, Armelle; Vounatsou, Penelope; Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Among the common soil-transmitted helminth infections, hookworm causes the highest burden. Previous research in the southern part of Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) revealed high prevalence rates of hookworm infection. The purpose of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of hookworm infection and intensity, and to investigate risk factors in the Champasack province, southern Lao PDR. Methodology A cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey was conducted in 51 villages. Data on demography, socioeconomic status, water, sanitation, and behavior were combined with remotely sensed environmental data. Bayesian mixed effects logistic and negative binomial models were utilized to investigate risk factors and spatial distribution of hookworm infection and intensity, and to make predictions for non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings A total of 3,371 individuals were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and revealed a hookworm prevalence of 48.8%. Most infections (91.7%) were of light intensity (1-1,999 eggs/g of stool). Lower hookworm infection levels were associated with higher socioeconomic status. The lowest infection levels were found in preschool-aged children. Overall, females were at lower risk of infection, but women aged 50 years and above harbored the heaviest hookworm infection intensities. Hookworm was widespread in Champasack province with little evidence for spatial clustering. Infection risk was somewhat lower in the lowlands, mostly along the western bank of the Mekong River, while infection intensity was homogeneous across the Champasack province. Conclusions/Significance Hookworm transmission seems to occur within, rather than between villages in Champasack province. We present spatial risk maps of hookworm infection and intensity, which suggest that control efforts should be intensified in the Champasack province, particularly in mountainous areas. PMID:25822794

  13. Field Campaign Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, J. W.; Chapman, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  14. [Nelson Rockefeller and the activities of the American International Association for Economic and Social Development: the debate concerning mission and imperialism in Brazil, 1946-1961].

    PubMed

    Silva, Claiton Marcio da

    2013-10-01

    The article analyzes the bibliography on Nelson Rockefeller and the activities of the American International Association for Economic and Social Development in Brazil. It describes optimistic interpretations of Rockefeller's and the association's work, as well as the nationalist stream of thought, which characterized him as one of the chief representatives of U.S. imperialism, both as a political representative in the 1960s and as the mind behind endeavors of interest to the private sector. It is shown that at the individual and agency levels alike, these initiatives involved direct ties to the local elites, who influenced the reshaping and operationalization of technical cooperation projects.

  15. Hookworm dermatitis due to Uncinaria stenocephala in a dog from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shirley; Myers, Sherry L; Wagner, Brent; Snead, Elisabeth C R

    2013-08-01

    Uncinaria stenocephala hookworm dermatitis (uncinariosis) was diagnosed on fecal examination and macerated skin biopsy in a 1.5-year-old greyhound dog from Saskatchewan. This is the first reported case in Canada. Treatment with moxidectin cleared gastrointestinal and dermal infections.

  16. Contrasting effects of heterozygosity on survival and hookworm resistance in California sea lion pups.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Spraker, Terry R; Lyons, Eugene; Melin, Sharon R; Gulland, Frances; Delong, Robert L; Amos, William

    2006-06-01

    Low genetic heterozygosity is associated with loss of fitness in many natural populations. However, it remains unclear whether the mechanism is related to general (i.e. inbreeding) or local effects, in particular from a subset of loci lying close to genes under balancing selection. Here we analyse involving heterozygosity-fitness correlations on neonatal survival of California sea lions and on susceptibility to hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection, the single most important cause of pup mortality. We show that regardless of differences in hookworm burden, homozygosity is a key predictor of hookworm-related lesions, with no single locus contributing disproportionately. Conversely, the subsequent occurrence of anaemia due to blood loss in infected pups is overwhelmingly associated with homozygosity at one particular locus, all other loci showing no pattern. Our results suggest contrasting genetic mechanisms underlying two pathologies related to the same pathogen. First, relatively inbred pups are less able to expel hookworms and prevent their attachment to the intestinal mucosa, possibly due to a weakened immune response. In contrast, infected pups that are homozygous for a gene near to microsatellite Hg4.2 are strongly predisposed to anaemia. As yet, this gene is unknown, but could plausibly be involved in the blood-coagulation cascade. Taken together, these results suggest that pathogenic burden alone may not be the main factor regulating pathogen-related mortality in natural populations. Our study could have important implications for the conservation of small, isolated or threatened populations, particularly when they are at a risk of facing pathogenic challenges.

  17. Spatial and genetic epidemiology of hookworm in a rural community in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Pullan, Rachel L; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Quinnell, Rupert J; Brooker, Simon

    2010-06-15

    There are remarkably few contemporary, population-based studies of intestinal nematode infection for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents a comprehensive epidemiological analysis of hookworm infection intensity in a rural Ugandan community. Demographic, kinship, socioeconomic and environmental data were collected for 1,803 individuals aged six months to 85 years in 341 households in a cross-sectional community survey. Hookworm infection was assessed by faecal egg count. Spatial variation in the intensity of infection was assessed using a Bayesian negative binomial spatial regression model and the proportion of variation explained by host additive genetics (heritability) and common domestic environment was estimated using genetic variance component analysis. Overall, the prevalence of hookworm was 39.3%, with the majority of infections (87.7%) of light intensity (hookworm egg count was 11.2%, whilst the percentage of variance explained by unidentified domestic effects was 17.8%. In conclusion, we suggest that host genetic relatedness is not a major determinant of infection intensity in this community, with exposure-related factors playing a greater role.

  18. Characterisation of a fatty acid and retinol binding protein orthologue from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Keke C; Vermeire, Jon J; Harrison, Lisa M; Bungiro, Richard D; Grant, Wayne; Husain, Sohail Z; Cappello, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Hookworms, bloodfeeding intestinal nematodes, infect nearly one billion people in resource limited countries and are a leading cause of anaemia and malnutrition. Like other nematodes, hookworms lack the capacity to synthesise essential fatty acids de novo and therefore must acquire those from exogenous sources. The cDNA corresponding to a putative Ancylostoma ceylanicum fatty acid and retinol binding protein-1 (AceFAR-1) was amplified from adult hookworm mRNA. Studies using quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR demonstrate that AceFAR-1 transcripts are most abundant in the earliest developmental stages of the parasite, and greater in females than males. Using in vitro assays, the recombinant AceFAR-1 (rAceFAR-1) was shown to bind individual fatty acids with equilibrium dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. The pattern of fatty acid uptake by live adult worms cultured ex vivo was similar to the in vitro binding profile of rAceFAR-1, raising the possibility that the native protein may be involved in acquisition of fatty acids by A. ceylanicum. Animals vaccinated orally with rAceFAR-1 and the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin exhibited a statistically significant (40-47%) reduction in intestinal worm burden compared with controls immunized with antigen or adjuvant alone. Together, these data suggest a potential role for AceFAR-1 in hookworm biology, making it a potentially valuable target for drug and vaccine development.

  19. Distribution and clustering of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and hookworm infections in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ziem, J B; Olsen, A; Magnussen, P; Horton, J; Agongo, E; Geskus, R B; Polderman, A M

    2006-04-01

    Human Oesophagostomum infections are locally common in northern Ghana. The present study describes the results of a cross-sectional survey involving 1011 subjects, selected by a compound-based random sampling method from 1227 compounds in 24 villages. Selected persons were examined by both Kato and coproculture methods. Hookworm-like eggs, representing ova of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and hookworm were detected in 87.5% of the Kato smears. The geometric mean egg count of the infected subjects was 1018. Upon coproculture, third-stage larvae of O. bifurcum and hookworm were detected in 53.0% and 86.9% of subjects respectively. Oesophagostomum infections were clustered but no clear explanation for aggregation of infections could be found as yet. Subjects infected with hookworm had a 5-fold higher risk of being infected with O. bifurcum. Infection rates in adult women were higher than in adult men. No association was found with family size, level of hygiene or with the presence of animals in the compounds. Representatives of the Bimoba-tribe were significantly more infected than those of the other tribes. It appears, however, that this tribal association is a geographical phenomenon: Bimoba are mostly living in villages with the highest infection rates.

  20. Hookworm dermatitis due to Uncinaria stenocephala in a dog from Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shirley; Myers, Sherry L.; Wagner, Brent; Snead, Elisabeth C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Uncinaria stenocephala hookworm dermatitis (uncinariosis) was diagnosed on fecal examination and macerated skin biopsy in a 1.5-year-old greyhound dog from Saskatchewan. This is the first reported case in Canada. Treatment with moxidectin cleared gastrointestinal and dermal infections. PMID:24155473

  1. Geophagia is not associated with Trichuris or hookworm transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Young, Sera L; Goodman, Dave; Farag, Tamer H; Ali, Said M; Khatib, Mzee R; Khalfan, Sabra S; Tielsch, James M; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2007-08-01

    Geophagia may be harmful as a method for the transmission of geohelminths. In this study, we pose two questions in a representative sample of 970 pregnant women from Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Can consumed earth be a vector for geohelminth infection? And do geophagists have differential parasitic infection? The parasitological content of 59 non-food substance samples was analysed. Cross-sectional data regarding pica behaviour were collected through interviews conducted by local researchers. Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm status was ascertained through Kato-Katz smears. The prevalence of geophagia at baseline was 5.6% and the overall prevalence of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infection was 5.6%, 33.2% and 32.9%, respectively. No consumed soil samples contained infectious parasitic stages, and only one of the consumed pica substances (charcoal) contained parasites of potential risk to human health. In bivariate analyses, neither the prevalence nor the intensity of infection with Ascaris, Trichuris or hookworm differed significantly by geophagia status. Furthermore, in multivariate models, geophagia was not a significant predictor of helminth infection status. We conclude that geophagia is not a source of Trichuris or hookworm infection among pregnant women in Pemba (insufficient power to evaluate the effect of Ascaris), which is in contrast to existing findings of helminth infection and geophagia. PMID:17568644

  2. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.

    PubMed Central

    Esrey, S. A.; Potash, J. B.; Roberts, L.; Shiff, C.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 144 studies were analysed to examine the impact of improved water supply and sanitation facilities on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. These diseases were selected because they are widespread and illustrate the variety of mechanisms through which improved water and sanitation can protect people. Disease-specific median reduction levels were calculated for all studies, and separately for the more methodologically rigorous ones. For the latter studies, the median reduction in morbidity for diarrhoea, trachoma, and ascariasis induced by water supplies and/or sanitation was 26%, 27%, and 29%, respectively; the median reduction for schistosomiasis and dracunculiasis was higher, at 77% and 78%, respectively. All studies of hookworm infection were flawed apart from one, which reported a 4% reduction in incidence. For hookworm infection, ascariasis, and schistosomiasis, the reduction in disease severity, as measured in egg counts, was greater than that in incidence or prevalence. Child mortality fell by 55%, which suggests that water and sanitation have a substantial impact on child survival. Water for personal and domestic hygiene was important in reducing the rates of ascariasis, diarrhoea, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Sanitation facilities decreased diarrhoea morbidity and mortality and the severity of hookworm infection. Better water quality reduced the incidence of dracunculiasis, but its role in diarrhoeal disease control was less important than that of sanitation and hygiene. PMID:1835675

  3. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  4. Hookworm dermatitis due to Uncinaria stenocephala in a dog from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shirley; Myers, Sherry L; Wagner, Brent; Snead, Elisabeth C R

    2013-08-01

    Uncinaria stenocephala hookworm dermatitis (uncinariosis) was diagnosed on fecal examination and macerated skin biopsy in a 1.5-year-old greyhound dog from Saskatchewan. This is the first reported case in Canada. Treatment with moxidectin cleared gastrointestinal and dermal infections. PMID:24155473

  5. Characterization of a fatty acid and retinol binding protein orthologue from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum✯

    PubMed Central

    Fairfax, Keke C.; Vermeire, Jon J.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Bungiro, Richard D.; Grant, Wayne; Husain, Sohail Z.; Cappello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Hookworms, bloodfeeding intestinal nematodes, infect nearly one billion people in resource limited countries and are a leading cause of anemia and malnutrition. Like other nematodes, hookworms lack the capacity to synthesize essential fatty acids de novo and therefore must acquire those from exogenous sources. The cDNA corresponding to a putative Ancylostoma ceylanicum fatty acid and retinol binding protein-1 (AceFAR-1) was amplified from adult hookworm mRNA. Studies using quantitative reverse transcriptase real time-PCR demonstrate that AceFAR-1 transcripts are most abundant in the earliest developmental stages of the parasite, and greater in females than males. Using in vitro assays, the recombinant AceFAR-1 (rAceFAR-1) was shown to bind individual fatty acids with equilibrium dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. The pattern of fatty acid uptake by live adult worms cultured ex vivo was similar to the in vitro binding profile of rAceFAR-1, raising the possibility that the native protein may be involved in acquisition of fatty acids by A. ceylanicum. Animals vaccinated orally with rAceFAR-1 and the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin exhibited a statistically significant (40–47%) reduction in intestinal worm burden compared with controls immunized with antigen or adjuvant alone. Together, these data suggest a potential role for AceFAR-1 in hookworm biology, making it a potentially valuable target for drug and vaccine development. PMID:19591834

  6. Frequency and intensity of exposure mediate resistance to experimental infection with the hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Dylan; Manickam, Nisha; Simms, Benjamin T.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Vermeire, Jon J.; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hookworms are bloodfeeding intestinal nematodes that are a major cause of anemia in resource-limited countries. Despite repeated exposure beginning in early childhood, humans retain lifelong susceptibility to infection without evidence of sterilizing immunity. In contrast, experimental infection of laboratory animals is typically characterized by varying degrees of resistance following primary infection, although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, hamsters subjected to a single drug-terminated infection with 100 third stage hookworm larvae were confirmed to be resistant to pathological effects following a subsequent challenge. In a second experiment, hamsters infected twice-weekly with 10 third stage larvae (low inoculum) exhibited clinical and parasitological evidence of continued susceptibility, while those given 100 L3 (high inoculum) developed apparent resistance within 3 days following the initial exposure. The kinetics of parasite-specific IgA, IgM, and IgG antibody production varied by group, which suggests that the humoral immune response to hookworm infection is stimulated by the nature (frequency and intensity) of larval exposure. These results suggest that intermittent low-inoculum larval exposure, which is characterized by prolonged susceptibility to infection, may serve as a more representative model of human hookworm disease for studies of pathogenesis, as well as drug and vaccine development. PMID:23232252

  7. Modulation of mycobacterial-specific Th1 and Th17 cells in latent tuberculosis by coincident hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    George, Parakkal Jovvian; Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Kumaran, Paramasivam Paul; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2013-05-15

    Hookworm infections and tuberculosis (TB) are coendemic in many parts of the world. It has been suggested that infection with helminth parasites could suppress the predominant Th1 (IFN-γ-mediated) response needed to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and enhance susceptibility to infection and/or disease. To determine the role of coincident hookworm infection on responses at steady-state and on M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses in latent TB (LTB), we examined the cellular responses in individuals with LTB with or without concomitant hookworm infection. By analyzing the expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets of CD4(+) T cells, we were able to demonstrate that the presence of coincident hookworm infection significantly diminished both spontaneously expressed and M. tuberculosis-specific mono- and dual-functional Th1 and Th17 cells. Hookworm infection, in contrast, was associated with expanded frequencies of mono- and dual-functional Th2 cells at both steady-state and upon Ag stimulation. This differential induction of CD4(+) T cell subsets was abrogated upon mitogen stimulation. Additionally, coincident hookworm infection was associated with increased adaptive T regulatory cells but not natural regulatory T cells in LTB. Finally, the CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression pattern was also associated with alterations in the systemic levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Thus, coincident hookworm infection exerts a profound inhibitory effect on protective Th1 and Th17 responses in LTB and may predispose toward the development of active tuberculosis in humans.

  8. Efficacy of parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in faecal specimens.

    PubMed

    Inês, Elizabete de J; Souza, Joelma N; Santos, Renata C; Souza, Eliane S; Santos, Fred L; Silva, Mônica L S; Silva, Moacir P; Teixeira, Márcia C A; Soares, Neci M

    2011-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of stool examination for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm, a total of 634 stool samples from the routine laboratory service of the Pharmacia Faculty, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, were examined by agar plate culture (APC), Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation. The sensitivity of agar plate culture, calculated by combining results of all 3 methods, was 95% for S. stercoralis and 77.6% for hookwoorm. Moreover, APC had superior accuracy than Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation for S. stercoralis and hookworm diagnosis, respectively. The S. stercoralis and hookworm positive samples from the laboratory routine, obtained after the previous analysis, along with those initially selected, were used to evaluate the concordance between microscopic examination and both the type of furrows left by larvae and the time for culture positivity using the APC method. Of 115 stool samples positive for S. stercoralis and 92 positive for hookworm, 110 (95.7%) and 89 (96.7%), respectively, had concordant results for furrows and morphological characteristics. The cumulative percentage of positivity increased to 94% by the third day of observation; at this time, only 19.6% of hookworm-positive samples had positive culture plates. Analyses of 74 S. stercoralis-positive stool samples stored at 4°C for 24, 48 and 72h showed the presence of larvae in 48.6%, 28.4% and 23% of samples, respectively when re-examined by the APC. As a definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis depends on the microscopic demonstration of parasites, increasing the sensitivity of the detection requires the use of different parasitological methods, including APC.

  9. Odanacatib, a Cathepsin K Cysteine Protease Inhibitor, Kills Hookworm In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Jon J.; Suzuki, Brian M.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2016-01-01

    Hookworm infection is chief among soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) for the chronic morbidly inflicted. Deworming via mass drug administration (MDA) programs most often employs single doses of benzimidazole drugs to which resistance is a constant threat. To discover new drugs, we employ a hamster model of hookworm infection with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and use albendazole (ABZ; 10 mg/kg orally) as the gold standard therapy. We previously showed that a single oral 100 mg/kg dose of the cathepsin cysteine protease (CP) inhibitor, K11777, offers near cure of infection that is associated with a 95% reduction in the parasite’s resident CP activity. We confirm these findings here and demonstrate that odanacatib (ODN), Merck’s cathepsin K inhibitor and post-clinical Phase III drug candidate for treatment of osteoporosis, decreases worm burden by 73% at the same dose with a 51% reduction in the parasite’s CP activity. Unlike K11777, ODN is a modest inhibitor of both mammalian cathepsin B and the predominant cathepsin B-like activity measureable in hookworm extracts. ODN’s somewhat unexpected efficacy, therefore, may be due to its excellent pharmacokinetic (PK) profile which allows for sustained plasma exposure and, possibly, sufficient perturbation of hookworm cathepsin B activity to be detrimental to survival. Accordingly, identifying a CP inhibitor(s) that combines the inhibition potency of K11777 and the PK attributes of ODN could lead to a drug that is effective at a lower dose. Achieving this would potentially provide an alternative or back-up to the current anti-hookworm drug, albendazole. PMID:27384569

  10. Odanacatib, a Cathepsin K Cysteine Protease Inhibitor, Kills Hookworm In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, Jon J; Suzuki, Brian M; Caffrey, Conor R

    2016-01-01

    Hookworm infection is chief among soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) for the chronic morbidly inflicted. Deworming via mass drug administration (MDA) programs most often employs single doses of benzimidazole drugs to which resistance is a constant threat. To discover new drugs, we employ a hamster model of hookworm infection with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and use albendazole (ABZ; 10 mg/kg orally) as the gold standard therapy. We previously showed that a single oral 100 mg/kg dose of the cathepsin cysteine protease (CP) inhibitor, K11777, offers near cure of infection that is associated with a 95% reduction in the parasite's resident CP activity. We confirm these findings here and demonstrate that odanacatib (ODN), Merck's cathepsin K inhibitor and post-clinical Phase III drug candidate for treatment of osteoporosis, decreases worm burden by 73% at the same dose with a 51% reduction in the parasite's CP activity. Unlike K11777, ODN is a modest inhibitor of both mammalian cathepsin B and the predominant cathepsin B-like activity measureable in hookworm extracts. ODN's somewhat unexpected efficacy, therefore, may be due to its excellent pharmacokinetic (PK) profile which allows for sustained plasma exposure and, possibly, sufficient perturbation of hookworm cathepsin B activity to be detrimental to survival. Accordingly, identifying a CP inhibitor(s) that combines the inhibition potency of K11777 and the PK attributes of ODN could lead to a drug that is effective at a lower dose. Achieving this would potentially provide an alternative or back-up to the current anti-hookworm drug, albendazole. PMID:27384569

  11. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... campaign for the U.S. Hispanic community. 1 Know Stroke A stroke occurs when the blood supply to ...

  12. Diversity: A Corporate Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Diana D.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for a "campaign" because she believes there is a need to build upon the successes of diversity initiatives with renewed commitment, in much the same way as capital campaigns build upon past successes and refocus campuses on their work. Just as a capital campaign invests in financial stability by stimulating…

  13. Political Campaign Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Techniques, materials, and coordinating efforts used in a political campaign are outlined for high school students. The objective is to familiarize students with these techniques so that they can become effective campaign volunteers. Topics include the candidate and the press, campaign publicity materials, organization of headquarters, receptions,…

  14. [The Rockefeller Foundation and its efforts toward a reorientation of German medicine and public health in the 1950s].

    PubMed

    Schleiermacher, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation invested substantial funds into promoting the development of public health as a discipline and a re-orientation of medical training in West Germany to support the democratization of German society. Not limiting itself to the simple provision of literature, the Foundation pursued a two-pronged strategy. Firstly, the Foundation organized a program for German university physicians and public health officers to visit various universities and teaching hospitals in the USA and Canada. A second aim was to establish training institutes for postgraduate physicians. However, rather than simply imposing the US model, the Foundation intended to adapt it to the German context, in the form of a postgraduate course for physicians that integrated practical experience with a university setting. My research to date shows that the Foundation's activities did not meet with much enthusiasm from German medical professionals. Intellectual, cultural, cognitive and political differences impaired constructive collaboration between the Foundation's staff and local practitioners and academics.

  15. Backstage: the relationship between the Rockefeller Foundation and the World Health Organization, Part I: 1940s-1960s.

    PubMed

    Birn, A-E

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing debate about what role foundations should play in global health governance generally, and particularly vis-à-vis the World Health Organization (WHO). Much of this discussion revolves around today's gargantuan philanthropy, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and its sway over the agenda and modus operandi of global health. Yet such pre-occupations are not new. The Rockefeller Foundation (RF), the unparalleled 20th century health philanthropy heavyweight, both profoundly shaped WHO and maintained long and complex relations with it, even as both institutions changed over time. This article examines the WHO-RF relationship from the 1940s to the 1960s, tracing its ebbs and flows, key moments, challenges, and quandaries, concluding with a reflection on the role of the Cold War in both fully institutionalizing the RF's dominant disease-control approach and limiting its smaller social medicine efforts, even as the RF's quotidian influence at WHO diminished.

  16. Backstage: the relationship between the Rockefeller Foundation and the World Health Organization, Part I: 1940s-1960s.

    PubMed

    Birn, A-E

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing debate about what role foundations should play in global health governance generally, and particularly vis-à-vis the World Health Organization (WHO). Much of this discussion revolves around today's gargantuan philanthropy, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and its sway over the agenda and modus operandi of global health. Yet such pre-occupations are not new. The Rockefeller Foundation (RF), the unparalleled 20th century health philanthropy heavyweight, both profoundly shaped WHO and maintained long and complex relations with it, even as both institutions changed over time. This article examines the WHO-RF relationship from the 1940s to the 1960s, tracing its ebbs and flows, key moments, challenges, and quandaries, concluding with a reflection on the role of the Cold War in both fully institutionalizing the RF's dominant disease-control approach and limiting its smaller social medicine efforts, even as the RF's quotidian influence at WHO diminished. PMID:24412372

  17. Courting the Rockefeller Foundation and other attempts to integrate clinical teaching, medical practice, and research in Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Westmore, Ann; Penington, David

    2009-01-01

    Courtesy of the cashed-up Rockefeller Foundation (RF), opportunity knocked in the 1920s for university medical schools committed to closer integration with teaching hospitals. The University of Melbourne Medical School, recognising the opportunity to win RF funds to help with rebuilding, sought government support for an audacious plan consistent with the university-hospital-research triads designed to advance medical science, that had strong RF support. Using a range of local archival sources, this paper details the back story to the development of the plan in the mid-1920s and its presentation to the RF by a high-powered delegation from Victoria in 1927. Although a change of government undermined the attempt and the RF money went to Sydney, sufficient momentum survived to implement the plan in several forms over the following decades, contributing to Victoria's subsequent leadership role in medical science. PMID:20481117

  18. In vitro screening of compounds against laboratory and field isolates of human hookworm reveals quantitative differences in anthelmintic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Treger, Rebecca S; Otchere, Joseph; Keil, Martin F; Quagraine, Josephine E; Rai, Ganesha; Mott, Bryan T; Humphries, Debbie L; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael; Vermeire, Jon J

    2014-01-01

    A panel of 80 compounds was screened for anthelmintic activity against a laboratory strain of Ancylostoma ceylanicum and field isolates of hookworm obtained from school children in the Kintampo North District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Although the laboratory strain of A. ceylanicum was more susceptible to the compounds tested than the field isolates of hookworm, a twofold increase in compound concentration resulted in comparable egg hatch percent inhibition for select compounds. These data provide evidence that the efficacy of anthelmintic compounds may be species-dependent and that field and laboratory strains of hookworm differ in their sensitivities to the anthelmintics tested. These data also suggest that both compound concentration and hookworm species must be considered when screening to identify novel anthelmintic compounds.

  19. In vitro Screening of Compounds against Laboratory and Field Isolates of Human Hookworm Reveals Quantitative Differences in Anthelmintic Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Treger, Rebecca S.; Otchere, Joseph; Keil, Martin F.; Quagraine, Josephine E.; Rai, Ganesha; Mott, Bryan T.; Humphries, Debbie L.; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael; Vermeire, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    A panel of 80 compounds was screened for anthelmintic activity against a laboratory strain of Ancylostoma ceylanicum and field isolates of hookworm obtained from school children in the Kintampo North District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Although the laboratory strain of A. ceylanicum was more susceptible to the compounds tested than the field isolates of hookworm, a twofold increase in compound concentration resulted in comparable egg hatch percent inhibition for select compounds. These data provide evidence that the efficacy of anthelmintic compounds may be species-dependent and that field and laboratory strains of hookworm differ in their sensitivities to the anthelmintics tested. These data also suggest that both compound concentration and hookworm species must be considered when screening to identify novel anthelmintic compounds. PMID:24297811

  20. Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mpairwe, Harriet; Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Kizito, Dennison; Kakande, Mohammed; Jones, Frances M; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Muwanga, Moses; Rodrigues, Laura C; Dunne, David W; Elliott, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Background Worms may protect against allergy. Early-life worm exposure may be critical, but this has not been fully investigated. Objectives To investigate whether worms in pregnancy and in early childhood are associated with childhood eczema incidence. Methods The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, an anthelminthic treatment trial, enrolled pregnant women between 2003 and 2005 in Uganda. Mothers were investigated for worms during pregnancy and children annually. Eczema was doctor-diagnosed from birth to age five years. A planned observational analysis was conducted within the trial cohort to investigate associations between worms and eczema. Results Data for 2345 live-born children were analysed. Hookworm was the most prevalent maternal worm (45%). Childhood worms were less prevalent. Eczema incidence was 4.68/100 person-years. Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced eczema incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p-value: 0.71(0.51–0.99), 0.04] and modified effects of known risk factors for eczema: Dermatophagoides-specific IgE in children was positively associated with eczema incidence if the mother had no hookworm [2.72(1.11–6.63), 0.03], but not if the mother had hookworm [0.41(0.10–1.69), 0.22], interaction p-value = 0.03. Similar interactions were seen for maternal history of eczema {[2.87(1.31–6.27, 0.008) vs. [0.73(0.23–2.30), 0.60], interaction p-value = 0.05}, female gender {[1.82(1.22–2.73), 0.004 vs. [0.96(0.60–1.53), 0.87], interaction p-value = 0.04} and allergen-specific IgE. ChildhoodTrichuris trichiura and hookworm were inversely associated with eczema. Conclusions Maternal hookworm modifies effects of known risk factors for eczema. Mechanisms by which early-life worm exposures influence allergy need investigation. Worms or worm products, and intervention during pregnancy have potential for primary prevention of allergy. PMID:25171741

  1. Epidemiological evidence for a differential effect of hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus, on iron status of children.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M; Stoltzfus, R J; Savioli, L; Tielsch, J M; Chwaya, H M; Ercole, E; Cancrini, G

    1998-06-01

    Hookworms infect 1.3 billion people annually. Iron-deficiency anemia caused or exacerbated by intestinal blood loss is the major feature of hookworm infection, with such loss caused by the feeding of hookworms upon the intestinal mucosa. The hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus cause major gastrointestinal blood loss. While relatively greater blood loss has been reported in clinical studies due to infection with A. duodenale, there has been no evidence that endemic A. duodenale infection has a greater impact than N. americanus infection upon the iron status of populations. The authors compared the degree of anemia and iron deficiency associated with these 2 hookworm species at the individual and community levels using a sample of 525 school children in grades 1-4 in Pemba Island, Tanzania, and controlling for infection intensities and other child characteristics through multiple regression. In the 492 children with hookworm-positive fecal cultures, hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations decreased with increasing proportions of A. duodenale. Among children with only N. americanus larvae, the prevalence of anemia was 60.5% and the prevalence of ferritin under 12 mcg/l was 33.1%. In children with 50% or higher proportions of A. duodenale larvae, the respective prevalences were 80.6% and 58.9%. Children from schools with high prevalences of A. duodenale infection had significantly worse iron deficiency and anemia than did children from low prevalence schools.

  2. [Molecular and morphological comparison of hookworms from genus Uncinaria invading red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and dog (Canis familiaris)].

    PubMed

    Górski, Paweł; Radowańska, Agnieszka; Jaros, Dorota; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2006-01-01

    Two species of hookworms from genus Uncinaria have been found so far in Poland. Uncinaria stenocephala infects mainly dog, wolf and red fox, whereas Uncinaria criniformis is a parasite of mustelids (but it was also reported from red fox). 19 male and 29 female hookworms from red foxes have been compared with 10 male and 12 female worms from dogs. Hookworms from dogs were generally smaller than these from foxes, but no other morphological differences could be found. These hookworms were qualified to species Uncinaria stenocephala on the ground of morphology of male. Genomic DNA samples have been isolated from these hookworms and segments of rDNA including part of small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene; internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1); 5.8 S ribosomal RNA; internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and part of large subunit of ribosomal RNA have been amplified and sequenced. Sequences from Uncinaria obtained both from foxes and dogs have shown very high similarity to the sequence of Uncinaria stenocephala, so all examined hookworms have been classified as belonging to this species.

  3. Transgenic C. elegans dauer larvae expressing hookworm phospho null DAF-16/FoxO exit dauer.

    PubMed

    Gelmedin, Verena; Brodigan, Thomas; Gao, Xin; Krause, Michael; Wang, Zhu; Hawdon, John M

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic hookworms and the free-living model nematode Caenorhabtidis elegans share a developmental arrested stage, called the dauer stage in C. elegans and the infective third-stage larva (L3) in hookworms. One of the key transcription factors that regulate entrance to and exit from developmental arrest is the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16/FoxO. During the dauer stage, DAF-16 is activated and localized in the nucleus. DAF-16 is negatively regulated by phosphorylation by the upstream kinase AKT, which causes DAF-16 to localize out of the nucleus and the worm to exit from dauer. DAF-16 is conserved in hookworms, and hypothesized to control recovery from L3 arrest during infection. Lacking reverse genetic techniques for use in hookworms, we used C. elegans complementation assays to investigate the function of Ancylostoma caninum DAF-16 during entrance and exit from L3 developmental arrest. We performed dauer switching assays and observed the restoration of the dauer phenotype when Ac-DAF-16 was expressed in temperature-sensitive dauer defective C. elegans daf-2(e1370);daf-16(mu86) mutants. AKT phosphorylation site mutants of Ac-DAF-16 were also able to restore the dauer phenotype, but surprisingly allowed dauer exit when temperatures were lowered. We used fluorescence microscopy to localize DAF-16 during dauer and exit from dauer in C. elegans DAF-16 mutant worms expressing Ac-DAF-16, and found that Ac-DAF-16 exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Surprisingly, Ac-DAF-16 with mutated AKT phosphorylation sites also exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Our results suggest that another mechanism may be involved in the regulation DAF-16 nuclear localization during recovery from developmental arrest.

  4. Model for product development of vaccines against neglected tropical diseases: a vaccine against human hookworm.

    PubMed

    Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brown, Ami Shah

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the advances in product development and technology transfer of the vaccine against human hookworm, with particular emphasis on the lessons learned and the challenges of developing a vaccine in the nonprofit sector. The comprehensive approach to vaccine development established by the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative (HHVI) identifies key operational and technical aspects that are essential for a successful partnership with a developing country vaccine manufacturer. This article also highlights the importance of a global access roadmap to guide the vaccine development program. The advancement of new products for the control of neglected tropical diseases portends great challenges for global access, including aspects related to vaccine design, product development and manufacture, vaccine introduction and distribution, financing, knowledge dissemination and intellectual property management. With only three vaccines for neglected tropical diseases in clinical trials - hookworm, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis - we are at the nascent stages of developing vaccines for neglected populations. Product development public-private partnerships, such as the HHVI, continue to show great promise on this front and will eventually provide significant control tools for achieving millennium development goals related to poverty reduction, as well as child and maternal health.

  5. Experimental hookworm infection and escalating gluten challenges are associated with increased microbial richness in celiac subjects.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Paul; Zakrzewski, Martha; Croese, John; Su, Xiaopei; Sotillo, Javier; McCann, Leisa; Navarro, Severine; Mitreva, Makedonka; Krause, Lutz; Loukas, Alex; Cantacessi, Cinzia

    2015-09-18

    The intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in the development of the immune system. Recent investigations have highlighted the potential of helminth therapy for treating a range of inflammatory disorders, including celiac disease (CeD); however, the mechanisms by which helminths modulate the immune response of the human host and ameliorate CeD pathology are unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential role of alterations in the human gut microbiota in helminth-mediated suppression of an inflammatory disease. We assessed the qualitative and quantitative changes in the microbiota of human volunteers with CeD prior to and following infection with human hookworms, and following challenge with escalating doses of dietary gluten. Experimental hookworm infection of the trial subjects resulted in maintenance of the composition of the intestinal flora, even after a moderate gluten challenge. Notably, we observed a significant increase in microbial species richness over the course of the trial, which could represent a potential mechanism by which hookworms can regulate gluten-induced inflammation and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis.

