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Sample records for rockefeller hookworm campaigns

  1. Public health policy paradoxes: science and politics in the Rockefeller Foundation's hookworm campaign in Mexico in the 1920s.

    PubMed

    Birn, A E; Solórzano, A

    1999-11-01

    The origins of US international health endeavors are intertwined with the Progressive Era's faith in science as arbiter of humankind's secular problems. No agency better exemplifies the period's confidence in science than the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Board (IHB), which set out to export the new public health theory and practice around the world. An examination of the IHB's hookworm program in Mexico in the 1920s demonstrates that, notwithstanding the Rockefeller Foundation's (RF) self-conscious commitment to scientific neutrality, its programs continuously engaged political criteria, exhibiting the competition, coexistence, and inseparability of the worlds of science, politics, and international health policy. Analysis of the program's quotidian decisions and larger strategies further reveals the protean quality of RF science-politics, which enabled responses to parochial and broadly-conceived needs at multiple levels. In the focus on hookworm, the selection of campaign sites, hookworm diagnosis methods, treatment procedures, definition of cure, and the assignment of responsibility for prevention, scientific and political considerations were inextricably bound. The science-politics paradox was molded by the hookworm program's constituencies in Mexico, including political leaders, health bureaucrats, physicians, business interests, public health workers, peasants, and Rockefeller officers. The multiple, often contradictory, roles of the RF's hookworm campaign are characteristic of the policy paradoxes that emerge when science is summoned to drive policy. In Mexico the campaign served as a policy cauldron through which new knowledge could be demonstrated applicable to social and political problems on many levels. The repeated pledge of scientific neutrality belied the hookworm program's inherent aim of persuading government officials, the medical community, business interests, and the populace of the value of investing in public health as a means

  2. Eradication, control or neither? Hookworm vs malaria strategies and Rockefeller Public Health in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Birn, A E

    1998-06-01

    Malaria's epidemiological importance in Mexico greatly exceeded that of hookworm, but the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) paid far more attention to hookworm. Although the RF collaborated with malaria campaigns around the world, malaria was only incidental to the RF's activities in Mexico. The hookworm campaign, on the other hand, involved the RF at every stage, from conceptualization and design to financing, hiring, and day-to-day administration. This paper seeks to understand why the RF's involvement in Mexico differed for the two diseases and what the organizational, political, and health implications were for these divergent approaches. Beginning in the mid 1920s the Mexican government developed a modest anti-larval service, periodically draining and filling ditches and swamps, dusting Paris green, petrolizing stagnant water, and administering quinine. Following the RF's 1927 shift towards scientific investigation, it began to sponsor small-scale malaria research, collecting climatological, entomological, epidemiological, and clinical information. The Mexican government eagerly petitioned the RF to join a national effort, but it was reluctant to become involved. A National Malaria Campaign was established in 1935 under President Lázaro Cárdenas to coordinate education, sanitary engineering, and treatment. The popular Campaign followed RF strategies even without its direct participation. Meanwhile, the RF avidly pursued modest malaria research in Mexico, funding U.S. investigators to conduct experiments on pesticides, mosquito-trapping, and controversially, watering methods for rice. These efforts culminated in the world's first field trial of DDT against louse-borne typhus and later as a residual spray for malaria. In the end the RF used Mexico as a convenient locale for scientific research that had global implications but only an incidental relationship to Mexico's own Malaria Campaign. Likewise, the RF's much more active hookworm program was more a means than

  3. Sowing the seeds of neo-imperialism: the Rockefeller Foundation's yellow fever campaign in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Solórzano, A

    1992-01-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation's campaign against yellow fever in Mexico sought to advance the economic and political interests of U.S. capitalism. The campaign was implemented at a time of strong anti-American sentiments on the part of the Mexican people. With no diplomatic relationships between Mexico and the United States, the Rockefeller Foundation presented its campaign as an international commitment. Thus, Foundation doctors became the most salient U.S. diplomats. At the same time they made sure that the Mexican yellow fever would not spread to the United States through the southern border. The by-products of the campaign went beyond the political arena. Special techniques to combat the vectors allowed the Rockefeller Foundation's brigades to change the anti-American sentiments of the people. When the campaign ended, the Foundation had already set in place the foundation for the modern Mexican health care system. Benefits from the campaign also accrued to President Obregón, who used the campaign to strengthen his position of power. Mexican doctors adopting a pro-American attitude also allied with the Rockefeller Foundation to gain reputation and power within the emerging Mexican State.

  4. The Rural School and Hookworm Disease. Bulletin, 1914, No. 20. Whole Number 593

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrell, Jno A.

    1914-01-01

    In the Southern States one of the most common forms of disease, especially among children, is hookworm disease. The campaign for its eradication conducted by the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease is one of the most remarkable health campaigns ever waged in this country. It has shown conclusively the important…

  5. Disease and Development: Evidence from Hookworm Eradication in the American South*

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of the successful eradication of hookworm disease from the American South. The hookworm-eradication campaign (c. 1910) began soon after (i) the discovery that a variety of health problems among Southerners could be attributed to the disease and (ii) the donation by John D. Rockefeller of a substantial sum to the effort. The Rockefeller Sanitary Commission (RSC) surveyed infection rates in the affected areas (eleven southern states) and found that an average of forty percent of school-aged children were infected with hookworm. The RSC then sponsored treatment and education campaigns across the region. Follow-up studies indicate that this campaign substantially reduced hookworm disease almost immediately. The sudden introduction of this treatment combines with the cross-area differences in pre-treatment infection rates to form the basis of the identification strategy. Areas with higher levels of hookworm infection prior to the RSC experienced greater increases in school enrollment, attendance, and literacy after the intervention. This result is robust to controlling for a variety of alternative factors, including differential trends across areas, changing crop prices, shifts in certain educational and health policies, and the effect of malaria eradication. No significant contemporaneous results are found for adults, who should have benefited less from the intervention owing to their substantially lower (prior) infection rates. A long-term follow-up of affected cohorts indicates a substantial gain in income that coincided with exposure to hookworm eradication. I also find evidence that eradication increased the return to schooling. PMID:24146438

  6. A Rockefeller Foundation health primer for US-occupied Nicaragua, 1914-1928.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ligia María Peña; Palmer, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The article presents views from above and below of the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Commission's (IHC's) hookworm control program in Nicaragua from 1914 to 1928. It looks at the meaning, impact, and unique configuration of the Nicaraguan mission, while taking into account the larger global institutional project of this important international health actor. Although the IHC program in Nicaragua complemented some of the social policy goals of the US intervention in Nicaragua, which was a de facto protectorate during this period, the institution cannot be considered a direct expression or agent of US foreign policy. Ultimately the shape and limits of the IHC mission to Nicaragua were determined by the institutional project of the international public health agency itself, and by local considerations ranging from the characteristics of the staff to the response of rural communities to the anti-hookworm campaigns.

  7. Hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Alex; Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; McCarthy, James S; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Croese, John; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2016-12-08

    Hookworms are soil-transmitted nematode parasites that can reside for many years in the small intestine of their human hosts; Necator americanus is the predominant infecting species. Adult worms feed on the blood of a host and can cause iron deficiency anaemia, especially in high-risk populations (children and women of childbearing age). Almost 500 million people in developing tropical countries are infected, and simulation models estimate that hookworm infection is responsible for >4 million disability-adjusted life years lost annually. Humans mount an immune response to hookworms, but it is mostly unsuccessful at removing adult worms from the bowel. Accordingly, the host switches to an immune-tolerant state that enables hookworms to reside in the gut for many years. Although anthelmintic drugs are available and widely used, their efficacy varies and the drugs do not prevent reinfection. Thus, other control strategies aimed at improving water quality, sanitation and hygiene are needed. In addition, efforts are underway to develop a human hookworm vaccine through public-private partnerships. However, hookworms could also be a resource; as hookworms have the capability to regulate the host's inflammation, researchers are experimentally infecting patients to treat some inflammatory diseases as an approach to discover new anti-inflammatory molecules. This area of endeavour might well yield new biotherapeutics for autoimmune and allergic diseases.

  8. Hookworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies ...

  9. The control of hookworm disease in Commonwealth Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Tikasingh, Elisha S; Chadee, Dave D; Rawlins, Samuel C

    2011-01-01

    Like other countries around the globe where conditions existed for the parasites causing hookworm disease to thrive, this disease was a serious problem to settlers in countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean, i.e. those countries that were formerly part of the British Empire. Early in the 20th century, the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) assisted the southern United States in controlling this disease. Soon other countries requested assistance and the Rockefeller Foundation responded by creating their International Health Commission to target the problem. Guyana (then British Guiana) was the first country where work was started. Through a system of chemotherapy, sanitation with the provision of latrines and health education the RF assisted the Commonwealth Caribbean countries during the period 1914-1925 in controlling the disease. Most countries continued the programmes started by the Rockefeller Foundation and this paper provides evidence through a series of surveys to show that hookworm disease is no longer a public health problem.

  10. The Rockefeller Foundation's antimalarial program in Latin America: donating or dominating?

    PubMed

    Franco-Agudelo, S

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the origins, methods, and hidden objectives of the antimalarial campaigns carried out by the Rockefeller Foundation in Latin America. These campaigns are examined in the context of the imperialist domination of Latin America over the course of this century. The close relationship between prevailing economic, political, and military priorities and the thrust of the Foundation's work in the field of malaria is detailed. In spite of its relatively small financial investment in malaria research and eradication, the Rockefeller Foundation was able to reap enormous benefits from its work in this area. Not only was the Foundation able to increase the profit margins of the Rockefeller empire by ameliorating some of the dire economic consequences of malaria, but also it was able to use its participation to penetrate the public health field and consolidate the hegemony of scientific medicine. It is concluded that the Rockefeller Foundation's attention to the malaria problem reflected more than mere philanthropic concern.

  11. Hookworm disease: nutritional implications.

    PubMed

    Variyam, E P; Banwell, J G

    1982-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia resulting from intestinal blood loss is the major consequence of hookworm infection. Development of the anemia can be prevented, and it can be treated by administration of iron. Hypoproteinemia, often associated with hookworm infection, may be the result of either protein malnutrition or increased intestinal loss of protein. It is unlikely that the worms cause diffuse morphologic or functional alterations of the intestine. Fortification or supplementation with iron is a practical method to control hookworm disease in endemic areas.

  12. The Human Hookworm Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hotez, Peter J.; Diemert, David; Bacon, Kristina M.; Beaumier, Coreen; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Couto, Artur Roberto; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Homma, Akira; Lee, Bruce Y.; Loukas, Alex; Loblack, Marva; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Russell, Philip K.

    2013-01-01

    Hookworm infection is one of the world's most common neglected tropical diseases and a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. A Human Hookworm Vaccine is currently being developed by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and is in phase 1 clinical testing. The candidate vaccine is comprised of two recombinant antigens known as Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, each of which is an important parasite enzyme required for hookworms to successfully utilize host blood as a source of energy. The recombinant proteins are formulated on Alhydrogel® and are being tested in combination with a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist. The aim of the vaccine is to induce anti-enzyme antibodies that will reduce both host blood loss and the number of hookworms attached to the gut. Transfer of the manufacturing technology to the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)/Bio-Manguinhos (a Brazilian public sector developing country vaccine manufacturer) is planned, with a clinical development plan that could lead to registration of the vaccine in Brazil. The vaccine would also need to be introduced in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia, where hookworm infection is highly endemic. Ultimately, the vaccine could become an essential tool for achieving hookworm control and elimination, a key target in the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases. PMID:23598487

  13. The Human Hookworm Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bacon, Kristina M; Beaumier, Coreen; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Couto, Artur Roberto; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Homma, Akira; Lee, Bruce Y; Loukas, Alex; Loblack, Marva; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Russell, Philip K

    2013-04-18

    Hookworm infection is one of the world's most common neglected tropical diseases and a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. A Human Hookworm Vaccine is currently being developed by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and is in phase 1 clinical testing. The candidate vaccine is comprised of two recombinant antigens known as Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, each of which is an important parasite enzyme required for hookworms to successfully utilize host blood as a source of energy. The recombinant proteins are formulated on Alhydrogel(®) and are being tested in combination with a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist. The aim of the vaccine is to induce anti-enzyme antibodies that will reduce both host blood loss and the number of hookworms attached to the gut. Transfer of the manufacturing technology to the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)/Bio-Manguinhos (a Brazilian public sector developing country vaccine manufacturer) is planned, with a clinical development plan that could lead to registration of the vaccine in Brazil. The vaccine would also need to be introduced in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia, where hookworm infection is highly endemic. Ultimately, the vaccine could become an essential tool for achieving hookworm control and elimination, a key target in the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Imported hookworm infection in Almeria].

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Gómez, José Angel; Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa; Vázquez-Villegas, José; Soriano-Pérez, Manuel Jesús; Cobo, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    To study the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of immigrant patients diagnosed with a hookworm infection in the Tropical Medicine Unit of the Hospital de Poniente in El Ejido (Almería, Spain). A retrospective observational study of all immigrant patients diagnosed with hookworm, by direct visualization of eggs in stool samples, from October 2004 until December 2012. Of the 1872patients studied, 253 (13.5%) were diagnosed with a hookworm infection. In patients where hookworm was the only helminthiasis diagnosed, 8.3% had iron deficiency anaemia, 65.7% did not have eosinophilia, and of these, 25.9% had no abdominal pain. Hookworm is a frequent parasite infestation in the Sub-Saharan immigrant population. Many patients are asymptomatic; thus the implementation of a study protocol for immigrants from endemic areas could diagnose and treat more patients with this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. [Images of Brazil: a Rockefeller Archive Center collection].

    PubMed

    de Lacerda, Aline Lopes

    2002-01-01

    This article describes and comments on the collection of photographs of Brazil that belongs to the Rockefeller Foundation archives (Rockefeller Archive Center) in the United States. It also contains information about the origin of such documents and the way they were collected, as well as analyzes the context in which these visual documents were produced. They record the relationship between Rockefeller Foundation and Brazilian institutions engaged in the combat against yellow fever, malaria and ancyclostomaisis from 1920 to 1940.

  16. Internationalism and nationalism: the Rockefeller Foundation, public health, and malaria in Italy, 1923-1951.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, D H

    2000-06-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation's support of malaria control and public health in Italy over three decades, the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, was one of the foundation's most successful collaborations in its history. Nearly one-sixth of the funds the Rockefeller Foundation allocated for malaria programs was spent in Italy in those years. Outstanding research, a new and important institution, and decided improvements in public health were historically-significant results. The three most important episodes of this American-Italian relationship were the operations of the Stazione Sperimentale per la Lotta Antimalarica, the founding of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, and the campaign to eradicate mosquitoes in Sardinia. In each of these episodes there was a tension between the international aspects and national aspects of the partnership that to some degree limited its success.

  17. A Special Relationship: Rockefeller, Child Study, and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milar, Katherine S.

    In 1928, the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial granted funds to the University of Cincinnati to establish a child study and parent education program for African-Americans. This paper traces the origin of the idea for this program to a special relationship between the family of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. and Spelman College, an African-American…

  18. Hookworm - mouth of the organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This photograph shows the front section of the hookworm, and the mouth parts which it uses to ... blood for nourishment, are visible. Three species of hookworm cause infection in the United States, including this ...

  19. Knowledge and power: the asymmetry of interests of Colombian and Rockefeller doctors in the construction of the concept of "jungle yellow fever," 1907-19381.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Emilio; Manosalva, Carolina; Tafur, Monica; Bedoya, Joanna; Matiz, Giovanna; Morales, Elquin

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the asymmetries among the different interests of officials and medical doctors who worked for the Rockefeller Foundation and their Colombian counterparts in the development and consolidation of the concept of "jungle yellow fever," as distinguished from the known urban form of yellow fever. We explore the research responses to a variety of disease outbreaks in Colombia in the context of the Rockefeller campaigns against yellow fever, from the time of Roberto Franco's initial description of "yellow fever of the forests" in 1907 until the consolidation of the concept of "jungle yellow fever" by Fred Soper in 1938.

  20. The Rockefeller University Graduate Tracking Survey System

    PubMed Central

    Romanick, Michelle; Ng, Kwan; Lee, George; Herbert, Matthew; Coller, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is essential to track the careers and accomplishments of the graduates of translational research training programs to assess the impact of the programs and to improve them. The major obstacle is the lack of a convenient method to collect the information in a comprehensive and standardized manner. Methods We have developed a web-based electronic Graduate Tracking Survey System (GTSS) that pre-populates the graduate’s information on publications, grants, patents, and clinical trials from public data sources, thus insuring a uniform data format, facilitating survey completion, and facilitating the aggregation of data at individual or multiple sites. GTSS questions are designed to assess whether trainees make important contributions that improve human health, and to track related “surrogate” career development indicators of likely future success. Results The GTSS has been in use at Rockefeller University since 2011 and has been adopted by 18 other Clinical and Translational Science Award programs. Conclusions The GTSS provides an efficient and convenient mechanism to track the graduates of a wide variety of training programs. It has the potential to aggregate standardized data across institutions, thus providing benchmarks for the assessment of individual training programs and data for program improvement. PMID:25393695

  1. The immunology of human hookworm infections.

    PubMed

    McSorley, H J; Loukas, A

    2010-08-01

    Hookworms are one of the most prevalent parasites of humans in developing countries, but we know relatively little about the immune response generated to hookworm infection. This can be attributed to a lack of permissive animal models and a relatively small research community compared with those of the more high-profile parasitic diseases. However, recently, research has emerged on the development of vaccines to control hookworm infection and the use of hookworm to treat autoimmune and allergic disorders, contributing to a greater understanding of the strategies used by hookworms to modulate the host's immune response. A substantial body of research on the immunobiology of hookworms originates from Australia, so this review will summarize the current status of the field with a particular emphasis on research carried out 'down under'.

  2. Genome of the human hookworm Necator americanus

    PubMed Central

    Abubucker, Sahar; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Martin, John; Tyagi, Rahul; Heizer, Esley; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Minx, Patrick; Warren, Wesley C.; Wang, Qi; Zhan, Bin; Hotez, Peter J.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Dougall, Annette; Gaze, Soraya Torres; Mulvenna, Jason; Sotillo, Javier; Ranganathan, Shoba; Rabelo, Elida M.; Wilson, Richard W.; Felgner, Philip L.; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hawdon, John M.; Gasser, Robin B.; Loukas, Alex; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-01-01

    The hookworm Necator americanus is the predominant soil-transmitted human parasite. Adult worms feed on blood in the small intestine, causing iron deficiency anaemia, malnutrition, growth and development stunting in children, and severe morbidity and mortality during pregnancy in women. Characterization of the first hookworm genome sequence (244 Mb, 19,151 genes) identified genes orchestrating the hookworm's invasion of the human host, genes involved in blood feeding and development, and genes encoding proteins that represent new potential drug targets against hookworms. N. americanus has undergone a considerable and unique expansion of immunomodulator proteins, some of which we highlight as potential novel treatments against inflammatory diseases. We also utilize a protein microarray to demonstrate a post-genomic application of the hookworm genome sequence. This genome provides an invaluable resource to boost ongoing efforts towards fundamental and applied post-genomic research, including the development of new methods to control hookworm and human immunological diseases. PMID:24441737

  3. Genome of the human hookworm Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yat T; Gao, Xin; Rosa, Bruce A; Abubucker, Sahar; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Martin, John; Tyagi, Rahul; Heizer, Esley; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Minx, Patrick; Warren, Wesley C; Wang, Qi; Zhan, Bin; Hotez, Peter J; Sternberg, Paul W; Dougall, Annette; Gaze, Soraya Torres; Mulvenna, Jason; Sotillo, Javier; Ranganathan, Shoba; Rabelo, Elida M; Wilson, Richard K; Felgner, Philip L; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hawdon, John M; Gasser, Robin B; Loukas, Alex; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-03-01

    The hookworm Necator americanus is the predominant soil-transmitted human parasite. Adult worms feed on blood in the small intestine, causing iron-deficiency anemia, malnutrition, growth and development stunting in children, and severe morbidity and mortality during pregnancy in women. We report sequencing and assembly of the N. americanus genome (244 Mb, 19,151 genes). Characterization of this first hookworm genome sequence identified genes orchestrating the hookworm's invasion of the human host, genes involved in blood feeding and development, and genes encoding proteins that represent new potential drug targets against hookworms. N. americanus has undergone a considerable and unique expansion of immunomodulator proteins, some of which we highlight as potential treatments against inflammatory diseases. We also used a protein microarray to demonstrate a postgenomic application of the hookworm genome sequence. This genome provides an invaluable resource to boost ongoing efforts toward fundamental and applied postgenomic research, including the development of new methods to control hookworm and human immunological diseases.

  4. A history of hookworm vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Brent; Jariwala, Amar R; Periago, Maria Victoria; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Bose, Swaroop N; Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David J; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2011-11-01

    The human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale remain among the most common infections of humans in areas of rural poverty in the developing regions of the world, with an estimated 1 billion people infected with one or more of these parasites. Herein, we review the nearly 100 years of research, development, animal testing, and fieldwork that have led to our current progress in recombinant hookworm vaccines. We begin with the identification of hookworm at the start of the 20th century in Southern US, then discuss the progress in developed countries to eliminate human hookworm infection, and then the industrial development and field use in the 1970s a canine hookworm vaccine(Ancylostoma caninum), and finally our progress to date in the development and clinical testing of an array of recombinant antigens to prevent human hookworm disease from N. americanus infection. Special attention is given to the challenges faced in the development of a vaccine against a blood-feeding nematode, including the epidemiology of infection (high prevalence of infection), pathogenesis (chronic infection that increases with the age of the host), and a robust immune response that fails to confer the protection in the host and a concomitant absence of correlates of protection by a successful vaccine could be developed and tested. Finally, we provide the optimal and acceptable profiles of a human hookworm vaccine, including the proposed indication, target population, and route of administration, as developed by the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative, the only group currently working on vaccines targeting this parasite.

  5. The Rockefeller University: College and University Systems Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1981

    1981-01-01

    With a unique organizational structure, the Rockefeller University's need for administrative information systems is different from most institutions of higher education. The financial reporting needs of the many different laboratories led the university to purchase a computer-based accounting system. (MLW)

  6. A history of hookworm vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Brent; Jariwala, Amar R.; Periago, Maria Victoria; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Bose, Swaroop N.; Hotez, Peter J.; Diemert, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale remain among the most common infections of humans in areas of rural poverty in the developing regions of the world, with an estimated 1 billion people infected with one or more of these parasites. Herein, we review the nearly 100 years of research, development, animal testing, and fieldwork that have led to our current progress in recombinant hookworm vaccines. We begin with the identification of hookworm at the start of the 20th century in Southern US, then discuss the progress in developed countries to eliminate human hookworm infection, and then the industrial development and field use in the 1970s a canine hookworm vaccine(Ancylostoma caninum), and finally our progress to date in the development and clinical testing of an array of recombinant antigens to prevent human hookworm disease from N. americanus infection. Special attention is given to the challenges faced in the development of a vaccine against a blood-feeding nematode, including the epidemiology of infection (high prevalence of infection), pathogenesis (chronic infection that increases with the age of the host), and a robust immune response that fails to confer the protection in the host and a concomitant absence of correlates of protection by a successful vaccine could be developed and tested. Finally, we provide the optimal and acceptable profiles of a human hookworm vaccine, including the proposed indication, target population, and route of administration, as developed by the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative, the only group currently working on vaccines targeting this parasite. PMID:22064562

  7. Hookworm Infection in South American Fur Seal ( Arctocephalus australis) Pups.

    PubMed

    Seguel, M; Muñoz, F; Navarrete, M J; Paredes, E; Howerth, E; Gottdenker, N

    2017-03-01

    Tissues of South American fur seal pups naturally infected with hookworms ( Uncinaria sp) were examined. Hookworm infection was found in nearly all pups examined (132/140, 94%), and hookworm enteritis with secondary bacteremia was considered the cause of death in 46 (35%) pups. Common findings in these pups included severe hemorrhagic enteritis and numerous (mean intensity = 761.8) hookworms in the jejunum. Hookworms were recovered from the abdominal cavity in 12 of 55 pups (22%) examined through peritoneal wash; these pups had an average of 1343.3 intestinal hookworms and marked fibrinohemorrhagic peritonitis. In all pups that died as a consequence of hookworm infection, the intestinal villi were short, blunt, and fused, and there were variable numbers of free and intrahistiocytic gram-negative bacteria in submucosal hookworm feeding tracks, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, blood vessels, and liver sinusoids. Pups that died of causes unrelated to the hookworm infection (trauma) had hookworm feeding tracks confined to the apical portions of the mucosa, and moderate to marked catarrhal eosinophilic enteritis. The number of hookworms was negatively correlated with intestinal villous length and number of leukocytes in the intestine. Pups with hookworm peritoneal penetration had nematodes with little or no blood in the hookworm intestine, suggesting that lack of food for the nematode could be associated with peritoneal penetration. Findings suggest that the initial burden of larval infection, the level of the host tissue response, or a combination determine the number of nematodes in the intestine, the severity of hookworm tissue damage, and pup mortality.

  8. The hookworm pharmacopoeia for inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Severine; Ferreira, Ivana; Loukas, Alex

    2013-03-01

    In the developed world, declining prevalence of parasitic infections correlates with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders. Current treatments for these chronic inflammatory conditions have little to no effect on their prevalence and are referred to as "controllers" rather than cures. There has been limited success in therapeutically targeting allergic and autoimmune pathways, leaving an unmet need for development of effective anti-inflammatories. We discuss the benefit of hookworm infections and the parasite's ability to condition the immune system to prevent allergic asthma and inflammatory bowel diseases. We then examine the immunomodulatory properties of selected hookworm-derived proteins in these two models of inflammation. While hookworm protein therapy has yet to be fully exploited, the identification of these proteins and the mechanisms by which they skew the immune system will provide new avenues for controlling and optimally reversing key pathological processes important in allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  9. Communication Research, the Rockefeller Foundation, and Mobilization for the War on Words, 1938-1944.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Brett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Rockefeller Foundation served as an unofficial arm of the state from 1938 to 1944 by mobilizing social-scientific expertise to fight fascism when the Roosevelt Administration was politically unable to do so. Notes that Rockefeller Foundation officer John Marshall's role in the history of American mass communication research and the…

  10. 36 CFR 7.21 - John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. 7.21 Section 7.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.21 John D. Rockefeller,...

  11. Hookworms of feral cats in Florida.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tara Creel; Foster, Garry W; Forrester, Donald J

    2003-07-10

    Thirty feral cats (Felis catus) from Alachua county (northern Florida) and 30 from Palm Beach county (southern Florida) were examined for hookworms. Two species, Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Ancylostoma braziliense, were identified. Forty-five cats (75%) were infected with A. tubaeforme, with a mean intensity of 48 hookworms per cat. Twenty cats (33%) were infected with A. braziliense, with a mean intensity of 28 worms per cat. The prevalence of A. tubaeforme was greater than that of A. braziliense in Alachua (P=0.002) and Palm Beach (P=0.004) counties. The intensity of A. tubaeforme infections was higher in Palm Beach county than Alachua county (P=0.013). The intensities of A. tubaeforme and A. braziliense were positively correlated (increased together) in Palm Beach county (P=0.011). These hookworms have also been identified in bobcats (Felis rufus), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Florida. The prevalence of A. tubaeforme was significantly greater in feral cats than those reported in bobcats (P<0.001). The prevalence of A. braziliense was significantly greater in feral cats than in those reported in gray foxes (P=0.008). The hookworm that infects Florida panthers and bobcats, A. pluridentatum, was not found.

  12. John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, J

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a profile of John D. Rockefeller 3rd, statesman and founder of the Population Council. It is noted that Rockefeller took a broad view of population control as a means to address poverty and economic development rather than as an end in itself. In 1952 he initiated the convocation of the Conference on Population Problems held in Williamsburg, Virginia. The discussion focused on food supply, industrial development, depletion of natural resources, and political instability resulting from unchecked population growth. In 1967, Rockefeller initiated, lobbied for, and finally achieved a World Leaders' Statement signed by 30 heads of state including US President Lyndon Johnson. The document drew attention to population growth as a world problem and engendered political support for family planning as a solution. After 3 years the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future was established, and Rockefeller was made its chairman. Several issues were debated, including more safer fertility control and the legalization of abortion.

  13. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm in the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Hii, Sze Fui; Harrington, Humpress; Speare, Richard; Traub, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Although hookworm is highly prevalent in the Solomon Islands, the species involved are unknown. We initiated this study in response to finding Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm in a peacekeeper in Australia who had returned from the Solomon Islands. Kato-Katz fecal surveys performed in 2013 and 2014 in 2 village groups in East Malaita, Solomon Islands, identified hookworm-positive samples. These specimens were tested by cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox-1) gene multiplex PCR and sequenced. Of 66 positive specimens, 54 (81.8%) contained only Necator americanus, 11 (16.7%) contained only A. ceylanicum, and 1 (1.5%) contained both species. A. duodenale was not found. Haplotype analysis of cox-1 sequences placed all human isolates (99% bootstrap support) of A. ceylanicum within the zoonotic clade rather than the human-specific clade. This study confirms that A. ceylanicum is endemic in the East Malaita region of this Pacific Island nation. The strain of the A. ceylanicum in this region can be shared among humans, dogs, and cats. PMID:28098526

  14. Immunology of experimental and natural human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Gaze, S; Bethony, J M; Periago, M V

    2014-08-01

    Human hookworm infection is one amongst the most prevalent of the neglected tropical diseases. An informative experimental animal model, that is, one that parallels a human infection, is not available for the study of human hookworm infection. Much of our current understanding of the human immune response during hookworm infection relies on the studies from experimental infection of hookworm-naïve individuals or the natural infections from individuals residing in hookworm-endemic areas. The experimental human infections tend to be acute, dose-controlled infections, often with a low larval inoculum so that they are well tolerated by human volunteers. Natural hookworm infections usually occur in areas where hookworm transmission is constant and infection is chronic. In cases where there has been drug administration in an endemic area, re-infection often occurs quickly even amongst those who were treated. Hence, although many of the characteristics of experimental and natural hookworm infection differ, both models have elements in common: mainly an intense Th2 response with the production of total and specific IgE as well as elevated levels of eosinophilia, IL-5, IL-10 and TNF. While hookworm infection affects millions of individuals worldwide, much of the human immunology of this infection still needs to be studied and understood.

  15. The Global Economic and Health Burden of Human Hookworm Infection.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Hotez, Peter J; Asti, Lindsey; Zapf, Kristina M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Diemert, David J; Lee, Bruce Y

    2016-09-01

    Even though human hookworm infection is highly endemic in many countries throughout the world, its global economic and health impact is not well known. Without a better understanding of hookworm's economic burden worldwide, it is difficult for decision makers such as funders, policy makers, disease control officials, and intervention manufacturers to determine how much time, energy, and resources to invest in hookworm control. We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic and health burden of hookworm infection in every country, WHO region, and globally, in 2016 from the societal perspective. Globally, hookworm infection resulted in a total 2,126,280 DALYs using 2004 disability weight estimates and 4,087,803 DALYs using 2010 disability weight estimates (excluding cognitive impairment outcomes). Including cognitive impairment did not significantly increase DALYs worldwide. Total productivity losses varied with the probability of anemia and calculation method used, ranging from $7.5 billion to $138.9 billion annually using gross national income per capita as a proxy for annual wages and ranging from $2.5 billion to $43.9 billion using minimum wage as a proxy for annual wages. Even though hookworm is classified as a neglected tropical disease, its economic and health burden exceeded published estimates for a number of diseases that have received comparatively more attention than hookworm such as rotavirus. Additionally, certain large countries that are transitioning to higher income countries such as Brazil and China, still face considerable hookworm burden.

  16. Hookworm with hypereosinophilia: atypical presentation of a typical disease.

    PubMed

    Verboeket, Sebastiaan O; van den Berk, Guido E L; Arends, Joop E; van Dam, Alje P; Peringa, Jan; Jansen, Rogier R

    2013-01-01

    We describe a 55-year-old man returning from the Philippines infected with a hookworm, the novel bacterium Laribacter hongkongensis, and a Blastocystis hominis and presenting with both gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms. The high eosinophilia caused by the hookworm infection resulted in both gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, resembling a hypereosinophilic syndrome.

  17. Human Hookworm Infection in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across mutliple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost, and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also efforts underway to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines. PMID:15603764

  18. Human hookworm infection in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This chapter reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across multiple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, ideally supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also on-going efforts to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines.

  19. Public health and nutrition after the Spanish Civil War. An intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation.

    PubMed

    Del Cura, Isabel; Huertas, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies.

  20. Public Health and Nutrition After the SPANISH CIVIL WAR An Intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation

    PubMed Central

    del Cura, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies. PMID:19696398

  1. The Global Economic and Health Burden of Human Hookworm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Sarah M.; Hotez, Peter J.; Asti, Lindsey; Zapf, Kristina M.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Diemert, David J.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though human hookworm infection is highly endemic in many countries throughout the world, its global economic and health impact is not well known. Without a better understanding of hookworm’s economic burden worldwide, it is difficult for decision makers such as funders, policy makers, disease control officials, and intervention manufacturers to determine how much time, energy, and resources to invest in hookworm control. Methodology/Principle Findings We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic and health burden of hookworm infection in every country, WHO region, and globally, in 2016 from the societal perspective. Globally, hookworm infection resulted in a total 2,126,280 DALYs using 2004 disability weight estimates and 4,087,803 DALYs using 2010 disability weight estimates (excluding cognitive impairment outcomes). Including cognitive impairment did not significantly increase DALYs worldwide. Total productivity losses varied with the probability of anemia and calculation method used, ranging from $7.5 billion to $138.9 billion annually using gross national income per capita as a proxy for annual wages and ranging from $2.5 billion to $43.9 billion using minimum wage as a proxy for annual wages. Conclusion Even though hookworm is classified as a neglected tropical disease, its economic and health burden exceeded published estimates for a number of diseases that have received comparatively more attention than hookworm such as rotavirus. Additionally, certain large countries that are transitioning to higher income countries such as Brazil and China, still face considerable hookworm burden. PMID:27607360

  2. Research on Youth in an Age of Complexity: The Rockefeller Youth Task Force and Daniel Yankelovich, 1965-1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Theresa M.

    2008-01-01

    The period between 1965 and 1975 encompasses important events associated with the peak of the youth movement in the 1960s and its demise in the 1970s. The period was an "age of complexity" according to Daniel Yankelovich, a social scientist hired by John D. Rockefeller 3rd's Youth Task Force to study the wave of protests that Rockefeller felt…

  3. Research on Youth in an Age of Complexity: The Rockefeller Youth Task Force and Daniel Yankelovich, 1965-1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Theresa M.

    2008-01-01

    The period between 1965 and 1975 encompasses important events associated with the peak of the youth movement in the 1960s and its demise in the 1970s. The period was an "age of complexity" according to Daniel Yankelovich, a social scientist hired by John D. Rockefeller 3rd's Youth Task Force to study the wave of protests that Rockefeller felt…

  4. The potential economic value of a hookworm vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bacon, Kristina M; Bailey, Rachel; Wiringa, Ann E; Smith, Kenneth J

    2011-02-01

    Hookworm infection is a significant problem worldwide. As development of hookworm vaccine proceeds, it is essential for vaccine developers and manufacturers, policy makers, and other public health officials to understand the potential costs and benefits of such a vaccine. We developed a decision analytic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing a hookworm vaccine into two populations in Brazil: school-age children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Results suggest that a vaccine would provide not only cost savings, but potential health benefits to both populations. In fact, the most cost-effective intervention strategy may be to combine vaccine with current drug treatment strategies.

  5. Anticoagulant repertoire of the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum.

    PubMed

    Stassens, P; Bergum, P W; Gansemans, Y; Jespers, L; Laroche, Y; Huang, S; Maki, S; Messens, J; Lauwereys, M; Cappello, M; Hotez, P J; Lasters, I; Vlasuk, G P

    1996-03-05

    Hookworms are hematophagous nematodes that infect a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. There has been speculation for nearly a century as to the identity of the anticoagulant substances) used by these organisms to subvert host hemostasis. Using molecular cloning, we describe a family of potent small protein (75-84 amino acids) anticoagulants from the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum termed AcAP (A. caninum anticoagulant protein). Two recombinant AcAP members (AcAP5 and AcAP6) directly inhibited the catalytic activity of blood coagulation factor Xa (fXa), while a third form (AcAPc2) predominantly inhibited the catalytic activity of a complex composed of blood coagulation factor VIIa and tissue factor (fVIIa/TF). The inhibition of fVIIa/TF was by a unique mechanism that required the initial formation of a binary complex of the inhibitor with fXa at a site on the enzyme that is distinct from the catalytic center (exo-site). The sequence of AcAPc2 as well as the utilization of an exo-site on fXa distinguishes this inhibitor from the mammalian anticoagulant TFPI (tissue factor pathway inhibitor), which is functionally equivalent with respect to fXa-dependent inhibition of fIIa/TF. The relative sequence positions of the reactive site residues determined for AcAP5 with the homologous regions in AcAP6 and AcAPc2 as well as the pattern of 10 cysteine residues present in each of the inhibitors suggest that the AcAPs are distantly related to the family of small protein serine protease inhibitors found in the nonhematophagous nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum.

  6. New technologies for the control of human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Bethony, Jeff; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Diemert, David; Loukas, Alex

    2006-07-01

    Since the 1990s, the major approach to hookworm control has been morbidity reduction in school-aged children by periodic deworming with benzimidazoles. Now, efforts are underway to determine the feasibility of integrating deworming with control programs that target other neglected tropical diseases. However, the sustainability of benzimidazole deworming for hookworm is of concern because of the variable efficacy of mebendazole, high rates of post-treatment reinfection and possible development of drug resistance. This requires parallel efforts to develop new and complementary hookworm control tools, such as new anthelmintic drugs (e.g. tribendimidine) and a recombinant hookworm vaccine. It is hoped that, ultimately, anthelmintic vaccination will be linked to deworming as part of an expanded control package.

  7. The Naked Piano Player: Or What the Rockefeller Report "Coming to Our Senses" Really Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1978-01-01

    States that the Rockefeller Report, "Coming to Our Senses", reflects the preferences of a particular interest group that has assumed power in cultural and educational matters during the past fifteen years. Critically examines the Report's weaknesses and deficiencies which, says the author, seriously disqualify it as a guide to policy.…

  8. Advancing a vaccine to prevent hookworm disease and anemia.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-03

    A human hookworm vaccine is under development and in clinical trials in Africa and the Americas. The vaccine contains the Na-APR-1 and Na-GST-1 antigens. It elicits neutralizing antibodies that interfere with establishment of the adult hookworm in the gut and the ability of the parasite to feed on blood. The vaccine target product profile is focused on the immunization of children to prevent hookworm infection and anemia caused by Necator americanus. It is intended for use in low- and middle-income countries where hookworm is highly endemic and responsible for at least three million disability-adjusted life years. So far, the human hookworm vaccine is being developed in the non-profit sector through the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (PDP), in collaboration with the HOOKVAC consortium of European and African partners. We envision the vaccine to be incorporated into health systems as part of an elimination strategy for hookworm infection and other neglected tropical diseases, and as a means to reduce global poverty and address the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of hookworm disease: stealth, virulence, and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Mark S; Tribolet, Leon; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Periago, Maria Victoria; Valero, Maria Adela; Valerio, Maria Adela; Jariwala, Amar R; Hotez, Peter; Diemert, David; Loukas, Alex; Bethony, Jeffrey

    2012-07-01

    Hookworms produce a vast repertoire of structurally and functionally diverse molecules that mediate their long-term survival and pathogenesis within a human host. Many of these molecules are secreted by the parasite, after which they interact with critical components of host biology, including processes that are key to host survival. The most important of these interactions is the hookworm's interruption of nutrient acquisition by the host through its ingestion and digestion of host blood. This results in iron deficiency and eventually the microcytic hypochromic anemia or iron deficiency anemia that is the clinical hallmark of hookworm infection. Other molecular mechanisms of hookworm infection cause a systematic suppression of the host immune response to both the parasite and to bystander antigens (eg, vaccines or allergens). This is achieved by a series of molecules that assist the parasite in the stealthy evasion of the host immune response. This review will summarize the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms used by hookworms to survive for extended periods in the human host (up to 7 years or longer) and examine the pivotal contributions of these molecular mechanisms to chronic hookworm parasitism and host clinical outcomes.

  10. Automatic Hookworm Detection in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Chen, Honghan; Gan, Tao; Chen, Junzhou; Ngo, Chong-Wah; Peng, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has become a widely used diagnostic technique to examine inflammatory bowel diseases and disorders. As one of the most common human helminths, hookworm is a kind of small tubular structure with grayish white or pinkish semi-transparent body, which is with a number of 600 million people infection around the world. Automatic hookworm detection is a challenging task due to poor quality of images, presence of extraneous matters, complex structure of gastrointestinal, and diverse appearances in terms of color and texture. This is the first few works to comprehensively explore the automatic hookworm detection for WCE images. To capture the properties of hookworms, the multi scale dual matched filter is first applied to detect the location of tubular structure. Piecewise parallel region detection method is then proposed to identify the potential regions having hookworm bodies. To discriminate the unique visual features for different components of gastrointestinal, the histogram of average intensity is proposed to represent their properties. In order to deal with the problem of imbalance data, Rusboost is deployed to classify WCE images. Experiments on a diverse and large scale dataset with 440 K WCE images demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves a promising performance and outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, the high sensitivity in detecting hookworms indicates the potential of our approach for future clinical application.

  11. Hookworm virulence factors: making the most of the host.

    PubMed

    Periago, Maria V; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2012-12-01

    Hookworm disease from Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale affects approximately 700 million people, with N. americanus being the predominant species. Unlike other pathogens (e.g., bacterial infections), where "virulence" is described in regards to acute pathogenesis and case-fatality, hookworms are well-evolved, multicellular parasites that establish long-term infections in their human hosts with a subtle and chronic, but insidious, pathogenesis, usually in the form of iron deficiency anemia from parasite blood feeding that, over time, has devastating effects on the human host especially when it involves children or women of child bearing years. As such, many of the typical terms for "virulence factors" used in other reviews in this special edition cannot be applied to hookworm (e.g., "colonization", "invasion", "or "toxicity"); rather the virulence of hookworm infection comes in terms of their ability to maintain a chronic blood-feeding infection in the lumen of relatively healthy human hosts, an infection that is usually measured in years but can sometimes be measured in decades. In the current manuscript, we describe the routes of invasion hookworms take into their human hosts and the means by which they modulate the human immune system to maintain this long-term parasitism. Little data on hookworm infection comes from actual human infections; instead, much of the data is derived from observations of laboratory animal models, in which hookworms fail to establish this distinctive "chronic infection," either due to physiological or immunological responses of these animal models. Hence, the mode and effects of chronic immunity must be extrapolated from this very different sort of infection to humans. Herein, we aim to synthesize immunological information from both types of models in the context of immune regulation and protection in order to identify future research focuses for the development of new treatment alternatives (i.e. drugs and vaccines).

  12. The human hookworm vaccine: recent updates and prospects for success.

    PubMed

    Bottazzi, M E

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 440 million people globally are afflicted by hookworm disease, one of the 17 WHO-recognized neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The iron-deficiency anaemia attributed to this disease contributes to at least 3.2 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) according to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The current WHO-recommended control strategies rely primarily on mass drug administration or preventive chemotherapy. However, evidence is starting to accumulate confirming that preventive chemotherapy alone will not be sufficient to reduce the reinfection rates of hookworm, especially in areas of heavy transmission. The global health and research community is currently building a consensus stressing the need for the advancement of research and innovation to bridge the gaps and identify new public health interventions for diseases such as hookworm and other NTDs. This paper presents the strategies used by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (Sabin PDP) in their ongoing endeavour for the development of a human hookworm vaccine. Recent updates and the current prospects for success of an effective human hookworm vaccine, as a new technology to be linked to or combined with drug interventions, are presented.

  13. Hookworm infestation in a 3-month old female.

    PubMed

    Otaigbe, B E; Eneh, A U; Oruamabo, B

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal helminthiasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children particularly in the tropics and subtropics. This report highlights the possibility of hookworm infestation in infancy. A case report of hookworm infestation in a three-month old infant who was managed in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt in May 2001 for failure to thrive and recurrent severe anaemia. The patient was admitted in the children's emergency ward with passage of dark watery stools, fever, excessive crying and severe anemia and was transfused twice. Stool microscopy revealed numerous ova of hookworm and she was treated with albendazole. Three days after administration of anti-helminthic, stools became formed with normal colour and temperature was normal. She gained weight before discharge home. Hookworm infestation should be suspected as a cause of severe anaemia in infants in communities with a high risk of infestation such as fishing port communities. To the best of my knowledge, symptomatic hookworm infestation in the first year of life has not been previously documented in Nigeria.

  14. Prevalence and zoonotic potential of canine hookworms in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine hookworm infection is endemic in Southeast Asian countries with a prevalence ranging from 70% to 100%, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there are limited data available on the prevalence of canine hookworms in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hookworm and Ancylostoma species among dogs in Malaysia. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 221 dogs living in urban areas, rural areas and animal shelters in Selangor. Faecal samples were processed using the formal-ether concentration technique followed by wet mount preparation and iodine staining for the detection of hookworm eggs. Samples positive for hookworm eggs were examined using PCR, targeting ITS2 and 28 s rRNA region, and subsequently sequenced in both directions. The sequences were phylogenetically analysed using MrBayes for Bayesian Inference. Results The overall prevalence of hookworm among dogs was 48% (95%CI; 41.41–54.95). Rural stray dogs had the highest prevalence 71.4% (95%CI; 61.13–81.49) followed by urban stray dogs, recording 48% (95%CI; 34.15–61.85) and lastly dogs in shelters with 28.7% (95%CI; 19.56–37.84). Logistic regression identified rural stray dogs as a high risk group (OR = 4.55, 95%; 2.50–8.31) and keeping dogs in shelters as a protective factor (OR = 0.24, 95%; 0.14–0.43). Molecular methods identified both Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum with A. ceylanicum being predominant among urban stray dogs. Rural dogs had a higher prevalence of A. caninum than A. ceylanicum, while both species showed equal distribution among dogs in shelters. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. ceylanicum isolated from dogs in one group with A. ceylanicum human isolates. Conclusion This study indicates that dogs have the potential to act as reservoir hosts of human hookworm infection in Malaysia. This finding necessitates the inclusion of dogs in any interventions

  15. Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis Caused by Ancylostoma Hookworm

    PubMed Central

    Poppert, Sven; Heideking, Martin; Agostini, Hansjürgen; Fritzenwanker, Moritz; Wüppenhorst, Nicole; Muntau, Birgit; Henneke, Philipp; Kern, Winfried; Krücken, Jürgen; Junker, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis is an ocular infectious disease caused by several distinct nematodes. Definite identification of the involved nematodes is rarely achieved. We report on the molecular-based genetic identification of an Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm implicated in a case of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in a child. PMID:28098549

  16. Multivalent anthelminthic vaccine to prevent hookworm and schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Brindley, Paul J; Loukas, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Hookworm infection and schistosomiasis are two of the world's most important human parasitic infections, affecting hundreds of millions of people in developing countries. Measured together in disability-adjusted life years, hookworm infection and schistosomiasis rank closely behind malaria as the most prevalent human parasitic diseases. A major approach for the control of these two helminth infections relies on periodic, mass chemotherapy with anthelminthics. However, high rates of post-treatment reinfection, the declining efficacy with repeated treatment, rebound morbidity (in the case of schistosomiasis) and the potential for the emergence of anthelminthic drug resistance threaten the sustainability of mass drug administration as the only form of control. Hence, there is a strong rationale for developing a vaccine that simultaneously targets both hookworms and schistosomes because of similarities in the pathobiology of both parasites, the ability of both helminths to cause anemia and their coendemicity in sub-Saharan Africa, Brazil and East Asia. A multivalent anthelminthic vaccine for hookworm infection and schistosomiasis would represent an important new tool for combating disease and poverty.

  17. High Prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections in Humans, Cambodia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis. PMID:24865815

  18. Hookworm Anemia in a Peritoneal Dialysis Patient in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuquan; Xu, Ying; Xia, Min; Ying, Guanghui; Shou, Zhangfei

    2016-06-01

    Hookworm infections as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic in China. In this case, a 70-year-old male showed symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath, and both lower extremities edema. The diagnostic result was chronic renal insufficiency, chronic kidney disease (5th stage), and renal anemia at first. Then, he received treatment with traditional drugs. However, this treatment did not help to alleviate the symptoms of the patient significantly. The results of gastroendoscopy showed hookworms in the duodenum, also confirmed by pathology examination. Anemia was markedly ameliorated after eliminating the parasites. The results mentioned above suggested that ancylostomiasis was the leading causes of anemia in this patient, and the etiology of anemia in uremic patients should be systematically considered. Especially when anemia could not be cured by regular treatments, rare diseases should be investigated.

  19. Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans acquired in the UK.

    PubMed

    Baple, Katy; Clayton, James

    2015-11-13

    Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a skin disease caused by infection with the larvae of animal hookworms. With conditions for infection more favourable in tropical climates, HrCLM in the UK is classically diagnosed in the returning traveller. We present two cases of clinically diagnosed UK-acquired HrCLM from a district general hospital in the south of England. A 68-year-old woman presented with a pruritic serpiginous tract on the right hand. She was a keen gardener and had been handling compost. A 50-year-old man, a long distance runner, presented with a similar lesion on the dorsum of his foot. Both patients were treated with a single dose of albendazole. These cases may represent an emerging infection in the UK. In the absence of a suggestive travel history, early recognition followed by efficient access to therapy is vital for treating HrCLM transmitted in the UK.

  20. The Maudsley Hospital and the Rockefeller Foundation: The Impact of Philanthropy on Research and Training

    PubMed Central

    JONES, EDGAR; RAHMAN, SHAHINA

    2009-01-01

    Opened in February 1923 to raise the status of academic psychiatry in the UK, the Maudsley Hospital struggled to secure grant income. Without a track record of published research and lacking internationally recognized clinicians, it failed to impress the British Medical Research Council. To challenge leading U.S. and German departments of neuropsychiatry, Edward Mapother, the medical superintendent, looked overseas for investment in an “institute of psychiatry.” Intense lobbying and a modified strategy for research and training designed to meet the Rockefeller Foundation’s prioritization of psychiatry and medical specialization ultimately led to a significant endowment. Alan Gregg and Daniel O’Brien at the Foundation played a pivotal role in re-defining the Maudsley’s programs of research and teaching. Pressure on Mapother to attract funding was matched by that on administrators required to show that their philanthropy had yielded tangible gains in public health. While wealthy charities, like the Rockefeller, often had a vision of the direction that they wished to pull medical science, and they provided much needed income, the impact of their policy agenda was not without drawbacks. Institutions unwilling to embrace a charity’s philosophy were unlikely to secure grants, while those that did might find themselves drawn into less optimal areas. PMID:18996947

  1. The genome and transcriptome of the zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum identify infection-specific gene families.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Erich M; Hu, Yan; Antoshechkin, Igor; Miller, Melanie M; Sternberg, Paul W; Aroian, Raffi V

    2015-04-01

    Hookworms infect over 400 million people, stunting and impoverishing them. Sequencing hookworm genomes and finding which genes they express during infection should help in devising new drugs or vaccines against hookworms. Unlike other hookworms, Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects both humans and other mammals, providing a laboratory model for hookworm disease. We determined an A. ceylanicum genome sequence of 313 Mb, with transcriptomic data throughout infection showing expression of 30,738 genes. Approximately 900 genes were upregulated during early infection in vivo, including ASPRs, a cryptic subfamily of activation-associated secreted proteins (ASPs). Genes downregulated during early infection included ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors; this downregulation was observed in both parasitic and free-living nematodes. Later, at the onset of heavy blood feeding, C-lectin genes were upregulated along with genes for secreted clade V proteins (SCVPs), encoding a previously undescribed protein family. These findings provide new drug and vaccine targets and should help elucidate hookworm pathogenesis.

  2. Growth and Education: A Strategic Report to the Rockefeller Brothers Fund on the Implications of Growth Policy for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perelman, Lewis J.; Berquist, William, H.

    This document attempts to identify for the Rockefeller Brothers Fund how it may best invest its resources in postsecondary education to facilitate transformation to an equilibrium state. As the work of the project developed, it was found that the issue of "limits to growth and higher education" had two facets: (1) what role can the postsecondary…

  3. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  4. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  5. Copro-molecular identification of infections with hookworm eggs in rural Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sato, Megumi; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Keomoungkhoun, Malaythong; Phimmayoi, Inthava; Boupa, Boungnong; Moji, Kazuhiko; Waikagul, Jitra

    2010-09-01

    The prevalence of hookworm eggs in fecal samples, by modified cellophane thick-smear technique, was found to be 30.0% (61/203 samples) in Lahanam Village, Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. The hookworm eggs were morphologically heterogeneous, so that identification was confirmed by copro-PCR with specific primers for hookworms and Trichostrongylus spp.; 12 samples were positive for Necator americanus, 19 for Ancylostoma spp., with one mixed infection of both. Sequencing of the Ancylostoma spp. copro-PCR products found A. duodenale, and also the animal hookworms, A. caninum and A. ceylanicum. Moreover, Trichostrongylus spp.-specific copro-PCR revealed a significant rate of infection (43/203; 21.2%). Sequencing confirmed the zoonotic species, T. colubriformis. PCR/sequencing is useful for differentiating parasite species. The positives by the Kato-Katz method, and by the combined hookworm/Trichostrongylus specific-PCR, were comparable, although the agreement between the two methodologies was only 50%.