  6. Experimental hookworm infection and escalating gluten challenges are associated with increased microbial richness in celiac subjects

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Paul; Zakrzewski, Martha; Croese, John; Su, Xiaopei; Sotillo, Javier; McCann, Leisa; Navarro, Severine; Mitreva, Makedonka; Krause, Lutz; Loukas, Alex; Cantacessi, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in the development of the immune system. Recent investigations have highlighted the potential of helminth therapy for treating a range of inflammatory disorders, including celiac disease (CeD); however, the mechanisms by which helminths modulate the immune response of the human host and ameliorate CeD pathology are unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential role of alterations in the human gut microbiota in helminth-mediated suppression of an inflammatory disease. We assessed the qualitative and quantitative changes in the microbiota of human volunteers with CeD prior to and following infection with human hookworms, and following challenge with escalating doses of dietary gluten. Experimental hookworm infection of the trial subjects resulted in maintenance of the composition of the intestinal flora, even after a moderate gluten challenge. Notably, we observed a significant increase in microbial species richness over the course of the trial, which could represent a potential mechanism by which hookworms can regulate gluten-induced inflammation and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:26381211

  7. Hookworm infections in Singaporean soldiers after jungle training in Brunei Darussalam.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vernon J; Ong, Alan; Lee, Nan Guang; Lee, Wei Ting; Fong, Kenneth L; Lim, Poh Lian

    2007-12-01

    In June 2006, 118 Singaporean soldiers visited Brunei for jungle training for 10 days. Subsequently, two soldiers had severe diarrhoea and were diagnosed with severe hookworm infection. An epidemiological investigation and case-control study was conducted among the 118 soldiers. A survey was administered to determine the exposures predisposing to infection. Laboratory tests included a full blood count and three separate faecal screens via microscopy and culture. All servicemen were treated with one dose of mebendazole, and follow-up screening was performed 3 months later. Of 113 soldiers completing the questionnaire, 43 soldiers (38%) reported gastrointestinal symptoms post deployment, with 33 (29%) complaining of diarrhoea and 29 (26%) of abdominal pain. Eight had an itch or rash, but none were suggestive of cutaneous larva migrans. Of 103 soldiers completing both the questionnaire and with all the laboratory tests, 42 soldiers (41%) had eosinophilia (>0.6x10(9)/l) and 18 (17%) had hookworm infection on microscopy. More than 89% recalled substantial exposure to soil or groundwater, but no exposure was significantly associated with eosinophilia or infection. After adjusting for possible exposures, not wearing footwear during rest periods had a significantly higher odds ratio (2.86) for acquiring hookworm infection or eosinophilia. Helminth infections are common in visitors to rural Asia. As preventing exposure is often difficult, empirical treatment with anthelminthics should be considered in travellers to high risk areas.

  8. [Positive Activities Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This packet contains four pamphlets that are part of a campaign to encourage adults to provide and promote positive activities for youth and to serve as role models for young people. "Positive Activities: A Campaign for Youth" includes information on what positive activities are, how to get involved in helping to provide positive activities for…

  9. Hookworm infection among school age children in Kintampo north municipality, Ghana: nutritional risk factors and response to albendazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Children (n = 812) 6-11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana.

  10. Hookworm Infection among School Age Children in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Nutritional Risk Factors and Response to Albendazole Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T.; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M.; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Children (n = 812) 6–11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  11. Prevalence of anaemia and hookworm infestation among adolescent girls in one rural block of TamilNadu.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, V; Rajaratnam, A

    1997-01-01

    Adolescent girls are at particular risk of developing iron deficiency anemia as a result of the growth spurt that accompanies puberty. This risk is further increased in developing countries by hookworm infestation and the attendant intestinal blood loss. This study investigated the prevalence of both anemia and hookworm infestation among 197 female adolescents, 13-17 years of age, attending 10 schools in a rural block of India's Tamil Nadu State. 19% of subjects belonged to a scheduled caste, 72% to a backward caste, and 9% to a forward caste. The prevalence of anemia was 76.6%. Of the 130 girls who provided stool samples, 63% had hookworm. When questioned about personal hygiene practices, 48.5% of girls reported they did not wear slippers when they went outside. Only 65% were bathing daily. Since anemia during adolescence can have an adverse impact on future pregnancies, measures such as iron and folic acid supplementation, as well as improved hygienic practices, are recommended.

  12. Peroxiredoxin-1 from the human hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum forms a stable oxidized decamer and is covalently inhibited by conoidin A

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer B.; Pool, Christopher D.; Wong, Christina Y.B.; Treger, Rebecca S.; Williams, David L.; Cappello, Michael; Lea, Wendy A.; Simeonov, Anton; Vermeire, Jon J.; Modis, Yorgo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hookworms are parasitic nematodes that have a devastating impact on global health, particularly in developing countries. We report a biochemical and structural analysis of a peroxiredoxin from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum, AcePrx-1. Peroxiredoxins provide antioxidant protection and act as signaling molecules and chaperones. AcePrx-1 is expressed in adult hookworms and can be inactivated by 2,3-bis(bromomethyl)quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (conoidin A). Conoidin A inactivates AcePrx-1 by alkylating or crosslinking the catalytic cysteines, while maintaining the enzyme in the “locally unfolded” conformation. Irreversible oxidation of the resolving cysteine may contribute additional inhibitory activity. A crystal structure of oxidized AcePrx-1 reveals a disulfide-linked decamer. A helix macrodipole near the active site increases the reactivity of the catalytic cysteines to conoidin A. This work demonstrates the promise of conoidin compounds as probes to evaluate peroxiredoxins as drug targets in human parasites. PMID:23891152

  13. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  14. Humans and Great Apes Cohabiting the Forest Ecosystem in Central African Republic Harbour the Same Hookworms

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Modrý, David; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Shutt, Kathryn A.; Todd, Angelique; Kalousová, Barbora; Profousová, Ilona; Petrželková, Klára J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms are important pathogens of humans. To date, Necator americanus is the sole, known species of the genus Necator infecting humans. In contrast, several Necator species have been described in African great apes and other primates. It has not yet been determined whether primate-originating Necator species are also parasitic in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings The infective larvae of Necator spp. were developed using modified Harada-Mori filter-paper cultures from faeces of humans and great apes inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of mtDNA obtained from the hookworm larvae were sequenced and compared. Three sequence types (I–III) were recognized in the ITS region, and 34 cox1 haplotypes represented three phylogenetic groups (A–C). The combinations determined were I-A, II-B, II-C, III-B and III-C. Combination I-A, corresponding to N. americanus, was demonstrated in humans and western lowland gorillas; II-B and II-C were observed in humans, western lowland gorillas and chimpanzees; III-B and III-C were found only in humans. Pairwise nucleotide difference in the cox1 haplotypes between the groups was more than 8%, while the difference within each group was less than 2.1%. Conclusions/Significance The distinctness of ITS sequence variants and high number of pairwise nucleotide differences among cox1 variants indicate the possible presence of several species of Necator in both humans and great apes. We conclude that Necator hookworms are shared by humans and great apes co-habiting the same tropical forest ecosystems. PMID:24651493

  15. Rapid concentration and sensitive detection of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices using a real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    The risk of human hookworm infections from land application of wastewater matrices could be high in regions with high hookworm prevalence. A rapid, sensitive and specific hookworm detection method from wastewater matrices is required in order to assess human health risks. Currently available methods used to identify hookworm ova to the species level are time consuming and lack accuracy. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) ova from wastewater matrices. A. caninum was chosen because of its morphological similarity to the human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). The newly developed PCR method has high detection sensitivity with the ability to detect less than one A. caninum ova from 1 L of secondary treated wastewater at the mean threshold cycle (CT) values ranging from 30.1 to 34.3. The method is also able to detect four A. caninum ova from 1 L of raw wastewater and from ∼4 g of treated sludge with mean CT values ranging from 35.6 to 39.8 and 39.8 to 39.9, respectively. The better detection sensitivity obtained for secondary treated wastewater compared to raw wastewater and sludge samples could be attributed to sample turbidity. The proposed method appears to be rapid, sensitive and specific compared to traditional methods and has potential to aid in the public health risk assessment associated with land application of wastewater matrices. Furthermore, the method can be adapted to detect other helminth ova of interest from wastewater matrices.

  16. Bayesian risk maps for Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm mono-infections in a setting where both parasites co-exist.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Vounatsou, Penelope; McManus, Donald P; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-11-01

    There is growing interest in the use of Bayesian geostatistical models for predicting the spatial distribution of parasitic infections, including hookworm, Schistosoma mansoni and co-infections with both parasites. The aim of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of mono-infections with either hookworm or S. mansoni in a setting where both parasites co-exist. School-based cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire surveys were carried out in 57 rural schools in the Man region, western Côte d'Ivoire. A single stool specimen was obtained from each schoolchild attending grades 3-5. Stool specimens were processed by the Kato-Katz technique and an ether concentration method and examined for the presence of hookworm and S. mansoni eggs. The combined results from the two diagnostic approaches were considered for the infection status of each child. Demographic data (i.e. age and sex) were obtained from readily available school registries. Each child's socio-economic status was estimated, using the questionnaire data following a household-based asset approach. Environmental data were extracted from satellite imagery. The different data sources were incorporated into a geographical information system. Finally, a Bayesian spatial multinomial regression model was constructed and the spatial patterns of S. mansoni and hookworm mono-infections were investigated using Bayesian kriging. Our approach facilitated the production of smooth risk maps for hookworm and S. mansoni mono-infections that can be utilized for targeting control interventions. We argue that in settings where S. mansoni and hookworm co-exist and control efforts are under way, there is a need for both mono- and co-infection risk maps to enhance the cost-effectiveness of control programmes.

  17. Rapid concentration and sensitive detection of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices using a real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    The risk of human hookworm infections from land application of wastewater matrices could be high in regions with high hookworm prevalence. A rapid, sensitive and specific hookworm detection method from wastewater matrices is required in order to assess human health risks. Currently available methods used to identify hookworm ova to the species level are time consuming and lack accuracy. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) ova from wastewater matrices. A. caninum was chosen because of its morphological similarity to the human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). The newly developed PCR method has high detection sensitivity with the ability to detect less than one A. caninum ova from 1 L of secondary treated wastewater at the mean threshold cycle (CT) values ranging from 30.1 to 34.3. The method is also able to detect four A. caninum ova from 1 L of raw wastewater and from ∼4 g of treated sludge with mean CT values ranging from 35.6 to 39.8 and 39.8 to 39.9, respectively. The better detection sensitivity obtained for secondary treated wastewater compared to raw wastewater and sludge samples could be attributed to sample turbidity. The proposed method appears to be rapid, sensitive and specific compared to traditional methods and has potential to aid in the public health risk assessment associated with land application of wastewater matrices. Furthermore, the method can be adapted to detect other helminth ova of interest from wastewater matrices. PMID:26297680

  18. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  19. Automated campaign system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondran, Gary; Chao, Hui; Lin, Xiaofan; Beyer, Dirk; Joshi, Parag; Atkins, Brian; Obrador, Pere

    2006-02-01

    To run a targeted campaign involves coordination and management across numerous organizations and complex process flows. Everything from market analytics on customer databases, acquiring content and images, composing the materials, meeting the sponsoring enterprise brand standards, driving through production and fulfillment, and evaluating results; all processes are currently performed by experienced highly trained staff. Presented is a developed solution that not only brings together technologies that automate each process, but also automates the entire flow so that a novice user could easily run a successful campaign from their desktop. This paper presents the technologies, structure, and process flows used to bring this system together. Highlighted will be how the complexity of running a targeted campaign is hidden from the user through technologies, all while providing the benefits of a professionally managed campaign.

  20. Pride Campaign Overcomes Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Donald W.

    1984-01-01

    A San Jose high school's campaign to develop student pride in the school and its appearance includes publicity measures, painting garbage cans in school colors, and cafeteria supervision. Results in diminishing acts of vandalism have been encouraging. (MJL)

  1. Drug repositioning and pharmacophore identification in the discovery of hookworm MIF inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoonsang; Vermeire, Jon J; Merkel, Jane S; Leng, Lin; Du, Xin; Bucala, Richard; Cappello, Michael; Lolis, Elias

    2011-09-23

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a "proof-of-concept" for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

  2. Drug Repositioning and Pharmacophore Identification in the Discovery of Hookworm MIF Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Y Cho; J Vermeire; J Merkel; L Leng; X Du; R Bucala; M Cappello; E Lolis

    2011-12-31

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a 'proof-of-concept' for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

  3. Probing the equatorial groove of the hookworm protein and vaccine candidate antigen, Na-ASP-2.

    PubMed

    Mason, Lyndel; Tribolet, Leon; Simon, Anne; von Gnielinski, Natascha; Nienaber, Lisa; Taylor, Paul; Willis, Charlene; Jones, Malcolm K; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Loukas, Alex; Hofmann, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Hookworm activation-associated secreted proteins can be structurally classified into at least three different groups. The hallmark feature of Group 1 activation-associated secreted proteins is a prominent equatorial groove, which is inferred to form a ligand binding site. Furthermore, a conserved tandem histidine motif is located in the centre of the groove and believed to provide or support a yet to be determined catalytic activity. Here, we report three-dimensional crystal structures of Na-ASP-2, an L3-secreted activation-associated secreted protein from the human hookworm Necator americanus, which demonstrate transition metal binding ability of the conserved tandem histidine motif. We further identified moderate phosphohydrolase activity of recombinant Na-ASP-2, which relates to the tandem histidine motif. By panning a random 12-mer peptide phage library, we identified a peptide with high similarity to the human calcium-activated potassium channel SK3, and confirm binding of the synthetic peptide to recombinant Na-ASP-2 by differential scanning fluorimetry. Potential binding modes of the peptide to Na-ASP-2 were studied by molecular dynamics simulations which clearly identify a preferred topology of the Na-ASP-2:SK3 peptide complex.

  4. Ancylostoma ceylanicum metalloprotease 6 DNA vaccination induces partial protection against hookworm challenge infection.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Jaros, Sławomir; Bąska, Piotr; Cappello, Michael; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-09-01

    Hookworms are blood feeding intestinal nematodes that infect more than 500 million people and cause iron deficiency anemia. Infected children suffer from physical and cognitive growth retardation. Because of potential anthelminthic drug resistance, the need for vaccine development is urgent. Numerous antigens have been tested in animal models as vaccines against hookworm infection, but there is no effective human vaccine. We cloned a cDNA encoding Ancylostoma ceylanicum metalloprotease 6 (Acemep-6). Ace-MEP-6 is a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 101.87 kDa and based on computational analysis it is very likely to be engaged in food processing via hemoglobin digestion. Groups of hamsters were immunized with an Ace-mep-6 cDNA vaccine, either once or three times. Animals that were administered one dose developed high resistance (80%, p < 0.01) against challenge infection, whereas triple immunization resulted in no worm burden reduction. These results suggest that DNA vaccines can be powerful tools in ancylostomiasis control, although the mechanisms through which protection is conferred remain unclear.

  5. Drug Repositioning and Pharmacophore Identification in the Discovery of Hookworm MIF Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoonsang; Vermeire, Jon J.; Merkel, Jane S.; Leng, Lin; Du, Xin; Bucala, Richard; Cappello, Michael; Lolis, Elias

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a “proof-of-concept” for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity. PMID:21944748

  6. Campaigning for change.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Larry

    2002-07-01

    Most organizations must change if they're to stay alive. Change is tough to accomplish, but it's not impossible and can be systematized. The author, who has been involved in change initiatives at scores of companies, believes that the success of such programs has more to do with execution than with conceptualization. The successful change programs he observed had one thing in common: They employed three distinct but linked campaigns--political, marketing, and military. The author cites examples from such companies as Hewlett-Packard, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Saturn to illustrate how effective such campaigns can be. A political campaign creates a coalition strong enough to support and guide the initiative. Sometimes, coalitions arise from changes to a company's formal structure. But they may come out of the informal structure, or they could stem from a temporary counterstructure. A marketing campaign must go beyond simply publicizing the initiative's benefits. It focuses on listening to ideas that bubble up from the field as well as on working with lead customers to design the initiative. A clearly articulated theme for the transformation program must also be developed. A military campaign deploys executives' scarce resources of attention and time. Successful executives secure their supply lines by, for instance, piggybacking onto initiatives that have already captured people's interests or already exist as bootleg projects. These managers also set up pilot projects that turn into beachheads because the projects expose them to the difficult dynamics they will ultimately face. Successful executives launch all three campaigns simultaneously. The three always feed on one another, and if any one campaign is not properly implemented, the change initiative is bound to fail.

  7. Evaluation of real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm as diagnostic tool in asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter; Khieu, Virak; Panning, Marcus; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Kramme, Stefanie

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths such as Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) is challenging due to irregular larval and egg output in infected individuals and insensitive conventional diagnostic procedures. Sensitive novel real-time PCR assays have been developed. Our study aimed to evaluate the real-time PCR assays as a diagnostic tool for detection of Strongyloides spp. and hookworms in a random stool sample of 218 asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia. Overall prevalence of 17.4% (38/218) and 34.9% (76/218) were determined by real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and hookworms, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of S. stercoralis specific real-time PCR as compared to the combination of Baermann/Koga Agar as gold standard were 88.9% and 92.7%, respectively. For hookworm specific real-time PCR a sensitivity of 78.9% and specificity of 78.9% were calculated. Co-infections were detectable by PCR in 12.8% (28/218) of individuals. S. stercoralis real-time PCR applied in asymptomatic cases showed a lower sensitivity compared to studies undertaken with symptomatic patients with the same molecular tool, yet it proved to be a valid supplement in the diagnosis of STH infection in Cambodia.

  8. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Molecular Clarification of Hookworm Species in Ethnic Ede Primary Schoolchildren in Dak Lak Province, Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Bui Khac; De, Nguyen Van; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam. PMID:27658599

  9. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Molecular Clarification of Hookworm Species in Ethnic Ede Primary Schoolchildren in Dak Lak Province, Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hung, Bui Khac; De, Nguyen Van; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-08-01

    To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam.

  10. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Molecular Clarification of Hookworm Species in Ethnic Ede Primary Schoolchildren in Dak Lak Province, Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hung, Bui Khac; De, Nguyen Van; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-08-01

    To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam. PMID:27658599

  11. Epidemiology of Necator americanus hookworm infections in Xiulongkan Village, Hainan Province, China: high prevalence and intensity among middle-aged and elderly residents.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, N S; Jizhang, C; Khoshnood, K; Fuying, X; Shanwen, L; Yaoruo, L; Bin, Z; Haechou, X; Chongjin, T; Yan, W; Wensen, W; Dungxing, H; Chong, C; Shuhua, X; Hawdon, J M; Hotez, P J

    2001-08-01

    Hookworm is highly endemic to Hainan Province, an island located in the South China Sea. To investigate the prevalence and intensity of infection in the area, the village of Xiulongkan was surveyed between April and July 1998. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which fecal samples of 80% of the village residents (631 individuals) were tested for the presence of helminth eggs. Hookworm was the predominant intestinal helminth in Xiulongkan, where it was determined that 60% of those tested were infected. Necator americanus was the predominant species of hookworm in this population. The prevalence of hookworm increased with age, and then leveled to a plateau for ages 41 yr and up. This observation was in contrast to infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, where the highest prevalences occurred among school-aged children. Women had a significantly higher prevalence of hookworm than men and this difference emerged in early adulthood. The intensity of hookworm infection also significantly increased with age, with the highest intensity infections occurring among middle-aged and elderly residents. Females were more likely to have moderate or heavy infections, whereas males were more likely to have light infections. The rates of hookworm transmission are particularly high among the middle-aged and elderly residents of Xiulongkan.

  12. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City.

  13. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tun, Sandee; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001). Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%-31%), consisting of hookworms (16.6%), Ascaris (4%) and Toxocara (2.4%). The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.

  14. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tun, Sandee; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001). Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%-31%), consisting of hookworms (16.6%), Ascaris (4%) and Toxocara (2.4%). The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections. PMID:26671680

  15. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin–ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%–79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001). Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%–31%), consisting of hookworms (16.6%), Ascaris (4%) and Toxocara (2.4%). The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections. PMID:26671680

  16. Molecular systematics of pinniped hookworms (Nematoda: Uncinaria): species delimitation, host associations and host-induced morphometric variation.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Steven A; Lyons, Eugene T; Pagan, Christopher; Hyman, Derek; Lewis, Edwin E; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Bell, Cameron M; Castinel, Aurelie; Delong, Robert L; Duignan, Padraig J; Farinpour, Cher; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Kuiken, Thijs; Morgades, Diana; Naem, Soraya; Norman, Richard; Parker, Corwin; Ramos, Paul; Spraker, Terry R; Berón-Vera, Bárbara

    2013-12-01

    Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria have been widely reported from juvenile pinnipeds, however investigations of their systematics has been limited, with only two species described, Uncinaria lucasi from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and Uncinaria hamiltoni from South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Hookworms were sampled from these hosts and seven additional species including Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus), New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), and the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). One hundred and thirteen individual hookworms, including an outgroup species, were sequenced for four genes representing two loci (nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences recovered seven independent evolutionary lineages or species, including the described species and five undescribed species. The molecular evidence shows that U. lucasi parasitises both C. ursinus and E. jubatus, whereas U. hamiltoni parasitises O. flavescens and A. australis. The five undescribed hookworm species were each associated with single host species (Z. californianus, A. pusillus, P. hookeri, M. leonina and M. monachus). For parasites of otarids, patterns of Uncinaria host-sharing and phylogenetic relationships had a strong biogeographic component with separate clades of parasites from northern versus southern hemisphere hosts. Comparison of phylogenies for these hookworms and their hosts suggests that the association of U. lucasi with northern fur seals results from a host-switch from Steller sea lions. Morphometric data for U. lucasi shows marked host-associated size differences for both sexes, with U. lucasi individuals from E. jubatus significantly larger. This result suggests that adult growth of U. lucasi is reduced within the

  17. Once a year school-based deworming with praziquantel and albendazole combination may not be adequate for control of urogenital schistosomiasis and hookworm infection in Matuga District, Kwale County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    prevalence and intensity of hookworm infection. Conclusions Once per year SBD programmes may not be adequate for controlling hookworm infection and urogenital schistosomiasis in rural areas of Kwale County. There is a need to consider expanded preventive chemotherapy strategies that will allow inclusion of the adult populations. Community-based health education campaigns focusing on increasing household latrine ownership and use, as a complementary measure to control STH and urogenital schistosomiasis in similar settings, may also be useful. PMID:24552246

  18. Antipiracy Campaign Exasperates Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the withdrawal of some universities' support of a music industry's campaign against music piracy on their campuses. Talk to the chief information officer at just about any American university, and he will probably say that his institution has bent over backward to help the Recording Industry Association of America curb…

  19. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  20. Campaign Drama, Classroom Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    The hoopla surrounding the New Hampshire presidential primaries earlier this month stirred some students at Timberlane High School to watch the candidates' debates, read news coverage, attend rallies, and even volunteer in local campaign offices. That interest, in turn, stimulated discussions in Bob Dawson's government classes at the school,…

  1. Plant vermicides of Haitian Vodou show in vitro activity against larval hookworm.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Beverly J; Beauvoir, Max G; Wells, Elizabeth Fortson; Hawdon, John M

    2008-10-01

    Haitian Vodou priests (houngans) and priestesses (mambos) use plant remedies to treat many illnesses, including intestinal parasite infections. The present study screened 12 plants used in Vodou treatments for intestinal parasites to detect in vitro activity against infective-stage larvae of the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. Water-soluble extracts of 4 of the 12 plants inhibited serum-stimulated feeding by larval A. caninum in a dose-dependent manner. All 4 plant extracts inhibited feeding induced by the muscarinic agonist arecoline, suggesting that these plant extracts may inhibit the insulin-like signaling pathway involved in the recovery and resumption of development of arrested A. caninum larvae. These results indicate that at least some of the plants used in traditional Haitian medicine as vermifuges show activity against nematode physiological processes.

  2. The mucosal response of hamsters exposed to weekly repeated infections with the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Alkazmi, L M M; Behnke, J M

    2013-09-01

    An experiment was carried out to assess mucosal changes in hamsters exposed to weekly repeated low-intensity infections with the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. The experiment included control groups of naïve, uninfected hamsters and groups that received a single-pulse primary infection. Changes in the intestinal architecture and in the density of inflammatory cells in the mucosa, including mast cells, goblet cells, Paneth cells and eosinophils were examined in relation to changes in hookworm burdens. As in the single-pulse primary infection, hamsters exposed to repeated infections responded with marked changes in the intestinal architecture and in mucosal populations of inflammatory cells. However, there were distinct differences in the kinetics of the responses to these two types of infection (primary single-pulse and repeated). The reduction in villous height and the increase in crypt depth in animals exposed to repeated infections were both initially slower but eventually equalled and exceeded the responses in hamsters given a chronic primary infection, despite the presence of fewer adult worms in the former. Similarly, changes in the mitotic figures of epithelial cells in the mucosa and the mast cell response were both initially slower and less intense in repeatedly infected hamsters, but eventually exceeded the response to primary infection. Furthermore, the eosinophil response was found to be initially greater in repeated infections and overall more persistent. In contrast, both goblet and Paneth cell responses were less marked in repeatedly infected animals compared to those carrying a primary infection. These results are discussed in the context of host protective resistance to infection with A. ceylanicum.

  3. The dingo non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons from the genome of the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum.

    PubMed

    Laha, Thewarach; Kewgrai, Nonglack; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J

    2006-07-01

    Members of the retrotransposable element (RTE) clade of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon are widely distributed among eukaryote taxa, with representatives known from Caenorhabditis elegans, mammals, mosquitoes, schistosomes, and other taxa. An RTE retrotransposon has not, however, been characterized in detail from a parasitic nematode. Here, we characterize two discrete copies of an RTE-like non-LTR retrotransposon from the genome of the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum. The elements were named dingo-1 and dingo-2. The full-length dingo-1 and dingo-2 elements were 3421 and 3171bp in length, respectively. They exhibited 54% nucleotide sequence identity to one another across their entire length and 40%/58% amino-acid sequence identity/similarity across their open reading frames. dingo-1 and dingo-2 exhibited hallmark structures and sequences of non-LTR retrotransposons of the RTE family including a single open reading frame encoding apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease (EN) and reverse transcriptase (RT), in that order. Phylogenetic analyses targeting the RT and the EN domains both confirmed that dingo-1 and dingo-2 were members of the RTE clade and that they were closely related to RTE-1 from C. elegans, to BDDF from Bos taurus and to SR2 from Schistosoma mansoni. Dot blot hybridization indicated that as many as 100-1000 copies of dingo-1 reside within the genome of A. caninum, while detection by RT-PCR of transcripts encoding dingo-like elements suggested that dingo-1 and -2 may be retrotranspositionally active within the genome of A. caninum. The dingo elements are the first retrotransposons to be characterized from a hookworm genome. PMID:16445914

  4. A purified Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein with therapeutic activity against the hookworm parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Michael; Bungiro, Richard D; Harrison, Lisa M; Bischof, Larry J; Griffitts, Joel S; Barrows, Brad D; Aroian, Raffi V

    2006-10-10

    Crystal (Cry) proteins produced by the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are harmless to vertebrates, but they are highly toxic to insects and nematodes. Their value in controlling insects that destroy crops and transmit human diseases is well established. Although it has recently been demonstrated that a few individual Bt Cry proteins, such as Cry5B, are toxic to a wide range of free-living nematodes, the potential activity of purified Cry proteins against parasitic nematodes remains largely unknown. We report here studies aimed at characterizing in vitro and in vivo anthelminthic activities of purified recombinant Cry5B against the hookworm parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a bloodfeeding gastrointestinal nematode for which humans are permissive hosts. By using in vitro larval development assays, Cry5B was found to be highly toxic to early stage hookworm larvae. Exposure of adult A. ceylanicum to Cry5B was also associated with significant toxicity, including a substantial reduction in egg excretion by adult female worms. To demonstrate therapeutic efficacy in vivo, hamsters infected with A. ceylanicum were treated with three daily oral doses of purified Cry5B, the benzimidazole anthelminthic mebendazole, or buffer. Compared with control (buffer-treated) animals, infected hamsters that received Cry5B showed statistically significant improvements in growth and blood hemoglobin levels as well as reduced worm burdens that were comparable to the mebendazole-treated animals. These data demonstrate that Cry5B is highly active in vitro and in vivo against a globally significant nematode parasite and that Cry5B warrants further clinical development for human and veterinary use.

  5. Parasitological examination for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at Año Nuevo State Reserve, California (2012).

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Kuzmina, T A; Spraker, T R; Jaggi, N; Costa, D P; Crocker, D E; Tolliver, S C; Tift, M S

    2012-10-01

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris Gill, 1866), inhabiting rookeries on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve in central California, were investigated in 2012 for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.). Material collected and examined for hookworms included: blubber (n = 15), stomach and intestines (n = 21) from dead pups; feces from the rectum of weaned pups (n = 23); sand containing apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 28) and sand without apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 54); milk from females (n =23) at 5 days and about 23 to 26 days postpartum; and placenta from one female. Evidence of hookworm presence was not detected in any of the samples examined. Possible reasons why hookworms were not found in northern elephant seals on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve are discussed.

  6. Update on the prevalence of the hookworm, Uncinaria lucasi, in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tolliver, Sharon C; Spraker, Terry R

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of hookworms (Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901) was determined in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) on St. Paul Island (SPI), Alaska in July and August, 2011. Three of 61 (4.9%) dead pups harbored 1 to 13 adult hookworms each in their intestines. Parasitic larvae (L(3)) of hookworms were recovered from the blubber of 4 of 133 (3%) of subadult males (SAMs) examined. One parasitic L(3) was detected from each infected SAM. Adult U. lucasi (n = 3) were found in the intestine of 1 of 105 SAMs examined (0.95%). This is the first documented finding of adult U. lucasi in SAMs of the northern fur seals. Continued low prevalence of hookworms the last several years parallels the tremendous decline in the number of fur seals on SPI over a similar time period.

  7. Hookworm Infection and Environmental Factors in Mbeya Region, Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Riess, Helene; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Kowuor, Dickens O.; Nsojo, Anthony; Mangu, Chacha; Schüle, Steffen A.; Mansmann, Ulrich; Geldmacher, Christof; Mhina, Seif; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Saathoff, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    Background Hookworm disease is one of the most common infections and cause of a high disease burden in the tropics and subtropics. Remotely sensed ecological data and model-based geostatistics have been used recently to identify areas in need for hookworm control. Methodology Cross-sectional interview data and stool samples from 6,375 participants from nine different sites in Mbeya region, south-western Tanzania, were collected as part of a cohort study. Hookworm infection was assessed by microscopy of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample from each participant. A geographic information system was used to obtain remotely sensed environmental data such as land surface temperature (LST), vegetation cover, rainfall, and elevation, and combine them with hookworm infection data and with socio-demographic and behavioral data. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression was performed on sites separately and on the pooled dataset. Principal Findings Univariable analyses yielded significant associations for all ecological variables. Five ecological variables stayed significant in the final multivariable model: population density (odds ratio (OR) = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63–0.73), mean annual vegetation density (OR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.06–0.18), mean annual LST during the day (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.75–0.88), mean annual LST during the night (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.44–1.64), and latrine coverage in household surroundings (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 1.01–1.04). Interaction terms revealed substantial differences in associations of hookworm infection with population density, mean annual enhanced vegetation index, and latrine coverage between the two sites with the highest prevalence of infection. Conclusion/Significance This study supports previous findings that remotely sensed data such as vegetation indices, LST, and elevation are strongly associated with hookworm prevalence. However, the results indicate

  8. Campaigns in Agricultural Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaven, John W.

    A booklet designed to aid those who use agricultural campaigns in their educational and advisory programs is presented. It is pointed out that a good campaign works as a chain reaction, inciting enthusiasm among workers and planners. The five steps in a well-organized campaign are: (1) planning, (2) preparing people for their jobs, (3) producing…

  9. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  10. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Secreted Hookworm Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) that Interacts with the Human MIF Receptor CD74

    SciTech Connect

    Cho,Y.; Jones, B.; Vermeire, J.; Leng, L.; DiFedele, L.; Harrison, L.; Xiong, H.; Kwong, Y.; Chen, Y.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Hookworms, parasitic nematodes that infect nearly one billion people worldwide, are a major cause of anemia and malnutrition. We hypothesize that hookworms actively manipulate the host immune response through the production of specific molecules designed to facilitate infection by larval stages and adult worm survival within the intestine. A full-length cDNA encoding a secreted orthologue of the human cytokine, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) has been cloned from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Elucidation of the three-dimensional crystal structure of recombinant AceMIF (rAceMIF) revealed an overall structural homology with significant differences in the tautomerase sites of the human and hookworm proteins. The relative bioactivities of human and hookworm MIF proteins were compared using in vitro assays of tautomerase activity, macrophage migration, and binding to MIF receptor CD74. The activity of rAceMIF was not inhibited by the ligand ISO-1, which was previously determined to be an inhibitor of the catalytic site of human MIF. These data define unique immunological, structural, and functional characteristics of AceMIF, thereby establishing the potential for selectively inhibiting the hookworm cytokine as a means of reducing parasite survival and disease pathogenesis.

  11. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Secreted Hookworm Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) That Interacts with the Human MIF Receptor CD74*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoonsang; Jones, Brian F.; Vermeire, Jon J.; Leng, Lin; DiFedele, Lisa; Harrison, Lisa M.; Xiong, Huabao; Kwong, Yuen-Kwan Amy; Chen, Yibang; Bucala, Richard; Lolis, Elias; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hookworms, parasitic nematodes that infect nearly one billion people worldwide, are a major cause of anemia and malnutrition. We hypothesize that hookworms actively manipulate the host immune response through the production of specific molecules designed to facilitate infection by larval stages and adult worm survival within the intestine. A full-length cDNA encoding a secreted orthologue of the human cytokine, Macro-phage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) has been cloned from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Elucidation of the three-dimensional crystal structure of recombinant AceMIF (rAceMIF) revealed an overall structural homology with significant differences in the tautomerase sites of the human and hookworm proteins. The relative bioactivities of human and hookworm MIF proteins were compared using in vitro assays of tautomerase activity, macrophage migration, and binding to MIF receptor CD74. The activity of rAceMIF was not inhibited by the ligand ISO-1, which was previously determined to be an inhibitor of the catalytic site of human MIF. These data define unique immunological, structural, and functional characteristics of AceMIF, thereby establishing the potential for selectively inhibiting the hookworm cytokine as a means of reducing parasite survival and disease pathogenesis. PMID:17567581

  12. Identification, isolation, and molecular cloning of a hookworm protease: an approach towards a defined vaccine for ancylostomiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hotez, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The hookworm Ancylostoma caninum was shown to release in vitro a 37 kDa protease that catalyzed the hydrolysis of fibrinogen, plasminogen, and elastin. The enzyme was purified from parasite extracts by ion-exchange chromatography, followed by gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. An amino-terminal sequence was determined. When assayed with radiolabeled fibrin as substrate, the enzyme displayed optimal activity at pH 9-11; it was inactivated by dialysis against ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Antiserum raised against the protease in rabbits cross-reacted on western blots with soluble antigen from the infective larval stage of the parasite. A cDNA library from hookworm mRNA was constructed in the expression vector bacteriophage lambdagtll. A positive clone was identified with the rabbit antiserum that was shown to contain an 800-bp insert. The insert was mapped, subcloned into M13, and sequenced, revealing an open reading frame of 789 nucleotides corresponding to 263 amino acids.

  13. Immune polarization by hookworms: taking cues from T helper type 2, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nair, Meera G; Herbert, De'Broski R

    2016-06-01

    Cellular and molecular investigation of parasitic helminth infections has greatly accelerated the understanding of type 2 immune responses. However, there remains considerable debate regarding the specific leucocytes that kill parasites and whether these mechanisms are distinct from those responsible for tissue repair. Herein, we chronicle discoveries over the past decade highlighting current paradigms in type 2 immunity with a particular emphasis upon how CD4(+) T helper type 2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and alternatively activated macrophages coordinately control helminth-induced parasitism. Primarily, this review will draw from studies of the murine nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, which bears important similarities to the human hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. Given that one or more hookworm species currently infect millions of individuals across the globe, we propose that vaccine and/or pharmaceutical-based cure strategies targeting these affected human populations should incorporate the conceptual advances outlined herein. PMID:26928141

  14. VELETA 2002 Field Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alados-Arboledas, L.; Veleta2002 Team

    2003-04-01

    Depletion of the Earth's ozone layer is considered responsible of an increase in the solar ultraviolet irradiance incoming at surface level (WMO, 1998). For this reason, it is important to know the amount of ultraviolet radiation received by plants and animal organisms to evaluate the potential impact of increased UV radiation on biological systems. During recent years several studies has investigated the differences in UV radiation between places located at different altitude. Depending on the choice of the experimental area altitudinal gradients in erythemal UV have been reported ranging from 0.08 to 0.40 at different regions. Rather high altitudinal gradients were obtained when the studies have been undertaken at sites with important tropospheric pollution or when snow cover was present in the high-level sites. In this sense, it seems of interest to study these altitudinal gradients including comprehensive observations of the environmental conditions relevant to the incoming UV irradiance in order to separate the different contributions to this altitudinal effect. This paper presents the field campaign VELETA2002 (eValuation of the Effects of eLevation and aErosols on the ultravioleT rAdiation), developed during the month of July 2002 in the area of Sierra Nevada (Spain). This field campaign was designed to obtain experimental data on elevation and atmospheric aerosol effects on the solar ultraviolet irradiance. For this purpose a set of radiometers and spectroradiometers has been installed at both slopes of Sierra Nevada Massif, from coastal to inland locations. The field stations include Motril, a coastal location at sea level, Pitres (1200 m a.s.l.) located in the South slope of Sierra Nevada Massif, the Veleta Peak (3398 m a.s.l.), Las Sabinas (2200 m a.s.l.) located on the north slope of the mountain range and Armilla (680 m a.s.l.) located in the valley. The principal feature of the locations is that they provide a strong altitudinal gradient considering

  15. Expression profile of heat shock response factors during hookworm larval activation and parasitic development.

    PubMed

    Gelmedin, Verena; Delaney, Angela; Jennelle, Lucas; Hawdon, John M

    2015-07-01

    When organisms are exposed to an increase in temperature, they undergo a heat shock response (HSR) regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1). The heat shock response includes the rapid changes in gene expression initiated by binding of HSF-1 to response elements in the promoters of heat shock genes. Heat shock proteins function as molecular chaperones to protect proteins during periods of elevated temperature and other stress. During infection, hookworm infective third stage larvae (L3) undergo a temperature shift from ambient to host temperature. This increased temperature is required for the resumption of feeding and activation of L3, but whether this increase initiates a heat shock response is unknown. To investigate the role of the heat shock in hookworm L3 activation and parasitic development, we identified and characterized the expression profile of several components of the heat shock response in the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. We cloned DNAs encoding an hsp70 family member (Aca-hsp-1) and an hsp90 family member (Aca-daf-21). Exposure to a heat shock of 42°C for one hour caused significant up-regulation of both genes, which slowly returned to near baseline levels following one hour attenuation at 22°C. Neither gene was up-regulated in response to host temperature (37°C). Conversely, levels of hsf-1 remained unchanged during heat shock, but increased in response to incubation at 37°C. During activation, both hsp-1 and daf-21 are down regulated early, although daf-21 levels increase significantly in non-activated control larvae after 12h, and slightly in activated larvae by 24h incubation. The heat shock response modulators celastrol and KNK437 were tested for their effects on gene expression during heat shock and activation. Pre-incubation with celastrol, an HSP90 inhibitor that promotes heat shock gene expression, slightly up-regulated expression of both hsp-1 and daf-21 during heat shock. KNK437, an inhibitor of heat shock

  16. Development of the egg hatch assay for detection of anthelminthic resistance in human hookworms.

    PubMed

    Albonico, Marco; Wright, Victoria; Ramsan, Mahdi; Haji, Hamadi J; Taylor, Martin; Savioli, Lorenzo; Bickle, Quentin

    2005-06-01

    Evidence of development and rapid spread of anthelminthic resistance in veterinary nematodes raises concern that the increasingly frequent treatments used in chemotherapy-based programmes to control human soil-transmitted helminths may select resistant worms. The aim of this study was to adapt, refine, and evaluate the Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) test, which has been used for veterinary nematodes, for field testing of benzimidazole (BZ) susceptibility/resistance in human hookworms. A second objective was to use this EHA to assess whether a population of worms resistant to mebendazole (MBZ) has built up in a sub-population of frequently treated children in Pemba Island. Stools from 470 school children enrolled in the first (Standard 1) and in the fifth (Standard 5) class were examined at baseline and at 21 days after treatment with 500 mg MBZ or placebo tablets. Standard 1 children had never received any MBZ treatment whilst Standard 5 children had received a total of 13 rounds of treatment. The EHA, involving culture of purified eggs with increasing drug concentrations showed that, for thiabendazole (TBZ), the mean ED(50)s (concentrations required to prevent 50% of the viable eggs from hatching) for all children at baseline were 0.079 microg/ml at 48h and 0.120 microg/ml at 72h (P<0.001). For MBZ, the mean ED(50)s for all children at baseline were 0.895 microg/ml at 48h and 1.50 microg/ml at 72h (P<0.001). For TBZ and for MBZ the ED(50) from Standard 1 were similar to those from Standard 5 children both at 48 and at 72h. At the follow-up for TBZ and for MBZ, there was no significant difference between the ED(50) from children who had received MBZ and children treated with placebo. In Pemba, TBZ ED(50) values of children non-exposed (Standard 1) and of children exposed (Standard 5) to MBZ treatment, and data from children treated with MBZ and placebo indicate that a drug-resistant worm population has not built up within treated individuals, and that periodic treatment has

  17. TYCHO Brahe's Copernican Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.; Voelkel, J. R.

    1997-12-01

    Historians of astronomy have generally assumed that the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems give equivalent predictions of planetary positions, but Tycho Brahe knew that in the Ptolemaic arrangement Mars' distance was always greater than the sun's, whereas in the Copernican system Mars at opposition approached to half the sun's distance. Because Tycho accepted the traditional solar distance scale, 20 times too small, he expected to measure a Martian diurnal parallax of 4.5' at opposition if the Copernican system was true. (In reality the horizontal parallax was too small to measure by naked-eye observations.) Hence, during the golden decade of the 1580s at Hven, Tycho undertook a major campaign to find Mars' parallax. Observations at the opposition of 1582-83 failed, according to a letter he wrote in 1584. The campaign at the next opposition led to frustration, but after the 1587 opposition he claimed that in fact he had already found the parallax in 1582. Was Tycho merely prevaricating because he wanted to have an observational basis for his new Tychonic cosmology? During this decade Tycho gradually became aware of the role of refraction, and much of the new instrumentation built at Stjerneborg seems to have been motivated by this problem. Using an erroneously chosen refraction table Tycho apparently convinced himself of a large parallax for Mars. He may well have discovered his error by 1592, for he never again claimed to have found the large parallax. Because of the failure of this major goal, Tycho's reputation as a very smart and program-motivated observer has suffered, but because of this particular observational campaign, there were ultimately enough astonishingly accurate Mars observations for Kepler's later studies to succeed in finding the law of areas and the elliptical form of planetary orbits.

  18. Effects of treatment on IgE responses against parasite allergen-like proteins and immunity to reinfection in childhood schistosome and hookworm coinfections.

    PubMed

    Pinot de Moira, Angela; Jones, Frances M; Wilson, Shona; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Mwatha, Joseph K; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Dunne, David W

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring human immunity to both schistosomiasis and hookworm infection has been associated with IgE responses against parasite allergen-like proteins. Since the two helminths frequently coinfect the same individuals, there is growing advocacy for their concurrent treatment. However, both helminths are known to exert strong immunomodulatory effects; therefore, coinfected individuals could have immune responses different from those characteristically seen in monoinfected individuals. In this study, we measured changes in IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 responses to schistosome and hookworm antigens, including the allergen-like proteins Schistosoma mansoni tegumental-allergen-like 1 protein (SmTAL1), SmTAL2, and Necator americanus Ancylostoma-secreted protein-2 (Na-ASP-2), following concurrent treatment of schoolchildren coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm. Antibody responses to schistosome egg (soluble egg antigen and SmTAL2) or somatic adult hookworm (AHW) antigens either decreased after treatment or were unchanged, whereas those to schistosome worm antigens (soluble worm antigen and SmTAL1) increased. The observed different effects of treatment likely reflect the different modes of drug action and sites of infection for these two helminths. Importantly, there was no evidence that the simultaneous treatment of coinfected children with praziquantel and albendazole affected schistosome- and hookworm-specific humoral responses differently from those characteristic of populations in which only one organism is endemic; schistosome- and hookworm-specific responses were not associated, and there was no evidence for cross-regulation. Posttreatment increases in the levels of IgE to schistosome worm antigens were associated with lower Schistosoma mansoni reinfection intensity, while no associations between humoral responses to AHW antigen and protection from hookworm reinfection were observed in this sample of school-aged children.

  19. Simple Fecal Flotation Is a Superior Alternative to Guadruple Kato Katz Smear Examination for the Detection of Hookworm Eggs in Human Stool

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders; Marti, Hanspeter; Traub, Rebecca J.; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Microscopy-based identification of eggs in stool offers simple, reliable and economical options for assessing the prevalence and intensity of hookworm infections, and for monitoring the success of helminth control programs. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the diagnostic parameters of the Kato-Katz (KK) and simple sodium nitrate flotation technique (SNF) in terms of detection and quantification of hookworm eggs, with PCR as an additional reference test in stool, collected as part of a baseline cross-sectional study in Cambodia. Methods/Principle Findings Fecal samples collected from 205 people in Dong village, Rovieng district, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia were subjected to KK, SNF and PCR for the detection (and in case of microscopy-based methods, quantification) of hookworm eggs in stool. The prevalence of hookworm detected using a combination of three techniques (gold standard) was 61.0%. PCR displayed a highest sensitivity for hookworm detection (92.0%) followed by SNF (44.0%) and quadruple KK smears (36.0%) compared to the gold standard. The overall eggs per gram feces from SNF tended to be higher than for quadruple KK and the SNF proved superior for detecting low egg burdens. Conclusion/Significance As a reference, PCR demonstrated the higher sensitivity compared to SNF and the quadruple KK method for detection of hookworm in human stool. For microscopic-based quantification, a single SNF proved superior to the quadruple KK for the detection of hookworm eggs in stool, in particular for low egg burdens. In addition, the SNF is cost-effective and easily accessible in resource poor countries. PMID:25521997

  20. Morpheus Lander Testing Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The Morpheus vehicle has successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tether tests, ultimately culminating in an un-tethered "free-flight" This development and testing campaign was conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), less than one year after project start. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs and projects that traditionally require longer development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. This paper documents the integrated testing campaign, including descriptions of test types (hot-fire, tether, and free-flight), test objectives, and the infrastructure of JSC testing facilities. A major focus of the paper will be the fast pace of the project, rapid prototyping, frequent testing, and lessons learned from this departure from the traditional engineering development process at NASA s Johnson Space Center.

  1. AH Her Observing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-05-01

    Dr. Juan Echevarria (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) and colleagues request AAVSO assistance in a campaign on the Z Cam-type cataclysmic variable AH Her being carried out 2013 May 29 - June 18. They will be making photometric and spectroscopic observations of AH Her using the 2.1m and 0.84m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Observatory (SPM). Their goal is to carry out a radial velocity study of the system components using modern detectors; no study of AH Her has been made since the one by Horne, Wade, and Szkody in 1980-1981 (1986MNRAS.219..791H). Photometry and spectroscopy are requested. AH Her, for decades a reasonably "regular" Z Cam system, began exhibiting significantly anomalous behavior in ~2007. Since then it has experienced brief periods of fairly typical behavior interspersed with more anomalous intervals, including some unprecedented behavior. Most recently, it has returned to a more normal pattern of outbursts shape-wise but it is not back to its normal amplitude or frequency. AAVSO data will be essential for correlation in order to determine the precise time(s) of minimum occurring during the campaign. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  2. Potency testing for the experimental Na-GST-1 hookworm vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Amar R; Oliveira, Luciana M; Diemert, David J; Keegan, Brian; Plieskatt, Jordan L; Periago, Maria V; Bottazzi, Maria E; Hotez, Peter J; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2010-10-01

    Over the next decade, a new generation of vaccines will target the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The goal of most NTD vaccines will be to reduce the morbidity and decrease the chronic debilitating nature of these often-forgotten infections – outcomes that are hard to measure in the traditional potency testing paradigm. The absence of measurable correlates of protection, a lack of permissive animal models for lethal infection, and a lack of clinical indications that do not include the induction of sterilizing immunity required us to reconsider the traditional bioassay methods for determining vaccine potency. Owing to these limitations, potency assay design for NTD vaccines will increasingly rely on a paradigm where potency testing is one among many tools to ensure that a manufacturing process yields a product of consistent quality. Herein, we discuss the evolution of our thinking regarding the design of a potency assay along these newly defined lines and its application to the release of the experimental Necator americanus-glutathione-S- transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) vaccine to prevent human hookworm infection. We discuss the necessary steps to accomplish the design and implementation of such a new potency assay as a resource for the burgeoning NTD vaccine community. Our experience is that much of the existing information is proprietary and needs to be pulled together in a single source to aid in our overall understanding of potency testing.

  3. Autochthonous Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans Disease in Northeastern Italy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Akkouche, W; Ahmed, S A; Sattin, A; Piaserico, S; Calistri, A; De Canale, E; Parolin, C

    2015-08-01

    Here we report the case of a 42-yr-old patient who presented himself to us with a serpiginous erythematous lesion from the wrist of the right forearm up the arm to the right shoulder A similar lesion of a smaller size was also present in the left forearm. On the basis of clinical manifestations and progression of the lesion, combined with previous treatments and different diagnostic investigations, hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) disease was hypothesized. Albendazole was employed as treatment and the resolution of the symptoms confirmed the diagnosis. The relevance of the reported case relies on 3 main aspects: the acquisition of the disease in Italy, the initial treatment with topical corticosteroids that sped up the progression of the cutaneous trail, and the uncommon location of the lesions. Furthermore, the anamnestic data and the laboratory/clinical investigations strongly suggested an occupational exposure to the etiological agent. As illustrated here, HrCLM might represent a challenge for Western physicians in terms of diagnosis, treatment, and ways of acquisition. Describing the clinical presentation and the treatment of cases of cutaneous larva migrans might contribute to early and correct diagnosis, to an increase of our knowledge on this disease, and to an update on its epidemiology.

  4. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  5. Risk factors and spatial patterns of hookworm infection among schoolchildren in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Vounatsou, Penelope; Gosoniu, Laura; Tanner, Marcel; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-02-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the risk factors for hookworm infection among schoolchildren in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire and predicting and mapping the spatial distribution of infection. We used demographic and socio-economic data from a cross-sectional survey of 6-16-year-old schoolchildren from 56 schools. Infection with hookworm was determined by microscopic examination of stool samples employing the Kato-Katz technique and an ether-concentration method. Environmental data were derived from satellite images and digitised maps. Bayesian variogram models were applied to investigate the variation of hookworm infection in relation to demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors. The overall hookworm infection prevalence, based on the pooled microscopic diagnoses, was 43.3% and ranged from 5.4 to 79.1% in the schools surveyed. Bivariate analyses showed that sex, age, socio-economic status, elevation, rainfall and land cover were significantly associated with the spatial distribution of hookworm infection. The final multivariate spatial model consisted of the covariates age, sex, socio-economic status, elevation and land cover. When assuming non-stationary underlying spatial dependency, the results of the model suggested that spatial correlation depended on the location only marginally. We conclude that, at the current resolution, it seems more reasonable to target interventions based on well-established epidemiologic risk factors, rather than on spatial factors.

  6. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of 2007. See Final Rules on Campaign Travel, 74 FR 63951 (Dec. 7, 2009) (the ``Travel Rules... 11 CFR 9004.7 at a later date. Travel Rules, 74 FR at 63951. Through this Notice, the Commission... of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act governing campaign travel on noncommercial...

  7. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  8. The DIAMET campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, G.

    2012-04-01

    DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms) is a joint project between the UK academic community and the Met Office. Its focus is on understanding and predicting mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms, and in particular on the role of diabatic processes in generating and maintaining them. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. The project conducted two field campaigns in the autumn of 2011, from September 14 - 30 and November 24 - December 14, based around the FAAM BAe146 aircraft with support from ground-based radar and radiosonde measurements. Detailed modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified model, supported the planning and interpretation of these campaigns. This presentation will give a brief overview of the campaigns. Both in September and November-December the weather regime was westerly, with a strong jet stream directed across the Atlantic. Three IOPs were conducted in September, to observe a convective band ahead of an upper-level trough, waves on a long trailing cold front, and a warm conveyor belt associated with a secondary cyclone. In November-December six IOPs were conducted, to observe frontal passages and high winds. This period was notable for a number of very strong windstorms passing across the north of the UK, and gave us an opportunity to examine bent-back warm fronts in the southern quadrant of these storms where the strongest winds are found. The case studies fell into two basic patterns. In the majority of cases, dropsonde legs at high level were used to obtain a cross-section of winds and thermodynamic structure (e.g. across a front), followed by in situ legs at lower levels (generally where the temperature was between 0 and -10°) to examine microphysical processes, especially ice multiplication and the extent of supercooled water

  9. Molecular evidence of shared hookworm Ancylostoma tubaeforme haplotypes between the critically endangered Iberian lynx and sympatric domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; Blasco-Costa, Isabel

    2012-05-25

    Hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma are the most pathogenic parasites of young cats, and A. tubaeforme may cause morbidity or mortality in young individuals of the most endangered felid species in the world, the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Since the transmission of monoxenous parasites is related to host density and remaining lynx populations are currently very small, the presence of reservoir hosts may be necessary for the maintenance of the hookworm life-cycle, the domestic cat being the most likely reservoir of A. tubaeforme. In order to confirm this hypothesis, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (Cox I) sequences of three A. tubaeforme specimens from a road-killed Iberian lynx from Doñana were compared with 14 specimens retrieved from five sympatric free-roaming cats from the same area, and with six specimens from three free-roaming cats from the Mediterranean island of Mallorca. Gene fragments (300 bp) from 23 A. tubaeforme individuals representing 16 different haplotypes were obtained. A statistical parsimony haplotype network analysis showed that the three specimens infecting an Iberian lynx corresponded to two different haplotypes, one of which was identical to a specimen in a cat found only 10 km from the lynx. Specimens from the Iberian lynx and those from cats in Doñana were only 1.03% genetically divergent, whereas specimens from Mallorca cats and those from Doñana cats and the lynx diverged by 1.33% and 1.36%, respectively. The existence of shared haplotypes of hookworms between lynx and cat reinforces the hypothesis that the abundant sympatric domestic cat population is acting as a reservoir for A. tubaeforme infection in the endangered Iberian lynx.

  10. Oxadiazole 2-oxides are toxic to the human hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, however glutathione reductase is not the primary target

    PubMed Central

    Treger, Rebecca S.; Cook, Aaron; Rai, Ganesha; Maloney, David J.; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Thomas, Craig J.; Williams, David L.; Cappello, Michael; Vermeire, Jon J.

    2012-01-01

    Hookworm disease, characterized by severe anemia and cognitive and growth delays, currently affects an estimated 740 million people worldwide. Despite the prevalence of this parasitic disease, few effective drug therapies are in use today, and the heavy reliance upon benzimidazoles highlights the need for the development of novel chemotherapies. Recent work with the trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni has identified oxadiazole 2-oxides as effective antischistosomal compounds that function by targeting and inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme, thioredoxin glutathione reductase. In this study, a related enzyme, glutathione reductase, from the human hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum was identified and characterized, and its in vitro activity in the presence of the oxadiazole 2-oxides was analyzed. Ex vivo worm killing assays were also conducted to establish the relationship between a given compound’s effect upon worm survival and inhibition of recombinant glutathione reductase (rAceGR). Finally, the in vivo anthelminthic efficacy of furoxan (Fx) was assessed in the hamster model of hookworm infection. The predicted amino acid sequence of AceGR contained a prototypical glutathione reductase active site sequence, but no thioredoxin reductase consensus sequences, suggesting that the glutathione and thioredoxin pathways of A. ceylanicum are distinct. Although 10 of the 42 oxadiazole 2-oxides tested inhibited rAceGR activity by at least 50%, and 15 compounds were toxic to parasites ex vivo, little overlap existed between these two results. We therefore suggest that AceGR is not the primary target of the oxadiazole 2-oxides in effecting parasite death. Lastly, oral treatment of A. ceylanicum infected hamsters with furoxan resulted in significantly improved weight gains and reduced intestinal worm burdens compared to vehicle treated controls, supporting continued development of this molecule as a novel anthelminthic. PMID:22844653

  11. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  12. Preliminary evidence of age-dependent clinical signs associated with porcine circovirus 2b in experimentally infected CH3/Rockefeller mice.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alessandra M M G; Cruz, Taís F; Yamada, Katarina B; Gerber, Priscilla F; Gabardo, Michelle P; Araújo, João P; Guedes, Roberto M C; Mori, Cinthia K; Oliveira, Camila P; Santos, Sueli S; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J

    2015-12-01

    Mice and rats are susceptible to porcine circovirus 2b (PCV2) infection under field and experimental conditions. However, whether PCV2 induces disease in rodents remains a matter of debate. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether PCV2-induced disease in mice is age-dependent and whether intranasally inoculated animals are able to infect animals they come into contact with. Twenty-five CH3/Rockefeller mice were divided into six groups and intranasally inoculated with 25μL of either PCV2b or PBS on days 0, 3 and 6. One group remained untreated. Two age groups were tested: 3-week-old mice and 6-week-old mice. The administration of three PCV2 intranasal inoculations at intervals of three days was able to induce infection and support virus transmission in susceptible mice, regardless of the age at inoculation. The clinical signs associated with PCV2 infection were more severe in younger mice, and PCV2-DNA load was higher in their faeces. In conclusion, PCV2 induced disease in mice. PMID:26679798

  13. Preliminary evidence of age-dependent clinical signs associated with porcine circovirus 2b in experimentally infected CH3/Rockefeller mice.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alessandra M M G; Cruz, Taís F; Yamada, Katarina B; Gerber, Priscilla F; Gabardo, Michelle P; Araújo, João P; Guedes, Roberto M C; Mori, Cinthia K; Oliveira, Camila P; Santos, Sueli S; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J

    2015-12-01

    Mice and rats are susceptible to porcine circovirus 2b (PCV2) infection under field and experimental conditions. However, whether PCV2 induces disease in rodents remains a matter of debate. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether PCV2-induced disease in mice is age-dependent and whether intranasally inoculated animals are able to infect animals they come into contact with. Twenty-five CH3/Rockefeller mice were divided into six groups and intranasally inoculated with 25μL of either PCV2b or PBS on days 0, 3 and 6. One group remained untreated. Two age groups were tested: 3-week-old mice and 6-week-old mice. The administration of three PCV2 intranasal inoculations at intervals of three days was able to induce infection and support virus transmission in susceptible mice, regardless of the age at inoculation. The clinical signs associated with PCV2 infection were more severe in younger mice, and PCV2-DNA load was higher in their faeces. In conclusion, PCV2 induced disease in mice.

  14. Advances in vaccines against neglected tropical diseases: enhancing physical stability of a recombinant hookworm vaccine through biophysical and formulation studies.

    PubMed

    Plieskatt, Jordan L; Rezende, Wanderson C; Olsen, Chris M; Trefethen, Jared M; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2012-06-01

    A bivalent recombinant vaccine for human hookworm disease is under development. One of the lead candidate antigens in the vaccine is a glutathione S-transferase cloned from the hookworm Necator americanus (Na-GST-1) which is expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Based on preliminary studies demonstrating that the recombinant protein was not stable in an acetate buffer at pH 6, we undertook an extensive stability analysis of the molecule. To improve and optimize stability we complemented traditional methods employed for macromolecule and vaccine stabilization with biophysical techniques that were incorporated into a systematic process based on an eigenvector approach. Large data sets, obtained from a variety of experimental methods were used to establish a color map ("empirical phase diagram") of the physical stability of the vaccine antigen over a wide range of temperature and pH. The resulting map defined "apparent phase boundaries" that were used to develop high throughput screening assays. These assays were then employed to identify excipients that stabilized the antigen against physical degradation that could otherwise result in losses of physicochemical integrity, immunogenicity, and potency of the vaccine. Based on these evaluations, the recombinant Na-GST-1 antigen was reformulated and ultimately produced under Good Manufacturing Practices and with an acceptable stability profile.

  15. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  16. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    PubMed

    Traag, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    PubMed Central

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Loukas, Alex; Inan, Mehmet; Barent, Rick; Huang, Jicai; Plantz, Brad; Swanson, Amber; Gouthro, Mark; Meagher, Michael M.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in the developing world. In an effort to control hookworm infection, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective larval stage (L3) of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) proteins known as the ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). The functions of the ASPs are unknown. In addition, it is unclear why some ASPs have one while others have multiple PR-1 domains. There are no known structures of a multi-domain ASP and in an effort to remedy this situation, recombinant Na-ASP-1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2.2 Å have been collected from a crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P21 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.7, b = 74.27, c = 84.60 Å, β = 112.12°. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. PMID:16511050

  18. Field Campaign Guidelines (ARM Climate Research Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2011-01-17

    The purpose of this document is to establish a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking database tool and are tailored to meet the scope of each specific field campaign.

  19. The Theory of the Mass Literacy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    After an analysis of eight mass literacy campaigns (USSR 1919-39; Vietnam, 1945-77; China, 1950-58; Cuba, 1961; Burma, 1960-1981; Brazil, 1967-80; Tanzania, 1971-81; and Somalia, 1973-75), a campaign strategy for a mass literacy campaign is proposed. A potentially successful mass literacy campaign has to be both an educational and a political…

  20. Awareness campaigns: experience in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández Tepichin, G

    2000-02-18

    The current total of AIDS cases in Mexico is 37,000 of which 86% have occurred in men. The major route of transmission is sexual. The campaign to prevent AIDS has fallen into four phases, and has now been extended to other sexually transmitted diseases, including hepatitis B. The first phase (1985-1989) was based around question and answer brochures, which increased awareness but did not remove misconceptions. A mass media campaign addressed these misconceptions and stressed preventive measures. The campaign was halted by opposition to the promotion of condom use on the grounds that it encouraged promiscuity. The second phase (1989-1992) used more conservative messages, but these were too obscure and failed to reach the target audience. A poster campaign using popular lottery characters was widely accepted. In the third phase (1992-1994), a combination of messages was targeted at different populations, including parents and women, and general public sympathy for social support for people with AIDS was encouraged. In the fourth phase (1996-2000), a mass media campaign was aimed at teenagers, with parents and teachers as support groups. The campaign was widened to include HBV infection, and posters and brochures for teenagers were produced. These are distributed as part of a collaboration with non-governmental organizations providing sex education. The private medical sector is being encouraged to provide facilities for hepatitis B vaccination. So far the campaign has only been established in Mexico City, but it is hoped that this will be extended nationwide. Hepatitis B vaccination has been recently included in the National Immunization Programme for infants in the first year of life and it is officially recommended for at-risk populations.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Loukas, Alex; Inan, Mehmet; Barent, Rick; Huang, Jicai; Plantz, Brad; Swanson, Amber; Gouthro, Mark; Meagher, Michael M.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-04-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the pathogenesis-related-1 domain, Na-ASP-1, the first multi-domain ASP from the human hookworm parasite N. americanus, has been crystallized. 2.2 Å resolution data have been collected from a crystal belonging to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}. Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in the developing world. In an effort to control hookworm infection, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective larval stage (L3) of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) proteins known as the ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). The functions of the ASPs are unknown. In addition, it is unclear why some ASPs have one while others have multiple PR-1 domains. There are no known structures of a multi-domain ASP and in an effort to remedy this situation, recombinant Na-ASP-1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2.2 Å have been collected from a crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = 67.7, b = 74.27, c = 84.60 Å, β = 112.12°. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with one monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  2. Efficacy and side effects of albendazole currently in use against Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm among school children in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Fikreslasie; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs is essential. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single oral dose of 400mg albendazole (ABZ) against the major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in school children, Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia. A single fresh stool sample was collected from 298 school children and examined using a duplicate smear of the Kato-Katz method. Children positive for STH infections were treated with single oral dose of 400mg ABZ and re-examined for intestinal helminth infections 21days post-treatment. The participants were interviewed for symptoms related with the drug uptake 24h after ABZ treatment. Children positive for Schistosoma mansoni infections were treated with Praziquantel (40mg/kg of body weight) after an ABZ treatment follow up survey. 51.3%, 49.7%, 44.6% and 88.3% had hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and any intestinal helminth infection, respectively. Cure rates were 97.4% for hookworm, 96.6% for A. lumbricoides and 30.8% for T. trichiura infections. Egg reduction rates (ERRs) were 99.8% for hookworm, 99.9% for A. lumbricoides and 83.1% for T. trichiura infections. Mild and transient symptoms were observed among the participants which were quite frequent. In conclusion, a 400mg single oral dose of ABZ was effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides but less efficacious against T. trichiura infection. The drug resulted in high ERRs for hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Administration of the drug in repeated doses or in combination with other drugs might be necessary.

  3. Hookworm SCP/TAPS protein structure--A key to understanding host-parasite interactions and developing new interventions.

    PubMed

    Osman, Asiah; Wang, Conan K; Winter, Anja; Loukas, Alex; Tribolet, Leon; Gasser, Robin B; Hofmann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    SCP/TAPS proteins are a diverse family of molecules in eukaryotes, including parasites. Despite their abundant occurrence in parasite secretomes, very little is known about their functions in parasitic nematodes, including blood-feeding hookworms. Current information indicates that SCP/TAPS proteins (called Ancylostoma-secreted proteins, ASPs) of the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, represent at least three distinct groups of proteins. This information, combined with comparative modelling, indicates that all known ASPs have an equatorial groove that binds extended structures, such as peptides or glycans. To elucidate structure-function relationships, we explored the three-dimensional crystal structure of an ASP (called Ac-ASP-7), which is highly up-regulated in expression in the transition of A. caninum larvae from a free-living to a parasitic stage. The topology of the N-terminal domain is consistent with pathogenesis-related proteins, and the C-terminal extension that resembles the fold of the Hinge domain. By anomalous diffraction, we identified a new metal binding site in the C-terminal extension of the protein. Ac-ASP-7 is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, and crystal-packing analysis identified a dimeric structure which might resemble the homo-dimer in solution. The dimer interaction interface includes a novel binding site for divalent metal ions, and is proposed to serve as a binding site for proteins involved in the parasite-host interplay at the molecular level. Understanding this interplay and the integration of structural and functional data could lead to the design of new approaches for the control of parasitic diseases, with biotechnological outcomes. PMID:22120067

  4. Hookworm SCP/TAPS protein structure--A key to understanding host-parasite interactions and developing new interventions.

    PubMed

    Osman, Asiah; Wang, Conan K; Winter, Anja; Loukas, Alex; Tribolet, Leon; Gasser, Robin B; Hofmann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    SCP/TAPS proteins are a diverse family of molecules in eukaryotes, including parasites. Despite their abundant occurrence in parasite secretomes, very little is known about their functions in parasitic nematodes, including blood-feeding hookworms. Current information indicates that SCP/TAPS proteins (called Ancylostoma-secreted proteins, ASPs) of the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, represent at least three distinct groups of proteins. This information, combined with comparative modelling, indicates that all known ASPs have an equatorial groove that binds extended structures, such as peptides or glycans. To elucidate structure-function relationships, we explored the three-dimensional crystal structure of an ASP (called Ac-ASP-7), which is highly up-regulated in expression in the transition of A. caninum larvae from a free-living to a parasitic stage. The topology of the N-terminal domain is consistent with pathogenesis-related proteins, and the C-terminal extension that resembles the fold of the Hinge domain. By anomalous diffraction, we identified a new metal binding site in the C-terminal extension of the protein. Ac-ASP-7 is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, and crystal-packing analysis identified a dimeric structure which might resemble the homo-dimer in solution. The dimer interaction interface includes a novel binding site for divalent metal ions, and is proposed to serve as a binding site for proteins involved in the parasite-host interplay at the molecular level. Understanding this interplay and the integration of structural and functional data could lead to the design of new approaches for the control of parasitic diseases, with biotechnological outcomes.

  5. e-Campaigning: The Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Sonali

    The practices of E-Campaigning are gradually gaining momentum in the world. This paper discusses the Democratic campaign of the 2008 American Presidential Election. It contends that the effective use of E-Campaigning techniques was the key to their success. It also deliberates upon the tremendous increase in public involvement over the Internet during the campaigning period. Also, it predicts the future of E-Campaigning and gives an in depth analysis of what the world can expect to see in future elections. Lastly, it examines the relation between E-Campaigning and E-Democracy in the context of the aftermath of the election.

  6. Up, Up & Away. Strategic Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Catherine L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses a ballooning analogy to offer nine suggestions for universities conducting major fund-raising campaigns: study the map and choose a direction; test the prevailing winds; choose and train your crew; gear up for the journey; stay on course; make every bit count; change course as needed; and capitalize on your successful landing. (DB)

  7. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  8. The SHARE 2012 data campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannandrea, AnneMarie; Raqueno, Nina; Messinger, David W.; Faulring, Jason; Kerekes, John P.; van Aardt, Jan; Canham, Kelly; Hagstrom, Shea; Ontiveros, Erin; Gerace, Aaron; Kaufman, Jason; Vongsy, Karmon M.; Griffith, Heather; Bartlett, Brent D.; Ientilucci, Emmett; Meola, Joseph; Scarff, Lauwrence; Daniel, Brian

    2013-05-01

    A multi-modal (hyperspectral, multispectral, and LIDAR) imaging data collection campaign was conducted just south of Rochester New York in Avon, NY on September 20, 2012 by the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in conjunction with SpecTIR, LLC, the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the Naval Research Lab (NRL), United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS) and MITRE. The campaign was a follow on from the SpecTIR Hyperspectral Airborne Rochester Experiment (SHARE) from 2010. Data was collected in support of the eleven simultaneous experiments described here. The airborne imagery was collected over four different sites with hyperspectral, multispectral, and LIDAR sensors. The sites for data collection included Avon, NY, Conesus Lake, Hemlock Lake and forest, and a nearby quarry. Experiments included topics such as target unmixing, subpixel detection, material identification, impacts of illumination on materials, forest health, and in-water target detection. An extensive ground truthing effort was conducted in addition to collection of the airborne imagery. The ultimate goal of the data collection campaign is to provide the remote sensing community with a shareable resource to support future research. This paper details the experiments conducted and the data that was collected during this campaign.

  9. Epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection in New Zealand (Hooker's) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) pups on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands (New Zealand) during the breeding seasons from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005.

    PubMed

    Castinel, A; Duignan, P J; Lyons, E T; Pomroy, W E; Gibbs, N; López-Villalobos, N; Chilvers, B L; Wilkinson, I S

    2007-06-01

    This is the first investigation of the epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection in New Zealand sea lions (NZSLs; Phocarctos hookeri) on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands. The examination of faeces for hookworm eggs in various age categories of sea lions revealed that only pups up to at least 3 months of age harboured adult hookworms in their intestines. Gross necropsy of more than 400 pups from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005 showed that the prevalence of hookworm infection varied significantly between years and was higher from mid-January to the end of February when the majority of pups were between 3 and 9 weeks old. The average burden of adult parasites per pup was not influenced by the host's sex and body condition or by year. This study also provided evidence for transmission occurring by the transmammary route in NZSLs.

  10. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.