  6. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages

    PubMed Central

    Chami, Goylette F.; Fenwick, Alan; Bulte, Erwin; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women. Methods We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5–90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic, village, and parasitological data were collected. Infection risk factors were compared in ordinal logistic regressions. Anaemia and infection intensities were analyzed in multilevel models, and population attributable fractions were estimated. Findings Household and village-level predictors of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm were opposite in direction or significant for single infections. S. mansoni was found primarily in children, whereas hookworm was prevalent amongst the elderly. Anaemia was more prevalent in individuals with S. mansoni and increased by 2.86 fold (p-value<0.001) with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity. Individuals with heavy hookworm were 1.65 times (p-value = 0.008) more likely to have anaemia than uninfected participants. Amongst individuals with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity, 32.0% (p-value<0.001) of anaemia could be attributed to S. mansoni. For people with heavy hookworm infections, 23.7% (p-value = 0.002) of anaemia could be attributed to hookworm. A greater fraction of anaemia (24.9%, p-value = 0.002) was attributable to heavy hookworm infections in adults (excluding pregnant women) as opposed to heavy hookworm infections in school-aged children and pregnant women (20.2%, p-value = 0.001). Conclusion Community-based surveys captured anaemia in children and adults affected by S. mansoni and hookworm infections. For areas endemic with schistosomiasis or hookworm infections, WHO guidelines should include adults for treatment in helminth control programmes. PMID:26513151

  7. Risk profiling of hookworm infection and intensity in southern Lao People's Democratic Republic using Bayesian models.

    PubMed

    Forrer, Armelle; Vounatsou, Penelope; Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Among the common soil-transmitted helminth infections, hookworm causes the highest burden. Previous research in the southern part of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) revealed high prevalence rates of hookworm infection. The purpose of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of hookworm infection and intensity, and to investigate risk factors in the Champasack province, southern Lao PDR. A cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey was conducted in 51 villages. Data on demography, socioeconomic status, water, sanitation, and behavior were combined with remotely sensed environmental data. Bayesian mixed effects logistic and negative binomial models were utilized to investigate risk factors and spatial distribution of hookworm infection and intensity, and to make predictions for non-surveyed locations. A total of 3,371 individuals were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and revealed a hookworm prevalence of 48.8%. Most infections (91.7%) were of light intensity (1-1,999 eggs/g of stool). Lower hookworm infection levels were associated with higher socioeconomic status. The lowest infection levels were found in preschool-aged children. Overall, females were at lower risk of infection, but women aged 50 years and above harbored the heaviest hookworm infection intensities. Hookworm was widespread in Champasack province with little evidence for spatial clustering. Infection risk was somewhat lower in the lowlands, mostly along the western bank of the Mekong River, while infection intensity was homogeneous across the Champasack province. Hookworm transmission seems to occur within, rather than between villages in Champasack province. We present spatial risk maps of hookworm infection and intensity, which suggest that control efforts should be intensified in the Champasack province, particularly in mountainous areas.

  8. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages.

    PubMed

    Chami, Goylette F; Fenwick, Alan; Bulte, Erwin; Kontoleon, Andreas A; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Tukahebwa, Edridah M; Dunne, David W

    2015-01-01

    The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women. We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5-90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic, village, and parasitological data were collected. Infection risk factors were compared in ordinal logistic regressions. Anaemia and infection intensities were analyzed in multilevel models, and population attributable fractions were estimated. Household and village-level predictors of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm were opposite in direction or significant for single infections. S. mansoni was found primarily in children, whereas hookworm was prevalent amongst the elderly. Anaemia was more prevalent in individuals with S. mansoni and increased by 2.86 fold (p-value<0.001) with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity. Individuals with heavy hookworm were 1.65 times (p-value = 0.008) more likely to have anaemia than uninfected participants. Amongst individuals with heavy S. mansoni infection intensity, 32.0% (p-value<0.001) of anaemia could be attributed to S. mansoni. For people with heavy hookworm infections, 23.7% (p-value = 0.002) of anaemia could be attributed to hookworm. A greater fraction of anaemia (24.9%, p-value = 0.002) was attributable to heavy hookworm infections in adults (excluding pregnant women) as opposed to heavy hookworm infections in school-aged children and pregnant women (20.2%, p-value = 0.001). Community-based surveys captured anaemia in children and adults affected by S. mansoni and hookworm infections. For areas endemic with schistosomiasis or hookworm infections, WHO guidelines should include adults for treatment in helminth control programmes.

  9. Integrated campaign.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Hospital Center launched a multiintegrated advertising campaign that centers around topic-specific medical issues through the use of provocative advertisements. For example, the first ad, which launched in September, focuses on abdominal hysterectomies.

  10. High risk of hookworm infection among wastewater farmers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; van der Hoek, Wim; Mukhtar, M; Tahir, Zarfishan; Amerasinghe, Felix P

    2005-11-01

    The health risks of wastewater use in agriculture were investigated in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan, by means of a cross-sectional study. The study showed an increased risk of intestinal nematode infection and hookworm infection, in particular, in wastewater farmers (OR = 31.4, 95% CI 4.1-243) and their children (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.1-16) when compared with farming households using regular (non-wastewater) irrigation water. Textile labourers living in the same village as the wastewater farmers showed a lower risk of hookworm infection than wastewater farmers but an increased risk compared with farming households using regular irrigation water. Many urban and peri-urban farmers make a living by using untreated wastewater in the production of fresh produce for the urban market. Banning the use of untreated wastewater would deprive these farmers of their livelihood and affect food supply for the urban population. If treatment of wastewater is not a feasible option, the promotion of footwear and improved hygiene, the construction of toilets, in combination with regular anthelminthic treatment, would be suitable alternatives to safeguard the health of wastewater farmers and their children.

  11. Investigating hookworm genomes by comparative analysis of two Ancylostoma species

    PubMed Central

    Mitreva, Makedonka; McCarter, James P; Arasu, Prema; Hawdon, John; Martin, John; Dante, Mike; Wylie, Todd; Xu, Jian; Stajich, Jason E; Kapulkin, Wadim; Clifton, Sandra W; Waterston, Robert H; Wilson, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    Background Hookworms, infecting over one billion people, are the mostly closely related major human parasites to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Applying genomics techniques to these species, we analyzed 3,840 and 3,149 genes from Ancylostoma caninum and A. ceylanicum. Results Transcripts originated from libraries representing infective L3 larva, stimulated L3, arrested L3, and adults. Most genes are represented in single stages including abundant transcripts like hsp-20 in infective L3 and vit-3 in adults. Over 80% of the genes have homologs in C. elegans, and nearly 30% of these were with observable RNA interference phenotypes. Homologies were identified to nematode-specific and clade V specific gene families. To study the evolution of hookworm genes, 574 A. caninum / A. ceylanicum orthologs were identified, all of which were found to be under purifying selection with distribution ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous amino acid substitutions similar to that reported for C. elegans / C. briggsae orthologs. The phylogenetic distance between A. caninum and A. ceylanicum is almost identical to that for C. elegans / C. briggsae. Conclusion The genes discovered should substantially accelerate research toward better understanding of the parasites' basic biology as well as new therapies including vaccines and novel anthelmintics. PMID:15854223

  12. Mini review: Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H; Schuster, A

    2012-06-01

    Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a parasitic skin disease caused by the migration of animal hookworm larvae in the epidermis. Since these larvae cannot penetrate the basal membrane of human skin, they remain confined to the epidermis and are unable to develop and complete their lifecycle. By consequence, HrCLM is a self-limiting disease. However, if not treated promptly, the skin pathology may persist for months. HrCLM is endemic in many resource-poor communities in the developing world. In high-income countries, HrCLM occurs sporadically or in the form of small epidemics. Travelers account for the great majority of cases seen by health-care professionals in high-income countries. Transmission occurs when naked skin comes into contact with contaminated soil. Exposure may also occur indoors. Exceptionally, larvae may be transmitted through fomites. The first clinical sign is a small reddish papule. Thereafter, the characteristic serpiginous, slightly elevated, erythematous track becomes visible. Itching becomes more and more intense. Excoriations induced by scratching facilitate bacterial superinfection of the lesion. The diagnosis is essentially clinical. It is supported by a recent travel history and the possibility of exposure. The drug of choice is ivermectin in a single dose (200 μg per kg bodyweight). Repeated treatments with albendazole (400 mg daily) are a good alternative in countries where ivermectin is not available.

  13. Lipopeptide Nanoparticles: Development of Vaccines against Hookworm Parasite.

    PubMed

    Fuaad, Abdullah A H Ahmad; Pearson, Mark S; Pickering, Darren A; Becker, Luke; Zhao, Guangzu; Loukas, Alex C; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2015-10-01

    Necator americanus (hookworm) infects over half a billion people worldwide. Anthelminthic drugs are commonly used to treat the infection; however, vaccination is a more favorable strategy to combat this parasite. We designed new B-cell peptide epitopes based on the aspartic protease of N. americanus (Na-APR-1). The peptides were conjugated to self-adjuvanting lipid core peptide (LCP) systems via stepwise solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and copper catalyst azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions. The LCP vaccine candidates were able to self-assemble into nanoparticles, were administered to mice without the use of additional adjuvant, and generated antibodies that recognized the parent epitope. However, only one LCP derivative was able to produce a high titer of antibodies specific to Na-APR-1; circular dichroism analyses of this compound showed a β-sheet conformation for the incorporated epitope. This study provides important insight in epitope and delivery system design for the development of a vaccine against hookworm infections.

  14. The dawn of DDT and its experimental use by the Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico, 1943-1952.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, D H

    1998-06-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation played an important early role in promoting the use of DDT for malaria control. During World War II the Foundation helped test DDT in the United States. North Africa and Italy. From 1945 to 1952 the Foundation carried out an experimental anti-malaria program in Mexico as part of its global mission to diffuse knowledge of how to control malaria-bearing mosquitoes with DDT.

  15. DNA technological progress toward advanced diagnostic tools to support human hookworm control.

    PubMed

    Gasser, R B; Cantacessi, C; Loukas, A

    2008-01-01

    Blood-feeding hookworms are parasitic nematodes of major human health importance. Currently, it is estimated that 740 million people are infected worldwide, and more than 80 million of them are severely affected clinically by hookworm disease. In spite of the health problems caused and the advances toward the development of vaccines against some hookworms, limited attention has been paid to the need for improved, practical methods of diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and genetic characterization of hookworms is central to their effective control. While traditional diagnostic methods have considerable limitations, there has been some progress toward the development of molecular-diagnostic tools. The present article provides a brief background on hookworm disease of humans, reviews the main methods that have been used for diagnosis and describes progress in establishing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the specific diagnosis of hookworm infection and the genetic characterisation of the causative agents. This progress provides a foundation for the rapid development of practical, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic and analytical tools to be used in improved hookworm prevention and control programmes.

  16. Unexpected absence of genetic separation of a highly diverse population of hookworms from geographically isolated hosts.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Benjamin T; Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gongora, Jaime; Gray, Rachael; Šlapeta, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The high natal site fidelity of endangered Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) along the southern Australian coast suggests that their maternally transmitted parasitic species, such as hookworms, will have restricted potential for dispersal. If this is the case, we would expect to find a hookworm haplotype structure corresponding to that of the host mtDNA haplotype structure; that is, restricted among geographically separated colonies. In this study, we used a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene to investigate the diversity of hookworms (Uncinaria sanguinis) in N. cinerea to assess the importance of host distribution and ecology on the evolutionary history of the parasite. High haplotype (h=0.986) and nucleotide diversity (π=0.013) were seen, with 45 unique hookworm mtDNA haplotypes across N. cinerea colonies; with most of the variation (78%) arising from variability within hookworms from individual colonies. This is supported by the low genetic differentiation co-efficient (GST=0.007) and a high gene flow (Nm=35.25) indicating a high migration rate between the populations of hookworms. The haplotype network demonstrated no clear distribution and delineation of haplotypes according to geographical location. Our data rejects the vicariance hypothesis; that female host natal site fidelity and the transmammary route of infection restrict hookworm gene flow between N. cinerea populations and highlights the value of studies of parasite diversity and dispersal to challenge our understanding of parasite and host ecology.

  17. "The Attila the Hun law": New York's Rockefeller drug laws and the making of a punitive state.

    PubMed

    Kohler-Hausmann, Julilly

    2010-01-01

    In 1973, New York's Governor Nelson Rockefeller responded to panic about soaring heroin use by renouncing his aggressive treatment programs and enacting the most punitive drug policy in the United States. His "Rockefeller Drug Laws" mandated sentences up to life in prison for selling any narcotics. These punishments, comparable to the penalties for murder, served as models for subsequent "War on Drugs" policies enacted across the nation.This article explores the ideological and political work accomplished by this high profile legislation—for policy makers, for members of the general public who clamored for "get tough" strategies, and for the drug users targeted by the statutes. The laws were a repudiation of liberal treatment programs and specialists' expertise, and provided a forum to remake the much-maligned welfare state into a stern, macho vehicle for establishing order in society. Increasingly punitive policies constricted the rights of drug users by rhetorically constructing "addicts" and "pushers" as outside of the polity and as the antithesis of full citizens. Therefore, the Rockefeller Drug Laws not only had devastating effects on drug offenders, but also were instrumental in the profound renegotiation of the state's role and responsibilities.

  18. From working collections to the World Germplasm Project: agricultural modernization and genetic conservation at the Rockefeller Foundation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Helen Anne

    2017-06-01

    This paper charts the history of the Rockefeller Foundation's participation in the collection and long-term preservation of genetic diversity in crop plants from the 1940s through the 1970s. In the decades following the launch of its agricultural program in Mexico in 1943, the Rockefeller Foundation figured prominently in the creation of world collections of key economic crops. Through the efforts of its administrators and staff, the foundation subsequently parlayed this experience into a leadership role in international efforts to conserve so-called plant genetic resources. Previous accounts of the Rockefeller Foundation's interventions in international agricultural development have focused on the outcomes prioritized by foundation staff and administrators as they launched assistance programs and especially their characterization of the peoples and "problems" they encountered abroad. This paper highlights instead how foundation administrators and staff responded to a newly emergent international agricultural concern-the loss of crop genetic diversity. Charting the foundation's responses to this concern, which developed only after agricultural modernization had begun and was understood to be produced by the successes of the foundation's own agricultural assistance programs, allows for greater interrogation of how the foundation understood and projected its central position in international agricultural research activities by the 1970s.

  19. An enzymatically inactivated hemoglobinase from Necator americanus induces neutralizing antibodies against multiple hookworm species and protects dogs against heterologous hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Mark S; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Pickering, Darren A; de Oliveira, Luciana M; Jariwala, Amar; Santiago, Helton; Miles, Aaron P; Zhan, Bin; Jiang, Desheng; Ranjit, Najju; Mulvenna, Jason; Tribolet, Leon; Plieskatt, Jordan; Smith, Tracey; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Jones, Kathryn; Keegan, Brian; Hotez, Peter J; Loukas, Alex

    2009-09-01

    Hookworms digest hemoglobin from erythrocytes via a proteolytic cascade that begins with the aspartic protease, APR-1. Ac-APR-1 from the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, protects dogs against hookworm infection via antibodies that neutralize enzymatic activity and interrupt blood-feeding. Toward developing a human hookworm vaccine, we expressed both wild-type (Na-APR-1(wt)) and mutant (Na-APR-1(mut)-mutagenesis of the catalytic aspartic acids) forms of Na-APR-1 from the human hookworm, Necator americanus. Refolded Na-APR-1(wt) was catalytically active, and Na-APR-1(mut) was catalytically inactive but still bound substrates. Vaccination of canines with Na-APR-1(mut) and heterologous challenge with A. caninum resulted in significantly reduced parasite egg burdens (P=0.034) and weight loss (P=0.022). Vaccinated dogs also had less gut pathology, fewer adult worms, and reduced blood loss compared to controls but these did not reach statistical significance. Vaccination with Na-APR-1(mut) induced antibodies that bound the native enzyme in the parasite gut and neutralized enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1(wt) and APR-1 orthologues from three other hookworm species that infect humans. IgG1 against Na-APR-1(mut) was the most prominently detected antibody in sera from people resident in high-transmission areas for N. americanus, indicating that natural boosting may occur in exposed humans. Na-APR-1(mut) is now a lead antigen for the development of an antihematophagy vaccine for human hookworm disease.

  20. [Small bowel obstruction secondary to massive hookworm infestation complicated by fatal plurimicrobial bacteriemia].

    PubMed

    Mémain, N; Ben M'Rad, M; Rouvier, P; Pallot, J-L

    2016-10-01

    Intestinal symptoms (cramping, flatulence) and iron deficient anemia are classical presenting manifestations of duodenal hookworm infestation in patients living in endemic area. We report a 45-year-old immunocompetent metropolitan man who presented with intestinal obstruction secondary to massive hookworm infestation complicated by fatal plurimicrobial bacteriemia with refractory septic shock. We report a case of acute surgical abdominal presentation with septicemia and refractory shock syndrome due to ileal translocation secondary to massive hookworm infestation. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has not yet been reported. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. The Rockefeller Foundation, the China Foundation, and the development of modern science in China.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L A

    1982-01-01

    Two powerful foundations, with interlocking directorates, were the most important media for transmitting American science to China and for making its development possible: In the 1920s and 1930s, the Rockefeller Foundation's China Medical Board and the China Foundation for the Promotion of Education and Culture recognized that transmission and development required much more than the transplantation of whole scientific institutions. This essay shows that, in their most mature form, the foundations' strategies were informed by a rational and coherent set of policies. Their premise was that the practice and development of advanced scientific medicine and bio-medical or natural scientific research all require an infrastructure of education, communication, physical plant, and equipment. This infrastructure did not exist before the foundations began to foster it in China. In this essay the foundations' China policies are outlined and detailed examples are given to show they built the science infrastructure amidst debate over the appropriateness of the dominant 'Johns Hopkins' institutional model and the norm of 'pure science'. In China, the 'Hopkins' model for medical training and practice featured a combination of clinical practice with sophisticated scientific laboratory research. This model and the 'pure science' norm were seriously challenged by the political and economic exigencies of the 1930s.

  2. Bed bugs, leeches and hookworm larvae in the skin.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Hengge, Ulrich R

    2009-01-01

    Bed bugs, leeches, and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans are skin infestations that are usually considered of minor importance because they produce discomfort rather than cause or transmit disease. Bed bugs have been increasing tremendously in high-income countries in recent years, causing distress to affected individuals and economic loss. Infestation by land leeches causes mainly unpleasant skin reactions, whereas infestation by aquatic leeches may be more dangerous, leading to anemia and in severe cases, to death. Cutaneous larva migrans produces an intense pruritus that can be exasperating for the patient and cause sleep disturbance. An overview is given of these three infestations with a discussion of the causative agents, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  3. An enzymatically inactivated hemoglobinase from Necator americanus induces neutralizing antibodies against multiple hookworm species and protects dogs against heterologous hookworm infection

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Mark S.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Pickering, Darren A.; de Oliveira, Luciana M.; Jariwala, Amar; Santiago, Helton; Miles, Aaron P.; Zhan, Bin; Jiang, Desheng; Ranjit, Najju; Mulvenna, Jason; Tribolet, Leon; Plieskatt, Jordan; Smith, Tracey; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Jones, Kathryn; Keegan, Brian; Hotez, Peter J.; Loukas, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Hookworms digest hemoglobin from erythrocytes via a proteolytic cascade that begins with the aspartic protease, APR-1. Ac-APR-1 from the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, protects dogs against hookworm infection via antibodies that neutralize enzymatic activity and interrupt blood-feeding. Toward developing a human hookworm vaccine, we expressed both wild-type (Na-APR-1wt) and mutant (Na-APR-1mut—mutagenesis of the catalytic aspartic acids) forms of Na-APR-1 from the human hookworm, Necator americanus. Refolded Na-APR-1wt was catalytically active, and Na-APR-1mut was catalytically inactive but still bound substrates. Vaccination of canines with Na-APR-1mut and heterologous challenge with A. caninum resulted in significantly reduced parasite egg burdens (P=0.034) and weight loss (P=0.022). Vaccinated dogs also had less gut pathology, fewer adult worms, and reduced blood loss compared to controls but these did not reach statistical significance. Vaccination with Na-APR-1mut induced antibodies that bound the native enzyme in the parasite gut and neutralized enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1wt and APR-1 orthologues from three other hookworm species that infect humans. IgG1 against Na-APR-1mut was the most prominently detected antibody in sera from people resident in high-transmission areas for N. americanus, indicating that natural boosting may occur in exposed humans. Na-APR-1mut is now a lead antigen for the development of an antihematophagy vaccine for human hookworm disease.—Pearson, M. S., Bethony, J. M., Pickering, D. A., de Oliveira, L. M., Jariwala, A., Santiago, H., Miles, A. P., Zhan, B., Jiang, D., Ranjit, N., Mulvenna, J., Tribolet, L., Plieskatt, J., Smith, T., Bottazzi, M. E., Jones, K., Keegan, B., Hotez, P. J., Loukas, A. An enzymatically inactivated hemoglobinase from Necator americanus induces neutralizing antibodies against multiple hookworm species and protects dogs against heterologous hookworm infection. PMID:19380510

  4. Molecular Identification of Human Hookworm Infections in Economically Disadvantaged Communities in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Romano; Ching, Lee Soo; Kai, Tan Tiong; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009–2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison found that N. americanus (87.2%) was the most predominant hookworm identified, followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (23.4%). No A. duodenale infection was detected in this study. Detection of A. ceylanicum in humans highlighted the zoonotic transmission among humans living near dogs. Thus, implementation of effective control measures for hookworm infections in future should seriously consider this zoonotic implication. PMID:22556084

  5. Molecular identification of human hookworm infections in economically disadvantaged communities in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Ching, Lee Soo; Kai, Tan Tiong; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2012-05-01

    Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009-2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison found that N. americanus (87.2%) was the most predominant hookworm identified, followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (23.4%). No A. duodenale infection was detected in this study. Detection of A. ceylanicum in humans highlighted the zoonotic transmission among humans living near dogs. Thus, implementation of effective control measures for hookworm infections in future should seriously consider this zoonotic implication.

  6. [Hookworm discovered in a patient presenting with severe iron-deficiency anemia].

    PubMed

    Basset, D; Rullier, P; Segalas, F; Sasso, M

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a case involving severe anemia in a patient from New Caledonia. Endoscopic discovery of adult hematophagic hookworms in mainland France is novel because it is exceptional. However, this case also reminds us that hookworm disease is extremely widespread in the world. It often goes unrecognized causing progressive, insidious anemia that can be severe though long-term tolerance is good.

  7. Rapid Detection and Identification of Human Hookworm Infections through High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Chua, Kek Heng

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. Methods Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. Conclusion The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species. PMID:22844538

  8. Rapid detection and identification of human hookworm infections through high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Chua, Kek Heng

    2012-01-01

    Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species.

  9. Hookworm infection, anaemia and genetic variability of the New Zealand sea lion

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Petetti, Laura; Duignan, Padraig; Castinel, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    Hookworms are intestinal blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize and cause high levels of mortality in a wide range of mammals, including otariid pinnipeds. Recently, an empirical study showed that inbreeding (assessed by individual measures of multi-locus heterozygosity) is associated with hookworm-related mortality of California sea lions. If inbreeding increases susceptibility to hookworms, effects would expectedly be stronger in small, fragmented populations. We tested this assumption in the New Zealand sea lion, a threatened otariid that has low levels of genetic variability and high hookworm infection rates. Using a panel of 22 microsatellites, we found that average allelic diversity (5.9) and mean heterozygosity (0.72) were higher than expected for a small population with restricted breeding, and we found no evidence of an association between genetic variability and hookworm resistance. However, similar to what was observed for the California sea lion, homozygosity at a single locus explained the occurrence of anaemia and thrombocytopenia in hookworm-infected pups (generalized linear model, F = 11.81, p < 0.001) and the effect was apparently driven by a particular allele (odds ratio = 34.95%; CI: 7.12–162.41; p < 0.00001). Our study offers further evidence that these haematophagus parasites exert selective pressure on otariid blood-clotting processes. PMID:19605394

  10. Hookworm infection, anaemia and genetic variability of the New Zealand sea lion.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Petetti, Laura; Duignan, Padraig; Castinel, Aurelie

    2009-10-07

    Hookworms are intestinal blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize and cause high levels of mortality in a wide range of mammals, including otariid pinnipeds. Recently, an empirical study showed that inbreeding (assessed by individual measures of multi-locus heterozygosity) is associated with hookworm-related mortality of California sea lions. If inbreeding increases susceptibility to hookworms, effects would expectedly be stronger in small, fragmented populations. We tested this assumption in the New Zealand sea lion, a threatened otariid that has low levels of genetic variability and high hookworm infection rates. Using a panel of 22 microsatellites, we found that average allelic diversity (5.9) and mean heterozygosity (0.72) were higher than expected for a small population with restricted breeding, and we found no evidence of an association between genetic variability and hookworm resistance. However, similar to what was observed for the California sea lion, homozygosity at a single locus explained the occurrence of anaemia and thrombocytopenia in hookworm-infected pups (generalized linear model, F = 11.81, p < 0.001) and the effect was apparently driven by a particular allele (odds ratio = 34.95%; CI: 7.12-162.41; p < 0.00001). Our study offers further evidence that these haematophagus parasites exert selective pressure on otariid blood-clotting processes.

  11. The genome and transcriptome of the zoonotic hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum identify infection-specific gene families

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Erich M; Hu, Yan; Antoshechkin, Igor; Miller, Melanie M; Sternberg, Paul W; Aroian, Raffi V

    2015-01-01

    Hookworms infect over 400 million people, stunting and impoverishing them1–3. Sequencing hookworm genomes and finding which genes they express during infection should help in devising new drugs or vaccines against hookworms4,5. Unlike other hookworms, Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects both humans and other mammals, providing a laboratory model for hookworm disease6,7. We determined an A. ceylanicum genome sequence of 313 Mb, with transcriptomic data throughout infection showing expression of 30,738 genes. Approximately 900 genes were upregulated during early infection in vivo, including ASPRs, a cryptic subfamily of activation-associated secreted proteins (ASPs)8. Genes downregulated during early infection included ion channels and G protein–coupled receptors; this downregulation was observed in both parasitic and free-living nematodes. Later, at the onset of heavy blood feeding, C-lectin genes were upregulated along with genes for secreted clade V proteins (SCVPs), encoding a previously undescribed protein family. These findings provide new drug and vaccine targets and should help elucidate hookworm pathogenesis. PMID:25730766

  12. Hookworm infection of the duodenum associated with dyspepsia and diagnosed by oesophagoduodenoscopy: case report.

    PubMed

    Kibiki, G S; Thielman, N M; Maro, V P; Sam, N E; Dolmans, W M; Crump, J A

    2006-12-01

    Hookworm infection and peptic ulcer disease are common in subtropical and tropical countries. While hookworm infection is endemic where sanitary conditions are poor, peptic ulcer disease is associated with a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Dyspepsia and epigastric pain are common presenting symptoms of patients with either hookworm infection or peptic ulcer disease. Consequently it is common practice at our healthcare facility to examine stool for ova or parasites before considering empirical gastric acid suppressive therapy or Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. We describe a patient who presented with dyspepsia and epigastric pain whose stool examination showed no ova or parasites. The patient's symptoms did not improve with proton pump inhibitor therapy. Endoscopy revealed hookworms in the first part of the duodenum. We review published reports of hookworms at this location. In hookworm endemic areas, when empirical treatment for dyspepsia and upper abdominal pain with acid suppressive agents does not offer remedy, antihelminthic agents should be considered even when stool for ova or parasites is negative.

  13. Expression, purification, and characterization of the Necator americanus aspartic protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) antigen, a component of the bivalent human hookworm vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Seid, Christopher A; Curti, Elena; Jones, R Mark; Hudspeth, Elissa; Rezende, Wanderson; Pollet, Jeroen; Center, Lori; Versteeg, Leroy; Pritchard, Sonya; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Yusibov, Vidadi; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Over 400 million people living in the world's poorest developing nations are infected with hookworms, mostly of the genus Necator americanus. A bivalent human hookworm vaccine composed of the Necator americanus Glutathione S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) and the Necator americanus Aspartic Protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) is currently under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (Sabin PDP). Both monovalent vaccines are currently in Phase 1 trials. Both Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 antigens are expressed as recombinant proteins. While Na-GST-1 was found to express with high yields in Pichia pastoris, the level of expression of Na-APR-1 in this host was too low to be suitable for a manufacturing process. When the tobacco plant Nicotiana benthamiana was evaluated as an expression system, acceptable levels of solubility, yield, and stability were attained. Observed expression levels of Na-APR-1 (M74) using this system are ∼300 mg/kg. Here we describe the achievements and obstacles encountered during process development as well as characterization and stability of the purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein and formulated vaccine. The expression, purification and analysis of purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein obtained from representative 5 kg reproducibility runs performed to qualify the Na-APR-1 (M74) production process is also presented. This process has been successfully transferred to a pilot plant and a 50 kg scale manufacturing campaign under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) has been performed. The 50 kg run has provided a sufficient amount of protein to support the ongoing hookworm vaccine development program of the Sabin PDP. PMID:25905574

  14. Expression, purification, and characterization of the Necator americanus aspartic protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) antigen, a component of the bivalent human hookworm vaccine.

    PubMed

    Seid, Christopher A; Curti, Elena; Jones, R Mark; Hudspeth, Elissa; Rezende, Wanderson; Pollet, Jeroen; Center, Lori; Versteeg, Leroy; Pritchard, Sonya; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Yusibov, Vidadi; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Over 400 million people living in the world's poorest developing nations are infected with hookworms, mostly of the genus Necator americanus. A bivalent human hookworm vaccine composed of the Necator americanus Glutathione S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) and the Necator americanus Aspartic Protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) is currently under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (Sabin PDP). Both monovalent vaccines are currently in Phase 1 trials. Both Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 antigens are expressed as recombinant proteins. While Na-GST-1 was found to express with high yields in Pichia pastoris, the level of expression of Na-APR-1 in this host was too low to be suitable for a manufacturing process. When the tobacco plant Nicotiana benthamiana was evaluated as an expression system, acceptable levels of solubility, yield, and stability were attained. Observed expression levels of Na-APR-1 (M74) using this system are ∼300 mg/kg. Here we describe the achievements and obstacles encountered during process development as well as characterization and stability of the purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein and formulated vaccine. The expression, purification and analysis of purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein obtained from representative 5 kg reproducibility runs performed to qualify the Na-APR-1 (M74) production process is also presented. This process has been successfully transferred to a pilot plant and a 50 kg scale manufacturing campaign under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) has been performed. The 50 kg run has provided a sufficient amount of protein to support the ongoing hookworm vaccine development program of the Sabin PDP.

  15. [The Rockefeller Foundation, the Carlsberg Foundation and Danish medical biology in the interwar years. Effects on research and education throughout the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L

    1999-01-01

    Three large scientific institutes were built in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 1928 and 1938 supported by the Rockefeller Foundation in New York. The three institutes were: the Rockefeller Institute of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej, the Biological Institute of the Carlsberg Foundation, and the Institute of Human Genetics, both on Tagensvej (The Carlsberg Foundation in Copenhagen participated in the financing of the two first ones.) In the same period the Rockefeller Foundation supported the construction of a cyclotron at Niels Bohr's Institute of Theoretical Physics. These institutes in Copenhagen sent many co-workers both to the Rockefeller University in New York and to other places in the world for further education supported by stipends from the Rockefeller Foundation. The scientific nucleus around which these activities crystallized included: the physiologist (and Nobel Prize winner) Aug. Krogh, the physicist (and Nobel Prize winner) Niels Bohr, the chemist S.P.L. Sorensen, the geneticist W. Johannsen, the plant physiologist Peter Boysen Jensen, and the cell culturist Albert Fischer. The international co-operation between the two foundations began early in the 20th century and it can be traced in Danish medical/biological science through the rest of that century.

  16. Comparison of concentration methods for rapid detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    Hookworm infection contributes around 700 million infections worldwide especially in developing nations due to increased use of wastewater for crop production. The effective recovery of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices is difficult due to their low concentrations and heterogeneous distribution. In this study, we compared the recovery rates of (i) four rapid hookworm ova concentration methods from municipal wastewater, and (ii) two concentration methods from sludge samples. Ancylostoma caninum ova were used as surrogate for human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Known concentration of A. caninum hookworm ova were seeded into wastewater (treated and raw) and sludge samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Brisbane and Perth, Australia. The A. caninum ova were concentrated from treated and raw wastewater samples using centrifugation (Method A), hollow fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) (Method B), filtration (Method C) and flotation (Method D) methods. For sludge samples, flotation (Method E) and direct DNA extraction (Method F) methods were used. Among the four methods tested, filtration (Method C) method was able to recover higher concentrations of A. caninum ova consistently from treated wastewater (39-50%) and raw wastewater (7.1-12%) samples collected from both WWTPs. The remaining methods (Methods A, B and D) yielded variable recovery rate ranging from 0.2 to 40% for treated and raw wastewater samples. The recovery rates for sludge samples were poor (0.02-4.7), although, Method F (direct DNA extraction) provided 1-2 orders of magnitude higher recovery rate than Method E (flotation). Based on our results it can be concluded that the recovery rates of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices, especially sludge samples, can be poor and highly variable. Therefore, choice of concentration method is vital for the sensitive detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier

  17. Evidence for an association between hookworm infection and cognitive function in Indonesian school children.

    PubMed

    Sakti, H; Nokes, C; Hertanto, W S; Hendratno, S; Hall, A; Bundy, D A; Satoto

    1999-05-01

    The association between helminth infection and cognitive and motor function was investigated in school-age children in Java, Indonesia. 432 children from 42 primary schools participated in the study. Children were stratified by age and sex into two age groups, 8-9 years and 11-13 years. Children infected with hookworm performed significantly worse than children without hookworm infection in 6 of the 14 cognitive or motor tests. After controlling for school (as a random effect) plus age, socio-economic status and parental education, sex, stunting (height-for-age < - 2sd), body mass index, haemoglobin concentration and the presence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections, infection with hookworm explained significantly lower scores on tests of Fluency (P < 0.01), Digit-Span Forwards (P < 0.01), Number Choice (P < 0.01), Picture Search (P < 0.03), Stroop Colour Word (P < 0.02) and Mazes (P < 0.001). In 4 of the 6-tests (Fluency, Number Choice, Picture Search and Mazes), there was a significant interaction between hookworm infection and age (P < 0.03), indicating that the association between hookworm and lower test scores increased with age. No associations were observed between hookworm infection and scores in tests of Digit-Span Backwards, Corsi-Block, Stroop Colour, Stroop Interference, Free Recall, Verbal Analogies, Bead Threading or the Pegboard (P > 0.05). Tests associated with helminths represented various functions of working memory. No significant associations between helminth infection and motor function were observed that could not be explained by chance. The results suggest that hookworm infection can have a significant adverse effect on children's working memory which may have consequences for a child's reasoning ability and reading comprehension. Although the results are only associational, the fact that differences in cognition were observed at baseline imply that preventing infection with helminths in school-age children could be of benefit.

  18. Micronutrient-Fortified Rice Can Increase Hookworm Infection Risk: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Chamnan, Chhoun; de Boer, Michiel R.; Parker, Megan E.; Burja, Kurt; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Berger, Jacques; Polman, Katja; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fortification of staple foods is considered an effective and safe strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies, thereby improving health. While improving micronutrient status might be expected to have positive effects on immunity, some studies have reported increases in infections or inflammation after iron supplementation. Objective To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. Methods A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program. Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice n = 506). Intestinal parasite infection was measured in fecal samples by Kato-Katz method at baseline and after three and seven months. In a subgroup (N = 330), fecal calprotectin was measured by ELISA as a marker for intestinal inflammation. Results Baseline prevalence of hookworm infection was 18.6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where baseline prevalence was high (>15%), and only by UltraRice_original in schools with low baseline prevalence. Neither hookworm infection nor fortified rice was related to fecal calprotectin. Conclusions Consumption of rice fortified with micronutrients can increase hookworm prevalence, especially in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of

  19. [Nelson Rockefeller and the activities of the American International Association for Economic and Social Development: the debate concerning mission and imperialism in Brazil, 1946-1961].

    PubMed

    Silva, Claiton Marcio da

    2013-10-01

    The article analyzes the bibliography on Nelson Rockefeller and the activities of the American International Association for Economic and Social Development in Brazil. It describes optimistic interpretations of Rockefeller's and the association's work, as well as the nationalist stream of thought, which characterized him as one of the chief representatives of U.S. imperialism, both as a political representative in the 1960s and as the mind behind endeavors of interest to the private sector. It is shown that at the individual and agency levels alike, these initiatives involved direct ties to the local elites, who influenced the reshaping and operationalization of technical cooperation projects.

  20. The origin of the medical research grant in the United States: the Rockefeller Foundation and the NIH Extramural Funding Program.

    PubMed

    Schneider, William H

    2015-04-01

    The establishment of National Institutes of Health (NIH) extramural grants in the second half of the twentieth century marked a signal shift in support for medical research in the United States and created an influential model for the rest of the world. A similar landmark development occurred in the first half of the twentieth century with the creation of the Rockefeller Foundation and its funding programs for medical research. The programs and support of the foundation had a dramatic impact on medical research in the United States and globally. This paper examines early connections between these two developments. The NIH grants have usually been seen as having their roots primarily in the government programs of the Second World War. This article finds direct and indirect influence by the Rockefeller Foundation, as well as parallel developments in these two monumental programs of support for medical research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Molecular Identification of Hookworm Isolates in Humans, Dogs and Soil in a Tribal Area in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    George, Santosh; Levecke, Bruno; Kattula, Deepthi; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Roy, Sheela; Geldhof, Peter; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-08-01

    Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) remain a major public health problem worldwide. Infections with hookworms (e.g., A. caninum, A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense) are also prevalent in dogs, but the role of dogs as a reservoir for zoonotic hookworm infections in humans needs to be further explored. As part of an open-label community based cluster-randomized trial in a tribal area in Tamil Nadu (India; 2013-2015), a total of 143 isolates of hookworm eggs from human stool were speciated based on a previously described PCR-RFLP methodology. The presence of hookworm DNA was confirmed in 119 of 143 human samples. N. americanus (100%) was the most prevalent species, followed by A. caninum (16.8%) and A. duodenale (8.4%). Because of the high prevalence of A. caninum in humans, dog samples were also collected to assess the prevalence of A. caninum in dogs. In 68 out of 77 canine stool samples the presence of hookworms was confirmed using PCR-RFLP. In dogs, both A. caninum (76.4%) and A. ceylanicum (27.9%) were identified. Additionally, to determine the contamination of soil with zoonotic hookworm larvae, topsoil was collected from defecating areas. Hookworm DNA was detected in 72 out of 78 soil samples that revealed presence of hookworm-like nematode larvae. In soil, different hookworm species were identified, with animal hookworms being more prevalent (A. ceylanicum: 60.2%, A. caninum: 29.4%, A. duodenale: 16.6%, N. americanus: 1.4%, A. braziliense: 1.4%). In our study we regularly detected the presence of A. caninum DNA in the stool of humans. Whether this is the result of infection is currently unknown but it does warrant a closer look at dogs as a potential reservoir.

  2. Molecular Identification of Hookworm Isolates in Humans, Dogs and Soil in a Tribal Area in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    George, Santosh; Levecke, Bruno; Kattula, Deepthi; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Roy, Sheela; Geldhof, Peter; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) remain a major public health problem worldwide. Infections with hookworms (e.g., A. caninum, A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense) are also prevalent in dogs, but the role of dogs as a reservoir for zoonotic hookworm infections in humans needs to be further explored. Methodology/Principal Findings As part of an open-label community based cluster-randomized trial in a tribal area in Tamil Nadu (India; 2013–2015), a total of 143 isolates of hookworm eggs from human stool were speciated based on a previously described PCR-RFLP methodology. The presence of hookworm DNA was confirmed in 119 of 143 human samples. N. americanus (100%) was the most prevalent species, followed by A. caninum (16.8%) and A. duodenale (8.4%). Because of the high prevalence of A. caninum in humans, dog samples were also collected to assess the prevalence of A. caninum in dogs. In 68 out of 77 canine stool samples the presence of hookworms was confirmed using PCR-RFLP. In dogs, both A. caninum (76.4%) and A. ceylanicum (27.9%) were identified. Additionally, to determine the contamination of soil with zoonotic hookworm larvae, topsoil was collected from defecating areas. Hookworm DNA was detected in 72 out of 78 soil samples that revealed presence of hookworm-like nematode larvae. In soil, different hookworm species were identified, with animal hookworms being more prevalent (A. ceylanicum: 60.2%, A. caninum: 29.4%, A. duodenale: 16.6%, N. americanus: 1.4%, A. braziliense: 1.4%). Conclusions/Significance In our study we regularly detected the presence of A. caninum DNA in the stool of humans. Whether this is the result of infection is currently unknown but it does warrant a closer look at dogs as a potential reservoir. PMID:27486798

  3. Cognitive Performance and Iron Status are Negatively Associated with Hookworm Infection in Cambodian Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kuong, Khov; Fiorentino, Marion; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Sinuon, Muth; Molyden, Vann; Burja, Kurt; Parker, Megan; Ly, Sou Chheng; Friis, Henrik; Roos, Nanna; Wieringa, Frank T

    2016-10-05

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection has been associated with lower cognitive performance of schoolchildren. To identify pathways through which STH infection might affect school performance, baseline data from a large rice-fortification trial in Cambodian schoolchildren were used to investigate associations between STH infection, micronutrient status, anemia, and cognitive performance. Complete data on anthropometry, cognitive performance, and micronutrient status were available for 1,760 schoolchildren, 6-16 years of age. STH infection was identified using Kato-Katz, whereas cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), block design, and picture completion. STH infection was found in 18% of the children; almost exclusively hookwork infection. After adjusting for age and gender, raw cognitive test scores were significantly lower in hookworm-infected children (-0.65; -0.78; -2.03 points for picture completion, RCPM, and block design, respectively; P < 0.05 for all). Hookworm infection was associated with iron status (total body iron), but not with vitamin A and zinc status, nor with inflammation or anthropometry. Body iron was negatively associated with increased intensity of hookworm infection (R = 0.22, P < 0.001). Hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren was associated with lower cognitive performance, an effect most likely mediated through lower body iron. Interventions that are more effective against hookworm infection are needed to contribute to better health and improvement of cognitive performance. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Increased sensitivity of routine laboratory detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm by agar-plate culture.

    PubMed

    Jongwutiwes, S; Charoenkorn, M; Sitthichareonchai, P; Akaraborvorn, P; Putaporntip, C

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of agar-plate culture has been evaluated for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm, compared with direct smear, the formalin-ether sedimentation technique and the filter-paper method. Of 1085 stool samples from the routine laboratory service at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in Bangkok, 241 samples harboured S. stercoralis, 153 hookworm and 2 Rhabditis hominis. The recovery rate of S. stercoralis by agar-plate culture is significantly superior to the other methods (P < 0.005). The ratios of positive results from the methods used to the total number of S. stercoralis-positive cases were as follows: 1:1.03 by agar-plate culture, 1:1.85 by the filter-paper method, 1:1.98 by the sedimentation technique and 1:10.48 by direct stool smear. A similar trend of the efficacy ratio of each method was obtained for hookworm detection. The characteristic furrows left by hookworm larvae, and larvae and adults of S. stercoralis could be used for preliminary species identification. Daily search for furrows on agar plates for up to 6 consecutive days resulted in an increased sensitivity for diagnosis of both S. stercoralis and hookworm infections.

  5. Restoration of hookworm egg development after prolonged storage in stool suspension.

    PubMed

    Na-Ek, Prasit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Jongthawin, Jurairat; Anamnart, Witthaya; Intapan, Pewpan M; Chamavit, Pennapa; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-07-01

    Hookworm infection is still prevalent in southern Thailand despite control measures. Hookworm eggs submerged for an extended period under water from rainfall or in latrines may not survive, but they may recover their ability to develop into infective larvae when exposed to atmospheric air. This study examined the survival of the hookworm eggs in stool suspension and the restoration of development capability after prolonged storage. In stool mass, eggs developed normally and yielded infective filariform larvae (FL) in 7 days. On the contrary, in 1:10 stool suspension, hookworm eggs were found to remain at the 4-8 cell stage; degenerated eggs were observed after 15 days of storage, and the number of degenerated eggs reached 80 % on day 30. Aeration of the suspension, or transferring to a Petri dish or agar plate, restored the capacity of eggs stored for up to 15 days to develop into FL; thereafter, the capacity declined sharply. Retardation of egg development under water or in stool suspension may be due to a lack of atmospheric air. Use of "night soil" from latrines as fertilizer may be one factor in maintaining hookworm transmission, as worm eggs can undergo normal development upon exposure to atmospheric air.

  6. Modelling the ecological niche of hookworm in Brazil based on climate.

    PubMed

    Mudenda, Ntombi B; Malone, John B; Kearney, Michael T; Mischler, Paula D; Nieto, Prixia del Mar; McCarroll, Jennifer C; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2012-09-01

    The distribution of hookworm in schistosomiasis-endemic areas in Brazil was mapped based on climate suitability. Known biological requirements of hookworm were fitted to data in a monthly long-term normal climate grid (18 x 18 km) using geographical information systems. Hookworm risk models were produced using the growing degree day (GDD) water budget (WB) concept. A moisture-adjusted model (MA-GDD) was developed based on accumulation of monthly temperatures above a base temperature of 15 °C (below which there is no lifecycle progression of Necator americanus) conditional on concurrent monthly values (rain/potential, evapotranspiration) of over 0.4. A second model, designated the gradient index, was calculated based on the monthly accumulation of the product of GDD and monthly WB values (GDD x WB). Both parameters had a significant positive correlation to hookworm prevalence. In the northeastern part of Brazil (the Caatinga), low hookworm prevalence was due to low soil moisture content, while the low prevalence in southern Brazil was related to low mean monthly temperatures. Both environmental temperature and soil moisture content were found to be important parameters for predicting the prevalence of N. americanus.

  7. Sequence data mining in search of hookworm (Necator americanus) microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Abhijeet P; Mittal, Smriti P K

    2016-09-30

    The new world hookworm, Necator americanus is a soil-transmitted nematode responsible for Necatoriasis (a type of helminthiasis) in hosts such as humans, dogs, and cats. N. americanus genome and transcriptome has been sequenced and a draft assembly analysis has been published highlighting protein coding genes and possible drug target proteins. Hookworm microRNA identification, annotations and their public release is yet to be attempted. The same is evident from lack of hookworm miRNA information in related popular public nucleotide sequence repositories such as miRBase, GenBank, WormBase etc. Therefore, in the present study we addressed these issues using EST and assembled transcript sequence information of hookworm. Using computational approaches, we identified three miRNAs precursor sequences and their mature forms. We also identified their potential targets from hookworm ESTs and transcripts, and from human transcriptome. Overall, the results indicate presence of nematode specific miRNA homologs in N. americanus and shades light on their putative targets in worm itself and the human host.

  8. Molecular identification of hookworms in stray and shelter dogs from Guangzhou city, China using ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y J; Zheng, G C; Zhang, P; Alsarakibi, M; Zhang, X H; Li, Y W; Liu, T; Ren, S N; Chen, Z X; Liu, Y L; Li, S J; Li, G Q

    2015-03-01

    Canine hookworm infections are endemic worldwide, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. This study aimed to investigate hookworm infection and identify the prevalent species from stray and shelter dogs in Guangzhou city, southern China by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. From March 2011 to July 2012, fresh faecal samples from a total of 254 dogs were obtained from five locations, namely Conghua, Baiyun, Liwan, Haizhu and Panyu, in Guangzhou. These samples were screened for the presence of hookworm eggs using light microscopy, with an overall prevalence of 29.53% being recorded. The highest prevalence of 45.28% was found in suburban dogs from Conghua compared with lower values recorded in urban dogs in Haizhu (21.43%), Baiyun (18.97%), Panyu (18.18%) and Liwan (15%). The prevalence in stray dogs was significantly higher than that in shelter dogs. PCR-RFLP analysis showed that 57.33% were detected as single hookworm infections with Ancyclostoma caninum, and 22.67% as A. ceylanicum, while 20% were mixed infections. This suggests that high prevalences of both hookworm species in stray and shelter dogs in China pose a potential risk of transmission from pet dogs to humans.

  9. Characterising the mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Gaze, Soraya; McSorley, Henry J; Daveson, James; Jones, Di; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Oliveira, Luciana M; Speare, Richard; McCarthy, James S; Engwerda, Christian R; Croese, John; Loukas, Alex

    2012-02-01

    The mucosal cytokine response of healthy humans to parasitic helminths has never been reported. We investigated the systemic and mucosal cytokine responses to hookworm infection in experimentally infected, previously hookworm naive individuals from non-endemic areas. We collected both peripheral blood and duodenal biopsies to assess the systemic immune response, as well as the response at the site of adult worm establishment. Our results show that experimental hookworm infection leads to a strong systemic and mucosal Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13) and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β) response, with some evidence of a Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2) response. Despite upregulation after patency of both IL-15 and ALDH1A2, a known Th17-inducing combination in inflammatory diseases, we saw no evidence of a Th17 (IL-17) response. Moreover, we observed strong suppression of mucosal IL-23 and upregulation of IL-22 during established hookworm infection, suggesting a potential mechanism by which Th17 responses are suppressed, and highlighting the potential that hookworms and their secreted proteins offer as therapeutics for human inflammatory diseases.

  10. Hookworm infestation as a cause of melena and severe anaemia in farmer.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Marvi; Muzammil, Syeda Maria; Shaikh, Fareed Ahmed; Pal, K M Inam

    2017-02-01

    Hookworm infections remain a major cause of morbidity in the developing world. Prevalence is highest in agricultural areas, where use of waste water for irrigation and poor hygiene increases infection rates among farmers. Infections present with gastrointestinal symptoms and chronic anaemia, and there are usually no signs of overt blood loss. The following report describes a case of melena in a middle-aged farmer, where the diagnosis of hookworm infestation was delayed due to the unusual presentation. The patient underwent multiple blood transfusions before referral to the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi and was managed conservatively with mebendazole at our hospital after exclusion of other possible causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. This case highlights the importance of considering hookworm infestations as a cause of melena in the older age group, where other critical differentials such as peptic ulcer disease and occult malignancy may result in delay in initiation of treatment and a significant financial burden on the patient.

  11. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum intestinal transcriptome provides a platform for selecting drug and vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Wei, Junfei; Damania, Ashish; Gao, Xin; Liu, Zhuyun; Mejia, Rojelio; Mitreva, Makedonka; Strych, Ulrich; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Zhan, Bin

    2016-09-27

    The intestine of hookworms contains enzymes and proteins involved in the blood-feeding process of the parasite and is therefore a promising source of possible vaccine antigens. One such antigen, the hemoglobin-digesting intestinal aspartic protease known as Na-APR-1 from the human hookworm Necator americanus, is currently a lead candidate antigen in clinical trials, as is Na-GST-1 a heme-detoxifying glutathione S-transferase. In order to discover additional hookworm vaccine antigens, messenger RNA was obtained from the intestine of male hookworms, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, maintained in hamsters. RNA-seq was performed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. The genes expressed in the hookworm intestine were compared with those expressed in the whole worm and those genes overexpressed in the parasite intestine transcriptome were further analyzed. Among the lead transcripts identified were genes encoding for proteolytic enzymes including an A. ceylanicum APR-1, but the most common proteases were cysteine-, serine-, and metallo-proteases. Also in abundance were specific transporters of key breakdown metabolites, including amino acids, glucose, lipids, ions and water; detoxifying and heme-binding glutathione S-transferases; a family of cysteine-rich/antigen 5/pathogenesis-related 1 proteins (CAP) previously found in high abundance in parasitic nematodes; C-type lectins; and heat shock proteins. These candidates will be ranked for downstream antigen target selection based on key criteria including abundance, uniqueness in the parasite versus the vertebrate host, as well as solubility and yield of expression. The intestinal transcriptome of A. ceylanicum provides useful information for the identification of proteins involved in the blood-feeding process, representing a first step towards a reverse vaccinology approach to a human hookworm vaccine.

  12. Epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the fundamental factors influencing the epidemiology of wildlife disease is essential to determining the impact of disease on individual health and population dynamics. The host-pathogen-environment relationship of the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) and the parasitic hookworm, Uncinaria sanguinis, was investigated in neonatal pups during summer and winter breeding seasons at two biogeographically disparate colonies in South Australia. The endemic occurrence of hookworm infection in Australian sea lion pups at these sites was 100% and post-parturient transmammary transmission is likely the predominant route of hookworm infection for pups. The prepatent period for U. sanguinis in Australian sea lion pups was determined to be 11-14 days and the duration of infection approximately 2-3 months. The mean hookworm infection intensity in pups found dead was 2138 ± 552 (n = 86), but a significant relationship between infection intensity and faecal egg count was not identified; infection intensity in live pups could not be estimated from faecal samples. Fluctuations in infection intensity corresponded to oscillations in the magnitude of colony pup mortality, that is, higher infection intensity was significantly associated with higher colony pup mortality and reduced pup body condition. The dynamic interaction between colony, season, and host behaviour is hypothesised to modulate hookworm infection intensity in this species. This study provides a new perspective to understanding the dynamics of otariid hookworm infection and provides evidence that U. sanguinis is a significant agent of disease in Australian sea lion pups and could play a role in population regulation in this species.

  13. Epidemiology of Hookworm Infection in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Patterns of Malaria Coinfection, Anemia, and Albendazole Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie; Mosites, Emily; Otchere, Joseph; Twum, Welbeck Amoani; Woo, Lauren; Jones-Sanpei, Hinckley; Harrison, Lisa M.; Bungiro, Richard D.; Benham-Pyle, Blair; Bimi, Langbong; Edoh, Dominic; Bosompem, Kwabena; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional pilot study of hookworm infection was carried out among 292 subjects from 62 households in Kintampo North, Ghana. The overall prevalence of hookworm infection was 45%, peaking in those 11–20 years old (58.5%). In children, risk factors for hookworm infection included coinfection with malaria and increased serum immunoglobulin G reactivity to hookworm secretory antigens. Risk factors for infection in adults included poor nutritional status, not using a latrine, not wearing shoes, and occupation (farming). Although albendazole therapy was associated with an overall egg reduction rate of 82%, 37 subjects (39%) remained infected. Among those who failed therapy, treatment was not associated with a significant reduction in egg excretion, and nearly one-third had higher counts on repeat examination. These data confirm a high prevalence of low-intensity hookworm infection in central Ghana and its association with poor nutritional status. The high rate of albendazole failure raises concern about emerging resistance. PMID:21540391

  14. Teaching Health Campaigns by Doing Health Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuberger, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Health Campaigns, Health Communication,Communication Campaigns, Public Relations Campaigns, Persuasion. Objectives: Students will demonstrate their ability to work effectively both individually and in teams to apply "health communication" theory to emerging, practical, on-campus health issues via formative research, multimodal…

  15. Modeling the economic and epidemiologic impact of hookworm vaccine and mass drug administration (MDA) in Brazil, a high transmission setting.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Hotez, Peter J; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Diemert, David J; Zapf, Kristina M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2016-04-27

    Although mass drug administration (MDA) has helped reduce morbidity attributed to soil-transmitted helminth infections in children, its limitations for hookworm infection have motivated the development of a human hookworm vaccine to both improve morbidity control and ultimately help block hookworm transmission leading to elimination. However, the potential economic and epidemiologic impact of a preventive vaccine has not been fully evaluated. We developed a dynamic compartment model coupled to a clinical and economics outcomes model representing both the human and hookworm populations in a high transmission region of Brazil. Experiments simulated different implementation scenarios of MDA and vaccination under varying circumstances. Considering only intervention costs, both annual MDA and vaccination were highly cost-effective (ICERs ≤ $790/DALY averted) compared to no intervention, with vaccination resulting in lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs ≤ $444/DALY averted). From the societal perspective, vaccination was economically dominant (i.e., less costly and more effective) versus annual MDA in all tested scenarios, except when vaccination was less efficacious (20% efficacy, 5 year duration) and MDA coverage was 75%. Increasing the vaccine's duration of protection and efficacy, and including a booster injection in adulthood all increased the benefits of vaccination (i.e., resulted in lower hookworm prevalence, averted more disability-adjusted life years, and saved more costs). Assuming its target product profile, a pediatric hookworm vaccine drastically decreased hookworm prevalence in children to 14.6% after 20 years, compared to 57.2% with no intervention and 54.1% with MDA. The addition of a booster in adulthood further reduced the overall prevalence from 68.0% to 36.0% and nearly eliminated hookworm infection in children. Using a human hookworm vaccine would be cost-effective and in many cases economically dominant, providing both health

  16. Modeling the Economic and Epidemiologic Impact of Hookworm Vaccine and Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in Brazil, a High Transmission Setting

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Sarah M.; Hotez, Peter J.; Hertenstein, Daniel L.; Diemert, David J.; Zapf, Kristina M.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Brown, Shawn T.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although mass drug administration (MDA) has helped reduce morbidity attributed to soil-transmitted helminth infections in children, its limitations for hookworm infection have motivated the development of a human hookworm vaccine to both improve morbidity control and ultimately help block hookworm transmission leading to elimination. However, the potential economic and epidemiologic impact of a preventive vaccine has not been fully evaluated. Methods We developed a dynamic compartment model coupled to a clinical and economics outcomes model representing both the human and hookworm populations in a high transmission region of Brazil. Experiments simulated different implementation scenarios of MDA and vaccination under varying circumstances. Results Considering only intervention costs, both annual MDA and vaccination were highly cost-effective (ICERs ≤$790/DALY averted) compared to no intervention, with vaccination resulting in lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs ≤$444/DALY averted). From the societal perspective, vaccination was economically dominant (i.e., less costly and more effective) than annual MDA in all tested scenarios, except when vaccination was less efficacious (20% efficacy, 5 year duration) and MDA coverage was 75%. Increasing the vaccine's duration of protection and efficacy, and including a booster injection in adulthood all increased the benefits of vaccination (i.e., resulted in lower hookworm prevalence, averted more disability-adjusted life years, and saved more costs). Assuming its target product profile, a pediatric hookworm vaccine drastically decreased hookworm prevalence in children to 14.6% after 20 years, compared to 57.2% with no intervention and 54.1% with MDA. The addition of a booster in adulthood further reduced the overall prevalence from 68.0% to 36.0%, nearly eliminated hookworm infection in children. Conclusion Using a human hookworm vaccine would be cost-effective and in many cases economically

  17. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.

    PubMed Central

    Esrey, S. A.; Potash, J. B.; Roberts, L.; Shiff, C.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 144 studies were analysed to examine the impact of improved water supply and sanitation facilities on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. These diseases were selected because they are widespread and illustrate the variety of mechanisms through which improved water and sanitation can protect people. Disease-specific median reduction levels were calculated for all studies, and separately for the more methodologically rigorous ones. For the latter studies, the median reduction in morbidity for diarrhoea, trachoma, and ascariasis induced by water supplies and/or sanitation was 26%, 27%, and 29%, respectively; the median reduction for schistosomiasis and dracunculiasis was higher, at 77% and 78%, respectively. All studies of hookworm infection were flawed apart from one, which reported a 4% reduction in incidence. For hookworm infection, ascariasis, and schistosomiasis, the reduction in disease severity, as measured in egg counts, was greater than that in incidence or prevalence. Child mortality fell by 55%, which suggests that water and sanitation have a substantial impact on child survival. Water for personal and domestic hygiene was important in reducing the rates of ascariasis, diarrhoea, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Sanitation facilities decreased diarrhoea morbidity and mortality and the severity of hookworm infection. Better water quality reduced the incidence of dracunculiasis, but its role in diarrhoeal disease control was less important than that of sanitation and hygiene. PMID:1835675

  18. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity.

  19. Heartworm and Hookworm Disease in Military Dogs: Chemoprophylaxis with Diethylcarbamazine and Strylpyridinium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    maintained, the incidence of hookworm infection was statistically lower in the medicated animals than in the nonmedicated animals. Heartworm disease control...of 58 control animals developed heartworm disease ; while only 2 of 23 medicated animals developed the disease. Contraindications to low-level dosage with the drugs were not observed. (Author)

  20. Association of geophagia with Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sera L.; Goodman, Dave; Farag, Tamer H.; Ali, Said M.; Khatib, Mzee R.; Khalfan, Sabra S.; Tielsch, James M.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Geophagia may be harmful as a method for the transmission of geohelminths. In this study, we pose two questions in a representative sample of 970 pregnant women from Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Can consumed earth be a vector for geohelminth infection? And do geophagists have differential parasitic infection? The parasitological content of 59 non-food substance samples was analysed. Cross-sectional data regarding pica behaviour were collected through interviews conducted by local researchers. Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm status was ascertained through Kato–Katz smears. The prevalence of geophagia at baseline was 5.6% and the overall prevalence of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infection was 5.6%, 33.2% and 32.9%, respectively. No consumed soil samples contained infectious parasitic stages, and only one of the consumed pica substances (charcoal) contained parasites of potential risk to human health. Neither the prevalence nor the intensity of infection with Ascaris, Trichuris or hookworm differed significantly by geophagia status. Furthermore, in multivariate models, geophagia was not a significant predictor of helminth infection status. We conclude that geophagia is not a source of Trichuris or hookworm infection among pregnant women in Pemba (insufficient power to evaluate the effect of Ascaris), which is in contrast to existing findings of helminth infection and geophagia. PMID:17568644

  1. Characterization of a fatty acid and retinol binding protein orthologue from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum✯

    PubMed Central

    Fairfax, Keke C.; Vermeire, Jon J.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Bungiro, Richard D.; Grant, Wayne; Husain, Sohail Z.; Cappello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Hookworms, bloodfeeding intestinal nematodes, infect nearly one billion people in resource limited countries and are a leading cause of anemia and malnutrition. Like other nematodes, hookworms lack the capacity to synthesize essential fatty acids de novo and therefore must acquire those from exogenous sources. The cDNA corresponding to a putative Ancylostoma ceylanicum fatty acid and retinol binding protein-1 (AceFAR-1) was amplified from adult hookworm mRNA. Studies using quantitative reverse transcriptase real time-PCR demonstrate that AceFAR-1 transcripts are most abundant in the earliest developmental stages of the parasite, and greater in females than males. Using in vitro assays, the recombinant AceFAR-1 (rAceFAR-1) was shown to bind individual fatty acids with equilibrium dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. The pattern of fatty acid uptake by live adult worms cultured ex vivo was similar to the in vitro binding profile of rAceFAR-1, raising the possibility that the native protein may be involved in acquisition of fatty acids by A. ceylanicum. Animals vaccinated orally with rAceFAR-1 and the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin exhibited a statistically significant (40–47%) reduction in intestinal worm burden compared with controls immunized with antigen or adjuvant alone. Together, these data suggest a potential role for AceFAR-1 in hookworm biology, making it a potentially valuable target for drug and vaccine development. PMID:19591834

  2. Hookworm dermatitis due to Uncinaria stenocephala in a dog from Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shirley; Myers, Sherry L.; Wagner, Brent; Snead, Elisabeth C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Uncinaria stenocephala hookworm dermatitis (uncinariosis) was diagnosed on fecal examination and macerated skin biopsy in a 1.5-year-old greyhound dog from Saskatchewan. This is the first reported case in Canada. Treatment with moxidectin cleared gastrointestinal and dermal infections. PMID:24155473

  3. The co-distribution of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm among African schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Clements, Archie CA; Hotez, Peter J; Hay, Simon I; Tatem, Andrew J; Bundy, Donald AP; Snow, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    Background Surprisingly little is known about the geographical overlap between malaria and other tropical diseases, including helminth infections. This is despite the potential public health importance of co-infection and synergistic opportunities for control. Methods Statistical models are presented that predict the large-scale distribution of hookworm in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), based on the relationship between prevalence of infection among schoolchildren and remotely sensed environmental variables. Using a climate-based spatial model of the transmission potential for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, adjusted for urbanization, the spatial congruence of populations at coincident risk of infection is determined. Results The model of hookworm indicates that the infection is widespread throughout Africa and that, of the 179.3 million school-aged children who live on the continent, 50.0 (95% CI: 48.9–51.1) million (27.9% of total population) are infected with hookworm and 45.1 (95% CI: 43.9–46) million are estimated to be at risk of coincident infection. Conclusion Malaria and hookworm infection are widespread throughout SSA and over a quarter of school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa appear to be at risk of coincident infection and thus at enhanced risk of clinical disease. The results suggest that the control of parasitic helminths and of malaria in school children could be viewed as essential co-contributors to promoting the health of schoolchildren. PMID:17083720

  4. Spatial and genetic epidemiology of hookworm in a rural community in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Pullan, Rachel L; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Quinnell, Rupert J; Brooker, Simon

    2010-06-15

    There are remarkably few contemporary, population-based studies of intestinal nematode infection for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper presents a comprehensive epidemiological analysis of hookworm infection intensity in a rural Ugandan community. Demographic, kinship, socioeconomic and environmental data were collected for 1,803 individuals aged six months to 85 years in 341 households in a cross-sectional community survey. Hookworm infection was assessed by faecal egg count. Spatial variation in the intensity of infection was assessed using a Bayesian negative binomial spatial regression model and the proportion of variation explained by host additive genetics (heritability) and common domestic environment was estimated using genetic variance component analysis. Overall, the prevalence of hookworm was 39.3%, with the majority of infections (87.7%) of light intensity (hookworm egg count was 11.2%, whilst the percentage of variance explained by unidentified domestic effects was 17.8%. In conclusion, we suggest that host genetic relatedness is not a major determinant of infection intensity in this community, with exposure-related factors playing a greater role.

  5. Hookworm dermatitis due to Uncinaria stenocephala in a dog from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shirley; Myers, Sherry L; Wagner, Brent; Snead, Elisabeth C R

    2013-08-01

    Uncinaria stenocephala hookworm dermatitis (uncinariosis) was diagnosed on fecal examination and macerated skin biopsy in a 1.5-year-old greyhound dog from Saskatchewan. This is the first reported case in Canada. Treatment with moxidectin cleared gastrointestinal and dermal infections.

  6. Contrasting effects of heterozygosity on survival and hookworm resistance in California sea lion pups.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Spraker, Terry R; Lyons, Eugene; Melin, Sharon R; Gulland, Frances; Delong, Robert L; Amos, William

    2006-06-01

    Low genetic heterozygosity is associated with loss of fitness in many natural populations. However, it remains unclear whether the mechanism is related to general (i.e. inbreeding) or local effects, in particular from a subset of loci lying close to genes under balancing selection. Here we analyse involving heterozygosity-fitness correlations on neonatal survival of California sea lions and on susceptibility to hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection, the single most important cause of pup mortality. We show that regardless of differences in hookworm burden, homozygosity is a key predictor of hookworm-related lesions, with no single locus contributing disproportionately. Conversely, the subsequent occurrence of anaemia due to blood loss in infected pups is overwhelmingly associated with homozygosity at one particular locus, all other loci showing no pattern. Our results suggest contrasting genetic mechanisms underlying two pathologies related to the same pathogen. First, relatively inbred pups are less able to expel hookworms and prevent their attachment to the intestinal mucosa, possibly due to a weakened immune response. In contrast, infected pups that are homozygous for a gene near to microsatellite Hg4.2 are strongly predisposed to anaemia. As yet, this gene is unknown, but could plausibly be involved in the blood-coagulation cascade. Taken together, these results suggest that pathogenic burden alone may not be the main factor regulating pathogen-related mortality in natural populations. Our study could have important implications for the conservation of small, isolated or threatened populations, particularly when they are at a risk of facing pathogenic challenges.

  7. Characterisation of a fatty acid and retinol binding protein orthologue from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Keke C; Vermeire, Jon J; Harrison, Lisa M; Bungiro, Richard D; Grant, Wayne; Husain, Sohail Z; Cappello, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Hookworms, bloodfeeding intestinal nematodes, infect nearly one billion people in resource limited countries and are a leading cause of anaemia and malnutrition. Like other nematodes, hookworms lack the capacity to synthesise essential fatty acids de novo and therefore must acquire those from exogenous sources. The cDNA corresponding to a putative Ancylostoma ceylanicum fatty acid and retinol binding protein-1 (AceFAR-1) was amplified from adult hookworm mRNA. Studies using quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR demonstrate that AceFAR-1 transcripts are most abundant in the earliest developmental stages of the parasite, and greater in females than males. Using in vitro assays, the recombinant AceFAR-1 (rAceFAR-1) was shown to bind individual fatty acids with equilibrium dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. The pattern of fatty acid uptake by live adult worms cultured ex vivo was similar to the in vitro binding profile of rAceFAR-1, raising the possibility that the native protein may be involved in acquisition of fatty acids by A. ceylanicum. Animals vaccinated orally with rAceFAR-1 and the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin exhibited a statistically significant (40-47%) reduction in intestinal worm burden compared with controls immunized with antigen or adjuvant alone. Together, these data suggest a potential role for AceFAR-1 in hookworm biology, making it a potentially valuable target for drug and vaccine development.

  8. Distribution and clustering of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and hookworm infections in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ziem, J B; Olsen, A; Magnussen, P; Horton, J; Agongo, E; Geskus, R B; Polderman, A M

    2006-04-01

    Human Oesophagostomum infections are locally common in northern Ghana. The present study describes the results of a cross-sectional survey involving 1011 subjects, selected by a compound-based random sampling method from 1227 compounds in 24 villages. Selected persons were examined by both Kato and coproculture methods. Hookworm-like eggs, representing ova of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and hookworm were detected in 87.5% of the Kato smears. The geometric mean egg count of the infected subjects was 1018. Upon coproculture, third-stage larvae of O. bifurcum and hookworm were detected in 53.0% and 86.9% of subjects respectively. Oesophagostomum infections were clustered but no clear explanation for aggregation of infections could be found as yet. Subjects infected with hookworm had a 5-fold higher risk of being infected with O. bifurcum. Infection rates in adult women were higher than in adult men. No association was found with family size, level of hygiene or with the presence of animals in the compounds. Representatives of the Bimoba-tribe were significantly more infected than those of the other tribes. It appears, however, that this tribal association is a geographical phenomenon: Bimoba are mostly living in villages with the highest infection rates.

  9. Field Campaign Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, J. W.; Chapman, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  10. Modulation of mycobacterial-specific Th1 and Th17 cells in latent tuberculosis by coincident hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    George, Parakkal Jovvian; Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Kumaran, Paramasivam Paul; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2013-05-15

    Hookworm infections and tuberculosis (TB) are coendemic in many parts of the world. It has been suggested that infection with helminth parasites could suppress the predominant Th1 (IFN-γ-mediated) response needed to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and enhance susceptibility to infection and/or disease. To determine the role of coincident hookworm infection on responses at steady-state and on M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses in latent TB (LTB), we examined the cellular responses in individuals with LTB with or without concomitant hookworm infection. By analyzing the expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets of CD4(+) T cells, we were able to demonstrate that the presence of coincident hookworm infection significantly diminished both spontaneously expressed and M. tuberculosis-specific mono- and dual-functional Th1 and Th17 cells. Hookworm infection, in contrast, was associated with expanded frequencies of mono- and dual-functional Th2 cells at both steady-state and upon Ag stimulation. This differential induction of CD4(+) T cell subsets was abrogated upon mitogen stimulation. Additionally, coincident hookworm infection was associated with increased adaptive T regulatory cells but not natural regulatory T cells in LTB. Finally, the CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression pattern was also associated with alterations in the systemic levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Thus, coincident hookworm infection exerts a profound inhibitory effect on protective Th1 and Th17 responses in LTB and may predispose toward the development of active tuberculosis in humans.

  11. Efficacy of parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in faecal specimens.

    PubMed

    Inês, Elizabete de J; Souza, Joelma N; Santos, Renata C; Souza, Eliane S; Santos, Fred L; Silva, Mônica L S; Silva, Moacir P; Teixeira, Márcia C A; Soares, Neci M

    2011-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of stool examination for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm, a total of 634 stool samples from the routine laboratory service of the Pharmacia Faculty, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, were examined by agar plate culture (APC), Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation. The sensitivity of agar plate culture, calculated by combining results of all 3 methods, was 95% for S. stercoralis and 77.6% for hookwoorm. Moreover, APC had superior accuracy than Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation for S. stercoralis and hookworm diagnosis, respectively. The S. stercoralis and hookworm positive samples from the laboratory routine, obtained after the previous analysis, along with those initially selected, were used to evaluate the concordance between microscopic examination and both the type of furrows left by larvae and the time for culture positivity using the APC method. Of 115 stool samples positive for S. stercoralis and 92 positive for hookworm, 110 (95.7%) and 89 (96.7%), respectively, had concordant results for furrows and morphological characteristics. The cumulative percentage of positivity increased to 94% by the third day of observation; at this time, only 19.6% of hookworm-positive samples had positive culture plates. Analyses of 74 S. stercoralis-positive stool samples stored at 4°C for 24, 48 and 72h showed the presence of larvae in 48.6%, 28.4% and 23% of samples, respectively when re-examined by the APC. As a definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis depends on the microscopic demonstration of parasites, increasing the sensitivity of the detection requires the use of different parasitological methods, including APC.

  12. Odanacatib, a Cathepsin K Cysteine Protease Inhibitor, Kills Hookworm In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Jon J.; Suzuki, Brian M.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2016-01-01

    Hookworm infection is chief among soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) for the chronic morbidly inflicted. Deworming via mass drug administration (MDA) programs most often employs single doses of benzimidazole drugs to which resistance is a constant threat. To discover new drugs, we employ a hamster model of hookworm infection with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and use albendazole (ABZ; 10 mg/kg orally) as the gold standard therapy. We previously showed that a single oral 100 mg/kg dose of the cathepsin cysteine protease (CP) inhibitor, K11777, offers near cure of infection that is associated with a 95% reduction in the parasite’s resident CP activity. We confirm these findings here and demonstrate that odanacatib (ODN), Merck’s cathepsin K inhibitor and post-clinical Phase III drug candidate for treatment of osteoporosis, decreases worm burden by 73% at the same dose with a 51% reduction in the parasite’s CP activity. Unlike K11777, ODN is a modest inhibitor of both mammalian cathepsin B and the predominant cathepsin B-like activity measureable in hookworm extracts. ODN’s somewhat unexpected efficacy, therefore, may be due to its excellent pharmacokinetic (PK) profile which allows for sustained plasma exposure and, possibly, sufficient perturbation of hookworm cathepsin B activity to be detrimental to survival. Accordingly, identifying a CP inhibitor(s) that combines the inhibition potency of K11777 and the PK attributes of ODN could lead to a drug that is effective at a lower dose. Achieving this would potentially provide an alternative or back-up to the current anti-hookworm drug, albendazole. PMID:27384569

  13. Development of new microsatellites for the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and analysis of genetic diversity in Brazilian populations.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Élida Mara Leite; Miranda, Rodrigo Rodrigues Cambraia de; Furtado, Luis Fernando Viana; Redondo, Rodrigo Aparecido Fernandes; Tennessen, Jacob Adam; Blouin, Michael Scott

    2017-03-10

    Considering the great efforts towards formulating a vaccine against hookworms, and the concerns about the spread of drug resistance through hookworm populations, it is justified to study the molecular diversity and population genetic structure of these nematodes. This work had the aim to develop microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic structure and the molecular diversity of Brazilian populations of Ancylostoma caninum. Seven microsatellites markers were successfully used to characterize five Brazilian populations. These findings may contribute to a better comprehension of the ecology, patterns of transmission, drug resistances and development of immunotherapeutic strategies in hookworms.

  14. In vitro screening of compounds against laboratory and field isolates of human hookworm reveals quantitative differences in anthelmintic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Treger, Rebecca S; Otchere, Joseph; Keil, Martin F; Quagraine, Josephine E; Rai, Ganesha; Mott, Bryan T; Humphries, Debbie L; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael; Vermeire, Jon J

    2014-01-01

    A panel of 80 compounds was screened for anthelmintic activity against a laboratory strain of Ancylostoma ceylanicum and field isolates of hookworm obtained from school children in the Kintampo North District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Although the laboratory strain of A. ceylanicum was more susceptible to the compounds tested than the field isolates of hookworm, a twofold increase in compound concentration resulted in comparable egg hatch percent inhibition for select compounds. These data provide evidence that the efficacy of anthelmintic compounds may be species-dependent and that field and laboratory strains of hookworm differ in their sensitivities to the anthelmintics tested. These data also suggest that both compound concentration and hookworm species must be considered when screening to identify novel anthelmintic compounds.

  15. Safety and immunogenicity of the Na-GST-1 hookworm vaccine in Brazilian and American adults

    PubMed Central

    Diemert, David J.; Freire, Janaína; Valente, Vanderson; Fraga, Carlos Geraldo; Talles, Frederico; Grahek, Shannon; Campbell, Doreen; Jariwala, Amar; Periago, Maria Victoria; Enk, Martin; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hamilton, Robert; Brelsford, Jill; Yakovleva, Anna; Li, Guangzhao; Peng, Jin; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Hotez, Peter; Bethony, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Necator americanus Glutathione-S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) plays a role in the digestion of host hemoglobin by adult N. americanus hookworms. Vaccination of laboratory animals with recombinant Na-GST-1 is associated with significant protection from challenge infection. Recombinant Na-GST-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Alhydrogel) according to current Good Manufacturing Practice. Two Phase 1 trials were conducted in 142 healthy adult volunteers in the United States and Brazil, first in hookworm-naïve individuals and then in residents of a N. americanus endemic area in Brazil. Volunteers received one of three doses of recombinant Na-GST-1 (10, 30, or 100 μg) adjuvanted with Alhydrogel, adjuvanted with Alhydrogel and co-administered with an aqueous formulation of Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA-AF), or the hepatitis B vaccine. Vaccinations were administered via intramuscular injection on days 0, 56, and 112. Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel was well tolerated in both hookworm-naïve and hookworm-exposed adults, with the most common adverse events being mild to moderate injection site pain and tenderness, and mild headache and nausea; no vaccine-related severe or serious adverse events were observed. Antigen-specific IgG antibodies were induced in a dose-dependent fashion, with increasing levels observed after each vaccination in both trials. The addition of GLA-AF to Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel did not result in significant increases in specific IgG responses. In both the US and Brazil studies, the predominant IgG subclass induced against Na-GST-1 was IgG1, with lesser amounts of IgG3. Vaccination of both hookworm-naïve and hookworm-exposed adults with recombinant Na-GST-1 was safe, well tolerated, and resulted in significant antigen-specific IgG responses. Based on these results, this vaccine will be advanced into clinical trials in children and eventual efficacy studies. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01261130 for the Brazil

  16. Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mpairwe, Harriet; Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Kizito, Dennison; Kakande, Mohammed; Jones, Frances M; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Muwanga, Moses; Rodrigues, Laura C; Dunne, David W; Elliott, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Background Worms may protect against allergy. Early-life worm exposure may be critical, but this has not been fully investigated. Objectives To investigate whether worms in pregnancy and in early childhood are associated with childhood eczema incidence. Methods The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, an anthelminthic treatment trial, enrolled pregnant women between 2003 and 2005 in Uganda. Mothers were investigated for worms during pregnancy and children annually. Eczema was doctor-diagnosed from birth to age five years. A planned observational analysis was conducted within the trial cohort to investigate associations between worms and eczema. Results Data for 2345 live-born children were analysed. Hookworm was the most prevalent maternal worm (45%). Childhood worms were less prevalent. Eczema incidence was 4.68/100 person-years. Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced eczema incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p-value: 0.71(0.51–0.99), 0.04] and modified effects of known risk factors for eczema: Dermatophagoides-specific IgE in children was positively associated with eczema incidence if the mother had no hookworm [2.72(1.11–6.63), 0.03], but not if the mother had hookworm [0.41(0.10–1.69), 0.22], interaction p-value = 0.03. Similar interactions were seen for maternal history of eczema {[2.87(1.31–6.27, 0.008) vs. [0.73(0.23–2.30), 0.60], interaction p-value = 0.05}, female gender {[1.82(1.22–2.73), 0.004 vs. [0.96(0.60–1.53), 0.87], interaction p-value = 0.04} and allergen-specific IgE. ChildhoodTrichuris trichiura and hookworm were inversely associated with eczema. Conclusions Maternal hookworm modifies effects of known risk factors for eczema. Mechanisms by which early-life worm exposures influence allergy need investigation. Worms or worm products, and intervention during pregnancy have potential for primary prevention of allergy. PMID:25171741

  17. Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mpairwe, Harriet; Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Kizito, Dennison; Kakande, Mohammed; Jones, Frances M; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Muwanga, Moses; Rodrigues, Laura C; Dunne, David W; Elliott, Alison M

    2014-08-01

    Worms may protect against allergy. Early-life worm exposure may be critical, but this has not been fully investigated. To investigate whether worms in pregnancy and in early childhood are associated with childhood eczema incidence. The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, an anthelminthic treatment trial, enrolled pregnant women between 2003 and 2005 in Uganda. Mothers were investigated for worms during pregnancy and children annually. Eczema was doctor-diagnosed from birth to age five years. A planned observational analysis was conducted within the trial cohort to investigate associations between worms and eczema. Data for 2345 live-born children were analysed. Hookworm was the most prevalent maternal worm (45%). Childhood worms were less prevalent. Eczema incidence was 4.68/100 person-years. Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced eczema incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p-value: 0.71(0.51-0.99), 0.04] and modified effects of known risk factors for eczema: Dermatophagoides-specific IgE in children was positively associated with eczema incidence if the mother had no hookworm [2.72(1.11-6.63), 0.03], but not if the mother had hookworm [0.41(0.10-1.69), 0.22], interaction p-value = 0.03. Similar interactions were seen for maternal history of eczema {[2.87(1.31-6.27, 0.008) vs. [0.73(0.23-2.30), 0.60], interaction p-value = 0.05}, female gender {[1.82(1.22-2.73), 0.004 vs. [0.96(0.60-1.53), 0.87], interaction p-value = 0.04} and allergen-specific IgE. Childhood Trichuris trichiura and hookworm were inversely associated with eczema. Maternal hookworm modifies effects of known risk factors for eczema. Mechanisms by which early-life worm exposures influence allergy need investigation. Worms or worm products, and intervention during pregnancy have potential for primary prevention of allergy. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Improvement of the merthiolate-iodine-formalin (MIF) fecal technique for hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs.

    PubMed

    Bawden, M P

    1994-06-01

    The merthiolate-iodine-formalin (MIF) technique to detect human intestinal parasites in feces was inefficient for the detection of hookworm and Trichuris trichiura eggs. Addition of a saturated-brine flotation step increased recovery of hookworm eggs by 77% and Trichuris trichiura eggs by 87%. Recovery of Ascaris lumbricoides also was increased by 71%. This was a significant improvement in the sensitivity of the MIF technique for these 3 kinds of human parasite.

  19. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Stefan Michael; Alexander, Neal Douglas Edward; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Brooker, Simon; Cundill, Bonnie; Diemert, David Joseph; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey Michael

    2011-09-01

    Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously. We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s) altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult) or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory). Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus) and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected) by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a data reduction method. Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ), accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts) compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.

  20. Collision Repair Campaign

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  1. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... campaign for the U.S. Hispanic community. 1 Know Stroke A stroke occurs when the blood supply to ...

  2. Excretory-Secretory Products from Hookworm L3 and Adult Worms Suppress Proinflammatory Cytokines in Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Stefan Michael; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Freitas, Paula Albuquerque; Massara, Cristiano Lara; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey Michael

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of larval and adult worm excretory-secretory (ES) products from hookworm on the proliferative responses and cytokine secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from hookwormpatients and egg-negative, nonendemic controls. When compared with negative controls, mitogen-stimulated PBMC from hookworm-infected individuals showed a significantly reduced proliferative response when adult worm ES antigen was added to the cultures. Furthermore, in hookworm-infected individuals a significant downmodulation of inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion resulted when PBMCs were stimulated with mitogen in combination with larval or adult worm ES. Both, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-10 secretion were significantly lower in stimulated PBMC from infected individuals; however the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio was much lower in hookworm-infected patients. Comparable effects, although at lower concentrations, were achieved when PBMCs from both groups were incubated with living hookworm third-stage larvae. We suggest that hookworm ES products downmodulate proliferative responses and inflammation during the chronic phase of the disease and facilitate early larval survival or adult worm persistence in the gut. PMID:21772981

  3. Who Runs Presidential Campaigns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindsvatter, Peter S.

    Presidential campaigns in the last decade have provided evidence of the rising influence of the mass media campaign and of campaign consultants. The media, through their power of access to the people, manipulate the public's recognition of a candidate by the amount of coverage given. Newspaper endorsements and the reporting of media-conducted…

  4. Who Runs Presidential Campaigns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindsvatter, Peter S.

    Presidential campaigns in the last decade have provided evidence of the rising influence of the mass media campaign and of campaign consultants. The media, through their power of access to the people, manipulate the public's recognition of a candidate by the amount of coverage given. Newspaper endorsements and the reporting of media-conducted…

  5. Diversity: A Corporate Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Diana D.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for a "campaign" because she believes there is a need to build upon the successes of diversity initiatives with renewed commitment, in much the same way as capital campaigns build upon past successes and refocus campuses on their work. Just as a capital campaign invests in financial stability by stimulating…

  6. Hookworm infection in a healthy adult that manifested as severe eosinphilia and diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hao; Lee, Sai-Cheong; Huang, Shie-Shian; Chang, Liang-Che

    2011-12-01

    A 54-year-old male was admitted because of having suffered from progressive watery diarrhea for 12 days. He had no history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, organ transplantation, or malignancy. After admission, he still complained of diarrhea despite medical treatment. The laboratory examination showed leukocytosis with eosinophilia and a stool examination by the concentration method was negative four times. When a sigmoidoscopy was performed as a part of an explorative survey, a single protruding mass consisting if a moving adult hookworm was found. The fifth stool examination by the concentration method identified hookworm ova. The patient was treated with oral mebendazole 100 mg twice a day for 3 days. The diarrhea and eosinophilia subsided after this treatment.

  7. Hookworms of dogs and cats as agents of cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Montgomery, Susan P; Zajac, Anne M; Eberhard, Mark L; Kazacos, Kevin R

    2010-04-01

    Dogs and cats are hosts to hookworms that may cause zoonotic disease, most notably, cutaneous larva migrans. Ancylostoma braziliense is most often implicated in dermatological lesions, and Ancylostoma caninum has been associated with eosinophilic enteritis and suggested as a possible cause of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in humans. Other manifestations include eosinophilic pneumonitis, localized myositis, folliculitis, erythema multiforme, or ophthalmological manifestations. Ancylostoma eggs are morphologically indistinguishable, which complicates epidemiological studies. Surveys of dermatologists, gastroenterologists, and ophthalmologists would help to define the incidence of these zoonotic infections. Improved diagnostic tests are needed to identify the causative species involved and understand the epidemiology of hookworm disease. This review describes the discovery of the disease, the biology of the agents, and how that biology may impact disease.

  8. Backstage: the relationship between the Rockefeller Foundation and the World Health Organization, Part I: 1940s-1960s.

    PubMed

    Birn, A-E

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing debate about what role foundations should play in global health governance generally, and particularly vis-à-vis the World Health Organization (WHO). Much of this discussion revolves around today's gargantuan philanthropy, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and its sway over the agenda and modus operandi of global health. Yet such pre-occupations are not new. The Rockefeller Foundation (RF), the unparalleled 20th century health philanthropy heavyweight, both profoundly shaped WHO and maintained long and complex relations with it, even as both institutions changed over time. This article examines the WHO-RF relationship from the 1940s to the 1960s, tracing its ebbs and flows, key moments, challenges, and quandaries, concluding with a reflection on the role of the Cold War in both fully institutionalizing the RF's dominant disease-control approach and limiting its smaller social medicine efforts, even as the RF's quotidian influence at WHO diminished. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of hookworm infection and deworming on anaemia in non-pregnant populations: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer L; Brooker, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To summarise age- and intensity-stratified associations between human hookworm infection and anaemia and to quantify the impact of treatment with the benzimidazoles, albendazole and mebendazole, on haemoglobin and anaemia in non-pregnant populations. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed) were searched for relevant studies published between 1980 and 2009, regardless of language, and researchers contacted about potential data. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was compared between uninfected individuals and individuals harbouring hookworm infections of different intensities, expressed as standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-analysis of randomised control trials (RCTs) investigated the impact of treatment on Hb and anaemia. Results Twenty-three cross-sectional studies, six pre- and post-intervention studies and 14 trials were included. Among cross-sectional studies, moderate- and heavy-intensity hookworm infections were associated with lower Hb in school-aged children, while all levels of infection intensity were associated with lower Hb in adults. Among RCTs using albendazole, impact of treatment corresponded to a 1.89 g/l increase (95%CI: 0.13–3.63) in mean Hb while mebendazole had no impact. There was a positive impact of 2.37 g/l (95%CI: 1.33–3.50) on mean Hb when albendazole was co-administered with praziquantel, but no apparent additional benefit of treatment with benzimidazoles combined with iron supplementation. The mean impact of treatment with benzimidazoles alone on moderate anaemia was small (relative risk (RR) 0.87) with a larger effect when combined with praziquantel (RR 0.61). Conclusions Anaemia is most strongly associated with moderate and heavy hookworm infection. The impact of anthelmintic treatment is greatest when albendazole is co-administered with praziquantel. PMID:20500563

  10. Transgenic C. elegans dauer larvae expressing hookworm phospho null DAF-16/FoxO exit dauer.

    PubMed

    Gelmedin, Verena; Brodigan, Thomas; Gao, Xin; Krause, Michael; Wang, Zhu; Hawdon, John M

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic hookworms and the free-living model nematode Caenorhabtidis elegans share a developmental arrested stage, called the dauer stage in C. elegans and the infective third-stage larva (L3) in hookworms. One of the key transcription factors that regulate entrance to and exit from developmental arrest is the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16/FoxO. During the dauer stage, DAF-16 is activated and localized in the nucleus. DAF-16 is negatively regulated by phosphorylation by the upstream kinase AKT, which causes DAF-16 to localize out of the nucleus and the worm to exit from dauer. DAF-16 is conserved in hookworms, and hypothesized to control recovery from L3 arrest during infection. Lacking reverse genetic techniques for use in hookworms, we used C. elegans complementation assays to investigate the function of Ancylostoma caninum DAF-16 during entrance and exit from L3 developmental arrest. We performed dauer switching assays and observed the restoration of the dauer phenotype when Ac-DAF-16 was expressed in temperature-sensitive dauer defective C. elegans daf-2(e1370);daf-16(mu86) mutants. AKT phosphorylation site mutants of Ac-DAF-16 were also able to restore the dauer phenotype, but surprisingly allowed dauer exit when temperatures were lowered. We used fluorescence microscopy to localize DAF-16 during dauer and exit from dauer in C. elegans DAF-16 mutant worms expressing Ac-DAF-16, and found that Ac-DAF-16 exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Surprisingly, Ac-DAF-16 with mutated AKT phosphorylation sites also exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Our results suggest that another mechanism may be involved in the regulation DAF-16 nuclear localization during recovery from developmental arrest.

  11. Model for product development of vaccines against neglected tropical diseases: a vaccine against human hookworm.

    PubMed

    Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brown, Ami Shah

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the advances in product development and technology transfer of the vaccine against human hookworm, with particular emphasis on the lessons learned and the challenges of developing a vaccine in the nonprofit sector. The comprehensive approach to vaccine development established by the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative (HHVI) identifies key operational and technical aspects that are essential for a successful partnership with a developing country vaccine manufacturer. This article also highlights the importance of a global access roadmap to guide the vaccine development program. The advancement of new products for the control of neglected tropical diseases portends great challenges for global access, including aspects related to vaccine design, product development and manufacture, vaccine introduction and distribution, financing, knowledge dissemination and intellectual property management. With only three vaccines for neglected tropical diseases in clinical trials - hookworm, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis - we are at the nascent stages of developing vaccines for neglected populations. Product development public-private partnerships, such as the HHVI, continue to show great promise on this front and will eventually provide significant control tools for achieving millennium development goals related to poverty reduction, as well as child and maternal health.

  12. Comparative prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections and the prospects for combined control.

    PubMed

    Booth, M; Bundy, D A

    1992-08-01

    Programmes to control Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections have often been targeted at each infection separately, but the advent of benign and broad-spectrum anthelmintics suggests that combined control may be feasible. The extent to which the infections co-occur in communities will determine the need for, and potential benefits of, such a combined approach. This paper examines the comparative distribution of the three geohelminths in different geographical areas and shows that A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura have closely related distributions, while hookworm infection is largely independent of the other two. These results indicate that many communities are at risk of disease from infection by more than one species of helminth. The similar distributions and epidemiological characteristics of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura suggest that simultaneous control of these two parasites by the same strategy would be feasible and highly beneficial to communities. Multiple species control strategies which aim to control hookworm infection may require a more complicated protocol with more precise locality targeting.

  13. Number of Grooming Partners Is Associated with Hookworm Infection in Wild Vervet Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Wren, Brandi T; Remis, Melissa J; Camp, Joseph W; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    There are many known benefits of social grooming among primates, including maintenance of social relationships, removal of ectoparasites, and improved physiological condition. Recently, however, researchers have noted that social grooming and social contact may also present a significant cost by facilitating transmission of some parasites and pathogens. We investigated whether the number of social grooming partners varied based on infection status for gastrointestinal parasites. We used focal animal sampling and continuous recording to collect data on the number of grooming partners for known individual vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). We collected non-invasive faecal samples and examined them using faecal flotation, faecal sedimentation, and immunofluorescence microscopy. We detected 6 parasites: Trichuris sp. (92%), hookworm (71%), spirurids (68%), Oesophagostomum sp. (84%), Strongyloides sp. (24%), and Entamoeba coli (92%). The number of grooming partners varied significantly based on infection with hookworm and sex. No significant relationships were detected for other parasites. Associations between host behavioural variation and some parasite taxa (specifically Trichuris, Oesophagostomum, and Entamoeba spp.) were impossible to explore due to an extremely high prevalence among hosts. This is the first report that we are aware of that has detected an association between social grooming behaviours and infection with hookworm. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Experimental hookworm infection and escalating gluten challenges are associated with increased microbial richness in celiac subjects.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Paul; Zakrzewski, Martha; Croese, John; Su, Xiaopei; Sotillo, Javier; McCann, Leisa; Navarro, Severine; Mitreva, Makedonka; Krause, Lutz; Loukas, Alex; Cantacessi, Cinzia

    2015-09-18

    The intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in the development of the immune system. Recent investigations have highlighted the potential of helminth therapy for treating a range of inflammatory disorders, including celiac disease (CeD); however, the mechanisms by which helminths modulate the immune response of the human host and ameliorate CeD pathology are unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential role of alterations in the human gut microbiota in helminth-mediated suppression of an inflammatory disease. We assessed the qualitative and quantitative changes in the microbiota of human volunteers with CeD prior to and following infection with human hookworms, and following challenge with escalating doses of dietary gluten. Experimental hookworm infection of the trial subjects resulted in maintenance of the composition of the intestinal flora, even after a moderate gluten challenge. Notably, we observed a significant increase in microbial species richness over the course of the trial, which could represent a potential mechanism by which hookworms can regulate gluten-induced inflammation and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis.

  15. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Smout, Felicity A; Skerratt, Lee F; Butler, James R A; Johnson, Christopher N; Congdon, Bradley C; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively). The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7%) and soil (55.6%) in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to "closing the gap" in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  16. Regulatory monocytes in helminth infections: insights from the modulation during human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antônio de; Guimarães, Ana Clara Gazzinelli; Silveira Lemos, Denise da; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda

    2017-04-08

    While the macrophage polarization is well characterized in helminth infections, the natural heterogeneity of monocytes with multiple cell phenotypes might influence the outcome of neglected diseases, such hookworm infection. Here, we report the profile of monocytes in human hookworm infections as a model to study the regulatory subpopulation of monocytes in helminth infections. Blood samples were collected from 19 Necator americanus-infected individuals and 13 healthy individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, and immunophenotyping was conducted by flow cytometry. The expressions of genes encoding human nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin 4 (IL-4), arginase-1 (Arg-1) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase were quantified by qPCR. Plasma levels of IL-4 were determined by sandwich ELISA. Unpaired t-tests or Mann-Whitney tests were used depending on the data distribution. Hookworm infected individuals (HWI) showed a significant increase in the number of monocytes/mm(3) (555.2 ± 191.0) compared to that of the non-infected (NI) individuals (120.4 ± 44.7) (p < 0.0001). While the frequencies of CD14(+)IL-10(+) and CD14(+)IL-12(+) cells were significantly reduced in the HWI compared to NI group (p = 0.0289 and p < 0.0001, respectively), the ratio between IL-10/IL-12 producing monocytes was significantly elevated in HWI (p = 0.0004), indicating the potential regulatory activity of these cells. Measurement of IL-4 levels and gene expression of IL-4 and Arg-1 (highly expressed in alternatively activated macrophages) revealed no significant differences between the NI and HWI groups. Interestingly, individuals from the HWI group had higher expression of the iNOS gene (associated with a regulatory profile) (20.27 ± 2.97) compared to the NI group (11.28 ± 1.18, p = 0.0409). Finally, individuals from the HWI group had a significantly higher frequency of CD206(+)CD23(+)IL-10(+) (7.57 ± 1.96) cells compared to

  17. Improved insights into the transcriptomes of the human hookworm Necator americanus--fundamental and biotechnological implications.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Elida M; Hall, Ross S; Loukas, Alex; Cooper, Leanne; Hu, Min; Ranganathan, Shoba; Gasser, Robin B

    2009-01-01

    Hookworms of humans are blood-feeding parasitic nematodes of major socio-economic significance in a wide range of countries. They cause a neglected tropical disease (NTD) called "hookworm disease" (=necatoriasis and/or ancylostomiasis). Necator americanus is the most widely distributed hookworm of humans and is a leading cause of iron deficiency anaemia, which can cause physical and mental retardation and deaths in children as well as adverse maternal-foetal outcomes. Currently, there is a significant focus on the development of new approaches for the prevention and control of hookworms in humans. Technological advances are underpinning the discovery of drug and vaccine targets through insights into the molecular biology and genomics of these parasites and their relationship with the human host. In spite of the widespread socio-economic impacts of human necatoriasis, molecular datasets for N. americanus are scant, limiting progress in molecular research. The present article explores all currently available EST datasets for adult and larval stages of N. americanus using a semi-automated bioinformatic pipeline. In the current repertoire of molecules now available, some have been or are being considered as candidate vaccines against N. americanus. Among others, the most abundant sets of molecules relate to the pathogenesis-related protein (PRP) superfamily, comprising various members, such as the Ancylostoma-secreted or activation-associated proteins (ASPs) and the kunitz-type proteins, both of which are inferred to play key roles in the interplay between N. americanus and the human host. Understanding the molecular biology of these and other novel molecules discovered could have important implications for finding new ways of disrupting the pathways that they are involved in, and should facilitate the identification of new drug and vaccine targets. Also, the bioinformatic prediction of the essentiality of genes and gene products as well as molecular network

  18. [Malaria in pictures: images from Brazil's public health campaigns in the first half of the twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Hochman, Gilberto; Mello, Maria Teresa Bandeira de; Santos, Paulo Roberto Elian dos

    2002-01-01

    The article discusses a set of pictures that illustrate public health activities, practices, and campaigns against malaria in Brazil from 1918 through 1956. Exemplary of certain key moments in this history, the illustrations belong to three archives from the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz collection: Arquivo Belisário Penna, Arquivto Fundação Rockefeller ("Serviço de Malária do Nordeste" series), and Arquivo Rostan Soares. The article links these photographic records to their specific historical-public health contexts and to the campaign models and strategies represented by each archive. It also draws relations with the 20th -century history of the photographic medium itself. It is argued that these images of malaria constitute prime sources in constructing a visual history of the disease in 20th -century Brazil and of the country's public health history.

  19. Do shoes reduce hookworm infection in school-aged children on Pemba Island, Zanzibar? A pragmatic trial.

    PubMed

    Bird, Chris; Ame, Shaali; Albonico, Marco; Bickle, Quentin

    2014-05-01

    A non-blinded, cluster randomised controlled trial to test whether footwear reduces prevalence and intensity of hookworm infection in school-aged children on Pemba Island, Zanzibar. Six schools were randomised to receive shoes and standard care (deworming with albendazole and health education) and six control schools to receive standard care only. Children provided a stool sample to assess prevalence and intensity of infection with soil transmitted helminthiases (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). Shoes were then distributed to pupils in the intervention schools; deworming took place as part of the government's mass drug administration programme and a further round of stool samples were collected six months later. Nine hundred and fifteen children were traced at follow-up (1056 at baseline). As many children wore shoes in the control arm as the intervention arm. There was no difference in hookworm prevalence (23.4% for intervention schools, 21.3% for control schools, p=0.48), and no difference in mean hookworm infection in eggs/gram of stool (18, 1-36 in intervention schools, 18, 7-29 in control schools, p=0.23). Shoe-wearing increased across all schools, from 47.4 to 82.4%. If a child wore shoes at the end of the study, the relative risk of hookworm infection was 0.7 (CI 0.53-0.91). Due to contamination, the trial could not conclude that shoes were protective against hookworm infection but the intervention led to behavioural change, and observational data suggest that shoes are protective against hookworm. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01869127.

  20. An In-Depth Analysis of a Piece of Shit: Distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Eggs in Human Stool

    PubMed Central

    Krauth, Stefanie J.; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Knopp, Stefanie; Traoré, Mahamadou; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Background An accurate diagnosis of helminth infection is important to improve patient management. However, there is considerable intra- and inter-specimen variation of helminth egg counts in human feces. Homogenization of stool samples has been suggested to improve diagnostic accuracy, but there are no detailed investigations. Rapid disintegration of hookworm eggs constitutes another problem in epidemiological surveys. We studied the spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm eggs in stool samples, the effect of homogenization, and determined egg counts over time in stool samples stored under different conditions. Methodology Whole-stool samples were collected from 222 individuals in a rural part of south Côte d'Ivoire. Samples were cut into four pieces and helminth egg locations from the front to the back and from the center to the surface were analyzed. Some samples were homogenized and fecal egg counts (FECs) compared before and after homogenization. The effect of stool storing methods on FECs was investigated over time, comparing stool storage on ice, covering stool samples with a water-soaked tissue, or keeping stool samples in the shade. Principal Findings We found no clear spatial pattern of S. mansoni and hookworm eggs in fecal samples. Homogenization decreased S. mansoni FECs (p = 0.026), while no effect was observed for hookworm and other soil-transmitted helminths. Hookworm FECs decreased over time. Storing stool samples on ice or covered with a moist tissue slowed down hookworm egg decay (p<0.005). Conclusions/Significance Our findings have important implications for helminth diagnosis at the individual patient level and for epidemiological surveys, anthelmintic drug efficacy studies and monitoring of control programs. Specifically, homogenization of fecal samples is recommended for an accurate detection of S. mansoni eggs, while keeping collected stool samples cool and moist delayed the disintegration of hookworm eggs. PMID:23285307

  1. Hookworm Infection among School Age Children in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Nutritional Risk Factors and Response to Albendazole Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T.; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M.; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Children (n = 812) 6–11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-SAA-2 from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Goud, Gaddam N; Zhan, Bin; Ordonez, Katherine; Sedlacek, Meghan; Homma, Kohei; Deumic, Vehid; Gupta, Richi; Brelsford, Jill; Price, Merelyn K; Ngamelue, Michelle N; Hotez, Peter J

    2010-02-01

    Human hookworms are among the most pathogenic soil-transmitted helminths. These parasitic nematodes have co-evolved with the host and are able to maintain a high worm burden for decades without killing the human host. However, it is possible to develop vaccines against laboratory-challenge hookworm infections using either irradiated third-state infective larvae (L3) or enzymes from the adult parasites. In an effort to control hookworm infection globally, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative, a product-development partnership with the Sabin Vaccine Institute to develop new control tools including vaccines, has identified a battery of protein antigens, including surface-associated antigens (SAAs) from L3. SAA proteins are characterized by a 13 kDa conserved domain of unknown function. SAA proteins are found on the surface of infective L3 stages (and some adult stages) of different nematode parasites, suggesting that they may play important roles in these organisms. The atomic structures and function of SAA proteins remain undetermined and in an effort to remedy this situation recombinant Na-SAA-2 from the most prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Useful X-ray data have been collected to 2.3 A resolution from a crystal that belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 73.88, b = 35.58, c = 42.75 A, beta = 116.1 degrees .

  3. Hookworm infection among school age children in Kintampo north municipality, Ghana: nutritional risk factors and response to albendazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Children (n = 812) 6-11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana.

  4. Helminthiasis: Hookworm Infection Remains a Public Health Problem in Dera District, South Gondar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In Ethiopia, helminthiasis was the third leading cause of outpatient visits. Despite the health extension program was launched to address this problem, there is limited information on the burden of intestinal parasites after implementation of the program in our setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the intestinal helminthic infections among clients attending at Anbesame health center, South Gondar, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted at Anbesame health center from March to June 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 464 study participants selected consecutively. Stool specimen collection, processing through formol-ether concentration technique and microscopic examination for presence of parasites were carried out. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Among the total 464 study participants with median (±IQR) age of 25.0 (±21.75) years, 262 (56.5%) were females. Helminthic infection was found in 97 (20.9%) participants. Hookworm (68 [14.7%]) was the predominant parasite followed by S. mansoni (11 [2.4%]), E. vermicularis (9 [1.9%]) and S. stercoralis (5 [1.1%]). Patients with age group ≥15 years (AOR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.05-13.46; P: 0.001) and walking barefoot (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.08-4.48; P: 0.031) were more vulnerable from the hookworm infections. There was a high burden of hookworm infections in our setting. Hence, regular shoes wearing, considering all age groups in the albendazole deworming as mass treatment and environmental hygiene are important interventions to reduce the burden of such neglected tropical disease.