  11. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital. PMID:1392821

  12. Abortion Rights: Anatomy of a Negative Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes a highly successful negative public relations campaign carried on by major pro-choice organizations from October 1985 through March 1987. Explores the effectiveness of this campaign (much of it carried on in the media), and questions the ethics of such a campaign. (NKA)

  13. Effects of climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors on the transmission of hookworm (Necator americanus) on two low-country plantations in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, G S A; Karunaweera, N D; Ismail, M M

    2005-09-01

    The climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors influencing hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in Sri Lanka were explored between February 2000 and June 2001. In February 2000, a single stool sample was collected from each of the 477 subjects investigated, who were aged 2-74 years (median = 13 years) and lived on the 'lowcountry' Maliboda and Ayr plantations. The 'baseline' prevalence (28.5%) and intensity of hookworm infection (0- 4828.5 eggs/g faeces, with a mean of 128.4 eggs/g) were then determined by examining these initial samples, as Kato-Katz smears. Subsequently, each participant was treated with a single, 500-mg dose of mebendazole and then followed-up, at monthly intervals, for the next 15 months. Whenever a subject was found smear-positive for hookworm eggs at one of the monthly follow-ups, he or she was treated again with mebendazole. This approach allowed the monthly incidence of hookworm infection to be determined for each subject, assuming that subjects became smear-positive approximately 6 weeks post-infection. During the study period, rainfall and mean temperature were recorded daily and then converted to monthly values so that the relationship between the incidence of infection over each month and the rainfall and mean temperature over the same period could be explored. In addition, potentially relevant data on the socio-economic status and behaviour of each subject were collected, in questionnaire-based interviews with the adult subjects and the caregivers of the children investigated. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were then calculated for each factor that might increase the risk of hookworm infection. The monthly incidence of hookworm infection showed three peaks -- in September 2000 (21.3%), January 2001 (20.8%) and May 2001 (17.5%) -- at Maliboda, and two peaks -- in September 2000 (25.0%) and February 2001 (29.2%) -- at Ayr. With the data for all subjects combined, incidence showed a statistically

  14. Effects of climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors on the transmission of hookworm (Necator americanus) on two low-country plantations in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, G S A; Karunaweera, N D; Ismail, M M

    2005-09-01

    The climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors influencing hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in Sri Lanka were explored between February 2000 and June 2001. In February 2000, a single stool sample was collected from each of the 477 subjects investigated, who were aged 2-74 years (median = 13 years) and lived on the 'lowcountry' Maliboda and Ayr plantations. The 'baseline' prevalence (28.5%) and intensity of hookworm infection (0- 4828.5 eggs/g faeces, with a mean of 128.4 eggs/g) were then determined by examining these initial samples, as Kato-Katz smears. Subsequently, each participant was treated with a single, 500-mg dose of mebendazole and then followed-up, at monthly intervals, for the next 15 months. Whenever a subject was found smear-positive for hookworm eggs at one of the monthly follow-ups, he or she was treated again with mebendazole. This approach allowed the monthly incidence of hookworm infection to be determined for each subject, assuming that subjects became smear-positive approximately 6 weeks post-infection. During the study period, rainfall and mean temperature were recorded daily and then converted to monthly values so that the relationship between the incidence of infection over each month and the rainfall and mean temperature over the same period could be explored. In addition, potentially relevant data on the socio-economic status and behaviour of each subject were collected, in questionnaire-based interviews with the adult subjects and the caregivers of the children investigated. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were then calculated for each factor that might increase the risk of hookworm infection. The monthly incidence of hookworm infection showed three peaks -- in September 2000 (21.3%), January 2001 (20.8%) and May 2001 (17.5%) -- at Maliboda, and two peaks -- in September 2000 (25.0%) and February 2001 (29.2%) -- at Ayr. With the data for all subjects combined, incidence showed a statistically

  15. The Use of Microwave-Assisted Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis and Click Chemistry for the Synthesis of Vaccine Candidates Against Hookworm Infection.

    PubMed

    Fuaad, Abdullah A H Ahmad; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    A protein-based vaccine approach against hookworm infection has failed to deliver the expected outcome, due to a problem with an allergic response in the patient or difficulties in the proteins' production. This implication could be overcome by using a chemically synthesized peptide-based vaccine approach. This approach utilizes minimal pathogenic components that are necessary for the stimulation of the immune response without triggering adverse side effects. To boost the peptide's immunogenicity, a lipid core peptide (LCP) system can be utilized as a carrier molecule/immunostimulant. This chapter describes in detail the synthesizing of protected lipoamino acid, the self-adjuvanting moiety (LCP core), the peptide epitope, and the final vaccine candidate. The subunit peptide and the LCP core were synthesized using microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). Then the final hookworm vaccine construct was assembled using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, or "click," reaction. PMID:27076158

  16. Vaccination with alum-precipitated recombinant Ancylostoma-secreted protein 1 protects mice against challenge infections with infective hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) larvae.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, K; Hawdon, J; Hotez, P

    1996-12-01

    Ancylostoma-secreted protein 1 (ASP-1) is the major protein secreted by infective hookworm larvae (Ancylostoma caninum). The Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant protein was evaluated as a vaccine antigen in a mouse model of ancylostomiasis. A. caninum larvae migrate through mouse lungs, with maximal migration occurring 48-54 h after oral infection. Quantitative larval recovery from the lungs at this time was used as an end point for vaccine evaluation. All mice developed antibodies to recombinant ASP-1 (rASP-1) after immunization and boosting with the alum-precipitated protein. The immunized mice had their worm burden reduced 79% (P < .0001) compared with controls. Immunization with rASP-1 in the presence of Corynebacterium parvum adjuvant also showed a vaccine effect (63% protection; P < .0001). The possibility that this protective effect resulted from delayed larval lung entry was excluded. rASP-1 offers promise as a hookworm vaccine antigen. PMID:8940240

  17. Ash Stabilization Campaign Blend Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-06-21

    This Stabilization Blend Plan documents the material to be processed and the processing order for the FY95 Ash Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing ash. The source of the ash is from Rocky Flats and the 232-Z incinerator at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The ash is currently being stored in Room 235B and Vault 174 in building 234-5Z. The sludge is to be thermally stabilized in a glovebox in room 230A of the 234-5Z building and material handling for the process will be done in room 230B of the same building. The campaign is scheduled for approximately 12--16 weeks. A total of roughly 4 kg of Pu will be processed.

  18. Influence of a Counteradvertising Media Campaign on Initiation of Smoking: The Florida "Truth" Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, David F.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Trapido, Edward; Ray, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the short-term effects of a television counteradvertising media campaign, the Florida "truth" campaign, on rates of adolescents' smoking initiation. Followup surveys of adolescents interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign indicated that exposure to the "truth" campaign lowered the risk of youth smoking initiation.…

  19. CASE Campaign Standards: Management and Reporting Standards for Educational Fund-Raising Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education, Washington, DC.

    This document establishes guidance for managing educational fund-raising campaigns and standards for reporting campaign gifts in the United States and Canada. The guidelines offer an objective means to compare one campaign to another and a rational way to discern how well a campaign has met its goals. The standards depend upon three fundamental…

  20. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  1. T Tauri stars observing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-12-01

    Darryl Sergison (University of Exeter) has requested AAVSO assistance with a campaign he is carrying out on five T Tauri stars. This study is the one for which AAVSO observers carried out a preliminary campaign last year (see Alert Notice 473 and Special Notice #306). The star list is revised and expanded from last year's list of targets. This campaign will run from now at least through the end of the 2013-2014 observing season. This is part of an on-going study into the nature of pre-main-sequence low mass stars, using time series optical spectroscopy and UV-Visual-IR photometry and offers a great opportunity for professional-amateur collaboration as the objects (with V magnitudes of 10-13) are well within the reach of photometry by small telescopes. Amateur observations are uniquely useful in the study of chaotically variable young stars as they offer crucial datapoints in the light curve between observations made by professional telescopes. Targets are BP Tau, DN Tau, V827 Tau, V1068 Tau, and V1264 Tau. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and instructions.

  2. Use of the air pouch model to investigate immune responses to a hookworm vaccine containing the Na-ASP-2 protein in rats.

    PubMed

    Mendez, S; D' Samuel, A; Antoine, A D; Ahn, S; Hotez, P

    2008-01-01

    Hookworms are gastrointestinal nematodes that affect approximately 600 million people in developing countries. Using the air pouch model, we have examined the effects of vaccination with the recombinant hookworm larval antigen Na-ASP-2 and the adjuvant Alhydrogel on the skin immune response to hookworms in Sprague Dawley rats. Following vaccination, rats were inoculated 100 Necator americanus L3 into the air pouch, and the exudates and cell infiltrates were collected from the pouch 24 h later. Larval inoculation induced leucocyte recruitment into the pouch. Exudates of rats vaccinated with Na-ASP-2 showed an increase of cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma and especially, IL-5, as well as IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies. The increased amount of antigen-presenting cells and cytokines in the pouch of vaccinated animals suggests that vaccination could potentially restrain this parasite to the inoculation site, avoiding its migration and establishment in the host. Moreover, the air pouch model could constitute an alternative to screen immune responses to L3 antigens.

  3. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  4. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced. PMID:26302902

  5. Life Quality Impairment Caused by Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Resource-Poor Communities in Manaus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Angela; Lesshafft, Hannah; Talhari, Sinésio; Guedes de Oliveira, Silás; Ignatius, Ralf; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Background Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a common but neglected tropical skin disease caused by the migration of animal hookworm larvae in the epidermis. The disease causes intense pruritus and is associated with important morbidity. The extent to which CLM impairs skin disease-associated life quality has never been studied. Methods A modified version of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (mDLQI) was used to determine skin disease-associated life quality in 91 adult and child patients with CLM, living in resource-poor communities in Manaus, Brazil. Symptoms and signs were documented and skin disease-associated life quality was semi-quantitatively assessed using mDLQI scores. The assessment was repeated two and four weeks after treatment with ivermectin. Results Ninety-one point five percent of the study participants showed a considerable reduction of skin disease-associated life quality at the time of diagnosis. The degree of impairment correlated with the intensity of infection (rho = 0.76, p<0.001), the number of body areas affected (rho = 0.30; p = 0.004), and the presence of lesions on visible areas of the skin (p = 0.002). Intense pruritus, sleep disturbance (due to itching) and the feeling of shame were the most frequent skin disease-associated life quality restrictions (reported by 93.4%, 73.6%, and 64.8% of the patients, respectively). No differences were observed in skin disease-associated life quality restriction between boys and girls or men and women. Two weeks after treatment with ivermectin, skin disease-associated life quality improved significantly. After four weeks, 73.3% of the patients considered their disease-associated life quality to have returned to normal. Conclusions CLM significantly impaired the skin disease-associated life quality in child and adult patients living in urban slums in North Brazil. After treatment with ivermectin, life quality normalised rapidly. PMID:22087341

  6. Community Members’ Input into Cancer Prevention Campaign Development and Experience Being Featured in the Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Keller, Brittney; Tatum, Cathy M.; Fickle, Darla K.; Midkiff, Courtney; Carver, Sharon; Krieger, Janice L.; Slater, Michael D.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates are increased and CRC screening rates are lower among Appalachia Ohio residents. Objectives We sought to describe 1) a partnership of cancer researchers and community members that developed county-specific media campaigns to improve CRC screening rates (intervention) and fruit and vegetable consumption (control) and 2) the experience of community members featured in the campaigns. Methods Community members assisted with campaign-development, were featured in campaigns, identified locations for materials, and promoted the campaigns. Campaigns included billboards, posters, and information in local newspapers. A mailed survey assessed featured community members’ experiences in the campaigns. Lessons Learned Ongoing communication among members of the partnership was critical to successful community-level campaigns. Featured community members had mostly positive experiences about being included in the campaigns. Conclusions Having a shared vision, ongoing trust, and good communication are essential elements to maintaining a viable academic-community partnership. PMID:26412757

  7. Current status of human hookworm infections, ascariasis, trichuriasis, schistosomiasis mekongi and other trematodiases in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Laymanivong, Sakhone; Hangvanthong, Bouasy; Keokhamphavanh, Boualy; Phommasansak, Manisak; Phinmaland, Baunphone; Sanpool, Oranuch; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2014-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and schistosomiasis and other trematodiases often have a high prevalence in developing countries. Here, we present updated information on the prevalence of these parasites in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 2012, arising from the annual national helminthiasis survey. Fecal specimens were collected from 8,610 inhabitants of 12 provinces and one municipality (Bokeo, Houaphan, Luang Namtha, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, and Phongsaly Provinces from northern Lao PDR; Bolikhamxay and Xieng Khouang Provinces and Vientiane Municipality from the central part of the country; and Attapeu, Champasak, Saravan, and Sekong Provinces from southern Lao PDR). The overall prevalence of three major STHs, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) were 11.6%, 8.5%, and 25.0%, respectively. Prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi infection was 0.1%, and of miscellaneous trematodiases (including opisthorchiasis) was 14.0%. Clearly, the nationwide parasite control project is still necessary to reduce morbidity caused by helminthic diseases.

  8. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Hoeller, Hartmut; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Morales, Carlos; Pinto, Osmar; Saba, Marcelo M.; Naccarato, Kleber; Hembury, Nikki; Nag, Amitabh; Heckman, Stan; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Betz, Hans-Dieter; Said, Ryan; Rauenzahn, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of S o Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be collected

  9. Contextual Influences and Campaign Awareness Among Young Adults: Evidence from the National truth® Campaign.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities. PMID:26332933

  10. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  11. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  12. 11 CFR 106.3 - Allocation of expenses between campaign and non-campaign related travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Vice Presidential candidates who receive federal funds pursuant to 11 CFR part 9005 or 9036. (See 11 CFR 9004.7 and 9034.7) All expenditures for campaign-related travel paid for by a candidate from a... candidate's trip involves both campaign-related and non-campaign-related stops, the expenditures...

  13. 11 CFR 106.3 - Allocation of expenses between campaign and non-campaign related travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Vice Presidential candidates who receive federal funds pursuant to 11 CFR part 9005 or 9036. (See 11 CFR 9004.7 and 9034.7) All expenditures for campaign-related travel paid for by a candidate from a... candidate's trip involves both campaign-related and non-campaign-related stops, the expenditures...

  14. A recombinant fusion protein derived from dog hookworm inhibits autoantibody-induced dermal-epidermal separation ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Kemmer, Annette; Bieber, Katja; Abadpour, Aida; Yu, Xinhua; Mitschker, Nina; Roth, Sara; Kauderer, Claudia; Ludwig, Ralf J; Seeger, Karsten; Köhl, Jörg; Zillikens, Detlef; Recke, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The proteins secreted by parasitic nematodes are evolutionarily optimized molecules with unique capabilities of suppressing the immune response of the host organism. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF), which is secreted by the dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, binds to the β2 integrin CD11b/CD18, which is expressed on human neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages and inhibits neutrophil-dependent lung injury and neutrophil invasion of ischaemic brain tissue. Neutrophils are key players in the pathogenesis of subepidermal autoimmune blistering diseases (sAIBDs), and their pathogenic activities are crucially dependent on β2 integrin functionality. Based on the template of single-stranded, dimerizing antibody derivatives, which are already used in cancer treatment, we designed a novel biologic, NIF-IGHE-CH4, comprising NIF and the dimerizing but otherwise inert constant heavy subdomain 4 (CH4) of human IgE (IGHE). This molecule was evaluated in a variety of in vitro assays, demonstrating its ability to inhibit pathogenically relevant neutrophil functions such as migration, adhesion and spreading, and release of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we confirmed that NIF-IGHE-CH4 inhibits blister formation in an ex vivo assay of sAIBD. These results suggest that NIF-IGHE-CH4 is a novel potential anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of neutrophil-mediated diseases such as sAIBDs. This study promotes the drugs from bugs concept and encourages further research and development focused on turning parasite proteins into useful anti-inflammatory biologics.

  15. Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

    2011-09-01

    The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median = 3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median = 2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median = 931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median = 643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts

  16. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of single- versus repeated-dose albendazole to treat ascaris lumbricoides, trichuris trichiura, and hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Adegnika, Ayola A; Zinsou, Jeannot F; Issifou, Saadou; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Kassa, Roland F; Feugap, Eliane N; Honkpehedji, Yabo J; Dejon Agobe, Jean-Claude; Kenguele, Hilaire M; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Agnandji, Selidji T; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G; Lell, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    In many regions where soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic, single-dose albendazole is used in mass drug administration programs to control infections. There are little data on the efficacy of the standard single-dose administration compared to that of alternative regimens. We conducted a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the efficacies of standard and extended albendazole treatment against soil-transmitted helminth infection in Gabon. A total of 175 children were included. Adequate cure rates and egg reduction rates above 85% were found with a single dose of albendazole for Ascaris infection, 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73, 96) and 93.8% (CI, 87.6, 100), respectively, while two doses were necessary for hookworm infestation (92% [CI, 78, 100] and 92% [CI, 78, 100], respectively). However, while a 3-day regimen was not sufficient to cure Trichuris (cure rate, 83% [CI, 73, 93]), this regimen reduced the number of eggs up to 90.6% (CI, 83.1, 100). The rate ratios of two- and three-dose regimens compared to a single-dose treatment were 1.7 (CI, 1.1, 2.5) and 2.1 (CI, 1.5, 2.9) for Trichuris and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) for hookworm. Albendazole was safe and well tolerated in all regimens. A single-dose albendazole treatment considerably reduces Ascaris infection but has only a moderate effect on hookworm and Trichuris infections. The single-dose option may still be the preferred regimen because it balances efficacy, safety, and compliance during mass drug administration, keeping in mind that asymptomatic low-level helminth carriage may also have beneficial effects. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01192802.).

  17. The hookworm tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (Ac-TMP-1) modifies dendritic cell function and induces generation of CD4 and CD8 suppressor T cells.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, Carmen; Wu, Wenhui; Mendez, Susana

    2009-05-19

    Hookworm infection is a major cause of disease burden for humans. Recent studies have described hookworm-related immunosuppression in endemic populations and animal models. A Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteases (Ac-TMP-1) has been identified as one of the most abundant proteins released by the adult parasite. We investigated the effect of recombinant Ac-TMP-1 on dendritic cell (DC) and T cell function. Splenic T cells from C57BL/6 mice injected with Ac-TMP-1 showed reduced proliferation to restimulation with anti CD3 or bystander antigens such as OVA. Incubation of bone marrow-derived DCs with Ac-TMP-1 decreased MHC Class I and, especially, Class II expression but increased CD86 and IL-10 expression. Co-incubation of splenic T cells with DCs pulsed with Ac-TMP-1 induced their differentiation into CD4+ and, particularly, CD8+ CD25+Foxp3+ T cells that expressed IL-10. These cells were able to suppress proliferation of naïve and activated CD4+ T cells by TGF-Beta-dependent (CD4+ suppressors) or independent (CD8+ suppressors) mechanisms. Priming of DCs with non-hookworm antigens, such as OVA, did not result in the generation of suppressor T cells. These data indicate that Ac-TMP-1 initiates the development of a regulatory response through modifications in DC function and generation of suppressor T cells. This is the first report to propose a role of suppressor CD8+ T cells in gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

  18. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  19. Political Campaigns Get Personal with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    On Election Day in 2006, some students at the University of Texas at Austin were prodded by startlingly personal calls from Democratic Party supporters. As political campaigns look to corral young voters, those calls could be a harbinger of things to come in 2008: campaigns going after students through contact information that public colleges are…

  20. Campaigning for Literacy. Courier No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier Service, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue contains those materials from a seminar on "Campaigning for Literacy" held at Udaipur, Rajasthan, India, on January 4-11, 1982, that concentrate on Asian experience. The "Udaipur Literacy Declaration," presented first, is followed by extracts from the opening addresses and a review of the report, "Campaigning for Literacy," by H.S.…

  1. The Devon NUT Campaign against Trust Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinch, Dave

    2008-01-01

    When the Devon County Council announced that six secondary schools in the South Devon area were to become "Pathfinder Schools" for trust status, the Devon National Union of Teachers set about organising a campaign to defend the county's comprehensive schools. This campaign has proved successful in the case of Tavistock College, causing other…

  2. New tools for NTD vaccines: A case study of quality control assays for product development of the human hookworm vaccine Na-APR-1M74.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Mark S; Jariwala, Amar R; Abbenante, Giovanni; Plieskatt, Jordan; Wilson, David; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Keegan, Brian; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Na-APR-1(M74) is an aspartic protease that is rendered enzymatically inactive by site-directed mutagenesis and is a candidate antigen component in the Human Hookworm Vaccine. The mutant protease exerts vaccine efficacy by inducing antibodies that neutralize the enzymatic activity of wild type enzyme (Na-APR-1wt) in the gut of the hookworm, thereby depriving the worm of its ability to digest its blood meal. Previously, canines immunized with Na-APR-1(M74) and challenged with Ancylostoma caninum were partially protected against hookworm challenge infection, especially from the loss in hemoglobin observed in control canines and canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G raised against Na-APR-1 was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1 wt in vitro, thereby providing proof of concept of Na-APR-1(M74) as a vaccine antigen. The mutated version, Na-APR-1(M74), was then expressed at the cGMP level using a Nicotiana benthamiana expression system (Fraunhofer, CMB, Delaware, MD), formulated with Alhydrogel®, and used to immunize mice in a dose-ranging study to explore the enzyme-neutralizing capacity of the resulting anti- Na-APR-1(M74) IgG. As little as 0.99 μg of recombinant Na-APR-1(M74) could induce anti Na-APR-1(M74) IgG in mice that were capable of inhibiting Na-APR-1w t-mediated digestion of a peptide substrate by 89%. In the absence of enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1(M74) as a surrogate marker of protein functionality, we developed an assay based on the binding of a quenched fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of aspartic proteases, BODIPY-FL pepstatin A (BDP). Binding of BDP in the active site of Na-APR-1 wt was demonstrated by inhibition of enzymatic activity, and competitive binding with unlabelled pepstatin A. BDP also bound to Na-APR-1(M74) which was assessed by fluorescence polarization, but with an ∼ 50-fold reduction in the dissociation constant. Taken together, these assays comprise a "toolbox" that could be useful for the analyses of Na-APR-1(M74) as it

  3. New tools for NTD vaccines: A case study of quality control assays for product development of the human hookworm vaccine Na-APR-1M74

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Mark S; Jariwala, Amar R; Abbenante, Giovanni; Plieskatt, Jordan; Wilson, David; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Keegan, Brian; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Na-APR-1M74 is an aspartic protease that is rendered enzymatically inactive by site-directed mutagenesis and is a candidate antigen component in the Human Hookworm Vaccine. The mutant protease exerts vaccine efficacy by inducing antibodies that neutralize the enzymatic activity of wild type enzyme (Na-APR-1wt) in the gut of the hookworm, thereby depriving the worm of its ability to digest its blood meal. Previously, canines immunized with Na-APR-1M74 and challenged with Ancylostoma caninum were partially protected against hookworm challenge infection, especially from the loss in hemoglobin observed in control canines and canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G raised against Na-APR-1 was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1wt in vitro, thereby providing proof of concept of Na-APR-1M74 as a vaccine antigen. The mutated version, Na-APR-1M74, was then expressed at the cGMP level using a Nicotiana benthamiana expression system (Fraunhofer, CMB, Delaware, MD), formulated with Alhydrogel®, and used to immunize mice in a dose-ranging study to explore the enzyme-neutralizing capacity of the resulting anti- Na-APR-1M74 IgG. As little as 0.99 μg of recombinant Na-APR-1M74 could induce anti Na-APR-1M74 IgG in mice that were capable of inhibiting Na-APR-1wt-mediated digestion of a peptide substrate by 89%. In the absence of enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1M74 as a surrogate marker of protein functionality, we developed an assay based on the binding of a quenched fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of aspartic proteases, BODIPY-FL pepstatin A (BDP). Binding of BDP in the active site of Na-APR-1wt was demonstrated by inhibition of enzymatic activity, and competitive binding with unlabelled pepstatin A. BDP also bound to Na-APR-1M74 which was assessed by fluorescence polarization, but with an ∼50-fold reduction in the dissociation constant. Taken together, these assays comprise a “toolbox” that could be useful for the analyses of Na-APR-1M74 as it proceeds through the

  4. Network strategies in election campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2014-08-01

    This study considers a simple variation of the voter model with two competing parties. In particular, we represent the case of political elections, where people can choose to support one of the two candidates or to remain neutral. People operate within a social network and their opinions depend on those of the people with whom they interact. Therefore, they may change their opinions over time, which may mean supporting one particular candidate or none. Candidates attempt to gain people’s support by interacting with them, whether they are in the same social circle (i.e. neighbors) or not. In particular, candidates follow a strategy of interacting for a time with people they do not know (that is, people who are not their neighbors). Our analysis of the proposed model sought to establish which network strategies are the most effective for candidates to gain popular support. We found that the most suitable strategy depends on the topology of the social network. Finally, we investigated the role of charisma in these dynamics. Charisma is relevant in several social contexts, since charismatic people usually exercise a strong influence over others. Our results showed that candidates’ charisma is an important contributory factor to a successful network strategy in election campaigns.

  5. T Tauri stars observing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-11-01

    Darryl Sergison (U. Exeter) requested AAVSO assistance with a campaign he is organizing on six T Tauri stars (RY Tau, DN Tau, DR Tau, and three to be announced). In September/October 2013 he and his Ph.D. supervisor Tim Naylor (U. Exeter) are undertaking a study into the nature of pre-main-sequence low mass stars, using time series optical spectroscopy and UV-Visual-IR photometry to build a clearer picture of the environment around young solar-type stars and characterize their various disc, accretion, and outflow structures. To begin building light curves in advance of the official study, visual observations and BVRcIc CCD photometry are requested from now through the 2013-2014 observing season at least. They are hoping to investigate periodicity for a range of phenomena on timescales of months to hours, so visual estimates ranging from monthly to twice in a night are requested. For photometry, low cadence is useful, higher cadence (hourly or long time series) is better! Spectroscopy is also requested, particularly around H-alpha (6563Å) if the resolution is greater than a few thousand. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  6. National Ignition Campaign Hohlraum Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meezan, Nathan

    2009-11-01

    The first series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), as part of the National Ignition Campaign, will determine the hohlraum path forward for indirect drive ignition. These first experiments will test ignition hohlraum ``energetics,'' a term described by four broad goals: *Measurement of laser absorption by the hohlraum *Measurement of the x-ray radiation flux (TRAD^4) on the surrogate ignition capsule *Quantitative understanding of the laser absorption and resultant x-ray flux *Determining whether initial hohlraum performance is consistent with point design requirements for ignition using either a beryllium or plastic capsule ablator. In this talk, we summarize the status of NIF hohlraum energetics experiments. We describe the hohlraum target and experimental design, including an overview of the theoretical and computational tools that have been used to design the hohlraums. We explain the validation of these tools on predecessor facilities and describe their performance on the first NIF experiments. We then discuss our current understanding of NIF hohlraum performance and the resulting near-term and long-term plans for NIF ignition hohlraum experiments.

  7. ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN 2013 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY) 2013 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section.

  8. 5 CFR 950.701 - DoD overseas campaign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the National Capital Area campaign. (d) The overseas campaign Charity List shall not include the All...) The overseas campaign Charity List must explain the allocation policy utilized by each of the...

  9. 5 CFR 950.701 - DoD overseas campaign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the National Capital Area campaign. (d) The overseas campaign Charity List shall not include the All...) The overseas campaign Charity List must explain the allocation policy utilized by each of the...

  10. Structure of glutathione S-transferase 1 from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus (Na-GST-1) in complex with glutathione.

    PubMed

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Ceccarelli, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferase 1 from Necator americanus (Na-GST-1) is a vaccine candidate for hookworm infection that has a high affinity for heme and metal porphyrins. As part of attempts to clarify the mechanism of heme detoxification by hookworm GSTs, co-crystallization and soaking studies of Na-GST-1 with the heme-like molecules protoporphyrin IX disodium salt, hematin and zinc protoporphyrin were undertaken. While these studies did not yield the structure of the complex of Na-GST-1 with any of these molecules, co-crystallization experiments resulted in the first structures of the complex of Na-GST-1 with the substrate glutathione. The structures of the complex of Na-GST-1 with glutathione were solved from pathological crystalline aggregates comprising more than one crystal form. These first structures of the complex of Na-GST-1 with the substrate glutathione were solved by molecular replacement from data collected with a sealed-tube home source using the previously reported apo structure as the search model.

  11. Efficacy of a combination product containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal Plus Flavour, Bayer Animal Health) against experimental infection with the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum in dogs.

    PubMed

    Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Satranarakun, Pakkawan; Traub, Rebecca J; Schaper, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common hookworm of dogs, cats and humans in Asia. More recently, this hookworm was found to infect dogs in Australia. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a combination product containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal) Plus Flavour, Bayer) against A. ceylanicum in experimentally infected dogs. Twelve dogs were each subcutaneously injected with 300 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Pups were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated equally into control and treatment groups. The pups in the treatment group were treated orally at 20 days post-infection with a tablet containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal Plus Flavour, Bayer) with the recommended dose of one tablet per 10 kg bodyweight. The dogs in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of pups within 3 days of treatment, and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (p = 0.0011). The egg counts for the untreated group remained high for the rest of the study period. This trial demonstrated that a combination tablet containing pyrantel, febantel and praziquantel (Drontal Plus Flavour, Bayer) given at the manufacturer's recommended dose is effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in dogs. PMID:19911198

  12. Developing a successful mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    This brief looks at the potential benefits of using a mass media campaign as an education tool for reaching Medicare beneficiaries and their families. It provides basic information about how to plan a campaign in your community with a focus on process--what needs to be done, and suggestions for ways to do it. The campaign described here had two components: a Medicare information guide and media exposure through television and newspaper stories. These can be tailored to the capacity of your organization and the needs of your community. Consider combining your media campaign with a series of workshops to reinforce the information in your publication and provide a forum for people to ask questions about their specific concerns.

  13. 5 CFR 950.801 - Campaign schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... National/International and International parts of the Charity List. (2) The Director will determine a date.../International and International parts of the Charity List to all local campaigns by a date to be determined...

  14. The Australian Measles Control Campaign, 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, F. M.; Burgess, M. A.; McIntyre, P. B.; Lambert, S. B.; Gilbert, G. L.; Gidding, H. F.; Escott, R. G.; Achat, H. M.; Hull, B. P.; Wang, H.; Sam, G. A.; Mead, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign had as its aim improved immunization coverage among children aged 1-12 years and, in the longer term, prevention of measles epidemics. The campaign included mass school-based measles-mumps-rubella vaccination of children aged 5-12 years and a catch-up programme for preschool children. More than 1.33 million children aged 5-12 years were vaccinated at school: serological monitoring showed that 94% of such children were protected after the campaign, whereas only 84% had been protected previously. Among preschool children aged 1-3.5 years the corresponding levels of protection were 89% and 82%. During the six months following the campaign there was a marked reduction in the number of measles cases among children in targeted age groups. PMID:11584738

  15. Effectiveness of a solar action campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a Solar Action Campaign implemented to facilitate the commercialization of Solar Energy in a large metropolitan area. The campaign was developed by the staff of the Crosby Gardens Environmental Library. Crosby Gardens is an urban environmental and cultural park. The Solar Action Campaign in Toledo, Ohio, included the coordination of a variety of activities and events designed to stimulate consumer awareness of the Solar Energy applications in the area. Activities included coordinating two workshops, production of media tools, a sunshine awards banquet, and an intensive media campaign. The Solar Week in Toledo provided the stimulus for coalitions to be built, intensive information exchange, and most importantly - media coverage.

  16. SEPARATIONS AND WASTE FORMS CAMPAIGN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Todd, Terry A.; Peterson, Mary E.

    2012-11-26

    This Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Implementation Plan provides summary level detail describing how the Campaign will achieve the objectives set-forth by the Fuel Cycle Reasearch and Development (FCRD) Program. This implementation plan will be maintained as a living document and will be updated as needed in response to changes or progress in separations and waste forms research and the FCRD Program priorities.

  17. Optimization and revision of the production process of the Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1), the lead hookworm vaccine recombinant protein candidate.

    PubMed

    Curti, Elena; Seid, Christopher A; Hudspeth, Elissa; Center, Lori; Rezende, Wanderson; Pollet, Jeroen; Kwityn, Cliff; Hammond, Molly; Matsunami, Rise K; Engler, David A; Hotez, Peter J; Elena Bottazzi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Infection by the human hookworm Necator americanus is a leading cause of anemia and disability in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. In order to prevent childhood hookworm disease in resource poor settings, a recombinant vaccine is under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, a Product Development Partnership (PDP). Previously, we reported on the expression and purification of a highly promising hookworm vaccine candidate, Na-GST-1, an N. americanus glutathione s-transferase expressed in Pichia pastoris (yeast), which led to production of 1.5 g of 95% pure recombinant protein at a 20L scale. (1) (,) (2) (,) (3) This yield and purity of Na-GST-1 was sufficient for early pilot manufacturing and initial phase 1 clinical testing. However, based on the number of doses which would be required to allow mass vaccination and a potential goal to deliver a vaccine as inexpensively as possible, a higher yield of expression of the recombinant antigen at the lowest possible cost is highly desirable. Here we report on modifications to the fermentation (upstream process) of the antigen expressed in P. pastoris, and to the purification (downstream process) of the recombinant protein that allowed for a 2-3-fold improvement in the final yield of Na-GST-1 purified protein. The major improvements included upstream process changes such as the addition of a sorbitol pulse and co-feed during methanol induction as well as an extension of the induction stage to approximately 96 hours; downstream process changes included modifying the UFDF to flat sheet with a 10 kDa Molecular Weight cut-off (MWCO), adjusting the capacity of an ion-exchange chromatography step utilizing a gradient elution as opposed to the original step elution, and altering the hydrophobic interaction chromatography conditions. The full process, as well as the purity and stability profiles of the target Na-GST-1, and its formulation

  18. 29 CFR 452.67 - Distribution of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distribution of campaign literature. 452.67 Section 452.67... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.67 Distribution of campaign literature. The Act... distribute his campaign literature to the membership at his expense. When the organization or its...

  19. 29 CFR 452.67 - Distribution of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution of campaign literature. 452.67 Section 452.67... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.67 Distribution of campaign literature. The Act... distribute his campaign literature to the membership at his expense. When the organization or its...

  20. 29 CFR 452.67 - Distribution of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distribution of campaign literature. 452.67 Section 452.67... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.67 Distribution of campaign literature. The Act... distribute his campaign literature to the membership at his expense. When the organization or its...

  1. 29 CFR 452.67 - Distribution of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distribution of campaign literature. 452.67 Section 452.67... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.67 Distribution of campaign literature. The Act... distribute his campaign literature to the membership at his expense. When the organization or its...

  2. 29 CFR 452.67 - Distribution of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution of campaign literature. 452.67 Section 452.67... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.67 Distribution of campaign literature. The Act... distribute his campaign literature to the membership at his expense. When the organization or its...

  3. 26 CFR 701.9006-1 - Presidential Election Campaign Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Presidential Election Campaign Fund. 701.9006-1...) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND § 701.9006-1 Presidential Election Campaign Fund. (a) Transfer of amounts to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. The Secretary shall...

  4. 26 CFR 701.9006-1 - Presidential Election Campaign Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Presidential Election Campaign Fund. 701.9006-1...) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND § 701.9006-1 Presidential Election Campaign Fund. (a) Transfer of amounts to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. The Secretary shall...

  5. 5 CFR 950.401 - Campaign and publicity information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Campaign and publicity information. 950... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS Campaign Information § 950.401 Campaign and publicity information. (a) The specific campaign and publicity information, such as the official Charity List, will be developed...

  6. 26 CFR 701.9006-1 - Presidential Election Campaign Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Presidential Election Campaign Fund. 701.9006-1...) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND § 701.9006-1 Presidential Election Campaign Fund. (a) Transfer of amounts to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. The Secretary shall...