  5. Humans and Great Apes Cohabiting the Forest Ecosystem in Central African Republic Harbour the Same Hookworms

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Modrý, David; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Shutt, Kathryn A.; Todd, Angelique; Kalousová, Barbora; Profousová, Ilona; Petrželková, Klára J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms are important pathogens of humans. To date, Necator americanus is the sole, known species of the genus Necator infecting humans. In contrast, several Necator species have been described in African great apes and other primates. It has not yet been determined whether primate-originating Necator species are also parasitic in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings The infective larvae of Necator spp. were developed using modified Harada-Mori filter-paper cultures from faeces of humans and great apes inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of mtDNA obtained from the hookworm larvae were sequenced and compared. Three sequence types (I–III) were recognized in the ITS region, and 34 cox1 haplotypes represented three phylogenetic groups (A–C). The combinations determined were I-A, II-B, II-C, III-B and III-C. Combination I-A, corresponding to N. americanus, was demonstrated in humans and western lowland gorillas; II-B and II-C were observed in humans, western lowland gorillas and chimpanzees; III-B and III-C were found only in humans. Pairwise nucleotide difference in the cox1 haplotypes between the groups was more than 8%, while the difference within each group was less than 2.1%. Conclusions/Significance The distinctness of ITS sequence variants and high number of pairwise nucleotide differences among cox1 variants indicate the possible presence of several species of Necator in both humans and great apes. We conclude that Necator hookworms are shared by humans and great apes co-habiting the same tropical forest ecosystems. PMID:24651493

  6. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  7. The 1971 Literacy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd L., Ed.

    Results of a study of the campaigns to eliminate illiteracy in five districts of Tanzania are reported. Using case study methods, researchers from the Institute of Adult Education followed a common outline in collecting data from the Mafia, Ukerewe, Masasi, Kilimanjaro, and Pare Districts regarding their literacy campaigns. The outline was 1.…

  8. Development of a Sensitive and Specific Antigen-Detection System for Strongyloides Stercoralis and Hookworm Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    for up to thirty years attached to the mucosa of the small intestine, where they feed (mostly on blood) and deposit eggs which are passed with the stool...Blood loss and number of attached hookworms can both be shown to correlate with the number of eggs per gram of stool. The eggs hatch ex vivo and the...cycle find their way to the small intestine, where they attach to the mucosa, mature and begin laying eggs . Large numbers of larvae migrating through the

  9. Hookworm enteritis with bacteremia in California sea lion pups on San Miguel Island.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; DeLong, Robert L; Lyons, Eugene T; Melin, Sharon R

    2007-04-01

    Large breeding populations of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are located on San Miguel and San Nicolas Islands in the Southern California Bight. In 2001, there was a substantial increase in pup mortality in late summer and fall. From June 2002 to January 2003, 208 freshly dead pups were examined on San Miguel Island, the most western of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. Tissues from 186 of these pups were examined histologically. The primary lesions in 133 (72%) of the pups were an enteritis associated with hookworms and infections in major organs. Emaciation/starvation in 43 pups (26%) was the second most important cause of death.

  10. The effect of soil type and climate on hookworm (Necator americanus) distribution in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mabaso, M L H; Appleton, C C; Hughes, J C; Gouws, E

    2003-08-01

    We investigated environmental factors influencing the distribution of hookworm infection in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Prevalence data were sourced from previous studies and additional surveys carried out to supplement the database. When geo-referenced the data revealed that higher prevalences are limited to areas below 150 m above sea level, and low prevalences to areas above this altitude. Using univariate analysis we investigated the differences in environmental factors in the two areas. The relationship between hookworm prevalence, altitude and climate-derived variables was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient, and that of soil type using the t-test. Multivariate analysis was used to determine environmental factors that combine best to provide favourable conditions for hookworm distribution. The results revealed that areas 150 m above sea level, i.e. inland, supported low mean hookworm prevalences (x = 6, n = 21), and were characterized by soils with a clay content of more than 45%, variable temperatures and moderate rainfall. Hookworm prevalence also decreased southwards as temperatures became slightly cooler, rainfall remained more-or-less constant and the coastal plain narrowed. In the multivariate model prevalence was most significantly correlated with the mean daily minimum temperature for January followed by the mean number of rainy days for January. This indicates the importance of summer conditions in the transmission of hookworm infection in KwaZulu-Natal and suggests that transmission may be seasonal.

  11. Bayesian risk maps for Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm mono-infections in a setting where both parasites co-exist.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Vounatsou, Penelope; McManus, Donald P; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-11-01

    There is growing interest in the use of Bayesian geostatistical models for predicting the spatial distribution of parasitic infections, including hookworm, Schistosoma mansoni and co-infections with both parasites. The aim of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of mono-infections with either hookworm or S. mansoni in a setting where both parasites co-exist. School-based cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire surveys were carried out in 57 rural schools in the Man region, western Côte d'Ivoire. A single stool specimen was obtained from each schoolchild attending grades 3-5. Stool specimens were processed by the Kato-Katz technique and an ether concentration method and examined for the presence of hookworm and S. mansoni eggs. The combined results from the two diagnostic approaches were considered for the infection status of each child. Demographic data (i.e. age and sex) were obtained from readily available school registries. Each child's socio-economic status was estimated, using the questionnaire data following a household-based asset approach. Environmental data were extracted from satellite imagery. The different data sources were incorporated into a geographical information system. Finally, a Bayesian spatial multinomial regression model was constructed and the spatial patterns of S. mansoni and hookworm mono-infections were investigated using Bayesian kriging. Our approach facilitated the production of smooth risk maps for hookworm and S. mansoni mono-infections that can be utilized for targeting control interventions. We argue that in settings where S. mansoni and hookworm co-exist and control efforts are under way, there is a need for both mono- and co-infection risk maps to enhance the cost-effectiveness of control programmes.

  12. Rapid concentration and sensitive detection of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices using a real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    The risk of human hookworm infections from land application of wastewater matrices could be high in regions with high hookworm prevalence. A rapid, sensitive and specific hookworm detection method from wastewater matrices is required in order to assess human health risks. Currently available methods used to identify hookworm ova to the species level are time consuming and lack accuracy. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) ova from wastewater matrices. A. caninum was chosen because of its morphological similarity to the human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). The newly developed PCR method has high detection sensitivity with the ability to detect less than one A. caninum ova from 1 L of secondary treated wastewater at the mean threshold cycle (CT) values ranging from 30.1 to 34.3. The method is also able to detect four A. caninum ova from 1 L of raw wastewater and from ∼4 g of treated sludge with mean CT values ranging from 35.6 to 39.8 and 39.8 to 39.9, respectively. The better detection sensitivity obtained for secondary treated wastewater compared to raw wastewater and sludge samples could be attributed to sample turbidity. The proposed method appears to be rapid, sensitive and specific compared to traditional methods and has potential to aid in the public health risk assessment associated with land application of wastewater matrices. Furthermore, the method can be adapted to detect other helminth ova of interest from wastewater matrices.

  13. Probing the equatorial groove of the hookworm protein and vaccine candidate antigen, Na-ASP-2.

    PubMed

    Mason, Lyndel; Tribolet, Leon; Simon, Anne; von Gnielinski, Natascha; Nienaber, Lisa; Taylor, Paul; Willis, Charlene; Jones, Malcolm K; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Loukas, Alex; Hofmann, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Hookworm activation-associated secreted proteins can be structurally classified into at least three different groups. The hallmark feature of Group 1 activation-associated secreted proteins is a prominent equatorial groove, which is inferred to form a ligand binding site. Furthermore, a conserved tandem histidine motif is located in the centre of the groove and believed to provide or support a yet to be determined catalytic activity. Here, we report three-dimensional crystal structures of Na-ASP-2, an L3-secreted activation-associated secreted protein from the human hookworm Necator americanus, which demonstrate transition metal binding ability of the conserved tandem histidine motif. We further identified moderate phosphohydrolase activity of recombinant Na-ASP-2, which relates to the tandem histidine motif. By panning a random 12-mer peptide phage library, we identified a peptide with high similarity to the human calcium-activated potassium channel SK3, and confirm binding of the synthetic peptide to recombinant Na-ASP-2 by differential scanning fluorimetry. Potential binding modes of the peptide to Na-ASP-2 were studied by molecular dynamics simulations which clearly identify a preferred topology of the Na-ASP-2:SK3 peptide complex.

  14. Drug Repositioning and Pharmacophore Identification in the Discovery of Hookworm MIF Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Y Cho; J Vermeire; J Merkel; L Leng; X Du; R Bucala; M Cappello; E Lolis

    2011-12-31

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a 'proof-of-concept' for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

  15. TGF-β-responsive myeloid cells suppress type 2 immunity and emphysematous pathology after hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Lisa; Rani, Reena; Dawson, Lucas; Perkins, Charles; Yang, Yanfen; Downey, Jordan; Hölscher, Christoph; Herbert, De'Broski R

    2012-09-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) regulates inflammation, immunosuppression, and wound-healing cascades, but it remains unclear whether any of these functions involve regulation of myeloid cell function. The present study demonstrates that selective deletion of TGF-βRII expression in myeloid phagocytes i) impairs macrophage-mediated suppressor activity, ii) increases baseline mRNA expression of proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines in the lung, and iii) enhances type 2 immunity against the hookworm parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Strikingly, TGF-β-responsive myeloid cells promote repair of hookworm-damaged lung tissue, because LysM(Cre)TGF-βRII(flox/flox) mice develop emphysema more rapidly than wild-type littermate controls. Emphysematous pathology in LysM(Cre)TGF-βRII(flox/flox) mice is characterized by excessive matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity, reduced lung elasticity, increased total lung capacity, and dysregulated respiration. Thus, TGF-β effects on myeloid cells suppress helminth immunity as a consequence of restoring lung function after infection.

  16. Drug repositioning and pharmacophore identification in the discovery of hookworm MIF inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoonsang; Vermeire, Jon J; Merkel, Jane S; Leng, Lin; Du, Xin; Bucala, Richard; Cappello, Michael; Lolis, Elias

    2011-09-23

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a "proof-of-concept" for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

  17. Low efficacy of mebendazole against hookworm in Vietnam: two randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Flohr, Carsten; Tuyen, Luc Nguyen; Lewis, Sarah; Minh, Truong Tan; Campbell, Jim; Britton, John; Williams, Hywel; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Quinnell, Rupert J

    2007-04-01

    Vietnam is participating in a global de-worming effort that aims to treat 650 million school children regularly by 2010. The treatment used in Vietnam is single dose oral mebendazole (Phardazone) 500 mg. We tested the efficacy of single dose mebendazole 500 mg in the therapy of hookworm infection in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among 271 Vietnamese schoolchildren. The treatment efficacy of single dose mebendazole in children did not differ significantly from placebo, with a reduction in mean eggs per gram of feces relative to placebo of 31% (95% CI -9 to 56%, P = 0.1). In light of these findings we then carried out a similar randomized trial comparing triple dose mebendazole, single dose albendazole, and triple dose albendazole against placebo in 209 adults in the same area. The estimated reduction in mean post-treatment eggs per gram of feces relative to placebo was 63% (95% CI 30-81%) for triple mebendazole, 75% (47-88%) for single albendazole, and 88% (58-97%) for triple albendazole. Our results suggest that single dose oral mebendazole has low efficacy against hookworm infection in Vietnam, and that it should be replaced by albendazole. These findings are of major public health relevance given the opportunity costs of treating entire populations with ineffective therapies. We recommend that efficacy of anti-helminth therapies is pilot tested before implementation of national gut worm control programs.

  18. Pride Campaign Overcomes Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Donald W.

    1984-01-01

    A San Jose high school's campaign to develop student pride in the school and its appearance includes publicity measures, painting garbage cans in school colors, and cafeteria supervision. Results in diminishing acts of vandalism have been encouraging. (MJL)

  19. Automated campaign system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondran, Gary; Chao, Hui; Lin, Xiaofan; Beyer, Dirk; Joshi, Parag; Atkins, Brian; Obrador, Pere

    2006-02-01

    To run a targeted campaign involves coordination and management across numerous organizations and complex process flows. Everything from market analytics on customer databases, acquiring content and images, composing the materials, meeting the sponsoring enterprise brand standards, driving through production and fulfillment, and evaluating results; all processes are currently performed by experienced highly trained staff. Presented is a developed solution that not only brings together technologies that automate each process, but also automates the entire flow so that a novice user could easily run a successful campaign from their desktop. This paper presents the technologies, structure, and process flows used to bring this system together. Highlighted will be how the complexity of running a targeted campaign is hidden from the user through technologies, all while providing the benefits of a professionally managed campaign.

  20. Cleansing the world of the germ of laziness: hygiene, sanitation, and the Javanese population in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Hoefte, Rosemarijn

    2014-01-01

    In 1915 the Rockefeller Foundation took its hookworm eradication campaign to Suriname, but was soon disappointed because of opposition from its main target group: the Javanese. Moreover, authorities and planters objected to the construction of latrines because of the costs and their belief that the Javanese were "unhygienic". In describing the labor migration from Java to Suriname, I show that this "lack of hygiene" was closely related to the system's organization. I argue that uncleanliness was the consequence of harmful socio-economic and ecological conditions. Secondly I suggest that even though the Foundation did not manage to cleanse Suriname of hookworm, its educational efforts, its emphasis on prevention, and its training of local health workers probably had more impact than Rockefeller officials thought.

  1. Serum IgE concentrations in relation to anti-helminthic treatment in a Javanese population with hookworm

    PubMed Central

    Noerjasin, Biroum

    1973-01-01

    Serum IgE levels were high in a hookworm-infested Javanese population. Levels increased following treatment with anti-helminthics. Individuals who showed evidence of control of reinfestation after treatment had lower serum IgE levels than the remainder. PMID:4717095

  2. Ancylostoma ailuropodae sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae), a new hookworm parasite isolated from wild giant pandas in Southwest China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hookworms belonging to the genus Ancylostoma cause ancylostomiasis, a disease of considerable concern in humans and domestic and wild animals. Molecular and epidemiological data support evidence for the zoonotic potential among species of Ancylostoma where transmission to humans is facilitated by ra...

  3. Evaluation of real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm as diagnostic tool in asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter; Khieu, Virak; Panning, Marcus; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Kramme, Stefanie

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths such as Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) is challenging due to irregular larval and egg output in infected individuals and insensitive conventional diagnostic procedures. Sensitive novel real-time PCR assays have been developed. Our study aimed to evaluate the real-time PCR assays as a diagnostic tool for detection of Strongyloides spp. and hookworms in a random stool sample of 218 asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia. Overall prevalence of 17.4% (38/218) and 34.9% (76/218) were determined by real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and hookworms, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of S. stercoralis specific real-time PCR as compared to the combination of Baermann/Koga Agar as gold standard were 88.9% and 92.7%, respectively. For hookworm specific real-time PCR a sensitivity of 78.9% and specificity of 78.9% were calculated. Co-infections were detectable by PCR in 12.8% (28/218) of individuals. S. stercoralis real-time PCR applied in asymptomatic cases showed a lower sensitivity compared to studies undertaken with symptomatic patients with the same molecular tool, yet it proved to be a valid supplement in the diagnosis of STH infection in Cambodia.

  4. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Molecular Clarification of Hookworm Species in Ethnic Ede Primary Schoolchildren in Dak Lak Province, Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Bui Khac; De, Nguyen Van; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam. PMID:27658599

  5. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Molecular Clarification of Hookworm Species in Ethnic Ede Primary Schoolchildren in Dak Lak Province, Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hung, Bui Khac; De, Nguyen Van; Duyet, Le Van; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-08-01

    To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam.

  6. Free Speech and Campaign Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Harry, Jr.

    The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, a political campaign reform measure, was enacted to limit campaign contributions and independent expenditures, to mandate disclosure of contributors, and to establish public financing of campaigns, all to minimize the opportunity for political corruption. Unfortunate implications of such reform on the…

  7. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tun, Sandee; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001). Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%-31%), consisting of hookworms (16.6%), Ascaris (4%) and Toxocara (2.4%). The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.

  8. Hookworm (Necator americanus) transmission in inland areas of sandy soils in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mabaso, M L H; Appleton, C C; Hughes, J C; Gouws, E

    2004-04-01

    This study extended the association between hookworm transmission in KwaZulu-Natal and the sandy coastal plain by investigating the parasite's occurrence in isolated areas of sandy soils further inland. A school-based prevalence survey was carried out in selected inland sandy areas and in surrounding areas dominated by clay soils within a narrow altitudinal range of between 500 and 700 m to reduce the effect of altitude on climate-related factors (rainfall and temperature). Sandy areas situated on the coastal plain were included in the analysis for comparative purposes. Soil samples (0-50 mm depth) were collected from each locality to assess their nematode loadings and to analyse selected physical and chemical properties. Significant differences were found between the moderate prevalence of hookworm infection among children living in inland areas with sandy soils (17.3%) and the low prevalence in surrounding non-sandy areas (5.3%, P < 0.001), and between infection among children living in all inland areas (9.3%) and the high prevalence on the coastal plain (62.5%, P < 0.001). Amounts of fine and medium sand were highest in both the coastal plain soils and in inland sandy areas and these fractions showed a significant positive correlation with hookworm prevalence and nematode loadings. Clay, coarse sand and organic matter contents were highest in surrounding non-sandy soils and showed a significant negative correlation with the nematode variables. No statistically significant correlations were found with soil pH at study localities. We conclude that properties of inland sandy soils, particularly particle size distribution, correlate well with hookworm prevalence and nematode loadings and therefore provide a more suitable habitat for nematodes than surrounding non-sandy areas. These results suggest that particle size distribution of sand fractions, organic matter and clay content in the soil influence the survival of hookworm larvae and hence the parasite

  9. Molecular systematics of pinniped hookworms (Nematoda: Uncinaria): species delimitation, host associations and host-induced morphometric variation.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Steven A; Lyons, Eugene T; Pagan, Christopher; Hyman, Derek; Lewis, Edwin E; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Bell, Cameron M; Castinel, Aurelie; Delong, Robert L; Duignan, Padraig J; Farinpour, Cher; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Kuiken, Thijs; Morgades, Diana; Naem, Soraya; Norman, Richard; Parker, Corwin; Ramos, Paul; Spraker, Terry R; Berón-Vera, Bárbara

    2013-12-01

    Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria have been widely reported from juvenile pinnipeds, however investigations of their systematics has been limited, with only two species described, Uncinaria lucasi from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and Uncinaria hamiltoni from South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Hookworms were sampled from these hosts and seven additional species including Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus), New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), and the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). One hundred and thirteen individual hookworms, including an outgroup species, were sequenced for four genes representing two loci (nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences recovered seven independent evolutionary lineages or species, including the described species and five undescribed species. The molecular evidence shows that U. lucasi parasitises both C. ursinus and E. jubatus, whereas U. hamiltoni parasitises O. flavescens and A. australis. The five undescribed hookworm species were each associated with single host species (Z. californianus, A. pusillus, P. hookeri, M. leonina and M. monachus). For parasites of otarids, patterns of Uncinaria host-sharing and phylogenetic relationships had a strong biogeographic component with separate clades of parasites from northern versus southern hemisphere hosts. Comparison of phylogenies for these hookworms and their hosts suggests that the association of U. lucasi with northern fur seals results from a host-switch from Steller sea lions. Morphometric data for U. lucasi shows marked host-associated size differences for both sexes, with U. lucasi individuals from E. jubatus significantly larger. This result suggests that adult growth of U. lucasi is reduced within the

  10. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin–ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%–79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001). Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%–31%), consisting of hookworms (16.6%), Ascaris (4%) and Toxocara (2.4%). The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections. PMID:26671680

  11. Campaigning for change.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Larry

    2002-07-01

    Most organizations must change if they're to stay alive. Change is tough to accomplish, but it's not impossible and can be systematized. The author, who has been involved in change initiatives at scores of companies, believes that the success of such programs has more to do with execution than with conceptualization. The successful change programs he observed had one thing in common: They employed three distinct but linked campaigns--political, marketing, and military. The author cites examples from such companies as Hewlett-Packard, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Saturn to illustrate how effective such campaigns can be. A political campaign creates a coalition strong enough to support and guide the initiative. Sometimes, coalitions arise from changes to a company's formal structure. But they may come out of the informal structure, or they could stem from a temporary counterstructure. A marketing campaign must go beyond simply publicizing the initiative's benefits. It focuses on listening to ideas that bubble up from the field as well as on working with lead customers to design the initiative. A clearly articulated theme for the transformation program must also be developed. A military campaign deploys executives' scarce resources of attention and time. Successful executives secure their supply lines by, for instance, piggybacking onto initiatives that have already captured people's interests or already exist as bootleg projects. These managers also set up pilot projects that turn into beachheads because the projects expose them to the difficult dynamics they will ultimately face. Successful executives launch all three campaigns simultaneously. The three always feed on one another, and if any one campaign is not properly implemented, the change initiative is bound to fail.

  12. Pathogenicity of the hookworm, Ancylostoma pluridentatum, in a Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) kitten.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, M R; McLaughlin, G S; Murphy, D M; Cunningham, M W

    1994-10-01

    We evaluated clinical signs and administered anthelmintic treatment to a wild-caught, captive Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) kitten from Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida (USA) infected with the hookworm, Ancylostoma pluridentatum. Clinical signs observed included poor body condition, lethargy, and below normal red blood cell numbers, hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume, and elevated eosinophil numbers. In addition, a maximum of 936 Ancylostoma sp. eggs/g of feces were found on Day 11 of captivity. Following oral administration of 20 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate on Day 11, 26 A. pluridentatum were collected from the feces. Based on the resolution of clinical signs, cessation of egg shedding, and a return to normal hematologic values following anthelmintic treatment, we believe that infection with A. pluridentatum was the primary cause of the stressed conditions in the panther kitten.

  13. Epidemiology of human hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infestations in rural Gambia.

    PubMed

    Palmer, D R; Bundy, D A

    1995-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study of helminth infections in a rural village in The Gambia, West Africa, hookworm, probably Necator americanus and Ascaris lumbricoides were found to be the most prevalent helminths present at prevalence levels of 30% and 25% respectively. Other parasites present were Trichuris trichiura (2.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni (1.5%). The mean egg counts of N. americanus and A. lumbricoides in all age groups and in the total population were low. Egg counts between age and sex groups were not statistically significant. The frequency distributions of both N. americanus and A. lumbricoides were overdispersed with the majority of the sample population producing none or few eggs, and a small minority producing relatively large amounts of eggs. Large variance: mean ratios within age groups and the total study population suggested a high degree of aggregation of the parasites in this community.

  14. The epidemiology and control of hookworm infection in the Burma Valley area of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bradley, M; Chandiwana, S K; Bundy, D A

    1993-01-01

    An integrated hookworm control programme, involving mass chemotherapy and improvements in public health, was conducted in the Burma Valley and Vumba areas of Zimbabwe between 1985 and 1990. Three sequential annual mass chemotherapy programmes were implemented. Infection status was monitored annually throughout. Initial observations indicated asymptotic age prevalence and intensity profiles, with peak infection levels in adults. Mass chemotherapy was shown to have immediate and medium term benefits for community health. Reinfection was slow to develop, and average intensity had not returned to pre-intervention levels 39 months after the cessation of chemotherapy. The results support the existence of age-dependency in reinfection. Despite a marked increase in the number of sanitation units, no relationship was found between latrine availability and reinfection intensity on individual farms. This result is consistent with observations that the effect of sanitation is slow to develop, and indicates that repeated anthelmintic intervention should be maintained until sanitation has an impact on transmission.

  15. Once a year school-based deworming with praziquantel and albendazole combination may not be adequate for control of urogenital schistosomiasis and hookworm infection in Matuga District, Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Njenga, Sammy M; Mutungi, Faith M; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Mwanje, Mariam T; Njiru, Kevin K; Bockarie, Moses J

    2014-02-19

    hookworm infection. Once per year SBD programmes may not be adequate for controlling hookworm infection and urogenital schistosomiasis in rural areas of Kwale County. There is a need to consider expanded preventive chemotherapy strategies that will allow inclusion of the adult populations. Community-based health education campaigns focusing on increasing household latrine ownership and use, as a complementary measure to control STH and urogenital schistosomiasis in similar settings, may also be useful.

  16. Histochemical alterations of infective third-stage hookworm larvae (L3) in vaccinated mice.

    PubMed

    Yuanqing, Y; Shuhua, X; Hotez, P J; Jiadong, W

    1999-06-01

    To study the histochemical alterations of hookworm L3 administered in a challenge dose to mice vaccinated previously with the larvae. Male Kunming strain mice vaccinated subcutaneously with 500 living Ancylostoma caninum L3 once every 2 weeks for a total of three immunizations before a final challenge with 500 L3 one week after the final immunization. The abdominal skin with underlying subcutaneous tissue and muscle were removed from the site of percutaneous challenge entry (from 2-3 mice), and fixed in absolute alcohol, cold acetone and 10% neutralized formalin. The tissue sections containing the L3 from the challenge dose were then stained histochemically of glycogen, RNA, DNA alkaline protein, acid mucopolysaccharide, collagen, reticulin, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). Skin samples from non-immunized mice that were also subcutaneously inoculated with the L3 served as negative control. The L3 identified in cutaneous sections from vaccinated mice at 6-72 hours post-challenge exhibited reductions in parasite glycogen, alkaline protein, RNA and DNA, as well as reductions in acid mucopolysaccharide, collagen and reticulin contents in the parasite cuticle. There were also reduced enzyme AKP and ATPase activities. In contrast L3, identified in sections from non-immunized mice exhibited a normal histochemical appearance, as did some L3 who survived in vaccinated mice at 7-14 days post-challenge. Vaccination results in hookworm L3 damage which is manifested by reduced histochemical staining for the challenge inoculum of parasites. There is also reduced hydrolytic enzyme activity. The observed changes could reflect either host-mediated parasite structural damage and disintegration or possibly anti-metabolic properties of the host immune response.

  17. A purified Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein with therapeutic activity against the hookworm parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    PubMed Central

    Cappello, Michael; Bungiro, Richard D.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Bischof, Larry J.; Griffitts, Joel S.; Barrows, Brad D.; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2006-01-01

    Crystal (Cry) proteins produced by the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are harmless to vertebrates, but they are highly toxic to insects and nematodes. Their value in controlling insects that destroy crops and transmit human diseases is well established. Although it has recently been demonstrated that a few individual Bt Cry proteins, such as Cry5B, are toxic to a wide range of free-living nematodes, the potential activity of purified Cry proteins against parasitic nematodes remains largely unknown. We report here studies aimed at characterizing in vitro and in vivo anthelminthic activities of purified recombinant Cry5B against the hookworm parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a bloodfeeding gastrointestinal nematode for which humans are permissive hosts. By using in vitro larval development assays, Cry5B was found to be highly toxic to early stage hookworm larvae. Exposure of adult A. ceylanicum to Cry5B was also associated with significant toxicity, including a substantial reduction in egg excretion by adult female worms. To demonstrate therapeutic efficacy in vivo, hamsters infected with A. ceylanicum were treated with three daily oral doses of purified Cry5B, the benzimidazole anthelminthic mebendazole, or buffer. Compared with control (buffer-treated) animals, infected hamsters that received Cry5B showed statistically significant improvements in growth and blood hemoglobin levels as well as reduced worm burdens that were comparable to the mebendazole-treated animals. These data demonstrate that Cry5B is highly active in vitro and in vivo against a globally significant nematode parasite and that Cry5B warrants further clinical development for human and veterinary use. PMID:17005719

  18. The dingo non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons from the genome of the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum.

    PubMed

    Laha, Thewarach; Kewgrai, Nonglack; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J

    2006-07-01

    Members of the retrotransposable element (RTE) clade of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon are widely distributed among eukaryote taxa, with representatives known from Caenorhabditis elegans, mammals, mosquitoes, schistosomes, and other taxa. An RTE retrotransposon has not, however, been characterized in detail from a parasitic nematode. Here, we characterize two discrete copies of an RTE-like non-LTR retrotransposon from the genome of the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum. The elements were named dingo-1 and dingo-2. The full-length dingo-1 and dingo-2 elements were 3421 and 3171bp in length, respectively. They exhibited 54% nucleotide sequence identity to one another across their entire length and 40%/58% amino-acid sequence identity/similarity across their open reading frames. dingo-1 and dingo-2 exhibited hallmark structures and sequences of non-LTR retrotransposons of the RTE family including a single open reading frame encoding apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease (EN) and reverse transcriptase (RT), in that order. Phylogenetic analyses targeting the RT and the EN domains both confirmed that dingo-1 and dingo-2 were members of the RTE clade and that they were closely related to RTE-1 from C. elegans, to BDDF from Bos taurus and to SR2 from Schistosoma mansoni. Dot blot hybridization indicated that as many as 100-1000 copies of dingo-1 reside within the genome of A. caninum, while detection by RT-PCR of transcripts encoding dingo-like elements suggested that dingo-1 and -2 may be retrotranspositionally active within the genome of A. caninum. The dingo elements are the first retrotransposons to be characterized from a hookworm genome.

  19. The mucosal response of hamsters exposed to weekly repeated infections with the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Alkazmi, L M M; Behnke, J M

    2013-09-01

    An experiment was carried out to assess mucosal changes in hamsters exposed to weekly repeated low-intensity infections with the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. The experiment included control groups of naïve, uninfected hamsters and groups that received a single-pulse primary infection. Changes in the intestinal architecture and in the density of inflammatory cells in the mucosa, including mast cells, goblet cells, Paneth cells and eosinophils were examined in relation to changes in hookworm burdens. As in the single-pulse primary infection, hamsters exposed to repeated infections responded with marked changes in the intestinal architecture and in mucosal populations of inflammatory cells. However, there were distinct differences in the kinetics of the responses to these two types of infection (primary single-pulse and repeated). The reduction in villous height and the increase in crypt depth in animals exposed to repeated infections were both initially slower but eventually equalled and exceeded the responses in hamsters given a chronic primary infection, despite the presence of fewer adult worms in the former. Similarly, changes in the mitotic figures of epithelial cells in the mucosa and the mast cell response were both initially slower and less intense in repeatedly infected hamsters, but eventually exceeded the response to primary infection. Furthermore, the eosinophil response was found to be initially greater in repeated infections and overall more persistent. In contrast, both goblet and Paneth cell responses were less marked in repeatedly infected animals compared to those carrying a primary infection. These results are discussed in the context of host protective resistance to infection with A. ceylanicum.

  20. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City.

  1. District heating campaign in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Stalebrant, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

  2. Update on the prevalence of the hookworm, Uncinaria lucasi, in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tolliver, Sharon C; Spraker, Terry R

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of hookworms (Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901) was determined in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) on St. Paul Island (SPI), Alaska in July and August, 2011. Three of 61 (4.9%) dead pups harbored 1 to 13 adult hookworms each in their intestines. Parasitic larvae (L(3)) of hookworms were recovered from the blubber of 4 of 133 (3%) of subadult males (SAMs) examined. One parasitic L(3) was detected from each infected SAM. Adult U. lucasi (n = 3) were found in the intestine of 1 of 105 SAMs examined (0.95%). This is the first documented finding of adult U. lucasi in SAMs of the northern fur seals. Continued low prevalence of hookworms the last several years parallels the tremendous decline in the number of fur seals on SPI over a similar time period.

  3. Parasitological examination for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at Año Nuevo State Reserve, California (2012).

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Kuzmina, T A; Spraker, T R; Jaggi, N; Costa, D P; Crocker, D E; Tolliver, S C; Tift, M S

    2012-10-01

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris Gill, 1866), inhabiting rookeries on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve in central California, were investigated in 2012 for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.). Material collected and examined for hookworms included: blubber (n = 15), stomach and intestines (n = 21) from dead pups; feces from the rectum of weaned pups (n = 23); sand containing apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 28) and sand without apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 54); milk from females (n =23) at 5 days and about 23 to 26 days postpartum; and placenta from one female. Evidence of hookworm presence was not detected in any of the samples examined. Possible reasons why hookworms were not found in northern elephant seals on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve are discussed.

  4. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  5. Campaign Drama, Classroom Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    The hoopla surrounding the New Hampshire presidential primaries earlier this month stirred some students at Timberlane High School to watch the candidates' debates, read news coverage, attend rallies, and even volunteer in local campaign offices. That interest, in turn, stimulated discussions in Bob Dawson's government classes at the school,…

  6. Singapore's Speak Mandarin Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, John

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the "Speak Mandarin Campaign," that is intended to persuade the Singaporean ethnic Chinese to use Mandarin in place of Chinese dialects. The purported educational, cultural, and practical advantages are discussed, and the support of higher education and the media is evaluated. (Author/CB)

  7. Campaign Drama, Classroom Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    The hoopla surrounding the New Hampshire presidential primaries earlier this month stirred some students at Timberlane High School to watch the candidates' debates, read news coverage, attend rallies, and even volunteer in local campaign offices. That interest, in turn, stimulated discussions in Bob Dawson's government classes at the school,…

  8. Antipiracy Campaign Exasperates Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the withdrawal of some universities' support of a music industry's campaign against music piracy on their campuses. Talk to the chief information officer at just about any American university, and he will probably say that his institution has bent over backward to help the Recording Industry Association of America curb…

  9. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Secreted Hookworm Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) that Interacts with the Human MIF Receptor CD74

    SciTech Connect

    Cho,Y.; Jones, B.; Vermeire, J.; Leng, L.; DiFedele, L.; Harrison, L.; Xiong, H.; Kwong, Y.; Chen, Y.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Hookworms, parasitic nematodes that infect nearly one billion people worldwide, are a major cause of anemia and malnutrition. We hypothesize that hookworms actively manipulate the host immune response through the production of specific molecules designed to facilitate infection by larval stages and adult worm survival within the intestine. A full-length cDNA encoding a secreted orthologue of the human cytokine, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) has been cloned from the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Elucidation of the three-dimensional crystal structure of recombinant AceMIF (rAceMIF) revealed an overall structural homology with significant differences in the tautomerase sites of the human and hookworm proteins. The relative bioactivities of human and hookworm MIF proteins were compared using in vitro assays of tautomerase activity, macrophage migration, and binding to MIF receptor CD74. The activity of rAceMIF was not inhibited by the ligand ISO-1, which was previously determined to be an inhibitor of the catalytic site of human MIF. These data define unique immunological, structural, and functional characteristics of AceMIF, thereby establishing the potential for selectively inhibiting the hookworm cytokine as a means of reducing parasite survival and disease pathogenesis.

  10. Ancylostoma ailuropodae n. sp. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae), a new hookworm parasite isolated from wild giant pandas in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yue; Hoberg, Eric P; Yang, Zijiang; Urban, Joseph F; Yang, Guangyou

    2017-06-02

    Hookworms belonging to the genus Ancylostoma (Dubini, 1843) cause ancylostomiasis, a disease of considerable concern in humans and domestic and wild animals. Molecular and epidemiological data support evidence for the zoonotic potential among species of Ancylostoma where transmission to humans is facilitated by rapid urbanization and increased human-wildlife interactions. It is important to assess and describe these potential zoonotic parasite species in wildlife, especially in hosts that have physiological similarities to humans and share their habitat. Moreover, defining species diversity within parasite groups that can circulate among free-ranging host species and humans also provides a pathway to understanding the distribution of infection and disease. In this study, we describe a previously unrecognized species of hookworm in the genus Ancylostoma in the giant panda, including criteria for morphological and molecular characterization. The hookworm specimens were obtained from a wild giant panda that died in the Fengtongzai Natural Reserve in Sichuan Province of China in November 2013. They were microscopically examined and then genetically analyzed by sequencing the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes in two representative specimens (one female and one male, FTZ1 and FTZ2, respectively). Ancylostoma ailuropodae n. sp. is proposed for these hookworms. Morphologically the hookworm specimens differ from other congeneric species primarily based on the structure of the buccal capsule in males and females, characterized by 2 pairs of ventrolateral and 2 pairs of dorsolateral teeth; males differ in the structure and shape of the copulatory bursa, where the dorsal ray possesses 2 digitations. Pairwise nuclear and mitochondrial DNA comparisons, genetic distance analysis, and phylogenetic data strongly indicate that A. ailuropodae from giant pandas is a separate species which shared a

  11. Identification, isolation, and molecular cloning of a hookworm protease: an approach towards a defined vaccine for ancylostomiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hotez, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The hookworm Ancylostoma caninum was shown to release in vitro a 37 kDa protease that catalyzed the hydrolysis of fibrinogen, plasminogen, and elastin. The enzyme was purified from parasite extracts by ion-exchange chromatography, followed by gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. An amino-terminal sequence was determined. When assayed with radiolabeled fibrin as substrate, the enzyme displayed optimal activity at pH 9-11; it was inactivated by dialysis against ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Antiserum raised against the protease in rabbits cross-reacted on western blots with soluble antigen from the infective larval stage of the parasite. A cDNA library from hookworm mRNA was constructed in the expression vector bacteriophage lambdagtll. A positive clone was identified with the rabbit antiserum that was shown to contain an 800-bp insert. The insert was mapped, subcloned into M13, and sequenced, revealing an open reading frame of 789 nucleotides corresponding to 263 amino acids.

  12. Generalized urticaria induced by the Na-ASP-2 hookworm vaccine: implications for the development of vaccines against helminths.

    PubMed

    Diemert, David J; Pinto, Antonio G; Freire, Janaina; Jariwala, Amar; Santiago, Helton; Hamilton, Robert G; Periago, Maria Victoria; Loukas, Alex; Tribolet, Leon; Mulvenna, Jason; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Hotez, Peter J; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2012-07-01

    Necator americanus Ancylostoma-secreted protein 2 (Na-ASP-2) is secreted by infective hookworm larvae on entry into human hosts. Vaccination of laboratory animals with recombinant Na-ASP-2 provides significant protection against challenge infections. In endemic areas antibodies to Na-ASP-2 are associated with reduced risk of heavy N americanus infections. To assess the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant Na-ASP-2 adjuvanted with Alhydrogel in healthy Brazilian adults previously infected with N americanus. Participants were randomized to receive Na-ASP-2 or hepatitis B vaccine. Major IgG and IgE epitopes of the Na-ASP-2 molecule were mapped by using sera from these same subjects. Seroepidemiologic studies in adults and children residing in hookworm-endemic areas were conducted to assess the prevalence of IgE responses to Na-ASP-2. Vaccination with a single dose of Na-ASP-2 resulted in generalized urticarial reactions in several volunteers. These reactions were associated with pre-existing Na-ASP-2-specific IgE likely induced by previous hookworm infection. Surveys revealed that a significant proportion of the population in hookworm-endemic areas had increased levels of IgE to Na-ASP-2. Epitope mapping demonstrated sites on the Na-ASP-2 molecule that are uniquely or jointly recognized by IgG and IgE antibodies. Infection with N americanus induces increased levels of total and specific IgE to Na-ASP-2 that result in generalized urticaria on vaccination with recombinant Na-ASP-2. These data advance knowledge of vaccine development for helminths given their propensity to induce strong T(H)2 responses. Study data highlight the important differences between the immune responses to natural helminth infection and to vaccination with a recombinant helminth antigen. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression profile of heat shock response factors during hookworm larval activation and parasitic development.

    PubMed

    Gelmedin, Verena; Delaney, Angela; Jennelle, Lucas; Hawdon, John M

    2015-07-01

    When organisms are exposed to an increase in temperature, they undergo a heat shock response (HSR) regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1). The heat shock response includes the rapid changes in gene expression initiated by binding of HSF-1 to response elements in the promoters of heat shock genes. Heat shock proteins function as molecular chaperones to protect proteins during periods of elevated temperature and other stress. During infection, hookworm infective third stage larvae (L3) undergo a temperature shift from ambient to host temperature. This increased temperature is required for the resumption of feeding and activation of L3, but whether this increase initiates a heat shock response is unknown. To investigate the role of the heat shock in hookworm L3 activation and parasitic development, we identified and characterized the expression profile of several components of the heat shock response in the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. We cloned DNAs encoding an hsp70 family member (Aca-hsp-1) and an hsp90 family member (Aca-daf-21). Exposure to a heat shock of 42°C for one hour caused significant up-regulation of both genes, which slowly returned to near baseline levels following one hour attenuation at 22°C. Neither gene was up-regulated in response to host temperature (37°C). Conversely, levels of hsf-1 remained unchanged during heat shock, but increased in response to incubation at 37°C. During activation, both hsp-1 and daf-21 are down regulated early, although daf-21 levels increase significantly in non-activated control larvae after 12h, and slightly in activated larvae by 24h incubation. The heat shock response modulators celastrol and KNK437 were tested for their effects on gene expression during heat shock and activation. Pre-incubation with celastrol, an HSP90 inhibitor that promotes heat shock gene expression, slightly up-regulated expression of both hsp-1 and daf-21 during heat shock. KNK437, an inhibitor of heat shock

  14. Presidential Transitions during Capital Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    In the past few decades, capital campaigns at institutions of higher education have increased in duration, while collegiate presidential tenures have been doing just the opposite. Turnover in the top post was frequent, even during major fundraising campaigns. Before this study, presidential transitions during campaigns had not been previously…

  15. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  16. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  17. Campaigns in Agricultural Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaven, John W.

    A booklet designed to aid those who use agricultural campaigns in their educational and advisory programs is presented. It is pointed out that a good campaign works as a chain reaction, inciting enthusiasm among workers and planners. The five steps in a well-organized campaign are: (1) planning, (2) preparing people for their jobs, (3) producing…

  18. Comparison and validation of two mathematical models for the impact of mass drug administration on Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Coffeng, Luc E; Truscott, James E; Farrell, Sam H; Turner, Hugo C; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kang, Gagandeep; de Vlas, Sake J; Anderson, Roy M

    2017-03-01

    The predictions of two mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection and the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) are compared, using data from India. One model has an age structured partial differential equation (PDE) deterministic framework for the distribution of parasite numbers per host and sexual mating. The second model is an individual-based stochastic model. Baseline data acquired prior to treatment are used to estimate key transmission parameters, and forward projections are made, given the known MDA population coverage. Predictions are compared with observed post-treatment epidemiological patterns. The two models could equally well predict the short-term impact of deworming on A. lumbricoides and hookworm infection levels, despite being fitted to different subsets and/or summary statistics of the data. As such, the outcomes give confidence in their use as aids to policy formulation for the use of PCT to control A. lumbricoides and hookworm infection. The models further largely agree in a qualitative sense on the added benefit of semi-annual vs. annual deworming and targeting of the entire population vs. only children, as well as the potential for interruption of transmission. Further, this study also illustrates that long-term predictions are sensitive to modelling assumptions about which age groups contribute most to transmission, which depends on human demography and age-patterns in exposure and contribution to the environmental reservoir of infection, the latter being notoriously difficult to empirically quantify.

  19. Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infection in Japanese traveler who presented chronic diarrhea after return from Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Nakatani, Toshiya; Tomo-Oka, Fumimasa; Fujimoto, Yuki; Ishida, Koji; Fujinaga, Yukihisa; Aihara, Yosuke; Nagamatsu, Shinsaku; Matsuo, Eijo; Tokoro, Masaharu; Ouji, Yukiteru; Kikuchi, Eiryo

    2016-12-01

    Ancylostoma (A.) ceylanicum, one of the most common species of hookworms infecting dogs and cats, also causes patent infections in humans and is now considered to be the second most common hookworm species infecting populations in southeast Asia. A Japanese patient who returned from a visit to Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) was presented with intermittent watery diarrhea with eosinophilia. Hookworm eggs were found in feces samples, and adult worms were confirmed to be present in the jejunum with capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy. A diagnosis of A. ceylanicum infection was made based on the morphology of the adult worms along with findings of a PCR-based molecular study using larvae obtained from a fecal sample culture. The infection was considered likely to have been obtained during a 1-month stay in a Laotian village, where the patient had eaten local food, worn sandals on bare feet, and lived as a local native villager, though he had stayed in modern hotels during the visit to Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phenolic Metabolites of Dalea ornata Affect Both Survival and Motility of the Human Pathogenic Hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Kaitlin; Ray, William; Winterstein, Eric; Brown, MacKenzie; McCornack, Jocelyn; Cardenas-Garcia, Brianda; Jones, Kiah; McNutt, Sarah; Fulkerson, Shannon; Ferreira, Daneel; Gény, Charlotte; Chen, Xiaoyan; Belofsky, Gil; Dondji, Blaise

    2016-09-23

    Hookworms are ubiquitous human parasites, infecting nearly one billion people worldwide, and are the leading cause of anemia and malnutrition in resource-limited countries. Current drug treatments rely on the benzimidazole derivatives albendazole and mebendazole, but there is emerging resistance to these drugs. As part of a larger screening effort, using a hamster-based ex vivo assay, anthelmintic activity toward Ancylostoma ceylanicum was observed in the crude extract of aerial parts of Dalea ornata. These studies have led to the isolation and characterization of phenolic metabolites 1-10. The structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned using electronic circular dichroism data. The new compound, (2S)-8-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-6,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (1), was weakly active at 7.3 μM, with 17% reduction in survival of the hookworms after 5 days. The rotenoids deguelin (9) and tephrosin (10), predictably perhaps, were the most active, with complete worm mortality observed by day 4 (or earlier) at 6.3 and 6.0 μM, respectively. The effects of 1-10 on hookworm motility and on toxicity to hamster splenocytes were also explored as important measures of treatment potential.

  1. Development of the egg hatch assay for detection of anthelminthic resistance in human hookworms.

    PubMed

    Albonico, Marco; Wright, Victoria; Ramsan, Mahdi; Haji, Hamadi J; Taylor, Martin; Savioli, Lorenzo; Bickle, Quentin

    2005-06-01

    Evidence of development and rapid spread of anthelminthic resistance in veterinary nematodes raises concern that the increasingly frequent treatments used in chemotherapy-based programmes to control human soil-transmitted helminths may select resistant worms. The aim of this study was to adapt, refine, and evaluate the Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) test, which has been used for veterinary nematodes, for field testing of benzimidazole (BZ) susceptibility/resistance in human hookworms. A second objective was to use this EHA to assess whether a population of worms resistant to mebendazole (MBZ) has built up in a sub-population of frequently treated children in Pemba Island. Stools from 470 school children enrolled in the first (Standard 1) and in the fifth (Standard 5) class were examined at baseline and at 21 days after treatment with 500 mg MBZ or placebo tablets. Standard 1 children had never received any MBZ treatment whilst Standard 5 children had received a total of 13 rounds of treatment. The EHA, involving culture of purified eggs with increasing drug concentrations showed that, for thiabendazole (TBZ), the mean ED(50)s (concentrations required to prevent 50% of the viable eggs from hatching) for all children at baseline were 0.079 microg/ml at 48h and 0.120 microg/ml at 72h (P<0.001). For MBZ, the mean ED(50)s for all children at baseline were 0.895 microg/ml at 48h and 1.50 microg/ml at 72h (P<0.001). For TBZ and for MBZ the ED(50) from Standard 1 were similar to those from Standard 5 children both at 48 and at 72h. At the follow-up for TBZ and for MBZ, there was no significant difference between the ED(50) from children who had received MBZ and children treated with placebo. In Pemba, TBZ ED(50) values of children non-exposed (Standard 1) and of children exposed (Standard 5) to MBZ treatment, and data from children treated with MBZ and placebo indicate that a drug-resistant worm population has not built up within treated individuals, and that periodic treatment has

  2. Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Croese, John; Giacomin, Paul; Navarro, Severine; Clouston, Andrew; McCann, Leisa; Dougall, Annette; Ferreira, Ivana; Susianto, Atik; O'Rourke, Peter; Howlett, Mariko; McCarthy, James; Engwerda, Christian; Jones, Dianne; Loukas, Alex

    2015-02-01

    Celiac disease (CeD) is a common gluten-sensitive autoimmune enteropathy. A gluten-free diet is an effective treatment, but compliance is demanding; hence, new treatment strategies for CeD are required. Parasitic helminths hold promise for treating inflammatory disorders, so we examined the influence of experimental hookworm infection on the predicted outcomes of escalating gluten challenges in CeD subjects. A 52-week study was conducted involving 12 adults with diet-managed CeD. Subjects were inoculated with 20 Necator americanus larvae, and escalating gluten challenges consumed as pasta were subsequently administered: (1) 10 to 50 mg for 12 weeks (microchallenge); (2) 25 mg daily + 1 g twice weekly for 12 weeks (GC-1g); and (3) 3 g daily (60-75 straws of spaghetti) for 2 weeks (GC-3g). Symptomatic, serologic, and histological outcomes evaluated gluten toxicity. Regulatory and inflammatory T cell populations in blood and mucosa were examined. Two gluten-intolerant subjects were withdrawn after microchallenge. Ten completed GC-1g, 8 of whom enrolled in and completed GC-3g. median villous height-to-crypt depth ratios (2.60-2.63; P = .98) did not decrease as predicted after GC-1g, and the mean IgA-tissue transglutaminase titers declined, contrary to the predicted rise after GC-3g. quality of life scores improved (46.3-40.6; P = .05); celiac symptom indices (24.3-24.3; P = .53), intra-epithelial lymphocyte percentages (32.5-35.0; P = .47), and Marsh scores were unchanged by gluten challenge. Intestinal T cells expressing IFNγ were reduced following hookworm infection (23.9%-11.5%; P = .04), with corresponding increases in CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (0.19%-1.12%; P = .001). Necator americanus and gluten microchallenge promoted tolerance and stabilized or improved all tested indices of gluten toxicity in CeD subjects. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between anaemia and infections (HIV, malaria and hookworm) among children admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital.

    PubMed

    Magesa, A S; Magesa, P M

    2012-09-01

    Anaemia is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric age with much aetiology. The magnitude of childhood anaemia has been inadequately studied at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). The study was aimed at determining the frequency of anaemia and associated infections in patients admitted in general paediatric wards at MNH in Dar es Salaam. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. This was conducted at MNH in general paediatric wards from 20th August, 2009 to 15th December, 2009. Patients, aged 1-84 months, consecutively admitted were recruited in the study. After informed verbal consent from the guardian or parent was obtained, information on demographic and clinical characteristics was collected from the parent or guardian. Physical examination and laboratory tests on blood ; stool samples for hookworm screening; blood slides for malaria parasites; Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screening; and blood peripheral smears were done on all subjects. Additional information was taken from medical files. Data management: The prevalence of anemia was determined as a percentage of all paediatric patients recruited during the time of data collection. All information was recorded using questionnaires and analysis was done using SPSS version 13.0. A p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 315 children were assessed. The frequency of anaemia was 79.4%. This is much higher than the WHO prevalence of 67.6% in Africa for anaemia to be taken as a disease of public health importance. The proportion of malaria was 7.9%, HIV seropositive was 10.2% and hookworm was 1.0% of all admissions. There was an increased risk of anaemia in patients with HIV seropositive and or malaria although this was not statistically significant (RR > 1.0, p > 0.05). Anaemia in paediatric patients admitted at MNH is a disease of high public health importance in Dar es Salaam and may well carry a high burden in the rest of the country. Other risk factors of

  4. ACTS mobile propagation campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for three propagation measurement campaigns involving a mobile receiving laboratory and 20 GHz transmissions from the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Four 1994 campaigns were executed during weekly periods in and around Austin, Texas in February and May, in Central Maryland during March, and in Fairbanks, Alaska and environs in June. Measurements tested the following effects at 20 GHz: (1) attenuation due to roadside trees with and without foliage, (2) multipath effects for scenarios in which line-of-sight paths were unshadowed, (3) fades due to terrain and roadside obstacles, (4) fades due to structures in urban environs, (5) single tree attenuation, and (6) effects of fading at low elevation angles (8 deg in Fairbanks, Alaska) and high elevation angles (55 deg in Austin, Texas). Results presented here cover sampled measurements in Austin, Texas for foliage and non-foliage cases and in Central Maryland for non-foliage runs.

  5. VELETA 2002 Field Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alados-Arboledas, L.; Veleta2002 Team

    2003-04-01

    Depletion of the Earth's ozone layer is considered responsible of an increase in the solar ultraviolet irradiance incoming at surface level (WMO, 1998). For this reason, it is important to know the amount of ultraviolet radiation received by plants and animal organisms to evaluate the potential impact of increased UV radiation on biological systems. During recent years several studies has investigated the differences in UV radiation between places located at different altitude. Depending on the choice of the experimental area altitudinal gradients in erythemal UV have been reported ranging from 0.08 to 0.40 at different regions. Rather high altitudinal gradients were obtained when the studies have been undertaken at sites with important tropospheric pollution or when snow cover was present in the high-level sites. In this sense, it seems of interest to study these altitudinal gradients including comprehensive observations of the environmental conditions relevant to the incoming UV irradiance in order to separate the different contributions to this altitudinal effect. This paper presents the field campaign VELETA2002 (eValuation of the Effects of eLevation and aErosols on the ultravioleT rAdiation), developed during the month of July 2002 in the area of Sierra Nevada (Spain). This field campaign was designed to obtain experimental data on elevation and atmospheric aerosol effects on the solar ultraviolet irradiance. For this purpose a set of radiometers and spectroradiometers has been installed at both slopes of Sierra Nevada Massif, from coastal to inland locations. The field stations include Motril, a coastal location at sea level, Pitres (1200 m a.s.l.) located in the South slope of Sierra Nevada Massif, the Veleta Peak (3398 m a.s.l.), Las Sabinas (2200 m a.s.l.) located on the north slope of the mountain range and Armilla (680 m a.s.l.) located in the valley. The principal feature of the locations is that they provide a strong altitudinal gradient considering

  6. Hookworm recombinant protein promotes regulatory T cell responses that suppress experimental asthma.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Severine; Pickering, Darren A; Ferreira, Ivana B; Jones, Linda; Ryan, Stephanie; Troy, Sally; Leech, Andrew; Hotez, Peter J; Zhan, Bin; Laha, Thewarach; Prentice, Roger; Sparwasser, Tim; Croese, John; Engwerda, Christian R; Upham, John W; Julia, Valerie; Giacomin, Paul R; Loukas, Alex

    2016-10-26

    In the developed world, declining prevalence of some parasitic infections correlates with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders. Moreover, experimental human infection with some parasitic worms confers protection against inflammatory diseases in phase 2 clinical trials. Parasitic worms manipulate the immune system by secreting immunoregulatory molecules that offer promise as a novel therapeutic modality for inflammatory diseases. We identify a protein secreted by hookworms, anti-inflammatory protein-2 (AIP-2), that suppressed airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma, reduced expression of costimulatory markers on human dendritic cells (DCs), and suppressed proliferation ex vivo of T cells from human subjects with house dust mite allergy. In mice, AIP-2 was primarily captured by mesenteric CD103(+) DCs and suppression of airway inflammation was dependent on both DCs and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) that originated in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and accumulated in distant mucosal sites. Transplantation of MLNs from AIP-2-treated mice into naïve hosts revealed a lymphoid tissue conditioning that promoted Treg induction and long-term maintenance. Our findings indicate that recombinant AIP-2 could serve as a novel curative therapeutic for allergic asthma and potentially other inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Potency testing for the experimental Na-GST-1 hookworm vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Amar R; Oliveira, Luciana M; Diemert, David J; Keegan, Brian; Plieskatt, Jordan L; Periago, Maria V; Bottazzi, Maria E; Hotez, Peter J; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2010-10-01

    Over the next decade, a new generation of vaccines will target the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The goal of most NTD vaccines will be to reduce the morbidity and decrease the chronic debilitating nature of these often-forgotten infections – outcomes that are hard to measure in the traditional potency testing paradigm. The absence of measurable correlates of protection, a lack of permissive animal models for lethal infection, and a lack of clinical indications that do not include the induction of sterilizing immunity required us to reconsider the traditional bioassay methods for determining vaccine potency. Owing to these limitations, potency assay design for NTD vaccines will increasingly rely on a paradigm where potency testing is one among many tools to ensure that a manufacturing process yields a product of consistent quality. Herein, we discuss the evolution of our thinking regarding the design of a potency assay along these newly defined lines and its application to the release of the experimental Necator americanus-glutathione-S- transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) vaccine to prevent human hookworm infection. We discuss the necessary steps to accomplish the design and implementation of such a new potency assay as a resource for the burgeoning NTD vaccine community. Our experience is that much of the existing information is proprietary and needs to be pulled together in a single source to aid in our overall understanding of potency testing.

  8. Mucosal tolerance of the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum in the gut of naturally infected wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Constantinoiu, Constantin C; Goullet, Mark S; Constantinoiu, Elena C; Scott, Jenni L

    2015-07-27

    Ancylostoma caninum is a very pathogenic hookworm that locates in the small intestine of the dog and other canid species. The mucosal response of wild dogs naturally infected with A. caninum was investigated in this study. In spite of diffuse infiltrations of the mucosa with CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD8(+) , CD11c(+) , CD21(+) or MHC class II antigen cells no focal infiltrations with any of these cell phenotypes were observed around the buccal capsule or the body of the feeding worms. Very few or no apoptotic cells could be detected around the worms fixed into the mucosa but they were detected on the tip of villi and in the superficial layer of cellular debris and proteinaceous exudate that covers the mucosa. Muc5AC, a mucine associated with expulsion of gut worms (Trichuris muris) was expressed extremely weakly or was not expressed at all in the intestine of the wild dogs infected with A. caninum. Our data show that individual specimens of A. caninum can reside for some time in the mucosa of the gut of dogs undetected and most likely unaffected by the effectors of the local immune response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm in children in the Ranomafana rainforest, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Kightlinger, L K; Seed, J R; Kightlinger, M B

    1995-04-01

    An epidemiological study of intestinal nematodes was conducted with 1,292 children, ranging from birth through 11 yr old, living in the Ranomafana rainforest of southeast Madagascar. Fecal examinations revealed prevalences of 78% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 38% for Trichuris trichiura, 16% for hookworm, and 0.4% for Schistosoma mansoni. Infection intensity was measured indirectly by fecal egg counts and directly by A. lumbricoides expulsion following treatment with pyrantel pamoate. The mean A. lumbricoides worm burden for children, 5-11 yr old, was 19.2 (SD 20.4) worms per child, with a median of 13 worms (n = 428). The distributions were overdispersed for all 3 nematodes. The age profiles showed a rapid acquisition of A. lumbricoides during infancy, increasing to 100% prevalence by age 10. After mebendazole anthelmintic treatment and a 12-mo reinfection period, the nematodes had rebounded to pretreatment prevalence and intensity levels. There was evidence for age-dependent predisposition of the children to infection intensity for each of the 3 nematodes. Dual species intensity correlation was consistently strong for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. The significantly higher prevalence and intensity of ascariasis in girls were thought to be related to exposure.

  10. Effects of treatment on IgE responses against parasite allergen-like proteins and immunity to reinfection in childhood schistosome and hookworm coinfections.

    PubMed

    Pinot de Moira, Angela; Jones, Frances M; Wilson, Shona; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Mwatha, Joseph K; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Dunne, David W

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring human immunity to both schistosomiasis and hookworm infection has been associated with IgE responses against parasite allergen-like proteins. Since the two helminths frequently coinfect the same individuals, there is growing advocacy for their concurrent treatment. However, both helminths are known to exert strong immunomodulatory effects; therefore, coinfected individuals could have immune responses different from those characteristically seen in monoinfected individuals. In this study, we measured changes in IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 responses to schistosome and hookworm antigens, including the allergen-like proteins Schistosoma mansoni tegumental-allergen-like 1 protein (SmTAL1), SmTAL2, and Necator americanus Ancylostoma-secreted protein-2 (Na-ASP-2), following concurrent treatment of schoolchildren coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm. Antibody responses to schistosome egg (soluble egg antigen and SmTAL2) or somatic adult hookworm (AHW) antigens either decreased after treatment or were unchanged, whereas those to schistosome worm antigens (soluble worm antigen and SmTAL1) increased. The observed different effects of treatment likely reflect the different modes of drug action and sites of infection for these two helminths. Importantly, there was no evidence that the simultaneous treatment of coinfected children with praziquantel and albendazole affected schistosome- and hookworm-specific humoral responses differently from those characteristic of populations in which only one organism is endemic; schistosome- and hookworm-specific responses were not associated, and there was no evidence for cross-regulation. Posttreatment increases in the levels of IgE to schistosome worm antigens were associated with lower Schistosoma mansoni reinfection intensity, while no associations between humoral responses to AHW antigen and protection from hookworm reinfection were observed in this sample of school-aged children.

  11. Simple fecal flotation is a superior alternative to guadruple Kato Katz smear examination for the detection of hookworm eggs in human stool.

    PubMed

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders; Marti, Hanspeter; Traub, Rebecca J; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Microscopy-based identification of eggs in stool offers simple, reliable and economical options for assessing the prevalence and intensity of hookworm infections, and for monitoring the success of helminth control programs. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the diagnostic parameters of the Kato-Katz (KK) and simple sodium nitrate flotation technique (SNF) in terms of detection and quantification of hookworm eggs, with PCR as an additional reference test in stool, collected as part of a baseline cross-sectional study in Cambodia. Fecal samples collected from 205 people in Dong village, Rovieng district, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia were subjected to KK, SNF and PCR for the detection (and in case of microscopy-based methods, quantification) of hookworm eggs in stool. The prevalence of hookworm detected using a combination of three techniques (gold standard) was 61.0%. PCR displayed a highest sensitivity for hookworm detection (92.0%) followed by SNF (44.0%) and quadruple KK smears (36.0%) compared to the gold standard. The overall eggs per gram feces from SNF tended to be higher than for quadruple KK and the SNF proved superior for detecting low egg burdens. As a reference, PCR demonstrated the higher sensitivity compared to SNF and the quadruple KK method for detection of hookworm in human stool. For microscopic-based quantification, a single SNF proved superior to the quadruple KK for the detection of hookworm eggs in stool, in particular for low egg burdens. In addition, the SNF is cost-effective and easily accessible in resource poor countries.

  12. Simple Fecal Flotation Is a Superior Alternative to Guadruple Kato Katz Smear Examination for the Detection of Hookworm Eggs in Human Stool

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders; Marti, Hanspeter; Traub, Rebecca J.; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Microscopy-based identification of eggs in stool offers simple, reliable and economical options for assessing the prevalence and intensity of hookworm infections, and for monitoring the success of helminth control programs. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the diagnostic parameters of the Kato-Katz (KK) and simple sodium nitrate flotation technique (SNF) in terms of detection and quantification of hookworm eggs, with PCR as an additional reference test in stool, collected as part of a baseline cross-sectional study in Cambodia. Methods/Principle Findings Fecal samples collected from 205 people in Dong village, Rovieng district, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia were subjected to KK, SNF and PCR for the detection (and in case of microscopy-based methods, quantification) of hookworm eggs in stool. The prevalence of hookworm detected using a combination of three techniques (gold standard) was 61.0%. PCR displayed a highest sensitivity for hookworm detection (92.0%) followed by SNF (44.0%) and quadruple KK smears (36.0%) compared to the gold standard. The overall eggs per gram feces from SNF tended to be higher than for quadruple KK and the SNF proved superior for detecting low egg burdens. Conclusion/Significance As a reference, PCR demonstrated the higher sensitivity compared to SNF and the quadruple KK method for detection of hookworm in human stool. For microscopic-based quantification, a single SNF proved superior to the quadruple KK for the detection of hookworm eggs in stool, in particular for low egg burdens. In addition, the SNF is cost-effective and easily accessible in resource poor countries. PMID:25521997

  13. TYCHO Brahe's Copernican Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.; Voelkel, J. R.

    1997-12-01

    Historians of astronomy have generally assumed that the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems give equivalent predictions of planetary positions, but Tycho Brahe knew that in the Ptolemaic arrangement Mars' distance was always greater than the sun's, whereas in the Copernican system Mars at opposition approached to half the sun's distance. Because Tycho accepted the traditional solar distance scale, 20 times too small, he expected to measure a Martian diurnal parallax of 4.5' at opposition if the Copernican system was true. (In reality the horizontal parallax was too small to measure by naked-eye observations.) Hence, during the golden decade of the 1580s at Hven, Tycho undertook a major campaign to find Mars' parallax. Observations at the opposition of 1582-83 failed, according to a letter he wrote in 1584. The campaign at the next opposition led to frustration, but after the 1587 opposition he claimed that in fact he had already found the parallax in 1582. Was Tycho merely prevaricating because he wanted to have an observational basis for his new Tychonic cosmology? During this decade Tycho gradually became aware of the role of refraction, and much of the new instrumentation built at Stjerneborg seems to have been motivated by this problem. Using an erroneously chosen refraction table Tycho apparently convinced himself of a large parallax for Mars. He may well have discovered his error by 1592, for he never again claimed to have found the large parallax. Because of the failure of this major goal, Tycho's reputation as a very smart and program-motivated observer has suffered, but because of this particular observational campaign, there were ultimately enough astonishingly accurate Mars observations for Kepler's later studies to succeed in finding the law of areas and the elliptical form of planetary orbits.

  14. Thailand stifles AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-05-16

    Fearing that it is damaging the country's lucrative tourist industry, Thailand's new government has greatly toned down a much praised AIDS awareness campaign. Announcing the decision, the new deputy public health minister, Charoon Ngamphichet, explained that the previous government's AIDS awareness efforts had seriously affected the tourist industry (which nets 2.5 billion British pounds a year). The minister has also rejected UN projections claiming that by the year 2000, 1 in 4 adults in Thailand will be infected with HIV, calling the estimate "overblown." On April 28, the director of the UN's HIV and AIDS development program, Elizabeth Reid, said in a news conference that Thailand has one of the most rapidly spreading epidemics ever documented, and that by the year 2000, 1/4 of all Thai adults will test positive for HIV. Noting that an unchecked epidemic would undermine the country's development, Reid praised the awareness efforts instituted by the interim government that cane in to power February 1991, following a military coup. This campaign had been formulated by then-Public Health Minister Mechai Viravaidya, known in Thailand as "Mr. Condom" for his efforts to promote birth control and control the spread of AIDS. Before leaving office, Viravaidya warned that by the end of 1991, between 200,000 and 400,000 Thais were already infected with HIV, and that the figure would increase to between 2 and 4 million by 2000 if an effective campaign was not continued. Viravaidya maintains that the tourist sex industry (catering to Americans, Europeans and Japanese) is only a contributory factor of the epidemic. More important, he says, 90% of all Thai males engage in commercial sex at some point in their lives. It is estimated that 37% of all prostitutes in Bangkok are HIV positive.

  15. Preliminary evidence of age-dependent clinical signs associated with porcine circovirus 2b in experimentally infected CH3/Rockefeller mice.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alessandra M M G; Cruz, Taís F; Yamada, Katarina B; Gerber, Priscilla F; Gabardo, Michelle P; Araújo, João P; Guedes, Roberto M C; Mori, Cinthia K; Oliveira, Camila P; Santos, Sueli S; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J

    2015-12-01

    Mice and rats are susceptible to porcine circovirus 2b (PCV2) infection under field and experimental conditions. However, whether PCV2 induces disease in rodents remains a matter of debate. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether PCV2-induced disease in mice is age-dependent and whether intranasally inoculated animals are able to infect animals they come into contact with. Twenty-five CH3/Rockefeller mice were divided into six groups and intranasally inoculated with 25μL of either PCV2b or PBS on days 0, 3 and 6. One group remained untreated. Two age groups were tested: 3-week-old mice and 6-week-old mice. The administration of three PCV2 intranasal inoculations at intervals of three days was able to induce infection and support virus transmission in susceptible mice, regardless of the age at inoculation. The clinical signs associated with PCV2 infection were more severe in younger mice, and PCV2-DNA load was higher in their faeces. In conclusion, PCV2 induced disease in mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Digenean trematode infections of native freshwater snails and invasive Potamopyrgus antipodarum in the Grand Teton National Park/John D. Rockefeller Memorial Parkway Area.

    PubMed

    Adema, C M; Lun, C-M; Hanelt, B; Seville, R S

    2009-02-01

    Outside its native range, the invasive New Zealand mud snail (NZMS), Potamopyrgus antipodarum, is rarely reported to harbor parasites. To test this observation, 7 sites along the Snake River and Polecat Creek in the Grand Teton National Park/John D Rockefeller Memorial Parkway area (Wyoming) were surveyed for native aquatic snails, NZMS, and associated digenean trematodes, in July 2005. At 6 sites, native snails harbored patent digenean infections; within 2 hr, < or =10% of lymnaeid snails shed furcocercariae or xiphidiocercariae, and < or =42% of physid snails released furcocercariae or echinostome cercariae. Partial 18S rDNA sequences were recovered from several furcocercariae. Potamopyrgus antipodarum was present at, and collected from, 5 sites. Polymerase chain reaction assays targeting digenean rDNA sequences in DNA extracted from pools of 150 NZMS snails did not detect parasites. The examination of 960 NZMS by overnight shedding yielded 1 occurrence of (surface-encysted) metacercariae of an unclassified notocotylid (based on 18S and 28S rDNA sequences). The dissection of 150 ethanol-fixed NZMS (30/site) revealed 2 types of digenean metacercariae encysted in tissues of 5 snails from Polecat Creek. Thus, invasive NZMS may serve as first and second intermediate host for digenean parasites.

  17. The relationship of hookworm infection, anaemia and iron status in a Papua New Guinea highland population and the response to treatment with iron and mebendazole.

    PubMed

    Shield, J M; Vaterlaws, A L; Kimber, R J; Payne, R; Casey, G J; Blunden, R W; Kutkaite, D

    1981-03-01

    In 345 apparently healthy Papua New Guinea male subjects, predominantly highlanders, 89% of whom were infected with hookworm (Necator americanus), there was a statistically significant inverse correlation of hookworm egg count with haemoglobin and serum ferritin level, but no significant correlation with serum albumin, folate or B12 values. A sub-group of 128 was chosen for a six-month study on the effect of treatment with the anthelmintic mebendazole and/or parenteral iron on haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. Mebendazole-treated subjects remained worm-free and the hookworm egg counts of the controls decreased during the study period. Parenteral iron treatment had the expected effect of raising haemoglobin to a normal level. There was a statistically significant improvement in haemoglobin level in all treated groups but not in the control. Serum ferritin levels decreased significantly in all groups, but more in the control than in the treated groups, although treatment groups were not significantly different. Although probable inadequate uptake of iron by the subjects and blood donation by some subjects was apparently more detrimental to iron status than hookworm infection, the results of this study support the view that hookworm infection in this country contributes to lowered haemoglobin levels and iron status.

  18. Risk factors and spatial patterns of hookworm infection among schoolchildren in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Vounatsou, Penelope; Gosoniu, Laura; Tanner, Marcel; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-02-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the risk factors for hookworm infection among schoolchildren in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire and predicting and mapping the spatial distribution of infection. We used demographic and socio-economic data from a cross-sectional survey of 6-16-year-old schoolchildren from 56 schools. Infection with hookworm was determined by microscopic examination of stool samples employing the Kato-Katz technique and an ether-concentration method. Environmental data were derived from satellite images and digitised maps. Bayesian variogram models were applied to investigate the variation of hookworm infection in relation to demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors. The overall hookworm infection prevalence, based on the pooled microscopic diagnoses, was 43.3% and ranged from 5.4 to 79.1% in the schools surveyed. Bivariate analyses showed that sex, age, socio-economic status, elevation, rainfall and land cover were significantly associated with the spatial distribution of hookworm infection. The final multivariate spatial model consisted of the covariates age, sex, socio-economic status, elevation and land cover. When assuming non-stationary underlying spatial dependency, the results of the model suggested that spatial correlation depended on the location only marginally. We conclude that, at the current resolution, it seems more reasonable to target interventions based on well-established epidemiologic risk factors, rather than on spatial factors.

  19. Morpheus Lander Testing Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The Morpheus vehicle has successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tether tests, ultimately culminating in an un-tethered "free-flight" This development and testing campaign was conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), less than one year after project start. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs and projects that traditionally require longer development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. This paper documents the integrated testing campaign, including descriptions of test types (hot-fire, tether, and free-flight), test objectives, and the infrastructure of JSC testing facilities. A major focus of the paper will be the fast pace of the project, rapid prototyping, frequent testing, and lessons learned from this departure from the traditional engineering development process at NASA s Johnson Space Center.

  20. AH Her Observing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-05-01

    Dr. Juan Echevarria (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) and colleagues request AAVSO assistance in a campaign on the Z Cam-type cataclysmic variable AH Her being carried out 2013 May 29 - June 18. They will be making photometric and spectroscopic observations of AH Her using the 2.1m and 0.84m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Observatory (SPM). Their goal is to carry out a radial velocity study of the system components using modern detectors; no study of AH Her has been made since the one by Horne, Wade, and Szkody in 1980-1981 (1986MNRAS.219..791H). Photometry and spectroscopy are requested. AH Her, for decades a reasonably "regular" Z Cam system, began exhibiting significantly anomalous behavior in ~2007. Since then it has experienced brief periods of fairly typical behavior interspersed with more anomalous intervals, including some unprecedented behavior. Most recently, it has returned to a more normal pattern of outbursts shape-wise but it is not back to its normal amplitude or frequency. AAVSO data will be essential for correlation in order to determine the precise time(s) of minimum occurring during the campaign. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  1. [The Influence Of Ultraviolet Irradiation Upon The Development And Infectivity Of Hookworm Larvae

    PubMed

    Roh, Yong Hie

    1968-06-01

    The eggs and rhabditoid larvae of canine hookworm were irradiated with ultraviolet rays for one hour at a distance of 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm. The infective stage larvae of the same parasites were irradiated for l, 3, 5 and 14 hours from the same distances. The infective larvae were also exposed under direct sunlight for l, 2, 3 and 4 hours. PARASITES: Ancylostoma caninum was used. Eggs were collected in vitro from female adult worms. The worms were kept at 37 degrees C in petri-dish filled with Kreb's Ringer solution. There was an average of two cell stages, and they were used as early as possible before the morula stage. Rhabditoid larvae were obtained by culture of the above eggs for twenty-four hours in 25 degrees C incubator. The larvae reached the infective stage in seven days culture at the same condition. IRRADIATION OF ULTRAVIOLET RAY: Kingston ultraviolet light (100 volt, 10 watt, 50 cycles, 0.230 ampere) was used. The potential U.V.R. power was 1.8 watts. The distances between the material and the light were 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm at a temperature of 25 degrees C in each case. The samples were smeared on the tile in order to keep them in saturated moisture. Fully wetted ten ply gauze was laid underneath the tile. The tile was surrounded by 2 x 5 cm rectangular piece of glass in order to prevent the spread of the larvae to the outside. All of the samples received irradiation for one hour and were cultured for a period of seven days. The hatching of the egg and the development of the larvae were observed. For the purpose of the study, the infectivity and pathogenicity of the irradiated samples, were inoculated into mice orally. The lungs, livers and carcass were examined three days after the infection. A routine pathological examination of the organs was also carried out. In order to study the eggs productivity, the larvae were given to the proper host, dog. The eggs in the feces were examined from three to 6 weeks after infection, both quantitatively and

  2. Molecular evidence of shared hookworm Ancylostoma tubaeforme haplotypes between the critically endangered Iberian lynx and sympatric domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; Blasco-Costa, Isabel

    2012-05-25

    Hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma are the most pathogenic parasites of young cats, and A. tubaeforme may cause morbidity or mortality in young individuals of the most endangered felid species in the world, the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Since the transmission of monoxenous parasites is related to host density and remaining lynx populations are currently very small, the presence of reservoir hosts may be necessary for the maintenance of the hookworm life-cycle, the domestic cat being the most likely reservoir of A. tubaeforme. In order to confirm this hypothesis, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (Cox I) sequences of three A. tubaeforme specimens from a road-killed Iberian lynx from Doñana were compared with 14 specimens retrieved from five sympatric free-roaming cats from the same area, and with six specimens from three free-roaming cats from the Mediterranean island of Mallorca. Gene fragments (300 bp) from 23 A. tubaeforme individuals representing 16 different haplotypes were obtained. A statistical parsimony haplotype network analysis showed that the three specimens infecting an Iberian lynx corresponded to two different haplotypes, one of which was identical to a specimen in a cat found only 10 km from the lynx. Specimens from the Iberian lynx and those from cats in Doñana were only 1.03% genetically divergent, whereas specimens from Mallorca cats and those from Doñana cats and the lynx diverged by 1.33% and 1.36%, respectively. The existence of shared haplotypes of hookworms between lynx and cat reinforces the hypothesis that the abundant sympatric domestic cat population is acting as a reservoir for A. tubaeforme infection in the endangered Iberian lynx.

  3. Low Efficacy of Single-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Hookworm and Effect on Concomitant Helminth Infection in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Soukhathammavong, Phonepasong Ayé; Sayasone, Somphou; Phongluxa, Khampheng; Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hatz, Christoph; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Keiser, Jennifer; Odermatt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Albendazole and mebendazole are increasingly deployed for preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. We assessed the efficacy of single oral doses of albendazole (400 mg) and mebendazole (500 mg) for the treatment of hookworm infection in school-aged children in Lao PDR. Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke. Methodology We conducted a randomized, open-label, two-arm trial. In total, 200 children infected with hookworm (determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears derived from two stool samples) were randomly assigned to albendazole (n = 100) and mebendazole (n = 100). Cure rate (CR; percentage of children who became egg-negative after treatment), and egg reduction rate (ERR; reduction in the geometric mean fecal egg count at treatment follow-up compared to baseline) at 21–23 days posttreatment were used as primary outcome measures. Adverse events were monitored 3 hours post treatment. Principal Findings Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole resulted in CRs of 36.0% and 17.6% (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2–0.8; P = 0.01), and ERRs of 86.7% and 76.3%, respectively. In children co-infected with O. viverrini, albendazole and mebendazole showed low CRs (33.3% and 24.2%, respectively) and moderate ERRs (82.1% and 78.2%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance Both albendazole and mebendazole showed disappointing CRs against hookworm, but albendazole cured infection and reduced intensity of infection with a higher efficacy than mebendazole. Single-dose administrations showed an effect against O. viverrini, and hence it will be interesting to monitor potential ancillary benefits of a preventive chemotherapy strategy that targets STHs in areas where opisthorchiasis is co-endemic. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29126001 PMID:22235353

  4. Biochemical Characterization and Vaccine Potential of a Heme-Binding Glutathione Transferase from the Adult Hookworm Ancylostoma caninum

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Bin; Liu, Sen; Perally, Samirah; Xue, Jian; Fujiwara, Ricardo; Brophy, Peter; Xiao, Shuhua; Liu, Yueyuan; Feng, Jianjun; Williamson, Angela; Wang, Yan; Bueno, Lilian L.; Mendez, Susana; Goud, Gaddam; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Hawdon, John M.; Loukas, Alex; Jones, Karen; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    We report the cloning and expression of Ac-GST-1, a novel glutathione S-transferase from the adult hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, and its possible role in parasite blood feeding and as a vaccine target. The predicted Ac-GST-1 open reading frame contains 207 amino acids (mass, 24 kDa) and exhibited up to 65% amino acid identity with other nematode GSTs. mRNA encoding Ac-GST-1 was detected in adults, eggs, and larval stages, but the protein was detected only in adult hookworm somatic extracts and excretory/secretory products. Using antiserum to the recombinant protein, Ac-GST-1 was immunolocalized to the parasite hypodermis and muscle tissue and weakly to the intestine. Recombinant Ac-GST-1 was enzymatically active, as determined by conjugation of glutathione to a model substrate, and exhibited a novel high-affinity binding site for hematin. The possible role of Ac-GST-1 in parasite heme detoxification during hemoglobin digestion or heme uptake prompted interest in evaluating it as a potential vaccine antigen. Vaccination of dogs with Ac-GST-1 resulted in a 39.4% reduction in the mean worm burden and 32.3% reduction in egg counts compared to control dogs following larval challenge, although the reductions were not statistically significant. However, hamsters vaccinated with Ac-GST-1 exhibited statistically significant worm reduction (53.7%) following challenge with heterologous Necator americanus larvae. These studies suggest that Ac-GST-1 is a possible drug and vaccine target for hookworm infection. PMID:16177370

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato-Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato-Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato–Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR Methods for the Detection of Light-Intensity Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis Infections in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Knopp, Stefanie; Salim, Nahya; Schindler, Tobias; Karagiannis Voules, Dimitrios A.; Rothen, Julian; Lweno, Omar; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Singo, Raymond; Benninghoff, Myrna; Nsojo, Anthony A.; Genton, Blaise; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive diagnostic tools are crucial for an accurate assessment of helminth infections in low-endemicity areas. We examined stool samples from Tanzanian individuals and compared the diagnostic accuracy of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the FLOTAC technique and the Kato–Katz method for hookworm and the Baermann method for Strongyloides stercoralis detection. Only FLOTAC had a higher sensitivity than the Kato–Katz method for hookworm diagnosis; the sensitivities of PCR and the Kato–Katz method were equal. PCR had a very low sensitivity for S. stercoralis detection. The cycle threshold values of the PCR were negatively correlated with the logarithm of hookworm egg and S. stercoralis larvae counts. The median larvae count was significantly lower in PCR false negatives than true positives. All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence. PMID:24445211

  7. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  8. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  9. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  10. Health Education through Analogies: Preparation of a Community for Clinical Trials of a Vaccine against Hookworm in an Endemic Area of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazzinelli, Maria Flavia; Lobato, Lucas; Matoso, Leonardo; Avila, Renato; de Cassia Marques, Rita; Shah Brown, Ami; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Diemert, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Obtaining informed consent for clinical trials is especially challenging when working in rural, resource-limited areas, where there are often high levels of illiteracy and lack of experience with clinical research. Such an area, a remote field site in the northeastern part of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is currently being prepared for clinical trials of experimental hookworm vaccines. This study was conducted to assess whether special educational tools can be developed to increase the knowledge and comprehension of potential clinical trial participants and thereby enable them to make truly informed decisions to participate in such research. Methodology/Principal Findings An informational video was produced to explain the work of the research team and the first planned hookworm vaccine trial, using a pedagogical method based on analogies. Seventy-two adults living in a rural community of Minas Gerais were administered a structured questionnaire that assessed their knowledge of hookworm, of research and of the planned hookworm vaccine trial, as well as their attitudes and perceptions about the researchers and participation in future vaccine trials. The questionnaire was administered before being shown the educational video and two months after and the results compared. After viewing the video, significant improvements in knowledge related to hookworm infection and its health impact were observed: using a composite score combining related questions for which correct answers were assigned a value of 1 and incorrect answers a value of 0, participants had a mean score of 0.76 post-video compared to 0.68 pre-video (p = 0.0001). Similar improvements were seen in understanding the purpose of vaccination and the possible adverse effects of an experimental vaccine. Although 100% of participants expressed a positive opinion of the researchers even before viewing the film and over 90% said that they would participate in a hookworm vaccine trial, an

  11. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  12. The DIAMET campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, G.

    2012-04-01

    DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms) is a joint project between the UK academic community and the Met Office. Its focus is on understanding and predicting mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms, and in particular on the role of diabatic processes in generating and maintaining them. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. The project conducted two field campaigns in the autumn of 2011, from September 14 - 30 and November 24 - December 14, based around the FAAM BAe146 aircraft with support from ground-based radar and radiosonde measurements. Detailed modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified model, supported the planning and interpretation of these campaigns. This presentation will give a brief overview of the campaigns. Both in September and November-December the weather regime was westerly, with a strong jet stream directed across the Atlantic. Three IOPs were conducted in September, to observe a convective band ahead of an upper-level trough, waves on a long trailing cold front, and a warm conveyor belt associated with a secondary cyclone. In November-December six IOPs were conducted, to observe frontal passages and high winds. This period was notable for a number of very strong windstorms passing across the north of the UK, and gave us an opportunity to examine bent-back warm fronts in the southern quadrant of these storms where the strongest winds are found. The case studies fell into two basic patterns. In the majority of cases, dropsonde legs at high level were used to obtain a cross-section of winds and thermodynamic structure (e.g. across a front), followed by in situ legs at lower levels (generally where the temperature was between 0 and -10°) to examine microphysical processes, especially ice multiplication and the extent of supercooled water

  13. The Long Live Kids campaign: awareness of campaign messages.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Guy E J; Kwan, Matthew Y W; MacNeill, Margaret; Brownrigg, Michelle

    2011-05-01

    Media interventions are one strategy used to promote physical activity, but little is known about their effectiveness with children. As part of a larger evaluation, the purpose of this study was to assess the short-term effect of a private industry sponsored media literacy campaign, Long Live Kids, aimed at children in Canada. Specifically, we investigated children's awareness of the campaign and its correlates. Using a cohort design, a national sample (N = 331, male = 171; mean age = 10.81, SD = 0.99) completed a telephone survey two weeks prior to the campaign release, and again 1 year later. Only 3% of the children were able to recall the Long Live Kids campaign unprompted and 57% had prompted recall. Logistic regression found family income (Wald χ(2) = 11.06, p < .05), and free-time physical activity (Wald χ(2) = 5.67, p < .01) significantly predicted campaign awareness. Active children (≥3 days/week) were twice as likely to have recalled the campaign compared with inactive children (<3 days/week), whereas children living in high-income households (>$60,000/yr) were between 3.5 to 5 times more likely to have campaign recall compared with children living in a low-income households (<$20,000/yr). These findings suggest that media campaigns developed by industry may have a role in promoting physical activity to children although our findings identified a knowledge gap between children living in high- and low-income households. Future research needs to examine how children become aware of such media campaigns and how this mediated information is being used by children.

  14. Advances in vaccines against neglected tropical diseases: enhancing physical stability of a recombinant hookworm vaccine through biophysical and formulation studies.

    PubMed

    Plieskatt, Jordan L; Rezende, Wanderson C; Olsen, Chris M; Trefethen, Jared M; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2012-06-01

    A bivalent recombinant vaccine for human hookworm disease is under development. One of the lead candidate antigens in the vaccine is a glutathione S-transferase cloned from the hookworm Necator americanus (Na-GST-1) which is expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Based on preliminary studies demonstrating that the recombinant protein was not stable in an acetate buffer at pH 6, we undertook an extensive stability analysis of the molecule. To improve and optimize stability we complemented traditional methods employed for macromolecule and vaccine stabilization with biophysical techniques that were incorporated into a systematic process based on an eigenvector approach. Large data sets, obtained from a variety of experimental methods were used to establish a color map ("empirical phase diagram") of the physical stability of the vaccine antigen over a wide range of temperature and pH. The resulting map defined "apparent phase boundaries" that were used to develop high throughput screening assays. These assays were then employed to identify excipients that stabilized the antigen against physical degradation that could otherwise result in losses of physicochemical integrity, immunogenicity, and potency of the vaccine. Based on these evaluations, the recombinant Na-GST-1 antigen was reformulated and ultimately produced under Good Manufacturing Practices and with an acceptable stability profile.

  15. Structure of monomeric Na-GST-3, a glutathione S-transferase from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Alan; Zhan, Bin; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A

    2013-08-01

    Necator americanus is the major cause of human hookworm infection, which is a global cause of anemia in the developing world. Ongoing efforts to control hookworm infection include the identification of candidate vaccine antigens as well as potential therapeutic targets from the infective L3 larval stages and adult stages of the parasite. One promising family of proteins are the adult-stage-secreted cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Nematode GSTs facilitate the inactivation and degradation of a variety of electrophilic substrates (drugs) via the nucleophilic addition of reduced glutathione. Parasite GSTs also play significant roles in multi-drug resistance and the modulation of host immune defense mechanisms. Here, the structure of Na-GST-3, one of three GSTs secreted by adult-stage N. americanus, is reported. Unlike most GST structures, the Na-GST-3 crystal contains a monomer in the asymmetric unit. However, the monomer forms a prototypical GST dimer across the crystallographic twofold. A glutathione from the fermentation process is bound to the monomer. The overall binding cavity of Na-GST-3 is reminiscent of that of other N. americanus GSTs and is larger and capable of binding a wider array of ligands than GSTs from organisms that have other major detoxifying mechanisms. Furthermore, despite having low sequence identity to the host GST, Na-GST-3 has a greater tertiary-structure similarity to human sigma-class GST than was observed for the other N. americanus GSTs.

  16. Age patterns in undernutrition and helminth infection in a rural area of Brazil: associations with ascariasis and hookworm

    PubMed Central

    Jardim-Botelho, Anne; Brooker, Simon; Geiger, Stefan Michael; Fleming, Fiona; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Diemert, David Joseph; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey Michael

    2009-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE To investigate the nutritional status of individuals from a rural area of Brazil, and associations with helminth infections in an age-stratified sample. METHOD A total of 1113 individuals aged from 6 months to 83 years from the rural community of Americaninhas in Minas Gerais were investigated. Assessments comprised anthropometric measurements of weight, height and body composition, examining faecal samples for helminth eggs, and peripheral blood assays for albumin, haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations. RESULTS Ten percent of the participants were underweight, 12.8% were overweight and 28.3% of the children and adolescents were stunted. 11.6% had low lean body mass and 28.8% had low fat body mass. Hypoalbuminaemia was seen in 5.5%, anaemia in 12.5% and iron deficiency in 13.1%, although the prevalence of these two indices increased with age. Multivariate analysis showed that, after controlling for age, sex and socio-economic status, stunting was significantly associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection among children and adolescents, whereas low body mass was significantly associated with hookworm infection among adults and the elderly. CONCLUSIONS Helminth infections are associated with undernutrition in endemic populations, with important differences between the effects of hookworm and A. lumbricoides on age-related nutritional status. PMID:18312476

  17. Changes in duodenal tissue-associated microbiota following hookworm infection and consecutive gluten challenges in humans with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Paul; Zakrzewski, Martha; Jenkins, Timothy P; Su, Xiaopei; Al-Hallaf, Rafid; Croese, John; de Vries, Stefan; Grant, Andrew; Mitreva, Makedonka; Loukas, Alex; Krause, Lutz; Cantacessi, Cinzia

    2016-11-09

    A reduced diversity of the gastrointestinal commensal microbiota is associated with the development of several inflammatory diseases. Recent reports in humans and animal models have demonstrated the beneficial therapeutic effects of infections by parasitic worms (helminths) in some inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and coeliac disease (CeD). Interestingly, these studies have described how helminths may alter the intestinal microbiota, potentially representing a mechanism by which they regulate inflammation. However, for practical reasons, these reports have primarily analysed the faecal microbiota. In the present investigation, we have assessed, for the first time, the changes in the microbiota at the site of infection by a parasitic helminth (hookworm) and gluten-dependent inflammation in humans with CeD using biopsy tissue from the duodenum. Hookworm infection and gluten exposure were associated with an increased abundance of species within the Bacteroides phylum, as well as increases in the richness and diversity of the tissue-resident microbiota within the intestine, results that are consistent with previous reports using other helminth species in humans and animal models. Hence, this may represent a mechanism by which parasitic helminths may restore intestinal immune homeostasis and exert a therapeutic benefit in CeD, and potentially other inflammatory disorders.

  18. Ancylostoma caninum MTP-1, an astacin-like metalloprotease secreted by infective hookworm larvae, is involved in tissue migration.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Angela L; Lustigman, Sara; Oksov, Yelena; Deumic, Vehid; Plieskatt, Jordan; Mendez, Susana; Zhan, Bin; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Loukas, Alex

    2006-02-01

    Infective larvae (L3) of nematodes secrete macromolecules that are critical to infection and establishment of the parasite in the host. The dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum secretes an astacin-like metalloprotease, Ac-MTP-1, upon activation in vitro with host serum. Recombinant Ac-MTP-1 was expressed in the baculovirus/insect cell system as a secreted protein and was purified from culture medium by two separate methods, cation-exchange fast-performance liquid chromatography and gelatin-affinity chromatography. Recombinant MTP-1 was catalytically active and digested a range of native and denatured connective tissue substrates, including gelatin, collagen, laminin, and fibronectin. A dog was immunized with recombinant Ac-MTP-1 formulated with AS03 adjuvant, and the antiserum was used to immunolocalize the anatomic sites of expression within A. caninum L3 to secretory granules in the glandular esophagus and the channels that connect the esophagus to the L3 surface and to the cuticle. Antiserum inhibited the ability of recombinant MTP-1 to digest collagen by 85% and inhibited larval migration through tissue in vitro by 70 to 75%, in contrast to just 5 to 10% inhibition obtained with preimmunization serum. The metalloprotease inhibitors EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline also reduced the penetration of L3 through skin in vitro by 43 to 61%. The data strongly suggest that Ac-MTP-1 is critical for the invasion process of hookworm larvae, and moreover, that antibodies against the enzyme can neutralize its function and inhibit migration.

  19. Changes in duodenal tissue-associated microbiota following hookworm infection and consecutive gluten challenges in humans with coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Paul; Zakrzewski, Martha; Jenkins, Timothy P.; Su, Xiaopei; Al-Hallaf, Rafid; Croese, John; de Vries, Stefan; Grant, Andrew; Mitreva, Makedonka; Loukas, Alex; Krause, Lutz; Cantacessi, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    A reduced diversity of the gastrointestinal commensal microbiota is associated with the development of several inflammatory diseases. Recent reports in humans and animal models have demonstrated the beneficial therapeutic effects of infections by parasitic worms (helminths) in some inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and coeliac disease (CeD). Interestingly, these studies have described how helminths may alter the intestinal microbiota, potentially representing a mechanism by which they regulate inflammation. However, for practical reasons, these reports have primarily analysed the faecal microbiota. In the present investigation, we have assessed, for the first time, the changes in the microbiota at the site of infection by a parasitic helminth (hookworm) and gluten-dependent inflammation in humans with CeD using biopsy tissue from the duodenum. Hookworm infection and gluten exposure were associated with an increased abundance of species within the Bacteroides phylum, as well as increases in the richness and diversity of the tissue-resident microbiota within the intestine, results that are consistent with previous reports using other helminth species in humans and animal models. Hence, this may represent a mechanism by which parasitic helminths may restore intestinal immune homeostasis and exert a therapeutic benefit in CeD, and potentially other inflammatory disorders. PMID:27827438

  20. Pakistan's breastfeeding campaign.

    PubMed

    Martin, L

    1989-01-01

    A campaign to promote and protect breastfeeding in Pakistan was launched March 1988 with the adoption by the Pakistan Pediatric Association (PPA) of a twenty-point statement in support of breastfeeding. A national committee on breastfeeding comprised of representatives of the PPA, UNICEF, USAID, and the Nutrition Section of the Government of Pakistan was subsequently formed. The committee prepared over the course of six months a bibliography on breastfeeding studies in Pakistan, developed and coordinated two research studies on infant feeding practices, and planned a series of six regional seminars and a national workshop on Breastfeeding for Child Survival. The two-day seminars brought together almost 1000 health professionals, government officials, and representatives from the media, family planning associations, social welfare groups, and private voluntary organizations. Seminar recommendations formed the basis for discussion at the national workshop. The National Breastfeeding Committee has tried to sustain the momentum generated during the seminars through personal communication with health professionals and through journal articles and conferences. Over the next few months, the committee will be developing a national newborn feeding policy to issue to health facilities. The committee will also be identifying ways to train health care providers so that they are better able to assist lactating mothers. A study tour of infant feeding programs is being planned for health policymakers.

  1. Effectiveness of information campaigns.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, E W; Greinert, R; Volkmer, B

    2006-09-01

    Skin cancer represents the most common type of cancer in the white population worldwide and the incidence has dramatically increased during the last decades. UV-radiation is believed to be the most important risk factor responsible for this trend. The prominent role of UV-radiation renders skin cancer most suitable for primary prevention, because the main risk factor can easily be avoided by sticking to simple rules for the behaviour in the sun or under artificial UV (e.g. sunbeds). Since UV-exposure cannot and should not be avoided totally especially due to the beneficial health effects of UV-irradiation like Vitamin D(3)-production, recommendations and information for the public should be as clear and as weighted as possible, through adequate messages, such as: "Love the sun and protect your skin". For that purpose the Association of Dermatological Prevention in Germany (ADP) developed the period of life programme (POLP) that defines certain age-specific target groups, with the aim to give well adapted prevention messages to the population during lifetime. Evaluation of primary prevention campaigns in Germany showed that due to continuous intervention programs during the last 16 years changes in the "sun-behaviour" of the population have been achieved leading to a reduced but sufficient exposure to solar UV-irradiation. This will then contribute to the aim of decreasing morbidity and mortality of skin cancer.

  2. Awareness campaign. Orthopedic Hospital of Oklahoma launches awareness campaign.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The Orthopedic Hospital of Oklahoma is a 25-bed inpatient and outpatient center with one focus: Orthopedics. To acquaint people with its services and build brand awareness to drive market share, the hospital launched a print campaign featuring actual patients.

  3. Molecular Cloning, Biochemical Characterization, and Partial Protective Immunity of the Heme-Binding Glutathione S-Transferases from the Human Hookworm Necator americanus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Bin; Perally, Samirah; Brophy, Peter M.; Xue, Jian; Goud, Gaddam; Liu, Sen; Deumic, Vehid; de Oliveira, Luciana M.; Bethony, Jeffrey; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Jiang, Desheng; Gillespie, Portia; Xiao, Shu-hua; Gupta, Richi; Loukas, Alex; Ranjit, Najju; Lustigman, Sara; Oksov, Yelena; Hotez, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hookworm glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are critical for parasite blood feeding and survival and represent potential targets for vaccination. Three cDNAs, each encoding a full-length GST protein from the human hookworm Necator americanus (and designated Na-GST-1, Na-GST-2, and Na-GST-3, respectively) were isolated from cDNA based on their sequence similarity to Ac-GST-1, a GST from the dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The open reading frames of the three N. americanus GSTs each contain 206 amino acids with 51% to 69% sequence identity between each other and Ac-GST-1. Sequence alignment with GSTs from other organisms shows that the three Na-GSTs belong to a nematode-specific nu-class GST family. All three Na-GSTs, when expressed in Pichia pastoris, exhibited low lipid peroxidase and glutathione-conjugating enzymatic activities but high heme-binding capacities, and they may be involved in the detoxification and/or transport of heme. In two separate vaccine trials, recombinant Na-GST-1 formulated with Alhydrogel elicited 32 and 39% reductions in adult hookworm burdens (P < 0.05) following N. americanus larval challenge relative to the results for a group immunized with Alhydrogel alone. In contrast, no protection was observed in vaccine trials with Na-GST-2 or Na-GST-3. On the basis of these and other preclinical data, Na-GST-1 is under possible consideration for further vaccine development. PMID:20145100

  4. Seasonal prevalence and intensity of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups born in 2002 on San Miguel Island, California.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Delong, R L; Spraker, T R; Melin, S R; Laake, J L; Tolliver, S C

    2005-05-01

    Intestines of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups (n= 204), born in 2002 on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) as part of a seasonal mortality study from June through December 2002 and January 2003. The investigation was planned to coincide with most of the previously established hookworm infection period of the pups. Prevalence of hookworms in dead pups was 100% for each month of the study. The geometric mean intensity of infections per month was: 94.03 (n=30) for June, 629.09 (n=50) for July, 319.90 (n=31) for August, 159.90 (n=30) for October, 109.03 (n=30) for November, 37.84 (n=24) for December 2002 and 11.05 (n=9) for January 2003. In addition to the temporal pattern, the infection intensity was higher for pups in good condition and for male pups. An inter-year comparison of hookworm counts from dead pups collected in July of 1996, 2000, and 2002 also demonstrated higher intensity in pups in better condition but sex-differences in intensity were inconsistent across years. The inter-year comparison also demonstrated higher intensities in dead pups collected from portions of the rookery with sandy substrate versus rocky substrate. No annual differences in intensity were found after adjusting for substrate and condition.

  5. About the Collision Repair Campaign

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA developed the Collision Repair Campaign to focus on meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source sector to complement ongoing community air toxics work and attain reductions at a faster rate.

  6. Impact of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm infections on the frequency of anaemia in pregnant women of rural communities in Enugu, South East Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agu, Polycarp Uche; Ogboi, Johnbull Sonny; Akpoigbe, Kesiena; Okeke, Tochukwu; Ezugwu, Euzebus

    2013-01-01

    Malaria and hookworm infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa and they increase the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy with resultant poor pregnancy outcomes. This study was carried out to assess the impact of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm infections on the frequency of anaemia among pregnant women in two rural communities in Enugu, South East Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 226 women attending antenatal clinics at two rural Primary Health Centres (PHC) from April 2011 to July 2011(each PHC with 113 subjects). Socio-demographic data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Blood and stool samples were evaluated for haemoglobin estimation and malaria parasites, and stool samples examined for parasitic infection in all the women. Data was analyzed using STATA 10 software statistical analysis package. Student t-test was used for comparing mean values and chi square test for comparing categorical variables and level of significance set at p<0.05 and logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with malaria in pregnancy. The mean age of the women was 27 years with range 18-38 years and SD of 5 years. Most of the women were housewives and over 50% in their second trimester. 53% of them had malaria parasites while 27% had hookworm infection. About 40% of the women were anaemic (haemoglobin<0.001). Similar association was found between hookworm infection and anaemia (p<0.001). Though both malaria and hookworm infections greatly increase the odds for anaemia (AOR 18.06, CI 18.15 -39.99, P<0.001) and (AOR 5.28, CI 2.26-12.38, P<0.001) respectively, the odds for having anaemia in pregnancy was higher for malaria than hookworm infections. Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm infections have significant impact on the high frequency of anaemia in pregnancy in our rural communities. There is need to strengthen the control program that has been in place with an integrated intervention to combat

  7. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    PubMed

    Traag, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.

  8. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  9. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Brelsford, Jill B.; Plieskatt, Jordan L.; Yakovleva, Anna; Jariwala, Amar; Keegan, Brian P.; Peng, Jin; Xia, Pengjun; Li, Guangzhao; Campbell, Doreen; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2–8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines. PMID:28192438

  10. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine.

    PubMed

    Brelsford, Jill B; Plieskatt, Jordan L; Yakovleva, Anna; Jariwala, Amar; Keegan, Brian P; Peng, Jin; Xia, Pengjun; Li, Guangzhao; Campbell, Doreen; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-01

    A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2-8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines.

  11. Efficacy and side effects of albendazole currently in use against Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm among school children in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Fikreslasie; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs is essential. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single oral dose of 400mg albendazole (ABZ) against the major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in school children, Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia. A single fresh stool sample was collected from 298 school children and examined using a duplicate smear of the Kato-Katz method. Children positive for STH infections were treated with single oral dose of 400mg ABZ and re-examined for intestinal helminth infections 21days post-treatment. The participants were interviewed for symptoms related with the drug uptake 24h after ABZ treatment. Children positive for Schistosoma mansoni infections were treated with Praziquantel (40mg/kg of body weight) after an ABZ treatment follow up survey. 51.3%, 49.7%, 44.6% and 88.3% had hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and any intestinal helminth infection, respectively. Cure rates were 97.4% for hookworm, 96.6% for A. lumbricoides and 30.8% for T. trichiura infections. Egg reduction rates (ERRs) were 99.8% for hookworm, 99.9% for A. lumbricoides and 83.1% for T. trichiura infections. Mild and transient symptoms were observed among the participants which were quite frequent. In conclusion, a 400mg single oral dose of ABZ was effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides but less efficacious against T. trichiura infection. The drug resulted in high ERRs for hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Administration of the drug in repeated doses or in combination with other drugs might be necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Loukas, Alex; Inan, Mehmet; Barent, Rick; Huang, Jicai; Plantz, Brad; Swanson, Amber; Gouthro, Mark; Meagher, Michael M.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-04-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the pathogenesis-related-1 domain, Na-ASP-1, the first multi-domain ASP from the human hookworm parasite N. americanus, has been crystallized. 2.2 Å resolution data have been collected from a crystal belonging to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}. Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in the developing world. In an effort to control hookworm infection, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective larval stage (L3) of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) proteins known as the ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). The functions of the ASPs are unknown. In addition, it is unclear why some ASPs have one while others have multiple PR-1 domains. There are no known structures of a multi-domain ASP and in an effort to remedy this situation, recombinant Na-ASP-1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2.2 Å have been collected from a crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = 67.7, b = 74.27, c = 84.60 Å, β = 112.12°. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with one monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  13. Field Campaign Guidelines (ARM Climate Research Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2011-01-17

    The purpose of this document is to establish a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking database tool and are tailored to meet the scope of each specific field campaign.

  14. The Theory of the Mass Literacy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    After an analysis of eight mass literacy campaigns (USSR 1919-39; Vietnam, 1945-77; China, 1950-58; Cuba, 1961; Burma, 1960-1981; Brazil, 1967-80; Tanzania, 1971-81; and Somalia, 1973-75), a campaign strategy for a mass literacy campaign is proposed. A potentially successful mass literacy campaign has to be both an educational and a political…

  15. Epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection in New Zealand (Hooker's) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) pups on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands (New Zealand) during the breeding seasons from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005.

    PubMed

    Castinel, A; Duignan, P J; Lyons, E T; Pomroy, W E; Gibbs, N; López-Villalobos, N; Chilvers, B L; Wilkinson, I S

    2007-06-01

    This is the first investigation of the epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection in New Zealand sea lions (NZSLs; Phocarctos hookeri) on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands. The examination of faeces for hookworm eggs in various age categories of sea lions revealed that only pups up to at least 3 months of age harboured adult hookworms in their intestines. Gross necropsy of more than 400 pups from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005 showed that the prevalence of hookworm infection varied significantly between years and was higher from mid-January to the end of February when the majority of pups were between 3 and 9 weeks old. The average burden of adult parasites per pup was not influenced by the host's sex and body condition or by year. This study also provided evidence for transmission occurring by the transmammary route in NZSLs.

  16. South Africa: defiance campaign continues.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) has continued its "defiance campaign against patent abuse and AIDS profiteering." In partnership with Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), and with the support of Oxfam and the Council of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), on 28 January 2002 three TAC members returned to South Africa from Brazil carrying generic versions of the antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP). Some of the imported capsules contain a combination of AZT and 3TC.

  17. High redshift quasars monitoring campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, Ismael; Lira, Paulina; Martinez, Jorge; Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai

    2014-07-01

    We present an update of the monitoring campaign we have undertaken to probe the most massive black holes in powerful quasars at high redshift through the reverberation mapping technique. Once this campaign has finished, we will be able to directly measure broad line region (BLR) sizes of quasars at z ~ 2-3, improving dramatically the BLR size-luminosity relation, and therefore, black hole mass estimates based on this relationship. So far, we have identified a dozen highly variable sources suitable for future cross-correlation analysis and reverberation measurements.