  7. Health Campaigns as Engaged Pedagogy: Considering a Motorcycle Safety Campaign as Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Marifran; Haas, Emily J.; Kosmoski, Carin

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that teaching health campaigns from an engaged pedagogy perspective is beneficial for students, instructors, and communities. This argument is supported by a teaching and learning perspective using a motorcycle safety campaign as an exemplar. Retrospective interviews were conducted with students who participated in a…

  8. Communication in Ballot Issue Campaigns: A Rhetorical Analysis of the 1991 Cincinnati Public Schools Levy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Jeffrey; German, Kathleen

    Following the failure of several school levies, the Cincinnati Public School System placed a $9.83 million levy on the ballot in 1991 which passed in spite of tremendous odds against it. The Cincinnati tax levy campaign was successful largely because it adapted to the unique nature of ballot issue campaigns. First, it provided proactive leadership…

  9. 11 CFR 106.3 - Allocation of expenses between campaign and non-campaign related travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... campaign-related is the applicable rate for a comparable commercial conveyance set forth in 11 CFR 100.93(e... and Vice Presidential candidates who receive federal funds pursuant to 11 CFR part 9005 or 9036. (See 11 CFR 9004.7 and 9034.7) All expenditures for campaign-related travel paid for by a candidate from...

  10. Amateur astronomers in support of observing campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access, and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers: - the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals that can be galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns; - assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign; - provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise; - immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members; - provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to help strategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit. In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been identified: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/Siding Spring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG). The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA (Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy) portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns for current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers. The recent observation of comet 67P, at a magnitude of 21.2, from Siding

  11. Ivermectin treatment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect on hookworm and lice infection status, haematological parameters, growth, and survival.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    A placebo-controlled study was used to investigate the effectiveness of ivermectin to treat hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) and lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) infections in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups and to test the hypotheses that these parasitic infections cause anaemia, systemic inflammatory responses, and reduced growth, and contribute towards decreased pup survival. Ivermectin was identified as an effective and safe anthelmintic in this species. Pups administered ivermectin had significantly higher erythrocyte counts and significantly lower eosinophil counts compared to controls at 1-2 months post-treatment, confirming that U. sanguinis and/or A. microchir are causatively associated with disease and demonstrating the positive effect of ivermectin treatment on clinical health parameters. Higher growth rates were not seen in ivermectin-treated pups and, unexpectedly, relatively older pups treated with ivermectin demonstrated significantly reduced growth rates when compared to matched saline-control pups. Differences in survival were not identified between treatment groups; however, this was attributed to the unexpectedly low mortality rate of recruited pups, likely due to the unintended recruitment bias towards pups >1-2 months of age for which mortality due to hookworm infection is less likely. This finding highlights the logistical and practical challenges associated with treating pups of this species shortly after birth at a remote colony. This study informs the assessment of the use of anthelmintics as a tool for the conservation management of free-ranging wildlife and outlines essential steps to further the development of strategies to ensure the effective conservation of the Australian sea lion and its parasitic fauna.

  12. Differences in the faecal microbiome of non-diarrhoeic clinically healthy dogs and cats associated with Giardia duodenalis infection: impact of hookworms and coccidia.

    PubMed

    Šlapeta, Jan; Dowd, Scot E; Alanazi, Abdullah D; Westman, Mark E; Brown, Graeme K

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis causes a waterborne diarrhoeal disease in animals and humans, yet many Giardia-infected hosts remain asymptomatic. Mixed parasite infections are common in both animals and humans with unknown consequences for Giardia or other parasites. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from 40 dogs, including free-roaming dogs, and 21 surrendered cats from Australia. The dog cohort included 17 (42.5%) dogs positive for Giardia and 13 (32.5%) dogs positive for dog hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum). The cat samples included eight positive for Giardia and eight positive for Cystoisospora. The V4 region of 16S rRNA was sequenced at an average of 36,383 high quality sequences (>200 bp) per sample using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. In dogs we found significant (P<0.05, AnoSim) difference between the Giardia-positive and -negative groups when evaluating bacterial genera. No such difference was demonstrated between Ancylostoma-positive and -negative dogs. However, there was a modest but not significant separation of the Giardia-negative and -positive dogs (P=0.09, UniFrac) using principal coordinate analysis. Removal of dogs with hookworms further separated Giardia-positive and -negative groupings (P=0.06, UniFrac). In cats, the presence of Giardia was not associated with a significant difference based on bacterial genera (P>0.05, AnoSim). Cystoisospora-positive cats, however, exhibited significantly different profiles from Cystoisospora-negative cats (P=0.02, AnoSim) and UniFrac showed significant separation of Cystoisospora-positive and -negative samples (P<0.01). The results suggest that in clinically heathy dogs and cats, helminths and protozoa are associated with different microbiomes and possibly variable gut microbiota functions. Understanding the association of parasites and microbiomes has important consequences for the administration of antiparasitic drugs in animals and humans.

  13. Ivermectin treatment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect on hookworm and lice infection status, haematological parameters, growth, and survival.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    A placebo-controlled study was used to investigate the effectiveness of ivermectin to treat hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) and lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) infections in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups and to test the hypotheses that these parasitic infections cause anaemia, systemic inflammatory responses, and reduced growth, and contribute towards decreased pup survival. Ivermectin was identified as an effective and safe anthelmintic in this species. Pups administered ivermectin had significantly higher erythrocyte counts and significantly lower eosinophil counts compared to controls at 1-2 months post-treatment, confirming that U. sanguinis and/or A. microchir are causatively associated with disease and demonstrating the positive effect of ivermectin treatment on clinical health parameters. Higher growth rates were not seen in ivermectin-treated pups and, unexpectedly, relatively older pups treated with ivermectin demonstrated significantly reduced growth rates when compared to matched saline-control pups. Differences in survival were not identified between treatment groups; however, this was attributed to the unexpectedly low mortality rate of recruited pups, likely due to the unintended recruitment bias towards pups >1-2 months of age for which mortality due to hookworm infection is less likely. This finding highlights the logistical and practical challenges associated with treating pups of this species shortly after birth at a remote colony. This study informs the assessment of the use of anthelmintics as a tool for the conservation management of free-ranging wildlife and outlines essential steps to further the development of strategies to ensure the effective conservation of the Australian sea lion and its parasitic fauna. PMID:25911163

  14. The Z CamPaign Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Mike

    2011-05-01

    The Z CamPaign is an observing project designed to acquire enough detailed, long-tem data to unambiguously classify dwarf novae as bona fide members of the Z Cam sub-type or not. Because the defining characteristic of all Z Cam dwarf novae are "standstills", a temporary period of relative quiet between maximum and minimum light, we are monitoring these systems for this specific activity. Amateur astronomers are gathering all the data with backyard telescopes as part of an AAVSO Cataclysmic Variable Section observing initiative. We will discuss the organization, science goals, and present early results of the Z CamPaign.

  15. The Z CamPaign Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The Z CamPaign is an observing project designed to acquire enough detailed, long-term data to unambiguously classify dwarf novae as bona fide members of the Z Cam sub-type or not. Because the defining characteristic of all Z Cam dwarf novae are "standstills," a temporary period of relative quiet between maximum and minimum light, we are monitoring these systems for this specific activity. Amateur astronomers are gathering all the data with backyard telescopes as part of an AAVSO Cataclysmic Variable Section observing initiative. We will discuss the organization, science goals, and present early results of the Z CamPaign.

  16. Sporting hero launches Australian "Men Too" campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-02-14

    Top Australian rugby league captain Wally Lewis last month launched a "Men Too" campaign for the Family Planning Association (FPA) in Queensland, Australia. The campaign has been based very closely on Britain's, using a great deal of material from the United Kingdom FPA. Several radio spots have also been produced, and are currently being broadcast on all the commercial stations in community service spots. Future plans include a 30-second television commercial, and the use of the Brisbane Bullets, a popular basketball team, to promote the "male involvement" theme.

  17. 5 CFR 950.801 - Campaign schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... National/International and International parts of the Charity List. (2) The Director will determine a date... national and international applicant organization of the results of the Director's review. The date will be.../International and International parts of the Charity List to all local campaigns by a date to be determined...

  18. 1970 External Summer Youth Opportunity Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Highway Administration exceeded its goal of 50,000 jobs in its 1970 External Summer Youth Opportunity Campaign by providing 57,646 jobs. Of the jobs available, a large majority were filled by disadvantaged youth. Various Federal and private agencies were involved in making the program work. This pamphlet describes the national youth…

  19. Kid's PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fun and educational kit is designed specifically for elementary students. The "Kid's PACK" (Population Awareness Campaign Kit) entertains and informs children on the environment and human population growth through stories, games, and concrete ideas for making a difference. In three booklets, the "Kid's PACK" offers elementary students…

  20. The World Campaign for the Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and discusses goals of The World Campaign for the Biosphere and strategies designed to achieve these goals. Also lists eight suggestions for science teachers to help incorporate the goals into school curricula and programs. These include organizing assemblies which present information about environmental problems and presenting environmental…

  1. Transmutation Fuels Campaign FY-09 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year 2009 (FY-08) accomplishments for the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC). The emphasis is on the accomplishments and relevance of the work. Detailed description of the methods used to achieve the highlighted results and the associated support tasks are not included in this report.

  2. Teen PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in Shanghai,…

  3. The Political Scientist as Local Campaign Consultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crew, Robert E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During my 45 years as an academic, I have followed the admonition sometimes attributed to the legendary Jedi warrior Obi-Wan Kenobe that political scientists should "use [their] power for good and not for evil." In this spirit, I have devoted substantial portions of my career to public service by providing strategic advice and campaign management…

  4. Persistence of Change: Fume Hood Campaign Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Elah; Robinson, Jennifer; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability initiatives typically operate for a limited time period, but it is often unclear whether they have lasting effects. The purpose of this paper is to examine a laboratory fume hood campaign, in order to identify factors that might contribute or detract from long-term change persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  5. Analyzing the Communication Dynamics of Political Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Sally

    2007-01-01

    It is widely agreed that college students do not fully participate in the political process. The most commonly cited reasons are apathy, indifference, and ignorance. This article presents an activity that aims to help students learn about communication dynamics in the context of political campaigns and develop an appreciation and confidence about…

  6. Some Communication Effects of Charity Advertising Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of advertising exposure to a variety of cognitive and affective variables in a nonprofit charity campaign. The study also tested the transactional model of advertising effects, which combines exposure, motivations, and gratifications for viewing. A sample of 350 adults was randomly selected and…

  7. Starting and Running the "Libraries Matter" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Kitty; Chenoweth, Rose; Bersche, Karen; Bell, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Sometimes a simple idea, such as selling gel bracelets that say "Libraries Matter" to raise money, can spark something much bigger. In this article, the authors explain how their Libraries Matter campaign grew beyond their own regional system to cover their whole state and eventually other points around the globe. This successful Web-based…

  8. Television Planning in the 1952 Eisenhower Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkin, Steve M.

    This report of a study of the activities of a secret planning board, formed to promote the nomination of Dwight Eisenhower through the intensive use of television, concludes that the significance of television planning in the 1952 Eisenhower campaign had less to do with the outcome of the election than with the first massive use of television with…

  9. Copenhagen Campaigners: An Active Citizens Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Rohan

    2010-01-01

    In the lead-up to the Copenhagen Climate talks in December 2009, Islington Council's Sustainable Schools Officer involved seven local schools in an engaging citizenship project entitled "Copenhagen Campaigners". The aim of the project was to raise pupil's awareness of this historic global event and empower them to take action on a local level.

  10. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, Helen; Kulkami, Ajinkya; Garrett, Michele; Goodman, Michael; Peterson, Walter Arthur; Drewry, Marilyn; Hardin, Danny M.; He, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  11. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Kulkarni, A.; Garrett, M.; Goodman, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Drewry, M.; Hardin, D. M.; He, M.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  12. An overview of the AROMAT campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Van Roozendael, Michel; Constantin, Daniel; Georgescu, Lucian; Meier, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Den Hoed, Mirjam; Allaart, Marc; Boscornea, Andreea; Vajaiac, Sorin; Bellegante, Livio; Nemuc, Anca; Nicolae, Doina; Shaifangar, Reza; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Stebel, Kerstin; Schuettemeyer, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign and its follow-up AROMAT-2 were held in September 2014 and August 2015, respectively. Both campaigns focused on two geophysical targets: the city of Bucharest and the large power plants of the Jiu Valley, which are located in a rural area 170 km West of Bucharest. These two areas are complementary in terms of emitted chemical species and their spatial distributions. The objectives of the AROMAT campaigns were (i) to test recently developed airborne observation systems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies such as the AirMAP imaging DOAS system (University of Bremen), the NO2 sonde (KNMI), and the compact SWING whiskbroom imager (BIRA), and (ii) to prepare the validation programme of the future Atmospheric Sentinels, starting with Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) to be launched in early summer 2016. We present results from the different airborne instrumentations and from coincident ground-based measurements (lidar, in-situ, and mobile DOAS systems) performed during both campaigns. The AROMAT dataset addresses several of the mandatory products of TROPOMI/S5P, in particular NO2 and SO2 (horizontal distribution and profile from aircraft, plume image with ground-based SO2 and NO2 cameras, transects with mobile DOAS, in-situ), H2CO (mobile MAX-DOAS), and aerosols (lidar, airborne FUBISS-ASA2 sun-photometer, and aircraft in-situ). We investigate the information content of the AROMAT dataset for satellite validation studies based on co-located OMI and GOME-2 data, and simulations of TROPOMI measurements. The experience gained during AROMAT and AROMAT-2 will be used in support of a large-scale TROPOMI/S5P validation campaign in Romania scheduled for summer 2017.

  13. The Impact of Campaign Agendas on Perceptions of Issues in the 1980 Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wenmouth, Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that voters need a frame or a point of reference for determining the campaign relevance of issues and that, therefore, framing is a crucial consideration in the media agenda-setting process. (FL)

  14. Molecular epidemiologic characterization of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive pediatric isolates recovered in six Latin-American countries: an overview. PAHO/Rockefeller University Workshop. Pan American Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Tomasz, A; Corso, A; Severina, E P; Echániz-Aviles, G; Brandileone, M C; Camou, T; Castañeda, E; Figueroa, O; Rossi, A; Di Fabio, J L

    1998-01-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has conducted a study of Streptococcus pneumoniae in six Latin-American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Uruguay. Sterile site isolates from children aged < or =5 years showing clinical symptoms of pneumonia (as defined by the clinical criteria of WHO), meningitis, sepsis or bacteremia (without infectious foci), arthritis, and peritonitis were the source of most of the invasive pneumococcal isolates collected between the end of 1993 and 1996 in the six participating countries. Partial characterization of these isolates (antibiotic resistance and serotyping) have already been described (Microbial Drug Resistance 3:(2):131-163, 1997). In the next phase of the study, 326 S. pneumoniae isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility were transferred to the Laboratory of Microbiology at The Rockefeller University for molecular characterization, and a summary and overview of the findings is described in this article. Some of the most interesting findings were as follows: (1) There was a surprisingly high representation of two internationally spread clones, which made up >80% of the strains with penicillin MIC of 1 microg/ml or higher; most of these isolates were recovered in large cities, supporting the likelihood that the source of these clones is through international travel. (2) The frequency of resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was extremely high (present in 85% of all isolates with decreased penicillin susceptibility). (3) None of these isolates was resistant to ofloxacin, and macrolide resistance was rare (present in 6.4% of the isolates). (4) There was an apparent inverse relationship between level of penicillin resistance and genetic diversity. (5) There were striking differences in the "microbiologic profiles" of the six different Latin-American countries.

  15. Morphometric and molecular characterization of the species of Uncinaria Frölich, 1789 (Nematoda) parasitic in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber), with notes on hookworms in three other pinniped hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paul; Lynch, Michael; Hu, Min; Arnould, John P Y; Norman, Richard; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-05-01

    This study presents morphological and molecular data on hookworms from the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber) currently identified in Australian waters as Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Additional specimens from the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Péron) and the New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) from Australia, and the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus) from Antarctica, were included. Using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hookworms from A. p. doriferus, N. cinerea and A. forsteri were found to be genetically similar but distinct from Uncinaria spp. found in M. leonina from Antarctica, as well as from Zalophus californianus (Lesson) and Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus) from California. Few morphological differences were detected between these taxa.

  16. Morphometric and molecular characterization of the species of Uncinaria Frölich, 1789 (Nematoda) parasitic in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber), with notes on hookworms in three other pinniped hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paul; Lynch, Michael; Hu, Min; Arnould, John P Y; Norman, Richard; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-05-01

    This study presents morphological and molecular data on hookworms from the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber) currently identified in Australian waters as Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Additional specimens from the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Péron) and the New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) from Australia, and the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus) from Antarctica, were included. Using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hookworms from A. p. doriferus, N. cinerea and A. forsteri were found to be genetically similar but distinct from Uncinaria spp. found in M. leonina from Antarctica, as well as from Zalophus californianus (Lesson) and Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus) from California. Few morphological differences were detected between these taxa. PMID:23595493

  17. The National Diabetes, Influenza, and Pneumococcal Campaign: an evaluation of campaign relevancy, partnerships, and media relations.

    PubMed

    Jack, Leonard; Sokler, Lynn A; Squiers, Linda; Mitchell, Patricia

    2003-11-01

    The Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, collaborated with its 59 Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs (DPCPs) to implement in 1998-1999 the National Diabetes Influenza and Pneumococcal Campaign. Postcampaign evaluation examined DPCPs' perceptions of the relevancy of the campaign in reaching the target population (adults aged 25-64 years with diabetes), establishing successful partnerships, and engaging the media. Most DPCPs stated the campaign reached their target population. DPCPs most commonly partnered with existing networks such as public health organizations or government agencies and direct health care providers. A majority of DPCPs did not find partnerships with direct health care providers to be effective in this campaign, but public health organizations, peer review organizations, and coalitions were described as successful partners. States in which DPCPs conducted follow-up calls to television stations regarding the airing of public service announcements generally had more announcements aired than states in which such calls were not made. Postcampaign evaluation findings also indicate that DPCPs who attempted to engage nontraditional partners (e.g., media outlets) achieved greater campaign success than those who did not. Future campaign efforts will likely benefit from relationships established with nontraditional partners, such as retailers, media outlets, local pharmacies, and faith-based organizations. PMID:14677333

  18. Lessons from Past Literacy Campaigns: A Critical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes literacy campaigns in developing countries since early postcolonial efforts. Sees the Experimental World Literacy Programme as a turning point, reflecting lessons learned from past failures. Identifies features of successful campaigns, including political will, resource mobilization, timing, decentralized implementation, realistic…

  19. An Expert Systems Approach for PR Campaigns Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Glen T.; Curtin, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an expert system (the artificial intelligence program "Publics") that helps users identify key publics for public relations campaigns. Examines advantages and problems encountered in its use in public relations campaigns classrooms. (SR)

  20. 11 CFR 103.4 - Vice Presidential candidate campaign depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designated by the principal campaign committee of a political party's candidate for President shall be the campaign depository for that political party's candidate for the office of Vice President....

  1. 11 CFR 103.4 - Vice Presidential candidate campaign depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designated by the principal campaign committee of a political party's candidate for President shall be the campaign depository for that political party's candidate for the office of Vice President....

  2. 11 CFR 103.4 - Vice Presidential candidate campaign depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designated by the principal campaign committee of a political party's candidate for President shall be the campaign depository for that political party's candidate for the office of Vice President....

  3. 11 CFR 103.4 - Vice Presidential candidate campaign depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... designated by the principal campaign committee of a political party's candidate for President shall be the campaign depository for that political party's candidate for the office of Vice President....

  4. 11 CFR 103.4 - Vice Presidential candidate campaign depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designated by the principal campaign committee of a political party's candidate for President shall be the campaign depository for that political party's candidate for the office of Vice President....

  5. A Smoking Cessation Campaign on Twitter: Understanding the Use of Twitter and Identifying Major Players in a Health Campaign.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Eun

    2016-05-01

    The current study examined the use of online social media for a health campaign. Collecting tweets (N = 1,790) about the recent smoking cessation campaign by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the current study investigated the dissemination of health campaign messages on Twitter and answered questions from the process evaluation of health campaigns: who tweeted about the campaign, who played central roles in disseminating health campaign messages, and how various features of Twitter were used for sharing of campaign messages. Results showed that individuals and nonprofit organizations posted frequently about the campaign: Individuals and nonprofit organizations posted about 40% and 30% of campaign-related tweets, respectively. Although the campaign under investigation was steered by a government agency, nonprofit organizations played a vital role as mediators who disseminated campaign messages. The culture of retweeting demonstrated its particular usefulness for the dissemination of campaign messages. Despite the expectation that the use of social media would expand opportunities for engagement, actual two-way interactions were few or minimal. Drawn from the results, practical suggestions on how to strategize the use of Twitter for future health campaigns are discussed.

  6. Architecting Space Exploration Campaigns: A Decision-Analytic Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Erin; Morse, Elisabeth L.; Gray, Andrew A.; Easter, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the benefits of Decision Analysis techniques for campaign design and evaluation. Important concepts of decision analysis are reviewed through the lens of designing a campaign to find exploitable equatorial water on Mars. The method developed herein is general to any search campaign. The paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities in applying similar techniques to other types of campaigns.

  7. C-SPAN in the Classroom: Campaign 2000 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    C-SPAN, Washington, DC.

    These C-SPAN lesson plans focus on U.S. presidential campaign 2000 topics. The broad divisions for the 11 lesson plans are: (1) "Roles of the Media--Spin"; (2) "Roles of the Media--Polls"; (3) "Fundraising: Early Money"; (4) "Campaign Advertising: Language of Advertising"; (5) "Campaign Advertising: Issue Ads"; (6) "Issues: Defining the…

  8. 29 CFR 452.69 - Expenses of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Expenses of campaign literature. 452.69 Section 452.69... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.69 Expenses of campaign literature. Each... is no requirement that the union distribute the literature of the candidate free of charge. In...

  9. 29 CFR 452.69 - Expenses of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Expenses of campaign literature. 452.69 Section 452.69... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.69 Expenses of campaign literature. Each... is no requirement that the union distribute the literature of the candidate free of charge. In...

  10. 29 CFR 452.69 - Expenses of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Expenses of campaign literature. 452.69 Section 452.69... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.69 Expenses of campaign literature. Each... is no requirement that the union distribute the literature of the candidate free of charge. In...

  11. 29 CFR 452.69 - Expenses of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenses of campaign literature. 452.69 Section 452.69... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.69 Expenses of campaign literature. Each... is no requirement that the union distribute the literature of the candidate free of charge. In...

  12. 29 CFR 452.69 - Expenses of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expenses of campaign literature. 452.69 Section 452.69... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.69 Expenses of campaign literature. Each... is no requirement that the union distribute the literature of the candidate free of charge. In...

  13. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members

    PubMed Central

    TUMIN, Makmor; RAJA ARIFFIN, Raja Noriza; MOHD SATAR, NurulHuda; NG, Kok-Peng; LIM, Soo-Kun; CHONG, Chin-Sieng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ’ preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents’ willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Results Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Conclusion Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia. PMID:25909060

  14. C-SPAN in the Classroom: Campaign 2000 Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    C-SPAN, Washington, DC.

    These C-SPAN lesson plans focus on U.S. presidential campaign 2000 events. The six lesson plans are titled, as follows: (1) "Campaign Overview"; (2) "Campaign Kickoffs"; (3) "Primary Caucuses"; (4) "National Conventions"; (5) "General Election: Presidential Debates"; and (6) "General Election: Election Day." Each lesson plan contains an activity…

  15. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  16. Campaigning for Children's Oral Health: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Arguably, the ultimate application of evidenced-based communications is translating the research recommendations into a full-fledged media campaign. This article explains the development and implementation of Watch Your Mouth, a campaign based on FrameWorks Institute's research on children's oral health. To date, this innovative campaign has been…

  17. The Successful Capital Campaign: From Planning to Victory Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigg, H. Gerald, Ed.

    A collection of 22 chapters on capital campaigns is presented to provide: resource for both veterans and newcomers; technical information for fund-raising professionals and key volunteers; and a record of all aspects of current thinking on the capital campaign. Chapter titles and authors are as follows: "What Is a Capital Campaign in Today's…

  18. The Persuasion of Image Building and Presidential Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David A.

    In a presidential election campaign, any dimension of an image is important if it motivates the voters to favor or disfavor a candidate. Therefore, to study what motivates electoral behavior is one way to study the persuasion of image building in presidential campaigns. In this paper some of the research in presidential election campaigns is…

  19. 26 CFR 701.9006-1 - Presidential Election Campaign Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... been transferred to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund under § 701.9006-1(a). (e) Limit on... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presidential Election Campaign Fund. 701.9006-1...) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND § 701.9006-1 Presidential Election...

  20. Selective exposure and selective perception of anti-tobacco campaign messages: the impacts of campaign exposure on selective perception.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yoori

    2010-03-01

    This study examines (a) whether smokers engage in selective exposure to and selective perception of anti-tobacco campaigns and (b) whether the amount of campaign exposure influences selective perception processes. Using nationally representative survey data concerning youths' reception of several anti-tobacco campaigns in the United States, this study found a tendency of selective perception but not selective exposure. In other words, smokers were more likely to engage in campaign message disparagement than nonsmokers (selective perception), but smokers and nonsmokers did not differ in campaign exposure. In addition, the amount of campaign exposure affected the extent to which a person engages in selective perception. The difference in message disparagement between nonsmokers and smokers was larger among those who reported higher campaign exposure than among those who reported lower exposure. Implications of selective processes for campaign effects research are further discussed. PMID:20390684

  1. ENVISAT Validation Campaign at IMAA-CNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, V.; Amodeo, A.; Cornacchia, C.; Mona, L.; Pandolfi, M.; Pappalardo, G.

    2004-08-01

    In the period July 2002 - March 2004, at IMAA-CNR, Tito Scalo (Potenza, 40°36'N, 15°44'E, 820 m above sea level) we have performed more than 500 hours of Raman lidar measurements and 50 radiosonde launches in coincidence with ENVISAT overpasses. This campaign has been carried out by using a Raman lidar system, able to perform measurements of water vapor mixing ratio vertical profiles with high vertical and temporal resolution, and a radiosounding station for PTU measurements. These data have been used to validate MIPAS water vapor and temperature products and GOMOS water vapor products. In this paper, we present the results of the validation campaign performed at IMAA, only for MIPAS and GOMOS data processed with MIPAS software version 4.61 and with GOMOS IPF 5.00 respectively

  2. Campaigns targeting perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cismaru, Magdalena; Lavack, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with significant physical, emotional, and economic costs. Persuading IPV perpetrators to change their behavior could play an important role in ending violence. This article reviews and analyzes 16 campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators, created in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Two well-known models, the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) model and Protection Motivation theory (PMT), are combined to create the analytical framework. For each stage of change, the most salient PMT variables are outlined, the people found in that stage are described, and the most effective strategies for persuasion are posited. Together, these two models would suggest that future campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators should place a stronger emphasis on the benefits of changing and place a greater focus on increasing perpetrators' confidence that they can abstain from violence. PMID:21908438

  3. Campaigns targeting perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cismaru, Magdalena; Lavack, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with significant physical, emotional, and economic costs. Persuading IPV perpetrators to change their behavior could play an important role in ending violence. This article reviews and analyzes 16 campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators, created in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Two well-known models, the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) model and Protection Motivation theory (PMT), are combined to create the analytical framework. For each stage of change, the most salient PMT variables are outlined, the people found in that stage are described, and the most effective strategies for persuasion are posited. Together, these two models would suggest that future campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators should place a stronger emphasis on the benefits of changing and place a greater focus on increasing perpetrators' confidence that they can abstain from violence.

  4. BCG-vaccination campaign in Aden Colony

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Herbert; Berg, Knut; Christensen, Hans

    1954-01-01

    A mass BCG-vaccination campaign was undertaken in Aden Colony during February-May 1952 by WHO/UNICEF in co-operation with the Directorate of Medical Services. Over 31,000 persons (about one-fourth of the total population) were given an intradermal 5 TU test, and 22,000 returned for the reaction to be read. Of these, about one-third were classified as negative and all but a very few of them were given an intradermal injection of BCG vaccine. Of those vaccinated, over half were children of school-age. The results obtained in this campaign are described with particular reference to the number and size of tuberculin reactions, and the results of follow-up examinations in nearly 2,000 schoolchildren. PMID:13150172

  5. VV Cephei Eclipse Campaign 2017/19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L.; Bennett, Philip D.; Pollmann, Ernst

    2015-05-01

    VV Cephei is an eclipsing binary star system with the second longest known period (7430 days, or 20.4 years). The longest known eclipsing binary star system is Epsilon Aurigae with a period of 9890 days, 27.1 years. Both Epsilon Aurigae and VV Cephei are visually bright (3rd and 5th magnitude respectively) massive binary stars of great interest. The last eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae ended in 2011. VV Cephei is up next with its eclipse beginning in August of 2017. The eclipse lasts nearly two years (~650 days) from 1st to 4th contact. A campaign is planned for the next eclipse of VV Cephei. This paper will provide information on VV Cephei, explain the campaign goals and provide an invitation to observers to do photometry and/or spectroscopy.

  6. The profile of a campaign: "Men Too".

    PubMed

    Goodchild, R

    1986-07-01

    Men comprise only 1.2% of the 1.5 million family planning clinic users in England and Wales. There are 3.5 million oral contraceptive acceptors compared to 2.8 million condom users. The focus on women as users of contraception reflects contemporary sex roles that view women as primarily responsible for family planning and childbearing. Greater involvement of men in making decisions about contraception is likely to have a favorable impact on rigid sex roles and improve the quality of relationships. A "Men Too" campaign was launched in 1984 by the Family Planning Association of the United Kingdom. Components of this program included use of well-known sports personalities and performers to launch the campaign, television programming aimed at teenage boys, and public service announcements. Courses were held for receptionists at family planning clinics to help them make men feel more welcome and a special poster was provided for waiting rooms. Finally, a 25-minute video called "Danny's Big Night" was produced for teenage boys. The video is intended for use in small groups with a discussion leader. The climax of the campaign was a national conference on Men, Sex, and Relationships attended by 400 lay and professional people. The 1984 statistics that reflect the onset of the campaign indicate a 13% overall increase of men using family plannig clinics compared to 1983 and a 40% increase in the attendance of 18 and 19-year old men. Special 1-night/week men only sessions have been introduced in 5 National Health Service family planning clinics. PMID:12222202

  7. Reference frame requirements and the MERIT campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.; Zhu, S. Y.; Bock, Y.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is given of how satellite, lunar laser, and very long base interferometry stations available during the MERIT Campaign in 1983/84 can contribute to the detection of short periodic variations in the rotational parameters of the earth, as well as the determination of the differences between the various Conventional Terrestrial and Inertial Reference Frames inherent in the above systems. Specific observational requirements are given both by objective and by country.

  8. Feasibility study of the AOSTA experimental campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carta, M.; Blaise, P.; Bethaz, C.; Boccia, F.; Fabrizio, V.; Geslot, B.; Grossi, A.; Gruel, A.

    2016-03-01

    The reduction of the nuclear waste is one of the most important nuclear issues. The high radiotoxicity of the spent fuel is due to plutonium and some minor actinides (MAs) such as neptunium, americium and curium, above all. One way to reduce their hazard is to destroy by fission MAs in appropriate nuclear reactors. To allow the MAs destruction an important effort have been done on the nuclear data due to the poor knowledge in this field. In the framework of one of the NEA Expert Group on Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management an analysis of the feasibility of MAs irradiation campaign in the TAPIRO fast research reactor is carried out. This paper provides preliminary results obtained by calculations modelling the irradiation, in different TAPIRO irradiation channels, of some CEA samples coming from the French experimental campaign OSMOSE, loaded with different contents of MAs, in order to access, through particular peak spectrometry, to their capture cross section. On the basis of neutron transport calculation results, obtained by both deterministic and Monte Carlo methods, an estimate of the irradiated samples counting levels from the AOSTA (Activation of OSMOSE Samples in TAPIRO) experimental campaign is provided.

  9. A national campaign to finance supported employment.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael F; Drake, Robert E; Goldman, Howard H

    2014-06-01

    Medicaid is now the main payment source and financing mechanism for services for adults with serious mental illness. Services formerly paid with state mental health funds have been converted to Medicaid, lightening the burden on state budgets affected by recession and other factors. The change has allowed states to maintain community care and inpatient services (in general hospitals). Medicaid service benefits include clinic and inpatient care, case management, and some rehabilitation services. But using Medicaid to finance some high-priority services such as supported employment has proven difficult. Now critical changes in Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act allow states to amend their Medicaid State Plans to provide more flexible services to people with serious mental illness. Advocacy and support may be needed to encourage this step. A national campaign to finance supported employment would join various stakeholders in the field, including professional organizations, family and service user groups, and organizations representing service providers. The authors of this editorial pledge their energies to support this campaign. They present suggestions for a campaign, including building a coalition, goals and targets, and online resources.

  10. Lessons Learned in a Breastfeeding Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Ware, Julie L; Mzayek, Fawaz; Levy, Marian

    2016-09-01

    Breastfeeding is well accepted as the optimal nutrition for babies. The American Academy of Pediatrics states that infant feeding should no longer be thought of as a lifestyle choice, but rather as a public health issue. In Shelby County, Tennessee, rates of breastfeeding continue to be disparately low. To address this public health problem, a focus group study was conducted with the Shelby County population least likely to breastfeed. Following participants' suggestion to use a billboard campaign with pictures of local mothers and families, one highway billboard and ten bus stop signs were placed around the city in areas of the lowest breastfeeding rates. Self-administered surveys were completed by convenience sampling in target population areas with women least likely to breastfeed, both before placing the signs and 6 months later. No significant differences were noted in knowledge, attitudes, or practices after the media campaign, but trends toward increased intention to breastfeed were noted among expectant mothers. With collapsed data (pre and post), a majority of participants believed that breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby and they were significantly more likely to plan to breastfeed if they knew about health benefits to the baby and to themselves. If they had heard about breastfeeding on the TV or radio, they were more likely to believe breastfeeding is important for long-term health. These findings suggest that a media campaign could have a complementary role in promoting breastfeeding among women with low initiation rates. PMID:27463248

  11. Coordinated Science Campaign Scheduling for Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgington, Will; Morris, Robert; Dungan, Jennifer; Williams, Jenny; Carlson, Jean; Fleming, Damian; Wood, Terri; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Future Earth observing missions will study different aspects and interacting pieces of the Earth's eco-system. Scientists are designing increasingly complex, interdisciplinary campaigns to exploit the diverse capabilities of multiple Earth sensing assets. In addition, spacecraft platforms are being configured into clusters, trains, or other distributed organizations in order to improve either the quality or the coverage of observations. These simultaneous advances in the design of science campaigns and in the missions that will provide the sensing resources to support them offer new challenges in the coordination of data and operations that are not addressed by current practice. For example, the scheduling of scientific observations for satellites in low Earth orbit is currently conducted independently by each mission operations center. An absence of an information infrastructure to enable the scheduling of coordinated observations involving multiple sensors makes it difficult to execute campaigns involving multiple assets. This paper proposes a software architecture and describes a prototype system called DESOPS (Distributed Earth Science Observation Planning and Scheduling) that will address this deficiency.