  18. e-Campaigning: The Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Sonali

    The practices of E-Campaigning are gradually gaining momentum in the world. This paper discusses the Democratic campaign of the 2008 American Presidential Election. It contends that the effective use of E-Campaigning techniques was the key to their success. It also deliberates upon the tremendous increase in public involvement over the Internet during the campaigning period. Also, it predicts the future of E-Campaigning and gives an in depth analysis of what the world can expect to see in future elections. Lastly, it examines the relation between E-Campaigning and E-Democracy in the context of the aftermath of the election.

  19. Keep Your Campaign Aim True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Asking constituents to rally around a cause and make stretch gifts when they're already suffering unprecedented hits to their personal finances sounds more like a fool's errand than a best practice in fundraising. The economic crisis has added a tricky new aspect to operating in campaign mode, but savvy fundraisers haven't given up, scaled back,…

  20. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... / Monday, July 26, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 9004 Campaign Travel AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: On... by and on behalf of presidential candidates receiving public funding for the general election, 11...

  1. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  2. Keep Your Campaign Aim True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Asking constituents to rally around a cause and make stretch gifts when they're already suffering unprecedented hits to their personal finances sounds more like a fool's errand than a best practice in fundraising. The economic crisis has added a tricky new aspect to operating in campaign mode, but savvy fundraisers haven't given up, scaled back,…

  3. Up, Up & Away. Strategic Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Catherine L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses a ballooning analogy to offer nine suggestions for universities conducting major fund-raising campaigns: study the map and choose a direction; test the prevailing winds; choose and train your crew; gear up for the journey; stay on course; make every bit count; change course as needed; and capitalize on your successful landing. (DB)

  4. The SHARE 2012 data campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannandrea, AnneMarie; Raqueno, Nina; Messinger, David W.; Faulring, Jason; Kerekes, John P.; van Aardt, Jan; Canham, Kelly; Hagstrom, Shea; Ontiveros, Erin; Gerace, Aaron; Kaufman, Jason; Vongsy, Karmon M.; Griffith, Heather; Bartlett, Brent D.; Ientilucci, Emmett; Meola, Joseph; Scarff, Lauwrence; Daniel, Brian

    2013-05-01

    A multi-modal (hyperspectral, multispectral, and LIDAR) imaging data collection campaign was conducted just south of Rochester New York in Avon, NY on September 20, 2012 by the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in conjunction with SpecTIR, LLC, the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the Naval Research Lab (NRL), United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS) and MITRE. The campaign was a follow on from the SpecTIR Hyperspectral Airborne Rochester Experiment (SHARE) from 2010. Data was collected in support of the eleven simultaneous experiments described here. The airborne imagery was collected over four different sites with hyperspectral, multispectral, and LIDAR sensors. The sites for data collection included Avon, NY, Conesus Lake, Hemlock Lake and forest, and a nearby quarry. Experiments included topics such as target unmixing, subpixel detection, material identification, impacts of illumination on materials, forest health, and in-water target detection. An extensive ground truthing effort was conducted in addition to collection of the airborne imagery. The ultimate goal of the data collection campaign is to provide the remote sensing community with a shareable resource to support future research. This paper details the experiments conducted and the data that was collected during this campaign.

  5. Effects of climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors on the transmission of hookworm (Necator americanus) on two low-country plantations in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, G S A; Karunaweera, N D; Ismail, M M

    2005-09-01

    The climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors influencing hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in Sri Lanka were explored between February 2000 and June 2001. In February 2000, a single stool sample was collected from each of the 477 subjects investigated, who were aged 2-74 years (median = 13 years) and lived on the 'lowcountry' Maliboda and Ayr plantations. The 'baseline' prevalence (28.5%) and intensity of hookworm infection (0- 4828.5 eggs/g faeces, with a mean of 128.4 eggs/g) were then determined by examining these initial samples, as Kato-Katz smears. Subsequently, each participant was treated with a single, 500-mg dose of mebendazole and then followed-up, at monthly intervals, for the next 15 months. Whenever a subject was found smear-positive for hookworm eggs at one of the monthly follow-ups, he or she was treated again with mebendazole. This approach allowed the monthly incidence of hookworm infection to be determined for each subject, assuming that subjects became smear-positive approximately 6 weeks post-infection. During the study period, rainfall and mean temperature were recorded daily and then converted to monthly values so that the relationship between the incidence of infection over each month and the rainfall and mean temperature over the same period could be explored. In addition, potentially relevant data on the socio-economic status and behaviour of each subject were collected, in questionnaire-based interviews with the adult subjects and the caregivers of the children investigated. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were then calculated for each factor that might increase the risk of hookworm infection. The monthly incidence of hookworm infection showed three peaks -- in September 2000 (21.3%), January 2001 (20.8%) and May 2001 (17.5%) -- at Maliboda, and two peaks -- in September 2000 (25.0%) and February 2001 (29.2%) -- at Ayr. With the data for all subjects combined, incidence showed a statistically

  6. The Use of Microwave-Assisted Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis and Click Chemistry for the Synthesis of Vaccine Candidates Against Hookworm Infection.

    PubMed

    Fuaad, Abdullah A H Ahmad; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    A protein-based vaccine approach against hookworm infection has failed to deliver the expected outcome, due to a problem with an allergic response in the patient or difficulties in the proteins' production. This implication could be overcome by using a chemically synthesized peptide-based vaccine approach. This approach utilizes minimal pathogenic components that are necessary for the stimulation of the immune response without triggering adverse side effects. To boost the peptide's immunogenicity, a lipid core peptide (LCP) system can be utilized as a carrier molecule/immunostimulant. This chapter describes in detail the synthesizing of protected lipoamino acid, the self-adjuvanting moiety (LCP core), the peptide epitope, and the final vaccine candidate. The subunit peptide and the LCP core were synthesized using microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). Then the final hookworm vaccine construct was assembled using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, or "click," reaction.

  7. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.

  8. Combination of five diagnostic tests to estimate the prevalence of hookworm infection among school-aged children from a rural area of colombia.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rafael E; Narváez, Javier; Sepúlveda, Natalia A; Velásquez, Fabián C; Díaz, Sandra C; López, Myriam Consuelo; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia I

    2017-09-01

    Public health programs for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiases require valid diagnostic tests for surveillance and parasitic control evaluation. However, there is currently no agreement about what test should be used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of hookworm infection. Still, in presence of concurrent data for multiple tests it is possible to use statistical models to estimate measures of test performance and prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of five parallel tests (direct microscopic examination, Kato-Katz, Harada-Mori, modified Ritchie-Frick, and culture in agar plate) to detect hookworm infections in a sample of school-aged children from a rural area in Colombia. We used both, a frequentist approach, and Bayesian latent class models to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of five tests for hookworm detection, and to estimate the prevalence of hookworm infection in absence of a Gold Standard. The Kato-Katz and agar plate methods had an overall agreement of 95% and kappa coefficient of 0.76. Different models estimated a sensitivity between 76% and 92% for the agar plate technique, and 52% to 87% for the Kato-Katz technique. The other tests had lower sensitivity. All tests had specificity between 95% and 98%. The prevalence estimated by the Kato-Katz and Agar plate methods for different subpopulations varied between 10% and 14%, and was consistent with the prevalence estimated from the combination of all tests. The Harada-Mori, Ritchie-Frick and direct examination techniques resulted in lower and disparate prevalence estimates. Bayesian approaches assuming imperfect specificity resulted in lower prevalence estimates than the frequentist approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a C-type lectin from Ancylostoma ceylanicum: evidence for a role in hookworm reproductive physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Allison C.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Kapulkin, Wadim; Jones, Brian F.; Sinha, Anindita; Savage, Amy; Villalon, Nicholas; Cappello, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lectins comprise a family of related proteins that mediate essential cell functions through binding to carbohydrates. Within this protein family, C-type lectins are defined by the requirement of calcium for optimal biologic activity. Using reverse transcription PCR, a cDNA corresponding to a putative C-type lectin has been amplified from the hookworm parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum. The 550 nucleotide open reading frame of the Ancylostoma ceylanicum C-type Lectin-1 (AceCTL-1) cDNA corresponds to a 167 amino acid mature protein (18706 Da) preceded by a 17 amino acid secretory signal sequence. The recombinant protein (rAceCTL-1) was expressed in Drosophila S2 cells and purified using a combination of affinity chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Using in vitro carbohydrate binding studies, it was determined that rAceCTL-1 binds N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, a common component of eukaryotic egg cell membranes. Using a polyclonal IgG raised against the recombinant protein, the native AceCTL-1 was identified in sperm and soluble protein extracts of adult male A. ceylanicum by immunoblot. Probing of adult hookworm sections with the polyclonal IgG demonstrated localization to the testes in males, as well as the spermatheca and developing embryos in females, consistent with its role as a sperm protein. Together, these data strongly suggest that AceCTL-1 is a male gender-specific C-type lectin with a function in hookworm reproductive physiology. PMID:17129620

  11. Use of the air pouch model to investigate immune responses to a hookworm vaccine containing the Na-ASP-2 protein in rats.

    PubMed

    Mendez, S; D' Samuel, A; Antoine, A D; Ahn, S; Hotez, P

    2008-01-01

    Hookworms are gastrointestinal nematodes that affect approximately 600 million people in developing countries. Using the air pouch model, we have examined the effects of vaccination with the recombinant hookworm larval antigen Na-ASP-2 and the adjuvant Alhydrogel on the skin immune response to hookworms in Sprague Dawley rats. Following vaccination, rats were inoculated 100 Necator americanus L3 into the air pouch, and the exudates and cell infiltrates were collected from the pouch 24 h later. Larval inoculation induced leucocyte recruitment into the pouch. Exudates of rats vaccinated with Na-ASP-2 showed an increase of cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma and especially, IL-5, as well as IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies. The increased amount of antigen-presenting cells and cytokines in the pouch of vaccinated animals suggests that vaccination could potentially restrain this parasite to the inoculation site, avoiding its migration and establishment in the host. Moreover, the air pouch model could constitute an alternative to screen immune responses to L3 antigens.

  12. The Double Scene of Televised AIDS Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kate

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the double or mirrored scene of the Centers for Disease Control's AIDS education campaign and the responses to that campaign, basically, the dominant, heterosexual, televised discourses' defensive erasure of those semiotic objects that represent illicit and nonreproductive sex. (RS)

  13. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  14. Weaving the Web into Your Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Like anything else, there are good fundraising campaign Web sites and bad fundraising campaign Web sites. The author took a closer look at fundraising campaign sites to see if her intuitive judgments about these could be translated into a logical, research-supported set of best practices. She set up a study that gauged the ease of use and…

  15. Abortion Rights: Anatomy of a Negative Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes a highly successful negative public relations campaign carried on by major pro-choice organizations from October 1985 through March 1987. Explores the effectiveness of this campaign (much of it carried on in the media), and questions the ethics of such a campaign. (NKA)

  16. Steps for Launching a Capital Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safranek, Thomas W.; Usyk, Patricia A.

    The capital campaign in the Catholic elementary and secondary school must be viewed as an essential component in the total development program. This document addresses many of the specifics regarding the proper positioning steps and procedures for a capital campaign. The introductory chapter provides a historical overview of the capital campaign.…

  17. Weaving the Web into Your Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Like anything else, there are good fundraising campaign Web sites and bad fundraising campaign Web sites. The author took a closer look at fundraising campaign sites to see if her intuitive judgments about these could be translated into a logical, research-supported set of best practices. She set up a study that gauged the ease of use and…

  18. Influence of a Counteradvertising Media Campaign on Initiation of Smoking: The Florida "Truth" Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, David F.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Trapido, Edward; Ray, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the short-term effects of a television counteradvertising media campaign, the Florida "truth" campaign, on rates of adolescents' smoking initiation. Followup surveys of adolescents interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign indicated that exposure to the "truth" campaign lowered the risk of youth…

  19. Influence of a Counteradvertising Media Campaign on Initiation of Smoking: The Florida "Truth" Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, David F.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Trapido, Edward; Ray, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the short-term effects of a television counteradvertising media campaign, the Florida "truth" campaign, on rates of adolescents' smoking initiation. Followup surveys of adolescents interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign indicated that exposure to the "truth" campaign lowered the risk of youth…

  20. CASE Campaign Standards: Management and Reporting Standards for Educational Fund-Raising Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education, Washington, DC.

    This document establishes guidance for managing educational fund-raising campaigns and standards for reporting campaign gifts in the United States and Canada. The guidelines offer an objective means to compare one campaign to another and a rational way to discern how well a campaign has met its goals. The standards depend upon three fundamental…

  1. The STOP the Bleeding Campaign

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, traumatic injuries worldwide are responsible for over 5 million deaths annually. Post-traumatic bleeding caused by traumatic injury-associated coagulopathy is the leading cause of potentially preventable death among trauma patients. Despite these facts, awareness of this problem is insufficient and treatment options are often unclear. The STOP the Bleeding Campaign therefore aims to increase awareness of the phenomenon of post-traumatic coagulopathy and its appropriate management by publishing European guidelines for the management of the bleeding trauma patient, by promoting and monitoring the implementation of these guidelines and by preparing promotional and educational material, organising activities and developing health quality management tools. The campaign aims to reduce the number of patients who die within 24 hours after arrival in the hospital due to exsanguination by a minimum of 20% within the next 5 years. PMID:23635083

  2. The 2013 Saturn auroral campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melin, Henrik; Badman, Sarah; Khurana, Krishan

    2016-01-01

    Saturn's aurorae are intriguing displays of light caused by charged particles impacting the upper atmosphere. Observations of the aurora therefore reveal the interaction between the dynamic magnetosphere and atmosphere. The Cassini spacecraft's exploration of the Saturn system since 2004 has provided unprecedented opportunities to study the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at Saturn. This opportunity was fully exploited during the auroral observation campaign which took place in spring 2013, the results from which form the topic of this Icarus special issue.

  3. The EBM argument hygiene campaign.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The campaign promoting evidence-based medicine (EBM) shares similarities with Joseph Lister's 19th century campaign promoting surgical antisepsis. Both target medical practitioners as their primary clients, and both appeal to these clients in the manner of a public health programme, arguing that their standards are authoritative and relevant, that the clients fail to meet them, and that this failure is a problem that requires the clients to change. Both promote hygienic solutions to the problems that they identify, the problem of microbial pathogens in the case of Lister, and the process of clinical decision making in the case of EBM. Hygienic solutions aim to operationalize standards as case-independent procedures that can be performed as habits, and seek to identify instruments of purification against sources of contamination. EBM's solution is hygienic because it characterizes clinical decision-making behaviour as a source of contamination and because it promotes a general procedure designed to correct it. Comparing the EBM campaign to Lister's helps to explain why some clinicians have had trouble trying to implement EBM as a decision-making procedure in particular cases. EBM promotes a hygienic solution, but unlike Lister, does not confront a well-defined, empirically grounded problem. Some of the difficulties with EBM stem from a mismatch between its hygienic solution and the complexity and case-dependency of clinical decision making. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Overview of the CINDI campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Roozendael, Michel; Piters, Ankie; Boersma, Folkert; Wittrock, Folkard; Hains, Jennifer; Kroon, Mark; Roscoe, Howard

    2010-05-01

    The Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI) took place in June-July 2009 at the Cabauw meteorological observatory, a semi-rural site located in the Netherlands, 30 km South of Utrecht. Its main objective was to intercompare a broad range of NO2 measuring instruments that can be used in support of the validation of tropospheric NO2 column measurements from satellites with, as primary focus, the assessment of tropospheric NO2 column and profile measurements using the DOAS and MAXDOAS techniques. The campaign included a formal semi-blind exercise following standards from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), and was followed by a number of additional activities. In total measurements from 32 NO2 instruments, most of them of DOAS-type but also a NO2 Lidar, in-situ sensors and a new-developed NO2 sonde, were collected and intercompared. In addition, a number of other parameters were measured, among them aerosol, HCHO, CHOCHO and BrO. Measurements were also dedicated to the study of horizontal gradients in the NO2 field and their impact on remote-sensing observations. Various working groups were set up to analyse results, establish uncertainties and progress towards improved and standardized retrieval algorithms. The campaign should result in consolidated trace gas and aerosol data products from both remote-sensing and in-situ techniques, thereby contributing to fulfill the needs for improved vertically-resolved monitoring of the air quality.

  5. A hookworm glycoprotein that inhibits neutrophil function is a ligand of the integrin CD11b/CD18.

    PubMed

    Moyle, M; Foster, D L; McGrath, D E; Brown, S M; Laroche, Y; De Meutter, J; Stanssens, P; Bogowitz, C A; Fried, V A; Ely, J A

    1994-04-01

    The chronic survival of many endoparasites is dependent on the ability of these organisms to escape the host immune response. Identification of the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms evade this response may yield novel approaches in the development of anti-inflammatory agents. We describe here the discovery and characterization of a novel 41-kilodalton glycoprotein from the canine hookwork (Ancylostoma caninum) that potently inhibits CD11/CD18-dependent neutrophil function in vitro. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) blocks the adhesion of activated human neutrophils to vascular endothelial cells as well as the release of H2O2 from activated neutrophils, over a similar concentration range (IC50 10-20 nM). Studies aimed at determining the nature of the NIF binding site on neutrophils revealed selective, high affinity binding of this protein to the integrin CD11b/CD18. A cDNA encoding NIF was isolated from a canine hookworm cDNA library. NIF comprises a mature polypeptide of 257 amino acids, preceded by a 17-amino acid leader. The mature protein has 10 cysteines and has seven potential N-linked glycosylation sites. NIF has no significant sequence homologies to any previously reported protein. As such, NIF represents a prototype of a novel class of leukocyte function inhibitors.

  6. Current status of human hookworm infections, ascariasis, trichuriasis, schistosomiasis mekongi and other trematodiases in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Laymanivong, Sakhone; Hangvanthong, Bouasy; Keokhamphavanh, Boualy; Phommasansak, Manisak; Phinmaland, Baunphone; Sanpool, Oranuch; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2014-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and schistosomiasis and other trematodiases often have a high prevalence in developing countries. Here, we present updated information on the prevalence of these parasites in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 2012, arising from the annual national helminthiasis survey. Fecal specimens were collected from 8,610 inhabitants of 12 provinces and one municipality (Bokeo, Houaphan, Luang Namtha, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, and Phongsaly Provinces from northern Lao PDR; Bolikhamxay and Xieng Khouang Provinces and Vientiane Municipality from the central part of the country; and Attapeu, Champasak, Saravan, and Sekong Provinces from southern Lao PDR). The overall prevalence of three major STHs, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) were 11.6%, 8.5%, and 25.0%, respectively. Prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi infection was 0.1%, and of miscellaneous trematodiases (including opisthorchiasis) was 14.0%. Clearly, the nationwide parasite control project is still necessary to reduce morbidity caused by helminthic diseases.

  7. Campaigning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    to lower, in fact the command struc- ture is often more like a spider web: a tug at any point may have an impact throughout the structure...Strategy. the Argentine mainland or to overthrow its government in order to recover the disputed islands. In the area of operations, how- ever, the...British isolated and annihilated the Argentine forces. Strategies of annihilation have the virtue of conceptual sim- plicity. The focus of our

  8. GOCE Re-Entry Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastida, B.; Flohrer, T.; Lemmens, S.; Krag, H.

    2015-03-01

    Every year ESA, through the Space Debris Office, participates to an Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) Re-entry Test Campaign.. For the campaign of 2013, ESA’s proposal to select GOCE's re-entry was accepted. The campaign opened on the 21st October 2013 after fuel depletion of the drag-compensating ion propulsion. GOCE was expected to enter into a phase of attitude-controlled fine-pointing mode (FPM) until the attitude controllers would be unable to cope with the atmospheric torques and then the satellite would enter in a phase of fully uncontrolled flight. In this paper, we present the evolution of ESA’s daily predictions on the re-entry epoch using different sources of orbital information. The uncertainties on the spacecraft operability (i.e. the physical limits of the attitude controller) led to a non-standard re-entry scenario were different attitudes had to be considered (instead of the commonly assumed random tumbling mode case that is used whenever no information on the physical properties of a re-entering object is available). A daily assessment of the status, in coordination with the flight control team, was required and implied a continuous update on the predicted failure point of the attitude controller. This in turn imposed the need for considering an asymmetric re-entry window. These operation-bound uncertainties were simulated to predict the attitude evolution after failure at different altitudes and their effects evaluated to be taken into account for the re-entry predictions. We present ESA’s re-entry prediction activities for GOCE, internally, and within the IADC, and address specific technical aspects and challenges for re-entry predictions, which are related to the expected and occurred attitude of GOCE during the final re-entry phase.

  9. [Health campaign for atherosclerosis prevention].

    PubMed

    Schoberberger, Rudolf; Modes, Michaela

    2005-07-01

    The goal of the campaign "plus leben", a project designed to run for at least 5 years, is to heighten the awareness of patients at risk of heart disease and to provide them with an appropriate prevention program. During the first two years of the campaign 20,000 visitors were registered on the homepage, 400,000 tests for risk of heart disease were distributed, and more than 3,000 health information brochures were requested. Thus, a survey of patients was designed to provide information on the extent to which preventive measures are effective. The survey, which was carried out by mail, had a response rate of 28%, or 230 participants. In the random sample, consisting of about 60% men and 40% women, only 16% are younger than 50 years of age. Thus the survey provides a representative picture of the affected target group. The test for risk of cardiac disease provided by "plus leben" led to an increase in awareness of preventive measures in more than two thirds of the respondents, and 60% also completed the test. Although only a fourth of the patients are regularly informed by their physician about preventive measures, the campaign has led about 90% of the respondents to make fundamental or at least partial changes in their lifestyle. In connection with the study it was shown that the media play an important role in providing information on preventive measures. Communication in the doctor's office as an important building block in raising consciousness about atherosclerosis prevention could be further improved.

  10. An International Asteroid Search Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. Patrick; Davis, Jeffrey W.; Holmes, Robert E., Jr.; Devore, Harlan; Raab, Herbert; Pennypacker, Carlton R.; White, Graeme L.; Gould, Alan

    The International Asteroid Search Campaign (IASC, fondly nicknamed "Isaac") is an Internet- based program for high schools and colleges. Within hours of acquisition, astronomical CCD images are made available via the Internet to participating schools around the world. Under the guidance of their teachers, students analyze the images with free software tools, searching for new asteroids and confirmations of near- Earth objects (NEOs). These discoveries are reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC; Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard), which gives the students published recognition in its MPC circulars. To date, 36 new Main Belt asteroids have been found in one year, and 197 NEOs confirmed.

  11. A recombinant fusion protein derived from dog hookworm inhibits autoantibody-induced dermal-epidermal separation ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Kemmer, Annette; Bieber, Katja; Abadpour, Aida; Yu, Xinhua; Mitschker, Nina; Roth, Sara; Kauderer, Claudia; Ludwig, Ralf J; Seeger, Karsten; Köhl, Jörg; Zillikens, Detlef; Recke, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The proteins secreted by parasitic nematodes are evolutionarily optimized molecules with unique capabilities of suppressing the immune response of the host organism. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF), which is secreted by the dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, binds to the β2 integrin CD11b/CD18, which is expressed on human neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages and inhibits neutrophil-dependent lung injury and neutrophil invasion of ischaemic brain tissue. Neutrophils are key players in the pathogenesis of subepidermal autoimmune blistering diseases (sAIBDs), and their pathogenic activities are crucially dependent on β2 integrin functionality. Based on the template of single-stranded, dimerizing antibody derivatives, which are already used in cancer treatment, we designed a novel biologic, NIF-IGHE-CH4, comprising NIF and the dimerizing but otherwise inert constant heavy subdomain 4 (CH4) of human IgE (IGHE). This molecule was evaluated in a variety of in vitro assays, demonstrating its ability to inhibit pathogenically relevant neutrophil functions such as migration, adhesion and spreading, and release of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we confirmed that NIF-IGHE-CH4 inhibits blister formation in an ex vivo assay of sAIBD. These results suggest that NIF-IGHE-CH4 is a novel potential anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of neutrophil-mediated diseases such as sAIBDs. This study promotes the drugs from bugs concept and encourages further research and development focused on turning parasite proteins into useful anti-inflammatory biologics.

  12. Application of a Poisson distribution quality control measure to the analysis of two human hookworm drug treatment studies in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Andrew C; Dobson, Robert J; Humphries, Debbie; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2014-04-01

    We examined faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs) conducted with hookworm-infected humans in Ghana in 2007 (study 1) and 2010 (study 2) in order to explore aspects of the test analysis. Some subjects showed increased FEC following drug treatment. This occurred mostly in <150 epg pre-treatment FEC subjects. We sought a means to remove 'erroneous' negative drug efficacy cases from the FECRT analysis. Pre- and post-treatment FECs from negative drug efficacy cases were examined to determine whether they represented replicates from a single randomly distributed sample, that is, if they were consistent with a Poisson distribution. Cases where the post-treatment FEC was greater than that expected if it and the pre-treatment sample had been taken from a single random distribution of eggs were excluded from the FECRT. We suggest that these cases most likely represent non-random distribution of eggs in stools, day-to-day variations in egg excretion, or worm patency onset after drug treatment, and hence are not accurate measurements of drug efficacy. This led to exclusion of the most extreme negative drug efficacy cases, with significant increases in overall drug efficacy for study 1 (81.6% vs 89.2%) and study 2 (86.7% vs 89.4%). Excluding FEC <150 individuals from the analysis also increased the study 1 efficacy (81.6% vs 88.9%), however, this resulted in the exclusion of 45% of the study subjects, compared to the exclusion of just 5% using the Poisson distribution method. While low FEC subjects are excluded from livestock FECRTs, the significant prevalence of such subjects in human FECRTs suggests that their exclusion may not be practical. Hence, we suggest that the influence of low FECs can be minimised by excluding 'erroneous' negative efficacy cases using a simple Poisson distribution analysis.

  13. Aerocapture Guidance Algorithm Comparison Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, Stephane; Perot, Etienne; Graves, Claude; Masciarelli, James P.; Queen, Eric

    2002-01-01

    The aerocapture is a promising technique for the future human interplanetary missions. The Mars Sample Return was initially based on an insertion by aerocapture. A CNES orbiter Mars Premier was developed to demonstrate this concept. Mainly due to budget constraints, the aerocapture was cancelled for the French orbiter. A lot of studies were achieved during the three last years to develop and test different guidance algorithms (APC, EC, TPC, NPC). This work was shared between CNES and NASA, with a fruitful joint working group. To finish this study an evaluation campaign has been performed to test the different algorithms. The objective was to assess the robustness, accuracy, capability to limit the load, and the complexity of each algorithm. A simulation campaign has been specified and performed by CNES, with a similar activity on the NASA side to confirm the CNES results. This evaluation has demonstrated that the numerical guidance principal is not competitive compared to the analytical concepts. All the other algorithms are well adapted to guaranty the success of the aerocapture. The TPC appears to be the more robust, the APC the more accurate, and the EC appears to be a good compromise.

  14. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of single- versus repeated-dose albendazole to treat ascaris lumbricoides, trichuris trichiura, and hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Adegnika, Ayola A; Zinsou, Jeannot F; Issifou, Saadou; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Kassa, Roland F; Feugap, Eliane N; Honkpehedji, Yabo J; Dejon Agobe, Jean-Claude; Kenguele, Hilaire M; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Agnandji, Selidji T; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G; Lell, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    In many regions where soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic, single-dose albendazole is used in mass drug administration programs to control infections. There are little data on the efficacy of the standard single-dose administration compared to that of alternative regimens. We conducted a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the efficacies of standard and extended albendazole treatment against soil-transmitted helminth infection in Gabon. A total of 175 children were included. Adequate cure rates and egg reduction rates above 85% were found with a single dose of albendazole for Ascaris infection, 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73, 96) and 93.8% (CI, 87.6, 100), respectively, while two doses were necessary for hookworm infestation (92% [CI, 78, 100] and 92% [CI, 78, 100], respectively). However, while a 3-day regimen was not sufficient to cure Trichuris (cure rate, 83% [CI, 73, 93]), this regimen reduced the number of eggs up to 90.6% (CI, 83.1, 100). The rate ratios of two- and three-dose regimens compared to a single-dose treatment were 1.7 (CI, 1.1, 2.5) and 2.1 (CI, 1.5, 2.9) for Trichuris and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) for hookworm. Albendazole was safe and well tolerated in all regimens. A single-dose albendazole treatment considerably reduces Ascaris infection but has only a moderate effect on hookworm and Trichuris infections. The single-dose option may still be the preferred regimen because it balances efficacy, safety, and compliance during mass drug administration, keeping in mind that asymptomatic low-level helminth carriage may also have beneficial effects. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01192802.).

  15. Randomized, Controlled, Assessor-Blind Clinical Trial To Assess the Efficacy of Single- versus Repeated-Dose Albendazole To Treat Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Hookworm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zinsou, Jeannot F.; Issifou, Saadou; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Kassa, Roland F.; Feugap, Eliane N.; Honkpehedji, Yabo J.; Dejon Agobe, Jean-Claude; Kenguele, Hilaire M.; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Agnandji, Selidji T.; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G.; Lell, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    In many regions where soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic, single-dose albendazole is used in mass drug administration programs to control infections. There are little data on the efficacy of the standard single-dose administration compared to that of alternative regimens. We conducted a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the efficacies of standard and extended albendazole treatment against soil-transmitted helminth infection in Gabon. A total of 175 children were included. Adequate cure rates and egg reduction rates above 85% were found with a single dose of albendazole for Ascaris infection, 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73, 96) and 93.8% (CI, 87.6, 100), respectively, while two doses were necessary for hookworm infestation (92% [CI, 78, 100] and 92% [CI, 78, 100], respectively). However, while a 3-day regimen was not sufficient to cure Trichuris (cure rate, 83% [CI, 73, 93]), this regimen reduced the number of eggs up to 90.6% (CI, 83.1, 100). The rate ratios of two- and three-dose regimens compared to a single-dose treatment were 1.7 (CI, 1.1, 2.5) and 2.1 (CI, 1.5, 2.9) for Trichuris and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) for hookworm. Albendazole was safe and well tolerated in all regimens. A single-dose albendazole treatment considerably reduces Ascaris infection but has only a moderate effect on hookworm and Trichuris infections. The single-dose option may still be the preferred regimen because it balances efficacy, safety, and compliance during mass drug administration, keeping in mind that asymptomatic low-level helminth carriage may also have beneficial effects. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01192802.) PMID:24550339

  16. Impact of single annual treatment and four-monthly treatment for hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, and factors associated with residual infection among Kenyan school children.

    PubMed

    Kepha, Stella; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Anderson, Roy M; Pullan, Rachel L; Nuwaha, Fred; Cano, Jorge; Njenga, Sammy M; Odiere, Maurice R; Allen, Elizabeth; Brooker, Simon J; Nikolay, Birgit

    2017-02-09

    School-based deworming is widely implemented in various countries to reduce the burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), however, the frequency of drug administration varies in different settings. In this study, we compared the impact of a single annual treatment and 4-monthly treatment over a follow-up among Kenyan school children, and investigated the factors associated with residual infection. We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial investigating whether deworming for STHs alters risk of acquiring malaria. Children received either a single treatment or 4-monthly albendazole treatments were followed longitudinally from February 2014 to October 2014. The relative impact of treatment and factors associated with residual infections were investigated using mixed-effects regression models. Predisposition to infection was assessed based on Spearman's rank and Kendall's Tau correlation coefficients. In the 4-monthly treatment group, the proportion of children infected with hookworm decreased from 59.9 to 5.7%, while Ascaris lumbricoides infections dropped from 55.7 to 6.2%. In the single treatment group, hookworm infections decreased over the same time period from 58.7 to 18.3% (12.6% absolute difference in reduction, 95% CI: 8.9-16.3%), and A. lumbricoides from 56.7 to 23.3% (17.1% absolute difference in reduction, 95% CI: 13.1-21.1%). There was strong evidence for predisposition to both STH types. Residual hookworm infection among children on 4-monthly treatment were associated with male sex and baseline nutritional status, whereas A. lumbricoides infection was associated with individual and school-level infection at baseline, latrine cleanliness at schools. This study found that 4-monthly treatment w more effective than single annual treatment. Repeated treatments led to dramatic reductions in the intensities of STHs, but did not completely clear infections among school children in Kenya, a presumed reflection of reinfection in a setting

  17. The hookworm tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (Ac-TMP-1) modifies dendritic cell function and induces generation of CD4 and CD8 suppressor T cells.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, Carmen; Wu, Wenhui; Mendez, Susana

    2009-05-19

    Hookworm infection is a major cause of disease burden for humans. Recent studies have described hookworm-related immunosuppression in endemic populations and animal models. A Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteases (Ac-TMP-1) has been identified as one of the most abundant proteins released by the adult parasite. We investigated the effect of recombinant Ac-TMP-1 on dendritic cell (DC) and T cell function. Splenic T cells from C57BL/6 mice injected with Ac-TMP-1 showed reduced proliferation to restimulation with anti CD3 or bystander antigens such as OVA. Incubation of bone marrow-derived DCs with Ac-TMP-1 decreased MHC Class I and, especially, Class II expression but increased CD86 and IL-10 expression. Co-incubation of splenic T cells with DCs pulsed with Ac-TMP-1 induced their differentiation into CD4+ and, particularly, CD8+ CD25+Foxp3+ T cells that expressed IL-10. These cells were able to suppress proliferation of naïve and activated CD4+ T cells by TGF-Beta-dependent (CD4+ suppressors) or independent (CD8+ suppressors) mechanisms. Priming of DCs with non-hookworm antigens, such as OVA, did not result in the generation of suppressor T cells. These data indicate that Ac-TMP-1 initiates the development of a regulatory response through modifications in DC function and generation of suppressor T cells. This is the first report to propose a role of suppressor CD8+ T cells in gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

  18. HAARP 2011 Summer Student Research Campaign

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-16

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2012-0152 TR-2012-0152 HAARP 2011 SUMMER STUDENT RESEARCH CAMPAIGN Edward J. Kennedy, et al...COVERED (From - To) 18 Jul 2008 – 25 Jul 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HAARP 2011 SUMMER STUDENT RESEARCH CAMPAIGN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8718-08-C...Summer Student Research Campaign (SSRC) was conducted at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) Research Station in Gakona

  19. ATV "Jules Verne" Tests Campaign at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pery, V.; Bouchery, J.-P.; Le Querrec, L.; Maurel, E.; Ruffino, F.

    2004-08-01

    This paper provides with an overview of the ATV first flight model tests campaign that is to take place at ESTEC Test Centre between summer 2004 and mid- 2005. The ATV vehicle mission, configuration and development logic are first briefly described. The campaign sequence and purposes are then outlined together with the main tests principles and objectives. Some of the main constraints that drive the campaign preparation and performance as well as some particular safety aspects are finally defined.

  20. Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

    2011-09-01

    The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median = 3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median = 2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median = 931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median = 643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts

  1. New tools for NTD vaccines: A case study of quality control assays for product development of the human hookworm vaccine Na-APR-1M74.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Mark S; Jariwala, Amar R; Abbenante, Giovanni; Plieskatt, Jordan; Wilson, David; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Keegan, Brian; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Na-APR-1(M74) is an aspartic protease that is rendered enzymatically inactive by site-directed mutagenesis and is a candidate antigen component in the Human Hookworm Vaccine. The mutant protease exerts vaccine efficacy by inducing antibodies that neutralize the enzymatic activity of wild type enzyme (Na-APR-1wt) in the gut of the hookworm, thereby depriving the worm of its ability to digest its blood meal. Previously, canines immunized with Na-APR-1(M74) and challenged with Ancylostoma caninum were partially protected against hookworm challenge infection, especially from the loss in hemoglobin observed in control canines and canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G raised against Na-APR-1 was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1 wt in vitro, thereby providing proof of concept of Na-APR-1(M74) as a vaccine antigen. The mutated version, Na-APR-1(M74), was then expressed at the cGMP level using a Nicotiana benthamiana expression system (Fraunhofer, CMB, Delaware, MD), formulated with Alhydrogel®, and used to immunize mice in a dose-ranging study to explore the enzyme-neutralizing capacity of the resulting anti- Na-APR-1(M74) IgG. As little as 0.99 μg of recombinant Na-APR-1(M74) could induce anti Na-APR-1(M74) IgG in mice that were capable of inhibiting Na-APR-1w t-mediated digestion of a peptide substrate by 89%. In the absence of enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1(M74) as a surrogate marker of protein functionality, we developed an assay based on the binding of a quenched fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of aspartic proteases, BODIPY-FL pepstatin A (BDP). Binding of BDP in the active site of Na-APR-1 wt was demonstrated by inhibition of enzymatic activity, and competitive binding with unlabelled pepstatin A. BDP also bound to Na-APR-1(M74) which was assessed by fluorescence polarization, but with an ∼ 50-fold reduction in the dissociation constant. Taken together, these assays comprise a "toolbox" that could be useful for the analyses of Na-APR-1(M74) as it

  2. New tools for NTD vaccines: A case study of quality control assays for product development of the human hookworm vaccine Na-APR-1M74

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Mark S; Jariwala, Amar R; Abbenante, Giovanni; Plieskatt, Jordan; Wilson, David; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Keegan, Brian; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Na-APR-1M74 is an aspartic protease that is rendered enzymatically inactive by site-directed mutagenesis and is a candidate antigen component in the Human Hookworm Vaccine. The mutant protease exerts vaccine efficacy by inducing antibodies that neutralize the enzymatic activity of wild type enzyme (Na-APR-1wt) in the gut of the hookworm, thereby depriving the worm of its ability to digest its blood meal. Previously, canines immunized with Na-APR-1M74 and challenged with Ancylostoma caninum were partially protected against hookworm challenge infection, especially from the loss in hemoglobin observed in control canines and canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G raised against Na-APR-1 was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1wt in vitro, thereby providing proof of concept of Na-APR-1M74 as a vaccine antigen. The mutated version, Na-APR-1M74, was then expressed at the cGMP level using a Nicotiana benthamiana expression system (Fraunhofer, CMB, Delaware, MD), formulated with Alhydrogel®, and used to immunize mice in a dose-ranging study to explore the enzyme-neutralizing capacity of the resulting anti- Na-APR-1M74 IgG. As little as 0.99 μg of recombinant Na-APR-1M74 could induce anti Na-APR-1M74 IgG in mice that were capable of inhibiting Na-APR-1wt-mediated digestion of a peptide substrate by 89%. In the absence of enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1M74 as a surrogate marker of protein functionality, we developed an assay based on the binding of a quenched fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of aspartic proteases, BODIPY-FL pepstatin A (BDP). Binding of BDP in the active site of Na-APR-1wt was demonstrated by inhibition of enzymatic activity, and competitive binding with unlabelled pepstatin A. BDP also bound to Na-APR-1M74 which was assessed by fluorescence polarization, but with an ∼50-fold reduction in the dissociation constant. Taken together, these assays comprise a “toolbox” that could be useful for the analyses of Na-APR-1M74 as it proceeds through the

  3. Contextual Influences and Campaign Awareness Among Young Adults: Evidence from the National truth® Campaign.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities.

  4. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Hoeller, H.; Albrecht, R. I.; Machado, L. A.; Morales, C.; Pinto, O.; Saba, M. M.; Naccarato, K.; Hembury, N.; Nag, A.; Heckman, S.; Holzworth, R. H.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Betz, H.; Said, R.; Rauenzahn, K.

    2011-12-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of São Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be

  5. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Hoeller, Hartmut; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Morales, Carlos; Pinto, Osmar; Saba, Marcelo M.; Naccarato, Kleber; Hembury, Nikki; Nag, Amitabh; Heckman, Stan; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Betz, Hans-Dieter; Said, Ryan; Rauenzahn, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of S o Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be collected

  6. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  7. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  8. The Devon NUT Campaign against Trust Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinch, Dave

    2008-01-01

    When the Devon County Council announced that six secondary schools in the South Devon area were to become "Pathfinder Schools" for trust status, the Devon National Union of Teachers set about organising a campaign to defend the county's comprehensive schools. This campaign has proved successful in the case of Tavistock College, causing…

  9. A Board's Guide to Comprehensive Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Jake B., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This guide examines the scope and structure of college and university comprehensive fund-raising campaigns. It focuses on the responsibilities of boards and trustees in planning, overseeing, and actively participating in such campaigns, which are defined as institutional fund-raising initiatives which take place over a predetermined time period,…

  10. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  11. Evaluation of West Nile Virus Education Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, John S.; Hansen, Gail; Fox, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the 2003 Kansas West Nile virus public education campaign. Awareness was widespread but compliance was low. Spanish-speaking persons were poorly informed. Relevant factors included population segment variability, campaign content, media choice, and materials delivery methods. PMID:16318730

  12. A Board's Guide to Comprehensive Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Jake B., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This guide examines the scope and structure of college and university comprehensive fund-raising campaigns. It focuses on the responsibilities of boards and trustees in planning, overseeing, and actively participating in such campaigns, which are defined as institutional fund-raising initiatives which take place over a predetermined time period,…

  13. Politics and Radio in the 1924 Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkman, Dave

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the relation between radio broadcasting and politics in the 1924 presidential campaign, focusing on newspaper and magazine coverage. Notes radio's influence on candidate image, the aspect of censorship, and the use of radio during the campaign and after the election. (MM)

  14. Structure of glutathione S-transferase 1 from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus (Na-GST-1) in complex with glutathione.

    PubMed

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Ceccarelli, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferase 1 from Necator americanus (Na-GST-1) is a vaccine candidate for hookworm infection that has a high affinity for heme and metal porphyrins. As part of attempts to clarify the mechanism of heme detoxification by hookworm GSTs, co-crystallization and soaking studies of Na-GST-1 with the heme-like molecules protoporphyrin IX disodium salt, hematin and zinc protoporphyrin were undertaken. While these studies did not yield the structure of the complex of Na-GST-1 with any of these molecules, co-crystallization experiments resulted in the first structures of the complex of Na-GST-1 with the substrate glutathione. The structures of the complex of Na-GST-1 with glutathione were solved from pathological crystalline aggregates comprising more than one crystal form. These first structures of the complex of Na-GST-1 with the substrate glutathione were solved by molecular replacement from data collected with a sealed-tube home source using the previously reported apo structure as the search model.

  15. The finding of Echinostoma (Trematoda: Digenea) and hookworm eggs in coprolites collected from a Brazilian mummified body dated 600-1,200 years before present.

    PubMed

    Sianto, L; Reinhard, K J; Chame, M; Chaves, S; Mendonça, S; Gonçalves, M L C; Fernandes, A; Ferreira, L F; Araújo, A

    2005-08-01

    The identification of parasites from ancient cultures expands our list of parasites infective to extant humans. A partially mummified human body from the archeological site of Lapa do Boquete, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was recently discovered. It was interred between 600 and 1,200 yr ago. Dietary analysis showed that the mummified body was from a society that had a mixed subsistence of agriculture and gathering of wild foods. Coprolites from the body contained numerous helminth eggs. The eggs were identified as those of Echinostoma sp. and hookworm. Hookworm infection in pre-Columbian populations is already established, but this is the first evidence of Echinostoma sp. eggs found in human coprolites. The diagnosis of a true infection, as opposed to false parasitism, is discussed. The possibility of Echinostoma ilocanum infection is discussed, as this is a common species found in humans in the Asiatic region, which could have been introduced in South America in the pre-Columbian period. Alternative possibilities are also considered, including indigenous Brazilian Echinostoma species.

  16. The birth of the anti-malaria campaign in Spain during the first 30 years of the 20th century: scientific and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ocaña, E

    2005-12-01

    The relations between the scientific and the social domains in the particular case of malaria had developed at three levels. The first one operates around the transformation of malaria into an escapable disease and the combined efforts of parasitology and entomology are mixed with the growing development of the concept of social medicine. The second one deals with the rhythm and the content of the measures taken to fight the disease in each concerned country; in that case, very peculiar site-time coordinates ask precise questions. At the same level can be placed the differences in the campaigns led against malaria in colonies and in the mainland, differences that it would be misleading to approach on the sole side of social determinism. Finally the third level corresponds to the complexity of the relationships between the international and the local domains, as present from the birth of "Office International d'Hygiène de la Société des Nations" and the involvement of the Rockefeller Foundation where two strategic positions can be detected opposing people minoring problems and those seeking for eradication, who indeed were opponents at the level of the scientific direction, but also originate within the socio-professional boundary of the members of each group, respectively.

  17. ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN 2013 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY) 2013 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section.

  18. Measurement campaigns for holdup estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, R.R. )

    1988-07-01

    The derivation of technically defensible holdup estimates is described. Considerations important in the planning of measurement campaigns to provide necessary data are reviewed and the role of statistical sampling is discussed. By design, the presentation is nonmathematical and intended for a general audience. Though clearly important, use of sampling principles in the planning of holdup-related activities is sometimes viewed with apprehension. Holdup is often poorly understood to begin with, and the incorporation of the esoteric matters only adds to an image problem. Unfortunately, there are no painless options. In many operating facilities, surface areas on which holdup has accumulated amount to many square miles. It is not practical to pursue 100% measurement of all such surface areas. Thus, some portion is measured - constituting a ''sample,'' whether obtained by a formal procedure or not. Understanding the principles behind sampling is important in planning and in developing legitimate holdup estimates. Although derivation of legitimate, facility-wide holdup estimates is not currently mandated by Department of Energy regulatory requirements, the related activities would greatly advance the present state of knowledge.

  19. Geosynchronous Earth orbital debris campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Africano, John L.; Sydney, Paul F.; Talent, David L.; Stansbery, Eugene G.; Jarvis, Kandy S.; Monet, David G.; Seitzer, Patrick

    2000-10-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) is conducting systematic searches of the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) environment as part of an international measurement campaign under the auspices of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). The objectives for this survey are to determine the extent and character of debris in GEO, buy obtaining distributions for the brightness, inclination, Right Ascension of Ascending Node (RAAN), and mean motion of the debris. The Charged Coupled Device (CCD) Debris Telescope (CDT), an automated 0.32 meter aperture, transportable Schmidt telescope presently located at Cloudcroft, New Mexico, is used nightly to monitor the GEO debris environment. The CDT is equipped with a CCD camera capable of detecting 17th magnitude objects in a 20 second exposure. This corresponds to a 0.6 meter diameter object having a 0.2 albedo at 36000 km. Two other larger telescopes have been used for this purpose, the United States Naval Observatory's new 1.3 meter telescope located in Flagstaff Arizona and a 0.6 m Schmidt telescope located at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) near La Serena Chile. Data reduction and analysis software used to reduce this data exploit tools developed by both the astronomical and DoD communities. These tools and data results are presented.

  20. Evaluation of a brief anti-stigma campaign in Cambridge: do short-term campaigns work?

    PubMed

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Little, Kirsty; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-06-14

    In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p < 0.001) increase in persons agreeing with the statement: If a friend had a mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05) in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1) Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2) Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3) Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.

  1. Zoonotic Hookworm FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... and contaminating soil -- which makes it important for control of this parasitic infection. Back To Top This information is not meant to be used for self-diagnosis or as a substitute for consultation with a health care provider. If you have any questions about the parasites described above or think ...

  2. Optimization and revision of the production process of the Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1), the lead hookworm vaccine recombinant protein candidate.

    PubMed

    Curti, Elena; Seid, Christopher A; Hudspeth, Elissa; Center, Lori; Rezende, Wanderson; Pollet, Jeroen; Kwityn, Cliff; Hammond, Molly; Matsunami, Rise K; Engler, David A; Hotez, Peter J; Elena Bottazzi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Infection by the human hookworm Necator americanus is a leading cause of anemia and disability in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. In order to prevent childhood hookworm disease in resource poor settings, a recombinant vaccine is under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, a Product Development Partnership (PDP). Previously, we reported on the expression and purification of a highly promising hookworm vaccine candidate, Na-GST-1, an N. americanus glutathione s-transferase expressed in Pichia pastoris (yeast), which led to production of 1.5 g of 95% pure recombinant protein at a 20L scale. (1) (,) (2) (,) (3) This yield and purity of Na-GST-1 was sufficient for early pilot manufacturing and initial phase 1 clinical testing. However, based on the number of doses which would be required to allow mass vaccination and a potential goal to deliver a vaccine as inexpensively as possible, a higher yield of expression of the recombinant antigen at the lowest possible cost is highly desirable. Here we report on modifications to the fermentation (upstream process) of the antigen expressed in P. pastoris, and to the purification (downstream process) of the recombinant protein that allowed for a 2-3-fold improvement in the final yield of Na-GST-1 purified protein. The major improvements included upstream process changes such as the addition of a sorbitol pulse and co-feed during methanol induction as well as an extension of the induction stage to approximately 96 hours; downstream process changes included modifying the UFDF to flat sheet with a 10 kDa Molecular Weight cut-off (MWCO), adjusting the capacity of an ion-exchange chromatography step utilizing a gradient elution as opposed to the original step elution, and altering the hydrophobic interaction chromatography conditions. The full process, as well as the purity and stability profiles of the target Na-GST-1, and its formulation

  3. Optimization and revision of the production process of the Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1), the lead hookworm vaccine recombinant protein candidate

    PubMed Central

    Curti, Elena; Seid, Christopher A; Hudspeth, Elissa; Center, Lori; Rezende, Wanderson; Pollet, Jeroen; Kwityn, Cliff; Hammond, Molly; Matsunami, Rise K; Engler, David A; Hotez, Peter J; Elena Bottazzi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Infection by the human hookworm Necator americanus is a leading cause of anemia and disability in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. In order to prevent childhood hookworm disease in resource poor settings, a recombinant vaccine is under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children’s Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, a Product Development Partnership (PDP). Previously, we reported on the expression and purification of a highly promising hookworm vaccine candidate, Na-GST-1, an N. americanus glutathione s-transferase expressed in Pichia pastoris (yeast), which led to production of 1.5 g of 95% pure recombinant protein at a 20L scale.1, 2, 3 This yield and purity of Na-GST-1 was sufficient for early pilot manufacturing and initial phase 1 clinical testing. However, based on the number of doses which would be required to allow mass vaccination and a potential goal to deliver a vaccine as inexpensively as possible, a higher yield of expression of the recombinant antigen at the lowest possible cost is highly desirable. Here we report on modifications to the fermentation (upstream process) of the antigen expressed in P. pastoris, and to the purification (downstream process) of the recombinant protein that allowed for a 2–3-fold improvement in the final yield of Na-GST-1 purified protein. The major improvements included upstream process changes such as the addition of a sorbitol pulse and co-feed during methanol induction as well as an extension of the induction stage to approximately 96 hours; downstream process changes included modifying the UFDF to flat sheet with a 10 kDa Molecular Weight cut-off (MWCO), adjusting the capacity of an ion-exchange chromatography step utilizing a gradient elution as opposed to the original step elution, and altering the hydrophobic interaction chromatography conditions. The full process, as well as the purity and stability profiles of the target Na-GST-1, and its formulation on

  4. Outreach Materials for the Collision Repair Campaign

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collision Repair Campaign offers outreach materials to help collision repair shops reduce toxic air exposure. Materials include a DVD, poster, training video, and materials in Spanish (materiales del outreach en español).

  5. A Simulation of the NIF Ignition Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S. V.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ignition Campaign comprises a series of experiments to tune the laser pulse shape, implosion symmetry, and target parameters to achieve conditions required for ignition. We have performed a simulated campaign to test the NIC strategy and build infrastructure. A blue team carried out the campaign, including specifying targets, laser pulses and diagnostic configuration, analyzing simulated data and making tuning choices. The actual NIF shot setup protocol was employed. A red team, representing nature, generated mock data for the NIF diagnostic suite using a computer code employing a hidden physics model. Anticipated noise and uncertainties were incorporated. Examples of data are Dante scope voltage traces and gated microchannel plate x-ray images. The campaign included energetics, symmetry, and shock timing shots. Following the tuning process, several ignition shots were attempted. This exercise has lead to improvements in the NIC tuning strategy.

  6. The Australian Measles Control Campaign, 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, F. M.; Burgess, M. A.; McIntyre, P. B.; Lambert, S. B.; Gilbert, G. L.; Gidding, H. F.; Escott, R. G.; Achat, H. M.; Hull, B. P.; Wang, H.; Sam, G. A.; Mead, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign had as its aim improved immunization coverage among children aged 1-12 years and, in the longer term, prevention of measles epidemics. The campaign included mass school-based measles-mumps-rubella vaccination of children aged 5-12 years and a catch-up programme for preschool children. More than 1.33 million children aged 5-12 years were vaccinated at school: serological monitoring showed that 94% of such children were protected after the campaign, whereas only 84% had been protected previously. Among preschool children aged 1-3.5 years the corresponding levels of protection were 89% and 82%. During the six months following the campaign there was a marked reduction in the number of measles cases among children in targeted age groups. PMID:11584738

  7. Tragedy prompts depression awareness, suicide prevention campaigns.

    PubMed

    Rees, T

    1998-01-01

    The tragic suicide of Robert C. Goltz prompted associates at the integrated marketing and communications company he founded in Green Bay, Wis., to develop two multimedia campaigns, one focusing on depression awareness and the other on suicide prevention.

  8. Effectiveness of a solar action campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a Solar Action Campaign implemented to facilitate the commercialization of Solar Energy in a large metropolitan area. The campaign was developed by the staff of the Crosby Gardens Environmental Library. Crosby Gardens is an urban environmental and cultural park. The Solar Action Campaign in Toledo, Ohio, included the coordination of a variety of activities and events designed to stimulate consumer awareness of the Solar Energy applications in the area. Activities included coordinating two workshops, production of media tools, a sunshine awards banquet, and an intensive media campaign. The Solar Week in Toledo provided the stimulus for coalitions to be built, intensive information exchange, and most importantly - media coverage.

  9. Coordinated Science Campaign Scheduling for Sensor Webs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-25

    will continue to study different aspects and inter- acting pieces of Earth’s hydrosphere , lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. Scientists are...INTRODUCTION NASA’s Earth Science vision emphasizes the importance of establishing a tighter link among Earth Science models, data analysis, and observational...indicating relative importance of each in fulfilling the goals of the campaign. Exogenous events (like a fire) are needed because campaigns are often planned

  10. SEPARATIONS AND WASTE FORMS CAMPAIGN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Todd, Terry A.; Peterson, Mary E.

    2012-11-26

    This Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Implementation Plan provides summary level detail describing how the Campaign will achieve the objectives set-forth by the Fuel Cycle Reasearch and Development (FCRD) Program. This implementation plan will be maintained as a living document and will be updated as needed in response to changes or progress in separations and waste forms research and the FCRD Program priorities.

  11. Initial outcomes of the VERB campaign: tweens' awareness and understanding of campaign messages.

    PubMed

    Huhman, Marian; Bauman, Adrian; Bowles, Heather R

    2008-06-01

    Assessing the immediate effects of mass-media campaigns provides early evidence of campaign reach into the defined target populations. Assessing these effects early in a multi-year campaign allows for better message targeting in subsequent years. Cross-sectional analysis of a population cohort. Data were collected annually; this paper reports on 1-year outcome data following a mass-media-led intervention to increase physical activity among children aged 9-13 years. The groups initially reached by the campaign and those that understood the campaign messages were identified. Analysis was carried out using logistic regression. Nationally representative cohort of 2729 children aged 9-13 years (tweens). National mass-communications campaign (VERB) from June 2002 to June 2003, using television, print, and radio as the primary communication channels. In addition, there were promotions in communities, in schools, and on the Internet. Prompted and unprompted awareness of the VERB campaign and understanding of the key campaign message. After 1 year, tweens' unprompted awareness of VERB was 17.3%; prompted awareness was 57%; 25.6% had no awareness of VERB. Prompted awareness did not differ by child's age, gender, or ethnicity but was associated with being from a middle- or high-income household, having a parent who was a college graduate, and being active on 7 or more days the previous week. Unprompted awareness was significantly associated with being a girl, being aged 12-14 years, being white, being from a moderate- or high-income household, having a parent with a college degree, and doing 7 or more sessions of physical activity during the week before the survey. The variables associated with high levels of understanding of the campaign message were similar to those for campaign awareness, except there were no differences in campaign understanding by age, and a significant association was found between campaign understanding and parental approval of physical activity

  12. A Comparison of the Quality of Informed Consent for Clinical Trials of an Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted in Developed and Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lobato, Lucas; Styczynski, Ashley; Zumer, Maria; Soares, Amanda; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia

    2017-01-01

    Informed consent is one of the principal ethical requirements of conducting clinical research, regardless of the study setting. Breaches in the quality of the informed consent process are frequently described in reference to clinical trials conducted in developing countries, due to low levels of formal education, a lack of familiarity with biomedical research, and limited access to health services in these countries. However, few studies have directly compared the quality of the informed consent process in developed and developing countries using the same tool and in similar clinical trials. This study was conducted to compare the quality of the informed consent process of a series of clinical trials of an investigational hookworm vaccine that were performed in Brazil and the United States. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess the ethical quality of the informed consent process in a series of Phase 1 clinical trials of the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine that were conducted in healthy adults in Brazil and the United States. In Brazil, the trial was conducted at two sites, one in the hookworm non-endemic urban area of Belo Horizonte, Minas, and one in the rural, resource-limited town of Americaninhas, both in the state of Minas Gerais; the American trial was conducted in Washington, DC. A 32-question survey was administered after the informed consent document was signed at each of the three trial sites; it assessed participants’ understanding of information about the study presented in the document as well as the voluntariness of their decision to participate. 105 participants completed the questionnaire: 63 in Americaninhas, 18 in Belo Horizonte, and 24 in Washington, DC. Overall knowledge about the trial was suboptimal: the mean number of correct answers to questions about study objectives, methods, duration, rights, and potential risks and benefits, was 45.6% in Americaninhas, 65.2% in Belo Horizonte, and 59.1% in Washington, DC. Although there

  13. A Comparison of the Quality of Informed Consent for Clinical Trials of an Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted in Developed and Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Diemert, David J; Lobato, Lucas; Styczynski, Ashley; Zumer, Maria; Soares, Amanda; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia

    2017-01-01

    Informed consent is one of the principal ethical requirements of conducting clinical research, regardless of the study setting. Breaches in the quality of the informed consent process are frequently described in reference to clinical trials conducted in developing countries, due to low levels of formal education, a lack of familiarity with biomedical research, and limited access to health services in these countries. However, few studies have directly compared the quality of the informed consent process in developed and developing countries using the same tool and in similar clinical trials. This study was conducted to compare the quality of the informed consent process of a series of clinical trials of an investigational hookworm vaccine that were performed in Brazil and the United States. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess the ethical quality of the informed consent process in a series of Phase 1 clinical trials of the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine that were conducted in healthy adults in Brazil and the United States. In Brazil, the trial was conducted at two sites, one in the hookworm non-endemic urban area of Belo Horizonte, Minas, and one in the rural, resource-limited town of Americaninhas, both in the state of Minas Gerais; the American trial was conducted in Washington, DC. A 32-question survey was administered after the informed consent document was signed at each of the three trial sites; it assessed participants' understanding of information about the study presented in the document as well as the voluntariness of their decision to participate. 105 participants completed the questionnaire: 63 in Americaninhas, 18 in Belo Horizonte, and 24 in Washington, DC. Overall knowledge about the trial was suboptimal: the mean number of correct answers to questions about study objectives, methods, duration, rights, and potential risks and benefits, was 45.6% in Americaninhas, 65.2% in Belo Horizonte, and 59.1% in Washington, DC. Although there

  14. Differences in the faecal microbiome of non-diarrhoeic clinically healthy dogs and cats associated with Giardia duodenalis infection: impact of hookworms and coccidia.

    PubMed

    Šlapeta, Jan; Dowd, Scot E; Alanazi, Abdullah D; Westman, Mark E; Brown, Graeme K

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis causes a waterborne diarrhoeal disease in animals and humans, yet many Giardia-infected hosts remain asymptomatic. Mixed parasite infections are common in both animals and humans with unknown consequences for Giardia or other parasites. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from 40 dogs, including free-roaming dogs, and 21 surrendered cats from Australia. The dog cohort included 17 (42.5%) dogs positive for Giardia and 13 (32.5%) dogs positive for dog hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum). The cat samples included eight positive for Giardia and eight positive for Cystoisospora. The V4 region of 16S rRNA was sequenced at an average of 36,383 high quality sequences (>200 bp) per sample using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. In dogs we found significant (P<0.05, AnoSim) difference between the Giardia-positive and -negative groups when evaluating bacterial genera. No such difference was demonstrated between Ancylostoma-positive and -negative dogs. However, there was a modest but not significant separation of the Giardia-negative and -positive dogs (P=0.09, UniFrac) using principal coordinate analysis. Removal of dogs with hookworms further separated Giardia-positive and -negative groupings (P=0.06, UniFrac). In cats, the presence of Giardia was not associated with a significant difference based on bacterial genera (P>0.05, AnoSim). Cystoisospora-positive cats, however, exhibited significantly different profiles from Cystoisospora-negative cats (P=0.02, AnoSim) and UniFrac showed significant separation of Cystoisospora-positive and -negative samples (P<0.01). The results suggest that in clinically heathy dogs and cats, helminths and protozoa are associated with different microbiomes and possibly variable gut microbiota functions. Understanding the association of parasites and microbiomes has important consequences for the administration of antiparasitic drugs in animals and humans.

  15. Effectiveness of Albendazole for Hookworm Varies Widely by Community and Correlates with Nutritional Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study of School-Age Children in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Debbie; Nguyen, Sara; Kumar, Sunny; Quagraine, Josephine E; Otchere, Joseph; Harrison, Lisa M; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2017-02-08

    Mass drug administration (MDA) targeting school-age children is recommended by the World Health Organization for the global control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Although considered safe and cost-effective to deliver, benzimidazole anthelminthics are variably effective against the three most common STHs, and widespread use has raised concern about the potential for emerging resistance. To identify factors mediating response to albendazole, we conducted a cross-sectional study of hookworm infection in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana in 2011. Among 140 school-age children residing in five contiguous communities, the hookworm prevalence was 59% (82/140). The overall cure rate following administration of single-dose albendazole (400 mg) was 35% (27/76), with a community-wide fecal egg reduction rate (ERR) of 61% (95% confidence interval: 51.8-71.1). Significant disparities were observed in albendazole effectiveness by community, with a cure rate as low as 0% (N = 24) in Jato Akuraa and ERRs ranging from 53% to 95% across the five study sites. Individual host factors associated with response to deworming treatment included time since last meal, pretreatment blood hemoglobin level, and mid-upper arm circumference. These data demonstrate significant community-level variation in the effectiveness of albendazole, even among populations living in close proximity. Identification of host factors that influence response to albendazole, most notably the timing of drug administration and nutritional factors, creates an opportunity to enhance the effectiveness of deworming through targeted interventions. These findings also demonstrate the importance of measuring anthelminthic response as part of the monitoring and evaluation of community-based deworming programs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Ivermectin treatment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect on hookworm and lice infection status, haematological parameters, growth, and survival.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    A placebo-controlled study was used to investigate the effectiveness of ivermectin to treat hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) and lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) infections in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups and to test the hypotheses that these parasitic infections cause anaemia, systemic inflammatory responses, and reduced growth, and contribute towards decreased pup survival. Ivermectin was identified as an effective and safe anthelmintic in this species. Pups administered ivermectin had significantly higher erythrocyte counts and significantly lower eosinophil counts compared to controls at 1-2 months post-treatment, confirming that U. sanguinis and/or A. microchir are causatively associated with disease and demonstrating the positive effect of ivermectin treatment on clinical health parameters. Higher growth rates were not seen in ivermectin-treated pups and, unexpectedly, relatively older pups treated with ivermectin demonstrated significantly reduced growth rates when compared to matched saline-control pups. Differences in survival were not identified between treatment groups; however, this was attributed to the unexpectedly low mortality rate of recruited pups, likely due to the unintended recruitment bias towards pups >1-2 months of age for which mortality due to hookworm infection is less likely. This finding highlights the logistical and practical challenges associated with treating pups of this species shortly after birth at a remote colony. This study informs the assessment of the use of anthelmintics as a tool for the conservation management of free-ranging wildlife and outlines essential steps to further the development of strategies to ensure the effective conservation of the Australian sea lion and its parasitic fauna.

  17. 29 CFR 452.79 - Opportunity to campaign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunity to campaign. 452.79 Section 452.79 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.79 Opportunity to campaign. There must be a reasonable... prior to the election so that he was denied an equal opportunity to campaign. Similarly, in a mail...

  18. 29 CFR 452.67 - Distribution of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution of campaign literature. 452.67 Section 452.67... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.67 Distribution of campaign literature. The Act... distribute his campaign literature to the membership at his expense. When the organization or its...

  19. 11 CFR 103.4 - Vice Presidential candidate campaign depositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vice Presidential candidate campaign depositories. 103.4 Section 103.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CAMPAIGN DEPOSITORIES (2 U.S.C. 432(h)) § 103.4 Vice Presidential candidate campaign depositories. Any campaign...

  20. 29 CFR 452.83 - Enforcement of campaign safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement of campaign safeguards. 452.83 Section 452.83... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.83 Enforcement of campaign safeguards. Certain of... statutory right to sue is limited to the distribution of campaign literature by the labor organization...

  1. 11 CFR 9002.11 - Qualified campaign expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified campaign expense. 9002.11 Section 9002.11 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.11 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign expense...

  2. 29 CFR 452.67 - Distribution of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distribution of campaign literature. 452.67 Section 452.67... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.67 Distribution of campaign literature. The Act... distribute his campaign literature to the membership at his expense. When the organization or its officers...

  3. 11 CFR 9032.9 - Qualified campaign expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified campaign expense. 9032.9 Section 9032.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.9 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign...

  4. 11 CFR 9032.9 - Qualified campaign expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified campaign expense. 9032.9 Section 9032.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.9 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign...

  5. 11 CFR 9032.9 - Qualified campaign expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified campaign expense. 9032.9 Section 9032.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.9 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign...

  6. 11 CFR 9032.9 - Qualified campaign expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Qualified campaign expense. 9032.9 Section 9032.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.9 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign...

  7. 11 CFR 9032.9 - Qualified campaign expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified campaign expense. 9032.9 Section 9032.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.9 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign...

  8. Pneumococcal vaccine campaign based in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, P.; Friedman, E. H.; Banks, A.; Anderson, R.; Carman, V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To show whether a general practice setting is a practical and effective medium for increasing uptake of pneumococcal vaccine. DESIGN: Follow up study of responses of general practices (debriefing by questionnaire or small group session) and patients (questionnaire sent to 429 patients vaccinated in a two week period) to vaccination campaign. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Patients registered with general practices of one family health services authority. INTERVENTIONS: Pneumococcal vaccination campaign including clinical guidelines and support materials. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of general practitioners offering pneumococcal vaccine; proportion of patients at risk who were vaccinated between 1 May and 31 December 1995; number of splenectomised patients identified and vaccinated in same period; views of patients who were vaccinated. RESULTS: Proportion of general practitioners offering pneumococcal vaccine increased from 17% to 89% during the campaign. Estimated number of patients at risk who were vaccinated increased from 656 (4%) to 5982 (33%) during campaign. Of 61 splenectomised patients identified, 30 had been vaccinated previously and 27 were vaccinated during campaign. Practices in which a general practitioner took or shared the lead had higher vaccination rates and used vaccine up faster. Of the 384 patients whose questionnaires were used in analysis, only 35 had heard of pneumococcal vaccine before the campaign, 198 reported side effects (mostly minor and local, but systemic and severe local reactions were more common than expected), and 337 were pleased they had been vaccinated (only five expressed dissatisfaction). CONCLUSION: A practice based campaign is an effective method of increasing uptake of pneumococcal vaccine by high risk groups. PMID:9133894

  9. Health Campaigns as Engaged Pedagogy: Considering a Motorcycle Safety Campaign as Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Marifran; Haas, Emily J.; Kosmoski, Carin

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that teaching health campaigns from an engaged pedagogy perspective is beneficial for students, instructors, and communities. This argument is supported by a teaching and learning perspective using a motorcycle safety campaign as an exemplar. Retrospective interviews were conducted with students who participated in a…

  10. Amateur astronomers in support of observing campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access, and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers: - the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals that can be galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns; - assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign; - provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise; - immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members; - provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to help strategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit. In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been identified: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/Siding Spring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG). The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA (Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy) portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns for current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers. The recent observation of comet 67P, at a magnitude of 21.2, from Siding

  11. National campaigns to improve antibiotic use.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Herman; Guillemot, Didier; Ferech, Matus; Schlemmer, Benoit; Costers, Michiel; van Breda, Marije; Baker, Lee J; Cars, Otto; Davey, Peter G

    2006-05-01

    High levels of antibiotic consumption are driving levels of bacterial resistance that threaten public health. Nonetheless, antibiotics still provide highly effective treatments for common diseases with important implications for human health. The challenge for public education is to achieve a meaningful reduction in unnecessary antibiotic use without adversely affecting the management of bacterial infections. This paper focuses on the lessons learned from national campaigns in countries (Belgium and France) with high antibiotic use. Evaluation of these national campaigns showed the importance of television advertising as a powerful medium to change attitudes and perhaps also behaviour with regard to antibiotics. Moreover, in both countries, strong evidence suggested reduced antibiotic prescribing. However, adverse effects associated with a reduction in antibiotic prescribing were not monitored. We conclude that carefully designed mass education campaigns could improve antibiotic use nationally and should be considered in countries with high antibiotic use. However, these campaigns should employ techniques of social marketing and use appropriate outcome measures. The benefits and risks of such campaigns have been less well established in countries where antibiotic use is already low or declining.

  12. Evaluation of the 2008 NSW water campaign.

    PubMed

    Orr, Neil; Milat, Andrew J; Lin, Ming; Neville, Leonie; Develin, Liz

    2010-08-01

    The consumption of soft and other sweetened drinks is an emerging nutrition issue in Australia. In 2005-6, 63% of NSW children aged between 2 and 15 years consumed sweetened drinks (soft drinks, cordials or sports drinks) weekly, 33% of which consumed at least 6 cups per week. In 2008 NSW Health implemented the 'Water Campaign' to increase the proportion of NSW children up to 15 years of age who consume water in place of sweetened drinks. A pre-post survey study design was used to evaluate the Campaign. Two telephone surveys of stratified random samples of 500 respondents each from the primary target audience (parents and carers of children up to 15 years of age) were conducted across NSW. Fifty-three per cent of respondents in the post-survey said that they recalled the mass media Campaign when it was described to them compared to 19% in the pre-survey. There was an increase in parents' knowledge of the high sugar content of sweetened drinks and a decline in the reported consumption of sweetened drinks by boys. Though modest in size and duration, the campaign was successful in achieving a number of campaign objectives, particularly changes in parent's and carer's knowledge and awareness of water related nutrition and reduced reported consumption of sweetened drinks among boys.

  13. Family planning--male responsibility campaign.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    At a press conference on March 29, 1982, the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong launched a 1-year campaign to encourage men to assume more responsibility in family planning. The campaign will publicize the message that "real men" share family planning responsibilities with their wives. The campaign was developed in response to the Association's recognition that its male clinics were underutilized. Although the Association established its 1st male clinic in 1960, only 1.3% of the Association's clients in 1981 were men. Futhermore, the number of vasectomies performed in recent years had not increased. The campaign will seek to overcome the prevailing attitude that family planning is a women's issue, the reluctance of men to discuss fertility with their physicians, and various misconceptions about male methods. Activities initiated during the 1st few months of the campaign included 1) broadcasting a 30-second television spot to promote the male responsibility message; 2) setting up a mobile exhibit in railway stations and commercial complexes to inform the public about male birth control methods and about the services offered at the Association's male clinics; 3) giving away items which publicize the male clinics such as stickers, match boxes, condom samples, and literature; and 4) selling T-shirts which promote 2 as the ideal family size. In addition, a contest aimed at publicizing male birth control was undertaken jointly by a television magazine, Durex Products, and the Association. The contest engendered considerable interest and 2600 entries were received from men.

  14. Observing campaign on V380 Oph cancelled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-08-01

    The observing campaign on V380 Oph announced in AAVSO Alert Notice 466 has been cancelled at the request of the principal investigators, Drs. Joseph Patterson and Arne Henden. The campaign was to monitor V380 Oph to make sure it was in its low state for HST observations that had been scheduled. However, it was apparent from observations submitted to the Center for Backyard Astrophysics (CBA) and the AAVSO International Database that the star was not truly in its low state but in an intermediate state, and thus not an appropriate target at this time for the research the investigators wanted to do with the HST. On behalf of Drs. Patterson and Henden, thank you for your efforts during this campaign - your work is very much appreciated!

  15. STAR WEEK: A Successful Campaign in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Junichi

    2011-06-01

    A campaign of the Star Week, set as August 1 - 7, has been started in 1995 throughout various life-learning facilities. Astronomical facilities including planetariums, science museums, and public observatories has been participating in this campaign, together with amateur astronomers clubs or private observatories. More than 300 astronomical events such as star watching parties were coordinated for general public every year. The Star Week has been grown up to one of the most successful campaigns not only for for astronomy but also for basic sciences in Japan over this 15 years. In this paper, a brief history and the present status of the Star Week are introduced together with the with some statistics.

  16. The second parabolic flight campaign for students.

    PubMed

    Ockels, W J

    1996-02-01

    In conjunction with the European Commission's 'European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture' in November, ESA organised the second parabolic flight campaign for students. Students selected through a competition, were again given the unique opportunity of experiencing weightlessness as they performed their own scientific experiment during a parabolic flight. The experiments covered a wide variety of disciplines. Some illustrated well the effect of microgravity while others may offer new and far-reaching scientific results. The primary goal, however, is to educate and motivate the students rather than to obtain new research. It is hoped that the campaign will stimulate the next generation to think about space and the potential of microgravity. It is in that way that an innovative future user community for the International Space Station Alpha can be built. The great enthusiasm shown by many students and the wide coverage provided by the media also demonstrate the interest in space and the promotional value of the campaign.

  17. Morphometric and molecular characterization of the species of Uncinaria Frölich, 1789 (Nematoda) parasitic in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber), with notes on hookworms in three other pinniped hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paul; Lynch, Michael; Hu, Min; Arnould, John P Y; Norman, Richard; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-05-01

    This study presents morphological and molecular data on hookworms from the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber) currently identified in Australian waters as Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Additional specimens from the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Péron) and the New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) from Australia, and the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus) from Antarctica, were included. Using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hookworms from A. p. doriferus, N. cinerea and A. forsteri were found to be genetically similar but distinct from Uncinaria spp. found in M. leonina from Antarctica, as well as from Zalophus californianus (Lesson) and Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus) from California. Few morphological differences were detected between these taxa.

  18. X-ray structure of Na-ASP-2, a pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the nematode parasite, Necator americanus, and a vaccine antigen for human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Goud, Gaddam; Dhar, Kajari; Loukas, Alex; Zhan, Bin; Deumic, Vehid; Liu, Sen; Borgstahl, Gloria E O; Hotez, Peter J

    2005-02-25

    Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition of adults and children in the developing world. As part of on-going efforts to control hookworm infection, The Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective L3 larval stages of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins known as the Ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). A novel crystal structure of Na-ASP-2, a PR-1 protein secreted by infective larvae of the human hookworm Necator americanus, has been solved to resolution limits of 1.68 A and to an R-factor of 17% using the recombinant protein expressed in and secreted by Pichia pastoris. The overall fold of Na-ASP-2 is a three-layer alphabetaalpha sandwich flanked by an N-terminal loop and a short, cysteine-rich C terminus. Our structure reveals a large central cavity that is flanked by His129 and Glu106, two residues that are well conserved in all parasitic nematode L3 ASPs. Na-ASP-2 has structural and charge similarities to chemokines, which suggests that Na-ASP-2 may be an extra-cellular ligand of an unknown receptor. Na-ASP-2 is a useful homology model for NIF, a natural antagonistic ligand of CR3 receptor. From these modeling studies, possible binding modes were predicted. In addition, this first structure of a PR-1 protein from parasitic helminths may shed light on the molecular basis of host-parasite interactions.

  19. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study.

    PubMed

    Echazú, Adriana; Juarez, Marisa; Vargas, Paola A; Cajal, Silvana P; Cimino, Ruben O; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Paredes, Gladys; Arias, Luis M; Abril, Marcelo; Gold, Silvia; Lammie, Patrick; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2017-10-09

    Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm. Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people) were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people) were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed. STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis). Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (p<0.001) after the first PC; anemia also diminished from 52% to 12% (p<0.001). After two interventions S. stercoralis seroprevalence declined, from 51% to 14% (p<0.001) and stunting prevalence decreased, from 19% to 12% (p = 0.009). Hookworm' infections are associated with anemia in the general population and nutritional impairment in children. S. stercoralis is also associated with anemia. Community-based deworming with albendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis.

  20. Television Planning in the 1952 Eisenhower Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkin, Steve M.

    This report of a study of the activities of a secret planning board, formed to promote the nomination of Dwight Eisenhower through the intensive use of television, concludes that the significance of television planning in the 1952 Eisenhower campaign had less to do with the outcome of the election than with the first massive use of television with…

  1. The Political Scientist as Local Campaign Consultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crew, Robert E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During my 45 years as an academic, I have followed the admonition sometimes attributed to the legendary Jedi warrior Obi-Wan Kenobe that political scientists should "use [their] power for good and not for evil." In this spirit, I have devoted substantial portions of my career to public service by providing strategic advice and campaign management…

  2. Transmutation Fuels Campaign FY-09 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year 2009 (FY-08) accomplishments for the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC). The emphasis is on the accomplishments and relevance of the work. Detailed description of the methods used to achieve the highlighted results and the associated support tasks are not included in this report.

  3. The World Campaign for the Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and discusses goals of The World Campaign for the Biosphere and strategies designed to achieve these goals. Also lists eight suggestions for science teachers to help incorporate the goals into school curricula and programs. These include organizing assemblies which present information about environmental problems and presenting environmental…

  4. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, Helen; Kulkami, Ajinkya; Garrett, Michele; Goodman, Michael; Peterson, Walter Arthur; Drewry, Marilyn; Hardin, Danny M.; He, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  5. Supporting observation campaigns with high resolution modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias; Voigt, Aiko

    2017-04-01

    High resolution simulation in support of measurement campaigns offers a promising and emerging way to create large-scale context for small-scale observations of clouds and precipitation processes. As these simulation include the coupling of measured small-scale processes with the circulation, they also help to integrate the research communities from modeling and observations and allow for detailed model evaluations against dedicated observations. In connection with the measurement campaign NARVAL (August 2016 and December 2013) simulations with a grid-spacing of 2.5 km for the tropical Atlantic region (9000x3300 km), with local refinement to 1.2 km for the western part of the domain, were performed using the icosahedral non-hydrostatic (ICON) general circulation model. These simulations are again used to drive large eddy resolving simulations with the same model for selected days in the high definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction (HD(CP)2) project. The simulations are presented with the focus on selected results showing the benefit for the scientific communities doing atmospheric measurements and numerical modeling of climate and weather. Additionally, an outlook will be given on how similar simulations will support the NAWDEX measurement campaign in the North Atlantic and AC3 measurement campaign in the Arctic.

  6. Kid's PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fun and educational kit is designed specifically for elementary students. The "Kid's PACK" (Population Awareness Campaign Kit) entertains and informs children on the environment and human population growth through stories, games, and concrete ideas for making a difference. In three booklets, the "Kid's PACK" offers…

  7. Media Campaigns Promote Driver Safety for Farmworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshop, James I.; Grajales-Hall, Myriam; Ortiz, Lupe

    1998-01-01

    A Spanish-language program was developed to educate California migrant farmworker families about motor vehicle safety using a bingo-like game similar to one popular in Mexico. The game disseminated safe-driving information in weekly bilingual newspapers and on Spanish radio and television. Assessments suggest that the media campaigns favorably…

  8. Campaign Targets Perceived Liberal Bias in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Having witnessed what they regard as the corruption of colleges by liberals and left-leaning academics, conservative activists say they are launching a venture to eliminate any such bias from the nation's public schools. "It's a campaign we're beginning today," said David Horowitz, who helped organize an April 7, 2006 conference to promote those…

  9. Media Agenda-Building and Election Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning-Miller, Carmen L.

    To examine factors which influenced the media's agenda-building process during a primary election period in Mississippi, a study explored candidates' personal attributes, campaign resourcefulness, and media connectedness as important agenda-building variables. Candidates for Mississippi's United States House of Representatives seats in 1982 and…

  10. Starting and Running the "Libraries Matter" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Kitty; Chenoweth, Rose; Bersche, Karen; Bell, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Sometimes a simple idea, such as selling gel bracelets that say "Libraries Matter" to raise money, can spark something much bigger. In this article, the authors explain how their Libraries Matter campaign grew beyond their own regional system to cover their whole state and eventually other points around the globe. This successful…

  11. Vehicle of Change: The PS 2013 Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Fiorella

    2014-01-01

    A change in political leadership typically signals a growth in organizing campaigns to find and endorse the candidate with ideas most similar to their own. However, what if instead of focusing on finding the best candidate, organizing groups decided to focus on the conversation? How would you then use an election to engage the members of the…

  12. Teen PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in…

  13. A colorful, charismatic, community-oriented campaign.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Kandace

    2007-01-01

    You might think that the draw of blue skies, palm trees, and warm climates would be enough to lure workers to NCH Healthcare Systems, centered in Naples, FL. With a unique benefits plan, NCH launched a unique campaign to organize the many elements that make working for the facility like a day at the beach.

  14. The Political Scientist as Local Campaign Consultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crew, Robert E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During my 45 years as an academic, I have followed the admonition sometimes attributed to the legendary Jedi warrior Obi-Wan Kenobe that political scientists should "use [their] power for good and not for evil." In this spirit, I have devoted substantial portions of my career to public service by providing strategic advice and campaign management…

  15. The World Campaign for the Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and discusses goals of The World Campaign for the Biosphere and strategies designed to achieve these goals. Also lists eight suggestions for science teachers to help incorporate the goals into school curricula and programs. These include organizing assemblies which present information about environmental problems and presenting environmental…

  16. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Kulkarni, A.; Garrett, M.; Goodman, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Drewry, M.; Hardin, D. M.; He, M.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  17. 1980 Rabinowitch Essay: A Nuclear Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markusen, Eric; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Proposes an educational campaign that: (1) provides opportunities for citizens to learn about facts and issues relating to nuclear war; (2) stimulates the search for national security policies likely to lead to nuclear war; and (3) generates a political will to initiate social changes that eliminate threats of nuclear war. (CS)

  18. Starting and Running the "Libraries Matter" Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Kitty; Chenoweth, Rose; Bersche, Karen; Bell, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Sometimes a simple idea, such as selling gel bracelets that say "Libraries Matter" to raise money, can spark something much bigger. In this article, the authors explain how their Libraries Matter campaign grew beyond their own regional system to cover their whole state and eventually other points around the globe. This successful…

  19. Maternal health care focus in Bolivian campaign.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    Maternal health care is one of the focuses of Bolivia's new reproductive health campaign. The campaign, which uses television, radio and print media to get its message across, has the slogan "Your health is in your hands." Prenatal and postnatal care, as well as safe delivery, form one of the campaign's target areas. Others are family planning, breast-feeding, and the prevention of illegal abortions. The Bolivian campaign, which has a logo showing a child's tiny hand grasping a parent's finger, is supported by the Population Communication Services project of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, US. Bolivia has the highest maternal mortality in the western hemisphere. "The need to create an awareness of reproductive health is vital, with the risk of a Bolivian woman dying during pregnancy or childbirth 60 times that for a woman in Europe or the US," according to Dr. Phyllis Piotrow, director of Johns Hopkins' Center for Communication Programs. Further, Bolivia has the second highest infant mortality rate in the western hemisphere after Haiti.

  20. Providence Sponsors Diocesan Teacher Recruiting Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dygert, William

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the issue of teacher recruitment in Providence, Rhode Island. Explains that the Catholic education staff designed a campaign that involved creating marketing materials, advertising in daily newspapers, and holding job fairs and open houses. Stresses the importance of promoting teaching at Catholic schools as both rewarding and…

  1. Some Communication Effects of Charity Advertising Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of advertising exposure to a variety of cognitive and affective variables in a nonprofit charity campaign. The study also tested the transactional model of advertising effects, which combines exposure, motivations, and gratifications for viewing. A sample of 350 adults was randomly selected and…

  2. Copenhagen Campaigners: An Active Citizens Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Rohan

    2010-01-01

    In the lead-up to the Copenhagen Climate talks in December 2009, Islington Council's Sustainable Schools Officer involved seven local schools in an engaging citizenship project entitled "Copenhagen Campaigners". The aim of the project was to raise pupil's awareness of this historic global event and empower them to take action on a local…

  3. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, Helen; Kulkami, Ajinkya; Garrett, Michele; Goodman, Michael; Peterson, Walter Arthur; Drewry, Marilyn; Hardin, Danny M.; He, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  4. Analyzing the Communication Dynamics of Political Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Sally

    2007-01-01

    It is widely agreed that college students do not fully participate in the political process. The most commonly cited reasons are apathy, indifference, and ignorance. This article presents an activity that aims to help students learn about communication dynamics in the context of political campaigns and develop an appreciation and confidence about…

  5. 5 CFR 950.801 - Campaign schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... National/International and International parts of the Charity List. (2) The Director will determine a date... national and international applicant organization of the results of the Director's review. The date will be.../International and International parts of the Charity List to all local campaigns by a date to be determined...

  6. California Literacy Campaign Program Effectiveness Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Martha A.; And Others

    This effectiveness review of the California Literacy Campaign (CLC), a program designed to significantly reduce the number of functionally illiterate adults in California, was submitted to the California State Library for consideration of continuation of state funding beyond 1984-85. The review includes an analysis of existing data (state library…

  7. California Literacy Campaign: Program Effectiveness Review II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurzbacher, Mark F.; Yeannakis, Christine H.

    This review of the California Literacy Campaign (CLC), a statewide, community-oriented, library-based program funded under the California Library Services Act, is designed to determine the extent to which CLC has been effective in carrying out its mission, the manner in which increased effectiveness may be achieved, and ways in which program…

  8. Media Agenda-Building and Election Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning-Miller, Carmen L.

    To examine factors which influenced the media's agenda-building process during a primary election period in Mississippi, a study explored candidates' personal attributes, campaign resourcefulness, and media connectedness as important agenda-building variables. Candidates for Mississippi's United States House of Representatives seats in 1982 and…

  9. Persistence of Change: Fume Hood Campaign Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Elah; Robinson, Jennifer; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability initiatives typically operate for a limited time period, but it is often unclear whether they have lasting effects. The purpose of this paper is to examine a laboratory fume hood campaign, in order to identify factors that might contribute or detract from long-term change persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  10. The A-domain of beta 2 integrin CR3 (CD11b/CD18) is a receptor for the hookworm-derived neutrophil adhesion inhibitor NIF.

    PubMed

    Rieu, P; Ueda, T; Haruta, I; Sharma, C P; Arnaout, M A

    1994-12-01

    The A-domain is a approximately 200-amino acid peptide present within structurally diverse proadhesive proteins including seven integrins. A recombinant form of the A-domain of beta 2 integrins CR3 and LFA-1 has been recently shown to bind divalent cations and to contain binding sites for protein ligands that play essential roles in leukocyte trafficking to inflammatory sites, phagocytosis and target cell killing. In this report we demonstrate that the neutrophil adhesion inhibitor, NIF produced by the hookworm Ancyclostoma caninium is a selective CD11b A-domain binding protein. NIF bound directly, specifically and with high affinity (Kd of approximately 1 nM) to recombinant CD11b A-domain (r11bA). The binding reaction was characterized by rapid association and very slow dissociation, and was blocked by an anti-r11bA monoclonal antibody. No binding was observed to rCD11aA. The NIF-r11bA interaction required divalent cations, and was absent when the mutant r11bA D140GS/AGA (that lacks divalent cation binding capacity) was used. The NIF binding site in r11bA was mapped to four short peptides, one of which being an iC3b binding site. The interaction of NIF with CR3 in intact cells followed similar binding kinetics to those with r11bA, and occurred with similar affinity in resting and activated human neutrophils, suggesting that the NIF epitope is activation independent. Binding of NIF to CR3 blocked its ability to bind to its ligands iC3b, fibrinogen, and CD54, and inhibited the ability of human neutrophils to ingest serum opsonized particles. NIF thus represents the first example of a disintegrin that targets the integrin A-domain, and is likely to be used by the hookworm to evade the host's inflammatory response. The unique structure of NIF, which lacks a disintegrin motif, emphasizes basic structural differences in antagonists targeting A+ and A- integrins, that should be valuable in drug design efforts aimed at generating novel therapeutics. Identification of the

  11. An overview of the AROMAT campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Van Roozendael, Michel; Constantin, Daniel; Georgescu, Lucian; Meier, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Den Hoed, Mirjam; Allaart, Marc; Boscornea, Andreea; Vajaiac, Sorin; Bellegante, Livio; Nemuc, Anca; Nicolae, Doina; Shaifangar, Reza; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Stebel, Kerstin; Schuettemeyer, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign and its follow-up AROMAT-2 were held in September 2014 and August 2015, respectively. Both campaigns focused on two geophysical targets: the city of Bucharest and the large power plants of the Jiu Valley, which are located in a rural area 170 km West of Bucharest. These two areas are complementary in terms of emitted chemical species and their spatial distributions. The objectives of the AROMAT campaigns were (i) to test recently developed airborne observation systems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies such as the AirMAP imaging DOAS system (University of Bremen), the NO2 sonde (KNMI), and the compact SWING whiskbroom imager (BIRA), and (ii) to prepare the validation programme of the future Atmospheric Sentinels, starting with Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) to be launched in early summer 2016. We present results from the different airborne instrumentations and from coincident ground-based measurements (lidar, in-situ, and mobile DOAS systems) performed during both campaigns. The AROMAT dataset addresses several of the mandatory products of TROPOMI/S5P, in particular NO2 and SO2 (horizontal distribution and profile from aircraft, plume image with ground-based SO2 and NO2 cameras, transects with mobile DOAS, in-situ), H2CO (mobile MAX-DOAS), and aerosols (lidar, airborne FUBISS-ASA2 sun-photometer, and aircraft in-situ). We investigate the information content of the AROMAT dataset for satellite validation studies based on co-located OMI and GOME-2 data, and simulations of TROPOMI measurements. The experience gained during AROMAT and AROMAT-2 will be used in support of a large-scale TROPOMI/S5P validation campaign in Romania scheduled for summer 2017.

  12. International 24-Hour LEO Space Debris Measurement Campaign 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Joseph; Letsch, Klemens; Blackwell, Christopher; McSheehy, Richard; Quanette, Juarez

    2017-01-01

    The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) provides the organizational framework for sponsoring periodic international measurement campaigns of the space debris environment. The IADC has conducted two types of campaigns: high altitude campaigns designed to measure the debris environment at near-geostationary altitudes using mostly optical telescopes, and low altitude campaigns using primarily radars. One of the goals of the low altitude campaigns is to collect data for 24 contiguous hours. This way, all orbit planes can be sampled. Multiple sensors are used, each with its own strengths and weaknesses, to provide a more complete understanding of the environment. Comparing results between sensors also provides a better understanding of the potential biases resulting from any one sensor. Conducting the campaigns at roughly regular intervals over a long period also allows researchers to examine trends and growth of the environment over time. For this reason, low altitude campaigns are anticipated at two-year intervals. This is the eighth IADC low altitude campaign conducted. The first campaign was conducted in 1996 and two campaigns were conducted in 1999. The 2002 campaign was delayed until January 2003 because of scheduling conflicts, and the fifth, sixth, and seventh campaigns were conducted in 2004, 2008, and 2013 respectively. The eighth campaign was conducted on 8 December 2015.

  13. Influence of a counteradvertising media campaign on initiation of smoking: the Florida "truth" campaign.

    PubMed

    Sly, D F; Hopkins, R S; Trapido, E; Ray, S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the short-term effects of television advertisements from the Florida "truth" campaign on rates of smoking initiation. A follow-up survey of young people aged 12 to 17 years (n = 1820) interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign was conducted. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the independent effects of the campaign on smoking initiation while other factors were controlled for. Youths scoring at intermediate and high levels on a media effect index were less likely to initiate smoking than youths who could not confirm awareness of television advertisements. Adjusted odds ratios between the media index and measures of initiation were similar within categories of age, sex, susceptibility, and whether a parent smoked. Exposure to the "truth" media campaign lowered the risk of youth smoking initiation. However, the analysis did not demonstrate that all such media programs will be effective.

  14. The Impact of Campaign Agendas on Perceptions of Issues in the 1980 Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Wenmouth, Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that voters need a frame or a point of reference for determining the campaign relevance of issues and that, therefore, framing is a crucial consideration in the media agenda-setting process. (FL)

  15. REACH Report to the Rockefeller Foundation. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett, Jack

    This document summarizes the activities of REACH, the Rural Education Alliance for Collaborative Humanities. REACH is an effort to strengthen rural education in South Carolina through writing and the study of local history and culture. Among REACH projects are the REACH School Programs, fostering student created research on the history and…

  16. Citizen Preparedness Campaign: Information Campaigns Increasing Citizen Preparedness to Support Creating a `Culture of Preparedness’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    objectives, and other aspects. For instance, in 1989, the MADD campaign targeted teenagers and youths trying to reduce underage drinking. In 1996...Partners for this portion of the campaign include NPR; country, rock, rap , alternative and Spanish stations; other talk radio shows; Ad Council...advertisements, play music , show a short film called First Look about what is going on in Hollywood and finally show commercials prior to the feature

  17. Social Media Campaign Effects: Moderating Role of Social Capital in an Anti-Smoking Campaign.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Van Stee, Stephanie K; Record, Rachael A

    2017-01-06

    This study examined the effects of an anti-smoking campaign that employs a crowdsourcing method with a social networking service. Drawing upon social capital scholarship and the expression effect research paradigm in eHealth systems, the study also investigated the roles of social trust and community life satisfaction in the social media campaign that has a specific geographical boundary. To that end, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. We randomly assigned 201 participants to two conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and expression" as a treatment group in which participants fully engaged in the campaign process by sharing their own campaign ideas with other participants. Findings revealed that social trust and community life satisfaction interacted with the treatment condition to positively affect persuasive intentions, but in distinct ways. Social trust moderated the effect of the message reception and interaction condition on participants' willingness to encourage community members to stop smoking. In contrast, community life satisfaction moderated the effect of the treatment condition on encouraging others to comply with the community's anti-smoking policy. These results provide theoretical and practical implications related to the roles of social capital in geographically defined social media campaigns.

  18. The National Diabetes, Influenza, and Pneumococcal Campaign: an evaluation of campaign relevancy, partnerships, and media relations.

    PubMed

    Jack, Leonard; Sokler, Lynn A; Squiers, Linda; Mitchell, Patricia

    2003-11-01

    The Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, collaborated with its 59 Diabetes Prevention and Control Programs (DPCPs) to implement in 1998-1999 the National Diabetes Influenza and Pneumococcal Campaign. Postcampaign evaluation examined DPCPs' perceptions of the relevancy of the campaign in reaching the target population (adults aged 25-64 years with diabetes), establishing successful partnerships, and engaging the media. Most DPCPs stated the campaign reached their target population. DPCPs most commonly partnered with existing networks such as public health organizations or government agencies and direct health care providers. A majority of DPCPs did not find partnerships with direct health care providers to be effective in this campaign, but public health organizations, peer review organizations, and coalitions were described as successful partners. States in which DPCPs conducted follow-up calls to television stations regarding the airing of public service announcements generally had more announcements aired than states in which such calls were not made. Postcampaign evaluation findings also indicate that DPCPs who attempted to engage nontraditional partners (e.g., media outlets) achieved greater campaign success than those who did not. Future campaign efforts will likely benefit from relationships established with nontraditional partners, such as retailers, media outlets, local pharmacies, and faith-based organizations.

  19. Lessons from Past Literacy Campaigns: A Critical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes literacy campaigns in developing countries since early postcolonial efforts. Sees the Experimental World Literacy Programme as a turning point, reflecting lessons learned from past failures. Identifies features of successful campaigns, including political will, resource mobilization, timing, decentralized implementation, realistic…

  20. An Expert Systems Approach for PR Campaigns Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Glen T.; Curtin, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an expert system (the artificial intelligence program "Publics") that helps users identify key publics for public relations campaigns. Examines advantages and problems encountered in its use in public relations campaigns classrooms. (SR)

  1. Lessons from Past Literacy Campaigns: A Critical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes literacy campaigns in developing countries since early postcolonial efforts. Sees the Experimental World Literacy Programme as a turning point, reflecting lessons learned from past failures. Identifies features of successful campaigns, including political will, resource mobilization, timing, decentralized implementation, realistic…

  2. A Smoking Cessation Campaign on Twitter: Understanding the Use of Twitter and Identifying Major Players in a Health Campaign.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Eun

    2016-05-01

    The current study examined the use of online social media for a health campaign. Collecting tweets (N = 1,790) about the recent smoking cessation campaign by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the current study investigated the dissemination of health campaign messages on Twitter and answered questions from the process evaluation of health campaigns: who tweeted about the campaign, who played central roles in disseminating health campaign messages, and how various features of Twitter were used for sharing of campaign messages. Results showed that individuals and nonprofit organizations posted frequently about the campaign: Individuals and nonprofit organizations posted about 40% and 30% of campaign-related tweets, respectively. Although the campaign under investigation was steered by a government agency, nonprofit organizations played a vital role as mediators who disseminated campaign messages. The culture of retweeting demonstrated its particular usefulness for the dissemination of campaign messages. Despite the expectation that the use of social media would expand opportunities for engagement, actual two-way interactions were few or minimal. Drawn from the results, practical suggestions on how to strategize the use of Twitter for future health campaigns are discussed.

  3. Estimating the sensitivity and specificity of Kato-Katz stool examination technique for detection of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in humans in the absence of a 'gold standard'.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, M R; Carabin, H; Joseph, L; Balolong, E; Olveda, R; McGarvey, S T

    2010-03-15

    The accuracy of the Kato-Katz technique in identifying individuals with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is limited by day-to-day variation in helminth egg excretion, confusion with other parasites and the laboratory technicians' experience. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the Kato-Katz technique to detect infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura using a Bayesian approach in the absence of a 'gold standard'. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study conducted between January 2004 and December 2005 in Samar Province, the Philippines. Each participant provided between one and three stool samples over consecutive days. Stool samples were examined using the Kato-Katz technique and reported as positive or negative for STHs. In the presence of measurement error, the true status of each individual is considered as latent data. Using a Bayesian method, we calculated marginal posterior densities of sensitivity and specificity parameters from the product of the likelihood function of observed and latent data. A uniform prior distribution was used (beta distribution: alpha=1, beta=1). A total of 5624 individuals provided at least one stool sample. One, two and three stool samples were provided by 1582, 1893 and 2149 individuals, respectively. All STHs showed variation in test results from day to day. Sensitivity estimates of the Kato-Katz technique for one stool sample were 96.9% (95% Bayesian Credible Interval [BCI]: 96.1%, 97.6%), 65.2% (60.0%, 69.8%) and 91.4% (90.5%, 92.3%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Specificity estimates for one stool sample were 96.1% (95.5%, 96.7%), 93.8% (92.4%, 95.4%) and 94.4% (93.2%, 95.5%), for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura, respectively. Our results show that the Kato-Katz technique can perform with reasonable accuracy with one day's stool collection for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Low sensitivity of the Kato-Katz for detection

  4. Architecting Space Exploration Campaigns: A Decision-Analytic Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Erin; Morse, Elisabeth L.; Gray, Andrew A.; Easter, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the benefits of Decision Analysis techniques for campaign design and evaluation. Important concepts of decision analysis are reviewed through the lens of designing a campaign to find exploitable equatorial water on Mars. The method developed herein is general to any search campaign. The paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities in applying similar techniques to other types of campaigns.

  5. Architecting Space Exploration Campaigns: A Decision-Analytic Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Erin; Morse, Elisabeth L.; Gray, Andrew A.; Easter, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the benefits of Decision Analysis techniques for campaign design and evaluation. Important concepts of decision analysis are reviewed through the lens of designing a campaign to find exploitable equatorial water on Mars. The method developed herein is general to any search campaign. The paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities in applying similar techniques to other types of campaigns.

  6. World Rabies Day campaign in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Medina, Danellie Joy O; Jayme, Sarah I; Amparo, Anna Charinna B; Cresencio, Rubina O; Lopez, Emelinda L; Baquilod, Mario S; Hernandez, Leda M; Villalon, Ernesto E S; Nel, Louis D

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal disease, claiming the lives of around 59,000 people annually worldwide. It is considered a neglected and underreported disease leading to inadequate support from governments. Apart from dog vaccination and proper animal bite management, an integral part of a successful rabies control program is community education. The Philippine government conducts an extensive nationwide annual World Rabies Day (WRD) celebration as part of its community education. Strong inter-sectoral collaboration at the national level is a key factor for the success of WRD, capitalizing on the partners' strengths to mobilize various sectors. Strategies include the National WRD Celebration and releasing national government memorandums. An invitation letter campaign was initiated, encouraging stakeholders to register their activities. Banners were given as an incentive for those who registered. Mass and social media were also utilized to promote WRD. Registered WRD events held in the Philippines rose from 10 events in 2012, to 37 events in 2013, to 66 events in 2014 and 76 events in 2015. The individual activities involved veterinary services and information, communication, and education (IEC) activities. Nine unique WRD IEC activities are highlighted in this paper. Promotion of WRD through social media was also utilized in recent years. More news items were published online than those printed in newspapers and aired on television. The campaign's success underlines the value of a national government-led program. The national rabies program sets the agenda for priority activities including the WRD campaign. Its capacity to allocate funds for the program also denotes stability which is beneficial for local program implementers. Different segments of society were tapped through various strategies. The campaign's flexibility allowed for a large range of activities and presented opportunities for expanding partnerships and integration with others interventions for its sustainability

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hookworm-Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans (HrCLM) in a Resource-Poor Community in Manaus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Felix; Pilger, Daniel; Schuster, Angela; Lesshafft, Hannah; Guedes de Oliveira, Silas; Ignatius, Ralf; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Background Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (HrCLM) is a neglected tropical skin disease associated with significant clinical pathology. Little knowledge exists about prevalence and risk factors of HrCLM in endemic regions. Methodology/ Principal Findings To understand the epidemiology of HrCLM in Amazonia, we conducted a cross-sectional study in a resource-poor township in Manaus, Brazil. HrCLM was diagnosed in 8.2% (95% CI, 6.3–10.1%) of the study population (N = 806) with a peak prevalence of 18.2% (95% CI, 9.3–27.1%) in children aged 10–14. Most of the tracks (62.4%) were located on the feet, and 10.6% were superinfected. HrCLM was associated independently with age under 15, male sex, presence of animal faeces on the compound, walking barefoot on sandy ground and poverty. Conclusions/ Significance HrCLM is common in resource-poor communities in Amazonia and is related to poverty. To reduce the disease burden caused by HrCLM, living conditions have to be improved. PMID:27010204

  8. Myeloid-Restricted AMPKα1 Promotes Host Immunity and Protects against IL-12/23p40-Dependent Lung Injury during Hookworm Infection.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Wildaliz; Hung, Li-Yin; Oniskey, Taylor K; Boon, Louis; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Herbert, De'Broski R

    2016-06-01

    How the metabolic demand of parasitism affects immune-mediated resistance is poorly understood. Immunity against parasitic helminths requires M2 cells and IL-13, secreted by CD4(+) Th2 and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), but whether certain metabolic enzymes control disease outcome has not been addressed. This study demonstrates that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key driver of cellular energy, regulates type 2 immunity and restricts lung injury following hookworm infection. Mice with a selective deficiency in the AMPK catalytic α1 subunit in alveolar macrophages and conventional dendritic cells produced less IL-13 and CCL17 and had impaired expansion of ILC2 in damaged lung tissue compared with wild-type controls. Defective type 2 responses were marked by increased intestinal worm burdens, exacerbated lung injury, and increased production of IL-12/23p40, which, when neutralized, restored IL-13 production and improved lung recovery. Taken together, these data indicate that defective AMPK activity in myeloid cells negatively impacts type 2 responses through increased IL-12/23p40 production. These data support an emerging concept that myeloid cells and ILC2 can coordinately regulate tissue damage at mucosal sites through mechanisms dependent on metabolic enzyme function.

  9. Insights into the Membrane Interactions of the Saposin-Like Proteins Na-SLP-1 and Ac-SLP-1 from Human and Dog Hookworm

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Charlene; Wang, Conan K.; Osman, Asiah; Simon, Anne; Pickering, Darren; Mulvenna, Jason; Riboldi-Tunicliffe, Alan; Jones, Malcolm K.; Loukas, Alex; Hofmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Saposin-like proteins (SAPLIPs) from soil-transmitted helminths play pivotal roles in host-pathogen interactions and have a high potential as targets for vaccination against parasitic diseases. We have identified two non-orthologous SAPLIPs from human and dog hookworm, Na-SLP-1 and Ac-SLP-1, and solved their three-dimensional crystal structures. Both proteins share the property of membrane binding as monitored by liposome co-pelleting assays and monolayer adsorption. Neither SAPLIP displayed any significant haemolytic or bactericidal activity. Based on the structural information, as well as the results from monolayer adsorption, we propose models of membrane interactions for both SAPLIPs. Initial membrane contact of the monomeric Na-SLP-1 is most likely by electrostatic interactions between the membrane surface and a prominent basic surface patch. In case of the dimeric Ac-SLP-1, membrane interactions are most likely initiated by a unique tryptophan residue that has previously been implicated in membrane interactions in other SAPLIPs. PMID:21991310

  10. 29 CFR 452.69 - Expenses of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expenses of campaign literature. 452.69 Section 452.69... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.69 Expenses of campaign literature. Each... is no requirement that the union distribute the literature of the candidate free of charge. In...

  11. 26 CFR 701.9006-1 - Presidential Election Campaign Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... been transferred to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund under § 701.9006-1(a). (e) Limit on... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presidential Election Campaign Fund. 701.9006-1...) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND § 701.9006-1 Presidential Election...

  12. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  13. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  14. Marketing Social Service Programs Using Political Campaign Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how human services agencies can use strategies and information technologies similar to those used in political campaigns to identify needs and attitudes for social services campaigns. Marketing for social services programs is described, and the use of computers for a political campaign and for a teenage pregnancy program is compared.…

  15. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Raja Ariffin, Raja Noriza; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Chong, Chin-Sieng

    2014-07-01

    Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ' preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents' willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia.