  12. Estimating the sensitivity and specificity of Kato-Katz stool examination technique for detection of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in humans in the absence of a 'gold standard'.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, M R; Carabin, H; Joseph, L; Balolong, E; Olveda, R; McGarvey, S T

    2010-03-15

    The accuracy of the Kato-Katz technique in identifying individuals with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is limited by day-to-day variation in helminth egg excretion, confusion with other parasites and the laboratory technicians' experience. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique to detect infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura using a Bayesian approach in the absence of a 'gold standard'. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study conducted between January 2004 and December 2005 in Samar Province, the Philippines. Each participant provided between one and three stool samples over consecutive days. Stool samples were examined using the Kato-Katz technique and reported as positive or negative for STHs. In the presence of measurement error, the true status of each individual is considered as latent data. Using a Bayesian method, we calculated marginal posterior densities of sensitivity and specificity parameters from the product of the likelihood function of observed and latent data. A uniform prior distribution was used (beta distribution: alpha=1, beta=1). A total of 5624 individuals provided at least one stool sample. One, two and three stool samples were provided by 1582, 1893 and 2149 individuals, respectively. All STHs showed variation in test results from day to day. Sensitivity estimates of the Kato-Katz technique for one stool sample were 96.9% (95% Bayesian Credible Interval [BCI]: 96.1%, 97.6%), 65.2% (60.0%, 69.8%) and 91.4% (90.5%, 92.3%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Specificity estimates for one stool sample were 96.1% (95.5%, 96.7%), 93.8% (92.4%, 95.4%) and 94.4% (93.2%, 95.5%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Our results show that the Kato-Katz technique can perform with reasonable accuracy with one day's stool collection for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Low sensitivity of the Kato-Katz for detection

  13. Stratospheric ozone intercomparison campaign (STOIC) 1989: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margitan, J. J.; Barnes, R. A.; Brothers, G. B.; Butler, J.; Burris, J.; Connor, B. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Kerr, J. B.; Komhyr, W. D.; McCormick, M. P.; McDermid, I. S.; McElroy, C. T.; McGee, T. J.; Miller, A. J.; Owens, M.; Parrish, A. D.; Parsons, C. L.; Torres, A. L.; Tsou, J. J.; Walsh, T. D.; Whiteman, D.

    1995-05-01

    The NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Program organized a Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) held in July-August 1989 at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The primary instruments participating in this campaign were several that had been developed by NASA for the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change: the JPL ozone lidar at TMF, the Goddard Space Flight Center trailer-mounted ozone lidar which was moved to TMF for this comparison, and the Millitech/LaRC microwave radiometer. To assess the performance of these new instruments, a validation/intercomparison campaign was undertaken using established techniques: balloon ozonesondes launched by personnel from the Wallops Flight Facility and from NOAA Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC) (now Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory), a NOAA GMCC Dobson spectrophotometer, and a Brewer spectrometer from the Atmospheric Environment Service of Canada, both being used for column as well as Umkehr profile retrievals. All of these instruments were located at TMF and measurements were made as close together in time as possible to minimize atmospheric variability as a factor in the comparisons. Daytime rocket measurements of ozone were made by Wallops Flight Facility personnel using ROCOZ-A instruments launched from San Nicholas Island. The entire campaign was conducted as a blind intercomparison, with the investigators not seeing each others data until all data had been submitted to a referee and archived at the end of the 2-week period (July 20 to August 2, 1989). Satellite data were also obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite and the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) aboard Nimbus 7. An examination of the data has found excellent agreement among the techniques, especially in the 20- to 40-km range. As expected, there was little atmospheric variability during the

  14. Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) 1989: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margitan, J. J.; Barnes, R. A.; Brothers, G. B.; Butler, J.; Burris, J.; Connor, B. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Kerr, J. B.; Komhyr, W. D.; McCormick, M. P.; McDermid, I. S.; McElroy, C. T.; McGee, T. J.; Miller, A. J.; Owens, M.; Parrish, A. D.; Parsons, C. L.; Torres, A. L.; Tsou, J. J.; Walsh, T. D.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Program organized a Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) held in July-August 1989 at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The primary instruments participating in this campaign were several that had been developed by NASA for the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change: the JPL ozone lidar at TMF, the Goddard Space Flight Center trailer-mounted ozone lidar which was moved to TMF for this comparison, and the Millitech/LaRC microwave radiometer. To assess the performance of these new instruments, a validation/intercomparison campaign was undertaken using established techniques: balloon ozonesondes launched by personnel from the Wallops Flight Facility and from NOAA Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC) (now Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory), a NOAA GMCC Dobson spectrophotometer, and a Brewer spectrometer from the Atmospheric Environment Service of Canada, both being used for column as well as Umkehr profile retrievals. All of these instruments were located at TMF and measurements were made as close together in time as possible to minimize atmospheric variability as a factor in the comparisons. Daytime rocket measurements of ozone were made by Wallops Flight Facility personnel using ROCOZ-A instruments launched from San Nicholas Island. The entire campaign was conducted as a blind intercomparison, with the investigators not seeing each others data until all data had been submitted to a referee and archived at the end of the 2-week period (July 20 to August 2, 1989). Satellite data were also obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE 2) aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard Nimbus 7. An examination of the data has found excellent agreement among the techniques, especially in the 20- to 40-km range. As expected, there was little atmospheric variability during the

  15. Dose confirmation and non-interference evaluations of the oral efficacy of a combination of milbemycin oxime and spinosad against the dose limiting parasites, adult cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), in dogs.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Wiseman, Scott

    2012-03-23

    Two separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose and non-interference of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered orally in combination or alone to dogs for the treatment and control of experimentally induced flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis) and adult hookworm infections (Ancylostoma caninum). For each study, dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment adult flea and hookworm egg counts to one of four treatment groups of 10 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient, or individually alone using the full dose range, were given orally to dogs on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A placebo control was treated similarly. In one study, on Days -1, 5, 12, 19, 28 and 35 each dog was infested with approximately 100 unfed adult C. felis obtained from the investigator's established flea colony. All dogs were infested via the same method. Forty-eight hour post-infestation flea comb counts were conducted on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 37 and were used to determine the knockdown and residual flea activity. In the second study, on Day -27 each of 48 dogs were experimentally inoculated with 100 third-stage infective larvae of the hookworm, A. caninum. Dogs were treated on Day 0 and necropsied on Day 7 or Day 8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract were collected on Day 7 or Day 8, identified and counted by species and stage. Post-treatment, the geometric mean live flea counts were significantly different (p-value<0.0001) between the spinosad/MO combination and the spinosad only treatment groups as compared to the vehicle control group. The flea counts in the MO only group and the control group were not statistically different. The spinosad and MO combination group and the spinosad only treatment group demonstrated significantly different knockdown (100

  16. Myeloid-Restricted AMPKα1 Promotes Host Immunity and Protects against IL-12/23p40-Dependent Lung Injury during Hookworm Infection.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Wildaliz; Hung, Li-Yin; Oniskey, Taylor K; Boon, Louis; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Herbert, De'Broski R

    2016-06-01

    How the metabolic demand of parasitism affects immune-mediated resistance is poorly understood. Immunity against parasitic helminths requires M2 cells and IL-13, secreted by CD4(+) Th2 and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), but whether certain metabolic enzymes control disease outcome has not been addressed. This study demonstrates that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key driver of cellular energy, regulates type 2 immunity and restricts lung injury following hookworm infection. Mice with a selective deficiency in the AMPK catalytic α1 subunit in alveolar macrophages and conventional dendritic cells produced less IL-13 and CCL17 and had impaired expansion of ILC2 in damaged lung tissue compared with wild-type controls. Defective type 2 responses were marked by increased intestinal worm burdens, exacerbated lung injury, and increased production of IL-12/23p40, which, when neutralized, restored IL-13 production and improved lung recovery. Taken together, these data indicate that defective AMPK activity in myeloid cells negatively impacts type 2 responses through increased IL-12/23p40 production. These data support an emerging concept that myeloid cells and ILC2 can coordinately regulate tissue damage at mucosal sites through mechanisms dependent on metabolic enzyme function. PMID:27183598

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans (HrCLM) in a Resource-Poor Community in Manaus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Felix; Pilger, Daniel; Schuster, Angela; Lesshafft, Hannah; Guedes de Oliveira, Silas; Ignatius, Ralf; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Background Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a neglected tropical skin disease associated with significant clinical pathology. Little knowledge exists about prevalence and risk factors of HrCLM in endemic regions. Methodology/ Principal Findings To understand the epidemiology of HrCLM in Amazonia, we conducted a cross-sectional study in a resource-poor township in Manaus, Brazil. HrCLM was diagnosed in 8.2% (95% CI, 6.3–10.1%) of the study population (N = 806) with a peak prevalence of 18.2% (95% CI, 9.3–27.1%) in children aged 10–14. Most of the tracks (62.4%) were located on the feet, and 10.6% were superinfected. HrCLM was associated independently with age under 15, male sex, presence of animal faeces on the compound, walking barefoot on sandy ground and poverty. Conclusions/ Significance HrCLM is common in resource-poor communities in Amazonia and is related to poverty. To reduce the disease burden caused by HrCLM, living conditions have to be improved. PMID:27010204

  18. Impact of antihelminthic treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms in Covas, a rural community of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zani, Luciana Carvalho; Favre, Tereza Cristina; Pieri, Otávio Sarmento; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the impact of drug treatment on infection by Ascaris lumbricoides (Al), Trichuris trichiura (Tt) and hookworms (Hook) in a rural community from the sugar-cane zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four parasitological surveys were carried out from March 2001 to March 2002. Individual diagnosis was based on eight slides (four by the Kato-Katz method and four by the Hoffman method) per survey. Infected subjects were assigned to two groups for treatment with either albendazole (n = 62) or mebendazole (n = 57). Prevalence of infection fell significantly (p < 0.05) one month after treatment: Al (from 47.7% to 6.6%); Tt (from 45.7% to 31.8%) and Hook (from 47.7% to 24.5%). One year after treatment, infections by Tt and Hook remained significantly below pre-control levels. A substantial decrease in single-infection cases and multiple infections was found. Egg-negative rate was significant for Al (94.0%), Hook (68.3%) but not for Tt (45.5%), and did not differ significantly between subjects treated with mebendazole or albendazole. Egg counts fell significantly in the individuals remaining positive for Tt. It is recommended that antihelminthic treatment should be selective and given at yearly intervals preferably with albendazole, due to its cost-effectiveness.

  19. Testing the Validity of Campaign Ad Exposure Measures: A Family Planning Media Campaign in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Stephenson, Michael T; Agha, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Although prior research has tested the nomological validity of media campaign exposure, including the related comparative validity of some measures, it has not well studied predictive validity or made extensions to other types of media campaign exposure. To help build on research in this area, the current study tested the nomological and predictive validity of 5 ad recall and recognition measures specific to the Touch condom media campaign in Pakistan. Between-effects regression of panel survey data confirmed the nomological validity of each of the 5 measures of Touch ad exposure. In addition, 2 sets of panel regression models (i.e., fixed-effects models and fixed-effects with lag models) confirmed the predictive validity of each of the 5 ad exposure measures. Results on comparative validity were quite similar for nomological and predictive validity, indicating that confirmed ad recall and recognition measures tend to have greater validity than unconfirmed measures. PMID:27337154

  20. Social marketing campaigns and children's media use.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the sale of products. Increasingly savvy social marketers have begun to make extensive use of the same techniques and strategies used by commercial marketers to promote healthful behaviors and to counter some of the negative effects of conventional media marketing to children and adolescents. Evans points out that social marketing campaigns have been effective in helping to prevent and control tobacco use, increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and promote condom use, as well as other positive health behaviors. He reviews the evidence from a number of major recent campaigns and programming in the United States and overseas and describes the evaluation and research methods used to determine their effectiveness. He begins his review of the field of social marketing by describing how it uses many of the strategies practiced so successfully in commercial marketing. He notes the recent development of public health brands and the use of branding as a health promotion strategy. He then goes on to show how social marketing can promote healthful behavior, how it can counter media messages about unhealthful behavior, and how it can encourage discussions between parents and children. Evans concludes by noting some potential future applications to promote healthful media use by children and adolescents and to mitigate the effects of exposure to commercial marketing. These include adapting lessons learned from previous successful campaigns, such as delivering branded messages that promote healthful alternative behaviors. Evans also outlines a message strategy to promote "smart media use" to parents, children, and adolescents and

  1. The Velocity Campaign for Ignition on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Debra

    2011-10-01

    Achieving ignition requires a high velocity implosion since the energy required for ignition scales like 1/v8. Beyond ignition, a higher velocity produces more robust performance, which will be useful for applications of ignition. In the velocity campaign, we will explore three methods for increasing implosion velocity: increased laser power and energy, optimized hohlraum and capsule materials, and optimized capsule thickness. The main issue with increasing the laser power and energy is the way in which LPI (laser plasma interactions) and hot electron preheat will change as we increase the laser power. Based on scalings from previous data and theory, we expect to couple 80-85% of 1.5 MJ at 475-500 TW. We can also increase the velocity by optimizing the hohlraum and capsule materials. In this campaign, we will explore depleted uranium hohlraums to reduce wall loss and optimize the capsule dopant by replacing the germanium dopant with silicon. Those two changes are expected to increase velocity by 6-7%. Finally, we will optimize the capsule thickness. The optimal capsule thickness is a trade-off between velocity and mix. A thinner capsule has higher velocity, but is more susceptible to mix of the ablator material into the hotspot due to hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by ablation surface imperfections. Once we have achieved adequate capsule areal density, we will optimize the velocity/mix trade off by varying the capsule thickness. We will also make direct measure of Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth by backlighting the growth of engineered features on the surface of the capsule. This will allow us to benchmark our models of mix. In this paper, we will describe the designs and experimental results of the velocity campaign. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Talking "truth": predictors and consequences of conversations about a youth antismoking campaign for smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Sally M

    2011-08-01

    Using data from the Legacy Media Tracking Survey II, this study investigated relations among youth's evaluations of the "truth" antismoking campaign, campaign-related interpersonal discussion, and campaign-relevant outcomes (n = 8,000). Regression analyses showed that smokers were less likely to have discussed the campaign than nonsmokers, and this effect was mediated by negative campaign evaluation. However, smokers with a negative evaluation of the campaign were more likely to talk about it than were nonsmokers reporting negative evaluation. Nonsmokers who talked about the campaign had beliefs, attitudes, and intentions in greater agreement with campaign messages than those who did not talk about the campaign. For smokers, talking about the campaign was associated with beliefs, attitudes, and intentions in greater agreement with campaign messages, but only if associated with positive campaign evaluation. For smokers with a negative campaign evaluation, talking about the campaign was associated with beliefs and attitudes counter to the campaign messages.

  3. Advanced Fuels Campaign Cladding & Coatings Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-03-01

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) organized a Cladding and Coatings operational meeting February 12-13, 2013, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, industry, and universities attended the two-day meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss advanced cladding and cladding coating research and development (R&D); review experimental testing capabilities for assessing accident tolerant fuels; and review industry/university plans and experience in light water reactor (LWR) cladding and coating R&D.

  4. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori Ann; Carmack, William Jonathan

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  5. Scald prevention campaigns: do they work?

    PubMed

    Spallek, Melanie; Nixon, Jim; Bain, Chris; Purdie, David M; Spinks, Anneliese; Scott, Debbie; McClure, Rod J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of the Queensland "Hot Water Burns Like Fire" campaign. Cross-section temperature sampling of households' bathroom hot water taps was conducted in Brisbane in 1990 before the intervention (n = 872) and in 2002 to 2003 after the intervention (n = 871). In both surveys, temperature was measured with thermometers held under running water from the bathroom hot tap until the reading stabilized (2 minutes). In 2002 to 2003 the interviewer also recorded whether or not the householder believed a tempering valve was installed in the home. The main injury outcome measure was all scald injury-related admissions at hospitals in Queensland from July 1990 to June 2003. The difference between the mean hot water tap temperature in 1990 and in 2002 to 2003 was determined with independent sample t-tests (P < .05). Rates of hospital admissions were grouped into two categories: scald injuries per year prior to the introduction of the hot water tempering valve legislation (April 1998) and scald injuries per year post-legislation. The difference between the preintervention and postintervention mean rates was determined with t-tests (P < .05). Additionally, the rates were plotted on a scatter plot by year, and a linear regression analysis was used to quantify the relationship with rates of scald-related injuries and year. The temperature in homes where the occupants reported having a tempering valve (mean = 55.5 degrees C) was significantly lower than in homes whose occupants reported not having a tempering valve (mean = 60.1 degrees C) or did not know whether they had a tempering valve (mean = 61.8 degrees C) (P < .01). However, the comparison of the hot water temperature between 1990 and 2002 to 2003 showed a significantly higher mean hot water temperature in 2002 to 2003 (P < .01). There was a significantly higher mean scald injury rate after the introduction of the "Hot Water Burns Like Fire" campaign (170.36/100,000) than

  6. Benjamin Rush's educational campaign against hard drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Katcher, B S

    1993-01-01

    More than 200 years ago, during a period of unprecedented production and consumption of distilled alcoholic beverages in the United States, Benjamin Rush launched a health education campaign that warned the public about the hazards of such beverages. He corrected erroneous notions about their presumed beneficial effects and accurately described more than a dozen alcohol-related health problems. Although the temperance movement has had a tumultuous history in the United States, the origin and long-standing tradition of temperance as a health promotion activity needs to be recognized. Images p274-a p275-a p278-a p279-a PMID:8427341

  7. Running a successful campaign against unionization.

    PubMed

    Block, Velinda J; Jamerson, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Unions, once rare in healthcare, are now targeting hospital employees as potential members. In an industry that has seen an increase in regulations, mergers and acquisitions, rising financial pressures, and changing working conditions, it is easy to understand why discontented employees are being targeted by unions now more than ever. Hospital leaders must look to lessons learned in other organizations to develop strategies that will ensure a successful campaign. In 2003, St. Louis Children's Hospital defeated the Missouri Nurses Association/United American Nurse with a 77% no vote. The authors describe an overview of unionization in healthcare and the strategies they used to successfully win this union election.

  8. In Search of the Campaign Fan: Media Use and Caucus Participation in the 1980 Primary Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droge, David; Davis, Kristine

    High turnout for the 1980 Iowa caucuses and conflicting explanations for that high turnout formed the background for an investigation of the relationship between media uses and gratifications, involvement in the local community, and caucus participation. Campaign fan gratifications--either excitement seeking or communicative utility--were…

  9. Talking About Antismoking Campaigns: What Do Smokers Talk About, and How Does Talk Influence Campaign Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Wakefield, Melanie A; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Campaign-stimulated conversations have been shown to increase the effectiveness of antismoking campaigns. In order to explore why such effects occur, in the current study we coded the content of naturally occurring conversations. We also examined whether the short-term effects of talking, and of different types of talk, on quitting intentions were mediated through intrapersonal message responses. Using the Natural Exposure(SM) methodology, we exposed 411 smokers to 1 of 6 antismoking advertisements while they were watching television at home. Responses to the advertisement-conversation participation and content, emotional responses, personalized perceived effectiveness, and changes in intentions to quit-were measured within 3 days of exposure. Conversations were coded for appraisal of the advertisement (favorable, neutral, or unfavorable) and the presence of quitting talk and emotion talk. Mediation analyses indicated that the positive effects of talking on intention change were mediated through personalized perceived effectiveness and that the positive effects were driven by conversations that contained a favorable appraisal and/or quitting talk. Conversely, conversations that contained an unfavorable appraisal of the advertisement were negatively associated with campaign effectiveness. These findings highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal communication when evaluating campaigns and the need for further research to identify the message characteristics that predict when smokers talk and when they talk only in desirable ways. PMID:26376358

  10. Vietnam's campaign to reduce population growth.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1999-10-01

    This paper reports campaigns to reduce the population growth in Vietnam. In July, red banners flew above the broad boulevard in Hanoi proclaiming World Population Day. This widespread public attention to population issues is not surprising, given the country's sharp reduction in fertility and widespread citizen support for smaller families. Since 1961, Vietnam has been trying to formulate a policy to reduce the population rate growth. The policy was a reaction to the results of the 1960 Census of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and reflected long-standing concerns over food shortages, as well as a desire to improve women's health and welfare. After the reunification in 1975, the policy was extended to the entire country. Since then, Vietnam's growth rate has been declining, suggesting that the national campaign for smaller families is succeeding in changing deeply held attitudes and perceptions, in addition to current practices. While the fertility decline in Vietnam may not be the world's fastest, the success of the national population policy has forever altered the country's prospect for population growth.

  11. K2 Microlensing and Campaign 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Campaign 9 of K2 will observe a contiguous 3.7 deg^2 region of the Galactic bulge in order to search for microlensing events and measure microlens parallaxes. It will also perform targeted follow-up of approximately 50 microlensing events spread throughout the Kepler focal plane. Parallax measurements are a critical ingredient for measurements of both the lens mass and distance, which contribute to our understanding of the formation of cold exoplanets, and the formation of planets as a function of Galactic environment. Additionally, as the first un-targeted, space-based microlensing survey, K2C9 offers us the first chance to measure the masses and kinematics of a large population of free-floating planet candidates, whose large abundance has been a puzzle since their discovery.I will review the scientific goals of the K2C9 survey, which will be well underway, and report on the ongoing activity of the K2 Campaign 9 Microlensing Science Team and the wider microlensing community, with a focus on the progress that has been made towards analyzing K2 data in crowded fields.

  12. Transmutation Fuel Campaign Description and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    This report contains a technical summary package in response to a Level 2 milestone in the transmutation fuel campaign (TFC) management work-package calling for input to the Secretarial decision. At present, the form of the Secretarial decision package is not fully defined, and it is not clear exactly what will be required from the TFC as a final input. However, it is anticipated that a series oftechnical and programmatic documents will need to be provided in support of a wider encompassing document on GNEP technology development activities. The TFC technical leadership team provides this report as initial input to the secretarial decision package which is being developed by the Technical Integration Office (TIO) in support of Secretarial decision. This report contains a summary of the TFC execution plan with a work breakdown structure, highlevel schedule, major milestones, and summary description of critical activities in support of campaign objectives. Supporting documents referenced in this report but provided under separate cover include: • An updated review of the state-of-the art for transmutation fuel development activities considering national as well as international fuel research and development testing activities. • A definition of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) used to systematically define and execute the transmutation fuel development activities.

  13. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  14. Evaluating a media campaign that targeted PTSD after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluates a media campaign that targeted posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. Evaluation data come from telephone survey interviews of African Americans (N = 968), who were the target audience of the media campaign. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression indicates over-time improvements in campaign attention, PTSD beliefs, and PTSD preventive behaviors, whereas PTSD remained constant. Structural equation modeling offers support for a multistep model in which campaign attention influences PTSD beliefs, which influence PTSD preventive behaviors, which, in turn, influence PTSD. There is one across-step path from campaign attention directly to PTSD preventive behaviors. These two sets of findings signify the media campaign's positive role in influencing beliefs and preventive behaviors. Although PTSD remained unchanged, the improvements in PTSD beliefs and preventive behaviors may have been a means to subsequent abatement in PTSD.

  15. The effect of a national campaign on attitudes toward AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W; Rigby, K; Rosser, B R; Anagnostou, P; Brown, M

    1990-01-01

    Following a national campaign in Australia which had shown no change in level of knowledge about AIDS (using random samples of the population over 16 years, before and 5 months after the campaign), we assessed the change of attitudes towards, and beliefs about AIDS in the same samples. Results indicated that there were changes in beliefs about how much is known about the transmission of HIV, and that people were less concerned about casual transmission. Those respondents reportedly influenced most by the campaign were those with greater fear of diseases and death. We conclude that media campaigns may have a significant effect on attitudes and beliefs toward AIDS even where there is no effect on level of knowledge, and that the attitudinal changes which may be promoted by such campaigns should also be considered as objectives in campaign design.

  16. Sequence conservation in the Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) from hookworm infected individuals in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ungcharoensuk, Charoenchai; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Pattanawong, Urassaya; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2012-12-01

    The Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) was one of the promising vaccine candidates against the most prevalent human hookworm species as adverse vaccine reaction has compromised further human vaccine trials. To elucidate the gene structure and the extent of sequence diversity, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the Na-asp-2 gene of individual larvae from 32 infected subjects living in 3 different endemic areas of Thailand. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene encoding Na-ASP-2 comprised 8 exons. Of 3 nucleotide substitutions in these exons, only one causes an amino acid change from leucine to methionine. A consensus conserved GT and AG at the 5' and the 3' boundaries of each intron was observed akin to those found in other eukaryotic genes. Introns of Na-asp-2 contained 23 nucleotide substitutions and 0-18 indels. The mean number of nucleotide substitutions per site (d) in introns was not significantly different from the mean number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (d(S)) in exons whereas d in introns was significantly exceeded d(N) (the mean number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site) in exons (p<0.05), suggesting that introns and synonymous sites in exons may evolve at a similar rate whereas functional constraints at the amino acid could limit amino acid substitutions in Na-ASP-2. A recombination site was identified in an intron near the 3' portion of the gene. The positions of introns and the intron phases in the Na-asp-2 gene comparing with those in other pathogenesis-related-1 proteins of Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Heterodera glycines, Caenorhabditis elegans and human were relatively conserved, suggesting evolutionary conservation of these genes. Sequence conservation in Na-ASP-2 may not compromise further vaccine design if adverse vaccine effects could be resolved whereas microheterogeneity in introns of this locus may be useful for population genetics analysis of N. americanus

  17. Sequence conservation in the Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) from hookworm infected individuals in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ungcharoensuk, Charoenchai; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Pattanawong, Urassaya; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2012-12-01

    The Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) was one of the promising vaccine candidates against the most prevalent human hookworm species as adverse vaccine reaction has compromised further human vaccine trials. To elucidate the gene structure and the extent of sequence diversity, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the Na-asp-2 gene of individual larvae from 32 infected subjects living in 3 different endemic areas of Thailand. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene encoding Na-ASP-2 comprised 8 exons. Of 3 nucleotide substitutions in these exons, only one causes an amino acid change from leucine to methionine. A consensus conserved GT and AG at the 5' and the 3' boundaries of each intron was observed akin to those found in other eukaryotic genes. Introns of Na-asp-2 contained 23 nucleotide substitutions and 0-18 indels. The mean number of nucleotide substitutions per site (d) in introns was not significantly different from the mean number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (d(S)) in exons whereas d in introns was significantly exceeded d(N) (the mean number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site) in exons (p<0.05), suggesting that introns and synonymous sites in exons may evolve at a similar rate whereas functional constraints at the amino acid could limit amino acid substitutions in Na-ASP-2. A recombination site was identified in an intron near the 3' portion of the gene. The positions of introns and the intron phases in the Na-asp-2 gene comparing with those in other pathogenesis-related-1 proteins of Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Heterodera glycines, Caenorhabditis elegans and human were relatively conserved, suggesting evolutionary conservation of these genes. Sequence conservation in Na-ASP-2 may not compromise further vaccine design if adverse vaccine effects could be resolved whereas microheterogeneity in introns of this locus may be useful for population genetics analysis of N. americanus.

  18. Comparison of RELMα and RELMβ Single- and Double-Gene-Deficient Mice Reveals that RELMα Expression Dictates Inflammation and Worm Expulsion in Hookworm Infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Spencer H; Jang, Jessica C; Odegaard, Justin I; Nair, Meera G

    2016-04-01

    Resistin-like molecules (RELMs) are highly expressed following helminth infection, where they impact both the host and helminth. While RELMα (Retnla) impairs helminth expulsion by inhibiting protective Th2 immunity, RELMβ (Retnlb) can promote its expulsion. We employed Retnla(-/-) and Retnlb(-/-) mice to delineate the function of both proteins following infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a hookworm that infects the lung and intestine. Whereas wild-type (WT) and Retnlb(-/-)mice exhibited equivalent infection-induced inflammation, Retnla(-/-) mice suffered a heightened inflammatory response, including increased mortality, weight loss, and lung inflammation. In the intestine, Retnla(-/-)mice had low parasite egg burdens compared to those of WT mice, while Retnlb(-/-) mice exhibited high egg burdens, suggesting that RELMα and RELMβ have functionally distinct effects on immunity and inflammation to N. brasiliensis To test the importance of both proteins, we generated Retnla(-/-) Retnlb(-/-) mice. Infected Retnla(-/-)Retnlb(-/-) mice exhibited similar responses to Retnla(-/-) mice, including increased mortality and lung inflammation. This inflammatory response in Retnla(-/-) Retnlb(-/-) mice negatively impacted N. brasiliensis fitness, as demonstrated by significantly lower worm ATP levels and decreased intestinal worm burden and fecundity. Lung cytokine analysis revealed that Retnla(-/-) and Retnla(-/-) Retnlb(-/-) mice expressed significantly increased levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4). Finally, we generated Retnla(-/-) mice on the Rag(-/-) background and observed that the effects of RELMα were abrogated in the absence of adaptive immunity. Together, these data demonstrate that RELMα but not RELMβ significantly impacts the immune response toN. brasiliensis infection by downregulating the Th2 adaptive immune response in the lung, which protects the host but allows improved parasite fitness. PMID:26831469

  19. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus. PMID:26268253

  20. "Think the sink:" Preliminary evaluation of a handwashing promotion campaign.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Liang, Ming-Ching; Champlin, Sara

    2013-03-01

    Owing to its utility in guiding the planning and evaluation of health promotion campaigns, the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to implement a 1-month campaign aimed at increasing handwashing among college students. Based on observations of bathroom users' handwashing behavior (n = 1,005) and an online survey (n = 188), overall handwashing did not increase as a result of the campaign; however, more students did use soap (58% vs 70%). Future campaigns designed to increase handwashing behavior in students may be advised to target messages according to gender difference-based responsiveness to handwashing norms. PMID:22990299

  1. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  2. Real-time PCR for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in human stool samples from Côte d'Ivoire: diagnostic accuracy, inter-laboratory comparison and patterns of hookworm co-infection.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sören L; Piraisoody, Nivetha; Kramme, Stefanie; Marti, Hanspeter; Silué, Kigbafori D; Panning, Marcus; Nickel, Beatrice; Kern, Winfried V; Herrmann, Mathias; Hatz, Christoph F; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; von Müller, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Human infections with the helminth species Strongyloides stercoralis encompass a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of S. stercoralis is cumbersome and the sensitivity of conventional stool microscopy is low. New molecular tools have been developed to increase sensitivity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR with microscopy for the detection of S. stercoralis and hookworm in human stool samples, and investigated the inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific real-time PCR in two European laboratories. Stool specimens from 256 randomly selected individuals in rural Côte d'Ivoire were examined using three microscopic techniques (i.e. Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate (KAP) and Baermann (BM)). Additionally, ethanol-fixed stool aliquots were subjected to molecular diagnosis. The prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 21.9% and 52.0%, respectively, whilst co-infections were detected in 35 (13.7%) participants. The diagnostic agreement between real-time PCR and microscopy was excellent when both KAP and BM tested positive for S. stercoralis, but was considerably lower when only one microscopic technique was positive. The sensitivity of KAP, BM and real-time PCR for detection of S. stercoralis as compared to a combination of all diagnostic techniques was 21.4%, 37.5% and 76.8%, respectively. The inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific PCR was substantial (κ=0.63, p<0.001). We conclude that a combination of real-time PCR and stool microscopy shows high accuracy for S. stercoralis diagnosis. Besides high sensitivity, PCR may also enhance specificity by reducing microscopic misdiagnosis of morphologically similar helminth larvae (i.e. hookworm and S. stercoralis) in settings where both helminth species co-exist.

  3. Comparison of Kato-Katz, ethyl-acetate sedimentation, and Midi Parasep® in the diagnosis of hookworm, Ascaris and Trichuris infections in the context of an evaluation of rural sanitation in India.

    PubMed

    Funk, Anna L; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2013-06-01

    The Kato-Katz, conventional ethyl-acetate sedimentation, and Midi Parasep(®) methods for diagnosing infection with soil-transmitted helminths were compared. The Kato-Katz technique gave the best overall diagnostic performance with the highest results in all measures (prevalence, faecal egg count, sensitivity) followed by the conventional ethyl-acetate and then the Midi Parasep(®) technique. The Kato-Katz technique showed a significantly higher faecal egg count and sensitivity for both hookworm and Trichuris as compared to the Midi Parasep(®) technique. The conventional ethyl-acetate technique produced smaller pellets and showed lower pellet mobility as compared to the Midi Parasep(®).

  4. Manufactured Doubt: The Campaign Against Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, N. L.

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear electricity is a CO2 free technology with a proven track record of large scale commercial deployment. For example, France generates 78% of its electrical power with nuclear plants. France has the lowest pre-tax cost of electricity in Europe at 4.75 eurocents per KWH and France is the world's largest exporter of electricity. There are large world reserves of uranium sufficient for hundreds of years, even without breeder technology. Additionally, thorium, another radioactive mineral is in even more plentiful supply. Although present-day nuclear technology has proven to be safe and reliable, waiting in the wings is new generation technology that promises great improvements in both safety and cost. Yet, there has been a calculated and sophisticated campaign in the later part of the 20th century to create doubt and fear concerning nuclear power. In the United States this campaign has essentially destroyed the nuclear industry. No new plants have been commissioned for decades. Leadership in the nuclear power field has been ceded to other countries. The great paradox is that the very organizations that express great alarm concerning CO2 emissions are the same organizations that led the campaign against nuclear power decades ago. Representatives of these organizations will say privately that they are taking a new look at nuclear power, but no major organization has reversed course and become a supporter of nuclear power. To do so would involve a loss of face and create doubts concerning the credibility of the organization. As recently as 2001 environmentalist lobbyists made great efforts to ensure that no credit could be given for nuclear power under the Kyoto accords and the associated clean development mechanism. They succeeded and nuclear power receives unfavorable treatment under the Kyoto accords even though it is a proven solution for reducing CO2 emissions. The technique used to destroy nuclear energy as a viable alternative in the United States had two

  5. The Swift Monitoring Campaign of Sagittarius A*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenaar, Nathalie; Miller, J. M.; Kennea, J. A.; Wijnands, R.; Gehrels, N.

    2013-04-01

    Starting in 2006, the center of our Galaxy has been monitored on a nearly daily basis with the X-ray telescope on-board the Swift satellite. The short pointed observations have offered a unique view of the long-term X-ray behavior of Sgr A*, in particular of its X-ray flaring properties. The Swift campaign also provides an excellent setup to closely monitor the interaction of the supermassive black hole with the dense cold gas cloud (G2) that is on a collision course with Sgr A* and is projected to make a close encounter in the fall of 2013. I will present the results of 7 years of Swift X-ray monitoring of Sgr A*, and give an outlook of how this program can be used to study the X-ray emission as G2 breaks up and feeds gas to the supermassive black hole.

  6. Gx 13+1: a Multiwavelength Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, Alan

    Despite being one of the seven brightest persistent X-ray sources in the Galactic bulge, little is definitively known about GX13+1. Its spectral behavior appears to identify it as an atoll source, however the brightness of its IR counterpart (K=12), long candidate orbit period (19.5 hrs, based on our previous IR work), and radio emission indicate a giant companion and a system size and behavior more typical of a Z-source. (Other candidate periods of 1.4 dy, 3.6 dy, and 25/50 dy do nothing to dispel the mystery.) We propose a multiwavelength campaign of observations of GX13+1 using RXTE and the CTIO 1.5m to study possible correlated variability in the X-ray/IR bands, orbital variations and fast time variability, and perform a detailed spectral study of this enigmatic source.

  7. EF2000 PIRATE test flights campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, Luigi Enrico; Busnelli, Livio

    2008-10-01

    The PIRATE, short for Passive Infra Red Airborne Tracking Equipment, multi mode Infrared Sensor, has been developed and manufactured by the Eurofirst consortium. The consortium is led by SELEX Galileo, contract award since 1992, from Italy, and includes THALES UK, and TECNOBIT from Spain. At the end of the development phase, a three years flight test campaign has started in 2005, and has been carried out involving Eurofighter partner companies, as flight trials responsible, like ALENIA in Turin (FLIR flight testing leading company), BAE SYSTEM in Warton, and EADS in Manching, highlighting the functionality and the performance of the unit, when operating in real scenarios, with cooperative target and TOO (target of opportunity), across different weather conditions, like clean sky, but also misty and cloudy weather, haze and hail, generally not ideal to the infrared wavelength operation, either during tracking or imaging.