  16. Campaigning for Children's Oral Health: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Arguably, the ultimate application of evidenced-based communications is translating the research recommendations into a full-fledged media campaign. This article explains the development and implementation of Watch Your Mouth, a campaign based on FrameWorks Institute's research on children's oral health. To date, this innovative campaign has been…

  17. Campaigning for Children's Oral Health: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Arguably, the ultimate application of evidenced-based communications is translating the research recommendations into a full-fledged media campaign. This article explains the development and implementation of Watch Your Mouth, a campaign based on FrameWorks Institute's research on children's oral health. To date, this innovative campaign has been…

  18. The Successful Capital Campaign: From Planning to Victory Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigg, H. Gerald, Ed.

    A collection of 22 chapters on capital campaigns is presented to provide: resource for both veterans and newcomers; technical information for fund-raising professionals and key volunteers; and a record of all aspects of current thinking on the capital campaign. Chapter titles and authors are as follows: "What Is a Capital Campaign in Today's…

  19. 29 CFR 452.69 - Expenses of campaign literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expenses of campaign literature. 452.69 Section 452.69... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.69 Expenses of campaign literature. Each... is no requirement that the union distribute the literature of the candidate free of charge. In the...

  20. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members

    PubMed Central

    TUMIN, Makmor; RAJA ARIFFIN, Raja Noriza; MOHD SATAR, NurulHuda; NG, Kok-Peng; LIM, Soo-Kun; CHONG, Chin-Sieng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ’ preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents’ willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Results Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Conclusion Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia. PMID:25909060

  1. C-SPAN in the Classroom: Campaign 2000 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    C-SPAN, Washington, DC.

    These C-SPAN lesson plans focus on U.S. presidential campaign 2000 topics. The broad divisions for the 11 lesson plans are: (1) "Roles of the Media--Spin"; (2) "Roles of the Media--Polls"; (3) "Fundraising: Early Money"; (4) "Campaign Advertising: Language of Advertising"; (5) "Campaign Advertising:…

  2. Oxfordshire Reading Campaign Final Evaluation Report: September 2012-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, S.; Galle, A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, Oxfordshire County Council commissioned the National Literacy Trust to deliver a two-year campaign, the Oxfordshire Reading Campaign, to address falling Key Stage 1 literacy levels in the county's primary schools, which were amongst the worst in the country. The aims of the campaign were to increase the proportion of children reaching the…

  3. The Successful Capital Campaign: From Planning to Victory Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigg, H. Gerald, Ed.

    A collection of 22 chapters on capital campaigns is presented to provide: resource for both veterans and newcomers; technical information for fund-raising professionals and key volunteers; and a record of all aspects of current thinking on the capital campaign. Chapter titles and authors are as follows: "What Is a Capital Campaign in Today's…

  4. Dose confirmation and non-interference evaluations of the oral efficacy of a combination of milbemycin oxime and spinosad against the dose limiting parasites, adult cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), in dogs.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Wiseman, Scott

    2012-03-23

    Two separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose and non-interference of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered orally in combination or alone to dogs for the treatment and control of experimentally induced flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis) and adult hookworm infections (Ancylostoma caninum). For each study, dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment adult flea and hookworm egg counts to one of four treatment groups of 10 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient, or individually alone using the full dose range, were given orally to dogs on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A placebo control was treated similarly. In one study, on Days -1, 5, 12, 19, 28 and 35 each dog was infested with approximately 100 unfed adult C. felis obtained from the investigator's established flea colony. All dogs were infested via the same method. Forty-eight hour post-infestation flea comb counts were conducted on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 37 and were used to determine the knockdown and residual flea activity. In the second study, on Day -27 each of 48 dogs were experimentally inoculated with 100 third-stage infective larvae of the hookworm, A. caninum. Dogs were treated on Day 0 and necropsied on Day 7 or Day 8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract were collected on Day 7 or Day 8, identified and counted by species and stage. Post-treatment, the geometric mean live flea counts were significantly different (p-value<0.0001) between the spinosad/MO combination and the spinosad only treatment groups as compared to the vehicle control group. The flea counts in the MO only group and the control group were not statistically different. The spinosad and MO combination group and the spinosad only treatment group demonstrated significantly different knockdown (100

  5. Are "drink responsibly" alcohol campaigns strategically ambiguous?

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandi W; Atkin, Charles K; Roznowski, JoAnn

    2006-01-01

    This article applies the concept of strategic ambiguity in examining viewer responses to brewer-sponsored "responsible drinking" television advertising campaigns. Strategically ambiguous messages are designed to engender diverse interpretations between varied audience segments, and these different selective perceptions should translate into relatively uniform positive corporate images. In this study, teenage and young adult respondents were shown a series of television spots from two leading alcohol companies. As predicted, there was a high degree of diversity in meanings of message content and campaign purpose derived by viewers, particularly among less sophisticated teenagers. Moreover, evaluative ratings of messages and sponsors were generally favorable and more uniform than interpretive responses. The research demonstrates how seemingly prohealth messages can serve to subtly advance both industry sales and public relations interests.

  6. Abortion returns to haunt US presidential campaign.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, D S

    2000-04-01

    The abortion issue has infested national politics since 1973, now it returns to haunt the US presidential election politics. However, rather than serving as a customary rallying cause for Republicans, it is now a millstone around the neck of their candidate, Governor George Bush, who seeks a broad ideological span of voters to win his candidacy. Bush expressed strong anti-abortion sentiments to attract the die-hard right-to-life vote in the hard-fought primary campaign. For many years, the anti-abortion language in the US remains strident, however, it is clear that most voters support, or at least tolerate, the availability of abortion services. In his presidential campaign, Bush shied away from endorsing a constitutional amendment to ban abortion, and declared his opposition to any exceptions to an abortion ban. He is now on the record with numerous anti-abortion declarations, and holds endorsements from the pro-life camp.

  7. Ozone measurements from the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, D.; Waters, J.; Zimmermann, P.; Jarnot, R.; Hardy, J.; Pickett, H.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC), conducted during fall, 1982 (BIC-1) and summer, 1983 (BIC-2), are reported. Results of five remote and two in situ techniques agree (with a few exceptions) within 95-percent confidence level uncertainties and generally within 15 percent above 20 km. Weighted mean profiles, which best represent conditions during the campaign, are used as a comparison standard. Accuracies of experiments indicated by BIC generally confirm estimated uncertainties for ECC sondes, UV photometry, and microwave emission experiments, are somewhat better for far-IR emission and IR absorption experiments, and are somewhat worse for IR emission and solar UV absorption experiments. The large collection of BIC measurements confirms a problem reported earlier with current theoretical modeling of ozone near 40 km.

  8. Developing a Theory for Dynamic Campaign Planning,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-26

    historical campaigns. THE PURSUIT OF WISDOM AND ART Hermann Hesse . in his novel Siddhartha . develops a situation analogous to the search for a...and that doctrine specifying both the process and product needs to be codified. 3. Hermann Hesse , Siddhartha , New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1974, p. 142...Naval Institute, 1985. Heisenberg, Werner. Philosophic Problems in Nuclear Science. New York: Pantheon Books, Inc, 1952. Hesse , Hermann. Siddhartha . New

  9. Stratospheric ozone intercomparison campaign (STOIC) 1989: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Margitan, J.J.; McDermid, I.S.; Walsh, T.D.

    1995-05-20

    The NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Program organized a Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) held in July-August 1989 at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The primary instruments participating in this campaign were several that had been developed by NASA for the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change: the JPL ozone lidar at TMF, the Goddard Space Flight Center trailer-mounted ozone lidar which was moved to TMF for this comparison, and the Millitech/LaRC microwave radiometer. To assess the performance of these new instruments, a validation/intercomparison campaign was undertaken using established techniques: balloon ozonesondes launched by personnel from the Wallops Flight Facility and from NOAA Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC) (now Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory), a NOAA GMCC Dobson spectrophotometer, and a Brewer spectrometer from the Atmospheric Environment Service of Canada, both being used for column as well as Umkehr profile retrievals. All of these instruments were located at TMF and measurements were made as close together in time as possible to minimize atmospheric variability as a factor in the comparisons. Daytime rocket measurements of ozone were made by Wallops Flight Facility personnel using ROCOZ-A instruments launched from San Nicholas Island. The entire campaign was conducted as a blind intercomparison, with the investigators not seeing each others data until all data had been submitted to a referee and archived at the end of the 2-week period (July 20 to August 2, 1989). Satellite data were also obtained from the Stratospheric aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite and the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) aboard Nimbus 7. An examination of the data has found excellent agreement among the techniques, especially in the 20- to 40-km range. 37 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Campaign to kick polio out of Africa.

    PubMed

    Letore, D

    1998-12-01

    This article discusses the goal of eradicating poliomyelitis (polio) in Africa by the year 2000. Polio is a crippling disease that paralyzes hundreds of thousands of children yearly. Polio was endemic in Africa during the 1970s. Today, polio is confined to sub-Saharan Africa and, specifically, to the Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Somalia, and the Sudan. Considerable progress is evident. Full eradication is necessary because of the ease with which the virus is transmitted. The World Health Organization (WHO) set the goal of eradication by the year 2000 at a 1988 assembly meeting. The Plan of Action for a Global Polio Eradication Initiative was approved in 1989. The WHO Regional Committee for Africa adopted the resolution and urged again in 1995 for vigorous implementation. The Organization of African Unity endorsed the initiative in 1996. South African President Mandela led a region-wide mobilization campaign to increase public awareness of the initiative. Since 1997, leading players from the African Football Confederation have participated in awareness campaigns by spreading the message through a variety of channels. The initiative includes routine immunization complemented by the National Immunization Days (NIDs), training at the local level, surveillance, and door-to-door campaigns. The initiative must assure functioning systems of cold storage of vaccines and must continue to educate communities about the importance of routine immunization. There must be a strong laboratory network for isolating the 3 types of the virus. NIDs will be scheduled for 1999 in countries with civil conflict. The polio model is useful for other disease eradication campaigns.

  11. Glasnost and Perestroika: Campaign or Deception?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-27

    Report -Soviet Union, September 12, 1988, p. 46. 46. David Remnick , "Ukrainian Nationalism Stirring Anew in Colony," Washington Post, January 29, 1989, p...AND PERESTROIKA: CAMPAIGN OR DECEPTION? AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT INTENDED FOR PUBLICATION by Colonel Edward P. McCarthy Colonel David T. Twining...asking what the West was going to give up. On the December 11, 1988, "This Week with David Brinkley," General Galvin, Supreme Allied Commander Europe

  12. Joint Operations and the Vicksburg Campaign

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-04

    His fresh-water sailors were busy shifting chains , lumber, bags of coal, and other materials to defend against plunging shot from the high fort...times out of ten during the Vicksburg campaign the waterborne supplies reached the front lines in time. The failure in the joint logistics system...maneuver warfare techniques, ;nd joint logistics would keep them alive and sustained for future fighting. These challenges, and how the Union leadership

  13. Campaigns and counter campaigns: reactions on Twitter to e-cigarette education.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Escobedo, Patricia; Chu, Kar-Hai; Soto, Daniel W; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-03-01

    Social media present opportunities for public health departments to galvanise interest in health issues. A challenge is creating content that will resonate with target audiences, and determining reactions to educational material. Twitter can be used as a real-time surveillance system to capture individuals' immediate reactions to education campaigns and such information could lead to better campaigns in the future. A case study testing Twitter's potential presented itself when the California Department of Public Health launched its 'Still Blowing Smoke' media campaign about the potential harmful effects of e-cigarettes. Pro-e-cigarette advocacy groups, in response, launched a counter campaign titled 'Not Blowing Smoke'. This study tracked the popularity of the two campaigns on Twitter, analysed the content of the messages and determined who was involved in these discussions. The study period was from 22 March 2015 to 27 June 2015. A stratified sampling procedure supplied 2192 tweets for analysis. Content analysis identified pro, anti and neutral e-cigarette tweets, and five additional themes: Marketing Elements, Money, Regulation/propaganda, Health, and Other. Metadata were analysed to obtain additional information about Twitter accounts. 'Not Blowing Smoke' was referenced more frequently than 'Still Blowing Smoke' on Twitter. Messages commonly objected to government regulation of e-cigarettes, refuted claims that e-cigarette manufactures were aligned with big tobacco, and touted the health benefits of e-cigarette use. E-cigarette companies and vape shops used campaign slogans to communicate with customers on Twitter. Findings showed the time dynamics of Twitter and the possibility for real-time monitoring of education campaigns. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Coordinated Science Campaign Scheduling for Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgington, Will; Morris, Robert; Dungan, Jennifer; Williams, Jenny; Carlson, Jean; Fleming, Damian; Wood, Terri; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Future Earth observing missions will study different aspects and interacting pieces of the Earth's eco-system. Scientists are designing increasingly complex, interdisciplinary campaigns to exploit the diverse capabilities of multiple Earth sensing assets. In addition, spacecraft platforms are being configured into clusters, trains, or other distributed organizations in order to improve either the quality or the coverage of observations. These simultaneous advances in the design of science campaigns and in the missions that will provide the sensing resources to support them offer new challenges in the coordination of data and operations that are not addressed by current practice. For example, the scheduling of scientific observations for satellites in low Earth orbit is currently conducted independently by each mission operations center. An absence of an information infrastructure to enable the scheduling of coordinated observations involving multiple sensors makes it difficult to execute campaigns involving multiple assets. This paper proposes a software architecture and describes a prototype system called DESOPS (Distributed Earth Science Observation Planning and Scheduling) that will address this deficiency.

  15. Overview of Spirit's Mars Winter Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R.

    2006-12-01

    On sol 805 (April 2006) the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit reached its Low Ridge winter campaign site within Gusev Crater's Columbia Hills. The site, with its 11.5 degree tilt to the north, was chosen to maximize the probability that the rover would receive enough solar energy to be able to continue operations through the martian winter (southern winter solstice occurred in August 2006) and be able to drive away to explore additional terrains during the ensuing spring. Winter campaign experiments were designed to monitor atmospheric and surface (i.e., aeolian) dynamics and to survey the surrounding rocks and soils using the Pancam multispectral (0.44 to 1 micrometer) and Mini-TES hyperspectral (5 to 29 micrometers) capabilities. This included the collection of a Pancam 360 degree 13 filter McMurdo Panorama of the surface and rover deck over a period of several months. Further, a number of long-duration observations were conducted using the Alpha Particle X-Ray and Moessbauer Spectrometers on rock and soil targets within the work volume of the Instrument Deployment Device. Operations associated with the campaign will be updated during the presentation, and selected scientific highlights will be summarized and placed in an overall context for understanding the evolution of Mars and the role of water.

  16. Feasibility study of the AOSTA experimental campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carta, M.; Blaise, P.; Bethaz, C.; Boccia, F.; Fabrizio, V.; Geslot, B.; Grossi, A.; Gruel, A.

    2016-03-01

    The reduction of the nuclear waste is one of the most important nuclear issues. The high radiotoxicity of the spent fuel is due to plutonium and some minor actinides (MAs) such as neptunium, americium and curium, above all. One way to reduce their hazard is to destroy by fission MAs in appropriate nuclear reactors. To allow the MAs destruction an important effort have been done on the nuclear data due to the poor knowledge in this field. In the framework of one of the NEA Expert Group on Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management an analysis of the feasibility of MAs irradiation campaign in the TAPIRO fast research reactor is carried out. This paper provides preliminary results obtained by calculations modelling the irradiation, in different TAPIRO irradiation channels, of some CEA samples coming from the French experimental campaign OSMOSE, loaded with different contents of MAs, in order to access, through particular peak spectrometry, to their capture cross section. On the basis of neutron transport calculation results, obtained by both deterministic and Monte Carlo methods, an estimate of the irradiated samples counting levels from the AOSTA (Activation of OSMOSE Samples in TAPIRO) experimental campaign is provided.

  17. A national campaign to finance supported employment.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael F; Drake, Robert E; Goldman, Howard H

    2014-06-01

    Medicaid is now the main payment source and financing mechanism for services for adults with serious mental illness. Services formerly paid with state mental health funds have been converted to Medicaid, lightening the burden on state budgets affected by recession and other factors. The change has allowed states to maintain community care and inpatient services (in general hospitals). Medicaid service benefits include clinic and inpatient care, case management, and some rehabilitation services. But using Medicaid to finance some high-priority services such as supported employment has proven difficult. Now critical changes in Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act allow states to amend their Medicaid State Plans to provide more flexible services to people with serious mental illness. Advocacy and support may be needed to encourage this step. A national campaign to finance supported employment would join various stakeholders in the field, including professional organizations, family and service user groups, and organizations representing service providers. The authors of this editorial pledge their energies to support this campaign. They present suggestions for a campaign, including building a coalition, goals and targets, and online resources.

  18. FPA targets parents in radio campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    A brief description was provided of a media campaign targeted at adolescents pregnancy and support for parents in England. The campaign, sponsored by the Family Planning Association (FPA) and the Department of Health, included 2 radio spots reminding parents to discuss sex and contraception with their children. Teenage pregnancy amounts to 70,000 births a year, which is one the highest rates in Europe. The pilot campaign was aired March 2-22, 1994, and offered the free FPA booklet "Answering Your Child's Questions." The normal cost is about 1.5 pounds and is available from Healthwise, the FPA mail order services. About 200 calls per day requested the booklet. The national goal is to decrease teenage pregnancy by 50% by the year 2000. The rates need to decline by 8% a year for the next 6 years. The 1991 rate was 9.3 per 1000. The pilot media coverage included northwest England and Greater London areas. The spots were developed by the Alliance Advertising for the Classic FM charity awards, won by FPA. Other FPA booklets available to help parents educate their children about sexuality and family planning included: "How Your Body Changes" for 8-10 year olds, and "Sexuality" for teenagers. Workshops for parents have been available in Wales and will be throughout United Kingdom in the spring of 1994. Other projects include professional training for working with parents and teenagers, and a conference on parents and sexuality education.

  19. Q-Thruster Breadboard Campaign Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Dr. Harold "Sonny" White has developed the physics theory basis for utilizing the quantum vacuum to produce thrust. The engineering implementation of the theory is known as Q-thrusters. During FY13, three test campaigns were conducted that conclusively demonstrated tangible evidence of Q-thruster physics with measurable thrust bringing the TRL up from TRL 2 to early TRL 3. This project will continue with the development of the technology to a breadboard level by leveraging the most recent NASA/industry test hardware. This project will replace the manual tuning process used in the 2013 test campaign with an automated Radio Frequency (RF) Phase Lock Loop system (precursor to flight-like implementation), and will redesign the signal ports to minimize RF leakage (improves efficiency). This project will build on the 2013 test campaign using the above improvements on the test implementation to get ready for subsequent Independent Verification and Validation testing at Glenn Research Center (GRC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in FY 2015. Q-thruster technology has a much higher thrust to power than current forms of electric propulsion (7x Hall thrusters), and can significantly reduce the total power required for either Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) or Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Also, due to the high thrust and high specific impulse, Q-thruster technology will greatly relax the specific mass requirements for in-space nuclear reactor systems. Q-thrusters can reduce transit times for a power-constrained architecture.

  20. SPARTAN Sprite-Watch 2007 Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odzimek, A.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Kanawade, V.; Cnossen, I.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Faedi, F.; Del Moro, A.; Ural, U.; Byckling, K.; Krzaczkowski, P.; Iwański, R.; Struzik, P.; Pajek, M.; Gajda, W.

    2008-12-01

    Nine PhD students and SPARTAN (Centre of Excellence for Space, Planetary and Astrophysics Research Training and Networking) fellows implemented and participated in the SPARTAN Sprite-Watch 2007 campaign to observe Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) and contribute to the EuroSprite 2007 observation campaign. One SPARTAN Sprite-Watch team installed an observation system at the IMWM High-Mountain Meteorological Observatory at Mount Śnieżka to run the first optical observations of TLEs from Poland during two weeks in July 2007. A second team made observations during four weeks in July/August 2007 in Leicester, UK, using two remotely controlled Danish systems installed at Pic du Midi de Bigorre and Monte Corona in France. The observations made at Śnieżka resulted in the first video recordings of red sprite phenomena from Poland on the night 20/21 July 2007. The SPARTAN Sprite-Watch teams have been supported by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management who provided continuous information on the meteorological conditions over Poland and Europe and hosted the Polish campaign at Śnieżka.

  1. Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) 1989: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margitan, J. J.; Barnes, R. A.; Brothers, G. B.; Butler, J.; Burris, J.; Connor, B. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Kerr, J. B.; Komhyr, W. D.; McCormick, M. P.; McDermid, I. S.; McElroy, C. T.; McGee, T. J.; Miller, A. J.; Owens, M.; Parrish, A. D.; Parsons, C. L.; Torres, A. L.; Tsou, J. J.; Walsh, T. D.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Program organized a Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) held in July-August 1989 at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The primary instruments participating in this campaign were several that had been developed by NASA for the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change: the JPL ozone lidar at TMF, the Goddard Space Flight Center trailer-mounted ozone lidar which was moved to TMF for this comparison, and the Millitech/LaRC microwave radiometer. To assess the performance of these new instruments, a validation/intercomparison campaign was undertaken using established techniques: balloon ozonesondes launched by personnel from the Wallops Flight Facility and from NOAA Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC) (now Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory), a NOAA GMCC Dobson spectrophotometer, and a Brewer spectrometer from the Atmospheric Environment Service of Canada, both being used for column as well as Umkehr profile retrievals. All of these instruments were located at TMF and measurements were made as close together in time as possible to minimize atmospheric variability as a factor in the comparisons. Daytime rocket measurements of ozone were made by Wallops Flight Facility personnel using ROCOZ-A instruments launched from San Nicholas Island. The entire campaign was conducted as a blind intercomparison, with the investigators not seeing each others data until all data had been submitted to a referee and archived at the end of the 2-week period (July 20 to August 2, 1989). Satellite data were also obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE 2) aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard Nimbus 7. An examination of the data has found excellent agreement among the techniques, especially in the 20- to 40-km range. As expected, there was little atmospheric variability during the

  2. Sequence conservation in the Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) from hookworm infected individuals in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ungcharoensuk, Charoenchai; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Pattanawong, Urassaya; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2012-12-01

    The Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 of Necator americanus (Na-ASP-2) was one of the promising vaccine candidates against the most prevalent human hookworm species as adverse vaccine reaction has compromised further human vaccine trials. To elucidate the gene structure and the extent of sequence diversity, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the Na-asp-2 gene of individual larvae from 32 infected subjects living in 3 different endemic areas of Thailand. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene encoding Na-ASP-2 comprised 8 exons. Of 3 nucleotide substitutions in these exons, only one causes an amino acid change from leucine to methionine. A consensus conserved GT and AG at the 5' and the 3' boundaries of each intron was observed akin to those found in other eukaryotic genes. Introns of Na-asp-2 contained 23 nucleotide substitutions and 0-18 indels. The mean number of nucleotide substitutions per site (d) in introns was not significantly different from the mean number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (d(S)) in exons whereas d in introns was significantly exceeded d(N) (the mean number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site) in exons (p<0.05), suggesting that introns and synonymous sites in exons may evolve at a similar rate whereas functional constraints at the amino acid could limit amino acid substitutions in Na-ASP-2. A recombination site was identified in an intron near the 3' portion of the gene. The positions of introns and the intron phases in the Na-asp-2 gene comparing with those in other pathogenesis-related-1 proteins of Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Heterodera glycines, Caenorhabditis elegans and human were relatively conserved, suggesting evolutionary conservation of these genes. Sequence conservation in Na-ASP-2 may not compromise further vaccine design if adverse vaccine effects could be resolved whereas microheterogeneity in introns of this locus may be useful for population genetics analysis of N. americanus.

  3. Social marketing campaigns and children's media use.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the sale of products. Increasingly savvy social marketers have begun to make extensive use of the same techniques and strategies used by commercial marketers to promote healthful behaviors and to counter some of the negative effects of conventional media marketing to children and adolescents. Evans points out that social marketing campaigns have been effective in helping to prevent and control tobacco use, increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and promote condom use, as well as other positive health behaviors. He reviews the evidence from a number of major recent campaigns and programming in the United States and overseas and describes the evaluation and research methods used to determine their effectiveness. He begins his review of the field of social marketing by describing how it uses many of the strategies practiced so successfully in commercial marketing. He notes the recent development of public health brands and the use of branding as a health promotion strategy. He then goes on to show how social marketing can promote healthful behavior, how it can counter media messages about unhealthful behavior, and how it can encourage discussions between parents and children. Evans concludes by noting some potential future applications to promote healthful media use by children and adolescents and to mitigate the effects of exposure to commercial marketing. These include adapting lessons learned from previous successful campaigns, such as delivering branded messages that promote healthful alternative behaviors. Evans also outlines a message strategy to promote "smart media use" to parents, children, and adolescents and

  4. First Results from Venus Express Aerobraking Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Håkan

    After a very successful mission orbiting Venus for more than 8 years, slowly the fuel is running out and the spacecraft will inevitably end up in the hot and acid atmosphere of the planet. Before this will happen we are taking the opportunity to dip down to around 130 km in a controlled manner in order to make detailed in situ investigations of this for remote sensing instruments difficult to access region. The spacecraft will use an aerobraking technique which maximizes the atmospheric drag by placing the solar panels perpendicular to the flight direction and will benefit from the inherent dynamically stable configuration this will provide. The on board accelerometers will give a direct measurement of the deceleration which in turn is directly proportional to the local atmospheric density. This will provide an excellent way to study both the total density profile and small scale density variations in the region of the pericentre. At the time of this campaign the pericentre will be located near the terminator at about 75 degrees Northern latitude. Aerobraking is a very efficient method of reducing the pericentre velocity and thereby reducing the apocentre altitude and the orbital period. Using this technique missions otherwise not feasible due to mass and fuel constraints can be enabled. This will be the first time an ESA spacecraft will be used for aerobraking and therefore it is run on an experimental basis as only limited resources are available. The so called “walk-in” phase will start at 190 km altitude on 17 May and the campaign ends on 11 July. Depending on the atmospheric densities encountered the orbital period may be reduced with up to 30 minutes. This presentation will report on the initial findings from this aerobraking campaign.

  5. Advanced Fuels Campaign Cladding & Coatings Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-03-01

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) organized a Cladding and Coatings operational meeting February 12-13, 2013, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, industry, and universities attended the two-day meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss advanced cladding and cladding coating research and development (R&D); review experimental testing capabilities for assessing accident tolerant fuels; and review industry/university plans and experience in light water reactor (LWR) cladding and coating R&D.

  6. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori Ann; Carmack, William Jonathan

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  7. Benjamin Rush's educational campaign against hard drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Katcher, B S

    1993-01-01

    More than 200 years ago, during a period of unprecedented production and consumption of distilled alcoholic beverages in the United States, Benjamin Rush launched a health education campaign that warned the public about the hazards of such beverages. He corrected erroneous notions about their presumed beneficial effects and accurately described more than a dozen alcohol-related health problems. Although the temperance movement has had a tumultuous history in the United States, the origin and long-standing tradition of temperance as a health promotion activity needs to be recognized. Images p274-a p275-a p278-a p279-a PMID:8427341

  8. Ozone intercomparisons from the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, D.; Evans, W.; Louisnard, N.; Pollitt, S.; Traub, W.; Waters, J.

    1985-01-01

    Intercomparisons of remote and in-situ techniques used to measure stratospheric ozone are made using results obtained on the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign of 1982 and 1983. Two in-situ and four remote instruments participated. These included ECC ozonesondes, a UV absorption photometer, and microwave emission, IR emission, and absorption spectrometers. Differences are generally less than 15 percent, and are within the quoted error bars. Flights which involved different sets of instruments were made on four separate days, and results are intercompared in plots of ozone density versus altitude. A careful assessment of errors was made for each instrument, and a plot of absolute errors versus altitude is given.

  9. Real-time PCR for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in human stool samples from Côte d'Ivoire: diagnostic accuracy, inter-laboratory comparison and patterns of hookworm co-infection.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sören L; Piraisoody, Nivetha; Kramme, Stefanie; Marti, Hanspeter; Silué, Kigbafori D; Panning, Marcus; Nickel, Beatrice; Kern, Winfried V; Herrmann, Mathias; Hatz, Christoph F; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; von Müller, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Human infections with the helminth species Strongyloides stercoralis encompass a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of S. stercoralis is cumbersome and the sensitivity of conventional stool microscopy is low. New molecular tools have been developed to increase sensitivity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR with microscopy for the detection of S. stercoralis and hookworm in human stool samples, and investigated the inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific real-time PCR in two European laboratories. Stool specimens from 256 randomly selected individuals in rural Côte d'Ivoire were examined using three microscopic techniques (i.e. Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate (KAP) and Baermann (BM)). Additionally, ethanol-fixed stool aliquots were subjected to molecular diagnosis. The prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 21.9% and 52.0%, respectively, whilst co-infections were detected in 35 (13.7%) participants. The diagnostic agreement between real-time PCR and microscopy was excellent when both KAP and BM tested positive for S. stercoralis, but was considerably lower when only one microscopic technique was positive. The sensitivity of KAP, BM and real-time PCR for detection of S. stercoralis as compared to a combination of all diagnostic techniques was 21.4%, 37.5% and 76.8%, respectively. The inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific PCR was substantial (κ=0.63, p<0.001). We conclude that a combination of real-time PCR and stool microscopy shows high accuracy for S. stercoralis diagnosis. Besides high sensitivity, PCR may also enhance specificity by reducing microscopic misdiagnosis of morphologically similar helminth larvae (i.e. hookworm and S. stercoralis) in settings where both helminth species co-exist.

  10. Comparison of Kato-Katz, ethyl-acetate sedimentation, and Midi Parasep® in the diagnosis of hookworm, Ascaris and Trichuris infections in the context of an evaluation of rural sanitation in India.

    PubMed

    Funk, Anna L; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2013-06-01

    The Kato-Katz, conventional ethyl-acetate sedimentation, and Midi Parasep(®) methods for diagnosing infection with soil-transmitted helminths were compared. The Kato-Katz technique gave the best overall diagnostic performance with the highest results in all measures (prevalence, faecal egg count, sensitivity) followed by the conventional ethyl-acetate and then the Midi Parasep(®) technique. The Kato-Katz technique showed a significantly higher faecal egg count and sensitivity for both hookworm and Trichuris as compared to the Midi Parasep(®) technique. The conventional ethyl-acetate technique produced smaller pellets and showed lower pellet mobility as compared to the Midi Parasep(®).

  11. 11 CFR 106.3 - Allocation of expenses between campaign and non-campaign related travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reported. (b)(1) Travel expenses paid for by a candidate from personal funds, or from a source other than a... for campaign purposes are reportable, and are calculated on the actual cost-per-mile of the means of...) Costs incurred by a candidate for the United States Senate or House of Representatives for travel...

  12. Kauai Test Facility two experiment rocket campaign. [Kauai Test Facility; Two Experiment Rocket Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Kauai Test Facility (KTF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility located at Barking Sands, on the west coast of the island of Kauai, Hawaii. The KTF has a rocket preparation and launching capability for both rail-launched and vertical-launched capability for both rail-launched and vertical-launched rockets. Launches primarily support high altitude scientific research and re-entry vehicle systems and carry experimental non-nuclear payloads. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared for the Two Experiment Rocket Campaign, during which the STRYPI/LACE (STRYPI is not an acronym -- its the name of the rocket; LACE is the acronym for Low Altitude Compensation Experiment) and the RAP-501 (Rocket Accelerated Penetration) will be flown in conjunction from the KTF in February 1991 to reduce costs. There have been numerous rocket campaigns at the KTF in prior years that have used the same motors to be used in the current two experiment rocket campaign. The main difference noted in this environmental documentation is that the two rockets have not previously been flown in conjunction. Previous National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) approvals of launches using these motors were limited to different and separate campaigns with diverse sources of funding. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Talking About Antismoking Campaigns: What Do Smokers Talk About, and How Does Talk Influence Campaign Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Wakefield, Melanie A; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Campaign-stimulated conversations have been shown to increase the effectiveness of antismoking campaigns. In order to explore why such effects occur, in the current study we coded the content of naturally occurring conversations. We also examined whether the short-term effects of talking, and of different types of talk, on quitting intentions were mediated through intrapersonal message responses. Using the Natural Exposure(SM) methodology, we exposed 411 smokers to 1 of 6 antismoking advertisements while they were watching television at home. Responses to the advertisement-conversation participation and content, emotional responses, personalized perceived effectiveness, and changes in intentions to quit-were measured within 3 days of exposure. Conversations were coded for appraisal of the advertisement (favorable, neutral, or unfavorable) and the presence of quitting talk and emotion talk. Mediation analyses indicated that the positive effects of talking on intention change were mediated through personalized perceived effectiveness and that the positive effects were driven by conversations that contained a favorable appraisal and/or quitting talk. Conversely, conversations that contained an unfavorable appraisal of the advertisement were negatively associated with campaign effectiveness. These findings highlight the importance of measuring interpersonal communication when evaluating campaigns and the need for further research to identify the message characteristics that predict when smokers talk and when they talk only in desirable ways.

  14. Transmutation Fuel Campaign Description and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    This report contains a technical summary package in response to a Level 2 milestone in the transmutation fuel campaign (TFC) management work-package calling for input to the Secretarial decision. At present, the form of the Secretarial decision package is not fully defined, and it is not clear exactly what will be required from the TFC as a final input. However, it is anticipated that a series oftechnical and programmatic documents will need to be provided in support of a wider encompassing document on GNEP technology development activities. The TFC technical leadership team provides this report as initial input to the secretarial decision package which is being developed by the Technical Integration Office (TIO) in support of Secretarial decision. This report contains a summary of the TFC execution plan with a work breakdown structure, highlevel schedule, major milestones, and summary description of critical activities in support of campaign objectives. Supporting documents referenced in this report but provided under separate cover include: • An updated review of the state-of-the art for transmutation fuel development activities considering national as well as international fuel research and development testing activities. • A definition of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) used to systematically define and execute the transmutation fuel development activities.

  15. Public health campaigns and obesity - a critique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlling obesity has become one of the highest priorities for public health practitioners in developed countries. In the absence of safe, effective and widely accessible high-risk approaches (e.g. drugs and surgery) attention has focussed on community-based approaches and social marketing campaigns as the most appropriate form of intervention. However there is limited evidence in support of substantial effectiveness of such interventions. Discussion To date there is little evidence that community-based interventions and social marketing campaigns specifically targeting obesity provide substantial or lasting benefit. Concerns have been raised about potential negative effects created by a focus of these interventions on body shape and size, and of the associated media targeting of obesity. Summary A more appropriate strategy would be to enact high-level policy and legislative changes to alter the obesogenic environments in which we live by providing incentives for healthy eating and increased levels of physical activity. Research is also needed to improve treatments available for individuals already obese. PMID:21352562

  16. Public health campaigns and obesity - a critique.

    PubMed

    Walls, Helen L; Peeters, Anna; Proietto, Joseph; McNeil, John J

    2011-02-27

    Controlling obesity has become one of the highest priorities for public health practitioners in developed countries. In the absence of safe, effective and widely accessible high-risk approaches (e.g. drugs and surgery) attention has focussed on community-based approaches and social marketing campaigns as the most appropriate form of intervention. However there is limited evidence in support of substantial effectiveness of such interventions. To date there is little evidence that community-based interventions and social marketing campaigns specifically targeting obesity provide substantial or lasting benefit. Concerns have been raised about potential negative effects created by a focus of these interventions on body shape and size, and of the associated media targeting of obesity. A more appropriate strategy would be to enact high-level policy and legislative changes to alter the obesogenic environments in which we live by providing incentives for healthy eating and increased levels of physical activity. Research is also needed to improve treatments available for individuals already obese.

  17. Precipitation properties observed during CHUVA Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, C.; Machado, L. A.; Angelis, C. F.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; Fisch, G.; Carvalho, I. C.; Biscaro, T.; Sakuragi, J.; Neves, J. R.; Anselmo, E. M.; Lacerda, M.

    2012-04-01

    CHUVA is a Brazilian research program that seeks to depict the main precipitating systems observed in Brazil as a support for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. CHUVA is conducting a series of field campaigns in the time frame of 2010-2013 to sample raining systems that vary from maritime to continental regime and in polluted and clean environments. For this study, we will present initially the drop size distribution (DSD) variability observed in the field experiments of Alcantara (March/2010), Fortaleza (April/2011), Belém (June/2011) and Vale do Paraiba (November-December/2011). Secondly, with the help of the mobile X-Band and MRR-2, we will show the DSD differences observed on warm and cold phase clouds, and convective and stratiform precipitation. Finally, by employing the vertical electrical field and lightning measurements together with the weather radar, we will present the main vertical precipitation features observed in thunderstorms and non- thunderstorms, in addition to the different raining systems observed during the four field campaigns.

  18. Observing campaign on 17 cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2015-07-01

    Roque Ruiz-Carmona (Ph.D. candidate, Institute of Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands) has requested AAVSO assistance with his campaign to observe 17 cataclysmic variables (CVs) with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) next week. In order for WHT to observe each of the targets safely and to maximize the science value of the observations obtained, it is essential to know whether they are in outburst or quiescence. To this end, the PI has requested our observers to obtain an image of each of the targets so he may analyze them. For this campaign, it is not necessary for observers to determine and submit a magnitude estimate of each target, just to obtain an image and place it where the PI can access it. Any filter may be used, and a raw or reduced image of each target may be submitted. Only one image per observer per target should be submitted. Please do not submit multiple images of any target. Timing is very important because the PI has to decide whether to exclude any target(s) 24 hours in advance of the WHT observations. Thus, the images must be taken and posted within a certain window. Links to finder charts as well as reporting instructions and other information may be found in the full Alert Notice.

  19. SOLAR campaign: stratospheric ozone lidar of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, Elian A.; Salvador, Jacobo; Otero, Lidia; Pazmino, Andrea; Porteneuve, Jacques; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Nakane, Hideaki; Quel, Eduardo

    2005-08-01

    As part of environmental studies of the southern atmosphere, the CEILAP Lidar Division in collaboration with the Service d'Aeronomie has developed a mobile differential absorption lidar capable of making precise and accurate measurements of the stratospheric ozone. The XeCl excimer laser emission at 308 nm is used as absorbed line in the DIAL technique and an Nd-YAG laser 355 nm third harmonic is employed as a reference wavelength. Six detected channels are used for stratospheric ozone retrieval, four of them in the high and low energy of the elastically backscattered signal of the emitted wavelengths and two corresponding to the first Stokes nitrogen Raman of the emitted wavelengths. Tropospheric Water Vapor profiles using Raman channels and Aerosol Backscatter profiles are also obtained. In this paper we present a detailed description of the instrument, a discussion of data analysis and the results of the first lidar-satellite inter-comparison of stratospheric ozone profiles measured with this instrument. We also present a description of the SOLAR campaign that will be held in the 2005 southern winter-spring period in Rio Gallegos (51° 55'S, 69° 14'W) with the objective of studying the ozone layer when the polar vortex crosses over the continental part of Argentina. This campaign will be supported by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency).

  20. Campaigns to Monitor Predicted Mesolensing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Lepine, S.; Matthews, J.

    2012-01-01

    When a nearby high-proper-motion star moves in front of a crowded stellar field, there is a high probability that it will lens one of the background stars. Lensing events can, in fact, be predicted. This makes it important to answer the question: when a lensing event is predicted, how best to plan an observing campaign to study the event and extract the parameters of the lens? How can we use such campaigns to discover planets or to compute the probability that the lens star has planets? We will discuss the specific example of the mesolens VB 10, which will have lensed a background star in December of 2011. Although the predicted low magnification and the presence of the Sun near the event location will have made conditions less than ideal for the study of this event, constraints on planets may have been derived by the time of the talk. Whatever the results,we will discuss what we learned by planning for this first-ever predicted mesolensing event. We will discuss the prospects for future predictions of individual events and of statistical predictions of multiple high-probability events.

  1. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  2. The Naval Campaign in Gallipoli - 1915 Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    AIR WAR COLLEGE() RESEARCH REPORT No. AU-AWC-86-188 THE NAVAL CAMPAIGN IN GALLIPOLI -1915 I LESSONS LEARNED By LT COL DOUGLAS J . SCOTT DTic s MARI...UNIVERSITY THE NAVAL CAMPAIGN IW GALLIPOLI - 1915 LESSONS LEARNED by DOUGLAS J . SCOTT LIEUTENANT COLONEL, USAF A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY...RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: The Naval Campaign in Gallipoli - 1915 Lessons Learned AUTHOR: Douglas J . Scott , Lieutenant Colonel, USAF •An analysis

  3. Running a hospital patient safety campaign: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ozieranski, Piotr; Robins, Victoria; Minion, Joel; Willars, Janet; Wright, John; Weaver, Simon; Martin, Graham P; Woods, Mary Dixon

    2014-01-01

    Research on patient safety campaigns has mostly concentrated on large-scale multi-organisation efforts, yet locally led improvement is increasingly promoted. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the design and implementation of an internal patient safety campaign at a large acute National Health Service hospital trust with a view to understanding how to optimise such campaigns. The authors conducted a qualitative study of a campaign that sought to achieve 12 patient safety goals. The authors interviewed 19 managers and 45 frontline staff, supplemented by 56 hours of non-participant observation. Data analysis was based on the constant comparative method. The campaign was motivated by senior managers' commitment to patient safety improvement, a series of serious untoward incidents, and a history of campaign-style initiatives at the trust. While the campaign succeeded in generating enthusiasm and focus among managers and some frontline staff, it encountered three challenges. First, though many staff at the sharp end were aware of the campaign, their knowledge, and acceptance of its content, rationale, and relevance for distinct clinical areas were variable. Second, the mechanisms of change, albeit effective in creating focus, may have been too limited. Third, many saw the tempo of the campaign as too rapid. Overall, the campaign enjoyed some success in raising the profile of patient safety. However, its ability to promote change was mixed, and progress was difficult to evidence because of lack of reliable measurement. The study shows that single-organisation campaigns may help in raising the profile of patient safety. The authors offer important lessons for the successful running of such campaigns.

  4. Running a hospital patient safety campaign: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ozieranski, Piotr; Robins, Victoria; Minion, Joel; Willars, Janet; Wright, John; Weaver, Simon; Martin, Graham P.; Woods, Mary Dixon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Research on patient safety campaigns has mostly concentrated on large-scale multi-organisation efforts, yet locally led improvement is increasingly promoted. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the design and implementation of an internal patient safety campaign at a large acute National Health Service hospital trust with a view to understanding how to optimise such campaigns. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a qualitative study of a campaign that sought to achieve 12 patient safety goals. The authors interviewed 19 managers and 45 frontline staff, supplemented by 56 hours of non-participant observation. Data analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Findings The campaign was motivated by senior managers’ commitment to patient safety improvement, a series of serious untoward incidents, and a history of campaign-style initiatives at the trust. While the campaign succeeded in generating enthusiasm and focus among managers and some frontline staff, it encountered three challenges. First, though many staff at the sharp end were aware of the campaign, their knowledge, and acceptance of its content, rationale, and relevance for distinct clinical areas were variable. Second, the mechanisms of change, albeit effective in creating focus, may have been too limited. Third, many saw the tempo of the campaign as too rapid. Overall, the campaign enjoyed some success in raising the profile of patient safety. However, its ability to promote change was mixed, and progress was difficult to evidence because of lack of reliable measurement. Originality/value The study shows that single-organisation campaigns may help in raising the profile of patient safety. The authors offer important lessons for the successful running of such campaigns. PMID:25241600

  5. Evaluation of a drowning prevention campaign in King County, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, E.; Cummings, P.; Quan, L.; Lewis, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—A three year drowning prevention campaign focused on increasing the use of life vests among children 1–14 years old. An evaluation was conducted to determine campaign awareness, change in ownership and use of life vests by children, and predictors of life vest use. Setting—King County, Washington. Methods—Four telephone surveys were conducted with parents before, during, and after the campaign. Results—The campaign was recalled by 50% of families surveyed. From before to after the campaign, reported life vest use by children on docks, beaches, or at pools increased from 20% to 29% (p<0.01) and life vest ownership for children increased from 69% to 75% (p=0.06). Among parents aware of the campaign, reported child life vest use increased from 20% to 34% (p<0.001) and ownership increased from 69% to 80% (p<0.01). Among families unaware of the campaign, neither life vest use nor ownership changed significantly. Children were more often reported to wear life vests if a parent knew of the campaign, was confident fitting the vest, was younger than 40 years, felt the child could not swim well, and owned a life vest for the child. Conclusions—A community-wide drowning prevention campaign resulted in a significant, although modest, increase in reported life vest use and ownership among children. PMID:10385829

  6. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  7. Manufactured Doubt: The Campaign Against Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, N. L.

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear electricity is a CO2 free technology with a proven track record of large scale commercial deployment. For example, France generates 78% of its electrical power with nuclear plants. France has the lowest pre-tax cost of electricity in Europe at 4.75 eurocents per KWH and France is the world's largest exporter of electricity. There are large world reserves of uranium sufficient for hundreds of years, even without breeder technology. Additionally, thorium, another radioactive mineral is in even more plentiful supply. Although present-day nuclear technology has proven to be safe and reliable, waiting in the wings is new generation technology that promises great improvements in both safety and cost. Yet, there has been a calculated and sophisticated campaign in the later part of the 20th century to create doubt and fear concerning nuclear power. In the United States this campaign has essentially destroyed the nuclear industry. No new plants have been commissioned for decades. Leadership in the nuclear power field has been ceded to other countries. The great paradox is that the very organizations that express great alarm concerning CO2 emissions are the same organizations that led the campaign against nuclear power decades ago. Representatives of these organizations will say privately that they are taking a new look at nuclear power, but no major organization has reversed course and become a supporter of nuclear power. To do so would involve a loss of face and create doubts concerning the credibility of the organization. As recently as 2001 environmentalist lobbyists made great efforts to ensure that no credit could be given for nuclear power under the Kyoto accords and the associated clean development mechanism. They succeeded and nuclear power receives unfavorable treatment under the Kyoto accords even though it is a proven solution for reducing CO2 emissions. The technique used to destroy nuclear energy as a viable alternative in the United States had two

  8. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    PubMed

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

    2011-12-19

    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  9. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2011 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-11-01

    One of the major research and development (R&D) areas under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is advanced fuels development. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) has the responsibility to develop advanced fuel technologies for the Department of Energy (DOE) using a science-based approach focusing on developing a microstructural understanding of nuclear fuels and materials. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY 20) 2011 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section. The order of the accomplishments in this report is consistent with the AFC work breakdown structure (WBS).

  10. Mesospheric dust observations during the MAXIDUSTY campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonsen, Tarjei; Havnes, Ove; Fredriksen, Åshild; Friedrich, Martin; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Plane, John; Hartquist, Tom; Olsen, Sveinung; Eilertsen, Yngve; Trondsen, Espen; Mann, Ingrid; Hedin, Jonas; Gumbel, Jörg; Moen, Jøran; Latteck, Ralph; Baumgarten, Gerd; Höffner, Josef; Williams, Bifford; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter; Karlberg, Jan-Ove

    2017-04-01

    The MAXIDUSTY rocket payloads, launched from Andøya June 30 and July 8 2016, were equipped with dust impact detectors aiming to characterize mesospheric dust charge state, mass distribution of impact fragments and NLC/PMSE structure. One of the main scientific objectives for the campaign was to confirm that material of meteoric origin is abundant inside the icy mesospheric dust particles. The rockets were launched simultaneously with PMSE and NLC (MAXIDUSTY-1) and PMSE (MAXIDUSTY-1B) respectively, and radar measurements were made coincident with the rocket flight path. We report here on the initial results from the rocket probes and remote soundings, with emphasis on the dust impact detector results. Results from the Multiple Dust Detector (MUDD) confirm that NLC ice particles probably have a relatively high content of meteoric smoke particles with a filling factor of up to several percent. Comparisons of the DUSTY faraday bucket and PMSE show that there is no simple correlation between the two.

  11. Gx 13+1: a Multiwavelength Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, Alan

    Despite being one of the seven brightest persistent X-ray sources in the Galactic bulge, little is definitively known about GX13+1. Its spectral behavior appears to identify it as an atoll source, however the brightness of its IR counterpart (K=12), long candidate orbit period (19.5 hrs, based on our previous IR work), and radio emission indicate a giant companion and a system size and behavior more typical of a Z-source. (Other candidate periods of 1.4 dy, 3.6 dy, and 25/50 dy do nothing to dispel the mystery.) We propose a multiwavelength campaign of observations of GX13+1 using RXTE and the CTIO 1.5m to study possible correlated variability in the X-ray/IR bands, orbital variations and fast time variability, and perform a detailed spectral study of this enigmatic source.

  12. Campaigning for Organ Donation at Mosques.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-09-01

    There is a trend of recruiting faith leaders at mosques to overcome religious barriers to organ donation, and to increase donor registration among Muslims. Commentators have suggested that Muslims are not given enough information about organ donation in religious sermons or lectures delivered at mosques. Corrective actions have been recommended, such as funding campaigns to promote organ donation, and increasing the availability of organ donation information at mosques. These actions are recommended despite published literature expressing safety concerns (i.e., do no harm) in living and end-of-life organ donation. Living donors require life-long medical follow-up and treatment for complications that can appear years later. Scientific and medical controversies persist regarding the international guidelines for death determination in end-of-life donation. The medical criteria of death lack validation and can harm donors if surgical procurement is performed without general anesthesia and before biological death. In the moral code of Islam, the prevention of harm holds precedence over beneficence. Moral precepts described in the Quran encourage Muslims to be beneficent, but also to seek knowledge prior to making practical decisions. However, the Quran also contains passages that demand honesty and truthfulness when providing information to those who are seeking knowledge. Currently, information is limited to that which encourages donor registration. Campaigning for organ donation to congregations in mosques should adhere to the moral code of complete, rather than selective, disclosure of information. We recommend as a minimal standard the disclosure of risks, uncertainties, and controversies associated with the organ donation process.

  13. A dynamic family planning and health campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach.

  14. Lessons learned from implementation of a demonstration program to reduce the burden of anemia and hookworm in women in Yen Bai Province, Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Phuc, Tran Q; Mihrshahi, Seema; Casey, Gerard J; Phu, Luong B; Tien, Nong T; Caruana, Sonia R; Thach, Tran D; Montresor, Antonio; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency, anemia and hookworm disease are important public health problems for women of reproductive age living in developing countries and affect the health of newborns and infants. Iron supplementation and deworming treatment are effective in addressing these problems in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Daily iron supplementation and deworming after the first trimester is recommended for pregnant women although these programs usually do not operate efficiently or effectively. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular deworming for non-pregnant women may be a viable approach for improving iron status and preventing anemia during the reproductive years. Addressing these diseases at a population level before women become pregnant could significantly improve women's health before and during pregnancy, as well as their infants' growth and development. Methods and Results This paper describes the major processes undertaken in a demonstration intervention of preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming for all 52,000 women aged 15–45 years in two districts of Yen Bai province, in northern Viet Nam. The intervention strategy included extensive consultation with community leaders and village, commune, district and provincial health staff, and training for village health workers. Distribution of the drugs was integrated with the existing health service infrastructure and the village health workers were the direct point of contact with women. Iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment were provided free of charge from May 2006. An independent Vietnamese NGO was commissioned to evaluate compliance and identify potential problems. The program resulted in effective distribution of iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment to all villages in the target districts, with full or partial compliance of 85%. Conclusion Training for health staff, the strong commitment of all partners and the use of appropriate

  15. An Empirical Assessment of the "Above the Influence" Advertising Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Lawrence M.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Holtz, Kristen D.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of "Above the Influence" (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall…

  16. 45 CFR 1370.5 - Public information campaign grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.5 Public information campaign grants. Each grantee awarded... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public information campaign grants. 1370.5 Section 1370.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN...

  17. Queer & Ally Youth Involvement in the Fair Wisconsin Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiegler, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role and experience of queer youth and allies in the Fair Wisconsin campaign that fought against the marriage amendment to that state's constitution. It illustrates how LGBT and ally youth involvement can be incorporated into other organizations. Following an explanation of the campaign, are narratives of two…

  18. Communicating as a Group: Meetings, Campaigns, and other Joint Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathe, Laurie

    2000-03-01

    One person can make a difference, but a coordinated campaign can move mountains. This session will address how a group can influence policy and political process. Effective meetings, letter writing campaigns, and other group efforts will be addressed. This session will have time for questions with someone who was an APS Congressional Fellow.

  19. Statewide Implementation of the 1% or Less Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddock, Jay; Maglione, Christine; Barnett, Jodi D.; Cabot, Cynthia; Jackson, Susan; Reger-Nash, Bill

    2007-01-01

    The 1% or Less Campaign is an effective research-tested program for reducing saturated fat intake by encouraging individuals to switch to low-fat milk. All published studies have been conducted in small communities with mostly White populations. The 6-week intervention included a media campaign, public relations, and taste tests. Campaign…

  20. Ad Campaign Urges Undergraduates to Take Graduate Record Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2008-01-01

    Several months ago, the Educational Testing Service began planning a campaign to encourage more college juniors and seniors to consider graduate school--and to take its Graduate Record Examination. The timing may prove fortuitous. David G. Payne, executive director of the GRE, says the campaign seeks not only to expand students' options, but also…