  8. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2011 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-11-01

    One of the major research and development (R&D) areas under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is advanced fuels development. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) has the responsibility to develop advanced fuel technologies for the Department of Energy (DOE) using a science-based approach focusing on developing a microstructural understanding of nuclear fuels and materials. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY 20) 2011 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section. The order of the accomplishments in this report is consistent with the AFC work breakdown structure (WBS).

  9. Campaigning for Organ Donation at Mosques.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-09-01

    There is a trend of recruiting faith leaders at mosques to overcome religious barriers to organ donation, and to increase donor registration among Muslims. Commentators have suggested that Muslims are not given enough information about organ donation in religious sermons or lectures delivered at mosques. Corrective actions have been recommended, such as funding campaigns to promote organ donation, and increasing the availability of organ donation information at mosques. These actions are recommended despite published literature expressing safety concerns (i.e., do no harm) in living and end-of-life organ donation. Living donors require life-long medical follow-up and treatment for complications that can appear years later. Scientific and medical controversies persist regarding the international guidelines for death determination in end-of-life donation. The medical criteria of death lack validation and can harm donors if surgical procurement is performed without general anesthesia and before biological death. In the moral code of Islam, the prevention of harm holds precedence over beneficence. Moral precepts described in the Quran encourage Muslims to be beneficent, but also to seek knowledge prior to making practical decisions. However, the Quran also contains passages that demand honesty and truthfulness when providing information to those who are seeking knowledge. Currently, information is limited to that which encourages donor registration. Campaigning for organ donation to congregations in mosques should adhere to the moral code of complete, rather than selective, disclosure of information. We recommend as a minimal standard the disclosure of risks, uncertainties, and controversies associated with the organ donation process.

  10. Formulation and Use of a Politik Campaign Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozeman, Barry

    1974-01-01

    This article is a report of a campaign game that was formulated in order to introduce the student to the realities of political campaigning. Post-game tests indicated that the game generally increased political interest and had little effect on measured political attitudes such as efficacy, saliency and alienation. (Author)

  11. Teaching PR Campaigns: The Current State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Vincent L.; Cameron, Glen T.

    1999-01-01

    Reports results from a national survey regarding courses on public-relations campaigns. Examines predominant pedagogical strategies and course-management text techniques used; intentions for the course; theory/research elements; the role of management skill and/or interpersonal dynamics in the student campaign both internally and externally, and…

  12. Evaluating the ParticipACTION "Think Again" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainforth, Heather L.; Jarvis, Jocelyn W.; Berry, Tanya R.; Chulak-Bozzer, Tala; Deshpande, Sameer; Faulkner, Guy; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Spence, John C.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: ParticipACTION's 2011 "Think Again" campaign aimed to draw parents', and specifically mothers', attention to the amount of physical activity (PA) their children do relative to the national guidelines (physical activity guidelines [PAG]). Purpose: To evaluate ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign in the context…

  13. Impact of a Rural Domestic Violence Prevention Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadomski, Anne M.; Tripp, Maria; Wolff, Debra A.; Lewis, Carol; Jenkins, Paul

    2001-01-01

    A 7-month public health information campaign used radio advertising, mass media articles, mailings, and posters to address attitudes and behavioral intentions toward domestic violence in a rural county. The campaign raised public awareness, particularly among men; increased stated intentions to intervene in a neighbor's domestic violence; and…

  14. Colleges' Billion-Dollar Campaigns Feel the Economy's Sting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The economy's collapse has caught up with the billion-dollar campaign. In the past 12 months, the amount of money raised by a dozen of the colleges engaged in higher education's biggest fund-raising campaigns fell 32 percent from the year before. The decline, which started before the worst of the recession, has forced colleges to postpone…

  15. Ninth Processing Campaign in the Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, K F; Donovan, R I; Swenson, M C

    1982-04-01

    This report discusses the Ninth (and final) Processing Campaign at the Waste Calcining Facility. Several processing interruptions were experienced during this campaign and the emphasis of this report is on process and equipment performance with operating problems and corrective actions discussed in detail.

  16. Statewide Implementation of the 1% or Less Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddock, Jay; Maglione, Christine; Barnett, Jodi D.; Cabot, Cynthia; Jackson, Susan; Reger-Nash, Bill

    2007-01-01

    The 1% or Less Campaign is an effective research-tested program for reducing saturated fat intake by encouraging individuals to switch to low-fat milk. All published studies have been conducted in small communities with mostly White populations. The 6-week intervention included a media campaign, public relations, and taste tests. Campaign…

  17. An Empirical Assessment of the "Above the Influence" Advertising Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Holtz, Kristen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of "Above the Influence" (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall…

  18. Effort for Education as Campaign Issue Fights for Traction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; Klein, Alyson

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a campaign, dubbed "ED in '08" and announced last spring, that was billed as an attempt to make K-12 education a top issue in the presidential election. So far, though, most analysts have seen little evidence that the ED in '08 campaign--financed by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Broad Foundation--is succeeding…

  19. Queer & Ally Youth Involvement in the Fair Wisconsin Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiegler, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role and experience of queer youth and allies in the Fair Wisconsin campaign that fought against the marriage amendment to that state's constitution. It illustrates how LGBT and ally youth involvement can be incorporated into other organizations. Following an explanation of the campaign, are narratives of two…

  20. Observations during the first K West fuel shipping campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    Three fuel elements were shipped to the 300 Area hotcells during the first characterization shipping campaign from K West Basin. This document summarizes observations made during this campaign including the gas, liquid, and sludge content of the observed canisters. Included in an appendix is a detailed evaluation of fuel element condition for each canister opened

  1. The Functions of Political Advertising for Campaign Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheinkopf, Kenneth G.; And Others

    One previously untested benefit of political advertising before elections may be that it serves "internal" as well as "external" needs, i.e., it boosts the morale of the campaign staff and provides them with information to persuade voters. This proposition was tested during the 1970 Wisconsin gubernatorial campaign by means of a questionnaire…

  2. Status Report on the Development of Research Campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Baker, Scott E.; Washton, Nancy M.; Linggi, Bryan E.

    2013-06-30

    Research campaigns were conceived as a means to focus EMSL research on specific scientific questions. Campaign will help fulfill the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) strategic vision to develop and integrate, for use by the scientific community, world leading capabilities that transform understanding in the environmental molecular sciences and accelerate discoveries relevant to the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) missions. Campaigns are multi-institutional multi-disciplinary projects with scope beyond those of normal EMSL user projects. The goal of research campaigns is to have EMSL scientists and users team on the projects in the effort to accelerate progress and increase impact in specific scientific areas by focusing user research, EMSL resources, and expertise in those areas. This report will give a history and update on the progress of those campaigns.

  3. Stimulating dialogue: measuring success of the "Smoke Free Horry" campaign.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christina; Holody, Kyle J

    2013-01-01

    Smoke Free Horry was an anti-secondhand smoke media campaign that ran in Horry County, South Carolina in 2011 and 2012. The present study assessed the campaign's ability to stimulate interpersonal dialogue about the campaign-specifically its four television public service announcements (PSAs)-as well as about other smoking-related topics, among a sample of 285 Horry County young adults. Survey data suggested talking about anti-smoking PSAs was related to subsequent discussion about smoking-related topics and positive perceptions of the campaign's effectiveness. PSAs using emotional appeals and that discussed the negative health effects of smoking/secondhand smoke were related to the most interpersonal discussions about smoking, secondhand smoking, and smoking bans. Implications for future anti-smoking campaign design are discussed.

  4. Fetal alcohol syndrome prevention using community-based narrowcasting campaigns.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Prelip, Michael; Myerson, Amy; Eilers, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Preventing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) by encouraging pregnant women to abstain from drinking alcohol competes with commercial alcohol marketing. Two FAS-prevention campaigns using a narrowcast approach among young women of childbearing age in two disadvantaged Southern California communities are compared. The design, implementation process, and degree to which campaigns reached the priority populations are the focus of this article. Formative research shows that young women in disadvantaged communities receive mixed messages about dangers of drinking during pregnancy. A social norms approach using positive role models was the most acceptable message strategy based on materials pretesting. Differences in campaign implementation and distribution strategies between communities were documented through program monitoring. Survey research indicated the more viable messaging and implementation strategies. Findings show that low-cost community campaigns are feasible; however, variations in messaging, distribution strategies, and saturation levels determine whether such campaigns succeed or fail to reach priority populations. PMID:18166669

  5. Evaluating the effects of a youth health media campaign.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Thorson, Esther

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a socially oriented public health media campaign that aims to influence social indicators among adults as a means to advances in youth health outcomes. Hierarchical regression analyses are conducted on telephone survey data from 18 weekly telephone surveys of adults in Kansas. Media campaign exposure was positively associated with two outcome measures: beliefs about youth development and behaviors toward youth development. In addition, these two outcome measures increased significantly over time, with the dissemination of the campaign's television and newspaper advertisements. Furthermore, these over-time increases were present only among respondents who were exposed to the media campaign. These findings offer support for the campaign's influence on the two social indicators, which would, per other research, be expected to influence improvements in youth health. Findings are discussed in reference to previous research in the areas of public health and mass communication, with implications made for practitioners and researchers. PMID:17710595

  6. High levels of confusion for cholesterol awareness campaigns.

    PubMed

    Hall, Danika V

    2008-09-15

    Earlier this year, two industry-sponsored advertising campaigns for cholesterol awareness that target the general public were launched in Australia. These campaigns aimed to alert the public to the risks associated with having high cholesterol and encouraged cholesterol testing for wider groups than those specified by the National Heart Foundation. General practitioners should be aware of the potential for the two campaigns to confuse the general public as to who should be tested, and where. The campaign sponsors (Unilever Australasia and Pfizer) each have the potential to benefit by increased market share for their products, and increased profits. These disease awareness campaigns are examples of what is increasingly being termed "condition branding" by pharmaceutical marketing experts. PMID:18803537

  7. [Complex management of partnerships during a health promotion campaign].

    PubMed

    Renaud, Lise; Caron-Bouchard, Monique; Martel, Guillaume; Gagnon, Louis; Pelletier, Marie-Claude

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses an analysis of partnerships in the context of health promotion. The 5/30 Health Challenge, or "Défi Santé 5/30", is a campaign to promote healthy eating habits in Quebec. The authors employ this as a case study in order to 1) describe the actors and the nature of their involvement during the campaign's development, design and dissemination; 2) illustrate the interaction of these actors during the conceptualization and rollout of the campaign; 3) propose a paradigm that supports the identification of factors that contribute to or impede partner relationships. The "Défi Santé 5/30" example demonstrates that the creation and maintenance of a partnership network depends on the following key factors: dialogue between partners and the organization responsible for the campaign; the participation of partners at every stage of the campaign (no matter how many there are); allocation of sufficient time for the conceptualization of campaign materials. Dialogue between partners and the central organizer must be guaranteed through the establishment and use of a managerial contract that clearly outlines the role of each actor in the campaign. Further, the partners' activities during the campaign should be regulated through both a formal agreement and a code of ethics. Any campaign's efficiency is directly linked to these factors, among others. The study of partnerships between public, public-private, and private organizations within the framework of health promotion campaigns, thus, merits further study. In addition, to maintain alliances with partners, it is important to demonstrate the benefits of such arrangements to each partner and to equally ensure the contributions of each, be they public, private, media, or community-based organizations.

  8. Autonomous Rovers for Polar Science Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lever, J. H.; Ray, L. E.; Williams, R. M.; Morlock, A. M.; Burzynski, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed and deployed two over-snow autonomous rovers able to conduct remote science campaigns on Polar ice sheets. Yeti is an 80-kg, four-wheel-drive (4WD) battery-powered robot with 3 - 4 hr endurance, and Cool Robot is a 60-kg 4WD solar-powered robot with unlimited endurance during Polar summers. Both robots navigate using GPS waypoint-following to execute pre-planned courses autonomously, and they can each carry or tow 20 - 160 kg instrument payloads over typically firm Polar snowfields. In 2008 - 12, we deployed Yeti to conduct autonomous ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to detect hidden crevasses to help establish safe routes for overland resupply of research stations at South Pole, Antarctica, and Summit, Greenland. We also deployed Yeti with GPR at South Pole in 2011 to identify the locations of potentially hazardous buried buildings from the original 1950's-era station. Autonomous surveys remove personnel from safety risks posed during manual GPR surveys by undetected crevasses or buried buildings. Furthermore, autonomous surveys can yield higher quality and more comprehensive data than manual ones: Yeti's low ground pressure (20 kPa) allows it to cross thinly bridged crevasses or other voids without interrupting a survey, and well-defined survey grids allow repeated detection of buried voids to improve detection reliability and map their extent. To improve survey efficiency, we have automated the mapping of detected hazards, currently identified via post-survey manual review of the GPR data. Additionally, we are developing machine-learning algorithms to detect crevasses autonomously in real time, with reliability potentially higher than manual real-time detection. These algorithms will enable the rover to relay crevasse locations to a base station for near real-time mapping and decision-making. We deployed Cool Robot at Summit Station in 2005 to verify its mobility and power budget over Polar snowfields. Using solar power, this zero

  9. The Stages and Functions of Communication in Ballot Issue Campaigns: A Case Study of the Kansas Campaign for Liquor by the Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Diana B.; Carlin, John

    Arguing that state and local political issue campaigns warrant increased attention from communication scholars, this paper presents a rationale for analysis of issue campaigns, develops a framework for organizing and analyzing such campaigns, and applies the framework to an analysis of the 1986 campaign for the sale of liquor "by the drink" (no…

  10. Mars Exploration Rover Heatshield Observation Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Thoma, Benjamin L.; Lee, Wayne; Maki, Justin; Willcockson, William H.; Wright, Michael; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2011-01-01

    For the first time ever, engineers were able to observe a heatshield on the surface of another planet after a successful entry through the atmosphere. A three-week heatshield observation campaign was conducted in December 2004 after the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity rover exited "Endurance Crater." By utilizing the rover's scientific instruments, data was collected to make a qualitative assessment of the performance of the heatshield. This data was gathered to gain a better understanding of how the heatshield performed during entry through the Martian atmosphere. In addition, this unprecedented look at the heatshield offered engineers the opportunity to assess if any unexpected anomalies occurred. Once a survey of the heatshield debris was completed, multiple targets of interest were chosen for the collection of imaging data. This data was then used to assess the char depth of the thermal protection material, which compared well with computational predictions. Extensive imaging data was collected and showed the main seal in pristine conditions, and no observable indications of structure overheating. Additionally, unexpected vehicle dynamics during the atmospheric entry were explained by the observation of thermal blanket remnants attached to the heatshield.

  11. Mars Exploration Rover Heatshield Observation Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Thoma, Benjamin L.; Lee, Wayne J.; Maki, Justin N.; Willcockson, William H.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; White, Todd R.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time ever, engineers were able to observe a heatshield on the surface of another planet after a successful entry through the atmosphere. A three-week heatshield observation campaign was conducted in December 2004 after the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity exited "Endurance Crater." By utilizing the rover's scientific instruments, data was collected to make a qualitative assessment of the performance of the heatshield. This data was gathered to gain a better understanding of how the heatshield performed during entry through the Martian atmosphere. In addition, this unprecedented look at the heatshield offered engineers the opportunity to assess if any unexpected anomalies occurred. Once a survey of the heatshield debris was completed, multiple targets of interest were chosen for the collection of imaging data. This data was then used to assess the char depth of the thermal protection material, which compared well with design and post-flight computational predictions. Extensive imaging data was collected and showed the main seal in pristine conditions, and no observable indications of structure overheating. Additionally, unexpected vehicle dynamics during the atmospheric entry were explained by the observation of thermal blanket remnants attached to the heatshield.

  12. [The medical literature of the Egyptian campaign].

    PubMed

    Hutin, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Bonaparte's Egyptian Campaign (1798 - 1801), like all other episodes from the Napoleonic era, gave rise to an extensive literature on the subject, but most of all a significant medical literature. This fact is due to many reasons:--an important health service for this expeditionary corps of more than 36.000 men, with two main figures at its hea, Desgenettes and Larrey--but also with valuable subordinates like Assalini, Savaresi, Balme, Pugnet or Barbès.--A Commission for Science and Art, of which a few doctors and surgeons were members, but most of all pharmacists like Boudet or Rouyer--The presence in the field of Ludwig Frank, the nephew of the famous Johann Peter Frank.--The creation in Cairo of an Egyptian Institute and the publication of the masterly Description of Egypt and the establishment of printing houses.--The emergence of the myth of the Orient and its mysteries.--An extensive array of indigenous pathologies, which is characteristic of those countries. For instance: plague, dysentery, yellow fever, Egyptian ophthalmia, as well as more common diseases like tetanus, scurvy or venereal diseases. The main medical works that cover this period and its pathologies are skimmed.

  13. A campaign strategy for your career.

    PubMed

    Clark, Dorie

    2012-11-01

    Organizations are inherently political, and pretending they're not is just plain impractical. But strategizing like a politician to advance your career doesn't have to mean compromising your integrity. You can craft a campaign plan that actually gets results without making you feel soiled. So argues Clark, who has worked with top-tier politicians and business executives as they strive to achieve their goals. She recommends that in business, as in politics, aspiring leaders choose their career milestones from the get-go and plan precisely what reaching each one will demand. That means taking inventory of the skills you'll need to acquire and figuring out exactly where and how you'll develop them. The best career planners work backward on the calendar: They start with the end points and carefully mark, in reverse, all the steps along the way. Then they set out on the course, identifying influential people whose favor they need to win and getting specific about how to garner it. They use power maps to home in on the most influential individuals and groups, and they aren't shy about courting votes. "Being political" still sounds negative to many people in business, but learning how to play the game doesn't have to be a Machiavellian endeavor. Indeed, harming people in the process won't help you at all, but if you eschew the political process altogether, you'll only harm yourself.

  14. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2010 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase

    2010-12-01

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Accomplishment Report documents the high-level research and development results achieved in fiscal year 2010. The AFC program has been given responsibility to develop advanced fuel technologies for the Department of Energy (DOE) using a science-based approach focusing on developing a microstructural understanding of nuclear fuels and materials. The science-based approach combines theory, experiments, and multi-scale modeling and simulation aimed at a fundamental understanding of the fuel fabrication processes and fuel and clad performance under irradiation. The scope of the AFC includes evaluation and development of multiple fuel forms to support the three fuel cycle options described in the Sustainable Fuel Cycle Implementation Plan4: Once-Through Cycle, Modified-Open Cycle, and Continuous Recycle. The word “fuel” is used generically to include fuels, targets, and their associated cladding materials. This document includes a brief overview of the management and integration activities; but is primarily focused on the technical accomplishments for FY-10. Each technical section provides a high level overview of the activity, results, technical points of contact, and applicable references.

  15. Arduous campaign for Ryan White CARE Act.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The House version of the Ryan White CARE Act reauthorization passed the Health and Environment Subcommittee of the House Commerce Committee on June 14, 1995. The legislation now moves to the full Commerce Committee for consideration. However, a review of the measure was postponed indefinitely, some feel as a result of discussion about an expected amendment to the legislation offered by Rep. Tom Coburn (R-OK). Coburn is a major proponent for mandatory AIDS testing of newborns and wishes to amend the reauthorization to include legislation of that nature. AIDS Action has communicated concerns about the legislation to key committee members and is preparing for the possibility that restrictive amendments, infused with homophobia and with prejudice against people with HIV/AIDS, may be attached to the legislation. In the Senate, efforts continue to overcome tactics by Sen. Jesse Helms (R-NC) to hold up or block legislation S.641. Sixty-one legislators have cosponsored the bill. AIDS Action continues to mount a national campaign for letters to Senate Majority Leader Robert Dole (R-KA) to ask him to expedite the legislation.

  16. Alphabus Mechanical Validation Plan and Test Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvisi, G.; Bonnet, D.; Belliol, P.; Lodereau, P.; Redoundo, R.

    2012-07-01

    A joint team of the two leading European satellite companies (Astrium and Thales Alenia Space) worked with the support of ESA and CNES to define a product line able to efficiently address the upper segment of communications satellites : Alphabus Starting in 2009 and up to 2011 the mechanical validation of the Alphabus platform has been obtained thanks to static tests performed on dedicated static model and to environmental test performed on the first satellite based on Alphabus: Alphasat I-XL. The mechanical validation of the Alphabus platform presented an excellent opportunity to improve the validation and qualification process, with respect to static, sine vibrations, acoustic and L/V shock environment, minimizing recurrent cost of manufacturing, integration and testing. A main driver on mechanical testing is that mechanical acceptance testing at satellite level will be performed with empty tanks due to technical constraints (limitation of existing vibration devices) and programmatic advantages (test risk reduction, test schedule minimization). In this paper the impacts that such testing logic have on validation plan are briefly recalled and its actual application for Alphasat PFM mechanical test campaign is detailed.

  17. Progress of the 2012 KSTAR experimental campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Yeong-Kook; Kim, W. C.; Lee, S. G.; Kim, J. Y.; Yang, H. L.; Park, K. R.; Chu, Y.; Park, M. K.; Bae, Y. S.; H; K; Kim; Kwak, J. G.; Park, H.; Choe, W. H.; Chung, K. S.; Na, Y. S.; Hwang, Y. S.; in, S. Y.; Walker, M.; Mueller, D.; Park, J.; Ahn, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Zoletnik, S.

    2012-10-01

    KSTAR device has been operated with a mission to explore the advanced physics and technologies at high performance steady-state plasma that are essential for ITER and fusion reactor development. The 2012 KSTAR campaign is conducted with experimental goals to extend H-mode over 10 sec at the plasma current in the level of 0.6 ˜ 1 MA by adopting the real-time shaping control, to investigate physics issues including L- to H-mode transition and ELM mitigation, and to support various experiments proposed by domestic and international collaborators. The available heating power in 2012 is about 5.5 MW in total including 3.5 MW NBI, 1 MW ICRF, 1 MW ECH/CD, and 0.3 MW LHCD. The upgraded diagnostic systems are Thomson scattering system, BES, two ECEI, VUV spectrometer, imaging bolometer, and FIR interferometer. In this presentation, the progress of the KSTAR experiments will be described including the hardware upgrade and physics research results.

  18. Cost effective campaigning in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotnis, Bhushan; Kuri, Joy

    2016-05-01

    Campaigners are increasingly using online social networking platforms for promoting products, ideas and information. A popular method of promoting a product or even an idea is incentivizing individuals to evangelize the idea vigorously by providing them with referral rewards in the form of discounts, cash backs, or social recognition. Due to budget constraints on scarce resources such as money and manpower, it may not be possible to provide incentives for the entire population, and hence incentives need to be allocated judiciously to appropriate individuals for ensuring the highest possible outreach size. We aim to do the same by formulating and solving an optimization problem using percolation theory. In particular, we compute the set of individuals that are provided incentives for minimizing the expected cost while ensuring a given outreach size. We also solve the problem of computing the set of individuals to be incentivized for maximizing the outreach size for given cost budget. The optimization problem turns out to be non trivial; it involves quantities that need to be computed by numerically solving a fixed point equation. Our primary contribution is, that for a fairly general cost structure, we show that the optimization problems can be solved by solving a simple linear program. We believe that our approach of using percolation theory to formulate an optimization problem is the first of its kind.

  19. TRMM Field Campaigns: Objectives and Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipser, Edward I.; Heymsfield, Gerald; Kummerow, Christian; Simpson, Joanne; Thiele, Otto; Rutledge, Steven; Dias, Maria Assuncio Silva; Houze, Robert A., Jr.; Yuter, Sandra; Kakar, Ramesh

    1999-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been sending valuable data since launch in November 1997. Some of the key goals of the joint NASA (US) and NASDA (Japan) mission are: (1) to estimate the four-dimensional diabatic heating in the tropical and subtropical atmosphere, (2) understand the role of latent heating in driving tropical and extratropical circulations, (3) obtain monthly area-averaged estimates of rainfall over the data-sparse oceans, and (4) estimate the relative contribution of convective and stratiform precipitation over different regions during different seasons. The overarching scientific objective is to understand and improve estimates of rainfall and latent heating profiles throughout the global tropics. This requires observations for fundamental understanding of cloud dynamics and microphysics, as well as for validation, testing assumptions and error estimates of cloud-resolving models, forward radiative transfer models, algorithms used to estimate rainfall statistics and vertical structure of precipitation from surface-based radar, and from satellites. Field experiments designed to contribute to this understanding have been conducted in Texas and the South China Sea in spring of 1998, Florida in summer of 1998, and interior Brazil in (boreal) winter 1999. In summer 1999, a major oceanic campaign will be based at Kwajalein Atoll. Some early results will be highlighted, noting some significant contrasts between oceanic and continental convective systems.

  20. The VERB campaign: applying a branding strategy in public health.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Lori D; Wong, Faye L; Price, Simani M; Nolin, Mary Jo

    2008-06-01

    A branding strategy was an integral component of the VERB Youth Media Campaign. Branding has a long history in commercial marketing, and recently it has also been applied to public health campaigns. This article describes the process that the CDC undertook to develop a physical activity brand that would resonate with children aged 9-13 years (tweens), to launch an unknown brand nationally, to build the brand's equity, and to protect and maintain the brand's integrity. Considerations for branding other public health campaigns are also discussed.

  1. The polio eradication campaign: time to shift the goal.

    PubMed

    Baron, Emmanuel; Magone, Claire

    2014-03-01

    The social rejection of the polio eradication campaign in endemic countries challenges an assumption underlying the goal itself: the full compliance of an entire population to a public health programme. The polio campaign, which has been an extraordinary public health enterprise, is at risk of becoming irremediably unpopular if the eradication goal is pursued at all costs. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) should not be driven by the fear of failure, because the greatest benefit of the polio campaign is that it has demonstrated how simple, community-wide actions can contribute to a dramatic decrease in the incidence of a disease.

  2. The VERB campaign: applying a branding strategy in public health.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Lori D; Wong, Faye L; Price, Simani M; Nolin, Mary Jo

    2008-06-01

    A branding strategy was an integral component of the VERB Youth Media Campaign. Branding has a long history in commercial marketing, and recently it has also been applied to public health campaigns. This article describes the process that the CDC undertook to develop a physical activity brand that would resonate with children aged 9-13 years (tweens), to launch an unknown brand nationally, to build the brand's equity, and to protect and maintain the brand's integrity. Considerations for branding other public health campaigns are also discussed. PMID:18471598

  3. Conceptual Design - Polar Drive Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R

    2012-04-05

    to be defined. In all cases, the facility modifications represent functional changes to existing systems or capabilities. The bulk of the scope yet to be identified is associated with the DPR's and MultiFM beam smoothing. Detailed development plans for these two subsystems are provided in Appendices H and I; additional discussion of subsystem requirements based on the physics of PD ignition is given in Section 3. Accordingly, LLE will work closely with LLNL to develop detailed conceptual designs for the PD-specific facility modifications, including assessments of the operational impact of implementation (e.g., changing optics for direct rather than indirect-drive illumination and swapping from a hohlraum-based ITIC to one that supports PD). Furthermore, the experimental implementation plan represents the current best understanding of the experimental campaigns required to achieve PD ignition. This plan will evolve based on the lessons learned from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) and ongoing indirect-drive ignition experiments. The plan does not take the operational realities of the PD configuration into account; configuration planning for the proposed PD experiments is beyond the scope of this document.

  4. The National Ignition Campaign: status and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, E. I.; Collaborators, the NIC

    2013-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been operational since March 2009 and a variety of experiments have been completed and many more are planned in support of NIF's mission areas: national security, fundamental science, and fusion energy. NIF capabilities and infrastructure are in place to support all of its missions with nearly 60 x-ray, optical and nuclear diagnostic systems and the ability to shoot cryogenic targets and DT layered capsules. The NIF has also been qualified for the use of tritium and other special materials as well as to perform high-yield experiments and classified experiments. Implosions with record indirect-drive neutron yield of 7.5 × 1014 neutrons have been achieved. NIF, a Nd : Glass laser facility, is routinely operating at 1.6 MJ of ultraviolet (3ω) light on target with very high reliability. It recently reached its design goal of 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of 3ω light on target, and has performed target experiments with 1.9 MJ at peak powers of 410 TW. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort with the goal of demonstrating thermonuclear burn in the laboratory, is making steady progress towards achieving ignition. Other experiments have been completed in support of high-energy science, materials equation of state, and materials strength. In all cases, records of extreme temperatures and pressures, highest neutron yield and highest energy densities have been achieved. This paper describes the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF and the results achieved so far on the path towards ignition.

  5. An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A.-M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Riviére, E.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

    2007-02-01

    HIBISCUS was a field campaign for investigating the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the Lower Stratosphere, which took place during the Southern Hemisphere summer in February-March 2004 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Its objective was to provide a set of new observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical UT/LS from balloon observations at local scale over a land convective area, as well as at global scale using circumnavigating long-duration balloons. Overall, the composition of the TTL, the region between 14 and 19 km of intermediate lapse rate between the almost adiabatic upper troposphere and the stable stratosphere, appears highly variable. Tracers and ozone measurements performed at both the local and the global scale indicate a strong quasi-horizontal isentropic exchange with the lowermost mid-latitude stratosphere suggesting that the barrier associated to the tropical jet is highly permeable at these levels in summer. But the project also provides clear indications of strong episodic updraught of cold air, short-lived tracers, low ozone, humidity and ice particles across the lapse rate tropopause at about 15 km, up to 18 or 19 km at 420-440 K potential levels in the lower stratosphere, suggesting that, in contrast to oceanic convection penetrating little the stratosphere, fast daytime developing land convective systems could be a major mechanism in the troposphere-stratosphere exchange at the global scale. The present overview is meant to provide the background of the project, as well as overall information on the instrumental tools available, on the way they have been used within the highly convective context of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, and a brief summary of the results, which will be detailed in several other papers of this special issue.

  6. An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A. M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A. D.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J. K.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Fierli, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Rivière, E. D.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

    2011-03-01

    The EU HIBISCUS project consisted of a series of field campaigns during the intense convective summers in 2001, 2003 and 2004 in the State of São Paulo in Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the lower stratosphere by providing a new set of observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS). This was achieved using short duration research balloons to study local phenomena associated with convection over land, and long-duration balloons circumnavigating the globe to study the contrast between land and oceans. Analyses of observations of short-lived tracers, ozone and ice particles show strong episodic local updraughts of cold air across the lapse rate tropopause up to 18 or 19 km (420-440 K) in the lower stratosphere by overshooting towers. The long duration balloon and satellite measurements reveal a contrast between the composition of the lower stratosphere over land and oceanic areas, suggesting significant global impact of such events. The overshoots are shown to be well captured by non-hydrostatic meso-scale Cloud Resolving Models indicating vertical velocities of 50-60 m s-1 at the top of the Neutral Buoyancy Level (NBL) at around 14 km, but, in contrast, are poorly represented by global Chemistry-Transport Models (CTM) forced by Numerical Weather Forecast Models (NWP) underestimating the overshooting process. Finally, the data collected by the HIBISCUS balloons have allowed a thorough evaluation of temperature NWP analyses and reanalyses, as well as satellite ozone, nitrogen oxide, water vapour and bromine oxide measurements in the tropics.

  7. 45 CFR 1370.5 - Public information campaign grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.5 Public information campaign grants. Each grantee...

  8. 45 CFR 1370.5 - Public information campaign grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.5 Public information campaign grants. Each grantee...

  9. 45 CFR 1370.5 - Public information campaign grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.5 Public information campaign grants. Each grantee...

  10. 45 CFR 1370.5 - Public information campaign grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.5 Public information campaign grants. Each grantee...

  11. 45 CFR 1370.5 - Public information campaign grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.5 Public information campaign grants. Each grantee...

  12. Theory and practice in health communication campaigns: a critical interrogation.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J

    2005-01-01

    In recent reviews of the body of work on health campaigns, communication scholars discussed the importance of reflective thinking about the capacity of campaigns to effect change; this reflective thinking is especially important in the realm of the increasing gaps in society between the health rich and the health poor and the increasing marginalization of the poorer sections of society. This article critically reviews 3 central theories of health communication campaigns that represent the dominant cognitive approach: theory of reasoned action, health belief model, and the extended parallel process model. After articulating the limitations of these theoretical approaches, the article summarizes new directions in theory, methodology, and application of health communication campaigns targeting marginalized populations. PMID:16083406

  13. National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... own interviewed Campaign CEO Ginny Ehrlich for Baltimore Style Magazine. Read the article here. #ThxBirthControl Read more » ... or a glam night out? Discover your relationship style! Read more » Nov 03 Are guys big whiners ...

  14. 29 CFR 452.79 - Opportunity to campaign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ballot election a union's delay in the distribution of campaign literature until after the ballots have... literature in compliance with a reasonable request. 40 Such a delay would deny the candidate a...

  15. 29 CFR 452.79 - Opportunity to campaign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ballot election a union's delay in the distribution of campaign literature until after the ballots have... literature in compliance with a reasonable request. 40 Such a delay would deny the candidate a...

  16. Preparing the 2017 Drilling Campaign at Rochechouart Impact Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, P.; Goderis, S.; Hodges, K. V.; Kelley, S.; Lee, M. R.; Jourdan, G. R.; Osinski, G. R.; Sapers, H. M.; Schmieder, M.; Schwenzer, S.; Trumel, H.; Wittmann, A.

    2016-08-01

    Presenting the programme and objective of 2017 drilling campaign towards a better understanding of 1- Rochechouart, and 2- large impacts and collateral effects (habitability of early Earth and planets/emergence and evolution of life).

  17. Popular Culture, Media Propaganda, and the 1972 "CREEP" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Real, Michael R.

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the majority of the voting public is only vaguely aware of the vast resources and professional expertise marshalled to persuade voters, and presents the 1972 Presidential campaign as an example. See CS 702 316 for availability information. (RB)

  18. Mass Literacy Campaigns in Nigeria: 1940-1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omolewa, Michael

    1980-01-01

    The history of the literacy campaigns in Nigeria is the story of attempts made to focus on the importance of education outside the school walls and to make it a vehicle of social, political, and economic change. (Author/SK)

  19. Mass media antismoking campaigns: a powerful tool for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Siegel, M

    1998-07-15

    Cigarette advertising and promotion have been shown to influence smoking in young persons, but the powerful effect of the mass media on behavior can also be used to promote health. Several states have earmarked a portion of their cigarette excise tax revenues to fund mass media antismoking campaigns, which have been effective in reducing cigarette consumption and in helping persons quit smoking. Despite their successes, the campaigns have been hindered by tobacco industry-supported attempts to cut their funding or restrict their scope. The most aggressive campaigns, which attack the tobacco industry and challenge social norms about tobacco use and promotion, are the most controversial but also the most effective. Mass media antismoking campaigns are a promising tool for health promotion, but only if sustained funding can be guaranteed and the development of the advertisements can be protected from intrusion by political forces. PMID:9669972

  20. Theory and practice in health communication campaigns: a critical interrogation.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J

    2005-01-01

    In recent reviews of the body of work on health campaigns, communication scholars discussed the importance of reflective thinking about the capacity of campaigns to effect change; this reflective thinking is especially important in the realm of the increasing gaps in society between the health rich and the health poor and the increasing marginalization of the poorer sections of society. This article critically reviews 3 central theories of health communication campaigns that represent the dominant cognitive approach: theory of reasoned action, health belief model, and the extended parallel process model. After articulating the limitations of these theoretical approaches, the article summarizes new directions in theory, methodology, and application of health communication campaigns targeting marginalized populations.

  1. Done 4: analysis of a failed social norms marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Clapp, John D; Dejong, William

    2005-01-01

    College students commonly believe their peers engage in higher levels of dangerous drinking than is actually the case. Social norms marketing campaigns attempt to correct these misperceptions, decrease the perceived normative pressure to drink, and thereby drive down high-risk alcohol consumption. In this case study, we critically examined "Done 4," an unsuccessful social norms marketing campaign conducted as part of a comprehensive prevention trial at a large urban university. As part of this analysis, undergraduate marketing students were shown the principal print advertisement used in the campaign and asked to complete an advertising analysis questionnaire. The results of this case study suggest that the advertisement was poorly constructed, which decreased its effectiveness and led to confusion about the social norms message. We discuss implications of these findings for future prevention campaigns and new research.

  2. Crowdfunding Campaigns Help Researchers Launch Projects and Generate Outreach.

    PubMed

    Dahlhausen, Katherine; Krebs, Bethany L; Watters, Jason V; Ganz, Holly H

    2016-03-01

    Organizers of participatory research (citizen science) projects can generate funds and outreach through crowdfunding. Here we provide insights from three successful science crowdfunding campaigns recently completed on Indiegogo, Experiment, and Kickstarter. Choosing a crowdfunding platform that fits the project is just the beginning; a successful campaign reflects its content, management, and marketing, and some researchers may need to acquire new skills. In addition, the growing trend of crowdfunding for science reinforces the importance of academic engagement with social media. PMID:27047586

  3. Crowdfunding Campaigns Help Researchers Launch Projects and Generate Outreach

    PubMed Central

    Dahlhausen, Katherine; Krebs, Bethany L.; Watters, Jason V.; Ganz, Holly H.

    2016-01-01

    Organizers of participatory research (citizen science) projects can generate funds and outreach through crowdfunding. Here we provide insights from three successful science crowdfunding campaigns recently completed on Indiegogo, Experiment, and Kickstarter. Choosing a crowdfunding platform that fits the project is just the beginning; a successful campaign reflects its content, management, and marketing, and some researchers may need to acquire new skills. In addition, the growing trend of crowdfunding for science reinforces the importance of academic engagement with social media. PMID:27047586

  4. Crowdfunding Campaigns Help Researchers Launch Projects and Generate Outreach.

    PubMed

    Dahlhausen, Katherine; Krebs, Bethany L; Watters, Jason V; Ganz, Holly H

    2016-03-01

    Organizers of participatory research (citizen science) projects can generate funds and outreach through crowdfunding. Here we provide insights from three successful science crowdfunding campaigns recently completed on Indiegogo, Experiment, and Kickstarter. Choosing a crowdfunding platform that fits the project is just the beginning; a successful campaign reflects its content, management, and marketing, and some researchers may need to acquire new skills. In addition, the growing trend of crowdfunding for science reinforces the importance of academic engagement with social media.

  5. BC: campaign launched to protect personal health information.

    PubMed

    Garmaise, David

    2004-12-01

    A diverse group of rights, health, union, and HIV/AIDS organizations has launched a province-wide campaign to demand that the British Columbia government cease contracting out the administration of its medical plans to a private US company. The Right to Privacy Campaign (RPC) believes that the government's contract with Maximus Inc. places British Columbians' confidential health and related information within easy reach of US government agencies as a result of provisions in the USA PATRIOT Act and other US legislation.

  6. [Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign].

    PubMed

    Bonfadelli, H

    1989-01-01

    Traffic safety campaigns often are ineffective to change driving behavior because they don't reach the target group or are recognized only by people who are already interested or concerned. The evaluation of a traffic safety campaign called "Leo Lässig", addressed to young new drivers, shows that recognition and acceptance by the target group were stimulated by the age-conform means of comic-strips.

  7. GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Margaret; Marentette, Christina; Bujosa, Robert; Taylor, Jessica; Lewis, Preston

    2016-01-01

    During the spring of 2016, from April 4 - May 27, sixteen GLOBE schools participated in the GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study. Thirteen teachers from these schools had previously participated in the NASA LEARN program (Long-term Experience in Authentic Research with NASA) where they were GLOBE trained in Atmosphere protocols, and engaged in 1-3 years of research under the mentorship of NASA scientists. Each school was loaned two aerosol instruments for the Campaign duration, either 2 GLOBE sun photometers, 2 Calitoo sun photometers, or 1 of each. This allowed for students to make measurements side-by-side and in the case of the Calitoos, to compare AOT results immediately with each other for better consistency in data collection. Additionally, as part of the Field Campaign evaluation, multiple instruments allow for an assessment of the ease of use of each instrument for grade level of students, whether in middle school or high school. Before the Campaign, all GLOBE and Calitoo instruments were 'checked out' against an AERONET, then checked again upon return after the Campaign. By examining all data, before, during and after the Campaign, this gives an indication of instrument performance and proficiency obtained by the students. Support was provided to each teacher and their students at the level requested, via email, phone or video conferencing.

  8. An empirical assessment of the Above the Influence advertising campaign.

    PubMed

    Scheier, Lawrence M; Grenard, Jerry L; Holtz, Kristen D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of Above the Influence (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall intercepts from geographically dispersed regions of the country. Theoretical impetus for the campaign combines elements of the theory of reasoned action (TRA), persuasion theory, and the health belief model. A series of structural equation models were tested with four randomly drawn cross-validation samples (N = 3,000). Findings suggest that awareness of ATI is associated with greater anti-drug beliefs, fewer drug use intentions, and less marijuana use. Congruent with the TRA, changes in beliefs and intentions are intermediate steps linking campaign awareness with behavior. This study provides further evidence of positive campaign effects and may strengthen reliance on mass media health persuasion campaigns as a useful adjunct to other programs targeting youth. PMID:22455104

  9. Health education campaign on population control: lessons from Iran.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, A

    1995-11-01

    A descriptive study was carried out in Tehran, the capital of Iran, to investigate a health education campaign on population control. A sample of 68 adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in the study. Each respondent was shown a picture of the campaign. They then filled in a short questionnaire. The main objectives of the study were to measure recall rates and to assess attitude of the subjects. The study results show that recall rates were high (78%), 68% of respondents claimed that the campaign is likely to change their attitudes towards population control, and 87% of participants perceived the main idea of the campaign correctly. The study findings show that there are some significant associations between demographic variables (marital status, having child or not) and perception of the campaign. These may lead health educators and health promoters to communicate more effectively and efficiently in the context of family planning. In countries with a large number of young people, health education campaigns on population control with respect to social values of each society and moral considerations are recommended.

  10. Health education campaign on population control: lessons from Iran.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, A

    1995-11-01

    A descriptive study was carried out in Tehran, the capital of Iran, to investigate a health education campaign on population control. A sample of 68 adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in the study. Each respondent was shown a picture of the campaign. They then filled in a short questionnaire. The main objectives of the study were to measure recall rates and to assess attitude of the subjects. The study results show that recall rates were high (78%), 68% of respondents claimed that the campaign is likely to change their attitudes towards population control, and 87% of participants perceived the main idea of the campaign correctly. The study findings show that there are some significant associations between demographic variables (marital status, having child or not) and perception of the campaign. These may lead health educators and health promoters to communicate more effectively and efficiently in the context of family planning. In countries with a large number of young people, health education campaigns on population control with respect to social values of each society and moral considerations are recommended. PMID:8570803

  11. Inhomogeneous cirrus clouds during the AIRTOSS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Matthias; Spichtinger, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The aircraft campaign AIRTOSS-ICE in May and September 2013 provided measurement data of cirrus clouds over North Sea and Baltic Sea in various meteorological situations. The measurements were carried out with a Learjet and a towed sensor shuttle below the aircraft [2]. This configuration allows us to obtain almost horizontally collocated measurements at different vertical levels (inside and outside clouds). Microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, as ice water content, ice crystal number concentrations, diameter and shape of ice crystals were measured. In this study we concentrate on the comparison of in situ measurements with model simulations. For these case studies, the issue about the main formation mechanism (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous or both) will be addressed. In a first step the meteorological conditions leading to the cirrus formation are analyzed using meteorological analyses as obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF). The ECMWF wind fields are then used to calculate backward trajectories with the Lagrangian analysis tool LAGRANTO [4]. From these investigations the large-scale/mesoscale motions are derived and analyzed. Finally, the meteorological analyses and measurements (temperature, wind, humidity) are used as initial conditions for cirrus cloud simulations where the small scale motions are derived and analyzed. We used EULAG as LES model, including a state-of-the-art ice microphysics scheme [3] for 2D and 3D idealized and quasi-realistic simulations. In order to address the impact of dynamics vs. microphysics (i.e. heterogeneous nucleation [1]), we investigated different environmental conditions. The microphysical and macrophysical properties of the simulated cloud are finally compared to the measurements, in order to get some information about the most probable scenarios. References [1] D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, C. Hoose, E. J. Jensen, M. H. Diao, M. A. Zondlo, J. B. Smith, C. H. Twohy, and D. M. Murphy

  12. The African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) campaign in Georgia: quantifying community response to a CDC pilot campaign

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Turbes, Ashani; Berkowitz, Zahava; Zavahir, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether a culturally appropriate campaign using “Black radio” and print media increased awareness and utilization of local mammography screening services provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program among African American women. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design involving data collection during and after campaign implementation in two intervention sites in GA (Savannah with radio and print media and Macon with radio only) and one comparison site (Columbus, GA). We used descriptive statistics to compare mammography uptake for African American women during the initial months of the campaign (8/08–1/09) with the latter months (2/09–8/09) and a post-campaign (9/09–12/09) period in each of the study sites. Comparisons of monthly mammogram uptake between cities were performed with multinomial logistic regression. We assumed a p value <0.05 to be significant. Results We observed an increase of 46 and 20 % in Savannah and Macon, respectively, from the initial period of the campaign to the later period. However, the increase did not persist in the post-campaign period. Analysis comparing monthly mammogram uptake in Savannah and Macon with Columbus showed a significant increase in uptake from the first to the second period in Savannah only (OR 1.269, 95 % CI (1.005–1.602), p = 0.0449). Conclusions Dissemination of health promotion messages via a culturally appropriate, multicomponent campaign using Black radio and print media was effective in increasing mammogram uptake in Savannah among low-income, African American women. Additional research is needed to quantify the relative contribution of campaign radio, print media, and community components to sustain increased mammography uptake. PMID:25732344

  13. 242-A Campaign 94-1 post run document

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, M.D.

    1994-09-30

    The purpose of this post-run document is to summarize the results of 242-A Evaporator Campaign 94-1 as required. Campaign 94-1 represents the first Evaporator operation since 1989, following completion of the B-534 upgrades and Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) construction. The purpose of Campaign 94-1 was to concentrate dilute waste from TK-102-AW, TK-106-AW, and TK-103-AP. From an available 2.87 million gallon feedstock of dilute waste contained in 102-AW, 106-AW and 103-AP, an overall Waste Volume Reduction (WVR) of 2.39 million gallons (83% WVRF) was achieved. At the completion of the campaign, approximately 477,000 gallons of dilute double-shell slurry feed (DDSSF) was produced with a SpG. of 1.25--1.30. Total process condensate discharged to LERF was 3.09 million gallons, achieving a condensate/WVR ratio of 1.29. Throughput for Campaign 94-1 was 5.27 million gallons. Total steam condensate and cooling water discharge to B-pond was 4.7 and 216 million gallons respectively. The evaporator operated approximately 43 days of the 60 day campaign for a total operating efficiency of 73%. Campaign 94-1 was completed without any discharge limit, Operating Specification Document, or Operational Safety Requirement violations. Major problems encountered during the run included the following: (1) high CA1 deentrainment pad dP`s caused by foaming, (2) condensate pump P-C100 failure, and (3) ion exchange column dP`s and efficiency.

  14. Targets for the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, L J

    2007-09-07

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 beam Nd-glass laser facility presently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for performing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high energy density (HED) science. When completed in 2009, NIF will be able to produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of ultraviolet light for target experiments that will create conditions of extreme temperatures (>10{sup 8} K), pressures (10 GBar) and matter densities (>100 g/cm{sup 3}). A detailed program called the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) has been developed to enable ignition experiments in 2010, with the goal of producing fusion ignition and burn of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel mixture in millimeter-scale target capsules. The first of the target experiments leading up to these ignition shots will begin in 2008. The targets for the NIC are both complex and precise, and are extraordinarily demanding in materials fabrication, machining, assembly, cryogenics and characterization. The DT fuel is contained in a 2-millimeter diameter graded copper/beryllium or CH shell. The 75mm thick cryogenic ice DT fuel layer is formed to sub-micron uniformity at a temperature of approximately 18 Kelvin. The capsule and its fuel layer sit at the center of a gold/depleted uranium 'cocktail' hohlraum. Researchers at LLNL have teamed with colleagues at General Atomics to lead the development of the technologies, engineering design and manufacturing infrastructure necessary to produce these demanding targets. We are also collaborating with colleagues at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester in DT layering, and at Fraunhofer in Germany in nano-crystalline diamond as an alternate ablator to Beryllium and CH. The Beryllium capsules and cocktail hohlraums are made by physical vapor deposition onto sacrificial mandrels. These coatings must have high density (low porosity), uniform microstructure, low oxygen content and low permeability

  15. Cryosphere campaigns in support of ESA's Earth Explorers Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tânia; Davidson, Malcolm; Plank, Gernot; Floberghagen, Rune; Parrinello, Tommaso; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Drusch, Matthias; Fernandez, Diego

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne Earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans, atmosphere and solid Earth. ESA has conducted over 110 airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 and this presentation will describe three campaigns in Antarctica and the Arctic. They were undertaken during the calibration/validation phase of Earth Explorer (EE) missions, such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) and CryoSat-2. In support of SMOS and GOCE, the DOMECair airborne campaign took place in Antarctica, in the Dome C region in the middle of January 2013. The two main objectives were a) to quantify and document the spatial variability in the DOME C area (SMOS) and b) to fill a gap in the high-quality gravity anomaly maps in Antarctica where airborne gravity measurements are sparse (GOCE). Results from the campaign for the SMOS component, showed that the DOME C area is not as spatially homogenous as previously assumed, therefore comparisons of different missions (e.g. SMOS and NASA's Aquarius) with different footprints must be done with care, highlighting once again the importance of field work to test given assumptions. One extremely surprising outcome of this campaign was the pattern similarity between the gravity measurements and brightness temperature fields. To date, there has never been an indication that L-Band brightness temperatures could be correlated to gravity, but preliminary analysis showed coincident high brightness temperature with high gravity values, suggesting that topography may influence microwave emissions. Also in support of SMOS, the SMOSice airborne campaign has been planned in the Arctic. It was motived by a previous ESA SMOSice study that

  16. An Overview of the SOLVE-THESEO 2000 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Adriani, Alberto; Amanatidis, Georgios T.; Anderson, James G.; Braathen, Geir O.; Brune, William H.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Craig, Michael T.; DeCola, Philip E.

    2001-01-01

    Between November 1999 and April 2000, two major field experiments, the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) and the Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone (THESEO 2000), collaborated to form the largest field campaign yet mounted to study Arctic ozone loss. This international campaign involved more than 500 scientists from over 20 countries spread across the high and mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The main scientific aims of SOLVE-THESEO 2000 were to study (a) the processes leading to ozone loss in the Arctic vortex and (b) the effect on ozone amounts over northern mid-latitudes. The campaign included satellites, heavy lift balloon launches, 6 different aircraft, ground stations, and scores of ozone-sonde. Campaign activities were principally conducted in 3 intensive measurement phases centered on early December 1999, late January 2000, and early March 2000. Observations made during the campaign showed that temperatures were unusually cold in the polar lower stratosphere over the course of the 1999-2000 winter. These cold temperatures resulted in the formation of extensive polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) across the Arctic. Heterogeneous chemical reactions on the surfaces of the PSC particles produced high levels of reactive chlorine within the polar vortex by early January. This reactive chlorine catalytically destroyed about 60% of the ozone in a layer near 20 km between late January and mid-March 2000.

  17. Haitian AIDS education campaign struggles on despite political turmoil.

    PubMed

    Aldebron, J

    1993-12-01

    Haiti's multimedia AIDS education campaign Alerte SIDA has continued despite the economic sanctions and political upheaval that thwarted its original plans. In 1992, the campaign included an aggressive volunteer effort in 140 schools in Port-au-Prince, including a conference, theatrical performances, video presentations, and group discussions. Expansion of the campaign led to creation of a telephone hot line for adolescents, radio spots, peer education sessions, and a multimedia campaign highlighted by six televised roundtable discussions in which young people discussed sex, AIDS, and the involvement of parents in sex education. The next stage of the campaign was to target parents as well as adolescents with educational and discussion sessions and information packets suggesting ways parents could broach the subjects of sex and sexually transmitted diseases with their children. This stage has been preempted by the economic embargo and political discord (which also increased the value of sexual intercourse as solace). Haitians, however, have a history of adapting to situations and making do with what they have. Thus, the work continues, even if it is reduced to impromptu educational sessions held in decrepit school yards. When the classrooms reopen, Alerte SIDA will be on hand to continue its efforts to protect the health of Haiti's children. PMID:12288830

  18. 1% or less: a community-based nutrition campaign.

    PubMed Central

    Reger, B; Wootan, M G; Booth-Butterfield, S; Smith, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated the effectiveness of a community education campaign to encourage a switch from high-fat (whole and 2%) milk to low-fat (1%, 1/2%, and skim) milk as a way to reduce consumption of saturated fat. METHODS: Milk sales data were collected from supermarkets in the intervention and comparison communities for three one-month time periods: at baseline, immediately following the campaign, and six months after the campaign. In addition, trained volunteers conducted pre- and post-intervention telephone surveys. RESULTS: Overall milk sales increased by 16% in the intervention cities following the campaign and remained high at follow-up. Low-fat milk's market share increased from 18% of overall milk sales at baseline to 41% of overall milk sales in the month following the end of the campaign, an increase in market share that was sustained at the six-month follow-up. In the post-intervention telephone survey, 38.2% of those respondents who reported drinking high-fat milk at baseline reported having switched to low-fat milk. CONCLUSION: A focused message communicated through paid advertising, public relations activities, and community-based education programs increased low-fat and overall milk consumption in one community. PMID:9769765

  19. The impact of mass communication campaigns in the health field.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, R

    1983-01-01

    This article analyzes a series of health education projects that used the mass media to change behavior. First, the article describes how persuasion theories are used to maximize impact in mass communication campaigns. Second, this paper discusses theories of social psychology used in such campaigns. One such theory, cognitive dissonance, explains changes at the level of attitudes, beliefs and opinion. Another theory, social learning, defines strategies of behavior changes. A third theory, concerning diffusion of innovations, helps understand the network of interpersonal relationships essential for the adoption of any innovation. McGuire's inoculation theory suggests strategies to aid resistance to harmful environmental influences (e.g. smoking, excessive drinking, etc.). Third, this work reviews public health campaigns that have used one or more of these theories of social psychology. The first project, dealing with smoking behavior cessation and prevention, mainly used strategies of interpersonal communication for inoculating and modeling useful behavior in order to resist social pressures favorable to smoking. The second project, designed to prevent alcoholism, used the mass media primarily. The objective of this campaign was to obtain changes in knowledge, attitude and behavior in the public through modeling desirable behaviors over public service announcements. The third campaign, a heart disease prevention program, used a combination of mass media and interpersonal communication to achieve changes in lifestyle of the population. Finally, this article describes limitations in using mass media in behavior change health programs. PMID:6836345

  20. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages. PMID:20933263

  1. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed.

    PubMed

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar

    2009-05-01

    A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an already existing model by Cheung and Chan [Cheung, C. K., & Chan, C. M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organisation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253]. The expanded model showed a better fit. Furthermore, the expanded model explained two-thirds of the variance of the intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign. The greatest predictor of the intention to donate proved to be "Past donation to disaster relief campaigns." The factor "News exposure" was indicated to be a valuable additional factor, as it had a significant direct effect on "Awareness of a disaster relief campaign" and was the only factor that had a total effect on all other factors, including "Intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign."

  2. Coupled test facilities for optimal space simulation test campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcé, J. L.; Meurat, A.

    1997-01-01

    One of the main issues for spacecraft test staff is to minimise number and type of interfaces to be developed for on ground tests. Actually, the goal is double: first this should reduce cost of test campaigns, but also their duration through an optimum use of standard equipment's. In order to suit this increasing customer need, INTESPACE has optimised its test centre by the use of redundant and complementary test facilities, and by the definition of standard interface and test data format.(as the wellknown DynaWorks ® common data format provided by INTESPACE to customers involved in any kind of test. Ref. 1). The other example presented in this paper is dealing with space simulation test campaigns which can be performed at INTESPACE in two large test facilities: SIMLES and SIMMER These chambers are presented in the first part of this paper through their main performances and characteristics. The technical similarities of both are emphasised, pointing out a real redundancy even during test run. A classical test campaign is then presented, with consecutive tests performed in SIMLES and SIMMER, taking profit from common interface. The gain of test campaign duration is there pointed out through optimised interphases between both facilities, compared to an obsolete type of test campaign with two tests in series on completely different test facilities.

  3. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages.

  4. The International epsilon Aurigae Campaign 2009 Photometry Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    An International Campaign and Web site were started in May of 2006 for the 2009-2011 eclipse of the mysterious star system epsilon Aurigae. Photometric and spectroscopic observations of the eclipse were coordinated and reported. The eclipse started in the summer of 2009 and lasted until the spring of 2011. During the campaign twenty-four newsletters were published on the web site and made available free as .pdf files to read and download. Twenty-six observers from fourteen different countries submitted photometric data in the UBVRI bands. Over 3,600 high-quality photometric observations were submitted with nearly 2,000 observations in just the V band. This paper discusses the Campaign and reports the results.

  5. [The forgotten ringworm campaign of OZE-TOZ in Poland].

    PubMed

    Shvarts, Shifra; Romem, Pnina; Romem, Yitzhak; Shani, Mordechai

    2009-04-01

    In 1921, the JOINT-JDC [the American Jewish WeLfare Organization) together with the Jewish health organizations of Eastern Europe (OZE, TOZ) initiated a campaign to eradicate ringworm of the scalp, which was one of the major medical causes that prevented Jews from immigrating to the West. This campaign continued until 1938. During the years 1921-1938, 27,760 children were irradiated (x-rayed) as part of the treatment. This study, based on archival sources in Israel and abroad, presents the story of this unique campaign to eradicate ringworm in the Eastern European Jewish communities, the ideology behind this initiative, the health and medical factors that played a role and its outcomes. This research was conducted at The Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research and The School of Public Health at Tel Aviv University.

  6. The Strategy and Implementation of the Rosetta Communication Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M.; Landeau-Constantin, J.

    2016-03-01

    The communication campaign for Rosetta has been the biggest success in the history of European Space Agency outreach, resulting in global awareness for the agency. The mission itself is an extraordinary operational and scientific success, but communicating only the operational and scientific firsts would likely not have brought the Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander to the attention of so many people, and would not have made the mission part of people's lives across the globe. The additional impact brought to the mission through the communication campaign was based on a strategic approach focusing on: real-time release of information with maximum transparency; direct real-time access for media and social media; adding a human dimension to the story; and communicating the risks openly in order to manage expectations. In this article we describe our overall strategy, illustrate its implementation, and provide the framework for subsequent articles in this journal highlighting specific aspects of the campaign in more detail.

  7. Update of the used fuel disposition Campaign Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens; MacKinnon, Robert; McMahon, Kevin; Saltzstein, Sylvia; Sorenson, Ken; Swift, Peter

    2014-09-01

    This Campaign Implementation Plan provides summary level detail describing how the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) supports achievement of the overarching mission and objectives of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Technologies Program The implementation plan begins with the assumption of target dates that are set out in the January 2013 DOE Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (http://energy.gov/downloads/strategy-management-and-disposal-used-nuclear-fuel-and-high-level-radioactive-waste). These target dates and goals are summarized in section III. This implementation plan will be maintained as a living document and will be updated as needed in response to progress in the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign and the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program.

  8. Coordinated Field Campaigns in Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, Antonio; Novak, Michael; Tzortziou, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission concept recommended by the U.S. National Research Council (2007) focuses on measurements of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and aquatic coastal ecology and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit (35,786 km altitude). Two GEO-CAPE-sponsored multi-investigator ship-based field campaigns were conducted to coincide with the NASA Earth Venture Suborbital project DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaigns: (1) Chesapeake Bay in July 2011 and (2) northwestern Gulf of Mexico in September 2013. Goal: to evaluate whether GEO-CAPE coastal mission measurement and instrument requirements are optimized to address science objectives while minimizing ocean color satellite sensor complexity, size and cost - critical mission risk reduction activities. NASA continues to support science studies related to the analysis of data collected as part of these coordinated field campaigns and smaller efforts.

  9. Campaign contributions, lobbying and post-Katrina contracts.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael J; Long, Michael A; Stretesky, Paul B

    2010-07-01

    This research explores the relationship between political campaign contributions, lobbying and post-Hurricane Katrina cleanup and reconstruction contracts. Specifically, a case-control study design is used to determine whether campaign contributions to national candidates in the 2000-04 election cycles and/or the employment of lobbyists and lobbying firms increased a company's probability of receiving a post-hurricane contract. Results indicate that both a campaign contribution dichotomous variable and the dollar amount of contributions are significantly related to whether a company received a contract, but that lobbying activity was not. These findings are discussed in the context of previous research on the politics of natural disasters, government contracting and governmental and corporate deviance.

  10. Drivers' biased perceptions of speed and safety campaign messages.

    PubMed

    Walton, D; McKeown, P C

    2001-09-01

    One hundred and thirteen drivers were surveyed for their perceptions of driving speed to compare self-reported average speed, perceived average-other speed and the actual average speed, in two conditions (50 and 100 kph zones). These contrasts were used to evaluate whether public safety messages concerning speeding effectively reach their target audience. Evidence is presented supporting the hypothesis that drivers who have a biased perception of their own speed relative to others are more likely to ignore advertising campaigns encouraging people not to speed. A method of self-other-actual comparisons detects biased perceptions when the standard method of self-other comparison does not. In particular, drivers exaggerate the perceived speed of others and this fact is masked using traditional methods. The method of manipulation is proposed as a way to evaluate the effect of future advertising campaigns, and a strategy for such campaigns is proposed based on the results of the self-other comparisons. PMID:11491243

  11. Campaigns and Cliques: Variations in Effectiveness of an Antismoking Campaign as a Function of Adolescent Peer Group Identity

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Murphy, Sheila T.; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Identity-based strategies have been suggested as a way to promote healthy behaviors when traditional approaches fall short. The truth® campaign, designed to reduce smoking in adolescents, is an example of a campaign that uses such a strategy to reach youth described as being outside the mainstream. This article examines the effectiveness of this strategy in promoting antitobacco company beliefs among youth. Survey data from 224 adolescents between 14 and 15 years of age were used to examine whether the truth® campaign was more or less effective at reaching and promoting antitobacco company beliefs among youth who identify with nonmainstream crowds (deviants and counterculture) versus those who identify with mainstream crowds (elites and academics). Analyses revealed that adolescents who identified as deviants and counterculture were more likely to have been persuaded by the truth® campaign. Social identity theory is used as a theoretical framework to understand these effects and to make recommendations for future health campaigns. PMID:23066900

  12. Impact of a rural domestic violence prevention campaign.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, A M; Tripp, M; Wolff, D A; Lewis, C; Jenkins, P

    2001-01-01

    Domestic violence is a prevalent health problem that in rural areas is further complicated by limited services, social isolation and the lack of privacy. Little is known about the impact of public health education on awareness, attitudes and behavior of the general public regarding domestic violence. This study sought to measure change in societal attitudes and behavioral intention in response to a seven-month public health education campaign targeting domestic violence in a rural county. From October 1998 to April 1999, the campaign used radio advertisements, posters, mailings to libraries and clergy, printed media articles, printed advertisements and health facility modifications. A random-digit-dialing telephone survey was used to evaluate attitudinal and behavioral changes in the intervention and comparison counties before and after the campaign. The response rates for the pre- (n =378) and postcampaign (n=633) surveys were 73 percent and 65 percent, respectively. Statistically significant increases in slogan and advertising recognition occurred in the intervention county (P=0.03), particularly among men recalling the campaign slogan (P=0.006). In a vignette regarding actions to be taken if the neighbor next door was abusing a partner, significant increases occurred in the intervention county in the percentage of respondents who thought that most people would talk to the victim (P=0.04), consult with friends (P=0.002) or talk to a doctor (P=0.004). Domestic violence agency hotline calls in the intervention county doubled following the campaign. Local public health education campaigns in a rural setting may be a valuable adjunct to national efforts, especially in reaching men. PMID:11765891

  13. Revisiting the Effect of Anthropomorphizing a Social Cause Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lisa A.; Masser, Barbara; Sun, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that anthropomorphism can be harnessed as a tool to boost intentions to comply with social cause campaigns. Drawing on the human tendency to extend moral concern to entities portrayed as humanlike, it has been argued that adding personified features to a social campaign elevates anticipated guilt at failing to comply, and this subsequently boosts intentions to comply with that campaign. The present research aimed to extend extant research by disentangling the effects of emotional and non-emotional anthropomorphism, and differentiating amongst other emotional mechanisms of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect (namely, anticipated pride and anticipated regret). Experiment 1 (N = 294) compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and emotionally-neutral anthropomorphized campaign posters for boosting campaign compliance intentions against non-anthropomorphized posters. We also measured potential mechanisms including anticipated guilt, regret, and pride. Results failed to support the anthropomorphism-compliance effect, and no changes in anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. Experiments 2 (N = 150) and 3 (N = 196) represented further tests of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect. Despite high statistical power and efforts to closely replicate the conditions under which the anthropomorphism-compliance effect had been previously observed, no differences in compliance intention or anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. A meta-analysis of the effects of anthropomorphism on compliance and anticipated emotion across the three experiments revealed effect size estimates that did not differ significantly from zero. The results of these three experiments suggest that the anthropomorphism-compliance effect is fragile and perhaps subject to contextual and idiographic influences. Thus, this research provides important insight and impetus for future research on the applied and theoretical utility of

  14. Revisiting the Effect of Anthropomorphizing a Social Cause Campaign.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lisa A; Masser, Barbara; Sun, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that anthropomorphism can be harnessed as a tool to boost intentions to comply with social cause campaigns. Drawing on the human tendency to extend moral concern to entities portrayed as humanlike, it has been argued that adding personified features to a social campaign elevates anticipated guilt at failing to comply, and this subsequently boosts intentions to comply with that campaign. The present research aimed to extend extant research by disentangling the effects of emotional and non-emotional anthropomorphism, and differentiating amongst other emotional mechanisms of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect (namely, anticipated pride and anticipated regret). Experiment 1 (N = 294) compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and emotionally-neutral anthropomorphized campaign posters for boosting campaign compliance intentions against non-anthropomorphized posters. We also measured potential mechanisms including anticipated guilt, regret, and pride. Results failed to support the anthropomorphism-compliance effect, and no changes in anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. Experiments 2 (N = 150) and 3 (N = 196) represented further tests of the anthropomorphism-compliance effect. Despite high statistical power and efforts to closely replicate the conditions under which the anthropomorphism-compliance effect had been previously observed, no differences in compliance intention or anticipated emotion according to anthropomorphism emerged. A meta-analysis of the effects of anthropomorphism on compliance and anticipated emotion across the three experiments revealed effect size estimates that did not differ significantly from zero. The results of these three experiments suggest that the anthropomorphism-compliance effect is fragile and perhaps subject to contextual and idiographic influences. Thus, this research provides important insight and impetus for future research on the applied and theoretical utility of

  15. High Frequency Earth Rotation Parameters from Continuous VLBI Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, T.; Nothnagel, A.

    2009-04-01

    In most cases, VLBI sessions have a duration of 24 hours, and, on average, three sessions are being scheduled every week. Starting in 1994, several campaigns of continuous VLBI observations (CONT) have been organized in irregular intervals. Recent CONT campaigns contain observations of the same network over a fortnightly timespan. The aim of these campaigns is to provide state-of-the-art VLBI observations continuously over a longer period than just one day. The most recent campaign (CONT08) has been scheduled for a network of 11 observatories and an increased recording rate of 512 Mbit per second. Furthermore, the observing schedules had been modified so that the necessary turn over pause of 30 minutes between two 24h sessions, scheduled at the same time for all sites in earlier CONTs, took place at all sites at staggered intervals. One of the main scientific goals of these sessions is to generate continuous sub-daily Earth rotation parameters (ERP) in order to uncover discrepancies between theoretical models and observations. In prior campaigns, deviations at the ter-diurnal band have been detected. The fact that these deviations have not been detectable in all CONT sessions so far could be a hint that further discrepancies may be revealed by the new session setup. As a first step in dealing with the new CONT08 data, we performed an assessment of the quality of the CONT08 sessions. In this presentation, we describe the new scheduling setup and we compare the derived sub-daily ERP to those derived in prior campaigns.

  16. Impact of a rural domestic violence prevention campaign.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, A M; Tripp, M; Wolff, D A; Lewis, C; Jenkins, P

    2001-01-01

    Domestic violence is a prevalent health problem that in rural areas is further complicated by limited services, social isolation and the lack of privacy. Little is known about the impact of public health education on awareness, attitudes and behavior of the general public regarding domestic violence. This study sought to measure change in societal attitudes and behavioral intention in response to a seven-month public health education campaign targeting domestic violence in a rural county. From October 1998 to April 1999, the campaign used radio advertisements, posters, mailings to libraries and clergy, printed media articles, printed advertisements and health facility modifications. A random-digit-dialing telephone survey was used to evaluate attitudinal and behavioral changes in the intervention and comparison counties before and after the campaign. The response rates for the pre- (n =378) and postcampaign (n=633) surveys were 73 percent and 65 percent, respectively. Statistically significant increases in slogan and advertising recognition occurred in the intervention county (P=0.03), particularly among men recalling the campaign slogan (P=0.006). In a vignette regarding actions to be taken if the neighbor next door was abusing a partner, significant increases occurred in the intervention county in the percentage of respondents who thought that most people would talk to the victim (P=0.04), consult with friends (P=0.002) or talk to a doctor (P=0.004). Domestic violence agency hotline calls in the intervention county doubled following the campaign. Local public health education campaigns in a rural setting may be a valuable adjunct to national efforts, especially in reaching men.

  17. Concept identification for a power take-off shielding campaign.

    PubMed

    Tinc, P J; Madden, E; Park, S; Weil, R; Sorensen, J A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Machinery entanglements, specifically power take-off (PTO) entanglements, are a leading cause of injuries and fatalities on farms. In order to address this life-threatening issue, a social marketing campaign is being developed to reduce barriers and emphasize motivators to shielding. This article discusses the process of designing, testing, and selecting concepts to be used in the campaign. Small-group discussions (triads) were held to test 13 message concepts. Participants were asked to provide feedback and select the two messages that they believed to be most powerful. Upon completion, three message concepts were selected to be finalized. PMID:25635743

  18. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Christa A; Dellinger, R Phillip

    2014-04-01

    The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) was created in 2002 and consists of severe sepsis management guidelines and a sepsis performance improvement program. The second revision of the guidelines, published in 2013, are sponsored by 30 international scientific organizations and contain changes in recommendations for fluids and vasopressor administration. The new 3- and 6-hour sepsis 'bundles' (sets of care elements) include a software program that can be downloaded free from the Surviving Sepsis Campaign website (www.survivingsepsis.org). The traditional intensive care unit and emergency department champion-driven sepsis performance improvement program continues internationally with the kick off of a new grant-funded hospital floor sepsis performance improvement initiative.

  19. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina; Miller, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested. PMID:24224067

  20. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina; Miller, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested.