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Sample records for rocket engine nozzles

  1. Liquid rocket engine nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The nozzle is a major component of a rocket engine, having a significant influence on the overall engine performance and representing a large fraction of the engine structure. The design of the nozzle consists of solving simultaneously two different problems: the definition of the shape of the wall that forms the expansion surface, and the delineation of the nozzle structure and hydraulic system. This monography addresses both of these problems. The shape of the wall is considered from immediately upstream of the throat to the nozzle exit for both bell and annular (or plug) nozzles. Important aspects of the methods used to generate nozzle wall shapes are covered for maximum-performance shapes and for nozzle contours based on criteria other than performance. The discussion of structure and hydraulics covers problem areas of regeneratively cooled tube-wall nozzles and extensions; it treats also nozzle extensions cooled by turbine exhaust gas, ablation-cooled extensions, and radiation-cooled extensions. The techniques that best enable the designer to develop the nozzle structure with as little difficulty as possible and at the lowest cost consistent with minimum weight and specified performance are described.

  2. Robotic Processing Of Rocket-Engine Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Maslakowski, John E.; Gutow, David A.; Deily, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Automated manufacturing cell containing computer-controlled robotic processing system developed to implement some important related steps in fabrication of rocket-engine nozzles. Performs several tedious and repetitive fabrication, measurement, adjustment, and inspection processes and subprocesses now performed manually. Offers advantages of reduced processing time, greater consistency, excellent collection of data, objective inspections, greater productivity, and simplified fixturing. Also affords flexibility: by making suitable changes in hardware and software, possible to modify process and subprocesses. Flexibility makes work cell adaptable to fabrication of heat exchangers and other items structured similarly to rocket nozzles.

  3. Thrust augmentation nozzle (TAN) concept for rocket engine booster applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forde, Scott; Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd

    2006-07-01

    Aerojet used the patented thrust augmented nozzle (TAN) concept to validate a unique means of increasing sea-level thrust in a liquid rocket booster engine. We have used knowledge gained from hypersonic Scramjet research to inject propellants into the supersonic region of the rocket engine nozzle to significantly increase sea-level thrust without significantly impacting specific impulse. The TAN concept overcomes conventional engine limitations by injecting propellants and combusting in an annular region in the divergent section of the nozzle. This injection of propellants at moderate pressures allows for obtaining high thrust at takeoff without overexpansion thrust losses. The main chamber is operated at a constant pressure while maintaining a constant head rise and flow rate of the main propellant pumps. Recent hot-fire tests have validated the design approach and thrust augmentation ratios. Calculations of nozzle performance and wall pressures were made using computational fluid dynamics analyses with and without thrust augmentation flow, resulting in good agreement between calculated and measured quantities including augmentation thrust. This paper describes the TAN concept, the test setup, test results, and calculation results.

  4. Rocket Engine Nozzle Side Load Transient Analysis Methodology: A Practical Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, John J.

    2005-01-01

    At the sea level, a phenomenon common with all rocket engines, especially for a highly over-expanded nozzle, during ignition and shutdown is that of flow separation as the plume fills and empties the nozzle, Since the flow will be separated randomly. it will generate side loads, i.e. non-axial forces. Since rocket engines are designed to produce axial thrust to power the vehicles, it is not desirable to be excited by non-axial input forcing functions, In the past, several engine failures were attributed to side loads. During the development stage, in order to design/size the rocket engine components and to reduce the risks, the local dynamic environments as well as dynamic interface loads have to be defined. The methodology developed here is the way to determine the peak loads and shock environments for new engine components. In the past it is not feasible to predict the shock environments, e.g. shock response spectra, from one engine to the other, because it is not scaleable. Therefore, the problem has been resolved and the shock environments can be defined in the early stage of new engine development. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  5. Flow Separation Side Loads Excitation of Rocket Nozzle FEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Kurt B.; Brown, Andrew; Ruf, Joseph; Gilbert, John

    2007-01-01

    Modern rocket nozzles are designed to operate over a wide range of altitudes, and are also built with large aspect ratios to enable high efficiencies. Nozzles designed to operate over specific regions of a trajectory are being replaced in modern launch vehicles by those that are designed to operate from earth to orbit. This is happening in parallel with modern manufacturing and wall cooling techniques allowing for larger aspect ratio nozzles to be produced. Such nozzles, though operating over a large range of altitudes and ambient pressures, are typically designed for one specific altitude. Above that altitude the nozzle flow is 'underexpanded' and below that altitude, the nozzle flow is 'overexpanded'. In both conditions the nozzle produces less than the maximum possible thrust at that altitude. Usually the nozzle design altitude is well above sea level, leaving the nozzle flow in an overexpanded state for its start up as well as for its ground testing where, if it is a reusable nozzle such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the nozzle will operate for the majority of its life. Overexpansion in a rocket nozzle presents the critical, and sometimes design driving, problem of flow separation induced side loads. To increase their understanding of nozzle side loads, engineers at MSFC began an investigation in 2000 into the phenomenon through a task entitled "Characterization and Accurate Modeling of Rocket Engine Nozzle Side Loads", led by A. Brown. The stated objective of this study was to develop a methodology to accurately predict the character and magnitude of nozzle side loads. The study included further hot-fire testing of the MC-l engine, cold flow testing of subscale nozzles, CFD analyses of both hot-fire and cold flow nozzle testing, and finite element (fe.) analysis of the MC-1 engine and cold flow tested nozzles. A follow on task included an effort to formulate a simplified methodology for modeling a side load during a two nodal diameter fluid

  6. The prediction of nozzle performance and heat transfer in hydrogen/oxygen rocket engines with transpiration cooling, film cooling, and high area ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Hoffman, Joe D.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced engineering computational model has been developed to aid in the analysis and design of hydrogen/oxygen chemical rocket engines. The complete multi-species, chemically reacting and diffusing Navier-Stokes equations are modelled, finite difference approach that is tailored to be conservative in an axisymmetric coordinate system for both the inviscid and viscous terms. Demonstration cases are presented for a 1030:1 area ratio nozzle, a 25 lbf film cooled nozzle, and transpiration cooled plug-and-spool rocket engine. The results indicate that the thrust coefficient predictions of the 1030:1 nozzle and the film cooled nozzle are within 0.2 to 0.5 percent, respectively, of experimental measurements when all of the chemical reaction and diffusion terms are considered. Further, the model's predictions agree very well with the heat transfer measurements made in all of the nozzle test cases. The Soret thermal diffusion term is demonstrated to have a significant effect on the predicted mass fraction of hydrogen along the wall of the nozzle in both the laminar flow 1030:1 nozzle and the turbulent plug-and-spool rocket engine analysis cases performed. Further, the Soret term was shown to represent a significant fraction of the diffusion fluxes occurring in the transpiration cooled rocket engine.

  7. Internal-Film Cooling of Rocket Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloop, J L; Kinney, George R

    1948-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with 1000-pound-thrust rocket engine to determine feasibility of cooling convergent-divergent nozzle by internal film of water introduced at nozzle entrance. Water flow of 3 percent of propellant flow reduced heat flow into nozzle to 55 percent of uncooled heat flow. Introduction of water by porous ring before nozzle resulted in more uniform coverage of nozzle than water introduced by single arrangement of 36 jets directed along nozzle wall. Water flow through porous ring of 3.5 percent of propellant flow stabilized wall temperature in convergent section but did not adequately cool throat or divergent sections.

  8. The Prediction of Nozzle Performance and Heat Transfer in Hydrogen/Oxygen Rocket Engines with Transpiration Cooling, Film Cooling, and High Area Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Hoffman, Joe D.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced engineering computational model has been developed to aid in the analysis of chemical rocket engines. The complete multispecies, chemically reacting and diffusing Navier-Stokes equations are modelled, including the Soret thermal diffusion and Dufour energy transfer terms. Demonstration cases are presented for a 1030:1 area ratio nozzle, a 25 lbf film-cooled nozzle, and a transpiration-cooled plug-and-spool rocket engine. The results indicate that the thrust coefficient predictions of the 1030:1 nozzle and the film-cooled nozzle are within 0.2 to 0.5 percent, respectively, of experimental measurements. Further, the model's predictions agree very well with the heat transfer measurements made in all of the nozzle test cases. It is demonstrated that thermal diffusion has a significant effect on the predicted mass fraction of hydrogen along the wall of the nozzle and was shown to represent a significant fraction of the diffusion fluxes occurring in the transpiration-cooled rocket engine.

  9. Apollo Contour Rocket Nozzle in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-07-21

    Bill Harrison and Bud Meilander check the setup of an Apollo Contour rocket nozzle in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The Propulsion Systems Laboratory contained two 14-foot diameter test chambers that could simulate conditions found at very high altitudes. The facility was used in the 1960s to study complex rocket engines such as the Pratt and Whitney RL-10 and rocket components such as the Apollo Contour nozzle, seen here. Meilander oversaw the facility’s mechanics and the installation of test articles into the chambers. Harrison was head of the Supersonic Tunnels Branch in the Test Installations Division. Researchers sought to determine the impulse value of the storable propellant mix, classify and improve the internal engine performance, and compare the results with analytical tools. A special setup was installed in the chamber that included a device to measure the thrust load and a calibration stand. Both cylindrical and conical combustion chambers were examined with the conical large area ratio nozzles. In addition, two contour nozzles were tested, one based on the Apollo Service Propulsion System and the other on the Air Force’s Titan transtage engine. Three types of injectors were investigated, including a Lewis-designed model that produced 98-percent efficiency. It was determined that combustion instability did not affect the nozzle performance. Although much valuable information was obtained during the tests, attempts to improve the engine performance were not successful.

  10. Rocket Engine Nozzle Side Load Transient Analysis Methodology: A Practical Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, John J.

    2005-01-01

    During the development stage, in order to design/to size the rocket engine components and to reduce the risks, the local dynamic environments as well as dynamic interface loads must be defined. There are two kinds of dynamic environment, i.e. shock transients and steady-state random and sinusoidal vibration environments. Usually, the steady-state random and sinusoidal vibration environments are scalable, but the shock environments are not scalable. In other words, based on similarities only random vibration environments can be defined for a new engine. The methodology covered in this paper provides a way to predict the shock environments and the dynamic loads for new engine systems and new engine components in the early stage of new engine development or engine nozzle modifications.

  11. Structural strengthening of rocket nozzle extension by means of laser metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honoré, M.; Brox, L.; Hallberg, M.

    2012-03-01

    Commercial space operations strive to maximize the payload per launch in order to minimize the costs of each kg launched into orbit; this yields demand for ever larger launchers with larger, more powerful rocket engines. Volvo Aero Corporation in collaboration with Snecma and Astrium has designed and tested a new, upgraded Nozzle extension for the Vulcain 2 engine configuration, denoted Vulcain 2+ NE Demonstrator The manufacturing process for the welding of the sandwich wall and the stiffening structure is developed in close cooperation with FORCE Technology. The upgrade is intended to be available for future development programs for the European Space Agency's (ESA) highly successful commercial launch vehicle, the ARIANE 5. The Vulcain 2+ Nozzle Extension Demonstrator [1] features a novel, thin-sheet laser-welded configuration, with laser metal deposition built-up 3D-features for the mounting of stiffening structure, flanges and for structural strengthening, in order to cope with the extreme load- and thermal conditions, to which the rocket nozzle extension is exposed during launch of the 750 ton ARIANE 5 launcher. Several millimeters of material thickness has been deposited by laser metal deposition without disturbing the intricate flow geometry of the nozzle cooling channels. The laser metal deposition process has been applied on a full-scale rocket nozzle demonstrator, and in excess of 15 kilometers of filler wire has been successfully applied to the rocket nozzle. The laser metal deposition has proven successful in two full-throttle, full-scale tests, firing the rocket engine and nozzle in the ESA test facility P5 by DLR in Lampoldshausen, Germany.

  12. Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development in Support of In-Space and Upper-Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Valentine, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures, increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles, and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered to reduce weight impacts. Currently, the state-of-the-art is represented by the metallic and foreign composite nozzle extensions limited to approximately 2000 degrees F. used on the Atlas V, Delta IV, Falcon 9, and Ariane 5 launch vehicles. NASA and industry partners are working towards advancing the domestic supply chain for C-C composite nozzle extensions. These development efforts are primarily being conducted through the NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in addition to other low level internal research efforts. This has allowed for the initial material development and characterization, subscale hardware fabrication, and completion of hot-fire testing in relevant environments. NASA and industry partners have designed, fabricated and hot-fire tested several subscale domestically produced C-C extensions to advance the material and coatings fabrication technology for use with a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C-C materials and coatings, demonstrating the initial capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the initial material development, design and fabrication of the subscale carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work. The follow on work includes the fabrication of ultra-high temperature materials, larger C-C nozzle extensions, material characterization, sub-element testing and hot-fire testing at

  13. Investigation of conjugate circular arcs in rocket nozzle contour design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomberg, K.; Olsen, J.; Neely, A.; Doig, G.

    2018-05-01

    The use of conjugate circular arcs in rocket nozzle contour design has been investigated by numerically comparing three existing sub-scale nozzles to a range of equivalent arc-based contour designs. Three performance measures were considered when comparing nozzle designs: thrust coefficient, nozzle exit wall pressure, and a transition between flow separation regimes during the engine start-up phase. In each case, an equivalent arc-based contour produced an increase in the thrust coefficient and exit wall pressure of up to 0.4 and 40% respectively, in addition to suppressing the transition between a free and restricted shock separation regime. A general approach to arc-based nozzle contour design has also been presented to outline a rapid and repeatable process for generating sub-scale arc-based contours with an exit Mach number of 3.8-5.4 and a length between 60 and 100% of a 15° conical nozzle. The findings suggest that conjugate circular arcs may represent a viable approach for producing sub-scale rocket nozzle contours, and that a further investigation is warranted between arc-based and existing full-scale rocket nozzles.

  14. Design and Evaluation of Dual-Expander Aerospike Nozzle Upper Stage Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    Nozzle , taken from Martin [2] . . . . . 19 2.3 Typical Liquid Rocket Engine Cycles from Huzel and Huang[3], credit J. Hall[4] 21 2.4 Liquid Rocket Engine...giving the maximum thrust. For steady, supersonic flow (no separation from the nozzle ) the exit pressure is constant for a given engine plus nozzle ...performance independent of a rocket’s nozzle . Assuming one-dimensional, steady, and isentropic flow of a perfect gas gives the definition for characteristic

  15. Analytical study of nozzle performance for nuclear thermal rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A parametric study has been conducted by the NASA-Lewis Rocket Engine Design Expert System for the convergent-divergent nozzle of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket system, which uses a nuclear reactor to heat hydrogen to high temperature and then expands it through the nozzle. It is established by the study that finite-rate chemical reactions lower performance levels from theoretical levels. Major parametric roles are played by chamber temperature and chamber pressure. A maximum performance of 930 sec is projected at 2700 K, and of 1030 at 3100 K.

  16. Comparison of two procedures for predicting rocket engine nozzle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    Two nozzle performance prediction procedures which are based on the standardized JANNAF methodology are presented and compared for four rocket engine nozzles. The first procedure required operator intercedence to transfer data between the individual performance programs. The second procedure is more automated in that all necessary programs are collected into a single computer code, thereby eliminating the need for data reformatting. Results from both procedures show similar trends but quantitative differences. Agreement was best in the predictions of specific impulse and local skin friction coefficient. Other compared quantities include characteristic velocity, thrust coefficient, thrust decrement, boundary layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness, and heat loss rate to the wall. Effects of wall temperature profile used as an input to the programs was investigated by running three wall temperature profiles. It was found that this change greatly affected the boundary layer displacement thickness and heat loss to the wall. The other quantities, however, were not drastically affected by the wall temperature profile change.

  17. Analysis of Flame Deflector Spray Nozzles in Rocket Engine Test Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachdev, Jai S.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Allgood, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a unified tightly coupled multi-phase computational framework is described for the analysis and design of cooling spray nozzle configurations on the flame deflector in rocket engine test stands. An Eulerian formulation is used to model the disperse phase and is coupled to the gas-phase equations through momentum and heat transfer as well as phase change. The phase change formulation is modeled according to a modified form of the Hertz-Knudsen equation. Various simple test cases are presented to verify the validity of the numerical framework. The ability of the methodology to accurately predict the temperature load on the flame deflector is demonstrated though application to an actual sub-scale test facility. The CFD simulation was able to reproduce the result of the test-firing, showing that the spray nozzle configuration provided insufficient amount of cooling.

  18. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam

    2016-01-01

    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  19. Heat transfer in rocket engine combustion chambers and regeneratively cooled nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A conjugate heat transfer computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to describe regenerative cooling in the main combustion chamber and nozzle and in the injector faceplate region for a launch vehicle class liquid rocket engine was developed. An injector model for sprays which treats the fluid as a variable density, single-phase media was formulated, incorporated into a version of the FDNS code, and used to simulate the injector flow typical of that in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Various chamber related heat transfer analyses were made to verify the predictive capability of the conjugate heat transfer analysis provided by the FDNS code. The density based version of the FDNS code with the real fluid property models developed was successful in predicting the streamtube combustion of individual injector elements.

  20. A performance comparison of two small rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, Lynn A.; Reed, Brian D.; Rivera, Angel, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on two small rockets (110 N thrust class) to directly compare a standard conical nozzle with a bell nozzle optimized for maximum thrust using the Rao method. In large rockets, with throat Reynolds numbers of greater than 1 x 10(exp 5), bell nozzles outperform conical nozzles. In rockets with throat Reynolds numbers below 1 x 10(exp 5), however, test results have been ambiguous. An experimental program was conducted to test two small nozzles at two different fuel film cooling percentages and three different chamber pressures. Test results showed that for the throat Reynolds number range from 2 x 10(exp 4) to 4 x 10(exp 4), the bell nozzle outperformed the conical nozzle. Thrust coefficients for the bell nozzle were approximately 4 to 12 percent higher than those obtained with the conical nozzle. As expected, testing showed that lowering the fuel film cooling increased performance for both nozzle types.

  1. An Ejector Air Intake Design Method for a Novel Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Rocket Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waung, Timothy S.

    Rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) vehicles have the potential to reduce launch costs through the use of several different air breathing engine cycles, which reduce fuel consumption. The rocket-ejector cycle, in which air is entrained into an ejector section by the rocket exhaust, is used at flight speeds below Mach 2. This thesis develops a design method for an air intake geometry around a novel RBCC rocket nozzle design for the rocket-ejector engine cycle. This design method consists of a geometry creation step in which a three-dimensional intake geometry is generated, and a simple flow analysis step which predicts the air intake mass flow rate. The air intake geometry is created using the rocket nozzle geometry and eight primary input parameters. The input parameters are selected to give the user significant control over the air intake shape. The flow analysis step uses an inviscid panel method and an integral boundary layer method to estimate the air mass flow rate through the intake geometry. Intake mass flow rate is used as a performance metric since it directly affects the amount of thrust a rocket-ejector can produce. The design method results for the air intake operating at several different points along the subsonic portion of the Ariane 4 flight profile are found to under predict mass flow rate by up to 8.6% when compared to three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations for the same air intake.

  2. Analysis of film cooling in rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, Keith A.; Karr, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    Progress during the reporting period is summarized. Analysis of film cooling in rocket nozzles by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes is desirable for two reasons. First, it allows prediction of resulting flow fields within the rocket nozzle, in particular the interaction of the coolant boundary layer with the main flow. This facilitates evaluation of potential cooling configurations with regard to total thrust, etc., before construction and testing of any prototype. Secondly, CFD simulation of film cooling allows for assessment of the effectiveness of the proposed cooling in limiting nozzle wall temperature rises. This latter objective is the focus of the current work. The desired objective is to use the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code to predict wall heat fluxes or wall temperatures in rocket nozzles. As prior work has revealed that the FDNS code is deficient in the thermal modeling of boundary conditions, the first step is to correct these deficiencies in the FDNS code. Next, these changes must be tested against available data. Finally, the code will be used to model film cooling of a particular rocket nozzle. The third task of this research, using the modified code to compute the flow of hot gases through a nozzle, is described.

  3. Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

    1993-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. The Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics are given. Results of pretest performance analyses show that high nozzle performance can be attained despite substantial nozzle length reduction through the use of plug nozzles as compared to a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pretest measurement uncertainty analyses indicate that specific impulse values are expected to be within + or - 1.17 pct.

  4. Application of Optimization Techniques to Design of Unconventional Rocket Nozzle Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follett, W.; Ketchum, A.; Darian, A.; Hsu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Several current rocket engine concepts such as the bell-annular tri-propellant engine, and the linear aerospike being proposed for the X-33 require unconventional three dimensional rocket nozzles which must conform to rectangular or sector shaped envelopes to meet integration constraints. These types of nozzles exist outside the current experience database, therefore, the application of efficient design methods for these propulsion concepts is critical to the success of launch vehicle programs. The objective of this work is to optimize several different nozzle configurations, including two- and three-dimensional geometries. Methodology includes coupling computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis to genetic algorithms and Taguchi methods as well as implementation of a streamline tracing technique. Results of applications are shown for several geometeries including: three dimensional thruster nozzles with round or super elliptic throats and rectangualar exits, two- and three-dimensional thrusters installed within a bell nozzle, and three dimensional thrusters with round throats and sector shaped exits. Due to the novel designs considered for this study, there is little experience which can be used to guide the effort and limit the design space. With a nearly infinite parameter space to explore, simple parametric design studies cannot possibly search the entire design space within the time frame required to impact the design cycle. For this reason, robust and efficient optimization methods are required to explore and exploit the design space to achieve high performance engine designs. Five case studies which examine the application of various techniques in the engineering environment are presented in this paper.

  5. Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program

    SciTech Connect

    Davidian, K.O.; Kacynski, K.J.

    Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. In this report, the Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics are given. Results of pretest performance analyses show that high nozzle performance can be attained despite substantial nozzle length reduction through the use of plug nozzles as compared to a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pretest measurement uncertainty analyses indicate that specific impulsemore » values are expected to be within plus or minus 1.17%.« less

  6. Analytical study of nozzle performance for nuclear thermal rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion has been identified as one of the key technologies needed for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) uses a nuclear reactor to heat hydrogen to a high temperature followed by expansion through a conventional convergent-divergent nozzle. A parametric study of NTR nozzles was performed using the Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The REDES used the JANNAF standard rigorous methodology to determine nozzle performance over a range of chamber temperatures, chamber pressures, thrust levels, and different nozzle configurations. A design condition was set by fixing the propulsion system exit radius at five meters and throat radius was varied to achieve a target thrust level. An adiabatic wall was assumed for the nozzle, and its length was assumed to be 80 percent of a 15 degree cone. The results conclude that although the performance of the NTR, based on infinite reaction rates, looks promising at low chamber pressures, finite rate chemical reactions will cause the actual performance to be considerably lower. Parameters which have a major influence on the delivered specific impulse value include the chamber temperature and the chamber pressures in the high thrust domain. Other parameters, such as 2-D and boundary layer effects, kinetic rates, and number of nozzles, affect the deliverable performance of an NTR nozzle to a lesser degree. For a single nozzle, maximum performance of 930 seconds and 1030 seconds occur at chamber temperatures of 2700 and 3100 K, respectively.

  7. Dual-fuel, dual-mode rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a dual fuel, dual mode rocket engine designed to improve the performance of earth-to-orbit vehicles. For any vehicle that operates from the earth's surface to earth orbit, it is advantageous to use two different fuels during its ascent. A high density impulse fuel, such as kerosene, is most efficient during the first half of the trajectory. A high specific impulse fuel, such as hydrogen, is most efficient during the second half of the trajectory. The invention allows both fuels to be used with a single rocket engine. It does so by adding a minimum number of state-of-the-art components to baseline single made rocket engines, and is therefore relatively easy to develop for near term applications. The novelty of this invention resides in the mixing of fuels before exhaust nozzle cooling. This allows all of the engine fuel to cool the exhaust nozzle, and allows the ratio of fuels used throughout the flight depend solely on performance requirements, not cooling requirements.

  8. Manufacturing Process Developments for Regeneratively-Cooled Channel Wall Rocket Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul; Brandsmeier, Will

    2016-01-01

    Regeneratively cooled channel wall nozzles incorporate a series of integral coolant channels to contain the coolant to maintain adequate wall temperatures and expand hot gas providing engine thrust and specific impulse. NASA has been evaluating manufacturing techniques targeting large scale channel wall nozzles to support affordability of current and future liquid rocket engine nozzles and thrust chamber assemblies. The development of these large scale manufacturing techniques focus on the liner formation, channel slotting with advanced abrasive water-jet milling techniques and closeout of the coolant channels to replace or augment other cost reduction techniques being evaluated for nozzles. NASA is developing a series of channel closeout techniques including large scale additive manufacturing laser deposition and explosively bonded closeouts. A series of subscale nozzles were completed evaluating these processes. Fabrication of mechanical test and metallography samples, in addition to subscale hardware has focused on Inconel 625, 300 series stainless, aluminum alloys as well as other candidate materials. Evaluations of these techniques are demonstrating potential for significant cost reductions for large scale nozzles and chambers. Hot fire testing is planned using these techniques in the future.

  9. Performance of a RBCC Engine in Rocket-Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Sadatake; Kubo, Takahiro; Noboru Sakuranaka; Tani, Koichiro

    Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket-based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for space launch vehicles. Either SSTO (Single Stage To Orbit) system or TSTO (Two Stage To Orbit) system with separation at high altitude needs final stage acceleration in space, so that the RBCC (Rocket Based Combined Cycle) engine should be operated as rocket engines. Performance of the scramjet combustor as the extension to the rocket nozzle, was experimentally evaluated by injecting inert gas at various pressure through the embedded rocket chamber while the whole sub-scaled model was placed in a low pressure chamber connected to an air-driven ejector system. The results showed that the thrust coefficient was about 1.2, the low value being found to mainly due to the friction force on the scramjet combustor wall, while blocking the scramjet flow pass’s opening to increase nozzle extension thrust surface, was found to have little effects on the thrust performance. The combustor was shortened to reduce the friction loss, however, degree of reduction was limited as friction decreased rapidly with distance from the onset of the scramjet combustor.

  10. The Viking Orbiter 1975 beryllium INTEREGEN rocket engine assembly.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, R. S.; Mcfarland, B. L.; Fischler, S.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the conversion of the Mariner 9 rocket engine for Viking Orbiter use. Engine conversion consists of replacing the 40:1 expansion area ratio nozzle with a 60:1 nozzle of the internal regeneratively (INTEREGEN) cooled rocket engine. Five converted engines using nitrogen tetroxide and monomethylhydrazine demonstrated thermal stability during the nominal 2730-sec burn, but experienced difficulty at operating extremes. The thermal stability characteristic was treated in two ways. The first treatment consisted of mapping the operating regime of the engine to determine its safest operating boundaries as regards thermal equilibrium. Six engines were used for this purpose. Two of the six engines were then modified to effect the second approach - i.e., extend the operating regime. The engines were modified by permitting fuel injection into the acoustic cavity.

  11. Status of flow separation prediction in liquid propellant rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    Flow separation which plays an important role in the design of a rocket engine nozzle is discussed. For a given ambient pressure, the condition of no flow separation limits the area ratio and, therefore, the vacuum performance. Avoidance of performance loss due to area ratio limitation requires a correct prediction of the flow separation conditions. To provide a better understanding of the flow separation process, the principal behavior of flow separation in a supersonic overexpanded rocket nozzle is described. The hot firing separation tests from various sources are summarized, and the applicability and accuracy of the measurements are described. A comparison of the different data points allows an evaluation of the parameters that affect flow separation. The pertinent flow separation predicting methods, which are divided into theoretical and empirical correlations, are summarized and the numerical results are compared with the experimental points.

  12. Convoluted nozzle design for the RL10 derivative 2B engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The convoluted nozzle is a conventional refractory metal nozzle extension that is formed with a portion of the nozzle convoluted to show the extendible nozzle within the length of the rocket engine. The convoluted nozzle (CN) was deployed by a system of four gas driven actuators. For spacecraft applications the optimum CN may be self-deployed by internal pressure retained, during deployment, by a jettisonable exit closure. The convoluted nozzle is included in a study of extendible nozzles for the RL10 Engine Derivative 2B for use in an early orbit transfer vehicle (OTV). Four extendible nozzle configurations for the RL10-2B engine were evaluated. Three configurations of the two position nozzle were studied including a hydrogen dump cooled metal nozzle and radiation cooled nozzles of refractory metal and carbon/carbon composite construction respectively.

  13. Rocket propulsion elements - An introduction to the engineering of rockets (6th revised and enlarged edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, George P.

    The subject of rocket propulsion is treated with emphasis on the basic technology, performance, and design rationale. Attention is given to definitions and fundamentals, nozzle theory and thermodynamic relations, heat transfer, flight performance, chemical rocket propellant performance analysis, and liquid propellant rocket engine fundamentals. The discussion also covers solid propellant rocket fundamentals, hybrid propellant rockets, thrust vector control, selection of rocket propulsion systems, electric propulsion, and rocket testing.

  14. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joint 5 Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, R. C.; Stratton, T. C.; LaMont, D. T.

    2003-01-01

    Torque tension testing of a newly designed Reusable Solid Rocket Motor nozzle bolted assembly was successfully completed. Test results showed that the 3-sigma preload variation was as expected at the required input torque level and the preload relaxation were within the engineering limits. A shim installation technique was demonstrated as a simple process to fill a shear lip gap between nozzle housings in the joint region. A new automated torque system was successfully demonstrated in this test. This torque control tool was found to be very precise and accurate. The bolted assembly performance was further evaluated using the Nozzle Structural Test Bed. Both current socket head cap screw and proposed multiphase alloy bolt configurations were tested. Results indicated that joint skip and bolt bending were significantly reduced with the new multiphase alloy bolt design. This paper summarizes all the test results completed to date.

  15. Fabrication of Composite Combustion Chamber/Nozzle for Fastrac Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawerence, T.; Beshears, R.; Burlingame, S.; Peters, W.; Prince, M.; Suits, M.; Tillery, S.; Burns, L.; Kovach, M.; Roberts, K.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The Fastrac Engine developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center for the X-34 vehicle began as a low cost engine development program for a small booster system. One of the key components to reducing the engine cost was the development of an inexpensive combustion chamber/nozzle. Fabrication of a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and nozzle was considered too expensive and time consuming. In looking for an alternate design concept, the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Project provided an extensive background with ablative composite materials in a combustion environment. An integral combustion chamber/nozzle was designed and fabricated with a silica/phenolic ablative liner and a carbon/epoxy structural overwrap. This paper describes the fabrication process and developmental hurdles overcome for the Fastrac engine one-piece composite combustion chamber/nozzle.

  16. Fabrication of Composite Combustion Chamber/Nozzle for Fastrac Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, T.; Beshears, R.; Burlingame, S.; Peters, W.; Prince, M.; Suits, M.; Tillery, S.; Burns, L.; Kovach, M.; Roberts, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Fastrac Engine developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center for the X-34 vehicle began as a low cost engine development program for a small booster system. One of the key components to reducing the engine cost was the development of an inexpensive combustion chamber/nozzle. Fabrication of a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and nozzle was considered too expensive and time consuming. In looking for an alternate design concept, the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Project provided an extensive background with ablative composite materials in a combustion environment. An integral combustion chamber/nozzle was designed and fabricated with a silica/phenolic ablative liner and a carbon/epoxy structural overwrap. This paper describes the fabrication process and developmental hurdles overcome for the Fastrac engine one-piece composite combustion chamber/nozzle.

  17. Altitude-Compensating Nozzle (ACN) Project: Planning for Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Flight Testing on the NASA F-15B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Although the dual-bell rocket nozzle has been thoroughly studied, this nozzle has still not been tested in a relevant flight environment. This poster presents the top-level rationale and preliminary plans for conducting flight research with the dual-bell rocket nozzle, while exhausting the plume into the freestream flow field at various altitudes. The primary objective is to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle plume sensitivity to freestream flight effects, which will also include detailed measurements of the plume mode transition within the nozzle. To accomplish this goal, the NASA F-15B is proposed as the testbed for advancing the technology readiness level of this greatly-needed capability. All proposed tests include the quantitative performance analysis of the dual-bell rocket nozzle as compared with the conventional-bell nozzle.

  18. Experimental Studies of the Heat Transfer to RBCC Rocket Nozzles for CFD Application to Design Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

    1999-01-01

    Rocket thrusters for Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engines typically operate with hydrogen/oxygen propellants in a very compact space. Packaging considerations lead to designs with either axisymmetric or two-dimensional throat sections. Nozzles tend to be either two- or three-dimensional. Heat transfer characteristics, particularly in the throat, where the peak heat flux occurs, are not well understood. Heat transfer predictions for these small thrusters have been made with one-dimensional analysis such as the Bartz equation or scaling of test data from much larger thrusters. The current work addresses this issue with an experimental program that examines the heat transfer characteristics of a gaseous oxygen (GO2)/gaseous hydrogen (GH2) two-dimensional compact rocket thruster. The experiments involved measuring the axial wall temperature profile in the nozzle region of a water-cooled gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen rocket thruster at a pressure of 3.45 MPa. The wall temperature measurements in the thruster nozzle in concert with Bartz's correlation are utilized in a one-dimensional model to obtain axial profiles of nozzle wall heat flux.

  19. General view of a Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of a Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center, being prepared to be mated with the Aft Skirt. In this view you can see the attach brackets where the Thrust Vector Control System actuators connect to the nozzle which can swivel the nozzle up to 3.5 degrees to redirect the thrust to steer and maintain the Shuttle's programmed trajectory. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. Evaluation of coated columbium test panels having application to a secondary nozzle extension for the RL10 rocket engine system, parts 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kenneth S.; Castro, Joaquin H.

    1988-01-01

    The activity performed on the screening and evaluation of various coatings for application on columbium alloy test panels representative of a radiation-cooled nozzle extension for the RL10 rocket engine is summarized. Vendors and processes of candidate coatings were evaluated. Post engine test evaluations of the two selected coatings are discussed.

  1. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratekin, G.; Goldman, Allen; Ortwerth, P.; Weisberg, S.; McArthur, J. Craig (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems is part of a 12 year effort under both company funding and contract work. The concept is a fixed geometry integrated rocket, ramjet, scramjet, which is hydrogen fueled and uses hydrogen regenerative cooling. The baseline engine structural configuration uses an integral structure that eliminates panel seals, seal purge gas, and closeout side attachments. Engine A5 is the current configuration for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the ART program. Engine A5 models the complete flight engine flowpath of inlet, isolator, airbreathing combustor, and nozzle. High-performance rocket thrusters are integrated into the engine enabling both low speed air-augmented rocket (AAR) and high speed pure rocket operation. Engine A5 was tested in GASL's new Flight Acceleration Simulation Test (FAST) facility in all four operating modes, AAR, RAM, SCRAM, and Rocket. Additionally, transition from AAR to RAM and RAM to SCRAM was also demonstrated. Measured performance demonstrated vision vehicle performance levels for Mach 3 AAR operation and ramjet operation from Mach 3 to 4. SCRAM and rocket mode performance was above predictions. For the first time, testing also demonstrated transition between operating modes.

  2. Integration of Flex Nozzle System and Electro Hydraulic Actuators to Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayani, Kishore Nath; Bajaj, Dinesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    A rocket motor assembly comprised of solid rocket motor and flex nozzle system. Integration of flex nozzle system and hydraulic actuators to the solid rocket motors are done after transportation to the required place where integration occurred. The flex nozzle system is integrated to the rocket motor in horizontal condition and the electro hydraulic actuators are assembled to the flex nozzle systems. The electro hydraulic actuators are connected to the hydraulic power pack to operate the actuators. The nozzle-motor critical interface are insulation diametrical compression, inhibition resin-28, insulation facial compression, shaft seal `O' ring compression and face seal `O' ring compression.

  3. Modified RS2101 rocket engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the program is to perform design studies and analyses to determine the effects of incorporating a 60:1 expansion area ratio nozzle extension, extended firing time, and modified operating conditions and environments on the MM'71 rocket engine assembly. An injector-to-thrust chamber seal study was conducted to define potential solutions for leakage past this joint. The results and recommendations evolving from the engine thermal analyses, the injector-to-thrust chamber seal studies, and the nozzle extension joint stress analyses are presented.

  4. Developments in REDES: The rocket engine design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) is being developed at the NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP, a nozzle design program named RAO, a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE, and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES is built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  5. Developments in REDES: The Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) was developed at NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP; a nozzle design program named RAO; a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE; and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES was built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  6. Rocket nozzle coolant channel thermal analysis program (E25107)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A complete description of the liquid cooled rocket nozzle analysis program (E25107) is presented, including a users manual, program listing, and a sample problem. The program is recommended for use in designing liquid cooled rocket nozzles. In addition, it is adaptable to any system in which a liquid-cooled tubular structure is used to contain and direct the flow of a hot gas.

  7. JANNAF Rocket Nozzle Technology Subcommittee Executive Committee Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Timothy W.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the structure and activities of the panels of the Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force (JANNAF) Rocket Nozzle Technology Subcommittee. The panels profiled are the Processing Science and Materials Panel, the Nozzle Design, Test, and Evaluation Panel, the Nozzle Analysis and Modeling Panel, and the Nozzle Control Systems Panel. The presentation also lists meetings, workshops, and publications in which the subcommittee participated during the reporting period.

  8. Engine throat/nozzle optics for plume spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Duncan, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    The Task 2.0 Engine Throat/Nozzle Optics for Plume Spectroscopy, effort was performed under the NASA LeRC Development of Life Prediction Capabilities for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines program. This Task produced the engineering design of an optical probe to enable spectroscopic measurements within the SSME main chamber. The probe mounts on the SSME nozzle aft manifold and collects light emitted from the throat plane and chamber. Light collected by the probe is transferred to a spectrometer through a fiber optic cable. The design analyses indicate that the probe will function throughout the engine operating cycle and is suitable for both test stand and flight operations. By detecting metallic emissions that are indicative of component degradation or incipient failure, engine shutdown can be initiated before catastrophic failure. This capability will protect valuable test stand hardware and provide enhanced mission safety.

  9. Quasi-One-Dimensional Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated considerable research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred a great deal of interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the difficulties in comparing the available experimental measurements with numerical models. In a previous paper by the author, parametric studies of the performance of a single, straight-tube PDRE were reported. A 1-D, unsteady method of characteristics code, employing a constant-gamma assumption behind the detonation front, was developed for that study. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and are particularly useful for parametric performance comparisons. For example, a plot showing the specific impulse of various PDRE and steady-state rocket engine (SSRE) configurations as a function of blowdown pressure ratio. The performance curves clearly indicate that a straight-tube PDRE is superior in specific impulse to a SSRE with a sonic nozzle over the entire range of pressure ratios. Note, however, that a straight-tube PDRE in general does not compare favorably to a SSRE fitted with an optimized de Laval supersonic nozzle, particularly at the high pressure ratios typical for boost or in-space rocket applications. However, the calculations also show that if a dynamically optimized, supersonic de Laval nozzle could be could be fitted to a PDRE, then the specific impulse of the device would exceed that of a comparable SSRE

  10. Thrust Augmented Nozzle for a Hybrid Rocket with a Helical Fuel Port

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Joel H.

    A thrust augmented nozzle for hybrid rocket systems is investigated. The design lever-ages 3-D additive manufacturing to embed a helical fuel port into the thrust chamber of a hybrid rocket burning gaseous oxygen and ABS plastic as propellants. The helical port significantly increases how quickly the fuel burns, resulting in a fuel-rich exhaust exiting the nozzle. When a secondary gaseous oxygen flow is injected into the nozzle downstream of the throat, all of the remaining unburned fuel in the plume spontaneously ignites. This secondary reaction produces additional high pressure gases that are captured by the nozzle and significantly increases the motor's performance. Secondary injection and combustion allows a high expansion ratio (area of the nozzle exit divided by area of the throat) to be effective at low altitudes where there would normally be significantly flow separation and possibly an embedded shock wave due. The result is a 15 percent increase in produced thrust level with no loss in engine efficiency due to secondary injection. Core flow efficiency was increased significantly. Control tests performed using cylindrical fuel ports with secondary injection, and helical fuel ports without secondary injection did not exhibit this performance increase. Clearly, both the fuel-rich plume and secondary injection are essential features allowing the hybrid thrust augmentation to occur. Techniques for better design optimization are discussed.

  11. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  12. Design and Testing of a Liquid Nitrous Oxide and Ethanol Fueled Rocket Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Stewart

    A small-scale, bi-propellant, liquid fueled rocket engine and supporting test infrastructure were designed and constructed at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC). This facility was used to evaluate liquid nitrous oxide and ethanol as potential rocket propellants. Thrust and pressure measurements along with high-speed digital imaging of the rocket exhaust plume were made. This experimental data was used for validation of a computational model developed of the rocket engine tested. The developed computational model was utilized to analyze rocket engine performance across a range of operating pressures, fuel-oxidizer mixture ratios, and outlet nozzle configurations. A comparative study ofmore » the modeling of a liquid rocket engine was performed using NASA CEA and Cantera, an opensource equilibrium code capable of being interfaced with MATLAB. One goal of this modeling was to demonstrate the ability of Cantera to accurately model the basic chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics, and transport properties for varied fuel and oxidizer operating conditions. Once validated for basic equilibrium, an expanded MATLAB code, referencing Cantera, was advanced beyond CEAs capabilities to predict rocket engine performance as a function of supplied propellant flow rate and rocket engine nozzle dimensions. Cantera was found to comparable favorably to CEA for making equilibrium calculations, supporting its use as an alternative to CEA. The developed rocket engine performs as predicted, demonstrating the developedMATLAB rocket engine model was successful in predicting real world rocket engine performance. Finally, nitrous oxide and ethanol were shown to perform well as rocket propellants, with specific impulses experimentally recorded in the range of 250 to 260 seconds.« less

  13. AXISYMMETRIC, THROTTLEABLE NON-GIMBALLED ROCKET ENGINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Robert L. (Inventor); Hutt, John J. (Inventor); Anderson, William E. (Inventor); Dressler, Gordon A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A rocket engine assembly is provided for a vertically launched rocket vehicle. A rocket engine housing of the assembly includes two or more combustion chambers each including an outlet end defining a sonic throat area. A propellant supply for the combustion chambers includes a throttling injector, associated with each of the combustion chambers and located opposite to sonic throat area, which injects the propellant into the associated combustion chamber. A modulator, which may form part of the injector, and which is controlled by a controller, modulates the flow rate of the propellant to the combustion chambers so that the chambers provide a vectorable net thrust. An expansion nozzle or body located downstream of the throat area provides expansion of the combustion gases produced by the combustion chambers so as to increase the net thrust.

  14. NASA Engineer Examines the Design of a Regeneratively-Cooled Rocket Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-12-21

    An engineer at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center examines a drawing showing the assembly and details of a 20,000-pound thrust regeneratively cooled rocket engine. The engine was being designed for testing in Lewis’ new Rocket Engine Test Facility, which began operating in the fall of 1957. The facility was the largest high-energy test facility in the country that was capable of handling liquid hydrogen and other liquid chemical fuels. The facility’s use of subscale engines up to 20,000 pounds of thrust permitted a cost-effective method of testing engines under various conditions. The Rocket Engine Test Facility was critical to the development of the technology that led to the use of hydrogen as a rocket fuel and the development of lightweight, regeneratively-cooled, hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. Regeneratively-cooled engines use the cryogenic liquid hydrogen as both the propellant and the coolant to prevent the engine from burning up. The fuel was fed through rows of narrow tubes that surrounded the combustion chamber and nozzle before being ignited inside the combustion chamber. The tubes are visible in the liner sitting on the desk. At the time, Pratt and Whitney was designing a 20,000-pound thrust liquid-hydrogen rocket engine, the RL-10. Two RL-10s would be used to power the Centaur second-stage rocket in the 1960s. The successful development of the Centaur rocket and the upper stages of the Saturn V were largely credited to the work carried out Lewis.

  15. Rocket nozzle thermal shock tests in an arc heater facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, James H.; Williamson, Ronald A.

    1986-01-01

    A rocket motor nozzle thermal structural test technique that utilizes arc heated nitrogen to simulate a motor burn was developed. The technique was used to test four heavily instrumented full-scale Star 48 rocket motor 2D carbon/carbon segments at conditions simulating the predicted thermal-structural environment. All four nozzles survived the tests without catastrophic or other structural failures. The test technique demonstrated promise as a low cost, controllable alternative to rocket motor firing. The technique includes the capability of rapid termination in the event of failure, allowing post-test analysis.

  16. Star 48 solid rocket motor nozzle analyses and instrumented firings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The analyses and testing performed by NASA in support of an expanded and improved nozzle design data base for use by the U.S. solid rocket motor industry is presented. A production nozzle with a history of one ground failure and two flight failures was selected for analyses and testing. The stress analysis was performed with the Champion computer code developed by the U.S. Navy. Several improvements were made to the code. Strain predictions were made and compared to test data. Two short duration motor firings were conducted with highly instrumented nozzles. The first nozzle had 58 thermocouples, 66 strain gages, and 8 bondline pressure measurements. The second nozzle had 59 thermocouples, 68 strain measurements, and 8 bondline pressure measurements. Most of this instrumentation was on the nonmetallic parts, and provided significantly more thermal and strain data on the nonmetallic components of a nozzle than has been accumulated in a solid rocket motor test to date.

  17. Modified computation of the nozzle damping coefficient in solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peijin; Wang, Muxin; Yang, Wenjing; Gupta, Vikrant; Guan, Yu; Li, Larry K. B.

    2018-02-01

    In solid rocket motors, the bulk advection of acoustic energy out of the nozzle constitutes a significant source of damping and can thus influence the thermoacoustic stability of the system. In this paper, we propose and test a modified version of a historically accepted method of calculating the nozzle damping coefficient. Building on previous work, we separate the nozzle from the combustor, but compute the acoustic admittance at the nozzle entry using the linearized Euler equations (LEEs) rather than with short nozzle theory. We compute the combustor's acoustic modes also with the LEEs, taking the nozzle admittance as the boundary condition at the combustor exit while accounting for the mean flow field in the combustor using an analytical solution to Taylor-Culick flow. We then compute the nozzle damping coefficient via a balance of the unsteady energy flux through the nozzle. Compared with established methods, the proposed method offers competitive accuracy at reduced computational costs, helping to improve predictions of thermoacoustic instability in solid rocket motors.

  18. Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Research at NASA Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2003-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modeling task. A quasi 1-D, finite-rate chemistry CFD model for a PDRE is described and implemented. A parametric study of the effect of blowdown pressure ratio on the performance of an optimized, fixed PDRE nozzle configuration is reported. The results are compared to a steady-state rocket system using similar modeling assumptions.

  19. Parametric study of solar thermal rocket nozzle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Landrum, D. Brian; Hawk, Clark W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper details a numerical investigation of performance losses in low-thrust solar thermal rocket nozzles. The effects of nozzle geometry on three types of losses were studied; finite rate dissociation-recombination kinetic losses, two dimensional axisymmetric divergence losses, and compressible viscous boundary layer losses. Short nozzle lengths and supersonic flow produce short residence times in the nozzle and a nearly frozen flow, resulting in large kinetic losses. Variations in geometry have a minimal effect on kinetic losses. Divergence losses are relatively small, and careful shaping of the nozzle can nearly eliminate them. The boundary layer in these small nozzles can grow to a major fraction of nozzle radius, and cause large losses. These losses are attributed to viscous drag on the nozzle walls and flow blockage by the boundary layer, especially in the throat region. Careful shaping of the nozzle can produce a significant reduction in viscous losses.

  20. Numerical simulation of film-cooled ablative rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landrum, D. B.; Beard, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research effort was to evaluate the impact of incorporating an additional cooling port downstream between the injector and nozzle throat in the NASA Fast Track chamber. A numerical model of the chamber was developed for the analysis. The analysis did not model ablation but instead correlated the initial ablation rate with the initial nozzle wall temperature distribution. The results of this study provide guidance in the development of a potentially lighter, second generation ablative rocket nozzle which maintains desired performance levels.

  1. Transpiration cooled throat for hydrocarbon rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Lee R.; Burkhardt, Wendel M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective for the Transpiration Cooled Throat for Hydrocarbon Rocket Engines Program was to characterize the use of hydrocarbon fuels as transpiration coolants for rocket nozzle throats. The hydrocarbon fuels investigated in this program were RP-1 and methane. To adequately characterize the above transpiration coolants, a program was planned which would (1) predict engine system performance and life enhancements due to transpiration cooling of the throat region using analytical models, anchored with available data; (2) a versatile transpiration cooled subscale rocket thrust chamber was designed and fabricated; (3) the subscale thrust chamber was tested over a limited range of conditions, e.g., coolant type, chamber pressure, transpiration cooled length, and coolant flow rate; and (4) detailed data analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between the key performance and life enhancement variables.

  2. Development and Testing of Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extensions for Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Defense (DOD) requirements, as well as those of the broader Commercial Space industry. For NASA, C-C nozzle extension technology development primarily supports the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) and NASA's Commercial Space partners. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) efforts are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases needed to enable the use of composite nozzle extensions on cryogenic upper stage engines, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing and qualifying composite nozzle extensions. Recent, on-going, and potential future work supporting NASA, DOD, and Commercial Space needs will be discussed. Information to be presented will include (a) recent and on-going mechanical, thermal, and hot-fire testing, as well as (b) potential future efforts to further develop and qualify domestic C-C nozzle extension solutions for the various upper stage engines under development.

  3. The prediction of three-dimensional liquid-propellant rocket nozzle admittances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, W. A.; Zinn, B. T.

    1973-01-01

    Crocco's three-dimensional nozzle admittance theory is extended to be applicable when the amplitudes of the combustor and nozzle oscillations increase or decrease with time. An analytical procedure and a computer program for determining nozzle admittance values from the extended theory are presented and used to compute the admittances of a family of liquid-propellant rocket nozzles. The calculated results indicate that the nozzle geometry entrance Mach number and temporal decay coefficient significantly affect the nozzle admittance values. The theoretical predictions are shown to be in good agreement with available experimental data.

  4. 29. SATURN ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SATURN ROCKET ENGINE LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF STATIC TEST STAND - DETAILS OF THE EXPANSION NOZZLE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. Annular Internal-External-Expansion Rocket Nozzles for Large Booster Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, James F.; Cubbison, Robert W.; Mitchell, Glenn A.

    1961-01-01

    For large-thrust booster applications, annular rocket nozzles employing both internal and external expansion are investigated. In these nozzles, free-stream air flows through the center as well as around the outside of the exiting jet. Flaps for deflecting the rocket exhaust are incorporated on the external-expansion surface for thrust-vector control. In order to define nozzle off-design performance, thrust vectoring effectiveness, and external stream effects, an experimental investigation was conducted on two annular nozzles with area ratios of 15 and 25 at Mach 0, 2, and 3 in the Lewis 10- by 10-foot wind tunnel. Air, pressurized to 600 pounds per square inch absolute, was used to simulate the exhaust flow. For a nozzle-pressure-ratio range of 40 to 1000, the ratio of actual to ideal thrust was essentially constant at 0.98 for both nozzles. Compared with conventional convergent-divergent configurations on hypothetical boost missions, the performance gains of the annular nozzle could yield significant orbital payload increases (possibly 8 to 17 percent). A single flap on the external-expansion surface of the area-ratio-25 annular nozzle produced a side force equal to 4 percent of the axial force with no measurable loss in axial thrust.

  6. Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Research at NASA Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation provides an overview of research being conducted on Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines (PDRE) by the Propulsion Research Center (PRC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. PDREs have a theoretical thermodynamic advantage over Steady-State Rocket Engines (SSREs) although unsteady blowdown processes complicate effective use of this advantage in practice; PRE is engaged in a fundamental study of PDRE gas dynamics to improve understanding of performance issues. Topics covered include: simplified PDRE cycle, comparison of PDRE and SSRE performance, numerical modeling of quasi 1-D rocket flows, time-accurate thrust calculations, finite-rate chemistry effects in nozzles, effect of F-R chemistry on specific impulse, effect of F-R chemistry on exit species mole fractions and PDRE performance optimization studies.

  7. Nozzle erosion characterization and minimization for high-pressure rocket motor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Brian

    Understanding of the processes that cause nozzle throat erosion and developing methods for mitigation of erosion rate can allow higher operating pressures for advanced rocket motors. However, erosion of the nozzle throat region, which is a strong function of operating pressure, must be controlled to realize the performance gains of higher operating pressures. The objective of this work was the study the nozzle erosion rates at a broad range of pressures from 7 to 34.5 MPa (1,000 to 5,000 psia) using two different rocket motors. The first is an instrumented solidpropellant motor (ISPM), which uses two baseline solid propellants; one is a non-metallized propellant called Propellant S and the other is a metallized propellant called Propellant M. The second test rig is a non-metallized solid-propellant rocket motor simulator (RMS). The RMS is a gas rocket with the ability to vary the combustion-product species composition by systematically varying the flow rates of gaseous reactants. Several reactant mixtures were utilized in the study to determine the relative importance of different oxidizing species (such as H2O, OH, and CO2). Both test rigs are equipped with a windowed nozzle section for real-time X-ray radiography diagnostics of the instantaneous throat variations for deducing the instantaneous erosion rates. The nozzle test section for both motors can also incorporate a nozzle boundary-layer control system (NBLCS) as a means of nozzle erosion mitigation. The effectiveness of the NBLCS at preventing nozzle throat erosion was demonstrated for both the RMS and the ISPM motors at chamber pressures up to 34 MPa (4930 psia). All tests conducted with the NBLCS showed signs of coning of the propellant surface, leading to increased mass burning rate and resultant chamber pressure. Two correlations were developed for the nozzle erosion rates from solid propellant testing, one for metallized propellant and one for non-metallized propellants. The non-metallized propellant

  8. Axisymmetric Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2005-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred considerable interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the progress that has been made in comparing the available experimental measurements with analytical and numerical models. In recent work by the author, a quasi-one-dimensional, finite rate chemistry CFD model was utilized to study the gasdynamics and performance characteristics of PDREs over a range of blowdown pressure ratios from 1-1000. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and enable first-order parametric studies of the effect of several nozzle and extension geometries on PDRE performance over a wide range of conditions. However, the quasi-one-dimensional approach is limited in that it cannot properly capture the multidimensional blast wave and flow expansion downstream of the PDRE, nor can it resolve nozzle flow separation if present. Moreover, the previous work was limited to single-pulse calculations. In this paper, an axisymmetric finite rate chemistry model is described and utilized to study these issues in greater detail. Example Mach number contour plots showing the multidimensional blast wave and nozzle exhaust plume are shown. The performance results are compared with the quasi-one-dimensional results from the previous paper. Both Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions are calculated in order to determine the effect of viscous

  9. Dual nozzle design update. [on liquid rocket engines for advanced earth-to-orbit transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    Dual-nozzle engines, such as the dual-throat and dual-expander engines, are being evaluated for advanced earth-to-orbit transportation systems. Potential derivatives of the Space Shuttle and completely new vehicles might benefit from these advanced engines. In this paper, progress in the design of single-fuel and dual-fuel dual-nozzle engines is summarized. Dual-nozzle engines include those burning propellants such as LOX/RP-1/LH2, LOX/LC3H8/LH2, LOX/LCH4/LH2, LOX/LH2/LH2, LOX/LCH4/LCH4, LOX/LC3H8/C3H8 and N2O4/MMH/LH2. Engine data are applicable for thrust levels from 200,000 through 670,000 lbF. The results indicate that several versions of these engines utilize state-of-the-art technology and that even advanced versions of these engines do not require a major breakthrough in technology.

  10. Thermal Barriers Developed for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Space shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed with conventional O-ring seals that are shielded from 5500 F combustion gases by thick layers of insulation and by special joint-fill compounds that fill assembly splitlines in the insulation. On a number of occasions, NASA has observed hot gas penetration through defects in the joint-fill compound of several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints. In the current nozzle-to-case joint, NASA has observed penetration of hot combustion gases through the joint-fill compound to the inboard wiper O-ring in one out of seven motors. Although this condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas penetration to the wiper O-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. The solid rocket motor manufacturer (Thiokol) approached the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field about the possibility of applying Glenn's braided fiber preform seal as a thermal barrier to protect the O-ring seals. Glenn and Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and by using a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier that would resist any hot gases that the J-leg does not block.

  11. Research Amplitudo Vibration On Holder Due To The Process Of Lathe Nozzle Rocket RX 450

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ediwan; Budi Djatmiko, Agus; Dody Arisandi, EfFendy; Purnomo, Heri; Ibadi, Mahfud

    2018-04-01

    The main function of the rocket nozzle is to convert the enthalpy efficiency from combustion gas to kinetic energy and also to make high velocity out of the gas. The rocket nozzle usually consists of a converging and diverging part. With a smaller area on the neck and enlarged at the exit area. The velocity flow through the nozzle enlarges into the speed of sound through the neck and then becomes super sonic in the divergent part. Nozzle making or machining using conventional lathes, first performed is drilling on a massive metal that is bonded to the veneer, then after a sufficient gap is done deep-boring. At the time of the process of lathe in the nozzle RX 450 there is an obstacle that is vibrating tool holder chisel or holder so it is worried about not precision of the process of lathe. This should not happen because it can cause failure in the latter for it needs to be studied and studied further so that the lathe process goes accordingly. The holder material of ST 60 with a modulus of elasticity 200 GPa and a nozzle material of AISI 4340 alloy steel with σyield = 470 MPa, Shear Modulus G = 80 GPa. The purpose of this research is to observe the amplitude of vibration on the holder due to RX- 450 nozzle lathe processing for the purpose of amplitude that occurs in accordance with the desired so that the nozzle structure is no damage process. The result of the research was obtained holder with length (L) 80cm, profile width (B) 5 cm, height of profile (H) 10 cm, turning machine ω = 8.98 rad / sec and natural holder frequency ωn = 89.8 rad / second, Amplitude of vibration of δ = 1.21 mm, while the amplitude of the design X = 1.22 mm From the results of this study it can be said that the holder of a chisel or holder can be used as a tool at the time of RX nozzle retrieval process and is quite safe because it works under the condition ω/ω n <0 3 (Plans and Specifications of A Suborbital Rocket Payload "AKPV Engineering University of Wyoming 2009 )

  12. Turbo Pump Fed Micro-Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotti, P.; Tajmar, M.; Seco, F.; Guraya, C.; Perennes, F.; Soldati, A.; Lang, M.

    2004-10-01

    Micro-satellites (from 10kg up to 100kg) have mass, volume, and electrical power constraints due to their low dimensions. These limitations lead to the lack in currently available active orbit control systems in micro-satellites. Therefore, a micro-propulsion system with a high thrust to mass ratio is required to increase the potential functionality of small satellites. Mechatronic is presently working on a liquid bipropellant micro-rocket engine under contract with ESA (Contract No.16914/NL/Sfe - Micro-turbo-machinery Based Bipropellant System Using MNT). The advances in Mechatronic's project are to realise a micro-rocket engine with propellants pressurised by micro-pumps. The energy for driving the pumps would be extracted from a micro-turbine. Cooling channels around the nozzle would be also used in order to maintain the wall material below its maximum operating temperature. A mass budget comparison with more traditional pressure-fed micro-rockets shows a real benefit from this system in terms of mass reduction. In the paper, an overview of the project status in Mechatronic is presented.

  13. Conjugate Analysis of Two-Dimensional Ablation and Pyrolysis in Rocket Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Peter G.

    The development of a methodology and computational framework for performing conjugate analyses of transient, two-dimensional ablation of pyrolyzing materials in rocket nozzle applications is presented. This new engineering methodology comprehensively incorporates fluid-thermal-chemical processes relevant to nozzles and other high temperature components, making it possible, for the first time, to rigorously capture the strong interactions and interdependencies that exist between the reacting flowfield and the ablating material. By basing thermal protection system engineering more firmly on first principles, improved analysis accuracy can be achieved. The computational framework developed in this work couples a multi-species, reacting flow solver to a two-dimensional material response solver. New capabilities are added to the flow solver in order to be able to model unique aspects of the flow through solid rocket nozzles. The material response solver is also enhanced with new features that enable full modeling of pyrolyzing, anisotropic materials with a true two-dimensional treatment of the porous flow of the pyrolysis gases. Verification and validation studies demonstrating correct implementation of these new models in the flow and material response solvers are also presented. Five different treatments of the surface energy balance at the ablating wall, with increasing levels of fidelity, are investigated. The Integrated Equilibrium Surface Chemistry (IESC) treatment computes the surface energy balance and recession rate directly from the diffusive fluxes at the ablating wall, without making transport coefficient or unity Lewis number assumptions, or requiring pre-computed surface thermochemistry tables. This method provides the highest level of fidelity, and can inherently account for the effects that recession, wall temperature, blowing, and the presence of ablation product species in the boundary layer have on the flowfield and ablation response. Multiple

  14. Experimental thrust performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, Albert J.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Smith, Tamara A.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust performance attainable from high-area-ratio rocket nozzles. A modified Rao-contoured nozzle with an expansion area of 1030 was test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants at altitude conditions. The nozzle was also tested as a truncated nozzle, at an expansion area ratio of 428. Thrust coefficient and thrust coefficient efficiency values are presented for each configuration at various propellant mixture ratios (oxygen/fuel). Several procedural techniques were developed permitting improved measurement of nozzle performance. The more significant of these were correcting the thrust for the aneroid effects, determining the effective chamber pressure, and referencing differential pressure transducers to a vacuum reference tank.

  15. Experimental thrust performance of a high area-ratio rocket nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, A. J.; Kacynski, K. J.; Smith, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust performance attainable from high-area-ratio rocket nozzles. A modified Rao-contoured nozzle with an expansion area of 1030 was test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants at altitude conditions. The nozzle was also tested as a truncated nozzle, at an expansion area ratio of 428. Thrust coefficient and thrust coefficient efficiency values are presented for each configuration at various propellant mixture ratios (oxygen/fuel). Several procedural techniques were developed permitting improved measurement of nozzle performance. The more significant of these were correcting the thrust for the aneroid effects, determining the effective chamber pressure, and referencing differential pressure transducers to a vacuum reference tank.

  16. End-effects-regime in full scale and lab scale rocket nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Raymundo; Tinney, Charles; Baars, Woutijn; Ruf, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Modern rockets utilize a thrust-optimized parabolic-contour design for their nozzles for its high performance and reliability. However, the evolving internal flow structures within these high area ratio rocket nozzles during start up generate a powerful amount of vibro-acoustic loads that act on the launch vehicle. Modern rockets must be designed to accommodate for these heavy loads or else risk a catastrophic failure. This study quantifies a particular moment referred to as the ``end-effects regime,'' or the largest source of vibro-acoustic loading during start-up [Nave & Coffey, AIAA Paper 1973-1284]. Measurements from full scale ignitions are compared with aerodynamically scaled representations in a fully anechoic chamber. Laboratory scale data is then matched with both static and dynamic wall pressure measurements to capture the associating shock structures within the nozzle. The event generated during the ``end-effects regime'' was successfully reproduced in the both the lab-scale models, and was characterized in terms of its mean, variance and skewness, as well as the spectral properties of the signal obtained by way of time-frequency analyses.

  17. Experimental Altitude Performance of JP-4 Fuel and Liquid-Oxygen Rocket Engine with an Area Ratio of 48

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, Anthony; Hendrix, Charles D.; Huff, Vearl N.

    1959-01-01

    The performance for four altitudes (sea-level, 51,000, 65,000, and 70,000 ft) of a rocket engine having a nozzle area ratio of 48.39 and using JP-4 fuel and liquid oxygen as a propellant was evaluated experimentally by use of a 1000-pound-thrust engine operating at a chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute. The altitude environment was obtained by a rocket-ejector system which utilized the rocket exhaust gases as the pumping fluid of the ejector. Also, an engine having a nozzle area ratio of 5.49 designed for sea level was tested at sea-level conditions. The following table lists values from faired experimental curves at an oxidant-fuel ratio of 2.3 for various approximate altitudes.

  18. Proposed Flight Research of a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Using the NASA F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating rocket nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. This presentation proposes a method for conducting testing and research with a dual-bell rocket nozzle in a flight environment. We propose to leverage the existing NASA F-15 airplane and Propulsion Flight Test Fixture as the flight testbed, with the dual-bell nozzle operating during captive-carried flights, and with the nozzle subjected to a local flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is not only to advance the technology readiness level of the dual-bell nozzle, but also to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle mode transitional sensitivity to local flow-field effects, and to quantify the performance benefits with this technology. The predicted performance benefits are significant, and may result in reducing the cost of delivering payloads to low-Earth orbit.

  19. Proposed Flight Research of a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Using the NASA F-15 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating rocket nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. This paper proposes a method for conducting testing and research with a dual-bell rocket nozzle in a flight environment. We propose to leverage the existing NASA F-15 airplane and Propulsion Flight Test Fixture as the flight testbed, with the dual-bell nozzle operating during captive-carried flights, and with the nozzle subjected to a local flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is not only to advance the technology readiness level of the dual-bell nozzle, but also to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle mode transitional sensitivity to local flow-field effects, and to quantify the performance benefits with this technology. The predicted performance benefits are significant, and may result in reducing the cost of delivering payloads to low-Earth orbit.

  20. Computer codes for thermal analysis of a solid rocket motor nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    1988-01-01

    A number of computer codes are available for performing thermal analysis of solid rocket motor nozzles. Aerotherm Chemical Equilibrium (ACE) computer program can be used to perform one-dimensional gas expansion to determine the state of the gas at each location of a nozzle. The ACE outputs can be used as input to a computer program called Momentum/Energy Integral Technique (MEIT) for predicting boundary layer development development, shear, and heating on the surface of the nozzle. The output from MEIT can be used as input to another computer program called Aerotherm Charring Material Thermal Response and Ablation Program (CMA). This program is used to calculate oblation or decomposition response of the nozzle material. A code called Failure Analysis Nonlinear Thermal and Structural Integrated Code (FANTASTIC) is also likely to be used for performing thermal analysis of solid rocket motor nozzles after the program is duly verified. A part of the verification work on FANTASTIC was done by using one and two dimension heat transfer examples with known answers. An attempt was made to prepare input for performing thermal analysis of the CCT nozzle using the FANTASTIC computer code. The CCT nozzle problem will first be solved by using ACE, MEIT, and CMA. The same problem will then be solved using FANTASTIC. These results will then be compared for verification of FANTASTIC.

  1. Numerical and experimental study of liquid breakup process in solid rocket motor nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Yi-Hsin

    Rocket propulsion is an important travel method for space exploration and national defense, rockets needs to be able to withstand wide range of operation environment and also stable and precise enough to carry sophisticated payload into orbit, those engineering requirement makes rocket becomes one of the state of the art industry. The rocket family have been classified into two major group of liquid and solid rocket based on the fuel phase of liquid or solid state. The solid rocket has the advantages of simple working mechanism, less maintenance and preparing procedure and higher storage safety, those characters of solid rocket make it becomes popular in aerospace industry. Aluminum based propellant is widely used in solid rocket motor (SRM) industry due to its avalibility, combusion performance and economical fuel option, however after aluminum react with oxidant of amonimum perchrate (AP), it will generate liquid phase alumina (Al2O3) as product in high temperature (2,700˜3,000 K) combustion chamber enviornment. The liquid phase alumina particles aggromorate inside combustion chamber into larger particle which becomes major erosion calprit on inner nozzle wall while alumina aggromorates impinge on the nozzle wall surface. The erosion mechanism result nozzle throat material removal, increase the performance optimized throat diameter and reduce nozzle exit to throat area ratio which leads to the reduction of exhaust gas velocity, Mach number and lower the propulsion thrust force. The approach to avoid particle erosion phenomenon taking place in SRM's nozzle is to reduce the alumina particle size inside combustion chamber which could be done by further breakup of the alumina droplet size in SRM's combustion chamber. The study of liquid breakup mechanism is an important means to smaller combustion chamber alumina droplet size and mitigate the erosion tack place on rocket nozzle region. In this study, a straight two phase air-water flow channel experiment is set up

  2. 2011-2012 Dryden Center Innovation Fund End of the Year Report: Altitude-Compensating Rocket Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.

    2012-01-01

    This report highlights one of the many successful projects at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center that was approved for FY12 funding under the Center Innovation Fund. This project was focused on advancing the technology readiness level of one specific type of altitude-compensating nozzle: the dual-bell rocket nozzle. When considering a rocket's performance over its entire integrated trajectory, the dual-bell nozzle has been predicted to achieve a higher total impulse over the conventional bell nozzle, which is expected to result in a greater capability of payload mass to low-Earth orbit. Although the dual-bell rocket nozzle has been thoroughly studied for several decades, this nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight-like environment. This report provides highlights and top-level details on the FY12 feasibility effort to advance this promising technology through flight test, a collaborative effort which leverages NASA Marshall's dual-bell nozzle research and development with Dryden's expertise in propulsion-focused flight testing. To accomplish this goal, the NASA F-15B is proposed as the testbed for the initial flight-test campaign to advance this greatly needed capability.

  3. Instrumentation for In-Flight SSME Rocket Engine Plume Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.; Bickford, Randall L.; Duncan, David B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes instrumentation that is under development for an in-flight demonstration of a plume spectroscopy system on the space shuttle main engine. The instrumentation consists of a nozzle mounted optical probe for observation of the plume, and a spectrometer for identification and quantification of plume content. This instrumentation, which is intended for use as a diagnostic tool to detect wear and incipient failure in rocket engines, will be validated by a hardware demonstration on the Technology Test Bed engine at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. Technicians Manufacture a Nozzle for the Kiwi B-1-B Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-05-21

    Technicians manufacture a nozzle for the Kiwi B-1-B nuclear rocket engine in the Fabrication Shop’s vacuum oven at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) was a joint NASA and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) endeavor to develop a nuclear-powered rocket for both long-range missions to Mars and as a possible upper-stage for the Apollo Program. The early portion of the program consisted of basic reactor and fuel system research. This was followed by a series of Kiwi reactors built to test basic nuclear rocket principles in a non-flying nuclear engine. The next phase, NERVA, would create an entire flyable engine. The final phase of the program, called Reactor-In-Flight-Test, would be an actual launch test. The AEC was responsible for designing the nuclear reactor and overall engine. NASA Lewis was responsible for developing the liquid-hydrogen fuel system. The turbopump, which pumped the fuels from the storage tanks to the engine, was the primary tool for restarting the engine. The NERVA had to be able to restart in space on its own using a safe preprogrammed startup system. Lewis researchers endeavored to design and test this system. This non-nuclear Kiwi engine, seen here, was being prepared for tests at Lewis’ High Energy Rocket Engine Research Facility (B-1) located at Plum Brook Station. The tests were designed to start an unfueled Kiwi B-1-B reactor and its Aerojet Mark IX turbopump without any external power.

  5. Development of moldable carbonaceous materials for ablative rocket nozzles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, R. J.; Bortz, S. A.; Schwartz, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a materials system developed for use as low-cost ablative nozzles for NASA's 260-in. solid rocket motor. Petroleum coke and carbon black fillers were employed; high density was achieved by controlling particle size distribution. An alumina catalyzed furfuryl ester resin which produced high carbon residues after pyrolysis was employed as the binder. Staple carbon fibers improved the strength and crack resistance of molded bodies. In static firing tests of two subscale nozzles, this material compared favorably in erosion rate with several other ablative systems.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis of axisymmetric plume and base flow of film/dump cooled rocket nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. K.; Warsi, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Film/dump cooling a rocket nozzle with fuel rich gas, as in the National Launch System (NLS) Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), adds potential complexities for integrating the engine with the vehicle. The chief concern is that once the film coolant is exhausted from the nozzle, conditions may exist during flight for the fuel-rich film gases to be recirculated to the vehicle base region. The result could be significantly higher base temperatures than would be expected from a regeneratively cooled nozzle. CFD analyses were conduced to augment classical scaling techniques for vehicle base environments. The FDNS code with finite rate chemistry was used to simulate a single, axisymmetric STME plume and the NLS base area. Parallel calculations were made of the Saturn V S-1 C/F1 plume base area flows. The objective was to characterize the plume/freestream shear layer for both vehicles as inputs for scaling the S-C/F1 flight data to NLS/STME conditions. The code was validated on high speed flows with relevant physics. This paper contains the calculations for the NLS/STME plume for the baseline nozzle and a modified nozzle. The modified nozzle was intended to reduce the fuel available for recirculation to the vehicle base region. Plumes for both nozzles were calculated at 10kFT and 50kFT.

  7. Ablative material testing for low-pressure, low-cost rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, G. Paul; Smith, Timothy D.

    1995-01-01

    The results of an experimental evaluation of ablative materials suitable for the production of light weight, low cost rocket engine combustion chambers and nozzles are presented. Ten individual specimens of four different compositions of silica cloth-reinforced phenolic resin materials were evaluated for comparative erosion in a subscale rocket engine combustion chamber. Gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen were used as propellants, operating at a nominal chamber pressure of 1138 kPa (165 psi) and a nominal mixture ratio (O/F) of 3.3. These conditions were used to thermally simulate operation with RP-1 and liquid oxygen, and achieved a specimen throat gas temperature of approximately 2456 K (4420 R). Two high-density composition materials exhibited high erosion resistance, while two low-density compositions exhibited approximately 6-75 times lower average erosion resistance. The results compare favorably with previous testing by NASA and provide adequate data for selection of ablatives for low pressure, low cost rocket engines.

  8. A detailed description of the uncertainty analysis for high area ratio rocket nozzle tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.; Dieck, Ronald H.; Chuang, Isaac

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary uncertainty analysis was performed for the High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle test program which took place at the altitude test capsule of the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Results from the study establish the uncertainty of measured and calculated parameters required for the calculation of rocket engine specific impulse. A generalized description of the uncertainty methodology used is provided. Specific equations and a detailed description of the analysis is presented. Verification of the uncertainty analysis model was performed by comparison with results from the experimental program's data reduction code. Final results include an uncertainty for specific impulse of 1.30 percent. The largest contributors to this uncertainty were calibration errors from the test capsule pressure and thrust measurement devices.

  9. A detailed description of the uncertainty analysis for High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle tests at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.; Dieck, Ronald H.; Chuang, Isaac

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary uncertainty analysis has been performed for the High Area Ratio Rocket Nozzle test program which took place at the altitude test capsule of the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Results from the study establish the uncertainty of measured and calculated parameters required for the calculation of rocket engine specific impulse. A generalized description of the uncertainty methodology used is provided. Specific equations and a detailed description of the analysis are presented. Verification of the uncertainty analysis model was performed by comparison with results from the experimental program's data reduction code. Final results include an uncertainty for specific impulse of 1.30 percent. The largest contributors to this uncertainty were calibration errors from the test capsule pressure and thrust measurement devices.

  10. Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites for Earth-to-orbit rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmeyer, Jerry W.; Schnittgrund, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (FRCMC) are emerging materials systems that offer potential for use in liquid rocket engines. Advantages of these materials in rocket engine turbomachinery include performance gain due to higher turbine inlet temperature, reduced launch costs, reduced maintenance with associated cost benefits, and reduced weight. This program was initiated to assess the state of FRCMC development and to propose a plan for their implementation into liquid rocket engine turbomachinery. A complete range of FRCMC materials was investigated relative to their development status and feasibility for use in the hot gas path of earth-to-orbit rocket engine turbomachinery. Of the candidate systems, carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) offers the greatest near-term potential. Critical hot gas path components were identified, and the first stage inlet nozzle and turbine rotor of the fuel turbopump for the liquid oxygen/hydrogen Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) were selected for conceptual design and analysis. The critical issues associated with the use of FRCMC were identified. Turbine blades were designed, analyzed and fabricated. The Technology Development Plan, completed as Task 5 of this program, provides a course of action for resolution of these issues.

  11. Comparison of Rocket Performance using Exhaust Diffuser and Conventional Techniques for Altitude Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, Joseph N.; Peters, Daniel J.

    1959-01-01

    A rocket engine with an exhaust-nozzle area ratio of 25 was operated at a constant chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute over a range of oxidant-fuel ratios at an altitude pressure corresponding to approximately 47,000 feet. At this condition, the nozzle flow is slightly underexpanded as it leaves the nozzle. The altitude simulation was obtained first through the use of an exhaust diffuser coupled with the rocket engine and secondly, in an altitude test chamber where separate exhauster equipment provided the altitude pressure. A comparison of performance data from these two tests has established that a diffuser used with a rocket engine operating at near-design nozzle pressure ratio can be a valid means of obtaining altitude performance data for rocket engines.

  12. Development of Thermal Barriers For Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Joints in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors are sealed by O-rings to contain combustion gases inside the rocket that reach pressures of up to 900 psi and temperatures of up to 5500 F. To provide protection for the O-rings, the motors are insulated with either phenolic or rubber insulation. Gaps in the joints leading up to the O-rings are filled with polysulfide joint-fill compounds as an additional level of protection. The current RSRM nozzle-to-case joint design incorporating primary, secondary, and wiper O-rings experiences gas paths through the joint-fill compound to the innermost wiper O-ring in about one out of every seven motors. Although this does not pose a safety hazard to the motor, it is an undesirable condition that NASA and rocket manufacturer Thiokol want to eliminate. Each nozzle-to-case joint gas path results in extensive reviews and evaluation before flights can be resumed. Thiokol and NASA Marshall are currently working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design that has been used successfully in the field and igniter joint. They are also planning to incorporate the NASA Glenn braided carbon fiber thermal barrier into the joint. The thermal barrier would act as an additional level of protection for the O-rings and allow the elimination of the joint-fill compound from the joint.

  13. Comparison of Engine Cycle Codes for Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waltrup, Paul J.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Bradford, John E.; Carreiro, Louis R.; Gettinger, Christopher; Komar, D. R.; McDonald, J.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from a one day workshop on Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine Cycle Codes held in Monterey CA in November of 2000 at the 2000 JANNAF JPM with the authors as primary participants. The objectives of the workshop were to discuss and compare the merits of existing Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine cycle codes being used by government and industry to predict RBCC engine performance and interpret experimental results. These merits included physical and chemical modeling, accuracy and user friendliness. The ultimate purpose of the workshop was to identify the best codes for analyzing RBCC engines and to document any potential shortcomings, not to demonstrate the merits or deficiencies of any particular engine design. Five cases representative of the operating regimes of typical RBCC engines were used as the basis of these comparisons. These included Mach 0 sea level static and Mach 1.0 and Mach 2.5 Air-Augmented-Rocket (AAR), Mach 4 subsonic combustion ramjet or dual-mode scramjet, and Mach 8 scramjet operating modes. Specification of a generic RBCC engine geometry and concomitant component operating efficiencies, bypass ratios, fuel/oxidizer/air equivalence ratios and flight dynamic pressures were provided. The engine included an air inlet, isolator duct, axial rocket motor/injector, axial wall fuel injectors, diverging combustor, and exit nozzle. Gaseous hydrogen was used as the fuel with the rocket portion of the system using a gaseous H2/O2 propellant system to avoid cryogenic issues. The results of the workshop, even after post-workshop adjudication of differences, were surprising. They showed that the codes predicted essentially the same performance at the Mach 0 and I conditions, but progressively diverged from a common value (for example, for fuel specific impulse, Isp) as the flight Mach number increased, with the largest differences at Mach 8. The example cases and results are compared and discussed in this paper.

  14. Transient Two-Dimensional Analysis of Side Load in Liquid Rocket Engine Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric numerical investigations on the nozzle start-up side load physics were performed. The objective of this study is to develop a computational methodology to identify nozzle side load physics using simplified two-dimensional geometries, in order to come up with a computational strategy to eventually predict the three-dimensional side loads. The computational methodology is based on a multidimensional, finite-volume, viscous, chemically reacting, unstructured-grid, and pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a transient inlet condition based on an engine system modeling. The side load physics captured in the low aspect-ratio, two-dimensional planar nozzle include the Coanda effect, afterburning wave, and the associated lip free-shock oscillation. Results of parametric studies indicate that equivalence ratio, combustion and ramp rate affect the side load physics. The side load physics inferred in the high aspect-ratio, axisymmetric nozzle study include the afterburning wave; transition from free-shock to restricted-shock separation, reverting back to free-shock separation, and transforming to restricted-shock separation again; and lip restricted-shock oscillation. The Mach disk loci and wall pressure history studies reconfirm that combustion and the associated thermodynamic properties affect the formation and duration of the asymmetric flow.

  15. Recovering Aerodynamic Side Loads on Rocket Nozzles using Quasi-Static Strain-Gage Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew; Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.

    2009-01-01

    During over-expanded operation of rocket nozzles, which is defined to be when the exit pressure is greater than internal pressure over some part of the nozzle, the nozzle will experience a transverse forcing function due to the pressure differential across the nozzle wall. Over-expansion occurs during the nozzle start-up and shutdown transient, even in high-altitude engines, because most test facilities cannot completely reproduce the near-vacuum pressures at those altitudes. During this transient, the pressure differential moves axially down the nozzle as it becomes pressurized, but this differential is never perfectly symmetric circumferentially. The character of the forcing function is highly complex and defined by a series of restricted and free shock separations. The subject of this paper is the determination of the magnitude of this loading during sub-scale testing via measurement of the structural dynamic response of the nozzle and its support structure. An initial attempt at back-calculating this load using the inverse of the transfer function was performed, but this attempt was shown to be highly susceptible to numerical error. The final method chosen was to use statically calibrated strain data and to filter out the system fundamental frequency such that the measured response yields close to the correct dynamic loading function. This method was shown to capture 93% of the pressure spectral energy using controlled load shaker testing. This method is one of the only practical ways for the inverse determination of the forcing function for non-stationary excitations, and, to the authors' knowledge, has not been described in the literature to date.

  16. A unique nuclear thermal rocket engine using a particle bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Donald W.; Dahl, Wayne B.; McIlwain, Melvin C.

    1992-01-01

    Aerojet Propulsion Division (APD) studied 75-klb thrust Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines (NTRE) with particle bed reactors (PBR) for application to NASA's manned Mars mission and prepared a conceptual design description of a unique engine that best satisfied mission-defined propulsion requirements and customer criteria. This paper describes the selection of a sprint-type Mars transfer mission and its impact on propulsion system design and operation. It shows how our NTRE concept was developed from this information. The resulting, unusual engine design is short, lightweight, and capable of high specific impulse operation, all factors that decrease Earth to orbit launch costs. Many unusual features of the NTRE are discussed, including nozzle area ratio variation and nozzle closure for closed loop after cooling. Mission performance calculations reveal that other well known engine options do not support this mission.

  17. Rocket Engines Displayed for 1966 Inspection at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-10-21

    An array of rocket engines displayed in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory for the 1966 Inspection held at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Lewis engineers had been working on chemical, nuclear, and solid rocket engines throughout the 1960s. The engines on display are from left to right: two scale models of the Aerojet M-1, a Rocketdyne J-2, a Pratt and Whitney RL-10, and a Rocketdyne throttleable engine. Also on display are several ejector plates and nozzles. The Chemical Rocket Division resolved issues such as combustion instability and screech, and improved operation of cooling systems and turbopumps. The 1.5-million pound thrust M-1 engine was the largest hydrogen-fueled rocket engine ever created. It was a joint project between NASA Lewis and Aerojet-General. Although much larger in size, the M-1 used technology developed for the RL-10 and J-2. The M-1 program was cancelled in late 1965 due to budget cuts and the lack of a post-Apollo mission. The October 1966 Inspection was the culmination of almost a year of events held to mark the centers’ 25th anniversary. The three‐day Inspection, Lewis’ first since 1957, drew 2000 business, industry, and government executives and included an employee open house. The visitors witnessed presentations at the major facilities and viewed the Gemini VII spacecraft, a Centaur rocket, and other displays in the hangar. In addition, Lewis’ newest facility, the Zero Gravity Facility, was shown off for the first time.

  18. Multivariable optimization of liquid rocket engines using particle swarm algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel Ray

    Liquid rocket engines are highly reliable, controllable, and efficient compared to other conventional forms of rocket propulsion. As such, they have seen wide use in the space industry and have become the standard propulsion system for launch vehicles, orbit insertion, and orbital maneuvering. Though these systems are well understood, historical optimization techniques are often inadequate due to the highly non-linear nature of the engine performance problem. In this thesis, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) variant was applied to maximize the specific impulse of a finite-area combustion chamber (FAC) equilibrium flow rocket performance model by controlling the engine's oxidizer-to-fuel ratio and de Laval nozzle expansion and contraction ratios. In addition to the PSO-controlled parameters, engine performance was calculated based on propellant chemistry, combustion chamber pressure, and ambient pressure, which are provided as inputs to the program. The performance code was validated by comparison with NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) and the commercially available Rocket Propulsion Analysis (RPA) tool. Similarly, the PSO algorithm was validated by comparison with brute-force optimization, which calculates all possible solutions and subsequently determines which is the optimum. Particle Swarm Optimization was shown to be an effective optimizer capable of quick and reliable convergence for complex functions of multiple non-linear variables.

  19. High-speed schlieren imaging of rocket exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coultas-McKenney, Caralyn; Winter, Kyle; Hargather, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Experiments are conducted to examine the exhaust of a variety of rocket engines. The rocket engines are mounted in a schlieren system to allow high-speed imaging of the engine exhaust during startup, steady state, and shutdown. A variety of rocket engines are explored including a research-scale liquid rocket engine, consumer/amateur solid rocket motors, and water bottle rockets. Comparisons of the exhaust characteristics, thrust and cost for this range of rockets is presented. The variety of nozzle designs, target functions, and propellant type provides unique variations in the schlieren imaging.

  20. Base Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Four-Nozzle Clustered Rocket Engine: Effect of Nozzle Pressure Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, R.; Kandula, M.; Duncil, L.; Schallhorn, P.

    2010-01-01

    The base pressure and heating characteristics of a four-nozzle clustered rocket configuration is studied numerically with the aid of OVERFLOW Navier-Stokes code. A pressure ratio (chamber pressure to freestream static pressure) range of 990 to 5,920 and a freestream Mach number range of 2.5 to 3.5 are studied. The qualitative trends of decreasing base pressure with increasing pressure ratio and increasing base heat flux with increasing pressure ratio are correctly predicted. However, the predictions for base pressure and base heat flux show deviations from the wind tunnel data. The differences in absolute values between the computation and the data are attributed to factors such as perfect gas (thermally and calorically perfect) assumption, turbulence model inaccuracies in the simulation, and lack of grid adaptation.

  1. A Historical Systems Study of Liquid Rocket Engine Throttling Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betts, Erin M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive systems study to examine and evaluate throttling capabilities of liquid rocket engines. The focus of this study is on engine components, and how the interactions of these components are considered for throttling applications. First, an assessment of space mission requirements is performed to determine what applications require engine throttling. A background on liquid rocket engine throttling is provided, along with the basic equations that are used to predict performance. Three engines are discussed that have successfully demonstrated throttling. Next, the engine system is broken down into components to discuss special considerations that need to be made for engine throttling. This study focuses on liquid rocket engines that have demonstrated operational capability on American space launch vehicles, starting with the Apollo vehicle engines and ending with current technology demonstrations. Both deep throttling and shallow throttling engines are discussed. Boost and sustainer engines have demonstrated throttling from 17% to 100% thrust, while upper stage and lunar lander engines have demonstrated throttling in excess of 10% to 100% thrust. The key difficulty in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injector, which is necessary to provide propellant atomization and mixing. For the combustion chamber, cooling can be an issue at low thrust levels. For turbomachinery, the primary considerations are to avoid cavitation, stall, surge, and to consider bearing leakage flows, rotordynamics, and structural dynamics. For valves, it is necessary to design valves and actuators that can achieve accurate flow control at all thrust levels. It is also important to assess the amount of nozzle flow separation that can be tolerated at low thrust levels for ground testing.

  2. Thermal stratification potential in rocket engine coolant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacynski, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    The potential for rocket engine coolant channel flow stratification was computationally studied. A conjugate, 3-D, conduction/advection analysis code (SINDA/FLUINT) was used. Core fluid temperatures were predicted to vary by over 360 K across the coolant channel, at the throat section, indicating that the conventional assumption of a fully mixed fluid may be extremely inaccurate. Because of the thermal stratification of the fluid, the walls exposed to the rocket engine exhaust gases will be hotter than an assumption of full mixing would imply. In this analysis, wall temperatures were 160 K hotter in the turbulent mixing case than in the full mixing case. The discrepancy between the full mixing and turbulent mixing analyses increased with increasing heat transfer. Both analysis methods predicted identical channel resistances at the coolant inlet, but in the stratified analysis the thermal resistance was negligible. The implications are significant. Neglect of thermal stratification could lead to underpredictions in nozzle wall temperatures. Even worse, testing at subscale conditions may be inadequate for modeling conditions that would exist in a full scale engine.

  3. Development of Thermal Barriers for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed using conventional 0-ring seals. The 5500+F combustion gases are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of insulation. Special joint-fill compounds are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flowpath to the seals. On a number of occasions. NASA has observed in several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints hot gas penetration through defects in the joint- fill compound. The current nozzle-to-case joint design incorporates primary, secondary and wiper (inner-most) 0-rings and polysulfide joint-fill compound. In the current design, 1 out of 7 motors experience hot gas to the wiper 0-ring. Though the condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas to the wiper 0-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. NASA and solid rocket motor manufacturer Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and a thermal barrier, This paper presents burn-resistance, temperature drop, flow and resiliency test results for several types of NASA braided carbon-fiber thermal barriers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the thermal barriers when exposed to the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Thermal barriers braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over 6 minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Tests were performed on two thermal barrier braid architectures, denoted Carbon-3 and Carbon-6, to measure the temperature drop across and along the barrier in a compressed state when subjected to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch. Carbon-3 and Carbon-6 thermal barriers were excellent insulators causing temperature drops through their diameter of up to a 2800 and 2560 F. respectively. Gas temperature 1/4" downstream of the thermal barrier were within the

  4. Preliminary Studies of a Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc; Adelman, H. G.; Menees, G. P.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the new era of space exploration, there is a strong need for more efficient, cheaper and more reliable propulsion devices. With dramatic increase in specific impulse, the overall mass of fuel to be lifted into orbit is decreased, and this leads, in turn, to much lower mass requirements at lift-off, higher payload ratios and lower launch costs. The Pulsed Detonation engine (PDE) has received much attention lately due to its unique combination of simplicity, light-weight and efficiency. Current investigations focus principally on its use as a low speed, airbreathing engine, although other applications have also been proposed. Its use as a rocket propulsion device was first proposed in 1988 by the present authors. The superior efficiency of the Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE) is due to the near constant volume combustion process of a detonation wave. Our preliminary estimates suggest that the PDRE is theoretically capable of achieving specific impulses as high as 720 sec, a dramatic improvement over the current 480 sec of conventional rocket engines, making it competitive with nuclear thermal rockets. In addition to this remarkable efficiency, the PDRE may eliminate the need for high pressure cryogenic turbopumps, a principal source of failures. The heat transfer rates are also much lower, eliminating the need for nozzle cooling. Overall, the engine is more reliable and has a much lower weight. This paper will describe in detail the operation of the PDRE and calculate its performance, through numerical simulations. Engineering issues will be addressed and discussed, and the impact on mission profiles will also be presented. Finally, the performance of the PDRE using in-situ resources, such as CO and O2 from the martian atmosphere, will also be computed.

  5. Comparison of theoretical and experimental thrust performance of a 1030:1 area ratio rocket nozzle at a chamber pressure of 2413 kN/sq m (350 psia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Tamara A.; Pavli, Albert J.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    The Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) rocket-engine performance-prediction procedure is based on the use of various reference computer programs. One of the reference programs for nozzle analysis is the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) Program. The purpose of this report is to calibrate the JANNAF procedure that has been incorporated into the December 1984 version of the TDK program for the high-area-ratio rocket-engine regime. The calibration was accomplished by modeling the performance of a 1030:1 rocket nozzle tested at NASA Lewis. A detailed description of the test conditions and TDK input parameters is given. The reuslts indicate that the computer code predicts delivered vacuum specific impulse to within 0.12 to 1.9 percent of the experimental data. Vacuum thrust coefficient predictions were within + or - 1.3 percent of experimental results. Predictions of wall static pressure were within approximately + or - 5 percent of the measured values.

  6. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a NASA F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. This presentation provides highlights of a technical paper that outlines this ultimate goal, including plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  7. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. Toward this ultimate goal, this report provides plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  8. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a NASA F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. Toward this ultimate goal, this paper provides plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  9. Experimental performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at high combustion chamber pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust coefficient of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at combustion chamber pressures of 12.4 to 16.5 MPa (1800 to 2400 psia). A nozzle with a modified Rao contour and an expansion area ratio of 1025:1 was tested with hydrogen and oxygen at altitude conditions. The same nozzle, truncated to an area ratio of 440:1, was also tested. Values of thrust coefficient are presented along with characteristic exhaust velocity efficiencies, nozzle wall temperatures, and overall thruster specific impulse.

  10. Plume flowfield analysis of the shuttle primary Reaction Control System (RCS) rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueser, J. E.; Brock, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    A solution was generated for the physical properties of the Shuttle RCS 4000 N (900 lb) rocket engine exhaust plume flowfield. The modeled exhaust gas consists of the five most abundant molecular species, H2, N2, H2O, CO, and CO2. The solution is for a bare RCS engine firing into a vacuum; the only additional hardware surface in the flowfield is a cylinder (=engine mount) which coincides with the nozzle lip outer corner at X = 0, extends to the flowfield outer boundary at X = -137 m and is coaxial with the negative symmetry axis. Continuum gas dynamic methods and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method were combined in an iterative procedure to produce a selfconsistent solution. Continuum methods were used in the RCS nozzle and in the plume as far as the P = 0.03 breakdown contour; the DSMC method was used downstream of this continuum flow boundary. The DSMC flowfield extends beyond 100 m from the nozzle exit and thus the solution includes the farfield flow properties, but substantial information is developed on lip flow dynamics and thus results are also presented for the flow properties in the vicinity of the nozzle lip.

  11. Modeling flow at the nozzle of a solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Alan S.; Jin, Kang-Ren

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a rocket motor internal flow field results in a system of nonlinear partial differential equations which can be solved numerically. The accuracy and the convergence of the solution of the system of equations depends largely on how precisely the sharp gradients can be resolved. An adaptive grid generation scheme is incorporated into the computer algorithm to enhance the capability of numerical modeling. With this scheme, the grid is refined as the solution evolves. This scheme significantly improves the methodology of solving flow problems in rocket nozzle by putting the refinement part of grid generation into the computer algorithm.

  12. Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber/Phenolic Matrix Composites for Rocket Nozzles and Heat Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, R. D.; Pittman, C. U., Jr.; Wang, L.; Day, A.; Hill, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ablation and mechanical and thermal properties of vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF)/phenolic resin composites were evaluated to determine the potential of using this material in solid rocket motor nozzles. Composite specimens with varying VGCF loading (30%-50% wt) including one sample with ex-rayon carbon fiber plies were prepared and exposed to a plasma torch for 20 s with a heat flux of 16.5 MW/sq m at approximately 1650 C. Low erosion rates and little char formation were observed, confirming that these materials were promising for rocket motor nozzle materials. When fiber loadings increased, mechanical properties and ablative properties improved. The VGCF composites had low thermal conductivities (approximately 0.56 W/m-C) indicating they were good insulating materials. If a 65% fiber loading in VGCF composite can be achieved, then ablative properties are projected to be comparable to or better than the composite material currently used on the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM).

  13. Unique thermocouple to measure the temperatures of squibs, igniters, propellants, and rocket nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanigian, Jacob; Nanigian, Dan

    2006-05-01

    The temperatures produced by the various components in the propulsion system of rockets and missiles determine the performance of the rocket. Since these temperatures occur very rapidly and under extreme conditions, standard thermocouples fail before any meaningful temperatures are measured. This paper describes the features of a special family of high performance thermocouples, which can measure these transient temperatures with millisecond response times and under the most severe conditions of erosion. Examples of igniter, propellant and rocket nozzle temperatures are included in this paper. Also included is heat flux measurements made by these sensors in rocket applications.

  14. Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

  15. Development of high temperature materials for solid propellant rocket nozzle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, C. R., Jr.; Lineback, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    Aspects of the development and characteristics of thermal shock resistant hafnia ceramic material for use in solid propellant rocket nozzles are presented. The investigation of thermal shock resistance factors for hafnia based composites, and the preparation and analysis of a model of elastic materials containing more than one crack are reported.

  16. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  17. Effect of Nozzle Nonlinearities upon Nonlinear Stability of Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padmanabhan, M. S.; Powell, E. A.; Zinn, B. T.

    1975-01-01

    A three dimensional, nonlinear nozzle admittance relation is developed by solving the wave equation describing finite amplitude oscillatory flow inside the subsonic portion of a choked, slowly convergent axisymmetric nozzle. This nonlinear nozzle admittance relation is then used as a boundary condition in the analysis of nonlinear combustion instability in a cylindrical liquid rocket combustor. In both nozzle and chamber analyses solutions are obtained using the Galerkin method with a series expansion consisting of the first tangential, second tangential, and first radial modes. Using Crocco's time lag model to describe the distributed unsteady combustion process, combustion instability calculations are presented for different values of the following parameters: (1) time lag, (2) interaction index, (3) steady-state Mach number at the nozzle entrance, and (4) chamber length-to-diameter ratio. In each case, limit cycle pressure amplitudes and waveforms are shown for both linear and nonlinear nozzle admittance conditions. These results show that when the amplitudes of the second tangential and first radial modes are considerably smaller than the amplitude of the first tangential mode the inclusion of nozzle nonlinearities has no significant effect on the limiting amplitude and pressure waveforms.

  18. Boiler and Pressure Balls Monopropellant Thermal Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed technology is a rocket engine cycle utilizing as the propulsive fluid a low molecular weight, cryogenic fluid, typically liquid hydrogen, pressure driven, heated, and expelled through a nozzle to generate high velocity and high specific impulse discharge gas. The proposed technology feeds the propellant through the engine cycle without the use of a separate pressurization fluid and without the use of turbomachinery. Advantages of the proposed technology are found in those elements of state-of-the-art systems that it avoids. It does not require a separate pressurization fluid or a thick-walled primary propellant tank as is typically required for a classical pressure-fed system. Further, it does not require the acceptance of intrinsic reliability risks associated with the use of turbomachinery

  19. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  20. Rocket Ejector Studies for Application to RBCC Engines: An Integrated Experimental/CFD Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, S.; Merkle, C. L.; Anderson, W. E.; Santoro, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent interest in low cost, reliable access to space has generated increased interest in advanced technology approaches to space transportation systems. A key to the success of such programs lies in the development of advanced propulsion systems capable of achieving the performance and operations goals required for the next generation of space vehicles. One extremely promising approach involves the combination of rocket and air- breathing engines into a rocket-based combined-cycle engine (RBCC). A key element of that engine is the rocket ejector which is utilized in the zero to Mach two operating regime. Studies of RBCC engine concepts are not new and studies dating back thirty years are well documented in the literature. However, studies focused on the rocket ejector mode of the RBCC cycle are lacking. The present investigation utilizes an integrated experimental and computation fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to examine critical rocket ejector performance issues. In particular, the development of a predictive methodology capable of performance prediction is a key objective in order to analyze thermal choking and its control, primary/secondary pressure matching considerations, and effects of nozzle expansion ratio. To achieve this objective, the present study emphasizes obtaining new data using advanced optical diagnostics such as Raman spectroscopy and CFD techniques to investigate mixing in the rocket ejector mode. A new research facility for the study of the rocket ejector mode is described along with the diagnostic approaches to be used. The CFD modeling approach is also described along with preliminary CFD predictions obtained to date.

  1. Calculating Nozzle Side Loads using Acceleration Measurements of Test-Based Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Ruf, Joe

    2007-01-01

    As part of a NASA/MSFC research program to evaluate the effect of different nozzle contours on the well-known but poorly characterized "side load" phenomena, we attempt to back out the net force on a sub-scale nozzle during cold-flow testing using acceleration measurements. Because modeling the test facility dynamics is problematic, new techniques for creating a "pseudo-model" of the facility and nozzle directly from modal test results are applied. Extensive verification procedures were undertaken, resulting in a loading scale factor necessary for agreement between test and model based frequency response functions. Side loads are then obtained by applying a wide-band random load onto the system model, obtaining nozzle response PSD's, and iterating both the amplitude and frequency of the input until a good comparison of the response with the measured response PSD for a specific time point is obtained. The final calculated loading can be used to compare different nozzle profiles for assessment during rocket engine nozzle development and as a basis for accurate design of the nozzle and engine structure to withstand these loads. The techniques applied within this procedure have extensive applicability to timely and accurate characterization of all test fixtures used for modal test.A viewgraph presentation on a model-test based pseudo-model used to calculate side loads on rocket engine nozzles is included. The topics include: 1) Side Loads in Rocket Nozzles; 2) Present Side Loads Research at NASA/MSFC; 3) Structural Dynamic Model Generation; 4) Pseudo-Model Generation; 5) Implementation; 6) Calibration of Pseudo-Model Response; 7) Pseudo-Model Response Verification; 8) Inverse Force Determination; 9) Results; and 10) Recent Work.

  2. Parametric Study Conducted of Rocket- Based, Combined-Cycle Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Smith, Timothy D.

    1998-01-01

    Having reached the end of the 20th century, our society is quite familiar with the many benefits of recycling and reusing the products of civilization. The high-technology world of aerospace vehicle design is no exception. Because of the many potential economic benefits of reusable launch vehicles, NASA is aggressively pursuing this technology on several fronts. One of the most promising technologies receiving renewed attention is Rocket-Based, Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion. This propulsion method combines many of the efficiencies of high-performance jet aircraft with the power and high-altitude capability of rocket engines. The goal of the present work at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to further understand the complex fluid physics within RBCC engines that govern system performance. This work is being performed in support of NASA's Advanced Reusable Technologies program. A robust RBCC engine design optimization demands further investigation of the subsystem performance of the engine's complex propulsion cycles. The RBCC propulsion system under consideration at Lewis is defined by four modes of operation in a singlestage- to-orbit configuration. In the first mode, the engine functions as a rocket-driven ejector. When the rocket engine is switched off, subsonic combustion (mode 2) is present in the ramjet mode. As the vehicle continues to accelerate, supersonic combustion (mode 3) occurs in the ramjet mode. Finally, as the edge of the atmosphere is approached and the engine inlet is closed off, the rocket is reignited and the final accent to orbit is undertaken in an all-rocket mode (mode 4). The performance of this fourth and final mode is the subject of this present study. Performance is being monitored in terms of the amount of thrust generated from a given amount of propellant.

  3. Wall Pressure Unsteadiness and Side Loads in Overexpanded Rocket Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baars, Woutijn J.; Tinney, Charles E.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Brown, Andrew M.; McDaniels, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of both the static and dynamic wall pressure signatures on the interior surface of a sub-scale, cold-flow and thrust optimized parabolic nozzle are conducted during fixed nozzle pressure ratios corresponding to FSS and RSS states. The motive is to develop a better understanding for the sources of off-axis loads during the transient start-up of overexpanded rocket nozzles. During FSS state, pressure spectra reveal frequency content resembling SWTBLI. Presumably, when the internal flow is in RSS state, separation bubbles are trapped by shocks and expansion waves; interactions between the separated flow regions and the waves produce asymmetric pressure distributions. An analysis of the azimuthal modes reveals how the breathing mode encompasses most of the resolved energy and that the side load inducing mode is coherent with the response moment measured by strain gauges mounted upstream of the nozzle on a flexible tube. Finally, the unsteady pressure is locally more energetic during RSS, albeit direct measurements of the response moments indicate higher side load activity when in FSS state. It is postulated that these discrepancies are attributed to cancellation effects between annular separation bubbles.

  4. Nozzle Side Load Testing and Analysis at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Brown, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Realistic estimates of nozzle side loads, the off-axis forces that develop during engine start and shutdown, are important in the design cycle of a rocket engine. The estimated magnitude of the nozzle side loads has a large impact on the design of the nozzle shell and the engine s thrust vector control system. In 2004 Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) began developing a capability to quantify the relative magnitude of side loads caused by different types of nozzle contours. The MSFC Nozzle Test Facility was modified to measure nozzle side loads during simulated nozzle start. Side load results from cold flow tests on two nozzle test articles, one with a truncated ideal contour and one with a parabolic contour are provided. The experimental approach, nozzle contour designs and wall static pressures are also discussed

  5. Analysis of film cooling in rocket nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodbury, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) programs are customarily used to compute details of a flow field, such as velocity fields or species concentrations. Generally they are not used to determine the resulting conditions at a solid boundary such as wall shear stress or heat flux. However, determination of this information should be within the capability of a CFD code, as the code supposedly contains appropriate models for these wall conditions. Before such predictions from CFD analyses can be accepted, the credibility of the CFD codes upon which they are based must be established. This report details the progress made in constructing a CFD model to predict the heat transfer to the wall in a film cooled rocket nozzle. Specifically, the objective of this work is to use the NASA code FDNS to predict the heat transfer which will occur during the upcoming hot-firing of the Pratt & Whitney 40K subscale nozzle (1Q93). Toward this end, an M = 3 wall jet is considered, and the resulting heat transfer to the wall is computed. The values are compared against experimental data available in Reference 1. Also, FDNS's ability to compute heat flux in a reacting flow will be determined by comparing the code's predictions against calorimeter data from the hot firing of a 40K combustor. The process of modeling the flow of combusting gases through the Pratt & Whitney 40K subscale combustor and nozzle is outlined. What follows in this report is a brief description of the FDNS code, with special emphasis on how it handles solid wall boundary conditions. The test cases and some FDNS solution are presented next, along with comparison to experimental data. The process of modeling the flow through a chamber and a nozzle using the FDNS code will also be outlined.

  6. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust.

  7. Investigation of Low-Reynolds-Number Rocket Nozzle Design Using PNS-Based Optimization Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Moin; Korte, John J.

    1996-01-01

    An optimization approach to rocket nozzle design, based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology, is investigated for low-Reynolds-number cases. This study is undertaken to determine the benefits of this approach over those of classical design processes such as Rao's method. A CFD-based optimization procedure, using the parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations, is used to design conical and contoured axisymmetric nozzles. The advantage of this procedure is that it accounts for viscosity during the design process; other processes make an approximated boundary-layer correction after an inviscid design is created. Results showed significant improvement in the nozzle thrust coefficient over that of the baseline case; however, the unusual nozzle design necessitates further investigation of the accuracy of the PNS equations for modeling expanding flows with thick laminar boundary layers.

  8. Metallized Gelled Propellants: Oxygen/RP-1/Aluminum Rocket Engine Calorimeter Heat Transfer Measurements and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1997-01-01

    A set of analyses was conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics of metallized gelled liquid propellants in a rocket engine. The analyses used the data from experiments conducted with a small 30- to 40-lbf thrust engine composed of a modular injector, igniter, chamber and nozzle. The fuels used were traditional liquid RP-1 and gelled RP-1 with 0-wt %, 5-wt%, and 55-wt% loadings of aluminum with silicon dioxide gellant, and gaseous oxygen as the oxidizer. Heat transfer was computed based on measurements using calorimeter rocket chamber and nozzle hardware with a total of 31 cooling channels. A gelled fuel coating formed in the 0-, 5- and 55-wt% engines, and the coating was composed of unburned gelled fuel and partially combusted RP-1. The coating caused a large decrease in calorimeter engine heat flux in the last half of the chamber for the 0- and 5-wt% RP-1/Al. This heat flux reduction effect was analyzed by comparing engine runs and the changes in the heat flux during a run as well as from run to run. Heat transfer and time-dependent heat flux analyses and interpretations are provided. The 5- and 55-wt% RP-1/Al fueled engines had the highest chamber heat fluxes, with the 5-wt% fuel having the highest throat flux. This result is counter to the predicted result, where the 55 wt% fuel has the highest combustion and throat temperature, and therefore implies that it would deliver the highest throat heat flux. The 5-wt% RP-1/Al produced the most influence on the engine heat transfer and the heat flux reduction was caused by the formation of a gelled propellant layer in the chamber and nozzle.

  9. Overview of rocket engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    The issues of Chemical Rocket Engine Control are broadly covered. The basic feedback information and control variables used in expendable and reusable rocket engines, such as Space Shuttle Main Engine, are discussed. The deficiencies of current approaches are considered and a brief introduction to Intelligent Control Systems for rocket engines (and vehicles) is presented.

  10. Application of Background Oriented Schlieren for Altitude Testing of Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.

    2017-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed to determine the feasibility of using the Background Oriented Schlieren, BOS, flow visualization technique to image a simulated, small, rocket engine, plume under altitude test conditions. Testing was performed at the NASA Glenn Research Centers Altitude Combustion Stand, ACS, using nitrogen as the exhaust gas simulant. Due to limited optical access to the facility test capsule, all of the hardware required to conduct the BOS were located inside the vacuum chamber. During the test series 26 runs were performed using two different nozzle configurations with pressures in the test capsule around 0.3 psia. No problems were encountered during the test series resulting from the optical hardware being located in the test capsule and acceptable resolution images were captured. The test campaign demonstrated the ability of using the BOS technique for small, rocket engine, plume flow visualization during altitude testing.

  11. Russian Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA engineers successfully tested a Russian-built rocket engine on November 4, 1998 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Engine Test Facility, which had been used for testing the Saturn V F-1 engines and Space Shuttle Main engines. The MSFC was under a Space Act Agreement with Lockheed Martin Astronautics of Denver to provide a series of test firings of the Atlas III propulsion system configured with the Russian-designed RD-180 engine. The tests were designed to measure the performance of the Atlas III propulsion system, which included avionics and propellant tanks and lines, and how these components interacted with the RD-180 engine. The RD-180 is powered by kerosene and liquid oxygen, the same fuel mix used in Saturn rockets. The RD-180, the most powerful rocket engine tested at the MSFC since Saturn rocket tests in the 1960s, generated 860,000 pounds of thrust. The test was the first test ever anywhere outside Russia of a Russian designed and built engine.

  12. Temperature Dependent Modal Test/Analysis Correlation of X-34 Fastrac Composite Rocket Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Brunty, Joseph A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A unique high temperature modal test and model correlation/update program has been performed on the composite nozzle of the FASTRAC engine for the NASA X-34 Reusable Launch Vehicle. The program was required to provide an accurate high temperature model of the nozzle for incorporation into the engine system structural dynamics model for loads calculation; this model is significantly different from the ambient case due to the large decrease in composite stiffness properties due to heating. The high-temperature modal test was performed during a hot-fire test of the nozzle. Previously, a series of high fidelity modal tests and finite element model correlation of the nozzle in a free-free configuration had been performed. This model was then attached to a modal-test verified model of the engine hot-fire test stand and the ambient system mode shapes were identified. A reduced set of accelerometers was then attached to the nozzle, the engine fired full-duration, and the frequency peaks corresponding to the ambient nozzle modes individually isolated and tracked as they decreased during the test. To update the finite-element model of the nozzle to these frequency curves, the percentage differences of the anisotropic composite moduli due to temperature variation from ambient, which had been used in the initial modeling and which were obtained by small sample coupon testing, were multiplied by an iteratively determined constant factor. These new properties were used to create high-temperature nozzle models corresponding to 10 second engine operation increments and tied into the engine system model for loads determination.

  13. Transient Three-Dimensional Analysis of Nozzle Side Load in Regeneratively Cooled Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical investigations on the start-up side load physics for a regeneratively cooled, high-aspect-ratio nozzle were performed. The objectives of this study are to identify the three-dimensional side load physics and to compute the associated aerodynamic side load using an anchored computational methodology. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a transient inlet condition based on an engine system simulation. Computations were performed for both the adiabatic and cooled walls in order to understand the effect of boundary conditions. Finite-rate chemistry was used throughout the study so that combustion effect is always included. The results show that three types of shock evolution are responsible for side loads: generation of combustion wave; transitions among free-shock separation, restricted-shock separation, and simultaneous free-shock and restricted shock separations; along with oscillation of shocks across the lip. Wall boundary conditions drastically affect the computed side load physics: the adiabatic nozzle prefers free-shock separation while the cooled nozzle favors restricted-shock separation, resulting in higher peak side load for the cooled nozzle than that of the adiabatic nozzle. By comparing the computed physics with those of test observations, it is concluded that cooled wall is a more realistic boundary condition, and the oscillation of the restricted-shock separation flow pattern across the lip along with its associated tangential shock motion are the dominant side load physics for a regeneratively cooled, high aspect-ratio rocket engine.

  14. Robust Rocket Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for a revolutionary step in the durability of reusable rocket engines is made possible by the combination of several emerging technologies. The recent creation and analytical demonstration of life extending (or damage mitigating) control technology enables rapid rocket engine transients with minimum fatigue and creep damage. This technology has been further enhanced by the formulation of very simple but conservative continuum damage models. These new ideas when combined with recent advances in multidisciplinary optimization provide the potential for a large (revolutionary) step in reusable rocket engine durability. This concept has been named the robust rocket engine concept (RREC) and is the basic contribution of this paper. The concept also includes consideration of design innovations to minimize critical point damage.

  15. High performance Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) submerged nozzle/combustion cavity flowfield assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. A.; Chan, J. S.; Murph, J. E.; Xiques, K. E.

    1987-01-01

    Two and three dimensional internal flowfield solutions for critical points in the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster burn time were developed using the Lockheed Huntsville GIM/PAID Navier-Stokes solvers. These perfect gas, viscous solutions for the high performance motor characterize the flow in the aft segment and nozzle of the booster. Two dimensional axisymmetric solutions were developed at t = 20 and t = 85 sec motor burn times. The t = 85 sec solution indicates that the aft segment forward inhibitor stub produces vortices with are shed and convected downwards. A three dimensional 3.5 deg gimbaled nozzle flowfield solution was developed for the aft segment and nozzle at t = 9 sec motor burn time. This perfect gas, viscous analysis, provided a steady state solution for the core region and the flow through the nozzle, but indicated that unsteady flow exists in the region under the nozzle nose and near the flexible boot and nozzle/case joint. The flow in the nozzle/case joint region is characterized by low magnitude pressure waves which travel in the circumferential direction. From the two and three dimensional flowfield calculations presented it can be concluded that there is no evidence from these results that steady state gas dynamics is the primary mechanism resulting in the nozzle pocketing erosion experienced on SRM nozzles 8A or 17B. The steady state flowfield results indicate pocketing erosion is not directly initiated by a steady state gas dynamics phenomenon.

  16. Comparison of theoretical and experimental thrust performance of a 1030:1 area ratio rocket nozzle at a chamber pressure of 2413 kN/m2 (350 psia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Tamara A.; Pavli, Albert J.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    The joint Army. Navy, NASA. Air Force (JANNAF) rocket engine peformnace prediction procedure is based on the use of various reference computer programs. One of the reference programs for nozzle analysis is the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) Program. The purpose of this report is to calibrate the JANNAF procedure incorporated into the December l984 version of the TDK program for the high-area-ratio rocket engine regime. The calibration was accomplished by modeling the performance of a 1030:1 rocket nozzle tested at NASA Lewis Research Center. A detailed description of the experimental test conditions and TDK input parameters is given. The results show that the computer code predicts delivered vacuum specific impulse to within 0.12 to 1.9 percent of the experimental data. Vacuum thrust coefficient predictions were within + or - 1.3 percent of experimental results. Predictions of wall static pressure were within approximately + or - 5 percent of the measured values. An experimental value for inviscid thrust was obtained for the nozzle extension between area ratios of 427.5 and 1030 by using an integration of the measured wall static pressures. Subtracting the measured thrust gain produced by the nozzle between area ratios of 427.5 and 1030 from the inviscid thrust gain yielded experimental drag decrements of 10.85 and 27.00 N (2.44 and 6.07 lb) for mixture ratios of 3.04 and 4.29, respectively. These values correspond to 0.45 and 1.11 percent of the total vacuum thrust. At a mixture ratio of 4.29, the TDK predicted drag decrement was 16.59 N (3.73 lb), or 0.71 percent of the predicted total vacuum thrust.

  17. Calculation of Propulsive Nozzle Flowfields in Multidiffusing Chemically Reacting Environments. Ph.D. Thesis - Purdue Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacynski, Kenneth John

    1994-01-01

    An advanced engineering model has been developed to aid in the analysis and design of hydrogen/oxygen chemical rocket engines. The complete multispecies, chemically reacting and multidiffusing Navier-Stokes equations are modelled, including the Soret thermal diffusion and the Dufour energy transfer terms. In addition to the spectrum of multispecies aspects developed, the model developed in this study is also conservative in axisymmetric flow for both inviscid and viscous flow environments and the boundary conditions employ a viscous, chemically reacting, reference plane characteristics method. Demonstration cases are presented for a 1030:1 area ratio nozzle, a 25 lbf film cooled nozzle, and a transpiration cooled plug and spool rocket engine. The results indicate that the thrust coefficient predictions of the 1030:1 and the 25 lbf film cooled nozzle are within 0.2 to 0.5 percent, respectively, of experimental measurements when all of the chemical reaction and diffusion terms are considered. Further, the model's predictions agree very well with the heat transfer measurements made in all of the nozzle test cases. The Soret thermal diffusion term is demonstrated to have a significant effect on the predicted mass fraction of hydrogen along the wall of the nozzle in both the laminar flow 1030:1 nozzle and the turbulent flow plug and spool nozzle analysis cases performed. Further, the Soret term was shown to represent an important fraction of the diffusion fluxes occurring in a transpiration cooled rocket engine.

  18. Development Status of Reusable Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Takada, Satoshi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Niu, Kenichi

    A 30-kN rocket engine, a pilot engine, is being developed in Japan. Development of this pilot engine has been initiated in relation to a reusable sounding rocket, which is also being developed in Japan. This rocket takes off vertically, reaches an altitude of 100 km, lands vertically at the launch site, and is launched again within several days. Due to advantage of reusability, successful development of this rocket will mean that observation missions can be carried out more frequently and economically. In order to realize this rocket concept, the engines installed on the rocket should be characterized by reusability, long life, deep throttling and health monitoring, features which have not yet been established in Japanese rocket engines. To solve the engineering factors entitled by those features, a new design methodology, advanced engine simulations and engineering testing are being focused on in the pilot engine development stage. Especially in engineering testing, limit condition data is acquired to facilitate development of new diagnostic techniques, which can be applied by utilizing the mobility of small-size hardware. In this paper, the development status of the pilot engine is described, including fundamental design and engineering tests of the turbopump bearing and seal, turbine rig, injector and combustion chamber, and operation and maintenance concepts for one hundred flights by a reusable rocket are examined.

  19. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

  20. Coal-Fired Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Brief report describes concept for coal-burning hybrid rocket engine. Proposed engine carries larger payload, burns more cleanly, and safer to manufacture and handle than conventional solid-propellant rockets. Thrust changeable in flight, and stops and starts on demand.

  1. Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor nozzle natural frequency variations with burn time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, C. Y.; Mason, D. R.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of erosion and thermal degradation on the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle's structural dynamic characteristics were analytically evaluated. Also considered was stiffening of the structure due to internal pressurization. A detailed NASTRAN finite element model of the nozzle was developed and used to evaluate the influence of these effects at several discrete times during motor burn. Methods were developed for treating erosion and thermal degradation, and a procedure was developed to account for internal pressure stiffening using differential stiffness matrix techniques. Results were verified using static firing test accelerometer data. Fast Fourier Transform and Maximum Entropy Method techniques were applied to the data to generate waterfall plots which track modal frequencies with burn time. Results indicate that the lower frequency nozzle 'vectoring' modes are only slightly affected by erosion, thermal effects and internal pressurization. The higher frequency shell modes of the nozzle are, however, significantly reduced.

  2. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Combustion instability in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. Recent advances in energy based modeling of combustion instabilities require accurate determination of acoustic frequencies and mode shapes. Of particular interest is the acoustic mean flow interactions within the converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients of pressure, density, and velocity become large. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The present study aims to implement the French model within the COMSOL Multiphysiscs framework and analyzes one of the author's presented test cases.

  3. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joint-4 Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. Louie

    2001-01-01

    This study provides for development and test verification of a thermal model used for prediction of joint heating environments, structural temperatures and seal erosions in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzle Joint-4. The heating environments are a result of rapid pressurization of the joint free volume assuming a leak path has occurred in the filler material used for assembly gap close out. Combustion gases flow along the leak path from nozzle environment to joint O-ring gland resulting in local heating to the metal housing and erosion of seal materials. Analysis of this condition was based on usage of the NASA Joint Pressurization Routine (JPR) for environment determination and the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) for structural temperature prediction. Model generated temperatures, pressures and seal erosions are compared to hot fire test data for several different leak path situations. Investigated in the hot fire test program were nozzle joint-4 O-ring erosion sensitivities to leak path width in both open and confined joint geometries. Model predictions were in generally good agreement with the test data for the confined leak path cases. Worst case flight predictions are provided using the test-calibrated model. Analysis issues are discussed based on model calibration procedures.

  4. Experimental analysis of SiC-based refractory concrete in hybrid rocket nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, Raffaele; Bernhart, Gérard; Hijlkema, Jouke; Cutard, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion represents a good alternative to the more widely used liquid and solid systems. This technology combines some important specifications of the latters, as the possibility of re-ignition, thrust modulation, a higher specific impulse than solid systems, a greater simplicity and a lower cost than liquid systems. Nevertheless the highly oxidizing environment represents a major problem as regards the thermo-oxidation and ablative behavior of nozzle materials. The main goal of this research is to characterize a silicon carbide based micro-concrete with a maximum aggregates size of 800 μm, in a hybrid propulsion environment. The nozzle throat has to resist to a highly oxidizing polyethylene/nitrous oxide hybrid environment, under temperatures up to 2900 K. Three tests were performed on concrete-based nozzles in HERA Hybrid Rocket Motor (HRM) test bench at ONERA. Pressure chamber evolution and observations before and after tests are used to investigate the ablated surface at nozzle throat. Ablation behavior and crack generation are discussed and some improvements are proposed.

  5. Plasma torch testing for thermostructural evaluation of rocket motor nozzle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Andrew S.; Bunker, Robert C.; Lawrence, Tim

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents data from the thermostructural testing of tape-wrapped carbon phenolic. This work has been performed with the use of a plasma torch and loading device in an effort to study the anomalous erosion characteristicfs of that seen in the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle STS-8A. Testing is conducted in an effort to determine conditions or parameters involved in this mode of failure.

  6. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  7. Upper Stage Engine Composite Nozzle Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.; Sullivan, Brian J.; Weller, Leslie J.; Koenig, John R.; Cuneo, Jacques C.; Thompson, James; Brown, Aaron; hide

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and United States Air Force (USAF) requirements, as well as broader industry needs. Recent and on-going efforts at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases for nozzle extensions fabricated from specific CC materials, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing composite nozzle extensions. At present, materials development work is concentrating on developing a database for lyocell-based C-C that can be used for upper stage engine nozzle extension design, modeling, and analysis efforts. Lyocell-based C-C behaves in a manner similar to rayon-based CC, but does not have the environmental issues associated with the use of rayon. Future work will also further investigate technology and database gaps and needs for more-established polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) based C-C's. As a low-cost means of being able to rapidly test and screen nozzle extension materials and structures, MSFC has recently established and demonstrated a test rig at MSFC's Test Stand (TS) 115 for testing subscale nozzle extensions with 3.5-inch inside diameters at the attachment plane. Test durations of up to 120 seconds have been demonstrated using oxygen/hydrogen propellants. Other propellant combinations, including the use of hydrocarbon fuels, can be used if desired. Another test capability being developed will allow the testing of larger nozzle extensions (13.5- inch inside diameters at the attachment plane) in environments more similar to those of actual oxygen/hydrogen upper stage engines. Two C-C nozzle extensions (one lyocell-based, one PAN-based) have been fabricated for testing with the larger

  8. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H.; Gilinsky, Mikhail; Patel, Kaushal; Coston, Calvin; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2003-01-01

    The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. Results obtained are based on analytical methods, numerical simulations and experimental tests at the NASA LaRC and Hampton University computer complexes and experimental facilities. The main objective of this research is injection, mixing and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems. The sub-projects in the reporting period are: (A) Aero-performance and acoustics of Telescope-shaped designs. The work included a pylon set application for SCRAMJET. (B) An analysis of sharp-edged nozzle exit designs for effective fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines: triangular-round and diamond-round nozzles. (C) Measurement technique improvements for the HU Low Speed Wind Tunnel (HU LSWT) including an automatic data acquisition system and a two component (drag-lift) balance system. In addition, a course in the field of aerodynamics was developed for the teaching and training of HU students.

  9. NASA Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The advanced expander cycle engine with a 15,000 lb thrust level and a 6:1 mixture ratio and optimized performance was used as the baseline for a design study of the hydrogen/oxgyen propulsion system for the orbit transfer vehicle. The critical components of this engine are the thrust chamber, the turbomachinery, the extendible nozzle system, and the engine throttling system. Turbomachinery technology is examined for gears, bearing, seals, and rapid solidification rate turbopump shafts. Continuous throttling concepts are discussed. Components of the OTV engine described include the thrust chamber/nozzle assembly design, nozzles, the hydrogen regenerator, the gaseous oxygen heat exchanger, turbopumps, and the engine control valves.

  10. Experimental investigation of solid rocket motors for small sounding rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suksila, Thada

    2018-01-01

    Experimentation and research of solid rocket motors are important subjects for aerospace engineering students. However, many institutes in Thailand rarely include experiments on solid rocket motors in research projects of aerospace engineering students, mainly because of the complexity of mixing the explosive propellants. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a solid rocket motor for total impulse in the class I-J that can be utilised as a small sounding rocket by researchers in the near future. Initially, the test stands intended for measuring the pressure in the combustion chamber and the thrust of the solid rocket motor were designed and constructed. The basic design of the propellant configuration was evaluated. Several formulas and ratios of solid propellants were compared for achieving the maximum thrust. The convenience of manufacturing and casting of the fabricated solid rocket motors were a critical consideration. The motor structural analysis such as the combustion chamber wall thickness was also discussed. Several types of nozzles were compared and evaluated for ensuring the maximum thrust of the solid rocket motors during the experiments. The theory of heat transfer analysis in the combustion chamber was discussed and compared with the experimental data.

  11. Flow processes in overexpanded chemical rocket nozzles. Part 3: Methods for the aimed flow separation and side load reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Methods aimed at reduction of overexpansion and side load resulting from asymmetric flow separation for rocket nozzles with a high opening ratio are described. The methods employ additional measures for nozzles with a fixed opening ratio. The flow separation can be controlled by several types of nozzle inserts, the properties of which are discussed. Side loads and overexpansion can be reduced by adapting the shape of the nozzle and taking other additional measures for controlled separation of the boundary layer, such as trip wires.

  12. Nitrous Oxide/Paraffin Hybrid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Snyder, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide/paraffin (N2OP) hybrid rocket engines have been invented as alternatives to other rocket engines especially those that burn granular, rubbery solid fuels consisting largely of hydroxyl- terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Originally intended for use in launching spacecraft, these engines would also be suitable for terrestrial use in rocket-assisted takeoff of small airplanes. The main novel features of these engines are (1) the use of reinforced paraffin as the fuel and (2) the use of nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Hybrid (solid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket engines offer advantages of safety and simplicity over fluid-bipropellant (fluid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket en - gines, but the thrusts of HTPB-based hybrid rocket engines are limited by the low regression rates of the fuel grains. Paraffin used as a solid fuel has a regression rate about 4 times that of HTPB, but pure paraffin fuel grains soften when heated; hence, paraffin fuel grains can, potentially, slump during firing. In a hybrid engine of the present type, the paraffin is molded into a 3-volume-percent graphite sponge or similar carbon matrix, which supports the paraffin against slumping during firing. In addition, because the carbon matrix material burns along with the paraffin, engine performance is not appreciably degraded by use of the matrix.

  13. Investigation of the Rocket Induced Flow Field in a Rectangular Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landrum, D. Brian; Thames, Mignon; Parkinson, Doug; Gautney, Serena; Hawk, Clark

    1999-01-01

    Several tests were performed on a one-sixth scale Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine model at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The UAH RBCC facility consists of a rectangular duct with a vertical strut mounted in the center. The scaled strut consists of two supersonic rocket nozzles with an embedded vertical turbine between the rocket nozzles. The tests included mass flow, flow visualization and horizontal pressure traverses. The mass flow test indicated a c:hoked condition when the rocket chamber pressure is between 200 psi and 300 psi. The flow visualization tests narrowed the rocket chamber pressure range from, 250 psi to 300 psi. Also, from this t.est, an assumption of a minimum nozzle exit plane. These traverses aided in examining the induced airflow due to the ejector effect and the growth of the: boundary layer in the strut sidewall gap.

  14. Reusable rocket engine optical condition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyett, L.; Maram, J.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Reinert, J.

    1987-01-01

    Plume emission spectrometry and optical leak detection are described as two new applications of optical techniques to reusable rocket engine condition monitoring. Plume spectrometry has been used with laboratory flames and reusable rocket engines to characterize both the nominal combustion spectra and anomalous spectra of contaminants burning in these plumes. Holographic interferometry has been used to identify leaks and quantify leak rates from reusable rocket engine joints and welds.

  15. A hydrogen-oxygen rocket engine coolant passage design program (RECOP) for fluid-cooled thrust chambers and nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of coolant passages in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers is critical to the operation and safety of a rocket engine system. Designing a coolant passage is a complex thermal and hydraulic problem requiring an accurate understanding of the heat transfer between the combustion gas and the coolant. Every major rocket engine company has invested in the development of thrust chamber computer design and analysis tools; two examples are Rocketdyne's REGEN code and Aerojet's ELES program. In an effort to augment current design capabilities for government and industry, the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing a computer model to design coolant passages for advanced regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. The RECOP code incorporates state-of-the-art correlations, numerical techniques and design methods, certainly minimum requirements for generating optimum designs of future space chemical engines. A preliminary version of the RECOP model was recently completed and code validation work is in progress. This paper introduces major features of RECOP and compares the analysis to design points for the first test case engine; the Pratt & Whitney RL10A-3-3A thrust chamber.

  16. RS-25 Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-09

    The 8.5-minute test conducted at NASA’s Stennis Space Center is part of a series of tests designed to put the upgraded former space shuttle engines through the rigorous temperature and pressure conditions they will experience during a launch. The tests also support the development of a new controller, or “brain,” for the engine, which monitors engine status and communicates between the rocket and the engine, relaying commands to the engine and transmitting data back to the rocket.

  17. Thermal Analysis of the Fastrac Chamber/Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Darrell

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the thermal analysis techniques used to predict temperatures in the film-cooled ablative rocket nozzle used on the Fastrac 60K rocket engine. A model was developed that predicts char and pyrolysis depths, liner thermal gradients, and temperatures of the bondline between the overwrap and liner. Correlation of the model was accomplished by thermal analog tests performed at Southern Research, and specially instrumented hot fire tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Infrared thermography was instrumental in defining nozzle hot wall surface temperatures. In-depth and outboard thermocouple data was used to correlate the kinetic decomposition routine used to predict char and pyrolysis depths. These depths were anchored with measured char and pyrolysis depths from cross-sectioned hot-fire nozzles. For the X-34 flight analysis, the model includes the ablative Thermal Protection System (TPS) material that protects the overwrap from the recirculating plume. Results from model correlation, hot-fire testing, and flight predictions will be discussed.

  18. Characterization of Rotating Detonation Engine Exhaust Through Nozzle Guide Vanes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-21

    THROUGH NOZZLE GUIDE VANES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air...the first Nozzle Guide Vane (NGV) section from a T63 gas turbine engine to a 6 inch diameter RDE was designed and built for this study. Pressure...CHARACTERIZATION OF ROTATING DETONATION ENGINE EXHAUST THROUGH NOZZLE GUIDE VANES THESIS Nick D. DeBarmore, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GAE/ENY/13

  19. Using adaptive grid in modeling rocket nozzle flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Alan S.; Jin, Kang-Ren

    1992-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a rocket motor internal flow field results in a system of nonlinear partial differential equations which cannot be solved analytically. However, this system of equations called the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved numerically. The accuracy and the convergence of the solution of the system of equations will depend largely on how precisely the sharp gradients in the domain of interest can be resolved. With the advances in computer technology, more sophisticated algorithms are available to improve the accuracy and convergence of the solutions. An adaptive grid generation is one of the schemes which can be incorporated into the algorithm to enhance the capability of numerical modeling. It is equivalent to putting intelligence into the algorithm to optimize the use of computer memory. With this scheme, the finite difference domain of the flow field called the grid does neither have to be very fine nor strategically placed at the location of sharp gradients. The grid is self adapting as the solution evolves. This scheme significantly improves the methodology of solving flow problems in rocket nozzles by taking the refinement part of grid generation out of the hands of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) specialists and place it into the computer algorithm itself.

  20. Evaluation of innovative rocket engines for single-stage earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manski, Detlef; Martin, James A.

    1988-07-01

    Computer models of rocket engines and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles that were developed by the authors at DFVLR and NASA have been combined. The resulting code consists of engine mass, performance, trajectory and vehicle sizing models. The engine mass model includes equations for each subsystem and describes their dependences on various propulsion parameters. The engine performance model consists of multidimensional sets of theoretical propulsion properties and a complete thermodynamic analysis of the engine cycle. The vehicle analyses include an optimized trajectory analysis, mass estimation, and vehicle sizing. A vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing, single-stage, winged, manned, fully reusable vehicle with a payload capability of 13.6 Mg (30,000 lb) to low earth orbit was selected. Hydrogen, methane, propane, and dual-fuel engines were studied with staged-combustion, gas-generator, dual bell, and the dual-expander cycles. Mixture ratio, chamber pressure, nozzle exit pressure liftoff acceleration, and dual fuel propulsive parameters were optimized.

  1. Evaluation of innovative rocket engines for single-stage earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manski, Detlef; Martin, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Computer models of rocket engines and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles that were developed by the authors at DFVLR and NASA have been combined. The resulting code consists of engine mass, performance, trajectory and vehicle sizing models. The engine mass model includes equations for each subsystem and describes their dependences on various propulsion parameters. The engine performance model consists of multidimensional sets of theoretical propulsion properties and a complete thermodynamic analysis of the engine cycle. The vehicle analyses include an optimized trajectory analysis, mass estimation, and vehicle sizing. A vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing, single-stage, winged, manned, fully reusable vehicle with a payload capability of 13.6 Mg (30,000 lb) to low earth orbit was selected. Hydrogen, methane, propane, and dual-fuel engines were studied with staged-combustion, gas-generator, dual bell, and the dual-expander cycles. Mixture ratio, chamber pressure, nozzle exit pressure liftoff acceleration, and dual fuel propulsive parameters were optimized.

  2. Transient Three-Dimensional Analysis of Side Load in Liquid Rocket Engine Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical investigations on the nozzle start-up side load physics were performed. The objective of this study is to identify the three-dimensional side load physics and to compute the associated aerodynamic side load using an anchored computational methodology. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, and pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a simulated inlet condition based on a system calculation. Finite-rate chemistry was used throughout the study so that combustion effect is always included, and the effect of wall cooling on side load physics is studied. The side load physics captured include the afterburning wave, transition from free- shock to restricted-shock separation, and lip Lambda shock oscillation. With the adiabatic nozzle, free-shock separation reappears after the transition from free-shock separation to restricted-shock separation, and the subsequent flow pattern of the simultaneous free-shock and restricted-shock separations creates a very asymmetric Mach disk flow. With the cooled nozzle, the more symmetric restricted-shock separation persisted throughout the start-up transient after the transition, leading to an overall lower side load than that of the adiabatic nozzle. The tepee structures corresponding to the maximum side load were addressed.

  3. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  4. High altitude chemically reacting gas particle mixtures. Volume 3: Computer code user's and applications manual. [rocket nozzle and orbital plume flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    A users manual for the RAMP2 computer code is provided. The RAMP2 code can be used to model the dominant phenomena which affect the prediction of liquid and solid rocket nozzle and orbital plume flow fields. The general structure and operation of RAMP2 are discussed. A user input/output guide for the modified TRAN72 computer code and the RAMP2F code is given. The application and use of the BLIMPJ module are considered. Sample problems involving the space shuttle main engine and motor are included.

  5. Analysis of a Nuclear Enhanced Airbreathing Rocket for Earth to Orbit Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Landrum, D. Brian; Brown, Norman (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The proposed engine concept is the Nuclear Enhanced Airbreathing Rocket (NEAR). The NEAR concept uses a fission reactor to thermally heat a propellant in a rocket plenum. The rocket is shrouded, thus the exhaust mixes with ingested air to provide additional thermal energy through combustion. The combusted flow is then expanded through a nozzle to provide thrust.

  6. Microfabricated Liquid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, Alan H.; Joppin, C.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Schneider, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Under NASA Glenn Research Center sponsorship, MIT has developed the concept of micromachined, bipropellant, liquid rocket engines. This is potentially a breakthrough technology changing the cost-performance tradeoffs for small propulsion systems, enabling new applications, and redefining the meaning of the term low-cost-access-to-space. With this NASA support, a liquid-cooled, gaseous propellant version of the thrust chamber and nozzle was designed, built, and tested as a first step. DARPA is currently funding MIT to demonstrate turbopumps and controls. The work performed herein was the second year of a proposed three-year effort to develop the technology and demonstrate very high power density, regeneratively cooled, liquid bipropellant rocket engine thrust chamber and nozzles. When combined with the DARPA turbopumps and controls, this work would enable the design and demonstration of a complete rocket propulsion system. The original MIT-NASA concept used liquid oxygen-ethanol propellants. The military applications important to DARPA imply that storable liquid propellants are needed. Thus, MIT examined various storable propellant combinations including N2O4 and hydrazine, and H2O2 and various hydrocarbons. The latter are preferred since they do not have the toxicity of N2O4 and hydrazine. In reflection of the newfound interest in H2O2, it is once again in production and available commercially. A critical issue for the microrocket engine concept is cooling of the walls in a regenerative design. This is even more important at microscale than for large engines due to cube-square scaling considerations. Furthermore, the coolant behavior of rocket propellants has not been characterized at microscale. Therefore, MIT designed and constructed an apparatus expressly for this purpose. The report details measurements of two candidate microrocket fuels, JP-7 and JP-10.

  7. Incident shock strength evolution in overexpanded jet flow out of rocket nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silnikov, Mikhail V.; Chernyshov, Mikhail V.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of the incident shock in the plane overexpanded jet flow or in the axisymmetric one is analyzed theoretically and compared at the whole range of governing flow parameters. Analytical results can be applied to avoid jet flow instability and self-oscillation effects at rocket launch, to improve launch safety and to suppress shock-wave induced noise harmful to environment and personnel. The mathematical model of ;differential conditions of dynamic compatibility; was applied to the curved shock in non-uniform plane or axisymmetrical flow. It allowed us to study such features of the curved incident shock and flow downstream it as shock geometrical curvature, jet boundary curvature, local increase or decrease of the shock strength, flow vorticity rate (local pressure gradient) in the vicinity of the nozzle lip, static pressure gradient in the compressed layer downstream the shock, and many others. All these quantities sufficiently depend on the flow parameters (flow Mach number, jet overexpansion rate, nozzle throat angle, and ration of gas specific heats). These dependencies are sometimes unusual, especially at small Mach numbers. It was also surprising that there is no great difference among all these flowfield features in the plane jet and in the axisymmetrical jet flow out of a nozzle with large throat angle, but all these parameters behave in a quite different way in an axisymmetrical jet at small and moderate nozzle throat angles.

  8. Thermal Analysis of the MC-1 Chamber/Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Darrell W.; Phelps, Lisa H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the thermal analysis techniques used to predict temperatures in the film-cooled ablative rocket nozzle used on the MC-1 60K rocket engine. A model was developed that predicts char and pyrolysis depths, liner thermal gradients, and temperatures of the bondline between the overwrap and liner. Correlation of the model was accomplished by thermal analog tests performed at Southern Research, and specially instrumented hot fire tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Infrared thermography was instrumental in defining nozzle hot wall surface temperatures. In-depth and outboard thermocouple data was used to correlate the kinetic decomposition routine used to predict char and pyrolysis depths. These depths were anchored with measured char and pyrolysis depths from cross-sectioned hot-fire nozzles. For the X-34 flight analysis, the model includes the ablative Thermal Protection System (TPS) material that protects the overwrap from the recirculating plume. Results from model correlation, hot-fire testing, and flight predictions will be discussed.

  9. Development of an Aeroelastic Modeling Capability for Transient Nozzle Side Load Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Sijun; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Lateral nozzle forces are known to cause severe structural damage to any new rocket engine in development. Currently there is no fully coupled computational tool to analyze this fluid/structure interaction process. The objective of this study was to develop a fully coupled aeroelastic modeling capability to describe the fluid/structure interaction process during the transient nozzle operations. The aeroelastic model composes of three components: the computational fluid dynamics component based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, the computational structural dynamics component developed in the framework of modal analysis, and the fluid-structural interface component. The developed aeroelastic model was applied to the transient nozzle startup process of the Space Shuttle Main Engine at sea level. The computed nozzle side loads and the axial nozzle wall pressure profiles from the aeroelastic nozzle are compared with those of the published rigid nozzle results, and the impact of the fluid/structure interaction on nozzle side loads is interrogated and presented.

  10. Stepped nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, George P.

    1998-01-01

    An insert which allows a supersonic nozzle of a rocket propulsion system to operate at two or more different nozzle area ratios. This provides an improved vehicle flight performance or increased payload. The insert has significant advantages over existing devices for increasing nozzle area ratios. The insert is temporarily fastened by a simple retaining mechanism to the aft end of the diverging segment of the nozzle and provides for a multi-step variation of nozzle area ratio. When mounted in place, the insert provides the nozzle with a low nozzle area ratio. During flight, the retaining mechanism is released and the insert ejected thereby providing a high nozzle area ratio in the diverging nozzle segment.

  11. Stepped nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, G.P.

    1998-07-14

    An insert is described which allows a supersonic nozzle of a rocket propulsion system to operate at two or more different nozzle area ratios. This provides an improved vehicle flight performance or increased payload. The insert has significant advantages over existing devices for increasing nozzle area ratios. The insert is temporarily fastened by a simple retaining mechanism to the aft end of the diverging segment of the nozzle and provides for a multi-step variation of nozzle area ratio. When mounted in place, the insert provides the nozzle with a low nozzle area ratio. During flight, the retaining mechanism is released and the insert ejected thereby providing a high nozzle area ratio in the diverging nozzle segment. 5 figs.

  12. Effects of gas temperature on nozzle damping experiments on cold-flow rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bing-bing; Li, Shi-peng; Su, Wan-xing; Li, Jun-wei; Wang, Ning-fei

    2016-09-01

    In order to explore the impact of gas temperature on the nozzle damping characteristics of solid rocket motor, numerical simulations were carried out by an experimental motor in Naval Ordnance Test Station of China Lake in California. Using the pulse decay method, different cases were numerically studied via Fluent along with UDF (User Defined Functions). Firstly, mesh sensitivity analysis and monitor position-independent analysis were carried out for the computer code validation. Then, the numerical method was further validated by comparing the calculated results and experimental data. Finally, the effects of gas temperature on the nozzle damping characteristics were studied in this paper. The results indicated that the gas temperature had cooperative effects on the nozzle damping and there had great differences between cold flow and hot fire test. By discussion and analysis, it was found that the changing of mainstream velocity and the natural acoustic frequency resulted from gas temperature were the key factors that affected the nozzle damping, while the alteration of the mean pressure had little effect. Thus, the high pressure condition could be replaced by low pressure to reduce the difficulty of the test. Finally, the relation of the coefficients "alpha" between the cold flow and hot fire was got.

  13. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, N. B.; Harmon, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced near term (1990's) space-based Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine (OTVE) system was designed, and the technologies applicable to its construction, maintenance, and operations were developed under Tasks A through F of the Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program. Task A was a reporting task. In Task B, promising OTV turbomachinery technologies were explored: two stage partial admission turbines, high velocity ratio diffusing crossovers, soft wear ring seals, advanced bearing concepts, and a rotordynamic analysis. In Task C, a ribbed combustor design was developed. Possible rib and channel geometries were chosen analytically. Rib candidates were hot air tested and laser velocimeter boundary layer analyses were conducted. A channel geometry was also chosen on the basis of laser velocimeter data. To verify the predicted heat enhancement effects, a ribbed calorimeter spool was hot fire tested. Under Task D, the optimum expander cycle engine thrust, performance and envelope were established for a set of OTV missions. Optimal nozzle contours and quick disconnects for modularity were developed. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses, maintenance and reliability studies and component study results were incorporated into the engine system. Parametric trades on engine thrust, mixture ratio, and area ratio were also generated. A control system and the health monitoring and maintenance operations necessary for a space-based engine were outlined in Task E. In addition, combustor wall thickness measuring devices and a fiberoptic shaft monitor were developed. These monitoring devices were incorporated into preflight engine readiness checkout procedures. In Task F, the Integrated Component Evaluator (I.C.E.) was used to demonstrate performance and operational characteristics of an advanced expander cycle engine system and its component technologies. Sub-system checkouts and a system blowdown were performed. Short transitions were then made into main combustor ignition and

  14. Tests of a D vented thrust deflecting nozzle behind a simulated turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    A D vented thrust deflecting nozzle applicable to subsonic V/STOL aircraft was tested behind a simulated turbofan engine in the verticle thrust stand. Nozzle thrust, fan operating characteristics, nozzle entrance conditions, and static pressures were measured. Nozzle performance was measured for variations in exit area and thrust deflection angle. Six core nozzle configurations, the effect of core exit axial location, mismatched core and fan stream nozzle pressure ratios, and yaw vane presence were evaluated. Core nozzle configuration affected performance at normal and engine out operating conditions. Highest vectored nozzle performance resulted for a given exit area when core and fan stream pressure were equal. Its is concluded that high nozzle performance can be maintained at both normal and engine out conditions through control of the nozzle entrance Mach number with a variable exit area.

  15. SCOUT Nozzle Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shieds, S.

    1976-01-01

    Available analyses and material property information are summarized relevant to the design of four rocket motor nozzles currently incorporated in the four solid propellant rocket stages of the NASA SCOUT launch vehicle. The nozzles discussed include those for the following motors: (1) first stage - Algol IIIA; (2) second stage - Castor IIA; (3) third stage - Antares IIA; and (4) fourth stage - Altair IIIA. Separate sections for each nozzle provide complete data packages. Information on the Antares IIB motor which had limited usage as an alternate motor for the third stage is included.

  16. The pasty propellant rocket engine development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, V. I.; Ivanchenko, A. N.

    1993-06-01

    The paper describes a newly developed pasty propellant rocket engine (PPRE) and the combustion process and presents results of performance tests. It is shown that, compared with liquid propellant rocket engines, the PPREs can regulate the thrust level within a wider range, are safer ecologically, and have better weight characteristics. Compared with solid propellant rocket engines, the PPREs may be produced with lower costs and more safely, are able to regulate thrust performance within a wider range, and are able to offer a greater scope for the variation of the formulation components and propellant characteristics. Diagrams of the PPRE are included.

  17. Test Stand at the Rocket Engine Test Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-02-21

    The thrust stand in the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The Rocket Engine Test Facility was constructed in the mid-1950s to expand upon the smaller test cells built a decade before at the Rocket Laboratory. The $2.5-million Rocket Engine Test Facility could test larger hydrogen-fluorine and hydrogen-oxygen rocket thrust chambers with thrust levels up to 20,000 pounds. Test Stand A, seen in this photograph, was designed to fire vertically mounted rocket engines downward. The exhaust passed through an exhaust gas scrubber and muffler before being vented into the atmosphere. Lewis researchers in the early 1970s used the Rocket Engine Test Facility to perform basic research that could be utilized by designers of the Space Shuttle Main Engines. A new electronic ignition system and timer were installed at the facility for these tests. Lewis researchers demonstrated the benefits of ceramic thermal coatings for the engine’s thrust chamber and determined the optimal composite material for the coatings. They compared the thermal-coated thrust chamber to traditional unlined high-temperature thrust chambers. There were more than 17,000 different configurations tested on this stand between 1973 and 1976. The Rocket Engine Test Facility was later designated a National Historic Landmark for its role in the development of liquid hydrogen as a propellant.

  18. Optimization of supersonic axisymmetric nozzles with a center body for aerospace propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidenko, D. M.; Eude, Y.; Falempin, F.

    2011-10-01

    This study is aimed at optimization of axisymmetric nozzles with a center body, which are suitable for thrust engines having an annular duct. To determine the flow conditions and nozzle dimensions, the Vinci rocket engine is chosen as a prototype. The nozzle contours are described by 2nd and 3rd order analytical functions and specified by a set of geometrical parameters. A direct optimization method is used to design maximum thrust nozzle contours. During optimization, the flow of multispecies reactive gas is simulated by an Euler code. Several optimized contours have been obtained for the center body diameter ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 m. For these contours, Navier-Stokes (NS) simulations have been performed to take into account viscous effects assuming adiabatic and cooled wall conditions. The paper presents an analysis of factors influencing the nozzle thrust.

  19. Performance and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide/oxygen rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1993-01-01

    The combustion and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide and oxygen rocket engine were evaluated. The test hardware consisted of a calorimeter combustion chamber with a heat sink nozzle and an eighteen element concentric tube injector. Experimental results are given at chamber pressures of 1070 and 3070 kPa, and over a mixture ratio range of 0.3 to 1.0. Experimental C efficiency was between 95 and 96.5 percent. Heat transfer results are discussed both as a function of mixture ratio and axial distance in the chamber. They are also compared to a Nusselt number correlation for fully developed turbulent flow.

  20. Shock-Induced Heating In A Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagnado, Ronald R.; Raiszadeh, Farhad

    1989-01-01

    Misalignments give rise to hotspots on walls. Report discusses numerical simulation of flow in and near small, ringlike cavity in wall of Space Shuttle main engine at junction of main combustion chamber and nozzle. Purpose to study effects of misalignments between combustion chamber and nozzle on transfer of heat into surfaces chamber, cavity, and nozzle. Depending on specific misalignment flow encounters forward-or backward-facing step leaving chamber and entering nozzle. Results in serious losses of performance and excessive heating of walls.

  1. The Strutjet Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebenhaar, A.; Bulman, M. J.; Bonnar, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    The multi stage chemical rocket has been established over many years as the propulsion System for space transportation vehicles, while, at the same time, there is increasing concern about its continued affordability and rather involved reusability. Two broad approaches to addressing this overall launch cost problem consist in one, the further development of the rocket motor, and two, the use of airbreathing propulsion to the maximum extent possible as a complement to the limited use of a conventional rocket. In both cases, a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle is considered a desirable goal. However, neither the "all-rocket" nor the "all-airbreathing" approach seems realizable and workable in practice without appreciable advances in materials and manufacturing. An affordable system must be reusable with minimal refurbishing on-ground, and large mean time between overhauls, and thus with high margins in design. It has been suggested that one may use different engine cycles, some rocket and others airbreathing, in a combination over a flight trajectory, but this approach does not lead to a converged solution with thrust-to-mass, specific impulse, and other performance and operational characteristics that can be obtained in the different engines. The reason is this type of engine is simply a combination of different engines with no commonality of gas flowpath or components, and therefore tends to have the deficiencies of each of the combined engines. A further development in this approach is a truly combined cycle that incorporates a series of cycles for different modes of propulsion along a flight path with multiple use of a set of components and an essentially single gas flowpath through the engine. This integrated approach is based on realizing the benefits of both a rocket engine and airbreathing engine in various combinations by a systematic functional integration of components in an engine class usually referred to as a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine

  2. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  3. Fabry-Perot interferometer development for rocket engine plume spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Madzsar, G.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes a new rugged high-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) designed for rocket engine plume spectroscopy, which is capable of detecting spectral signatures of eroding engine components during rocket engine tests and/or flight operations. The FPI system will make it possible to predict and to respond to the incipient rocket engine failures and to indicate the presence of rocket components degradation. The design diagram of the FPI spectrometer is presented.

  4. Fabry-Perot interferometer development for rocket engine plume spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, R. L.; Madzsar, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new rugged high-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) designed for rocket engine plume spectroscopy, which is capable of detecting spectral signatures of eroding engine components during rocket engine tests and/or flight operations. The FPI system will make it possible to predict and to respond to the incipient rocket engine failures and to indicate the presence of rocket components degradation. The design diagram of the FPI spectrometer is presented.

  5. Rocket exhaust plume computer program improvement. Volume 1: Summary: Method of characteristics nozzle and plume programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, A. W.; Smith, S. D.; Penny, N. M.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is presented of the various documents that discuss and describe the computer programs and analysis techniques which are available for rocket nozzle and exhaust plume calculations. The basic method of characteristics program is discussed, along with such auxiliary programs as the plume impingement program, the plot program and the thermochemical properties program.

  6. Outbrief - Long Life Rocket Engine Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jason Eugene

    2004-01-01

    This white paper is an overview of the JANNAF Long Life Rocket Engine (LLRE) Panel results from the last several years of activity. The LLRE Panel has met over the last several years in order to develop an approach for the development of long life rocket engines. Membership for this panel was drawn from a diverse set of the groups currently working on rocket engines (Le. government labs, both large and small companies and university members). The LLRE Panel was formed in order to determine the best way to enable the design of rocket engine systems that have life capability greater than 500 cycles while meeting or exceeding current performance levels (Specific Impulse and Thrust/Weight) with a 1/1,OOO,OOO likelihood of vehicle loss due to rocket system failure. After several meetings and much independent work the panel reached a consensus opinion that the primary issues preventing LLRE are a lack of: physics based life prediction, combined loads prediction, understanding of material microphysics, cost effective system level testing. and the inclusion of fabrication process effects into physics based models. With the expected level of funding devoted to LLRE development, the panel recommended that fundamental research efforts focused on these five areas be emphasized.

  7. Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1997-01-01

    Work is being done at three universities to help today's NASA engineers use the knowledge and experience of their Apolloera predecessors in designing liquid rocket engines. Ground-breaking work is being done in important subject areas to create a prototype of the most important functions for the Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS). The goal of RENS is to develop an interactive, realtime application that engineers can utilize for comprehensive preliminary propulsion system design functions. RENS will employ computer science and artificial intelligence research in knowledge acquisition, computer code parallelization and objectification, expert system architecture design, and object-oriented programming. In 1995, a 3year grant from the NASA Lewis Research Center was awarded to Dr. Douglas Moreman and Dr. John Dyer of Southern University at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, to begin acquiring knowledge in liquid rocket propulsion systems. Resources of the University of West Florida in Pensacola were enlisted to begin the process of enlisting knowledge from senior NASA engineers who are recognized experts in liquid rocket engine propulsion systems. Dr. John Coffey of the University of West Florida is utilizing his expertise in interviewing and concept mapping techniques to encode, classify, and integrate information obtained through personal interviews. The expertise extracted from the NASA engineers has been put into concept maps with supporting textual, audio, graphic, and video material. A fundamental concept map was delivered by the end of the first year of work and the development of maps containing increasing amounts of information is continuing. Find out more information about this work at the Southern University/University of West Florida. In 1996, the Southern University/University of West Florida team conducted a 4day group interview with a panel of five experts to discuss failures of the RL10 rocket engine in conjunction with the Centaur launch vehicle. The

  8. Nuclear Rocket Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center has a strong interest in nuclear rocket propulsion and provides active support of the graphite reactor program in such nonnuclear areas as cryogenics, two-phase flow, propellant heating, fluid systems, heat transfer, nozzle cooling, nozzle design, pumps, turbines, and startup and control problems. A parallel effort has also been expended to evaluate the engineering feasibility of a nuclear rocket reactor using tungsten-matrix fuel elements and water as the moderator. Both of these efforts have resulted in significant contributions to nuclear rocket technology. Many successful static firings of nuclear rockets have been made with graphite-core reactors. Sufficient information has also been accumulated to permit a reasonable Judgment as to the feasibility of the tungsten water-moderated reactor concept. We therefore consider that this technoIogy conference on the nuclear rocket work that has been sponsored by the Lewis Research Center is timely. The conference has been prepared by NASA personnel, but the information presented includes substantial contributions from both NASA and AEC contractors. The conference excludes from consideration the many possible mission requirements for nuclear rockets. Also excluded is the direct comparison of nuclear rocket types with each other or with other modes of propulsion. The graphite reactor support work presented on the first day of the conference was partly inspired through a close cooperative effort between the Cleveland extension of the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (headed by Robert W. Schroeder) and the Lewis Research Center. Much of this effort was supervised by Mr. John C. Sanders, chairman for the first day of the conference, and by Mr. Hugh M. Henneberry. The tungsten water-moderated reactor concept was initiated at Lewis by Mr. Frank E. Rom and his coworkers. The supervision of the recent engineering studies has been shared by Mr. Samuel J. Kaufman, chairman for the second day of the

  9. Aeroelastic Modeling of a Nozzle Startup Transient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Sijun; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Lateral nozzle forces are known to cause severe structural damage to any new rocket engine in development during test. While three-dimensional, transient, turbulent, chemically reacting computational fluid dynamics methodology has been demonstrated to capture major side load physics with rigid nozzles, hot-fire tests often show nozzle structure deformation during major side load events, leading to structural damages if structural strengthening measures were not taken. The modeling picture is incomplete without the capability to address the two-way responses between the structure and fluid. The objective of this study is to develop a tightly coupled aeroelastic modeling algorithm by implementing the necessary structural dynamics component into an anchored computational fluid dynamics methodology. The computational fluid dynamics component is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, while the computational structural dynamics component is developed under the framework of modal analysis. Transient aeroelastic nozzle startup analyses at sea level were performed, and the computed transient nozzle fluid-structure interaction physics presented,

  10. Identification of Noise Sources During Rocket Engine Test Firings and a Rocket Launch Using a Microphone Phased-Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Mosher, Robert N.; Porter, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    A 70 microphone, 10-foot by 10-foot, microphone phased array was built for use in the harsh environment of rocket launches. The array was setup at NASA Wallops launch pad 0A during a static test firing of Orbital Sciences' Antares engines, and again during the first launch of the Antares vehicle. It was placed 400 feet away from the pad, and was hoisted on a scissor lift 40 feet above ground. The data sets provided unprecedented insight into rocket noise sources. The duct exit was found to be the primary source during the static test firing; the large amount of water injected beneath the nozzle exit and inside the plume duct quenched all other sources. The maps of the noise sources during launch were found to be time-dependent. As the engines came to full power and became louder, the primary source switched from the duct inlet to the duct exit. Further elevation of the vehicle caused spilling of the hot plume, resulting in a distributed noise map covering most of the pad. As the entire plume emerged from the duct, and the ondeck water system came to full power, the plume itself became the loudest noise source. These maps of the noise sources provide vital insight for optimization of sound suppression systems for future Antares launches.

  11. Efficiency of the rocket engines with a supersonic afterburner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, A. A.

    1992-08-01

    The paper is concerned with the problem of regenerative cooling of the liquid-propellant rocket engine combustion chamber at high pressures of the working fluid. It is shown that high combustion product pressures can be achieved in the liquid-propellant rocket engine with a supersonic afterburner than in a liquid-propellant rocket engine with a conventional subsonic combustion chamber for the same allowable heat flux density. However, the liquid-propellant rocket engine with a supersonic afterburner becomes more economical than the conventional engine only at generator gas temperatures of 1700 K and higher.

  12. A hybrid rocket engine design for simple low cost sounding rocket use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubelich, Mark; Rowland, John; Reese, Larry

    1993-06-01

    Preliminary test results on a nitrous oxide/HTPB hybrid rocket engine suitable for powering a small sounding rocket to altitudes of 50-100 K/ft are presented. It is concluded that the advantage of the N2O hybrid engine over conventional solid propellant rocket motors is the ability to obtain long burn times with core burning geometries due to the low regression rate of the fuel. Long burn times make it possible to reduce terminal velocity to minimize air drag losses.

  13. IR signature study of aircraft engine for variation in nozzle exit area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranwal, Nidhi; Mahulikar, Shripad P.

    2016-01-01

    In general, jet engines operate with choked nozzle during take-off, climb and cruise, whereas unchoking occurs while landing and taxiing (when engine is not running at full power). Appropriate thrust in an aircraft in all stages of the flight, i.e., take-off, climb, cruise, descent and landing is achieved through variation in the nozzle exit area. This paper describes the effect on thrust and IR radiance of a turbojet engine due to variation in the exit area of a just choked converging nozzle (Me = 1). The variations in the nozzle exit area result in either choking or unchoking of a just choked converging nozzle. Results for the change in nozzle exit area are analyzed in terms of thrust, mass flow rate and specific fuel consumption. The solid angle subtended (Ω) by the exhaust system is estimated analytically, for the variation in nozzle exit area (Ane), as it affects the visibility of the hot engine parts from the rear aspect. For constant design point thrust, IR radiance is studied from the boresight (ϕ = 0°, directly from the rear side) for various percentage changes in nozzle exit area (%ΔAne), in the 1.9-2.9 μm and 3-5 μm bands.

  14. Some Calculated Research Results of the Working Process Parameters of the Low Thrust Rocket Engine Operating on Gaseous Oxygen-Hydrogen Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, V.; Morozov, I.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the calculating results of the combustion products parameters in the tract of the low thrust rocket engine with thrust P ∼ 100 N. The article contains the following data: streamlines, distribution of total temperature parameter in the longitudinal section of the engine chamber, static temperature distribution in the cross section of the engine chamber, velocity distribution of the combustion products in the outlet section of the engine nozzle, static temperature near the inner wall of the engine. The presented parameters allow to estimate the efficiency of the mixture formation processes, flow of combustion products in the engine chamber and to estimate the thermal state of the structure.

  15. Fuel Chemistry and Combustion Distribution Effects on Rocket Engine Combustion Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-25

    by Crowe et al. (1963). The small solid rocket motors are fired into the collection tank with the nozzle [Crowe et al. (1963)] and without nozzle...explosions at the end of the droplet lifetime. Upon ignition , a neat droplet of JP-8 will burn orange, and the droplet will regress until all of the...pixel location were estimated by applying a time shift and amplitude scaling factor to the pressure measurements made at the aft end of chamber

  16. Teaching Engineering Design Through Paper Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welling, Jonathan; Wright, Geoffrey A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper rocket activity described in this article effectively teaches the engineering design process (EDP) by engaging students in a problem-based learning activity that encourages iterative design. For example, the first rockets the students build typically only fly between 30 and 100 feet. As students test and evaluate their rocket designs,…

  17. Trong Bui, NASA Dryden's principal investigator for the aerospike rocket tests, with one of two rockets flown in the first tests.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-12-09

    Trong Bui, NASA Dryden's principal investigator for the aerospike rocket tests, holds the first of two 10-ft. long rockets that were flown at speeds up to Mach 1.5, the first known supersonic tests of rockets with aerospike nozzles. The goals of the flight research project were to obtain aerospike rocket nozzle performance data in flight and to investigate the effects of transonic flow and transient flight conditions on aerospike nozzle performance.

  18. Transient Three-Dimensional Side Load Analysis of Out-of-Round Film Cooled Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Lin, Jeff; Ruf, Joe; Guidos, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of nozzle out-of-roundness on the transient startup side loads. The out-of-roundness could be the result of asymmetric loads induced by hardware attached to the nozzle, asymmetric internal stresses induced by previous tests and/or deformation, such as creep, from previous tests. The rocket engine studied encompasses a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and a film cooled nozzle extension with film coolant distributed from a turbine exhaust manifold. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a transient inlet history based on an engine system simulation. Transient startup computations were performed with the out-of-roundness achieved by four degrees of ovalization of the nozzle: one perfectly round, one slightly out-of-round, one more out-of-round, and one significantly out-of-round. The computed side load physics caused by the nozzle out-of-roundness and its effect on nozzle side load are reported and discussed.

  19. Combustor nozzles in gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Stewart, Jason Thurman

    2017-09-12

    A micro-mixer nozzle for use in a combustor of a combustion turbine engine, the micro-mixer nozzle including: a fuel plenum defined by a shroud wall connecting a periphery of a forward tube sheet to a periphery of an aft tubesheet; a plurality of mixing tubes extending across the fuel plenum for mixing a supply of compressed air and fuel, each of the mixing tubes forming a passageway between an inlet formed through the forward tubesheet and an outlet formed through the aft tubesheet; and a wall mixing tube formed in the shroud wall.

  20. XLR-11 - X-1 rocket engine display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    What started as a hobby for four rocket fanatics went on to break the sound barrier: Lovell Lawrence, Hugh Franklin Pierce, John Shesta, and Jimmy Wyld the four founders of Reaction Motors, Inc. that built the XLR-11 Rocket Engine. The XLR-11 engine is shown on display in the NASA Exchange Gift Shop, NASA Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. This engine, familiarly known as Black Betsy, a 4-chamber rocket that ignited diluted ethyl alcohol and liquid oxygen into 6000 pounds or more of thrust powered the X-1 series airplanes.

  1. Rainbows and Rocket Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-22

    Rainbows and rocket engines – doesn’t get much better than that! Check out these gorgeous aerial views from today’s Space Launch System RS-25 engine test @NASA’s Stennis Space Center. PAO Name:Kim Henry Phone Number:256-544-1899 Email Address: kimberly.m.henry@nasa.gov

  2. Nozzle Numerical Analysis Of The Scimitar Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista, F.; Marini, M.; Cutrone, L.

    2011-05-01

    This work describes part of the activities on the LAPCAT-II A2 vehicle, in which starting from the available conceptual vehicle design and the related pre- cooled turbo-ramjet engine called SCIMITAR, well- thought assumptions made for performance figures of different components during the iteration process within LAPCAT-I will be assessed in more detail. In this paper it is presented a numerical analysis aimed at the design optimization of the nozzle contour of the LAPCAT A2 SCIMITAR engine designed by Reaction Engines Ltd. (REL) (see Figure 1). In particular, nozzle shape optimization process is presented for cruise conditions. All the computations have been carried out by using the CIRA C3NS code in non equilibrium conditions. The effect of considering detailed or reduced chemical kinetic schemes has been analyzed with a particular focus on the production of pollutants. An analysis of engine performance parameters, such as thrust and combustion efficiency has been carried out.

  3. Ceramic composites for rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Eckel, Andrew J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of ceramic materials in the hot section of the fuel turbopump of advanced reusable rocket engines promises increased performance and payload capability, improved component life and economics, and greater design flexibility. Severe thermal transients present during operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), push metallic components to the limit of their capabilities. Future engine requirements might be even more severe. In phase one of this two-phase program, performance benefits were quantified and continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite components demonstrated a potential to survive the hostile environment of an advanced rocket engine turbopump.

  4. Ceramic composites for rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Eckel, Andrew J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of ceramic materials in the hot section of the fuel turbopump of advanced reusable rocket engines promises increased performance and payload capability, improved component life and economics, and greater design flexibility. Severe thermal transients present during operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), push metallic components to the limit of their capabilities. Future engine requirements might be even more severe. In phase one of this two-phase program, performance benefits were quantified and continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite components demonstrated a potential to survive the hostile environment of an advaced rocket engine turbopump.

  5. MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.

  6. Advanced nozzle and engine components test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltran, Luis R.; Delroso, Richard L.; Delrosario, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    A test facility for conducting scaled advanced nozzle and engine component research is described. The CE-22 test facility, located in the Engine Research Building of the NASA Lewis Research Center, contains many systems for the economical testing of advanced scale-model nozzles and engine components. The combustion air and altitude exhaust systems are described. Combustion air can be supplied to a model up to 40 psig for primary air flow, and 40, 125, and 450 psig for secondary air flow. Altitude exhaust can be simulated up to 48,000 ft, or the exhaust can be atmospheric. Descriptions of the multiaxis thrust stand, a color schlieren flow visualization system used for qualitative flow analysis, a labyrinth flow measurement system, a data acquisition system, and auxiliary systems are discussed. Model recommended design information and temperature and pressure instrumentation recommendations are included.

  7. Method and apparatus to produce high specific impulse and moderate thrust from a fusion-powered rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Pajer, Gary A.; Paluszek, Michael A.

    A system and method for producing and controlling high thrust and desirable specific impulse from a continuous fusion reaction is disclosed. The resultant relatively small rocket engine will have lower cost to develop, test, and operate that the prior art, allowing spacecraft missions throughout the planetary system and beyond. The rocket engine method and system includes a reactor chamber and a heating system for heating a stable plasma to produce fusion reactions in the stable plasma. Magnets produce a magnetic field that confines the stable plasma. A fuel injection system and a propellant injection system are included. The propellant injectionmore » system injects cold propellant into a gas box at one end of the reactor chamber, where the propellant is ionized into a plasma. The propellant and fusion products are directed out of the reactor chamber through a magnetic nozzle and are detached from the magnetic field lines producing thrust.« less

  8. Iridium/Rhenium Parts For Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Harding, John T.; Wooten, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidation/corrosion of metals at high temperatures primary life-limiting mechanism of parts in rocket engines. Combination of metals greatly increases operating temperature and longevity of these parts. Consists of two transition-element metals - iridium and rhenium - that melt at extremely high temperatures. Maximum operating temperature increased to 2,200 degrees C from 1,400 degrees C. Increases operating lifetimes of small rocket engines by more than factor of 10. Possible to make hotter-operating, longer-lasting components for turbines and other heat engines.

  9. Large liquid rocket engine transient performance simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. R.; Southwick, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    Phase 1 of the Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) program consists of seven technical tasks: architecture; system requirements; component and submodel requirements; submodel implementation; component implementation; submodel testing and verification; and subsystem testing and verification. These tasks were completed. Phase 2 of ROCETS consists of two technical tasks: Technology Test Bed Engine (TTBE) model data generation; and system testing verification. During this period specific coding of the system processors was begun and the engineering representations of Phase 1 were expanded to produce a simple model of the TTBE. As the code was completed, some minor modifications to the system architecture centering on the global variable common, GLOBVAR, were necessary to increase processor efficiency. The engineering modules completed during Phase 2 are listed: INJTOO - main injector; MCHBOO - main chamber; NOZLOO - nozzle thrust calculations; PBRNOO - preburner; PIPE02 - compressible flow without inertia; PUMPOO - polytropic pump; ROTROO - rotor torque balance/speed derivative; and TURBOO - turbine. Detailed documentation of these modules is in the Appendix. In addition to the engineering modules, several submodules were also completed. These submodules include combustion properties, component performance characteristics (maps), and specific utilities. Specific coding was begun on the system configuration processor. All functions necessary for multiple module operation were completed but the SOLVER implementation is still under development. This system, the Verification Checkout Facility (VCF) allows interactive comparison of module results to store data as well as provides an intermediate checkout of the processor code. After validation using the VCF, the engineering modules and submodules were used to build a simple TTBE.

  10. Methane Dual Expander Aerospike Nozzle Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    include O/F ratio, thrust, and engine geometry. After thousands of iterations over the design space , the selected MDEAN engine concept has 349 s of...35 Table 7: Fluid Property Table Supported Parameters...44 Table 8: Fluid Property Input Data Independent Variable Ranges. ................................. 46 Table 9

  11. Low Cost, Net Shape Fabrication of Rhenium and High Temperature Materials for Rocket Engine Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    tungsten thin wall nozzle liner removed from reusable mandrel. b) W and Re rocket, nozzle inserts (2 inserts per mandrel) for Air Force. Rhenium PPI...compares the fabrication time for the VPS nozzles with equivalent carbon / carbon composite (C/C) and forged tungsten materials. Table 5: Comparison of...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO1 1181 TITLE: Low Cost, Net Shape Fabrication of Rhenium and High

  12. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S [Bloomington, IL; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  13. Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr.; Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-04-25

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  14. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2007-11-06

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  15. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  16. Supercomputer modeling of hydrogen combustion in rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betelin, V. B.; Nikitin, V. F.; Altukhov, D. I.; Dushin, V. R.; Koo, Jaye

    2013-08-01

    Hydrogen being an ecological fuel is very attractive now for rocket engines designers. However, peculiarities of hydrogen combustion kinetics, the presence of zones of inverse dependence of reaction rate on pressure, etc. prevents from using hydrogen engines in all stages not being supported by other types of engines, which often brings the ecological gains back to zero from using hydrogen. Computer aided design of new effective and clean hydrogen engines needs mathematical tools for supercomputer modeling of hydrogen-oxygen components mixing and combustion in rocket engines. The paper presents the results of developing verification and validation of mathematical model making it possible to simulate unsteady processes of ignition and combustion in rocket engines.

  17. An example of successful international cooperation in rocket motor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Russell A.; Berdoyes, Michel

    2002-07-01

    The history of over 25 years of cooperation between Pratt & Whitney, San Jose, CA, USA and Snecma Moteurs, Le Haillan, France in solid rocket motor and, in one case, liquid rocket engine technology is presented. Cooperative efforts resulted in achievements that likely would not have been realized individually. The combination of resources and technologies resulted in synergistic benefits and advancement of the state of the art in rocket motors and components. Discussions begun between the two companies in the early 1970's led to the first cooperative project, demonstration of an advanced apogee motor nozzle, during the mid 1970's. Shortly thereafter advanced carboncarbon (CC) throat materials from Snecma were comparatively tested with other materials in a P&W program funded by the USAF. Use of Snecma throat materials in CSD Tomahawk boosters followed. Advanced space motors were jointly demonstrated in company-funded joint programs in the late 1970's and early 1980's: an advanced space motor with an extendible exit cone and an all-composite advanced space motor that included a composite chamber polar adapter. Eight integral-throat entrances (ITEs) of 4D and 6D construction were tested by P&W for Snecma in 1982. Other joint programs in the 1980's included test firing of a "membrane" CC exit cone, and integral throat and exit cone (ITEC) nozzle incorporating NOVOLTEX® SEPCARB® material. A variation of this same material was demonstrated as a chamber aft polar boss in motor firings that included demonstration of composite material hot gas valve thrust vector control (TVC). In the 1990's a supersonic splitline flexseal nozzle was successfully demonstrated by the two companies as part of a US Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) program effort. Also in the mid-1990s the NOVOLTEX® SEPCARB® material, so successful in solid rocket motor application, was successfully applied to a liquid engine nozzle extension. The first cooperative

  18. State and prospects of solid propellant rocket development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, V. Kh.

    1992-07-01

    An overview is presented of aspects of solid-propellant rocket engine (SPRE) development with individual treatment given to sustainer and spacecraft SPRE technologies. The paper focuses on low-modulus fuels of composite solid propellant, requirements for adhesion stability, and enhancement of the power characteristics of solid propellants. R&D activities are described that relate to the use of SPREs with extending nozzles and to the design of ultradimensional nozzles for upper-stage engines. Other developments for the SPREs include engines with separate loading and pasty fuel applications, and progress is reported in the direction of detonation SPREs. The SPREs using pasty propellants provide good control over thrust characteristics and fuel qualities. A device is incorporated that assures fuel burning in the combustion region and reliable ignition during restarting of these engines.

  19. Interaction of external conditions with the internal flowfield in liquid rocket engines - A computational study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, H. P.; Gross, K. W.

    1989-01-01

    Computational studies have been conducted to examine the capability of a CFD code by simulating the steady state thrust chamber internal flow. The SSME served as the sample case, and significant parameter profiles are presented and discussed. Performance predictions from TDK, the recommended JANNAF reference computer program, are compared with those from PHOENICS to establish the credibility of its results. The investigation of an overexpanded nozzle flow is particularly addressed since it plays an important role in the area ratio selection of future rocket engines. Experience gained during this uncompleted flow separation study and future steps are outlined.

  20. Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An engine is disclosed, including a controllable output plasma generator, a controllable heater for selectably raising a temperature of the plasma connected to an outlet of the plasma generator, and a nozzle connected to an outlet of the heater, through which heated plasma is discharged to provide thrust. In one embodiment, the source of plasma is a helicon generator. In one embodiment, the heater is an ion cyclotron resonator. In one embodiment, the nozzle is a radially diverging magnetic field disposed on a discharge side of the heater so that helically travelling particles in the beater exit the heater at high axial velocity. A particular embodiment includes control circuits for selectably directing a portion of radio frequency power from an RF generator to the helicon generator and to the cyclotron resonator so that the thrust output and the specific impulse of the engine can be selectively controlled. A method of propelling a vehicle is also disclosed. The method includes generating a plasma, heating said plasma, and discharging the heated plasma through a nozzle. In one embodiment, the nozzle is a diverging magnetic field. In this embodiment, the heating is performed by applying a radio frequency electro magnetic field to the plasma at the ion cyclotron frequency in an axially polarized DC magnetic field.

  1. Ongoing Analysis of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco engine analysis is a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  2. Rocket engine numerical simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: a rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS) definition; objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusion.

  3. Control Room at the NACA’s Rocket Engine Test Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1957-05-21

    Test engineers monitor an engine firing from the control room of the Rocket Engine Test Facility at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The Rocket Engine Test Facility, built in the early 1950s, had a rocket stand designed to evaluate high-energy propellants and rocket engine designs. The facility was used to study numerous different types of rocket engines including the Pratt and Whitney RL-10 engine for the Centaur rocket and Rocketdyne’s F-1 and J-2 engines for the Saturn rockets. The Rocket Engine Test Facility was built in a ravine at the far end of the laboratory because of its use of the dangerous propellants such as liquid hydrogen and liquid fluorine. The control room was located in a building 1,600 feet north of the test stand to protect the engineers running the tests. The main control and instrument consoles were centrally located in the control room and surrounded by boards controlling and monitoring the major valves, pumps, motors, and actuators. A camera system at the test stand allowed the operators to view the tests, but the researchers were reliant on data recording equipment, sensors, and other devices to provide test data. The facility’s control room was upgraded several times over the years. Programmable logic controllers replaced the electro-mechanical control devices. The new controllers were programed to operate the valves and actuators controlling the fuel, oxidant, and ignition sequence according to a predetermined time schedule.

  4. Analysis of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine during Rocket Only Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T. D.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Yungster, S.; Keller, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The all rocket mode of operation is a critical factor in the overall performance of a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) vehicle. However, outside of performing experiments or a full three dimensional analysis, there are no first order parametric models to estimate performance. As a result, an axisymmetric RBCC engine was used to analytically determine specific impulse efficiency values based upon both full flow and gas generator configurations. Design of experiments methodology was used to construct a test matrix and statistical regression analysis was used to build parametric models. The main parameters investigated in this study were: rocket chamber pressure, rocket exit area ratio, percent of injected secondary flow, mixer-ejector inlet area, mixer-ejector area ratio, and mixer-ejector length-to-inject diameter ratio. A perfect gas computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed to obtain values of vacuum specific impulse. Statistical regression analysis was performed based on both full flow and gas generator engine cycles. Results were also found to be dependent upon the entire cycle assumptions. The statistical regression analysis determined that there were five significant linear effects, six interactions, and one second-order effect. Two parametric models were created to provide performance assessments of an RBCC engine in the all rocket mode of operation.

  5. Analysis of liquid-propellant rocket engines designed by F. A. Tsander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dushkin, L. S.; Moshkin, Y. K.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the oxygen-gasoline OR-2 engines and the oxygen-alcohol GIRD-10 rocket engine is described. A result of Tsander's rocket research was an engineering method for propellant calculation of oxygen-propellant rocket engines that determined the basic parameters of the engine and the structural elements.

  6. Rocket engine numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-12-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

  7. Rocket engine numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Ken

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.

  8. Analysis and Results from a Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) System in Close Proximity to Firing Rocket Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Aliyah N.; Borrer, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation presents information regarding the nose-cap flush airdata sensing (FADS) system on Orion's Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) vehicle. The purpose of the nose-cap FADS system was to test whether or not useful data could be obtained from a FADS system if it was placed in close proximity to firing rockets nozzles like the attitude control motor (ACM) nozzles on the PA-1 launch abort system (LAS). The nose-cap FADS systems use pressure measurements from a series of pressure ports which are arranged in a cruciform pattern and flush with the surface of the vehicle to estimate values of angle of attack, angle of side-slip, Mach number, impact pressure and free-stream static pressure.

  9. Coefficients of discharge of fuel-injection nozzles for compression-ignition engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the coefficients of discharge of nozzles with small, round orifices of the size used with high-speed compression-ignition engines. The injection pressures and chamber back pressures employed were comparable to those existing in compression-ignition engines during injection. The construction of the nozzles was varied to determine the effect of the nozzle design on the coefficient. Tests were also made with nozzles assembled in an automatic injection valve, both with a plain and with a helically grooved stem. It was found that a smooth passage before the orifice is requisite for high flow efficiency. A beveled leading edge before the orifice gave a higher coefficient of discharge than a rounded edge. The results with the nozzles assembled in an automatic injection valve having a plain stem duplicated those with the nozzles assembled at the end of a straight tube of constant diameter. Lower coefficients were obtained with the nozzles assembled in an injection valve having a helically grooved stem. When the coefficients of nozzles of any one geometrical shape were plotted against values of corresponding Reynold's numbers for the orifice diameters and rates of flow tested, it was found that experimental points were distributed along a single curve.

  10. The hard start phenomena in hypergolic engines. Volume 1: Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miron, Y.; Perlee, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    A bibliography of reports pertaining to the hard start phenomenon in attitude control rocket engines on Apollo spacecraft is presented. Some of the subjects discussed are; (1) combustion of hydrazine, (2) one dimensional theory of liquid fuel rocket combustion, (3) preignition phenomena in small pulsed rocket engines, (4) experimental and theoretical investigation of the fluid dynamics of rocket combustion, and (5) nonequilibrium combustion and nozzle flow in propellant performance.

  11. Fiberoptic sensors for rocket engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    A research effort was completed to summarize and evaluate the current level of technology in fiberoptic sensors for possible applications in integrated control and health monitoring (ICHM) systems in liquid propellant engines. The environment within a rocket engine is particuarly severe with very high temperatures and pressures present combined with extremely rapid fluid and gas flows, and high-velocity and high-intensity acoustc waves. Application of fiberoptic technology to rocket engine health monitoring is a logical evolutionary step in ICHM development and presents a significant challenge. In this extremely harsh environment, the additional flexibility of fiberoptic techniques to augment conventional sensor technologies offer abundant future potential.

  12. Engineers with nozzles fabricated using a freeform-directed ener

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-15

    Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Department examine nozzles fabricated using a freeform-directed energy wire deposition process. From left are Paul Gradl, Will Brandsmeier, Ian Johnston and Sandy Greene, with the nozzles, which were built using a NASA-patented technology that has the potential to reduce build time from several months to several weeks.

  13. Development of an Aeroelastic Modeling Capability for Transient Nozzle Side Load Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Sijun; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Lateral nozzle forces are known to cause severe structural damage to any new rocket engine in development during test. While three-dimensional, transient, turbulent, chemically reacting computational fluid dynamics methodology has been demonstrated to capture major side load physics with rigid nozzles, hot-fire tests often show nozzle structure deformation during major side load events, leading to structural damages if structural strengthening measures were not taken. The modeling picture is incomplete without the capability to address the two-way responses between the structure and fluid. The objective of this study is to develop a coupled aeroelastic modeling capability by implementing the necessary structural dynamics component into an anchored computational fluid dynamics methodology. The computational fluid dynamics component is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, while the computational structural dynamics component is developed in the framework of modal analysis. Transient aeroelastic nozzle startup analyses of the Block I Space Shuttle Main Engine at sea level were performed. The computed results from the aeroelastic nozzle modeling are presented.

  14. Analysis and Results from a Flush Airdata Sensing System in Close Proximity to Firing Rocket Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Aliyah N.; Borrer, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents information regarding the nosecap Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) system on Orion’s Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) vehicle. The purpose of the nosecap FADS system was to test whether or not useful data could be obtained from a FADS system if it was placed in close proximity to firing rocket nozzles like the Attitude Control Motor (ACM) nozzles on the PA-1 Launch Abort System. The nosecap FADS system used pressure measurements from a series of pressure ports which were arranged in a cruciform pattern and flush with the surface of the vehicle to estimate values of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, Mach number, impact pressure, and freestream static pressure. This paper will present the algorithms employed by the FADS system along with the development of the calibration datasets and a comparison of the final results to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) data for PA-1. Also presented in this paper is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study to explore the impact of the ACM on the nosecap FADS system. The comparison of the nosecap FADS system results to the BET and the CFD study showed that more investigation is needed to quantify the impact of the firing rocket motors on the FADS system.

  15. Primary atomization of liquid jets issuing from rocket engine coaxial injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Roger D.

    1993-01-01

    The investigation of liquid jet breakup and spray development is critical to the understanding of combustion phenomena in liquid-propellant rocket engines. Much work has been done to characterize low-speed liquid jet breakup and dilute sprays, but atomizing jets and dense sprays have yielded few quantitative measurements due to their optical opacity. This work focuses on a characteristic of the primary breakup process of round liquid jets, namely the length of the intact liquid core. The specific application considered is that of shear-coaxial type rocket engine injectors. Real-time x-ray radiography, capable of imaging through the dense two-phase region surrounding the liquid core, has been used to make the measurements. Nitrogen and helium were employed as the fuel simulants while an x-ray absorbing potassium iodide aqueous solution was used as the liquid oxygen (LOX) simulant. The intact-liquid-core length data have been obtained and interpreted to illustrate the effects of chamber pressure (gas density), injected-gas and liquid velocities, and cavitation. The results clearly show that the effect of cavitation must be considered at low chamber pressures since it can be the dominant breakup mechanism. A correlation of intact core length in terms of gas-to-liquid density ratio, liquid jet Reynolds number, and Weber number is suggested. The gas-to-liquid density ratio appears to be the key parameter for aerodynamic shear breakup in this study. A small number of hot-fire, LOX/hydrogen tests were also conducted to attempt intact-LOX-core measurements under realistic conditions in a single-coaxial-element rocket engine. The tests were not successful in terms of measuring the intact core, but instantaneous imaging of LOX jets suggests that LOX jet breakup is qualitatively similar to that of cold-flow, propellant-simulant jets. The liquid oxygen jets survived in the hot-fire environment much longer than expected, and LOX was even visualized exiting the chamber nozzle

  16. A reusable rocket engine intelligen control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent control system for reusable space propulsion systems for future launch vehicles is described. The system description includes a framework for the design. The framework consists of an execution level with high-speed control and diagnostics, and a coordination level which marries expert system concepts with traditional control. A comparison is made between air breathing and rocket engine control concepts to assess the relative levels of development and to determine the applicability of air breathing control concepts to future reusable rocket engine systems.

  17. A reusable rocket engine intelligent control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent control system for reusable space propulsion systems for future launch vehicles is described. The system description includes a framework for the design. The framework consists of an execution level with high-speed control and diagnostics, and a coordination level which marries expert system concepts with traditional control. A comparison is made between air breathing and rocket engine control concepts to assess the relative levels of development and to determine the applicability of air breathing control concepts ot future reusable rocket engine systems.

  18. Fiber-Reinforced Superalloys For Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Jack R.; Yuen, Jim L.; Petrasek, Donald W.; Stephens, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses experimental studies of fiber-reinforced superalloy (FRS) composite materials for use in turbine blades in rocket engines. Intended to withstand extreme conditions of high temperature, thermal shock, atmospheres containing hydrogen, high cycle fatigue loading, and thermal fatigue, which tax capabilities of even most-advanced current blade material - directionally-solidified, hafnium-modified MAR M-246 {MAR M-246 (Hf) (DS)}. FRS composites attractive combination of properties for use in turbopump blades of advanced rocket engines at temperatures from 870 to 1,100 degrees C.

  19. High-Temperature Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.; Chazen, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Two rocket engines that operate at temperature of 2,500 K designed to provide thrust for station-keeping adjustments of geosynchronous satellites, for raising and lowering orbits, and for changing orbital planes. Also useful as final propulsion stages of launch vehicles delivering small satellites to low orbits around Earth. With further development, engines used on planetary exploration missions for orbital maneuvers. High-temperature technology of engines adaptable to gas-turbine combustors, ramjets, scramjets, and hot components of many energy-conversion systems.

  20. AJ26 rocket engine testing news briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Operators at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center are completing modifications to the E-1 Test Stand to begin testing Aerojet AJ26 rocket engines in early summer of 2010. Modifications include construction of a 27-foot-deep flame deflector trench. The AJ26 rocket engines will be used to power Orbital Sciences Corp.'s Taurus II space vehicles to provide commercial cargo transportation missions to the International Space Station for NASA. Stennis has partnered with Orbital to test all engines for the transport missions.

  1. Towards Rocket Engine Components with Increased Strength and Robust Operating Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Hadid, Ali; Lin, Pei; Balcazar, Daniel; Rai, Man Mohan; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    High-energy rotating machines, powering liquid propellant rocket engines, are subject to various sources of high and low cycle fatigue generated by unsteady flow phenomena. Given the tremendous need for reliability in a sustainable space exploration program, a fundamental change in the design methodology for engine components is required for both launch and space based systems. A design optimization system based on neural-networks has been applied and demonstrated in the redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo Pump (LPOTP) turbine nozzle. One objective of the redesign effort was to increase airfoil thickness and thus increase its strength while at the same time detuning the vane natural frequency modes from the vortex shedding frequency. The second objective was to reduce the vortex shedding amplitude. The third objective was to maintain this low shedding amplitude even in the presence of large manufacturing tolerances. All of these objectives were achieved without generating any detrimental effects on the downstream flow through the turbine, and without introducing any penalty in performance. The airfoil redesign and preliminary assessment was performed in the Exploration Technology Directorate at NASA ARC. Boeing/Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC independently performed final CFD assessments of the design. Four different CFD codes were used in this process. They include WIL DCA T/CORSAIR (NASA), FLUENT (commercial), TIDAL (Boeing Rocketdyne) and, a new family (AardvarWPhantom) of CFD analysis codes developed at NASA MSFC employing LOX fluid properties and a Generalized Equation Set formulation. Extensive aerodynamic performance analysis and stress analysis carried out at Boeing Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC indicate that the redesign objectives have been fully met. The paper presents the results of the assessment analysis and discusses the future potential of robust optimal design for rocket engine components.

  2. Shape memory alloy actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle for jet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Ning (Inventor); Song, Gangbing (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed adaptive exhaust nozzle features an innovative use of the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actively control of the opening area of the exhaust nozzle for jet engines. The SMA actuators remotely control the opening area of the exhaust nozzle through a set of mechanism. An important advantage of using SMA actuators is the reduction of weight of the actuator system for variable area exhaust nozzle. Another advantage is that the SMA actuator can be activated using the heat from the exhaust and eliminate the need of other energy source. A prototype has been designed and fabricated. The functionality of the proposed SMA actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle is verified in the open-loop tests.

  3. Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  4. Liquid-propellant rocket engines health-monitoring—a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianjun

    2005-02-01

    This paper is intended to give a summary on the health-monitoring technology, which is one of the key technologies both for improving and enhancing the reliability and safety of current rocket engines and for developing new-generation high reliable reusable rocket engines. The implication of health-monitoring and the fundamental principle obeyed by the fault detection and diagnostics are elucidated. The main aspects of health-monitoring such as system frameworks, failure modes analysis, algorithms of fault detection and diagnosis, control means and advanced sensor techniques are illustrated in some detail. At last, the evolution trend of health-monitoring techniques of liquid-propellant rocket engines is set out.

  5. Scale-Up of GRCop: From Laboratory to Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2016-01-01

    GRCop is a high temperature, high thermal conductivity copper-based series of alloys designed primarily for use in regeneratively cooled rocket engine liners. It began with laboratory-level production of a few grams of ribbon produced by chill block melt spinning and has grown to commercial-scale production of large-scale rocket engine liners. Along the way, a variety of methods of consolidating and working the alloy were examined, a database of properties was developed and a variety of commercial and government applications were considered. This talk will briefly address the basic material properties used for selection of compositions to scale up, the methods used to go from simple ribbon to rocket engines, the need to develop a suitable database, and the issues related to getting the alloy into a rocket engine or other application.

  6. Rocketdyne/Westinghouse nuclear thermal rocket engine modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: systems approach needed for nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) design optimization; generic NTR engine power balance codes; rocketdyne nuclear thermal system code; software capabilities; steady state model; NTR engine optimizer code-logic; reactor power calculation logic; sample multi-component configuration; NTR design code output; generic NTR code at Rocketdyne; Rocketdyne NTR model; and nuclear thermal rocket modeling directions.

  7. Transient Side Load Analysis of Out-of-Round Film-Cooled Nozzle Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Lin, Jeff; Ruf, Joe; Guidos, Mike

    2012-01-01

    There was interest in understanding the impact of out-of-round nozzle extension on the nozzle side load during transient startup operations. The out-of-round nozzle extension could be the result of asymmetric internal stresses, deformation induced by previous tests, and asymmetric loads induced by hardware attached to the nozzle. The objective of this study was therefore to computationally investigate the effect of out-of-round nozzle extension on the nozzle side loads during an engine startup transient. The rocket engine studied encompasses a regeneratively cooled chamber and nozzle, along with a film cooled nozzle extension. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and transient inlet boundary flow properties derived from an engine system simulation. Six three-dimensional cases were performed with the out-of-roundness achieved by three different degrees of ovalization, elongated on lateral y and z axes: one slightly out-of-round, one more out-of-round, and one significantly out-of-round. The results show that the separation line jump was the primary source of the peak side loads. Comparing to the peak side load of the perfectly round nozzle, the peak side loads increased for the slightly and more ovalized nozzle extensions, and either increased or decreased for the two significantly ovalized nozzle extensions. A theory based on the counteraction of the flow destabilizing effect of an exacerbated asymmetrical flow caused by a lower degree of ovalization, and the flow stabilizing effect of a more symmetrical flow, created also by ovalization, is presented to explain the observations obtained in this effort.

  8. Flow processes in overexpanded chemical rocket nozzles. Part 1: Flow separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made of published nozzle flow separation data in order to determine the parameters which affect the separation conditions. A comparison of experimental data with empirical and theoretical separation prediction methods leads to the selection of suitable equations for the separation criterion. The results were used to predict flow separation of the main space shuttle engine.

  9. Flow processes in overexpanded chemical rocket nozzles. Part 1: Flow separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of published nozzle flow separation data in order to determine the parameters which affect the separation condition. A comparison of experimental data with empirical and theoretical separation prediction methods leads to the selection of suitable equations for the separation criterion. The results were used to predict flow separation of the main space shuttle engine.

  10. Interior flow and near-nozzle spray development in a marine-engine diesel fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hult, J.; Simmank, P.; Matlok, S.; Mayer, S.; Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-04-01

    A consolidated effort at optically characterising flow patterns, in-nozzle cavitation, and near-nozzle jet structure of a marine diesel fuel injector is presented. A combination of several optical techniques was employed to fully transparent injector models, compound metal-glass and full metal injectors. They were all based on a common real-scale dual nozzle hole geometry for a marine two-stroke diesel engine. In a stationary flow rig, flow velocities in the sac-volume and nozzle holes were measured using PIV, and in-nozzle cavitation visualized using high-resolution shadowgraphs. The effect of varying cavitation number was studied and results compared to CFD predictions. In-nozzle cavitation and near-nozzle jet structure during transient operation were visualized simultaneously, using high-speed imaging in an atmospheric pressure spray rig. Near-nozzle spray formation was investigated using ballistic imaging. Finally, the injector geometry was tested on a full-scale marine diesel engine, where the dynamics of near-nozzle jet development was visualized using high-speed shadowgraphy. The range of studies focused on a single common geometry allows a comprehensive survey of phenomena ranging from first inception of cavitation under well-controlled flow conditions to fuel jet structure at real engine conditions.

  11. An Object Model for a Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, D.; Bhalla, P. N.; Pratap, V.; Reddy, P.

    1998-01-01

    Rocket Engine Numerical Simulator (RENS) is a packet of software which numerically simulates the behavior of a rocket engine. Different parameters of the components of an engine is the input to these programs. Depending on these given parameters the programs output the behaviors of those components. These behavioral values are then used to guide the design of or to diagnose a model of a rocket engine "built" by a composition of these programs simulating different components of the engine system. In order to use this software package effectively one needs to have a flexible model of a rocket engine. These programs simulating different components then should be plugged into this modular representation. Our project is to develop an object based model of such an engine system. We are following an iterative and incremental approach in developing the model, as is the standard practice in the area of object oriented design and analysis of softwares. This process involves three stages: object modeling to represent the components and sub-components of a rocket engine, dynamic modeling to capture the temporal and behavioral aspects of the system, and functional modeling to represent the transformational aspects. This article reports on the first phase of our activity under a grant (RENS) from the NASA Lewis Research center. We have utilized Rambaugh's object modeling technique and the tool UML for this purpose. The classes of a rocket engine propulsion system are developed and some of them are presented in this report. The next step, developing a dynamic model for RENS, is also touched upon here. In this paper we will also discuss the advantages of using object-based modeling for developing this type of an integrated simulator over other tools like an expert systems shell or a procedural language, e.g., FORTRAN. Attempts have been made in the past to use such techniques.

  12. Rocket nozzle expansion ratio analysis for dual-fuel earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a recent study of the effects of Space Shuttle Main Engine expansion ratio modifications, in the cases of both single-stage and two-stage systems. Two-position nozzles were employed; after varying the lower expansion ratio while the higher was held constant at 120, the lower expansion ratio was held constant at 40 or 60 while the higher expansion ratio was varied. The expansion ratios for minimum vehicle dry mass are different for single-stage and two-stage systems. For two-stage systems, a single expansion ratio of 77.5 provides a lower dry mass than any two-position nozzle.

  13. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - V(RSRMV)Nozzle Forward Nose Ring Thermo-Structural Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. Louie

    2012-01-01

    During the developmental static fire program for NASAs Reusable Solid Rocket Motor-V (RSRMV), an anomalous erosion condition appeared on the nozzle Carbon Cloth Phenolic nose ring that had not been observed in the space shuttle RSRM program. There were regions of augmented erosion located on the bottom of the forward nose ring (FNR) that measured nine tenths of an inch deeper than the surrounding material. Estimates of heating conditions for the RSRMV nozzle based on limited char and erosion data indicate that the total heat loading into the FNR, for the new five segment motor, is about 40-50% higher than the baseline shuttle RSRM nozzle FNR. Fault tree analysis of the augmented erosion condition has lead to a focus on a thermomechanical response of the material that is outside the existing experience base of shuttle CCP materials for this application. This paper provides a sensitivity study of the CCP material thermo-structural response subject to the design constraints and heating conditions unique to the RSRMV Forward Nose Ring application. Modeling techniques are based on 1-D thermal and porous media calculations where in-depth interlaminar loading conditions are calculated and compared to known capabilities at elevated temperatures. Parameters such as heat rate, in-depth pressures and temperature, degree of char, associated with initiation of the mechanical removal process are quantified and compared to a baseline thermo-chemical material removal mode. Conclusions regarding postulated material loss mechanisms are offered.

  14. Alternate nozzle ablative materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

  15. High altitude chemically reacting gas particle mixtures. Volume 2: Program manual for RAMP2. [rocket nozzle and orbital plume flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    All of the elements used in the Reacting and Multi-Phase (RAMP2) computer code are described in detail. The code can be used to model the dominant phenomena which affect the prediction of liquid and solid rocket nozzle and orbital plume flow fields.

  16. Investigation of installation effects of single-engine convergent-divergent nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, J. R., II; Berrier, B. L.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine installation effects on single-engine convergent-divergent nozzles applicable to reduced-power supersonic cruise aircraft. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 1.20, at angles of attack from -3 degrees to 9 degrees, and at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.0 (jet off) to 8.0. The effects of empennage arrangement, nozzle length, a cusp fairing, and afterbody closure on total aft-end drag coefficient and component drag coefficients were investigated. Basic lift- and drag-coefficient data and external static-pressure distributions on the nozzle and afterbody are presented and discussed.

  17. 1. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST ¼ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, LOCATED IN THE NORTHEAST ¼ OF THE X-15 ENGINE TEST COMPLEX. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Reentry aerodynamics forces and moments on the engine nozzle of the 146-inch solid rocket booster model 473 tested in MSFC 14 by 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel (SA30F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Braddock, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    A test of a model of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) was performed in a 14 x 14 inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments imposed on the nozzle of the SRB during reentry. The model, with scale dimensions equal to 0.5479 of the actual SRB dimensions, was instrumented with a six-component force balance attached to the model nozzle so that only forces and moments acting on the nozzle were measured. A total of 137 runs (20 deg pitch polars) were performed during this test. The angle of attack ranged from 60 to 185 deg, the Reynolds number from 5.2 million to 7.6 million. The Mach numbers investigated were 1.96, 2.74, and 3.48. Five external protuberances were simulated. The effective roll angle simulated was 180 deg. The effects of three different heat shield configurations were investigated.

  19. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology 7.5K-LB thrust rocket engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, T. J.; Roschak, E.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary design of an advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine producing 7,500 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer vehicle missions was completed. Engine system, component and turbomachinery analysis at both on design and off design conditions were completed. The preliminary design analysis results showed engine requirements and performance goals were met. Computer models are described and model outputs are presented. Engine system assembly layouts, component layouts and valve and control system analysis are presented. Major design technologies were identified and remaining issues and concerns were listed.

  20. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  1. Two stage turbine for rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  2. Reusable Rocket Engine Advanced Health Management System. Architecture and Technology Evaluation: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, C. D.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Daumann, A. G., Jr.; Provan, G. M.; ElFattah, Y. M.; Glover, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we proposed an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) functional architecture and conducted a technology assessment for liquid propellant rocket engine lifecycle health management. The purpose of the AHMS is to improve reusable rocket engine safety and to reduce between-flight maintenance. During the study, past and current reusable rocket engine health management-related projects were reviewed, data structures and health management processes of current rocket engine programs were assessed, and in-depth interviews with rocket engine lifecycle and system experts were conducted. A generic AHMS functional architecture, with primary focus on real-time health monitoring, was developed. Fourteen categories of technology tasks and development needs for implementation of the AHMS were identified, based on the functional architecture and our assessment of current rocket engine programs. Five key technology areas were recommended for immediate development, which (1) would provide immediate benefits to current engine programs, and (2) could be implemented with minimal impact on the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) engine controllers.

  3. The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions by Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon...Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, and Chol-Bum Kweon Vehicle Technology...March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. Liquid rocket engine turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Criteria for the design and development of turbines for rocket engines to meet specific performance, and installation requirements are summarized. The total design problem, and design elements are identified, and the current technology pertaining to these elements is described. Recommended practices for achieving a successful design are included.

  5. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2001-01-01

    Three connected sub-projects were conducted under reported project. Partially, these sub-projects are directed to solving the problems conducted by the HU/FM&AL under two other NASA grants. The fundamental idea uniting these projects is to use untraditional 3D corrugated nozzle designs and additional methods for exhaust jet noise reduction without essential thrust lost and even with thrust augmentation. Such additional approaches are: (1) to add some solid, fluid, or gas mass at discrete locations to the main supersonic gas stream to minimize the negative influence of strong shock waves forming in propulsion systems; this mass addition may be accompanied by heat addition to the main stream as a result of the fuel combustion or by cooling of this stream as a result of the liquid mass evaporation and boiling; (2) to use porous or permeable nozzles and additional shells at the nozzle exit for preliminary cooling of exhaust hot jet and pressure compensation for non-design conditions (so-called continuous ejector with small mass flow rate; and (3) to propose and analyze new effective methods fuel injection into flow stream in air-breathing engines. Note that all these problems were formulated based on detailed descriptions of the main experimental facts observed at NASA Glenn Research Center. Basically, the HU/FM&AL Team has been involved in joint research with the purpose of finding theoretical explanations for experimental facts and the creation of the accurate numerical simulation technique and prediction theory for solutions for current problems in propulsion systems solved by NASA and Navy agencies. The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analysis for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The F&AL Team uses analytical methods, numerical simulations, and possible experimental tests at the Hampton University campus. We will present some management activity

  6. Boundary layer development as a function of chamber pressure in the NASA Lewis 1030:1 area ratio rocket nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Tamara A.

    1988-01-01

    Through the use of theoretical predictions of fluid properties and experimental heat transfer and thrust measurements, the zones of laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layer flow were defined for the NASA Lewis 1039:1 area ratio rocket nozzle. Tests were performed on the nozzle at chamber pressures from 350 to 100 psia. For these conditions, the throat diameter Reynolds numbers varied from 300,000 to 1 million. The propellants used were gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen. Thrust measurements and nozzle outer wall temperature measurements were taken during the 3-sec test runs. Comparison of experimental heat transfer and thrust data with the corresponding predictions from the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle analysis program indicated laminar flow in the nozzle at a throat diameter Reynolds number of 320,000 or chamber pressure of 360 psia. Comparison of experimental and predicted heat transfer data indicated transitional flow up to and including a chamber pressure of 1000 psia. Predicted values of the axisymmetric acceleration parameter within the convergent and divergent nozzle were consistent with the above results. Based upon an extrapolation of the heat transfer data and predicted distributions of the axisymmetric acceleration parameter, transitional flow was predicted up to a throat diameter Reynolds number of 220,000 or 2600-psia chamber pressure. Above 2600-psia chamber pressure, fully developed turbulent flow was predicted.

  7. Boundary layer development as a function of chamber pressure in the NASA Lewis 1030:1 area ratio rocket nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Tamara A.

    1988-01-01

    Through the use of theoretical predictions of fluid properties and experimental heat transfer and thrust measurements, the zones of laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layer flow were defined for the NASA Lewis 1030:1 area ratio rocket nozzle. Tests were performed on the nozzle at chamber pressures from 350 to 100 psia. For these conditions, the throat diameter Reynolds numbers varied from 300,000 to 1 million. The propellants used were gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen. Thrust measurements and nozzle outer wall temperature measurements were taken during the 3-sec test runs. Comparison of experimental heat transfer and thrust data with the corresponding predictions from the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle analysis program indicated laminar flow in the nozzle at a throat diameter Reynolds number of 320,000 or chamber pressure of 360 psia. Comparison of experimental and predicted heat transfer data indicated transitional flow up to and including a chamber pressure of 1000 psia. Predicted values of the axisymmetric acceleration parameter within the convergent and divergent nozzle were consistent with the above results. Based upon an extrapolation of the heat transfer data and predicted distributions of the axisymmetric acceleration parameter, transitional flow was predicted up to a throat diameter Reynolds number of 220,000 or 2600-psia chamber pressure. Above 2600-psia chamber pressure, fully developed turbulent flow was predicted.

  8. Device for installing rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A device for installing rocket engines is reported that is supported at a cant relative to vertical by an axially extensible, tiltable pedestal. A lifting platform supports the rocket engine at its thrust chamber exit, including a mount having a concentric base characterized by a concave bearing surface, a plurality of uniformly spaced legs extended radially from the base, and an annular receiver coaxially aligned with the base and affixed to the distal ends of said legs for receiving the thrust chamber exit. The lifting platform rests on a seat concentrically related to the pedestal and affixed to an extended end portion thereof having a convex bearing surface mated in sliding engagement with the concave bearing surface of the annular base for accommodating a rocking motion of the platform.

  9. Composite Material Application to Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The substitution of reinforced plastic composite (RPC) materials for metal was studied. The major objectives were to: (1) determine the extent to which composite materials can be beneficially used in liquid rocket engines; (2) identify additional technology requirements; and (3) determine those areas which have the greatest potential for return. Weight savings, fabrication costs, performance, life, and maintainability factors were considered. Two baseline designs, representative of Earth to orbit and orbit to orbit engine systems, were selected. Weight savings are found to be possible for selected components with the substitution of materials for metal. Various technology needs are identified before RPC material can be used in rocket engine applications.

  10. Metal Matrix Composites for Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kathleen R.; Wooten, John R.

    2000-01-01

    This document is from a presentation about the applications of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) in rocket engines. Both NASA and the Air Force have goals which would reduce the costs and the weight of launching spacecraft. Charts show the engine weight distribution for both reuseable and expendable engine components. The presentation reviews the operating requirements for several components of the rocket engines. The next slide reviews the potential benefits of MMCs in general and in use as materials for Advanced Pressure Casting. The next slide reviews the drawbacks of MMCs. The reusable turbopump housing is selected to review for potential MMC application. The presentation reviews solutions for reusable turbopump materials, pointing out some of the issues. It also reviews the development of some of the materials.

  11. Reentry aerodynamic characteristics of a space shuttle solid rocket booster model 449 tested in MSFC 14 by 14 inch TWT (SA26F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Braddock, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    Force tests of a 0.563 percent scale space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) model, MSFC Model 449, were conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center 14 x 14 inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel. There were a total of 134 runs (pitch polars) made. Test Mach numbers were 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.96, 2.74, 3.48, 4.00, 4.45, and 4.96; test angles of attack ranged from minus 10 degrees to 190 degrees; test Reynolds numbers ranged from 4.9 million per foot to 7.1 million per foot; and test roll angles were 0, 45, 90, and 135 degrees. The model was tested with three different engine nozzle/skirts. Two of these engine configurations differed from each other in the magnitude of the volume inside the nozzle and skirt. The third engine configuration had part of the nozzle removed. The model was tested with an electrical tunnel in combination with separation rockets of two different heights.

  12. Radiation effect on rocket engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang

    1988-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the performance of modern rocket propulsion systems operating at high pressure and temperature were recognized as a key issue in the design and operation of various liquid rocket engines of the current and future generations. Critical problem areas of radiation coupled with combustion of bipropellants are assessed and accounted for in the formulation of a universal scaling law incorporated with a radiation-enhanced vaporization combustion model. Numerical algorithms are developed and the pertaining data of the Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) and Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are used to conduct parametric sensitivity studies to predict the principal intercoupling effects of radiation. The analysis reveals that low enthalpy engines, such as the VTE, are vulnerable to a substantial performance set back by the radiative loss, whereas the performance of high enthalpy engines such as the SSME, are hardly affected over a broad range of engine operation. Additionally, combustion enhancement by the radiative heating of the propellant has a significant impact in those propellants with high absorptivity. Finally, the areas of research related with radiation phenomena in bipropellant engines are identified.

  13. CFD analyses of combustor and nozzle flowfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuei, Hsin-Hua; Merkle, Charles L.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of the research are to improve design capabilities for low thrust rocket engines through understanding of the detailed mixing and combustion processes. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) technique is employed to model the flowfields within the combustor, nozzle, and near plume field. The computational modeling of the rocket engine flowfields requires the application of the complete Navier-Stokes equations, coupled with species diffusion equations. Of particular interest is a small gaseous hydrogen-oxygen thruster which is considered as a coordinated part of an ongoing experimental program at NASA LeRC. The numerical procedure is performed on both time-marching and time-accurate algorithms, using an LU approximate factorization in time, flux split upwinding differencing in space. The integrity of fuel film cooling along the wall, its effectiveness in the mixing with the core flow including unsteady large scale effects, the resultant impact on performance and the assessment of the near plume flow expansion to finite pressure altitude chamber are addressed.

  14. Investigation of a nozzle instability on an F100 engine equipped with a digital electronic engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Zeller, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    An instability in the nozzle of the F100 engine, equipped with a digital electronic engine control (DEEC), was observed during a flight evaluation on an F-15 aircraft. The instability occurred in the upper left hand corner (ULMC) of the flight envelope during augmentation. The instability was not predicted by stability analysis, closed-loop simulations of the the engine, or altitude testing of the engine. The instability caused stalls and augmentor blowouts. The nozzle instability and the altitude testing are described. Linear analysis and nonlinear digital simulation test results are presented. Software modifications on further flight test are discussed.

  15. 2. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, SHOWING TANK (BUILDING 1929) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ROCKET ENGINE TEST STAND, SHOWING TANK (BUILDING 1929) AND GARAGE (BUILDING 1930) AT LEFT REAR. Looking to west. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rocket Engine & Complete X-15 Vehicle Test Stands, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  17. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-07-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  18. High-Energy Propellant Rocket Firing at the Rocket Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1955-01-21

    A rocket using high-energy propellant is fired from the Rocket Laboratory at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The Rocket Lab was a collection of ten one-story cinderblock test cells located behind earthen barriers at the western edge of the campus. The rocket engines tested there were comparatively small, but the Lewis researchers were able to study different configurations, combustion performance, and injectors and nozzle design. The rockets were generally mounted horizontally and fired, as seen in this photograph of Test Cell No. 22. A group of fuels researchers at Lewis refocused their efforts after World War II in order to explore high energy propellants, combustion, and cooling. Research in these three areas began in 1945 and continued through the 1960s. The group of rocket researches was not elevated to a division branch until 1952. The early NACA Lewis work led to the development of liquid hydrogen as a viable propellant in the late 1950s. Following the 1949 reorganization of the research divisions, the rocket group began working with high-energy propellants such as diborane, pentaborane, and hydrogen. The lightweight fuels offered high levels of energy but were difficult to handle and required large tanks. In late 1954, Lewis researchers studied the combustion characteristics of gaseous hydrogen in a turbojet combustor. Despite poor mixing of the fuel and air, it was found that the hydrogen yielded more than a 90-percent efficiency. Liquid hydrogen became the focus of Lewis researchers for the next 15 years.

  19. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  20. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Silcox, Richard J. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  1. An RL10A-3-3A rocket engine model using the rocket engine transient simulator (ROCETS) software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Steady-state and transient computer models of the RL10A-3-3A rocket engine have been created using the Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) code. These models were created for several purposes. The RL10 engine is a critical component of past, present, and future space missions; the model will give NASA an in-house capability to simulate the performance of the engine under various operating conditions and mission profiles. The RL10 simulation activity is also an opportunity to further validate the ROCETS program. The ROCETS code is an important tool for modeling rocket engine systems at NASA Lewis. ROCETS provides a modular and general framework for simulating the steady-state and transient behavior of any desired propulsion system. Although the ROCETS code is being used in a number of different analysis and design projects within NASA, it has not been extensively validated for any system using actual test data. The RL10A-3-3A has a ten year history of test and flight applications; it should provide sufficient data to validate the ROCETS program capability. The ROCETS models of the RL10 system were created using design information provided by Pratt & Whitney, the engine manufacturer. These models are in the process of being validated using test-stand and flight data. This paper includes a brief description of the models and comparison of preliminary simulation output against flight and test-stand data.

  2. Program For Optimization Of Nuclear Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plebuch, R. K.; Mcdougall, J. K.; Ridolphi, F.; Walton, James T.

    1994-01-01

    NOP is versatile digital-computer program devoloped for parametric analysis of beryllium-reflected, graphite-moderated nuclear rocket engines. Facilitates analysis of performance of engine with respect to such considerations as specific impulse, engine power, type of engine cycle, and engine-design constraints arising from complications of fuel loading and internal gradients of temperature. Predicts minimum weight for specified performance.

  3. Photographic Study of Combustion in a Rocket Engine I : Variation in Combustion of Liquid Oxygen and Gasoline with Seven Methods of Propellant Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellman, Donald R; Humphrey, Jack C

    1948-01-01

    Motion pictures at camera speeds up to 3000 frames per second were taken of the combustion of liquid oxygen and gasoline in a 100-pound-thrust rocket engine. The engine consisted of thin contour and injection plates clamped between two clear plastic sheets forming a two-dimensional engine with a view of the entire combustion chamber and nozzle. A photographic investigation was made of the effect of seven methods of propellant injection on the uniformity of combustion. From the photographs, it was found that the flame front extended almost to the faces of the injectors with most of the injection methods, all the injection systems resulted in a considerable nonuniformity of combustion, and luminosity rapidly decreased in the divergent part of the nozzle. Pressure vibration records indicated combustion vibrations that approximately corresponded to the resonant frequencies of the length and the thickness of the chamber. The combustion temperature divided by the molecular weight of the combustion gases as determined from the combustion photographs was about 50 to 70 percent of the theoretical value.

  4. Effect of nozzle orifice geometry on spray, combustion, and emission characteristics under diesel engine conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Som, S.; Longman, D. E; Ramirez, A. I.

    2011-03-01

    Diesel engine performance and emissions are strongly coupled with fuel atomization and spray processes, which in turn are strongly influenced by injector flow dynamics. Modern engines employ micro-orifices with different orifice designs. It is critical to characterize the effects of various designs on engine performance and emissions. In this study, a recently developed primary breakup model (KH-ACT), which accounts for the effects of cavitation and turbulence generated inside the injector nozzle is incorporated into a CFD software CONVERGE for comprehensive engine simulations. The effects of orifice geometry on inner nozzle flow, spray, and combustion processes are examined by coupling themore » injector flow and spray simulations. Results indicate that conicity and hydrogrinding reduce cavitation and turbulence inside the nozzle orifice, which slows down primary breakup, increasing spray penetration, and reducing dispersion. Consequently, with conical and hydroground nozzles, the vaporization rate and fuel air mixing are reduced, and ignition occurs further downstream. The flame lift-off lengths are the highest and lowest for the hydroground and conical nozzles, respectively. This can be related to the rate of fuel injection, which is higher for the hydroground nozzle, leading to richer mixtures and lower flame base speeds. A modified flame index is employed to resolve the flame structure, which indicates a dual combustion mode. For the conical nozzle, the relative role of rich premixed combustion is enhanced and that of diffusion combustion reduced compared to the other two nozzles. In contrast, for the hydroground nozzle, the role of rich premixed combustion is reduced and that of non-premixed combustion is enhanced. Consequently, the amount of soot produced is the highest for the conical nozzle, while the amount of NOx produced is the highest for the hydroground nozzle, indicating the classical tradeoff between them.« less

  5. Linear quadratic servo control of a reusable rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    A design method for a servo compensator is developed in the frequency domain using singular values. The method is applied to a reusable rocket engine. An intelligent control system for reusable rocket engines was proposed which includes a diagnostic system, a control system, and an intelligent coordinator which determines engine control strategies based on the identified failure modes. The method provides a means of generating various linear multivariable controllers capable of meeting performance and robustness specifications and accommodating failure modes identified by the diagnostic system. Command following with set point control is necessary for engine operation. A Kalman filter reconstructs the state while loop transfer recovery recovers the required degree of robustness while maintaining satisfactory rejection of sensor noise from the command error. The approach is applied to the design of a controller for a rocket engine satisfying performance constraints in the frequency domain. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the linear design on a nonlinear engine model over all power levels during mainstage operation.

  6. Rapid Fabrication Techniques for Liquid Rocket Channel Wall Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    The functions of a regeneratively-cooled nozzle are to (1) expand combustion gases to increase exhaust gas velocity while, (2) maintaining adequate wall temperatures to prevent structural failure, and (3) transfer heat from the hot gases to the coolant fluid to promote injector performance and stability. Regeneratively-cooled nozzles are grouped into two categories: tube-wall nozzles and channel wall nozzles. A channel wall nozzle is designed with an internal liner containing a series of integral coolant channels that are closed out with an external jacket. Manifolds are attached at each end of the nozzle to distribute coolant to and away from the channels. A variety of manufacturing techniques have been explored for channel wall nozzles, including state of the art laser-welded closeouts and pressure-assisted braze closeouts. This paper discusses techniques that NASA MSFC is evaluating for rapid fabrication of channel wall nozzles that address liner fabrication, slotting techniques and liner closeout techniques. Techniques being evaluated for liner fabrication include large-scale additive manufacturing of freeform-deposition structures to create the liner blanks. Abrasive water jet milling is being evaluated for cutting the complex coolant channel geometries. Techniques being considered for rapid closeout of the slotted liners include freeform deposition, explosive bonding and Cold Spray. Each of these techniques, development work and results are discussed in further detail in this paper.

  7. 7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-60674. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. AJ26 rocket engine testing news briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center) stands in front of a 'pathfinder' rocket engine with Orbital Sciences Corp. President and Chief Operating Officer J.R. Thompson (left) and Aerojet President Scott Seymour during a Feb. 24 news briefing at the south Mississippi facility. The leaders appeared together to announce a partnership for testing Aerojet AJ26 rocket engines at Stennis. The engines will be used to power Orbital's Taurus II space vehicles to provide commercial cargo transportation missions to the International Space Station for NASA. During the event, the Stennis partnership with Orbital was cited as an example of the new direction of NASA to work with commercial interests for space travel and transport.

  9. Simulation of Cold Flow in a Truncated Ideal Nozzle with Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braman, Kalen; Ruf, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Flow transients during rocket start-up and shut-down can lead to significant side loads on rocket nozzles. The capability to estimate these side loads computationally can streamline the nozzle design process. Towards this goal, the flow in a truncated ideal contour (TIC) nozzle has been simulated for a range of nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) aimed to match a series of cold flow experiments performed at the NASA MSFC Nozzle Test Facility. These simulations were performed with varying turbulence model choices and with four different versions of the TIC nozzle model geometry, each of which was created with a different simplification to the test article geometry.

  10. Design of a Premixed Gaseous Rocket Engine Injector for Ethylene and Oxygen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    and uniform combustion zone. An engine will benefit by having a greater characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency (ηc*), less soot production and...the challenges of designing a premixed injector. The design requirements for the engine are to provide a wide range of combustion pressure... Engineering Original Premixed Injector1 Downstream of the three inch combustion chamber a bolt-on conical nozzle was attached. This nozzle had a

  11. Use of Soft Computing Technologies For Rocket Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Olcmen, Semih; Polites, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to further improve overall engine system reliability and performance. Specifically, this will be presented by enhancing rocket engine control and engine health management (EHM) using SCT coupled with conventional control technologies, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall s Flight Software Group. The principle goals are to improve software management, software development time and maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control and EHM methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, EHM, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion, software engineering for embedded systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, and Bayesian belief networks), much of which is presented in this paper. The first targeted demonstration rocket engine platform is the MC-1 (formerly FASTRAC Engine) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed laboratory that

  12. Rocketdyne RBCC Engine Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratckin, G.; Goldman, A.; Ortwerth, P.; Weisberg, S.

    1999-01-01

    Boeing Rocketdyne is pursuing the development of Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC), propulsion systems as demonstrated by significant contract work in the hypersonic arena (ART, NASP, SCT, system studies) and over 12 years of steady company discretionary investment. The Rocketdyne concept is a fixed geometry integrated rocket, ramjet, scramjet which is hydrogen fueled and uses hydrogen regenerative cooling. The baseline engine structural configuration uses an integral structure that eliminates panel seals. seal purge gas, and closeout side attachments. Rocketdyne's experimental RBCC engine (Engine A5) was constructed under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Engine A5 models the complete flight engine flowpath consisting of an inlet, isolator, airbreathing combustor and nozzle. High performance rocket thrusters are integrated into the engine to enable both air-augmented rocket (AAR) and pure rocket operation. Engine A5 was tested in CASL's new FAST facility as an air-augmented rocket, a ramjet and a pure rocket. Measured performance demonstrated vision vehicle performance levels for Mach 3 AAR operation and ramjet operation from Mach 3 to 4. Rocket mode performance was above predictions. For the first time. testing also demonstrated transition from AAR operation to ramjet operation. This baseline configuration has also been shown, in previous testing, to perform well in the scramjet mode.

  13. 12. Historic plot plan and drawings index for rocket engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic plot plan and drawings index for rocket engine test facility, June 28, 1956. NASA GRC drawing number CE-101810. On file at NASA Glenn Research Center. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. 9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1270. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. 10. Historic photo of rendering of rocket engine test facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic photo of rendering of rocket engine test facility complex, April 28, 1964. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-69472. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 5. Historic photo of scale model of rocket engine test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic photo of scale model of rocket engine test facility, June 18, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45264. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. 8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1271. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. Deimos Methane-Oxygen Rocket Engine Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, S.; Souverein, L. J.; Twigt, D. J.

    This paper presents the results of the first DEIMOS Liquid Methane/Oxygen rocket engine test campaign. DEIMOS is an acronym for `Delft Experimental Methane Oxygen propulsion System'. It is a project performed by students under the auspices of DARE (Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering). The engine provides a theoretical design thrust of 1800 N and specific impulse of 287 s at a chamber pressure of 40 bar with a total mass flow of 637 g/s. It has links to sustainable development, as the propellants used are one of the most promising so-called `green propellants'-combinations, currently under scrutiny by the industry, and the engine is designed to be reusable. This paper reports results from the provisional tests, which had the aim of verifying the engine's ability to fire, and confirming some of the design assumptions to give confidence for further engine designs. Measurements before and after the tests are used to determine first estimates on feed pressures, propellant mass flows and achieved thrust. These results were rather disappointing from a performance point of view, with an average thrust of a mere 3.8% of the design thrust, but nonetheless were very helpful. The reliability of ignition and stability of combustion are discussed as well. An initial assessment as to the reusability, the flexibility and the adaptability of the engine was made. The data provides insight into (methane/oxygen) engine designs, leading to new ideas for a subsequent design. The ultimate goal of this project is to have an operational rocket and to attempt to set an amateur altitude record.

  19. NASA Conducts First RS-25 Rocket Engine Test of 2015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-09

    From the Press Release: The new year is off to a hot start for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS). The engine that will drive America's next great rocket to deep space blazed through its first successful test Jan. 9 at the agency's Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The RS-25, formerly the space shuttle main engine, fired up for 500 seconds on the A-1 test stand at Stennis, providing NASA engineers critical data on the engine controller unit and inlet pressure conditions. This is the first hot fire of an RS-25 engine since the end of space shuttle main engine testing in 2009. Four RS-25 engines will power SLS on future missions, including to an asteroid and Mars. "We’ve made modifications to the RS-25 to meet SLS specifications and will analyze and test a variety of conditions during the hot fire series,” said Steve Wofford, manager of the SLS Liquid Engines Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, where the SLS Program is managed. "The engines for SLS will encounter colder liquid oxygen temperatures than shuttle; greater inlet pressure due to the taller core stage liquid oxygen tank and higher vehicle acceleration; and more nozzle heating due to the four-engine configuration and their position in-plane with the SLS booster exhaust nozzles.” The engine controller unit, the "brain" of the engine, allows communication between the vehicle and the engine, relaying commands to the engine and transmitting data back to the vehicle. The controller also provides closed-loop management of the engine by regulating the thrust and fuel mixture ratio while monitoring the engine's health and status. The new controller will use updated hardware and software configured to operate with the new SLS avionics architecture. "This first hot-fire test of the RS-25 engine represents a significant effort on behalf of Stennis Space Center’s A-1 test team," said Ronald Rigney, RS-25 project manager at Stennis. "Our technicians and

  20. Exposed by Rocket Engine Blasts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-12

    This color image from NASA Curiosity rover shows an area excavated by the blast of the Mars Science Laboratory descent stage rocket engines. This is part of a larger, high-resolution color mosaic made from images obtained by Curiosity Mast Camera.

  1. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Engine data and information are presented to perform system studies on cargo orbit-transfer vehicles which would deliver large space structures to geosynchronous equatorial orbit. Low-thrust engine performance, weight, and envelope parametric data were established, preliminary design information was generated, and technologies for liquid rocket engines were identified. Two major engine design drivers were considered in the study: cooling and engine cycle options. Both film-cooled and regeneratively cooled engines were evaluated. The propellant combinations studied were hydrogen/oxygen, methane/oxygen, and kerosene/oxygen.

  2. Engine Throat/Nozzle Optics for Plume Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    independent of the external plume characteristics so operation can be achieved on diffuser test stands and with the engine exhausting to a variable... combustion chamber operates at 205 atmospheres during 109% power conditions with a mixture ratio of 6:1. The engine is overexpanded at sea level and...LeRC/500-219. 16. Abstract The throat and combustion chamber of an operating rocket engine provide a preferred signal source for optical spectroscopy

  3. Reusable Rocket Engine Maintenance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 85,000 liquid rocket engine failure reports, obtained from 30 years of developing and delivering major pump feed engines, were reviewed and screened and reduced to 1771. These were categorized into 16 different failure modes. Failure propagation diagrams were established. The state of the art of engine condition monitoring for in-flight sensors and between flight inspection technology was determined. For the 16 failure modes, the potential measurands and diagnostic requirements were identified, assessed and ranked. Eight areas are identified requiring advanced technology development.

  4. AJ26 rocket engine test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-10

    Fire and steam signal a successful test firing of Orbital Sciences Corporation's Aerojet AJ26 rocket engine at John C. Stennis Space Center. AJ26 engines will be used to power Orbital's Taurus II space vehicle on commercial cargo flights to the International Space Station. On Nov. 10, operators at Stennis' E-1 Test Stand conducted a 10-second test fire of the engine, the first of a series of three verification tests. Orbital has partnered with NASA to provide eight missions to the ISS by 2015.

  5. 11. Historic photo of cutaway rendering of rocket engine test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic photo of cutaway rendering of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-74433. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. Performance of Several Conical Convergent-Divergent Rocket-Type Exhaust Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. E.; Farley, J. M.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain nozzle performance data with relatively large-scale models at pressure ratios as high as 120. Conical convergent-divergent nozzles with divergence angles alpha of 15, 25, and 29 deg. were each tested at area ratios of approximately 10, 25, and 40. Heated air (1200 F) was supplied at the nozzle inlet at pressures up to 145 pounds per square inch absolute and was exhausted into quiescent air at pressures as low as 1.2 pounds per square inch absolute. Thrust ratios for all nozzle configurations are presented over the range of pressure ratios attainable and were extrapolated when possible to design pressure ratio and beyond. Design thrust ratios decreased with increasing nozzle divergence angle according to the trend predicted by the (1 + cos alpha)/2 parameter. Decreasing the nozzle divergence angle resulted in sizable increases in thrust ratio for a given surface-area ratio (nozzle weight), particularly at low nozzle pressure ratios. Correlations of the nozzle static pressure at separation and of the average static pressure downstream of separation with various nozzle parameters permitted the calculation of thrust in the separated-flow region from unseparated static-pressure distributions. Thrust ratios calculated by this method agreed with measured values within about 1 percent.

  7. Design and analysis report for the flight weight 20-inch Columbium secondary nozzle for the RL10 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney (P and W) is currently under contract to NASA-LeRC for a multi-year program to evaluate the feasibility of the RL10-IIB/IIC engine models and the various improvements which broaden the engine capabilities and range of applications. The features being evaluated include the operation of the RL10 engine at low thrust levels and/or high mixture ratio levels and the addition of a high area ratio (250:1) translating nozzle to the engine to increase its specific impulse while shortening the installed engine length. The translating nozzle for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine is approximately 55 inches long with an exit plane diameter of 71 inches and an inlet plane diameter of 40 inches. This report documents the design and analysis work done investigating a small subscale Columbium nozzle which could be built and tested to provide findings which then could be incorporated into the high area ratio nozzle final design for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine. This report documents the design and analysis work done investigating a small subscale Columbium nozzle which could be built and tested to provide findings which then could be incorporated into the high area ratio nozzle final design for the RL10-IIB/IIC engine. The length of the subscale nozzle is 20 in.; its exit diameter is 46 in. With the nozzle in the stowed position, an RL10A-3-3A engine system is 70 inches long (Area Ratio = 61:1); with the nozzle deployed the engine length and area ratio are increased to 90 inches and 83:1 respectively. The increase in area ratio provides a calculated increase of 7 + or - 1 second of specific impulse.

  8. Thermographic Nondestructive Evaluation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Lansing, Matthew D.; Russell, Samuel S.; Caraccioli, Paul; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The methods and results presented in this summary address the thermographic identification of interstitial leaks in the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzles. A highly sensitive digital infrared camera is used to record the minute cooling effects associated with a leak source, such as a crack or pinhole, hidden within the nozzle wall by observing the inner "hot wall" surface as the nozzle is pressurized. These images are enhanced by digitally subtracting a thermal reference image taken before pressurization, greatly diminishing background noise. The method provides a nonintrusive way of localizing the tube that is leaking and the exact leak source position to within a very small axial distance. Many of the factors that influence the inspectability of the nozzle are addressed; including pressure rate, peak pressure, gas type, ambient temperature and surface preparation.

  9. Multi-Nozzle Base Flow Model in the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-02-21

    Researchers check the setup of a multi-nozzle base flow model in the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. NASA researchers were struggling to understand the complex flow phenomena resulting from the use of multiple rocket engines. Robert Wasko and Theodore Cover of the Advanced Development and Evaluation Division’s analysis and operations sections conducted a set of tests in the 10- by 10 tunnel to further understand the flow issues. The Lewis researchers studied four and five-nozzle configurations in the 10- by 10 at simulated altitudes from 60,000 to 200,000 feet. The nozzles were gimbaled during some of the test runs to simulate steering. The flow field for the four-nozzle clusters was surveyed in the center and the lateral areas between the nozzles, whereas the five-nozzle cluster was surveyed in the lateral area only.

  10. 6. Historic photo of rocket engine test facility Building 202 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic photo of rocket engine test facility Building 202 complex in operation at night, September 12, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45924. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic drawing of rocket engine test facility layout, including Buildings 202, 205, 206, and 206A, February 3, 1984. NASA GRC drawing number CF-101539. On file at NASA Glenn Research Center. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. Four-Nozzle Benchmark Wind Tunnel Model USA Code Solutions for Simulation of Multiple Rocket Base Flow Recirculation at 145,000 Feet Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, N. S.; Johnson, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple rocket exhaust plume interactions at high altitudes can produce base flow recirculation with attendant alteration of the base pressure coefficient and increased base heating. A search for a good wind tunnel benchmark problem to check grid clustering technique and turbulence modeling turned up the experiment done at AEDC in 1961 by Goethert and Matz on a 4.25-in. diameter domed missile base model with four rocket nozzles. This wind tunnel model with varied external bleed air flow for the base flow wake produced measured p/p(sub ref) at the center of the base as high as 3.3 due to plume flow recirculation back onto the base. At that time in 1961, relatively inexpensive experimentation with air at gamma = 1.4 and nozzle A(sub e)/A of 10.6 and theta(sub n) = 7.55 deg with P(sub c) = 155 psia simulated a LO2/LH2 rocket exhaust plume with gamma = 1.20, A(sub e)/A of 78 and P(sub c) about 1,000 psia. An array of base pressure taps on the aft dome gave a clear measurement of the plume recirculation effects at p(infinity) = 4.76 psfa corresponding to 145,000 ft altitude. Our CFD computations of the flow field with direct comparison of computed-versus-measured base pressure distribution (across the dome) provide detailed information on velocities and particle traces as well eddy viscosity in the base and nozzle region. The solution was obtained using a six-zone mesh with 284,000 grid points for one quadrant taking advantage of symmetry. Results are compared using a zero-equation algebraic and a one-equation pointwise R(sub t) turbulence model (work in progress). Good agreement with the experimental pressure data was obtained with both; and this benchmark showed the importance of: (1) proper grid clustering and (2) proper choice of turbulence modeling for rocket plume problems/recirculation at high altitude.

  13. Transient Three-Dimensional Analysis of Nozzle Side Load in Regeneratively Cooled Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ng, Ten-See

    2005-01-01

    Nozzle side loads are potentially detrimental to the integrity and life of almost all launch vehicles. the lack of a detailed prediction capability results in reducing life and increased weight for reusable nozzle systems. A clear understanding of the mechanism that contribute to side loads during engine startup, shutdown, and steady-state operations must be established. A CFD based predictive tool must be developed to aid the understanding of side load physics and development of future reusable engine.

  14. Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Plume Diagnostics: Analytical Developments and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tejwani, Gopal D.; McVay, Gregory P.; Langford, Lester A.; St. Cyr, William W.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing experimental results and analytical developments about plume diagnostics for hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engines is shown. The topics include: 1) SSC Plume Diagnostics Background; 2) Engine Health Monitoring Approach; 3) Rocket Plume Spectroscopy Simulation Code; 4) Spectral Simulation for 10 Atomic Species and for 11 Diatomic Molecular Electronic Bands; 5) "Best" Lines for Plume Diagnostics for Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engines; 6) Experimental Set Up for the Methane Thruster Test Program and Experimental Results; and 7) Summary and Recommendations.

  15. Cryostatless high temperature supercurrent bearings for rocket engine turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dantam K.; Dill, James F.

    1989-01-01

    The rocket engine systems examined include SSME, ALS, and CTV systems. The liquid hydrogen turbopumps in the SSME and ALS vehicle systems are identified as potentially attractive candidates for development of Supercurrent Bearings since the temperatures around the bearings is about 30 K, which is considerably lower than the 95 K transition temperatures of HTS materials. At these temperatures, the current HTS materials are shown to be capable of developing significantly higher current densities. This higher current density capability makes the development of supercurrent bearings for rocket engines an attractive proposition. These supercurrent bearings are also shown to offer significant advantages over conventional bearings used in rocket engines. They can increase the life and reliability over rolling element bearings because of noncontact operation. They offer lower power loss over conventional fluid film bearings. Compared to conventional magnetic bearings, they can reduce the weight of controllers significantly, and require lower power because of the use of persistent currents. In addition, four technology areas that require further attention have been identified. These are: Supercurrent Bearing Conceptual Design Verification; HTS Magnet Fabrication and Testing; Cryosensors and Controller Development; and Rocket Engine Environmental Compatibility Testing.

  16. Performance and Thrust-to-Weight Optimization of the Dual-Expander Aerospike Nozzle Upper Stage Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    calculates a constant convection heat transfer coefficient on the hot and cold side of the cooling jacket wall. The calculated maximum wall temperature for...regeneratively cools the combustion chamber and nozzle. The heat transferred to the fuel from cooling provides enough power to the turbine to power both... heat transfer at the throat compared to a bell nozzle. This increase in heat transfer surface area means more power to the turbine, increased chamber

  17. Liquid Rocket Propulsion Technology: An evaluation of NASA's program. [for space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The liquid rocket propulsion technology needs to support anticipated future space vehicles were examined including any special action needs to be taken to assure that an industrial base in substained. Propulsion system requirements of Earth-to-orbit vehicles, orbital transfer vehicles, and planetary missions were evaluated. Areas of the fundamental technology program undertaking these needs discussed include: pumps and pump drives; combustion heat transfer; nozzle aerodynamics; low gravity cryogenic fluid management; and component and system life reliability, and maintenance. The primary conclusion is that continued development of the shuttle main engine system to achieve design performance and life should be the highest priority in the rocket engine program.

  18. Centrifugal pumps for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. E.; Farquhar, J.

    1974-01-01

    The use of centrifugal pumps for rocket engines is described in terms of general requirements of operational and planned systems. Hydrodynamic and mechanical design considerations and techniques and test procedures are summarized. Some of the pump development experiences, in terms of both problems and solutions, are highlighted.

  19. Dual Expander Cycle Rocket Engine with an Intermediate, Closed-cycle Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A dual expander cycle (DEC) rocket engine with an intermediate closed-cycle heat exchanger is provided. A conventional DEC rocket engine has a closed-cycle heat exchanger thermally coupled thereto. The heat exchanger utilizes heat extracted from the engine's fuel circuit to drive the engine's oxidizer turbomachinery.

  20. Electrodynamic actuators for rocket engine valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiet, O.; Doshi, D.

    1972-01-01

    Actuators, employed in acoustic loudspeakers, operate liquid rocket engine valves by replacing light paper cones with flexible metal diaphragms. Comparative analysis indicates better response time than solenoid actuators, and improved service life and reliability.

  1. 29. Historic view of twentythousandpound rocket test stand with engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic view of twenty-thousand-pound rocket test stand with engine installation in test cell of Building 202, September 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45870. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. An overview of the current technology relevant to the design and development of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Digendra K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project was to review the latest literature relevant to the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). The search was focused on the following engine components: (1) gas generator; (2) hydrostatic/fluid bearings; (3) seals/clearances; (4) heat exchanges; (5) nozzles; (6) nozzle/main combustion chamber joint; (7) main injector face plate; and (8) rocket engine.

  3. A Versatile Rocket Engine Hot Gas Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of a versatile rocket engine facility, located in the Rocket Laboratory at the NASA Lewis Research Center, are presented. The gaseous hydrogen/oxygen facility can be used for thermal shock and hot gas testing of materials and structures as well as rocket propulsion testing. Testing over a wide range of operating conditions in both fuel and oxygen rich regimes can be conducted, with cooled or uncooled test specimens. The size and location of the test cell provide the ability to conduct large amounts of testing in short time periods with rapid turnaround between programs.

  4. Modal test of Shuttle engine nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, G. D.; Coleman, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    A structural failure occurred on the main propulsion test stand at NSTL causing a hydrogen fire and damage to the engines to be used on the Orbiter Columbia. Scattered accelerometer measurements indicated very high response levels at 254 hertz and 311 hertz. The Engine Office at MSFC asked the Dynamics Test Branch to try and find out what caused the failure. All three nozzles were sent to Huntsville for testing. Modal test data revealed very quickly how the failure occurred in the steerhorn and also pointed out two other structural problems. A complete set of data is presented along with a narrative explanation of the steps taken to identify and verify the structural problem.

  5. Acoustics and Trust of Separate-Flow Exhaust Nozzles With Mixing Devices for High-Bypass-Ratio Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiyed, Naseem H.; Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; Bridges, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed an experimental study to reduce the jet noise from modern turbofan engines. The study concentrated on exhaust nozzle designs for high-bypass-ratio engines. These designs modified the core and fan nozzles individually and simultaneously. Several designs provided an ideal jet noise reduction of over 2.5 EPNdB for the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) metric. Noise data, after correcting for takeoff thrust losses, indicated over a 2.0-EPNdB reduction for nine designs. Individually modifying the fan nozzle did not provide attractive EPNL reductions. Designs in which only the core nozzle was modified provided greater EPNL reductions. Designs in which core and fan nozzles were modified simultaneously provided the greatest EPNL reduction. The best nozzle design had a 2.7-EPNdB reduction (corrected for takeoff thrust loss) with a 0.06-point cruise thrust loss. This design simultaneously employed chevrons on the core and fan nozzles. In comparison with chevrons, tabs appeared to be an inefficient method for reducing jet noise. Data trends indicate that the sum of the thrust losses from individually modifying core and fan nozzles did not generally equal the thrust loss from modifying them simultaneously. Flow blockage from tabs did not scale directly with cruise thrust loss and the interaction between fan flow and the core nozzle seemed to strongly affect noise and cruise performance. Finally, the nozzle configuration candidates for full-scale engine demonstrations are identified.

  6. Acoustic investigation of the engine-over-the-wing concept using a D-shaped nozzle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, M.; Friedman, R.

    1973-01-01

    Small-model experiments were conducted of the engine-over-the-wing concept using a D-shaped nozzle in order to determine the static-lift and acoustic characteristics at two wing-flap positions. Configurations were tested with the flow attached and unattached to the upper surface of the flaps. Attachment was obtained with a nozzle flow deflector. In both cases, high frequency noise shielding by the wing was obtained. Configurations using the D-shaped nozzle are compared with corresponding ones using a circular nozzle. With flow attached to the flaps, the static lift and acoustic results are almost the same for both nozzles. Without the nozzle flow deflector (unattached flap flow), the D-nozzle is considerably noisier than a circular nozzle in the low and middle frequencies.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Supersonic Nozzle and Integration into a Variable Cycle Engine Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Friedlander, David; Kopasakis, George

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic simulation for a variable cycle turbofan engine and nozzle that can be integrated with an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. A previously developed variable cycle turbofan engine model is used for this study and is enhanced here to include variable guide vanes allowing for operation across the supersonic flight regime. The primary focus of this study is to improve the fidelity of the model's thrust response by replacing the simple choked flow equation convergent-divergent nozzle model with a MacCormack method based quasi-1D model. The dynamic response of the nozzle model using the MacCormack method is verified by comparing it against a model of the nozzle using the conservation element/solution element method. A methodology is also presented for the integration of the MacCormack nozzle model with the variable cycle engine.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Supersonic Nozzle and Integration into a Variable Cycle Engine Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Friedlander, David; Kopasakis, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic simulation for a variable cycle turbofan engine and nozzle that can be integrated with an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. A previously developed variable cycle turbofan engine model is used for this study and is enhanced here to include variable guide vanes allowing for operation across the supersonic flight regime. The primary focus of this study is to improve the fidelity of the model's thrust response by replacing the simple choked flow equation convergent-divergent nozzle model with a MacCormack method based quasi-1D model. The dynamic response of the nozzle model using the MacCormack method is verified by comparing it against a model of the nozzle using the conservation element/solution element method. A methodology is also presented for the integration of the MacCormack nozzle model with the variable cycle engine.

  9. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is a component of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine. This engine was designed to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsion systems and ultimately a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  10. Development of an Integrated Nozzle for a Symmetric, RBCC Launch Vehicle Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Canabal, Francisco, III; Rice, Tharen; Blaha, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    The development of rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engines is highly dependent upon integrating several different modes of operation into a single system. One of the key components to develop acceptable performance levels through each mode of operation is the nozzle. It must be highly integrated to serve the expansion processes of both rocket and air-breathing modes without undue weight, drag, or complexity. The NASA GTX configuration requires a fixed geometry, altitude-compensating nozzle configuration. The initial configuration, used mainly to estimate weight and cooling requirements was a 1 So half-angle cone, which cuts a concave surface from a point within the flowpath to the vehicle trailing edge. Results of 3-D CFD calculations on this geometry are presented. To address the critical issues associated with integrated, fixed geometry, multimode nozzle development, the GTX team has initiated a series of tasks to evolve the nozzle design, and validate performance levels. An overview of these tasks is given. The first element is a design activity to develop tools for integration of efficient expansion surfaces With the existing flowpath and vehicle aft-body, and to develop a second-generation nozzle design. A preliminary result using a "streamline-tracing" technique is presented. As the nozzle design evolves, a combination of 3-D CFD analysis and experimental evaluation will be used to validate the design procedure and determine the installed performance for propulsion cycle modeling. The initial experimental effort will consist of cold-flow experiments designed to validate the general trends of the streamline-tracing methodology and anchor the CFD analysis. Experiments will also be conducted to simulate nozzle performance during each mode of operation. As the design matures, hot-fire tests will be conducted to refine performance estimates and anchor more sophisticated reacting-flow analysis.

  11. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  12. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  13. Engineering Models Ease and Speed Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA astronauts plan to return to the Moon as early as 2015 and establish a lunar base, from which 6-month flights to Mars would be launched by 2030. Essential to this plan is the Ares launch vehicle, NASA s next-generation spacecraft that will, in various iterations, be responsible for transporting all equipment and personnel to the Moon, Mars, and beyond for the foreseeable future. The Ares launch vehicle is powered by the J-2X propulsion system, with what will be the world s largest rocket nozzles. One of the conditions that engineers carefully consider in designing rocket nozzles particularly large ones is called separation phenomenon, which occurs when outside ambient air is sucked into the nozzle rim by the relatively low pressures of rapidly expanding exhaust gasses. This separation of exhaust gasses from the side-wall imparts large asymmetric transverse loads on the nozzle, deforming the shape and thus perturbing exhaust flow to cause even greater separation. The resulting interaction can potentially crack the nozzle or break actuator arms that control thrust direction. Side-wall loads are extremely difficult to measure directly, and, until now, techniques were not available for accurately predicting the magnitude and frequency of the loads. NASA researchers studied separation phenomenon in scale-model rocket nozzles, seeking to use measured vibration on these nozzle replicas to calculate the unknown force causing the vibrations. Key to this approach was the creation of a computer model accurately representing the nozzle as well as the test cell.

  14. Options for flight testing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John

    1996-01-01

    While NASA's current next-generation launch vehicle research has largely focused on advanced all-rocket single-stage-to-orbit vehicles (i.e. the X-33 and it's RLV operational follow-on), some attention is being given to advanced propulsion concepts suitable for 'next-generation-and-a-half' vehicles. Rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines combining rocket and airbreathing elements are one candidate concept. Preliminary RBCC engine development was undertaken by the United States in the 1960's. However, additional ground and flight research is required to bring the engine to technological maturity. This paper presents two options for flight testing early versions of the RBCC ejector scramjet engine. The first option mounts a single RBCC engine module to the X-34 air-launched technology testbed for test flights up to about Mach 6.4. The second option links RBCC engine testing to the simultaneous development of a small-payload (220 lb.) two-stage-to-orbit operational vehicle in the Bantam payload class. This launcher/testbed concept has been dubbed the W vehicle. The W vehicle can also serve as an early ejector ramjet RBCC launcher (albeit at a lower payload). To complement current RBCC ground testing efforts, both flight test engines will use earth-storable propellants for their RBCC rocket primaries and hydrocarbon fuel for their airbreathing modes. Performance and vehicle sizing results are presented for both options.

  15. Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William

    2009-01-01

    An alternative design concept for nuclear thermal rocket engines for interplanetary spacecraft calls for the use of grooved-ring fuel elements. Beyond spacecraft rocket engines, this concept also has potential for the design of terrestrial and spacecraft nuclear electric-power plants. The grooved ring fuel design attempts to retain the best features of the particle bed fuel element while eliminating most of its design deficiencies. In the grooved ring design, the hydrogen propellant enters the fuel element in a manner similar to that of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element.

  16. Rocket engine exhaust plume diagnostics and health monitoring/management during ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenevert, D. J.; Meeks, G. R.; Woods, E. G.; Huseonica, H. F.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of a rocket exhaust plume diagnostics program sponsored by NASA is reviewed. The near-term objective of the program is to enhance test operation efficiency and to provide for safe cutoff of rocket engines prior to incipient failure, thereby avoiding the destruction of the engine and the test complex and preventing delays in the national space program. NASA programs that will benefit from the nonintrusive remote sensed rocket plume diagnostics and related vehicle health management and nonintrusive measurement program are Space Shuttle Main Engine, National Launch System, National Aero-Space Plane, Space Exploration Initiative, Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, and Space Station Freedom. The role of emission spectrometry and other types of remote sensing in rocket plume diagnostics is discussed.

  17. 30. Historic view of twentythousandpound rocket test stand with engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Historic view of twenty-thousand-pound rocket test stand with engine installation in test cell of Building 202, looking down from elevated location, September 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-45872. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. Space shuttle SRM plume expansion sensitivity analysis. [flow characteristics of exhaust gases from solid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.; Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The exhaust plumes of the space shuttle solid rocket motors can have a significant effect on the base pressure and base drag of the shuttle vehicle. A parametric analysis was conducted to assess the sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle of analytical solid rocket motor flow fields to various analytical input parameters and operating conditions. The results of the analysis are presented and conclusions reached regarding the sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle to each parameter investigated. Operating conditions parametrically varied were chamber pressure, nozzle inlet angle, nozzle throat radius of curvature ratio and propellant particle loading. Empirical particle parameters investigated were mean size, local drag coefficient and local heat transfer coefficient. Sensitivity of the initial plume expansion angle to gas thermochemistry model and local drag coefficient model assumptions were determined.

  19. Liquid rocket performance computer model with distributed energy release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combs, L. P.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a computer program for analyzing the effects of bipropellant spray combustion processes on liquid rocket performance is described and discussed. The distributed energy release (DER) computer program was designed to become part of the JANNAF liquid rocket performance evaluation methodology and to account for performance losses associated with the propellant combustion processes, e.g., incomplete spray gasification, imperfect mixing between sprays and their reacting vapors, residual mixture ratio striations in the flow, and two-phase flow effects. The DER computer program begins by initializing the combustion field at the injection end of a conventional liquid rocket engine, based on injector and chamber design detail, and on propellant and combustion gas properties. It analyzes bipropellant combustion, proceeding stepwise down the chamber from those initial conditions through the nozzle throat.

  20. Combustion dynamics in liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A chemical analysis of the emission and absorption spectra in the combustion chamber of a nitrogen tetroxide/aerozine-50 rocket engine was conducted. Measurements were made under conditions of preignition, ignition, and post combustion operating periods. The cause of severe ignition overpressures sporadically observed during the vacuum startup of the Apollo reaction control system engine was investigated. The extent to which residual propellants or condensed intermediate reaction products remain after the engine has been operated in a pulse mode duty cycle was determined.

  1. Air breathing engine/rocket trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, V. K., III

    1979-01-01

    This research has focused on improving the mathematical models of the air-breathing propulsion systems, which can be mated with the rocket engine model and incorporated in trajectory optimization codes. Improved engine simulations provided accurate representation of the complex cycles proposed for advanced launch vehicles, thereby increasing the confidence in propellant use and payload calculations. The versatile QNEP (Quick Navy Engine Program) was modified to allow treatment of advanced turboaccelerator cycles using hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels and operating in the vehicle flow field.

  2. Flow processes in overexpanded chemical rocket nozzles. Part 2: Side loads due to asymmetric separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Methods for measuring the lateral forces, occurring as a result of asymmetric nozzle flow separation, are discussed. The effect of some parameters on the side load is explained. A new method was developed for calculation of the side load. The values calculated are compared with side load data of the J-2 engine. Results are used for predicting side loads of the space shuttle main engine.

  3. Combustion Processes in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran,S.; Merkle, C. L.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the development of hybrid rocket engines for advanced launch vehicle applications. Hybrid propulsion systems use a solid fuel such as hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) along with a gaseous/liquid oxidizer. The performance of hybrid combustors depends on the convective and radiative heat fluxes to the fuel surface, the rate of pyrolysis in the solid phase, and the turbulent combustion processes in the gaseous phases. These processes in combination specify the regression rates of the fuel surface and thereby the utilization efficiency of the fuel. In this paper, we employ computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques in order to gain a quantitative understanding of the physical trends in hybrid rocket combustors. The computational modeling is tailored to ongoing experiments at Penn State that employ a two dimensional slab burner configuration. The coordinated computational/experimental effort enables model validation while providing an understanding of the experimental observations. Computations to date have included the full length geometry with and with the aft nozzle section as well as shorter length domains for extensive parametric characterization. HTPB is sed as the fuel with 1,3 butadiene being taken as the gaseous product of the pyrolysis. Pure gaseous oxygen is taken as the oxidizer. The fuel regression rate is specified using an Arrhenius rate reaction, which the fuel surface temperature is given by an energy balance involving gas-phase convection and radiation as well as thermal conduction in the solid-phase. For the gas-phase combustion, a two step global reaction is used. The standard kappa - epsilon model is used for turbulence closure. Radiation is presently treated using a simple diffusion approximation which is valid for large optical path lengths, representative of radiation from soot particles. Computational results are obtained to determine the trends in the fuel burning or

  4. Mean Line Pump Flow Model in Rocket Engine System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    A mean line pump flow modeling method has been developed to provide a fast capability for modeling turbopumps of rocket engines. Based on this method, a mean line pump flow code PUMPA has been written that can predict the performance of pumps at off-design operating conditions, given the loss of the diffusion system at the design point. The pump code can model axial flow inducers, mixed-flow and centrifugal pumps. The code can model multistage pumps in series. The code features rapid input setup and computer run time, and is an effective analysis and conceptual design tool. The map generation capability of the code provides the map information needed for interfacing with a rocket engine system modeling code. The off-design and multistage modeling capabilities of the code permit parametric design space exploration of candidate pump configurations and provide pump performance data for engine system evaluation. The PUMPA code has been integrated with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code and an expander rocket engine system has been simulated. The mean line pump flow code runs as an integral part of the NPSS rocket engine system simulation and provides key pump performance information directly to the system model at all operating conditions.

  5. Spectroscopy and multivariate analyses applications related to solid rocket nozzle bondline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Hatcher, Richard; Benson, Brian; Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical composition and molecular orientation define the properties of materials. Information related to chemical composition and molecular configuration is obtained by various forms of spectroscopy. Software algorithms developed for multivariate analyses, expert systems, and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are used to conduct repetitive operations. The techniques are believed to be of particular significance toward achieving TQM objectives. The objective was to obtain information related to the quality of the bondline in the solid rocket motor, SRM, nozzle. Hysol 934 NA, a room temperature curing epoxide resin, is used as the bonding agent. A good bond requires that the adhesive be placed on a properly prepared metal surface, the adhesives Part A and B be mixed in appropriate ratio from material within shelf life specifications. Spectroscopic data was obtained for surfaces prepared according to specifications, contaminated metal surfaces, samples of the epoxide adhesive at times that represent shelf aging from 3 months to 2 years, several mix ratio of A to B, and curing material. Temperature was found to be a significant factor. The study concentrated on pot life and mix ratio.

  6. Fundamental Understanding of Propellant/Nozzle Interaction for Rocket Nozzle Erosion Minimization Under Very High Pressure Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    conditions; with X-ray radiography for erosion rate measurements. A vortex combustor was also designed to simulate propellant product species and to...DATES COVERED Interim Progress Report, August 1, 2004 to July 31, 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fundamental Understanding of Propellant /Nozzle...nozzle erosion by solid- propellant combustion products. Several processes can affect the nozzle erosion rate at high pressure and temperature

  7. Jet engine nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter.

  8. Jet Engine Nozzle Exit Configurations and Associated Systems and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter.

  9. Metallized Gelled Propellants: Oxygen/RP-1/Aluminum Rocket Heat Transfer and Combustion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Zakany, James S.

    1996-01-01

    A series of rocket engine heat transfer experiments using metallized gelled liquid propellants was conducted. These experiments used a small 20- to 40-lb/f thrust engine composed of a modular injector, igniter, chamber and nozzle. The fuels used were traditional liquid RP-1 and gelled RP-1 with 0-, 5-, and 55-percentage by weight loadings of aluminum particles. Gaseous oxygen was used as the oxidizer. Three different injectors were used during the testing: one for the baseline O(2)/RP-1 tests and two for the gelled and metallized gelled fuel firings. Heat transfer measurements were made with a rocket engine calorimeter chamber and nozzle with a total of 31 cooling channels. Each chamber used a water flow to carry heat away from the chamber and the attached thermocouples and flow meters allowed heat flux estimates at each of the 31 stations. The rocket engine Cstar efficiency for the RP-1 fuel was in the 65-69 percent range, while the gelled 0 percent by weight RP-1 and the 5-percent by weight RP-1 exhibited a Cstar efficiency range of 60 to 62% and 65 to 67%, respectively. The 55-percent by weight RP-1 fuel delivered a 42-47% Cstar efficiency. Comparisons of the heat flux and temperature profiles of the RP-1 and the metallized gelled RP-1/A1 fuels show that the peak nozzle heat fluxes with the metallized gelled O2/RP-1/A1 propellants are substantially higher than the baseline O2/RP-1: up to double the flux for the 55 percent by weight RP-1/A1 over the RP-1 fuel. Analyses showed that the heat transfer to the wall was significantly different for the RP-1/A1 at 55-percent by weight versus the RP-1 fuel. Also, a gellant and an aluminum combustion delay was inferred in the 0 percent and 5-percent by weight RP-1/A1 cases from the decrease in heat flux in the first part of the chamber. A large decrease in heat flux in the last half of the chamber was caused by fuel deposition in the chamber and nozzle. The engine combustion occurred well downstream of the injector face

  10. Rocket Engine Plume Diagnostics at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tejwani, Gopal D.; Langford, Lester A.; VanDyke, David B.; McVay, Gregory P.; Thurman, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The Stennis Space Center has been at the forefront of development and application of exhaust plume spectroscopy to rocket engine health monitoring since 1989. Various spectroscopic techniques, such as emission, absorption, FTIR, LIF, and CARS, have been considered for application at the engine test stands. By far the most successful technology h a been exhaust plume emission spectroscopy. In particular, its application to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) ground test health monitoring has been invaluable in various engine testing and development activities at SSC since 1989. On several occasions, plume diagnostic methods have successfully detected a problem with one or more components of an engine long before any other sensor indicated a problem. More often, they provide corroboration for a failure mode, if any occurred during an engine test. This paper gives a brief overview of our instrumentation and computational systems for rocket engine plume diagnostics at SSC. Some examples of successful application of exhaust plume spectroscopy (emission as well as absorption) to the SSME testing are presented. Our on-going plume diagnostics technology development projects and future requirements are discussed.

  11. Design issues for lunar in situ aluminum/oxygen propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    Design issues for lunar ascent and lunar descent rocket engines fueled by aluminum/oxygen propellant produced in situ at the lunar surface were evaluated. Key issues are discussed which impact the design of these rockets: aluminum combustion, throat erosion, and thrust chamber cooling. Four engine concepts are presented, and the impact of combustion performance, throat erosion and thrust chamber cooling on overall engine design are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of each engine concept are presented.

  12. OCO-2 - Delta II Install 2nd Stage Nozzle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-26

    VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. – In the Horizontal Processing Facility at Space Launch Complex 2 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, the engine bell is installed around the second-stage nozzle of the Delta II rocket for NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 mission, or OCO-2. OCO-2 is scheduled to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket from Space Launch Complex 2 in July. The rocket's second stage will insert OCO-2 into a polar Earth orbit. OCO-2 will collect precise global measurements of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere and provide scientists with a better idea of the chemical compound's impacts on climate change. Scientists will analyze this data to improve our understanding of the natural processes and human activities that regulate the abundance and distribution of this important atmospheric gas. To learn more about OCO-2, visit http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov. Photo credit: NASA/Randy Beaudoin

  13. The development of a post-test diagnostic system for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.

    1991-01-01

    An effort was undertaken by NASA to develop an automated post-test, post-flight diagnostic system for rocket engines. The automated system is designed to be generic and to automate the rocket engine data review process. A modular, distributed architecture with a generic software core was chosen to meet the design requirements. The diagnostic system is initially being applied to the Space Shuttle Main Engine data review process. The system modules currently under development are the session/message manager, and portions of the applications section, the component analysis section, and the intelligent knowledge server. An overview is presented of a rocket engine data review process, the design requirements and guidelines, the architecture and modules, and the projected benefits of the automated diagnostic system.

  14. Infrared characteristics and flow field of the exhaust plume outside twin engine nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yun-song

    2016-01-01

    For mastery of infrared radiation characteristics and flow field of exhaust plume of twin engine nozzles, first, a physical model of the double rectangular nozzles is established with the Gambit, and the mathematical model of flow field is determined. Secondly, software Fluent6.3 is used to simulated the 3-D exterior flow field of the twin engine nozzles, and the datum of flow field, such as temperature, pressure and density, are obtained. Finally, based on the plume temperature, the exhaust plume space is divided. The exhaust plume is equivalent to a gray-body. A calculating model of the plume infrared radiation is established, and the plume infrared radiation characteristics are calculated by the software MATLAB, then the spatial distribution curves are drawn. The result improves that with the height increasing the temperature, press and infrared radiant intensity diminish. Compared with engine afterburning condition, temperature and infrared radiant intensity increases and press has no obvious change.

  15. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory motion in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. The customary approach to modeling acoustic waves inside a rocket chamber is to apply the classical inhomogeneous wave equation to the combustion gas. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while the acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients in pressure, density, and velocity become large, is a notable region where this approach is not applicable. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. An accurate model of the acoustic behavior within this region where acoustic modes are influenced by the presence of a steady mean flow is required for reliable stability predictions. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, (del squared)(psi) - (lambda/c)(exp 2)(psi) - M(dot)[M(dot)(del)(del(psi))] - 2(lambda(M/c) + (M(dot)del(M))(dot)del(psi)-2(lambda)(psi)[M(dot)del(1/c)]=0 (1) with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and lambda as the complex eigenvalue. French apply the finite volume method to solve the steady flow field within the combustion chamber and nozzle with inviscid walls. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvector are determined with the use of the ARPACK eigensolver. The

  16. Evaluation of Proposed Rocket Engines for Earth-to-Orbit Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Kramer, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate recently analyzed rocket engines for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles. The engines evaluated are full-flow staged combustion engines and split expander engines, both at mixture ratios at 6 and above with oxygen and hydrogen propellants. The vehicles considered are single-stage and two-stage fully reusable vehicles and the Space Shuttle with liquid rocket boosters. The results indicate that the split expander engine at a mixture ratio of about 7 is competitive with the full-flow staged combustion engine for all three vehicle concepts. A key factor in this result is the capability to increase the chamber pressure for the split expander as the mixture ratio is increased from 6 to 7.

  17. Potential Climate and Ozone Impacts From Hybrid Rocket Engine Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.

    2009-12-01

    Hybrid rocket engines that use N2O as an oxidizer and a solid hydrocarbon (such as rubber) as a fuel are relatively new. Little is known about the composition of such hybrid engine emissions. General principles and visual inspection of hybrid plumes suggest significant soot and possibly NO emissions. Understanding hybrid rocket emissions is important because of the possibility that a fleet of hybrid powered suborbital rockets will be flying on the order of 1000 flights per year by 2020. The annual stratospheric emission for these rockets would be about 10 kilotons, equal to present day solid rocket motor (SRM) emissions. We present a preliminary analysis of the magnitude of (1) the radiative forcing from soot emissions and (2) the ozone depletion from soot and NO emissions associated with such a fleet of suborbital hybrid rockets. Because the details of the composition of hybrid emissions are unknown, it is not clear if the ozone depletion caused by these hybrid rockets would be more or less than the ozone depletion from SRMs. We also consider the climate implications associated with the N2O production and use requirements for hybrid rockets. Finally, we identify the most important data collection and modeling needs that are required to reliably assess the complete range of environmental impacts of a fleet of hybrid rockets.

  18. Visualization of cavitation phenomena in a Diesel engine fuel injection nozzle by neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, N.; Kadowaki, T.; Kawabata, Y.; Lim, I. C.; Sim, C. M.

    2005-04-01

    Visualization of cavitation phenomena in a Diesel engine fuel injection nozzle was carried out by using neutron radiography system at KUR in Research Reactor Institute in Kyoto University and at HANARO in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A neutron chopper was synchronized to the engine rotation for high shutter speed exposures. A multi-exposure method was applied to obtain a clear image as an ensemble average of the synchronized images. Some images were successfully obtained and suggested new understanding of the cavitation phenomena in a Diesel engine fuel injection nozzle.

  19. ION ROCKET ENGINE

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, K.W.; Voelker, F. III

    1961-12-19

    A thrust generating engine utilizing cesium vapor as the propellant fuel is designed. The cesium is vaporized by heat and is passed through a heated porous tungsten electrode whereby each cesium atom is fonized. Upon emergfng from the tungsten electrode, the ions are accelerated rearwardly from the rocket through an electric field between the tungsten electrode and an adjacent accelerating electrode grid structure. To avoid creating a large negative charge on the space craft as a result of the expulsion of the positive ions, a source of electrons is disposed adjacent the ion stream to neutralize the cesium atoms following acceleration thereof. (AEC)

  20. Software for Collaborative Engineering of Launch Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy

    2003-01-01

    The Rocket Evaluation and Cost Integration for Propulsion and Engineering software enables collaborative computing with automated exchange of information in the design and analysis of launch rockets and other complex systems. RECIPE can interact with and incorporate a variety of programs, including legacy codes, that model aspects of a system from the perspectives of different technological disciplines (e.g., aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, trajectory, aeroheating, controls, and operations) and that are used by different engineers on different computers running different operating systems. RECIPE consists mainly of (1) ISCRM a file-transfer subprogram that makes it possible for legacy codes executed in their original operating systems on their original computers to exchange data and (2) CONES an easy-to-use filewrapper subprogram that enables the integration of legacy codes. RECIPE provides a tightly integrated conceptual framework that emphasizes connectivity among the programs used by the collaborators, linking these programs in a manner that provides some configuration control while facilitating collaborative engineering tradeoff studies, including design to cost studies. In comparison with prior collaborative-engineering schemes, one based on the use of RECIPE enables fewer engineers to do more in less time.

  1. Process modeling for carbon-phenolic nozzle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letson, Mischell A.; Bunker, Robert C.; Remus, Walter M., III; Clinton, R. G.

    1989-01-01

    A thermochemical model based on the SINDA heat transfer program is developed for carbon-phenolic nozzle material processes. The model can be used to optimize cure cycles and to predict material properties based on the types of materials and the process by which these materials are used to make nozzle components. Chemical kinetic constants for Fiberite MX4926 were determined so that optimization of cure cycles for the current Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor nozzle rings can be determined.

  2. Development Status of the NASA MC-1 (Fastrac) Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.; Olive, Tim; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The MC-1 (formerly known as the Fastrac 60K) Engine is being developed for the X-34 technology demonstrator vehicle. It is a pump-fed liquid rocket engine with fixed thrust operating at one rated power level of 60,000 lbf vacuum thrust using a 15:1 area ratio nozzle (slightly higher for the 30:1 flight nozzle). Engine system development testing of the MC-1 has been ongoing since 24 Oct 1998. To date, 48 tests have been conducted on three engines using three separate test stands. This paper will provide some details of the engine, the tests conducted, and the lessons learned to date.

  3. Laser rocket system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The laser rocket systems investigated in this study were for orbital transportation using space-based, ground-based and airborne laser transmitters. The propulsion unit of these systems utilizes a continuous wave (CW) laser beam focused into a thrust chamber which initiates a plasma in the hydrogen propellant, thus heating the propellant and providing thrust through a suitably designed nozzle and expansion skirt. The specific impulse is limited only by the ability to adequately cool the thruster and the amount of laser energy entering the engine. The results of the study showed that, with advanced technology, laser rocket systems with either a space- or ground-based laser transmitter could reduce the national budget allocated to space transportation by 10 to 345 billion dollars over a 10-year life cycle when compared to advanced chemical propulsion systems (LO2-LH2) of equal capability. The variation in savings depends upon the projected mission model.

  4. Acoustics and Thrust of Separate Flow Exhaust Nozzles With Mixing Devices Investigated for High Bypass Ratio Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiyed, Naseem H.

    2000-01-01

    Typical installed separate-flow exhaust nozzle system. The jet noise from modern turbofan engines is a major contributor to the overall noise from commercial aircraft. Many of these engines use separate nozzles for exhausting core and fan streams. As a part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field led an experimental investigation using model-scale nozzles in Glenn s Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The goal of the investigation was to develop technology for reducing the jet noise by 3 EPNdB. Teams of engineers from Glenn, the NASA Langley Research Center, Pratt & Whitney, United Technologies Research Corporation, the Boeing Company, GE Aircraft Engines, Allison Engine Company, and Aero Systems Engineering contributed to the planning and implementation of the test.

  5. An Historical Perspective of the NERVA Nuclear Rocket Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, W. H.; Finger, H. B.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear rocket research and development was initiated in the United States in 1955 and is still being pursued to a limited extent. The major technology emphasis occurred in the decade of the 1960s and was primarily associated with the Rover/NERVA Program where the technology for a nuclear rocket engine system for space application was developed and demonstrated. The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology developed twenty years ago provides a comprehensive and viable propulsion technology base that can be applied and will prove to be valuable for application to the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper, which is historical in scope, provides an overview of the conduct of the NERVA Engine Program, its organization and management, development philosophy, the engine configuration, and significant accomplishments.

  6. Nonlinear Control of a Reusable Rocket Engine for Life Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Holmes, Michael S.; Ray, Asok

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual development of a life-extending control system where the objective is to achieve high performance and structural durability of the plant. A life-extending controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine via damage mitigation in both the fuel (H2) and oxidizer (O2) turbines while achieving high performance for transient responses of the combustion chamber pressure and the O2/H2 mixture ratio. The design procedure makes use of a combination of linear and nonlinear controller synthesis techniques and also allows adaptation of the life-extending controller module to augment a conventional performance controller of the rocket engine. The nonlinear aspect of the design is achieved using non-linear parameter optimization of a prescribed control structure. Fatigue damage in fuel and oxidizer turbine blades is primarily caused by stress cycling during start-up, shutdown, and transient operations of a rocket engine. Fatigue damage in the turbine blades is one of the most serious causes for engine failure.

  7. Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engine Throttling: A Comprehensive Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casiano, Matthew; Hulka, James; Yang, Virog

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engines (LREs) are capable of on-command variable thrust or thrust modulation, an operability advantage that has been studied intermittently since the late 1930s. Throttleable LREs can be used for planetary entry and descent, space rendezvous, orbital maneuvering including orientation and stabilization in space, and hovering and hazard avoidance during planetary landing. Other applications have included control of aircraft rocket engines, limiting of vehicle acceleration or velocity using retrograde rockets, and ballistic missile defense trajectory control. Throttleable LREs can also continuously follow the most economical thrust curve in a given situation, compared to discrete throttling changes over a few select operating points. The effects of variable thrust on the mechanics and dynamics of an LRE as well as difficulties and issues surrounding the throttling process are important aspects of throttling behavior. This review provides a detailed survey of LRE throttling centered around engines from the United States. Several LRE throttling methods are discussed, including high-pressure-drop systems, dual-injector manifolds, gas injection, multiple chambers, pulse modulation, throat throttling, movable injector components, and hydrodynamically dissipative injectors. Concerns and issues surrounding each method are examined, and the advantages and shortcomings compared.

  8. Performance of high area ratio nozzles for a small rocket thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.; Hermel, J.; Apfel, S.; Zydowicz, M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical estimates of supersonic nozzle performance have been compared to experimental test data for nozzles with an area ratio of 100:1 conical and 300:1 optimum contour, and 300:1 nozzles cut off at 200:1 and 100:1. These tests were done on a Hughes Aircraft Company 5 lbf monopropellant hydrazine thruster with chamber pressures ranging from 25 to 135 psia. The analytic method used is the conventional inviscid method of characteristic with correction for laminar boundary layer displacement and drag. Replacing the 100:1 conical nozzle with the 300:1 contoured nozzle resulted in an improvement in thrust performance of 0.74 percent at chamber pressure of 25 psia to 2.14 percent at chamber pressure of 135 psia. The data is significant because it is experimental verification that conventional nozzle design techniques are applicable even where the boundary layer is laminar and displaces as much as 35 percent of the flow at the nozzle exit plane.

  9. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part report that describes the AJ10-221, a high performance iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000 F) (2200 C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units were welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated which, when proven to be capable of withstanding launch vibration, is ready for

  10. A rapid method for optimization of the rocket propulsion system for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, C. H.; Gordon, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid analytical method for the optimization of rocket propulsion systems is presented for a vertical take-off, horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. This method utilizes trade-offs between propulsion characteristics affecting flight performance and engine system mass. The performance results from a point-mass trajectory optimization program are combined with a linearized sizing program to establish vehicle sizing trends caused by propulsion system variations. The linearized sizing technique was developed for the class of vehicle systems studied herein. The specific examples treated are the optimization of nozzle expansion ratio and lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio to achieve either minimum gross mass or minimum dry mass. Assumed propulsion system characteristics are high chamber pressure, liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants, conventional bell nozzles, and the same fixed nozzle expansion ratio for all engines on a vehicle.

  11. Altitude Compensating Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Jones, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The dual-bell nozzle (fig. 1) is an altitude-compensating nozzle that has an inner contour consisting of two overlapped bells. At low altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle operates in mode 1, only utilizing the smaller, first bell of the nozzle. In mode 1, the nozzle flow separates from the wall at the inflection point between the two bell contours. As the vehicle reaches higher altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle flow transitions to mode 2, to flow full into the second, larger bell. This dual-mode operation allows near optimal expansion at two altitudes, enabling a higher mission average specific impulse (Isp) relative to that of a conventional, single-bell nozzle. Dual-bell nozzles have been studied analytically and subscale nozzle tests have been completed.1 This higher mission averaged Isp can provide up to a 5% increase2 in payload to orbit for existing launch vehicles. The next important step for the dual-bell nozzle is to confirm its potential in a relevant flight environment. Toward this end, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) have been working to develop a subscale, hot-fire, dual-bell nozzle test article for flight testing on AFRC's F15-D flight test bed (figs. 2 and 3). Flight test data demonstrating a dual-bell ability to control the mode transition and result in a sufficient increase in a rocket's mission averaged Isp should help convince the launch service providers that the dual-bell nozzle would provide a return on the required investment to bring a dual-bell into flight operation. The Game Changing Department provided 0.2 FTE to ER42 for this effort in 2014.

  12. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  13. Reduced Noise Gas Turbine Engine System and Supersonic Exhaust Nozzle System Using Elector to Entrain Ambient Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokhey, Jagdish S. (Inventor); Pierluissi, Anthony F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique gas turbine engine system. Another embodiment is a unique exhaust nozzle system for a gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engine systems and exhaust nozzle systems for gas turbine engines. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  14. Simulation of Cold Flow in a Truncated Ideal Nozzle with Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braman, K. E.; Ruf, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Flow transients during rocket start-up and shut-down can lead to significant side loads on rocket nozzles. The capability to estimate these side loads computationally can streamline the nozzle design process. Towards this goal, the flow in a truncated ideal contour (TIC) nozzle has been simulated using RANS and URANS for a range of nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) aimed to match a series of cold flow experiments performed at the NASA MSFC Nozzle Test Facility. These simulations were performed with varying turbulence model choices and for four approximations of the supersonic film injection geometry, each of which was created with a different simplification of the test article geometry. The results show that although a reasonable match to experiment can be obtained with varying levels of geometric fidelity, the modeling choices made do not fully represent the physics of flow separation in a TIC nozzle with film cooling.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the numerical modeling of pulse detonation rocket engines (PDRE), with an emphasis on the Gasdynamics and performance analysis of these engines. The topics include: 1) Performance Analysis of PDREs; 2) Simplified PDRE Cycle; 3) Comparison of PDRE and Steady-State Rocket Engines (SSRE) Performance; 4) Numerical Modeling of Quasi 1-D Rocket Flows; 5) Specific PDRE Geometries Studied; 6) Time-Accurate Thrust Calculations; 7) PDRE Performance (Geometries A B C and D); 8) PDRE Blowdown Gasdynamics (Geom. A B C and D); 9) PDRE Geometry Performance Comparison; 10) PDRE Blowdown Time (Geom. A B C and D); 11) Specific SSRE Geometry Studied; 12) Effect of F-R Chemistry on SSRE Performance; 13) PDRE/SSRE Performance Comparison; 14) PDRE Performance Study; 15) Grid Resolution Study; and 16) Effect of F-R Chemistry on SSRE Exit Species Mole Fractions.

  16. Turbopump systems for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The turbopump system, from preliminary design through rocket engine testing is examined. Selection of proper system type for each application and integration of the components into a working system are dealt with. Details are also given on the design of various components including inducers, pumps, turbines, gears, and bearings.

  17. Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.

  18. Effect of Stagger on the Vibroacoustic Loads from Clustered Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojo, Raymundo; Tinney, Charles E.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of stagger startup on the vibro-acoustic loads that form during the end- effects-regime of clustered rockets is studied using both full-scale (hot-gas) and laboratory scale (cold gas) data. Both configurations comprise three nozzles with thrust optimized parabolic contours that undergo free shock separated flow and restricted shock separated flow as well as an end-effects regime prior to flowing full. Acoustic pressure waveforms recorded at the base of the nozzle clusters are analyzed using various statistical metrics as well as time-frequency analysis. The findings reveal a significant reduction in end- effects-regime loads when engine ignition is staggered. However, regardless of stagger, both the skewness and kurtosis of the acoustic pressure time derivative elevate to the same levels during the end-effects-regime event thereby demonstrating the intermittence and impulsiveness of the acoustic waveforms that form during engine startup.

  19. CF6 jet engine performance improvement program. Short core exhaust nozzle performance improvement concept. [specific fuel consumption reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The short core exhaust nozzle was evaluated in CF6-50 engine ground tests including performance, acoustic, and endurance tests. The test results verified the performance predictions from scale model tests. The short core exhaust nozzle provides an internal cruise sfc reduction of 0.9 percent without an increase in engine noise. The nozzle hardware successfully completed 1000 flight cycles of endurance testing without any signs of distress.

  20. Leak Location and Classification in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle by Infrared Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel S.; Walker, James L.; Lansing, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is composed of cooling tubes brazed to the inside of a conical structural jacket. Because of the geometry there are regions that can't be inspected for leaks using the bubble solution and low-pressure method. The temperature change due escaping gas is detectable on the surface of the nozzle under the correct conditions. The methods and results presented in this summary address the thermographic identification of leaks in the Space Shuttle Main Engine nozzles. A highly sensitive digital infrared camera is used to record the minute temperature change associated with a leak source, such as a crack or pinhole, hidden within the nozzle wall by observing the inner "hot wall" surface as the nozzle is pressurized. These images are enhanced by digitally subtracting a thermal reference image taken before pressurization, greatly diminishing background noise. The method provides a nonintrusive way of localizing the tube that is leaking and the exact leak source position to within a very small axial distance. Many of the factors that influence the inspectability of the nozzle are addressed; including pressure rate, peak pressure, gas type, ambient temperature and surface preparation.

  1. Reusable rocket engine intelligent control system framework design, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, ED; Anderson, Ron; Ols, Joe; Olsasky, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Elements of an advanced functional framework for reusable rocket engine propulsion system control are presented for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) demonstration case. Functional elements of the baseline functional framework are defined in detail. The SSME failure modes are evaluated and specific failure modes identified for inclusion in the advanced functional framework diagnostic system. Active control of the SSME start transient is investigated, leading to the identification of a promising approach to mitigating start transient excursions. Key elements of the functional framework are simulated and demonstration cases are provided. Finally, the advanced function framework for control of reusable rocket engines is presented.

  2. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study evaluating thrust chamber cooling engine cycles and preliminary engine design for low thrust chemical rocket engines for orbit transfer vehicles is described. Oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, and oxygen/RP-1 engines with thrust levels from 444.8 N to 13345 N, and chamber pressures from 13.8 N/sq cm to 689.5 N/sq cm were evaluated. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the propellant theoretical performance data, and transport properties are documented. The thrust chamber cooling limits for regenerative/radiation and film/radiation cooling are defined and parametric heat transfer data presented. A conceptual evaluation of a number of engine cycles was performed and a 2224.1 N oxygen/hydrogen engine cycle configuration and a 2224.1 N oxygen/methane configuration chosen for preliminary engine design. Updated parametric engine data, engine design drawings, and an assessment of technology required are presented.

  3. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    In Task D.6 of the Advanced Engine Study, three primary subtasks were accomplished: (1) design of parametric data; (2) engine requirement variation studies; and (3) vehicle study/engine study coordination. Parametric data were generated for vacuum thrusts ranging from 7500 lbf to 50,000 lbf, nozzle expansion ratios from 600 to 1200, and engine mixture ratios from 5:1 to 7:1. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was used as a departure point for these parametric analyses. These data are intended to assist in definition and trade studies. In the Engine Requirements Variation Studies, the individual effects of increasing the throttling ratio from 10:1 to 20:1 and requiring the engine to operate at a maximum mixture ratio of 12:1 were determined. Off design engine balances were generated at these extreme conditions and individual component operating requirements analyzed in detail. Potential problems were identified and possible solutions generated. In the Vehicle Study/Engine Study coordination subtask, vehicle contractor support was provided as needed, addressing a variety of issues uncovered during vehicle trade studies. This support was primarily provided during Technical Interchange Meetings (TIM) in which Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) studies were addressed.

  4. Visualization and Analyses of Jet Structures from a Cluster-Type Linear Aerospike Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Tomohide; Mori, Hideo; Okabe, Kazuki; Masai, Yusuke; Taniguchi, Mashio

    Aerospike nozzles have been expected as a candidate for an engine of reusable space shuttles to respond to growing demand for rocket-launching and its cost reduction. In this study, the flow field structure in any cross sections around the linear-type aerospike nozzle are visualized and analyzed, using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of NO seeded in the carrier gas N2. Since the flow field structure is affected mainly by the pressure ratio (P/P), the linear-type aerospike nozzle is set inside the vacuum chamber to carry out the experiments in the wide range of pressure ratios from 75 to 250. Flow fields are visualized in several cross-sections, demonstrating the complicated three-dimensional flow field structures. Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) of PtTFPP bound by poly(TMSP) is also applied successfully to measurement of the complicated pressure distribution on the spike surface.

  5. Genetic algorithm to optimize the design of main combustor and gas generator in liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Min; Ko, Sangho; Koo, Jaye

    2014-06-01

    A genetic algorithm was used to develop optimal design methods for the regenerative cooled combustor and fuel-rich gas generator of a liquid rocket engine. For the combustor design, a chemical equilibrium analysis was applied, and the profile was calculated using Rao's method. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed along the profile, and cooling channels were designed. For the gas-generator design, non-equilibrium properties were derived from a counterflow analysis, and a vaporization model for the fuel droplet was adopted to calculate residence time. Finally, a genetic algorithm was adopted to optimize the designs. The combustor and gas generator were optimally designed for 30-tonf, 75-tonf, and 150-tonf engines. The optimized combustors demonstrated superior design characteristics when compared with previous non-optimized results. Wall temperatures at the nozzle throat were optimized to satisfy the requirement of 800 K, and specific impulses were maximized. In addition, the target turbine power and a burned-gas temperature of 1000 K were obtained from the optimized gas-generator design.

  6. Large-displacement structural durability analyses of simple bend specimen emulating rocket nozzle liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    Large-displacement elastic and elastic-plastic, finite-element stress-strain analyses of an oxygen-tree high-conductivity (OFHC) copper plate specimen were performed using an updated Lagrangian formulation. The plate specimen is intended for low-cost experiments that emulate the most important thermomechanical loading and failure modes of a more complex rocket nozzle. The plate, which is loaded in bending at 593 C, contains a centrally located and internally pressurized channel. The cyclic crack initiation lives were estimated using the results from the analyses and isothermal strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue data for OFHC copper. A comparison of the predicted and experimental cyclic lives showed that an elastic analysis predicts a longer cyclic life than that observed in experiments by a factor greater than 4. The results from elastic-plastic analysis for the plate bend specimen, however, predicted a cyclic life in close agreement with experiment, thus justifying the need for the more rigorous stress-strain analysis.

  7. Aluminum/hydrocarbon gel propellants: An experimental and theoretical investigation of secondary atomization and predicted rocket engine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Donn Christopher

    1997-12-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of aluminum/hydrocarbon gel propellant secondary atomization and its potential effects on rocket engine performance were conducted. In the experimental efforts, a dilute, polydisperse, gel droplet spray was injected into the postflame region of a burner and droplet size distributions was measured as a function of position above the burner using a laser-based sizing/velocimetry technique. The sizing/velocimetry technique was developed to measure droplets in the 10-125 mum size range and avoids size-biased detection through the use of a uniformly illuminated probe volume. The technique was used to determine particle size distributions and velocities at various axial locations above the burner for JP-10, and 50 and 60 wt% aluminum gels. Droplet shell formation models were applied to aluminum/hydrocarbon gels to examine particle size and mass loading effects on the minimum droplet diameter that will permit secondary atomization. This diameter was predicted to be 38.1 and 34.7 mum for the 50 and 60 wt% gels, which is somewhat greater than the experimentally measured 30 and 25 mum diameters. In the theoretical efforts, three models were developed and an existing rocket code was exercised to gain insights into secondary atomization. The first model was designed to predict gel droplet properties and shell stresses after rigid shell formation, while the second, a one-dimensional gel spray combustion model was created to quantify the secondary atomization process. Experimental and numerical comparisons verify that secondary atomization occurs in 10-125 mum diameter particles although an exact model could not be derived. The third model, a one-dimensional gel-fueled rocket combustion chamber, was developed to evaluate secondary atomization effects on various engine performance parameters. Results show that only modest secondary atomization may be required to reduce propellant burnout distance and radiation losses. A solid propellant

  8. Linear Approximation to Optimal Control Allocation for Rocket Nozzles with Elliptical Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, Johnm W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a straightforward technique for assessing and realizing the maximum control moment effectiveness for a launch vehicle with multiple constrained rocket nozzles, where elliptical deflection limits in gimbal axes are expressed as an ensemble of independent quadratic constraints. A direct method of determining an approximating ellipsoid that inscribes the set of attainable angular accelerations is derived. In the case of a parameterized linear generalized inverse, the geometry of the attainable set is computationally expensive to obtain but can be approximated to a high degree of accuracy with the proposed method. A linear inverse can then be optimized to maximize the volume of the true attainable set by maximizing the volume of the approximating ellipsoid. The use of a linear inverse does not preclude the use of linear methods for stability analysis and control design, preferred in practice for assessing the stability characteristics of the inertial and servoelastic coupling appearing in large boosters. The present techniques are demonstrated via application to the control allocation scheme for a concept heavy-lift launch vehicle.

  9. Experimental Analyses of Flow Field Structures around Clustered Linear Aerospike Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Mashio; Mori, Hideo; Nishihira, Ryutaro; Niimi, Tomohide

    2005-05-01

    An aerospike nozzle has been expected as a candidate for an engine of a reusable space shuttle to respond to growing demand for rocket-launching and its cost reduction. In this study, the flow field structures in any cross sections around clustered linear aerospike nozzles are visualized and analyzed, using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of NO seeded in the carrier gas N2. Since flow field structures are affected mainly by pressure ratio (Ps/Pa, Ps: the source pressure in a reservoir, Pa: the ambient pressure in the vacuum chamber), the clustered linear aerospike nozzle is set inside a vacuum chamber to carry out the experiments in the wide range of pressure ratios from 75 to 200. Flow fields are visualized in several cross-sections, demonstrating the complicated three-dimensional flow field structures. Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) of PtTFPP bound by poly-IBM-co-TFEM is also applied to measurement of the complicated pressure distribution on the spike surface, and to verification of contribution of a truncation plane to the thrust. Finally, to examine the effect of the sidewalls attached to the aerospike nozzle, the flow fields around the nozzle with the sidewalls are compared with those without sidewalls.

  10. Advanced active health monitoring system of liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Xinlin P.; Wu, Zhanjun; Beard, Shawn; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2008-11-01

    An advanced SMART TAPE system has been developed for real-time in-situ monitoring and long term tracking of structural integrity of pressure vessels in liquid rocket engines. The practical implementation of the structural health monitoring (SHM) system including distributed sensor network, portable diagnostic hardware and dedicated data analysis software is addressed based on the harsh operating environment. Extensive tests were conducted on a simulated large booster LOX-H2 engine propellant duct to evaluate the survivability and functionality of the system under the operating conditions of typical liquid rocket engines such as cryogenic temperature, vibration loads. The test results demonstrated that the developed SHM system could survive the combined cryogenic temperature and vibration environments and effectively detect cracks as small as 2 mm.

  11. Fastrac Nozzle Design, Performance and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Warren; Rogers, Pat; Lawrence, Tim; Davis, Darrell; DAgostino, Mark; Brown, Andy

    2000-01-01

    With the goal of lowering the cost of payload to orbit, NASA/MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) researched ways to decrease the complexity and cost of an engine system and its components for a small two-stage booster vehicle. The composite nozzle for this Fastrac Engine was designed, built and tested by MSFC with fabrication support and engineering from Thiokol-SEHO (Science and Engineering Huntsville Operation). The Fastrac nozzle uses materials, fabrication processes and design features that are inexpensive, simple and easily manufactured. As the low cost nozzle (and injector) design matured through the subscale tests and into full scale hot fire testing, X-34 chose the Fastrac engine for the propulsion plant for the X-34. Modifications were made to nozzle design in order to meet the new flight requirements. The nozzle design has evolved through subscale testing and manufacturing demonstrations to full CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), thermal, thermomechanical and dynamic analysis and the required component and engine system tests to validate the design. The Fastrac nozzle is now in final development hot fire testing and has successfully accumulated 66 hot fire tests and 1804 seconds on 18 different nozzles.

  12. Two-step rocket engine bipropellant valve concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, J. E.; Ferguson, R. E.; Pohl, H. O.

    1969-01-01

    Initiating combustion of altitude control rocket engines in a precombustion chamber of ductile material reduces high pressure surges generated by hypergolic propellants. Two-step bipropellant valve concepts control initial propellant flow into precombustion chamber and subsequent full flow into main chamber.

  13. Project-based introduction to aerospace engineering course: A model rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaram, Sanjay; Boyer, Lawrence; George, John; Ravindra, K.; Mitchell, Kyle

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a model rocket project suitable for sophomore aerospace engineering students is described. This project encompasses elements of drag estimation, thrust determination and analysis using digital data acquisition, statistical analysis of data, computer aided drafting, programming, team work and written communication skills. The student built rockets are launched in the university baseball field with the objective of carrying a specific amount of payload so that the rocket achieves a specific altitude before the parachute is deployed. During the course of the project, the students are introduced to real-world engineering practice through written report submission of their designs. Over the years, the project has proven to enhance the learning objectives, yet cost effective and has provided good outcome measures.

  14. A Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The overall structure and capabilities of an expert system designed to evaluate rocket engine performance are described. The expert system incorporates a JANNAF standard reference computer code to determine rocket engine performance and a state of the art finite element computer code to calculate the interactions between propellant injection, energy release in the combustion chamber, and regenerative cooling heat transfer. Rule-of-thumb heuristics were incorporated for the H2-O2 coaxial injector design, including a minimum gap size constraint on the total number of injector elements. One dimensional equilibrium chemistry was used in the energy release analysis of the combustion chamber. A 3-D conduction and/or 1-D advection analysis is used to predict heat transfer and coolant channel wall temperature distributions, in addition to coolant temperature and pressure drop. Inputting values to describe the geometry and state properties of the entire system is done directly from the computer keyboard. Graphical display of all output results from the computer code analyses is facilitated by menu selection of up to five dependent variables per plot.

  15. A rocket engine design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The overall structure and capabilities of an expert system designed to evaluate rocket engine performance are described. The expert system incorporates a JANNAF standard reference computer code to determine rocket engine performance and a state-of-the-art finite element computer code to calculate the interactions between propellant injection, energy release in the combustion chamber, and regenerative cooling heat transfer. Rule-of-thumb heuristics were incorporated for the hydrogen-oxygen coaxial injector design, including a minimum gap size constraint on the total number of injector elements. One-dimensional equilibrium chemistry was employed in the energy release analysis of the combustion chamber and three-dimensional finite-difference analysis of the regenerative cooling channels was used to calculate the pressure drop along the channels and the coolant temperature as it exits the coolant circuit. Inputting values to describe the geometry and state properties of the entire system is done directly from the computer keyboard. Graphical display of all output results from the computer code analyses is facilitated by menu selection of up to five dependent variables per plot.

  16. JANNAF "Test and Evaluation Guidelines for Liquid Rocket Engines": Status and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Douglas; VanLerberghe, Wayne M.; Rahman, Shamim A.

    2017-01-01

    For many decades, the U.S. rocket propulsion industrial base has performed remarkably in developing complex liquid rocket engines that can propel critical payloads into service for the nation, as well as transport people and hardware for missions that open the frontiers of space exploration for humanity. This has been possible only at considerable expense given the lack of detailed guidance that captures the essence of successful practices and knowledge accumulated over five decades of liquid rocket engine development. In an effort to provide benchmarks and guidance for the next generation of rocket engineers, the Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force (JANNAF) Interagency Propulsion Committee published a liquid rocket engine (LRE) test and evaluation (T&E) guideline document in 2012 focusing on the development challenges and test verification considerations for liquid rocket engine systems. This document has been well received and applied by many current LRE developers as a benchmark and guidance tool, both for government-driven applications as well as for fully commercial ventures. The USAF Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) has taken an additional near-term step and is directing activity to adapt and augment the content from the JANNAF LRE T&E guideline into a standard for potential application to future USAF requests for proposals for LRE development initiatives and launch vehicles for national security missions. A draft of this standard was already sent out for review and comment, and is intended to be formally approved and released towards the end of 2017. The acceptance and use of the LRE T&E guideline is possible through broad government and industry participation in the JANNAF liquid propulsion committee and associated panels. The sponsoring JANNAF community is expanding upon this initial baseline version and delving into further critical development aspects of liquid rocket propulsion testing at the integrated stage level as well as engine component level, in

  17. Acoustic/infrasonic rocket engine signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenney, Stephen M.; Noble, John M.; Whitaker, Rodney W.; ReVelle, Douglas O.

    2003-09-01

    Infrasonics offers the potential of long-range acoustic detection of explosions, missiles and even sounds created by manufacturing plants. The atmosphere attenuates acoustic energy above 20 Hz quite rapidly, but signals below 10 Hz can propagate to long ranges. Space shuttle launches have been detected infrasonically from over 1000 km away and the Concorde airliner from over 400 km. This technology is based on microphones designed to respond to frequencies from .1 to 300 Hz that can be operated outdoors for extended periods of time with out degrading their performance. The US Army Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collected acoustic and infrasonic signatures of static engine testing of two missiles. Signatures were collected of a SCUD missile engine at Huntsville, AL and a Minuteman engine at Edwards AFB. The engines were fixed vertically in a test stand during the burn. We will show the typical time waveform signals of these static tests and spectrograms for each type. High resolution, 24-bit data were collected at 512 Hz and 16-bit acoustic data at 10 kHz. Edwards data were recorded at 250 Hz and 50 Hz using a Geotech Instruments 24 bit digitizer. Ranges from the test stand varied from 1 km to 5 km. Low level and upper level meteorological data was collected to provide full details of atmospheric propagation during the engine test. Infrasonic measurements were made with the Chaparral Physics Model 2 microphone with porous garden hose attached for wind noise suppression. A B&K microphone was used for high frequency acoustic measurements. Results show primarily a broadband signal with distinct initiation and completion points. There appear to be features present in the signals that would allow identification of missile type. At 5 km the acoustic/infrasonic signal was clearly present. Detection ranges for the types of missile signatures measured will be predicted based on atmospheric modeling. As part of an experiment conducted by ARL

  18. Method of making a rocket nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. H. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A method is described for forming the interior of a nozzle having uneven walls so that a throat of smooth converging and diverging sides is provided for passing flow. A metallic insert material is placed within the flow passageway adjacent to the area where the sharper throat constriction is to be formed, so that the material will flow through the inlet into the throat space when liquefied.

  19. Variable area nozzle for gas turbine engines driven by shape memory alloy actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, Nancy M. (Inventor); Miller, Robin M. (Inventor); Tillman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Rukus, Robert M. (Inventor); Kettle, John L. (Inventor); Dunphy, James R. (Inventor); Chaudhry, Zaffir A. (Inventor); Pearson, David D. (Inventor); Dreitlein, Kenneth C. (Inventor); Loffredo, Constantino V. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a variable area nozzle having a plurality of flaps. The flaps are actuated by a plurality of actuating mechanisms driven by shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators to vary fan exist nozzle area. The SMA actuator has a deformed shape in its martensitic state and a parent shape in its austenitic state. The SMA actuator is heated to transform from martensitic state to austenitic state generating a force output to actuate the flaps. The variable area nozzle also includes a plurality of return mechanisms deforming the SMA actuator when the SMA actuator is in its martensitic state.

  20. Method of fabricating a rocket engine combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); Mckechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Power, Christopher A. (Inventor); Daniel, Ronald L., Jr. (Inventor); Saxelby, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for making a combustion chamber for a rocket engine wherein a copper alloy in particle form is injected into a stream of heated carrier gas in plasma form which is then projected onto the inner surface of a hollow metal jacket having the configuration of a rocket engine combustion chamber is described. The particles are in the plasma stream for a sufficient length of time to heat the particles to a temperature such that the particles will flatten and adhere to previously deposited particles but will not spatter or vaporize. After a layer is formed, cooling channels are cut in the layer, then the channels are filled with a temporary filler and another layer of particles is deposited.

  1. Liquid rocket engine fluid-cooled combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A monograph on the design and development of fluid cooled combustion chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines is presented. The subjects discussed are (1) regenerative cooling, (2) transpiration cooling, (3) film cooling, (4) structural analysis, (5) chamber reinforcement, and (6) operational problems.

  2. Effect of Swirl on an Unstable Single-Element Gas-Gas Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    at 300 K, and the combustor is filled with a mixture of water and carbon dioxide at 1500 K. The warmer temperature in the combustor enables the auto...a variety of configurations including gas turbines and rocket engines.4–13 The single-element engine chosen for this study is the continuously...combustion systems including gas turbines , rocket engines, and industrial furnaces. Swirl can have dramatic effects on the flowfield; these include jet growth

  3. Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2001-01-01

    The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), along with some disadvantages (high current cost of production and storage, high volume per BTU, and an unknown safety profile when in wide use). One of the primary reasons for switching to hydrogen is the elimination of CO2 emissions. Also, with hydrogen, design challenges such as fuel coking in the fuel nozzle and particulate emissions are no longer an issue. However, because it takes place at high temperatures, hydrogen-air combustion can still produce significant levels of NOx emissions. Much of the current research into conventional hydrocarbon-fueled aircraft gas turbine combustors is focused on NOx reduction methods. The Zero CO2 Emission Technology (ZCET) hydrogen combustion project will focus on meeting the Office of Aerospace Technology goal 2 within pillar one for Global Civil Aviation reducing the emissions of future aircraft by a factor of 3 within 10 years and by a factor of 5 within 25 years. Recent advances in hydrocarbon-based gas turbine combustion components have expanded the horizons for fuel nozzle development. Both new fluid designs and manufacturing technologies have led to the development of fuel nozzles that significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The goal of the ZCET program is to mesh the current technology of Lean Direct Injection and rocket injectors to provide quick mixing, low emissions, and high-performance fuel nozzle designs. An experimental program is planned to investigate the fuel nozzle concepts in a flametube test rig. Currently, a hydrogen system is being installed in cell 23 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Research Combustion Laboratory. Testing will be conducted on a variety of fuel nozzle concepts up to combustion pressures of 350 psia and inlet air temperatures of 1200 F

  4. Insights into the Behavior of Potential Structural Failures Originating from Localized High Stress Regions in Configurations Relevant to Solid Rocket Motor Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCutcheon, David Matthew

    2017-01-01

    During the structural certification effort for the Space Launch System solid rocket booster nozzle, it was identified that no consistent method for addressing local negative margins of safety in non-metallic materials had been developed. Relevant areas included bond-line terminations and geometric features in the composite nozzle liners. In order to gain understanding, analog test specimens were designed that very closely mimic the conditions in the actual full scale hardware. Different locations in the nozzle were represented by different analog specimen designs. This paper describes those tests and corresponding results. Finite element analysis results for the tests are presented. Strain gage correlation of the analysis to the test results is addressed. Furthermore, finite fracture mechanics (a coupled stress and energy failure criterion) is utilized to predict the observed crack pop-in loads for the different configurations. The finite fracture mechanics predictions are found to be within a 10% error relative to the average measured pop-in load for each of four configurations. Initiation locations, arrest behaviors, and resistances to further post-arrest crack propagation are also discussed.

  5. Thrust chamber life prediction. Volume 1: Mechanical and physical properties of high performance rocket nozzle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, J. J.; Zabora, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Pertinent mechanical and physical properties of six high conductivity metals were determined. The metals included Amzirc, NARloy Z, oxygen free pure copper, electroformed copper, fine silver, and electroformed nickel. Selection of these materials was based on their possible use in high performance reusable rocket nozzles. The typical room temperature properties determined for each material included tensile ultimate strength, tensile yield strength, elongation, reduction of area, modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Typical static tensile stress-strain curves, cyclic stress-strain curves, and low-cycle fatigue life curves are shown. Properties versus temperature are presented in graphical form for temperatures from 27.6K (-410 F) to 810.9K (1000 F).

  6. Developing Avionics Hardware and Software for Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberg, Bryce Robert

    2014-01-01

    My summer was spent working as an intern at Kennedy Space Center in the Propulsion Avionics Branch of the NASA Engineering Directorate Avionics Division. The work that I was involved with was part of Rocket University's Project Neo, a small scale liquid rocket engine test bed. I began by learning about the layout of Neo in order to more fully understand what was required of me. I then developed software in LabView to gather and scale data from two flowmeters and integrated that code into the main control software. Next, I developed more LabView code to control an igniter circuit and integrated that into the main software, as well. Throughout the internship, I performed work that mechanics and technicians would do in order to maintain and assemble the engine.

  7. A minimum cost tolerance allocation method for rocket engines and robust rocket engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerth, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    Rocket engine design follows three phases: systems design, parameter design, and tolerance design. Systems design and parameter design are most effectively conducted in a concurrent engineering (CE) environment that utilize methods such as Quality Function Deployment and Taguchi methods. However, tolerance allocation remains an art driven by experience, handbooks, and rules of thumb. It was desirable to develop and optimization approach to tolerancing. The case study engine was the STME gas generator cycle. The design of the major components had been completed and the functional relationship between the component tolerances and system performance had been computed using the Generic Power Balance model. The system performance nominals (thrust, MR, and Isp) and tolerances were already specified, as were an initial set of component tolerances. However, the question was whether there existed an optimal combination of tolerances that would result in the minimum cost without any degradation in system performance.

  8. Blood Pump Development Using Rocket Engine Flow Simulation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the transfer of rocket engine flow simulation technology to work involving the development of blood pumps. Details are offered regarding the design and requirements of mechanical heart assist devices, or VADs (ventricular assist device). There are various computational fluid dynamics issues involved in the visualization of flow in such devices, and these are highlighted and compared to those of rocket turbopumps.

  9. Effect of empennage arrangement on single-engine nozzle/afterbody static pressures at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, William P.; Burley, James R., II

    1987-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects on empennage arrangement on single-engine nozzle/afterbody static pressures. Tests were done at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20, nozzle pressure ratios from 1.0 (jet off) to 8.0. and angles of attack from -3 to 9 deg (at jet off conditions), depending on Mach number. Three empennage arrangements (aft, staggered, and forward) were investigated. Extensive measurements were made of static pressure on the nozzle/afterbody in the vicinity of the tail surfaces.

  10. Orbit Transfer Rocket Engine Technology Program, Advanced Engine Study Task D.6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-28

    l!J~iliiJl 1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3 . Recipient’s Catalog No. NASA 187215 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date ORBIT TRANSFER ROCKET...Engine Study, three primary subtasks were accomplished: 1) Design and Parametric Data, 2) Engine Requirement Variation Studies, and 3 ) Vehicle Study...Mixture Ratio Parametrics 18 3 . Thrust Parametrics Off-Design Mixture Ratio Scans 22 4. Expansion Area Ratio Parametrics 24 5. OTV 20 klbf Engine Off

  11. Analytical investigation of solid rocket nozzle failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, K. E.; Hester, J.

    1985-01-01

    On April 5, 1983, an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) spacecraft experienced loss of control during the burn of the second of two solid rocket motors. The anomaly investigation showed the cause to be a malfunction of the solid rocket motor. This paper presents a description of the IUS system, a failure analysis summary, an account of the thermal testing and computer modeling done at Marshall Space Flight Center, a comparison of analysis results with thermal data obtained from motor static tests, and describes some of the design enhancement incorporated to prevent recurrence of the anomaly.

  12. J-2X, The Engine of the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gail

    2009-01-01

    My project was two-fold, with both parts involving the J-2X Upper Stage engine (which will be used on both the Ares I and V). Mainly, I am responsible for using a program called Iris to create visual represen tations of the rocket engine's telemetry data. Also, my project includes the application of my newly acquired Pro Engineer skills in develo ping a 3D model of the engine's nozzle.

  13. Multidisciplinary Approach to Aerospike Nozzle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Salas, A. O.; Dunn, H. J.; Alexandrov, N. M.; Follett, W. W.; Orient, G. E.; Hadid, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    A model of a linear aerospike rocket nozzle that consists of coupled aerodynamic and structural analyses has been developed. A nonlinear computational fluid dynamics code is used to calculate the aerodynamic thrust, and a three-dimensional finite-element model is used to determine the structural response and weight. The model will be used to demonstrate multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) capabilities for relevant engine concepts, assess performance of various MDO approaches, and provide a guide for future application development. In this study, the MDO problem is formulated using the multidisciplinary feasible (MDF) strategy. The results for the MDF formulation are presented with comparisons against separate aerodynamic and structural optimized designs. Significant improvements are demonstrated by using a multidisciplinary approach in comparison with the single-discipline design strategy.

  14. Centaur Rocket in Space Propulsion Research Facility (B-2)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-21

    A Centaur second-stage rocket in the Space Propulsion Research Facility, better known as B‒2, operating at NASA’s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. Centaur was designed to be used with an Atlas booster to send the Surveyor spacecraft to the moon in the mid-1960s. After those missions, the rocket was modified to launch a series of astronomical observation satellites into orbit and send space probes to other planets. Researchers conducted a series of systems tests at the Plum Brook test stands to improve the Centaur fuel pumping system. Follow up full-scale tests in the B-2 facility led to the eventual removal of the boost pumps from the design. This reduced the system’s complexity and significantly reduced the cost of a Centaur rocket. The Centaur tests were the first use of the new B-2 facility. B‒2 was the world's only high altitude test facility capable of full-scale rocket engine and launch vehicle system level tests. It was created to test rocket propulsion systems with up to 100,000 pounds of thrust in a simulated space environment. The facility has the unique ability to maintain a vacuum at the rocket’s nozzle while the engine is firing. The rocket fires into a 120-foot deep spray chamber which cools the exhaust before it is ejected outside the facility. B‒2 simulated space using giant diffusion pumps to reduce chamber pressure 10-6 torr, nitrogen-filled cold walls create cryogenic temperatures, and quartz lamps replicate the radiation of the sun.

  15. Experimental/Analytical Characterization of the RBCC Rocket-Ejector Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, J. H.; Lehman, M.; Pal, S.; Santoro, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental/analytical research work described here addresses the rocket-ejector mode (Mach 0-2 operational range) of the RBCC engine. The experimental phase of the program includes studying the mixing and combustion characteristics of the rocket-ejector system utilizing state-of-the-art diagnostic techniques. A two-dimensional variable geometry rocket-ejector system with enhanced optical access was utilized as the experimental platform. The goals of the experimental phase of the research being conducted at Penn State are to: (a) systematically increase the range of rocket-ejector understanding over a wide range of flow/geometry parameters and (b) provide a comprehensive data base for evaluating and anchoring CFD codes. Concurrent with the experimental activities, a CFD code benchmarking effort at Marshall Space Flight Center is also being used to further investigate the RBCC rocket-ejector mode. Experiments involving the single rocket based optically-accessible rocket-ejector system have been conducted for Diffusion and Afterburning (DAB) as well as Simultaneous Mixing and Combustion configurations. For the DAB configuration, air is introduced (direct-connect) or ejected (sea-level static) into a constant area mixer section with a centrally located gaseous oxygen (GO2)/gaseous hydrogen (GH2) rocket combustor. The downstream flowpath for this configuration includes a diffuser, an afterburner and a final converging nozzle. For the SMC configuration, the rocket is centrally located in a slightly divergent duct. For all tested configurations, global measurements of the axial pressure and heat transfer profiles as well as the overall engine thrust were made. Detailed measurements include major species concentration (H2 O2 N2 and H2O) profiles at various mixer locations made using Raman spectroscopy. Complementary CFD calculations of the flowfield at the experimental conditions also provide additional information on the physics of the problem. These calculations

  16. Improving of Hybrid Rocket Engine on the Basis of Optimizing Design Fuel Grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriekov, K. M.; Ushkin, M. P.

    2015-09-01

    This article examines the processes intrachamber in hybrid rocket engine (HRE) and the comparative assessment of the use of solid rocket motors (SRM) and HRE for meteorological rockets with a mass of payload of the 364 kg. Results of the research showed the possibility of a significant increase in the ballistic effectiveness of meteorological rocket.

  17. NASA Researchers Examine a Pratt and Whitney RL-10 Rocket Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-04-21

    Lead Test Engineer John Kobak (right) and a technician use an oscilloscope to test the installation of a Pratt and Whitney RL-10 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. In 1955 the military asked Pratt and Whitney to develop hydrogen engines specifically for aircraft. The program was canceled in 1958, but Pratt and Whitney decided to use the experience to develop a liquid-hydrogen rocket engine, the RL-10. Two of the 15,000-pound-thrust RL-10 engines were used to power the new Centaur second-stage rocket. Centaur was designed to carry the Surveyor spacecraft on its mission to soft-land on the Moon. Pratt and Whitney ran into problems while testing the RL-10 at their facilities. NASA Headquarters assigned Lewis the responsibility for investigating the RL-10 problems because of the center’s long history of liquid-hydrogen development. Lewis’ Chemical Rocket Division began a series of tests to study the RL-10 at its Propulsion Systems Laboratory in March 1960. The facility contained two test chambers that could study powerful engines in simulated altitude conditions. The first series of RL-10 tests in early 1961 involved gimballing the engine as it fired. Lewis researchers were able to yaw and pitch the engine to simulate its behavior during a real flight.

  18. A demonstration of an intelligent control system for a reusable rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1992-01-01

    An Intelligent Control System for reusable rocket engines is under development at NASA Lewis Research Center. The primary objective is to extend the useful life of a reusable rocket propulsion system while minimizing between flight maintenance and maximizing engine life and performance through improved control and monitoring algorithms and additional sensing and actuation. This paper describes current progress towards proof-of-concept of an Intelligent Control System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. A subset of identifiable and accommodatable engine failure modes is selected for preliminary demonstration. Failure models are developed retaining only first order effects and included in a simplified nonlinear simulation of the rocket engine for analysis under closed loop control. The engine level coordinator acts as an interface between the diagnostic and control systems, and translates thrust and mixture ratio commands dictated by mission requirements, and engine status (health) into engine operational strategies carried out by a multivariable control. Control reconfiguration achieves fault tolerance if the nominal (healthy engine) control cannot. Each of the aforementioned functionalities is discussed in the context of an example to illustrate the operation of the system in the context of a representative failure. A graphical user interface allows the researcher to monitor the Intelligent Control System and engine performance under various failure modes selected for demonstration.

  19. Nozzle geometry and forward velocity effects on noise for CTOL engine-over-the-wing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Goodykoontz, J. H.; Wagner, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Acoustic shielding benefits for jet noise of engine-over-the-wing for conventional aircraft (CTOL) application were studied with and without forward velocity for various small-scale nozzles. These latter included convergent, bypass and mixer, with and without forward ejector, nozzles. A 13-inch free jet was used to provide forward velocity. Farfield noise data were obtained for subsonic jet velocities from 650 to 980 ft/sec and forward velocities from zero to 360 ft/sec. The studies showed that although shielding benefits were obtained with all nozzles, the greatest benefits were obtained with mixer nozzles. The absolute magnitude of the jet noise shielding benefits with forward velocity was similar to the variation in nozzle-only noise with forward velocity.

  20. Aerothermo-Structural Analysis of Low Cost Composite Nozzle/Inlet Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, Kuwigai; Challa, Preeli; Sree, Dave; Reddy, D.

    1999-01-01

    This research is a cooperative effort among the Turbomachinery and Propulsion Division of NASA Glenn, CCMR of NC A&T State University, and the Tuskegee University. The NC A&T is the lead center and Tuskegee University is the participating institution. Objectives of the research were to develop an integrated aerodynamic, thermal and structural analysis code for design of aircraft engine components, such as, nozzles and inlets made of textile composites; conduct design studies on typical inlets for hypersonic transportation vehicles and setup standards test examples and finally manufacture a scaled down composite inlet. These objectives are accomplished through the following seven tasks: (1) identify the relevant public domain codes for all three types of analysis; (2) evaluate the codes for the accuracy of results and computational efficiency; (3) develop aero-thermal and thermal structural mapping algorithms; (4) integrate all the codes into one single code; (5) write a graphical user interface to improve the user friendliness of the code; (6) conduct test studies for rocket based combined-cycle engine inlet; and finally (7) fabricate a demonstration inlet model using textile preform composites. Tasks one, two and six are being pursued. Selected and evaluated NPARC for flow field analysis, CSTEM for in-depth thermal analysis of inlets and nozzles and FRAC3D for stress analysis. These codes have been independently verified for accuracy and performance. In addition, graphical user interface based on micromechanics analysis for laminated as well as textile composites was developed. Demonstration of this code will be made at the conference. A rocket based combined cycle engine was selected for test studies. Flow field analysis of various inlet geometries were studied. Integration of codes is being continued. The codes developed are being applied to a candidate example of trailblazer engine proposed for space transportation. A successful development of the code will

  1. ISRO's solid rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

    1989-08-01

    Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were

  2. Advanced Small Rocket Chambers. Option 3: 110 1Bf Ir-Re Rocket, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the AJ10-221, a high performance Iridium-coated Rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000F) (2200C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was fabricated matching the preferred design and was demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated

  3. Oxidation of Copper Alloy Candidates for Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogbuji, Linus U. Thomas; Humphrey, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    The gateway to affordable and reliable space transportation in the near future remains long-lived rocket-based propulsion systems; and because of their high conductivities, copper alloys remain the best materials for lining rocket engines and dissipating their enormous thermal loads. However, Cu and its alloys are prone to oxidative degradation -- especially via the ratcheting phenomenon of blanching, which occurs in situations where the local ambient can oscillate between oxidation and reduction, as it does in a H2/02- fuelled rocket engine. Accordingly, resistance to blanching degradation is one of the key requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) liner materials. Candidate copper alloys have been studied with a view to comparing their oxidation behavior, and hence resistance to blanching, in ambients corresponding to conditions expected in rocket engine service. These candidate materials include GRCop-84 and GRCop-42 (Cu - Cr-8 - Nb-4 and Cu - Cr-4 - Nb-2 respectively); NARloy-Z (Cu-3%Ag-0.5%Y), and GlidCop (Cu-O.l5%Al2O3 ODS alloy); they represent different approaches to improving the mechanical properties of Cu without incurring a large drop in thermal conductivity. Pure Cu (OFHC-Cu) was included in the study to provide a baseline for comparison. The samples were exposed for 10 hours in the TGA to oxygen partial pressures ranging from 322 ppm to 1.0 atmosphere and at temperatures of up to 700 C, and examined by SEM-EDS and other techniques of metallography. This paper will summarize the results obtained.

  4. The prediction of nonlinear three dimensional combustion instability in liquid rockets with conventional nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, E. A.; Zinn, B. T.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical technique is developed to solve nonlinear three-dimensional, transverse and axial combustion instability problems associated with liquid-propellant rocket motors. The Method of Weighted Residuals is used to determine the nonlinear stability characteristics of a cylindrical combustor with uniform injection of propellants at one end and a conventional DeLaval nozzle at the other end. Crocco's pressure sensitive time-lag model is used to describe the unsteady combustion process. The developed model predicts the transient behavior and nonlinear wave shapes as well as limit-cycle amplitudes and frequencies typical of unstable motor operation. The limit-cycle amplitude increases with increasing sensitivity of the combustion process to pressure oscillations. For transverse instabilities, calculated pressure waveforms exhibit sharp peaks and shallow minima, and the frequency of oscillation is within a few percent of the pure acoustic mode frequency. For axial instabilities, the theory predicts a steep-fronted wave moving back and forth along the combustor.

  5. Multi-Stage Hybrid Rocket Conceptual Design for Micro-Satellites Launch using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Yosuke; Kitagawa, Koki; Nakamiya, Masaki; Kanazaki, Masahiro; Shimada, Toru

    The multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is applied to the multi-disciplinary conceptual design problem for a three-stage launch vehicle (LV) with a hybrid rocket engine (HRE). MOGA is an optimization tool used for multi-objective problems. The parallel coordinate plot (PCP), which is a data mining method, is employed in the post-process in MOGA for design knowledge discovery. A rocket that can deliver observing micro-satellites to the sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) is designed. It consists of an oxidizer tank containing liquid oxidizer, a combustion chamber containing solid fuel, a pressurizing tank and a nozzle. The objective functions considered in this study are to minimize the total mass of the rocket and to maximize the ratio of the payload mass to the total mass. To calculate the thrust and the engine size, the regression rate is estimated based on an empirical model for a paraffin (FT-0070) propellant. Several non-dominated solutions are obtained using MOGA, and design knowledge is discovered for the present hybrid rocket design problem using a PCP analysis. As a result, substantial knowledge on the design of an LV with an HRE is obtained for use in space transportation.

  6. Theoretical Acoustic Absorber Design Approach for LOX/LCH4 Pintle Injector Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelaria, Jonathan

    Liquid rocket engines, or LREs, have served a key role in space exploration efforts. One current effort involves the utilization of liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) LREs to explore Mars with in-situ resource utilization for propellant production. This on-site production of propellant will allow for greater payload allocation instead of fuel to travel to the Mars surface, and refueling of propellants to travel back to Earth. More useable mass yields a greater benefit to cost ratio. The University of Texas at El Paso's (UTEP) Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research Center (cSETR) aims to further advance these methane propulsion systems with the development of two liquid methane - liquid oxygen propellant combination rocket engines. The design of rocket engines, specifically liquid rocket engines, is complex in that many variables are present that must be taken into consideration in the design. A problem that occurs in almost every rocket engine development program is combustion instability, or oscillatory combustion. It can result in the destruction of the rocket, subsequent destruction of the vehicle and compromise the mission. These combustion oscillations can vary in frequency from 100 to 20,000 Hz or more, with varying effects, and occur from different coupling phenomena. It is important to understand the effects of combustion instability, its physical manifestations, how to identify the instabilities, and how to mitigate or dampen them. Linear theory methods have been developed to provide a mathematical understanding of the low- to mid-range instabilities. Nonlinear theory is more complex and difficult to analyze mathematically, therefore no general analytical method that yields a solution exists. With limited resources, time, and the advice of our NASA mentors, a data driven experimental approach utilizing quarter wave acoustic dampener cavities was designed. This thesis outlines the methodology behind the design of an acoustic

  7. Analysis of a Radioisotope Thermal Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machado-Rodriguez, Jonathan P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    The Triton Hopper is a concept for a vehicle to explore the surface of Neptunes moon Triton, which uses a radioisotope heated rocket engine and in-situ propellant acquisition. The initial Triton Hopper conceptual design stores pressurized Nitrogen in a spherical tank to be used as the propellant. The aim of the research was to investigate the benefits of storing propellant at ambient temperature and heating it through a thermal block during engine operation, as opposed to storing gas at a high temperature.

  8. Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 rocket engine assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoke, D. R.; Williams, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication and test of rocket engine assemblies (REA) for Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973 are reported. The fabrication, assembly and flight acceptance test of seven REA's including the type approval test of one engine and fabrication of one additional kit consisting of detail parts for an engine ready for catalyst loading are presented. The MV/M '73 REA which is a nominal 51 lbs thrust monopropellant engine is described. Under steady state operation the specific impulse is not less than 228 lb-sec at 55 lb and 218.5 lb-sec at 10 lb thrust varying linearly between these limits. The characteristic velocity is not less than 4100 ft/sec at any thrust level.

  9. Computational study of performance characteristics for truncated conical aerospike nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Prasanth P.; Suryan, Abhilash; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2017-12-01

    Aerospike nozzles are advanced rocket nozzles that can maintain its aerodynamic efficiency over a wide range of altitudes. It belongs to class of altitude compensating nozzles. A vehicle with an aerospike nozzle uses less fuel at low altitudes due to its altitude adaptability, where most missions have the greatest need for thrust. Aerospike nozzles are better suited to Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) missions compared to conventional nozzles. In the current study, the flow through 20% and 40% aerospike nozzle is analyzed in detail using computational fluid dynamics technique. Steady state analysis with implicit formulation is carried out. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The results are compared with experimental results from previous work. The transition from open wake to closed wake happens in lower Nozzle Pressure Ratio for 20% as compared to 40% aerospike nozzle.

  10. Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1996-02-20

    A gas turbine engine`s nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic. 8 figs.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Method Developed for Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Renewed interest in hypersonic propulsion systems has led to research programs investigating combined cycle engines that are designed to operate efficiently across the flight regime. The Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine is a propulsion system under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This engine integrates a high specific impulse, low thrust-to-weight, airbreathing engine with a low-impulse, high thrust-to-weight rocket. From takeoff to Mach 2.5, the engine operates as an air-augmented rocket. At Mach 2.5, the engine becomes a dual-mode ramjet; and beyond Mach 8, the rocket is turned back on. One Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Engine variation known as the "Strut-Jet" concept is being investigated jointly by NASA Lewis, the U.S. Air Force, Gencorp Aerojet, General Applied Science Labs (GASL), and Lockheed Martin Corporation. Work thus far has included wind tunnel experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigations with the NPARC code. The CFD method was initiated by modeling the geometry of the Strut-Jet with the GRIDGEN structured grid generator. Grids representing a subscale inlet model and the full-scale demonstrator geometry were constructed. These grids modeled one-half of the symmetric inlet flow path, including the precompression plate, diverter, center duct, side duct, and combustor. After the grid generation, full Navier-Stokes flow simulations were conducted with the NPARC Navier-Stokes code. The Chien low-Reynolds-number k-e turbulence model was employed to simulate the high-speed turbulent flow. Finally, the CFD solutions were postprocessed with a Fortran code. This code provided wall static pressure distributions, pitot pressure distributions, mass flow rates, and internal drag. These results were compared with experimental data from a subscale inlet test for code validation; then they were used to help evaluate the demonstrator engine net thrust.

  12. Numerical Study of the Propulsive Performance of the Hollow Rotating Detonation Engine with a Laval Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Songbai; Tang, Xinmeng; Wang, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the propulsive performance of the hollow rotating detonation engine (RDE) with a Laval nozzle. Three-dimensional simulations are carried out with a one-step Arrhenius chemistry model. The Laval nozzle is found to improve the propulsive performance of hollow RDE in all respects. The thrust and fuel-based specific impulse are increased up to 12.60 kN and 7484.40 s, respectively, from 6.46 kN and 6720.48 s. Meanwhile, the total mass flow rate increases from 3.63 kg/s to 6.68 kg/s. Overall, the Laval nozzle significantly improves the propulsive performance of the hollow RDE and makes it a promising model among detonation engines.

  13. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Sundarapandian, S.; Thangagiri, B.

    2016-05-01

    Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, fast and perfect air-biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV1) kirloskar 1500 rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. In this work, by varying different nozzles having spray holes of 3 (base, Ø = 0.280 mm), 4 (modified, Ø = 0.220 mm) and 5 (modified, Ø = 0.240 mm) holes, with standard static injection timing of 23° bTDC and nozzle opening pressure (NOP) of 250 bar maintained as constant throughout the experiment under steady state at full load condition of the engine. The effect of varying different nozzle configuration (number of holes), on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar. Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar.

  14. 3D Reacting Flow Analysis of LANTR Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Bulman, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents performance predictions for LANTR nozzles and the system implications for their use in a manned Mars mission. The LANTR concept is rocket thrust augmentation by injecting Oxygen into the nozzle to combust the Hydrogen exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket. The performance predictions are based on three-dimensional reacting flow simulations using VULCAN. These simulations explore a range of O2/H2 mixture ratios, injector configurations, and concepts. These performance predictions are used for a trade analysis within a system study for a manned Mars mission. Results indicate that the greatest benefit of LANTR will occur with In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). However, Hydrogen propellant volume reductions may allow greater margins for fitting tanks within the launch vehicle where packaging issues occur.

  15. Analysis of a Radioisotope Thermal Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machado-Rodriguez, Jonathan P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The Triton Hopper is a concept for a global hopper vehicle which uses a radioisotope rocket engine and In-situ propellant acquisition to explore the surface of Neptune's moon, Triton. The current Triton Hopper concept stores heated Nitrogen in a spherical tank to be used as the propellant. The aim of the research was to investigate the benefits of storing propellant at ambient temperature and heating it through the use of a thermal block during engine operation, as opposed to storing gas at a high temperature. Lithium, Lithium Fluoride and Beryllium were considered as possible materials for the thermal block. A heat energy analysis indicated that a lithium thermal mass would provide the highest heat energy for a temperature change from 900 Celsius to -100 Celsius. A heat transfer analysis was performed for Nitrogen at -100 Celsius flowing through 1000 passages inside a 1kg lithium thermal block at a temperature of 900 Celsius. The system was analyzed as turbulent flow through a tube with constant surface temperature. The analysis indicated that the propellant reached a maximum temperature of 877 Celsius before entering the nozzle. At this exit temperature, the average specific impulse [I(sub sp)] of the engine was determined to be 157s. Previous studies for the stored heated gas concept suggest that the engine would have an average I(sub sp) of approximately 52s. Thus, the use of a thermal block concept results in a 200 percent engine performance increase. In addition, a tank sizing study was performed to determine if the concept is feasible in terms of mass requirements. The mass for a spherical carbon fiber COPV storing 35kg of nitrogen at an initial temperature of -100 Celsius and a pressure of 1000psia, was determined to be 7.2kg. The specific impulse analysis indicated that the maximum engine performance is obtained for a mass ratio of 5kg of Nitrogen per every 1kg of lithium thermal mass. Thus for 35kg of Nitrogen the total thermal mass would be 7kg. This

  16. Laser Ignition Technology for Bi-Propellant Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matt; Bossard, John; Early, Jim; Trinh, Huu; Dennis, Jay; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of laser ignition technology for bipropellant rocket engines applications. The objectives of this project include: (1) the selection test chambers and flows; (2) definition of the laser ignition setup; (3) pulse format optimization; (4) fiber optic coupled laser ignition system analysis; and (5) chamber integration issues definition. The testing concludes that rocket combustion chamber laser ignition is imminent. Support technologies (multiplexing, window durability/cleaning, and fiber optic durability) are feasible.

  17. Rocket-Plume Spectroscopy Simulation for Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tejwani, Gopal D.

    2010-01-01

    The UV-Vis spectroscopic system for plume diagnostics monitors rocket engine health by using several analytical tools developed at Stennis Space Center (SSC), including the rocket plume spectroscopy simulation code (RPSSC), to identify and quantify the alloys from the metallic elements observed in engine plumes. Because the hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engine is likely to contain C2, CO, CH, CN, and NO in addition to OH and H2O, the relevant electronic bands of these molecules in the spectral range of 300 to 850 nm in the RPSSC have been included. SSC incorporated several enhancements and modifications to the original line-by-line spectral simulation computer program implemented for plume spectral data analysis and quantification in 1994. These changes made the program applicable to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Diagnostic Testbed Facility Thruster (DTFT) exhaust plume spectral data. Modifications included updating the molecular and spectral parameters for OH, adding spectral parameter input files optimized for the 10 elements of interest in the spectral range from 320 to 430 nm and linking the output to graphing and analysis packages. Additionally, the ability to handle the non-uniform wavelength interval at which the spectral computations are made was added. This allowed a precise superposition of wavelengths at which the spectral measurements have been made with the wavelengths at which the spectral computations are done by using the line-by-line (LBL) code. To account for hydrocarbon combustion products in the plume, which might interfere with detection and quantification of metallic elements in the spectral region of 300 to 850 nm, the spectroscopic code has been enhanced to include the carbon-based combustion species of C2, CO, and CH. In addition, CN and NO have spectral bands in 300 to 850 nm and, while these molecules are not direct products of hydrocarbon-oxygen combustion systems, they can show up if nitrogen or a nitrogen compound is present

  18. Parallelization of Rocket Engine System Software (Press)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cezzar, Ruknet

    1996-01-01

    The main goal is to assess parallelization requirements for the Rocket Engine Numeric Simulator (RENS) project which, aside from gathering information on liquid-propelled rocket engines and setting forth requirements, involve a large FORTRAN based package at NASA Lewis Research Center and TDK software developed by SUBR/UWF. The ultimate aim is to develop, test, integrate, and suitably deploy a family of software packages on various aspects and facets of rocket engines using liquid-propellants. At present, all project efforts by the funding agency, NASA Lewis Research Center, and the HBCU participants are disseminated over the internet using world wide web home pages. Considering obviously expensive methods of actual field trails, the benefits of software simulators are potentially enormous. When realized, these benefits will be analogous to those provided by numerous CAD/CAM packages and flight-training simulators. According to the overall task assignments, Hampton University's role is to collect all available software, place them in a common format, assess and evaluate, define interfaces, and provide integration. Most importantly, the HU's mission is to see to it that the real-time performance is assured. This involves source code translations, porting, and distribution. The porting will be done in two phases: First, place all software on Cray XMP platform using FORTRAN. After testing and evaluation on the Cray X-MP, the code will be translated to C + + and ported to the parallel nCUBE platform. At present, we are evaluating another option of distributed processing over local area networks using Sun NFS, Ethernet, TCP/IP. Considering the heterogeneous nature of the present software (e.g., first started as an expert system using LISP machines) which now involve FORTRAN code, the effort is expected to be quite challenging.

  19. The use of programmable logic controllers (PLC) for rocket engine component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nail, William; Scheuermann, Patrick; Witcher, Kern

    1991-01-01

    Application of PLCs to the rocket engine component testing at a new Stennis Space Center Component Test Facility is suggested as an alternative to dedicated specialized computers. The PLC systems are characterized by rugged design, intuitive software, fault tolerance, flexibility, multiple end device options, networking capability, and built-in diagnostics. A distributed PLC-based system is projected to be used for testing LH2/LOx turbopumps required for the ALS/NLS rocket engines.

  20. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  1. High-temperature, high-pressure optical port for rocket engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delcher, Ray; Nemeth, ED; Powers, W. T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and test of a window assembly for instrumentation of liquid-fueled rocket engine hot gas systems. The window was designed to allow optical measurements of hot gas in the SSME fuel preburner and appears to be the first window designed for application in a rocket engine hot gas system. Such a window could allow the use of a number of remote optical measurement technologies including: Raman temperature and species concentration measurement, Raleigh temperature measurements, flame emission monitoring, flow mapping, laser-induced florescence, and hardware imaging during engine operation. The window assembly has been successfully tested to 8,000 psi at 1000 F and over 11,000 psi at room temperature. A computer stress analysis shows the window will withstand high temperature and cryogenic thermal shock.

  2. Large liquid rocket engine transient performance simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. R.; Southwick, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    A simulation system, ROCETS, was designed and developed to allow cost-effective computer predictions of liquid rocket engine transient performance. The system allows a user to generate a simulation of any rocket engine configuration using component modules stored in a library through high-level input commands. The system library currently contains 24 component modules, 57 sub-modules and maps, and 33 system routines and utilities. FORTRAN models from other sources can be operated in the system upon inclusion of interface information on comment cards. Operation of the simulation is simplified for the user by run, execution, and output processors. The simulation system makes available steady-state trim balance, transient operation, and linear partial generation. The system utilizes a modern equation solver for efficient operation of the simulations. Transient integration methods include integral and differential forms for the trapezoidal, first order Gear, and second order Gear corrector equations. A detailed technology test bed engine (TTBE) model was generated to be used as the acceptance test of the simulation system. The general level of model detail was that reflected in the Space Shuttle Main Engine DTM. The model successfully obtained steady-state balance in main stage operation and simulated throttle transients, including engine starts and shutdown. A NASA FORTRAN control model was obtained, ROCETS interface installed in comment cards, and operated with the TTBE model in closed-loop transient mode.

  3. Engine protection system for recoverable rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelby, Jr., Jerry A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A rocket engine protection system for a recoverable rocket booster which is arranged to land in a salt water body in substantially a nose down attitude. The system includes an inflatable bag which is stowed on a portion of a flat annular rim of the aft skirt of the booster. The bag is hinged at opposing sides and is provided with springs that urge the bag open. The bag is latched in a stowed position during launch and prior to landing for recovery is unlatched to permit the bag to be urged open and into sealing engagement with the rim. A source of pressurized gas further inflates the bag and urges it into sealing engagement with the rim of the skirt where it is locked into position. The gas provides a positive pressure upon the interior of the bag to preclude entry of salt water into the skirt and into contact with the engine. A flotation arrangement may assist in precluding the skirt of the booster from becoming submerged.

  4. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  5. The Determination of Forces and Moments on a Gimballed SRM Nozzle Using a Cold Flow Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Bacchus, David L.; Hengel, John E.

    1994-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Motor Air Flow Facility (SAF) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was used to characterize the flow in the critical aft end and nozzle of a solid propellant rocket motor (SRM) as part of the design phase of development. The SAF is a high pressure, blowdown facility which supplies a controlled flow of air to a subscale model of the internal port and nozzle of a SRM to enable measurement and evaluation of the flow field and surface pressure distributions. The ASRM Aft Section/Nozzle Model is an 8 percent scale model of the 19 second burn time aft port geometry and nozzle of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, the now canceled new generation space Shuttle Booster. It has the capability to simulate fixed nozzle gimbal angles of 0, 4, and 8 degrees. The model was tested at full scale motor Reynolds Numbers with extensive surface pressure instrumentation to enable detailed mapping of the surface pressure distributions over the nozzle interior surface, the exterior surface of the nozzle nose and the surface of the simulated propellant grain in the aft motor port. A mathematical analysis and associated numerical procedure were developed to integrate the measured surface pressure distributions to determine the lateral and axial forces on the moveable section of the nozzle, the effective model thrust and the effective aerodynamic thrust vector (as opposed to the geometric nozzle gimbal angle). The nozzle lateral and axial aerodynamic loads and moments about the pivot point are required for design purposes and require complex, three dimensional flow analyses. The alignment of the thrust vector with the nozzle geometric centerline is also a design requirement requiring three dimensional analyses which were supported by this experimental program. The model was tested with all three gimbal angles at three pressure levels to determine Reynolds number effects and reproducibility. This program was successful in demonstrating that a measured surface pressure

  6. Rocket engine hot-spot detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collamore, F. N.

    1985-04-01

    On high performance devices such as rocket engines it is desirable to know if local hot spots or areas of reduced cooling margin exist. The objective of this program is to design, fabricate and test an electronic hot spot detector capable of sensing local hot spot on the exterior circumference of a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber in order to avoid hardware damage. The electronic hot spot sensor consists of an array of 120 thermocouple elements which are bonded in a flexible belt of polyimide film. The design temperature range is from +30 F to +400 F continuously with an intermittent temperature of 500 F maximum. The thermocouple belt consists of 120 equally spaced copper-Constantan thermocouple junctions which is wrapped around the OMS liquid rocket engine combustion chamber, to monitor temperatures of individual cooling channels. Each thermocouple is located over a cooling channel near the injector end of the combustion chamber. The thermocouple array sensor is held in place by a spring loaded clamp band. Analyses show that in the event of a blocked cooling channel the surface temperature of the chamber over the blocked channel will rise from a normal operating temperature of approx. 300 F to approx. 600 F. The hot spot detector will respond quickly to this change with a response time constant less than 0.05 seconds. The hot spot sensor assembly is fabricated with a laminated construction of layers of Kapton film and an outer protective layer of fiberglass reinforced silicone rubber.

  7. RSRM Nozzle Anomalous Throat Erosion Investigation Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Wendel, Gary M.

    1998-01-01

    In September, 1996, anomalous pocketing erosion was observed in the aft end of the throat ring of the nozzle of one of the reusable solid rocket motors (RSRM 56B) used on NASA's space transportation system (STS) mission 79. The RSRM throat ring is constructed of bias tape-wrapped carbon cloth/ phenolic (CCP) ablative material. A comprehensive investigation revealed necessary and sufficient conditions for occurrence of the pocketing event and provided rationale that the solid rocket motors for the subsequent mission, STS-80, were safe to fly. The nozzles of both of these motors also exhibited anomalous erosion similar to, but less extensive than that observed on STS-79. Subsequent to this flight, the investigation to identify both the specific causes and the corrective actions for elimination of the necessary and sufficient conditions for the pocketing erosion was intensified. A detailed fault tree approach was utilized to examine potential material and process contributors to the anomalous performance. The investigation involved extensive constituent and component material property testing, pedigree assessments, supplier audits, process audits, full scale processing test article fabrication and evaluation, thermal and thermostructural analyses, nondestructive evaluation, and material performance tests conducted using hot fire simulation in laboratory test beds and subscale and full scale solid rocket motor static test firings. This presentation will provide an over-view of the observed anomalous nozzle erosion and the comprehensive, fault-tree based investigation conducted to resolve this issue.

  8. Investigation of Cooling Water Injection into Supersonic Rocket Engine Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Hansen; Jeansonne, Christopher; Menon, Shyam

    2017-11-01

    Water spray cooling of the exhaust plume from a rocket undergoing static testing is critical in preventing thermal wear of the test stand structure, and suppressing the acoustic noise signature. A scaled test facility has been developed that utilizes non-intrusive diagnostic techniques including Focusing Color Schlieren (FCS) and Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) to examine the interaction of a pressure-fed water jet with a supersonic flow of compressed air. FCS is used to visually assess the interaction of the water jet with the strong density gradients in the supersonic air flow. PDPA is used in conjunction to gain statistical information regarding water droplet size and velocity as the jet is broken up. Measurement results, along with numerical simulations and jet penetration models are used to explain the observed phenomena. Following the cold flow testing campaign a scaled hybrid rocket engine will be constructed to continue tests in a combusting flow environment similar to that generated by the rocket engines tested at NASA facilities. LaSPACE.

  9. Computational analysis of liquid hypergolic propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, A.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gross, K. W.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion process in liquid rocket engines depends on a number of complex phenomena such as atomization, vaporization, spray dynamics, mixing, and reaction mechanisms. A computational tool to study their mutual interactions is developed to help analyze these processes with a view of improving existing designs and optimizing future designs of the thrust chamber. The focus of the article is on the analysis of the Variable Thrust Engine for the Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle. This engine uses a hypergolic liquid bipropellant combination of monomethyl hydrazine as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide as oxidizer.

  10. Quantifying Instability Sources in Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Cheng, Gary C.

    2000-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics methodology to predict the effects of combusting flows on acoustic pressure oscillations in liquid rocket engines (LREs) is under development. 'Me intent of the investigation is to develop the causal physics of combustion driven acoustic resonances in LREs. The crux of the analysis is the accurate simulation of pressure/density/sound speed in a combustor which when used by the FDNS-RFV CFD code will produce realistic flow phenomena. An analysis of a gas generator considered for the Fastrac engine will be used as a test validation case.

  11. Liquid rocket engine centrifugal flow turbopumps. [design criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Design criteria and recommended practices are discussed for the following configurations selected from the design sequence of a liquid rocket engine centrifugal flow turbopump: (1) pump performance including speed, efficiency, and flow range; (2) impeller; (3) housing; and (4) thrust balance system. Hydrodynamic, structural, and mechanical problems are addressed for the achievement of required pump performance within the constraints imposed by the engine/turbopump system. Materials and fabrication specifications are also discussed.

  12. Tests and analysis of a vented D thrust deflecting nozzle on a turbofan engine. [conducted at the outdoor aerodynamic research facility of the Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseberg, E. W.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives were to: obtain nozzle performance characteristics in and out of ground effects; demonstrate the compatibility of the nozzle with a turbofan engine; obtain pressure and temperature distributions on the surface of the D vented nozzle; and establish a correlation of the nozzle performance between small scale and large scale models. The test nozzle was a boilerplate model of the MCAIR D vented nozzle configured for operation with a General Electric YTF-34-F5 turbofan engine. The nozzle was configured to provide: a thrust vectoring range of 0 to 115 deg; a yaw vectoring range of 0 to 10 deg; variable nozzle area control; and variable spacing between the core exit and nozzle entrance station. Compatibility between the YTF-34-T5 turbofan engine and the D vented nozzle was demonstrated. Velocity coefficients of 0.96 and greater were obtained for 90 deg of thrust vectoring. The nozzle walls remained cool during all test conditions.

  13. F-15/nonaxisymmetric nozzle system integration study support program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, H. L.

    1978-01-01

    Nozzle and cooling methods were defined and analyzed to provide a viable system for demonstration 2-D nozzle technology on the F-15 aircraft. Two candidate cooling systems applied to each nozzle were evaluated. The F-100 engine mount and case modifications requirements were analyzed and the actuation and control system requirements for two dimensional nozzles were defined. Nozzle performance changes relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle were evaluated and performance and weight characteristics for axisymmetric reference configurations were estimated. The infrared radiation characteristics of these nozzles installed on the F-100 engine were predicted. A full scale development plan with associated costs to carry the F100 engine/two-dimensional (2-D) nozzle through flight tests was defined.

  14. Computer Design Technology of the Small Thrust Rocket Engines Using CAE / CAD Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, V.; Lapshin, E.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an algorithm for designing liquid small thrust rocket engine, the process of which consists of five aggregated stages with feedback. Three stages of the algorithm provide engineering support for design, and two stages - the actual engine design. A distinctive feature of the proposed approach is a deep study of the main technical solutions at the stage of engineering analysis and interaction with the created knowledge (data) base, which accelerates the process and provides enhanced design quality. The using multifunctional graphic package Siemens NX allows to obtain the final product -rocket engine and a set of design documentation in a fairly short time; the engine design does not require a long experimental development.

  15. Exhaust Nozzles for Supersonic Flight with Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillito, Thomas B.; Hearth, Donald P.; Cortright, Edgar M.

    1956-01-01

    Good internal performance over a wide range of flight conditions can be obtained with either a plug nozzle or a variable ejector nozzle that can provide a divergent shroud at high pressure ratios. For both the ejector and the plug nozzle, external flow can sometimes cause serious drag losses and, for some plug-nozzle installations, external flow can cause serious internal performance losses. Plug-nozzle cooling and design of the secondary-air-flow systems for ejectors were also considered .

  16. Validation of Supersonic Film Cooling Modeling for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Topics include: upper stage engine key requirements and design drivers; Calspan "stage 1" results, He slot injection into hypersonic flow (air); test articles for shock generator diagram, slot injector details, and instrumentation positions; test conditions; modeling approach; 2-d grid used for film cooling simulations of test article; heat flux profiles from 2-d flat plate simulations (run #4); heat flux profiles from 2-d backward facing step simulations (run #43); isometric sketch of single coolant nozzle, and x-z grid of half-nozzle domain; comparison of 2-d and 3-d simulations of coolant nozzles (run #45); flowfield properties along coolant nozzle centerline (run #45); comparison of 3-d CFD nozzle flow calculations with experimental data; nozzle exit plane reduced to linear profile for use in 2-d film-cooling simulations (run #45); synthetic Schlieren image of coolant injection region (run #45); axial velocity profiles from 2-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); coolant mass fraction profiles from 2-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); heat flux profiles from 2-d film cooling simulations (run #45); heat flux profiles from 2-d film cooling simulations (runs #47, #45, and #47); 3-d grid used for film cooling simulations of test article; heat flux contours from 3-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); and heat flux profiles from 3-d and 2-d film cooling simulations (runs #44, #46, and #47).

  17. Multiobjective Optimization of Rocket Engine Pumps Using Evolutionary Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, Akira; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2001-01-01

    A design optimization method for turbopumps of cryogenic rocket engines has been developed. Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) is used for multiobjective pump design optimizations. Performances of design candidates are evaluated by using the meanline pump flow modeling method based on the Euler turbine equation coupled with empirical correlations for rotor efficiency. To demonstrate the feasibility of the present approach, a single stage centrifugal pump design and multistage pump design optimizations are presented. In both cases, the present method obtains very reasonable Pareto-optimal solutions that include some designs outperforming the original design in total head while reducing input power by one percent. Detailed observation of the design results also reveals some important design criteria for turbopumps in cryogenic rocket engines. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the EA-based design optimization method in this field.

  18. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program. Phase 2: Advanced engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, C.; Martinez, A.; Hines, B.

    1987-01-01

    In Phase 2 of the Advanced Engine Study, the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) maintenance-driven engine design, preliminary maintenance plan, and concept for space operable disconnects generated in Phase 1 were further developed. Based on the results of the vehicle contractors Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) Concept Definition and System Analysis Phase A studies, minor revisions to the engine design were made. Additional refinements in the engine design were identified through further engine concept studies. These included an updated engine balance incorporating experimental heat transfer data from the Enhanced Heat Load Thrust Chamber Study and a Rao optimum nozzle contour. The preliminary maintenance plan of Phase 1 was further developed through additional studies. These included a compilation of critical component lives and life limiters and a review of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) operations and maintenance manual in order to begin outlining the overall maintenance procedures for the Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine and identifying technology requirements for streamlining space-based operations. Phase 2 efforts also provided further definition to the advanced fluid coupling devices including the selection and preliminary design of a preferred concept and a preliminary test plan for its further development.

  19. NASA Engineers Test Combustion Chamber to Advance 3-D Printed Rocket Engine Design

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-08

    A series of test firings like this one in late August brought a group of engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, a big step closer to their goal of a 100-percent 3-D printed rocket engine, said Andrew Hanks, test lead for the additively manufactured demonstration engine project. The main combustion chamber, fuel turbopump, fuel injector, valves and other components used in the tests were of the team's new design, and all major engine components except the main combustion chamber were 3-D printed. (NASA/MSFC)

  20. Multiple dopant injection system for small rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakala, G. G.; Raines, N. G.

    1992-01-01

    The Diagnostics Test Facility (DTF) at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) was designed and built to provide a standard rocket engine exhaust plume for use in the research and development of engine health monitoring instrumentation. A 1000 lb thrust class liquid oxygen (LOX)-gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fueled rocket engine is used as the subscale plume source to simulate the SSME during experimentation and instrument development. The ability of the DTF to provide efficient, and low cost test operations makes it uniquely suited for plume diagnostic experimentation. The most unique feature of the DTF is the Multiple Dopant Injection System (MDIS) that is used to seed the exhaust plume with the desired element or metal alloy. The dopant injection takes place at the fuel injector, yielding a very uniform and homogeneous distribution of the seeding material in the exhaust plume. The MDIS allows during a single test firing of the DTF, the seeding of the exhaust plume with up to three different dopants and also provides distilled water base lines between the dopants. A number of plume diagnostic-related experiments have already utilized the unique capabilities of the DTF.

  1. Computational Analysis for Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Systems During Rocket-Only Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Smith, T. D.; Yungster, S.; Keller, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    A series of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations were employed to study the performance of rocket-based combined-cycle systems operating in an all-rocket mode. This parametric series of calculations were executed within a statistical framework, commonly known as design of experiments. The parametric design space included four geometric and two flowfield variables set at three levels each, for a total of 729 possible combinations. A D-optimal design strategy was selected. It required that only 36 separate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions be performed to develop a full response surface model, which quantified the linear, bilinear, and curvilinear effects of the six experimental variables. The axisymmetric, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations were executed with the NPARC v3.0 code. The response used in the statistical analysis was created from Isp efficiency data integrated from the 36 CFD simulations. The influence of turbulence modeling was analyzed by using both one- and two-equation models. Careful attention was also given to quantify the influence of mesh dependence, iterative convergence, and artificial viscosity upon the resulting statistical model. Thirteen statistically significant effects were observed to have an influence on rocket-based combined-cycle nozzle performance. It was apparent that the free-expansion process, directly downstream of the rocket nozzle, can influence the Isp efficiency. Numerical schlieren images and particle traces have been used to further understand the physical phenomena behind several of the statistically significant results.

  2. Liquid Engine Design: Effect of Chamber Dimensions on Specific Impulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoggard, Lindsay; Leahy, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Which assumption of combustion chemistry - frozen or equilibrium - should be used in the prediction of liquid rocket engine performance calculations? Can a correlation be developed for this? A literature search using the LaSSe tool, an online repository of old rocket data and reports, was completed. Test results of NTO/Aerozine-50 and Lox/LH2 subscale and full-scale injector and combustion chamber test results were found and studied for this task. NASA code, Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) was used to predict engine performance using both chemistry assumptions, defined here. Frozen- composition remains frozen during expansion through the nozzle. Equilibrium- instantaneous chemical equilibrium during nozzle expansion. Chamber parameters were varied to understand what dimensions drive chamber C* and Isp. Contraction Ratio is the ratio of the nozzle throat area to the area of the chamber. L is the length of the chamber. Characteristic chamber length, L*, is the length that the chamber would be if it were a straight tube and had no converging nozzle. Goal: Develop a qualitative and quantitative correlation for performance parameters - Specific Impulse (Isp) and Characteristic Velocity (C*) - as a function of one or more chamber dimensions - Contraction Ratio (CR), Chamber Length (L ) and/or Characteristic Chamber Length (L*). Determine if chamber dimensions can be correlated to frozen or equilibrium chemistry.

  3. Nozzle Aerodynamic Stability During a Throat Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawecki, Edwin J.; Ribeiro, Gregg L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the internal aerodynamic stability of a family of two-dimensional (2-D) High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) nozzle concepts. These nozzles function during takeoff as mixer-ejectors to meet acoustic requirements, and then convert to conventional high-performance convergent-divergent (CD) nozzles at cruise. The transition between takeoff mode and cruise mode results in the aerodynamic throat and the minimum cross-sectional area that controls the engine backpressure shifting location within the nozzle. The stability and steadiness of the nozzle aerodynamics during this so called throat shift process can directly affect the engine aerodynamic stability, and the mechanical design of the nozzle. The objective of the study was to determine if pressure spikes or other perturbations occurred during the throat shift process and, if so, identify the caused mechanisms for the perturbations. The two nozzle concepts modeled in the test program were the fixed chute (FC) and downstream mixer (DSM). These 2-D nozzles differ principally in that the FC has a large over-area between the forward throat and aft throat locations, while the DSM has an over-area of only about 10 percent. The conclusions were that engine mass flow and backpressure can be held constant simultaneously during nozzle throat shifts on this class of nozzles, and mode shifts can be accomplished at a constant mass flow and engine backpressure without upstream pressure perturbations.

  4. Transient Three-Dimensional Side Load Analysis of Out-of-Round Film Cooled Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Lin, Jeff; Ruf, Joe; Guidos, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of nozzle out-of-roundness on the transient startup side loads at a high altitude, with an anchored computational methodology. The out-of-roundness could be the result of asymmetric loads induced by hardware attached to the nozzle, asymmetric internal stresses induced by previous tests, and deformation, such as creep, from previous tests. The rocket engine studied encompasses a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and a film cooled nozzle extension with film coolant distributed from a turbine exhaust manifold. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a transient inlet history based on an engine system simulation. Transient startup computations were performed with the out-of-roundness achieved by four different degrees of ovalization: one perfectly round, one slightly out-of-round, one more out-of-round, and one significantly out-of-round. The results show that the separation-line-jump is the peak side load physics for the round, slightly our-of-round, and more out-of-round cases, and the peak side load increases as the degree of out-of-roundness increases. For the significantly out-of-round nozzle, however, the peak side load reduces to comparable to that of the round nozzle and the separation line jump is not the peak side load physics. The counter-intuitive result of the significantly out-of-round case is found to be related to a side force reduction mechanism that splits the effect of the separation-line-jump into two parts, not only in the circumferential direction and most importantly in time.

  5. Time-Frequency Analysis of Rocket Nozzle Wall Pressures During Start-up Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baars, Woutijn J.; Tinney, Charles E.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of the fluctuating wall pressure were conducted on a sub-scale, thrust- optimized parabolic nozzle in order to develop a physical intuition for its Fourier-azimuthal mode behavior during fixed and transient start-up conditions. These unsteady signatures are driven by shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions which depend on the nozzle pressure ratio and nozzle geometry. The focus however, is on the degree of similarity between the spectral footprints of these modes obtained from transient start-ups as opposed to a sequence of fixed nozzle pressure ratio conditions. For the latter, statistically converged spectra are computed using conventional Fourier analyses techniques, whereas the former are investigated by way of time-frequency analysis. The findings suggest that at low nozzle pressure ratios -- where the flow resides in a Free Shock Separation state -- strong spectral similarities occur between fixed and transient conditions. Conversely, at higher nozzle pressure ratios -- where the flow resides in Restricted Shock Separation -- stark differences are observed between the fixed and transient conditions and depends greatly on the ramping rate of the transient period. And so, it appears that an understanding of the dynamics during transient start-up conditions cannot be furnished by a way of fixed flow analysis.

  6. Schlieren image velocimetry measurements in a rocket engine exhaust plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Rudy; Peguero, Julio; Hargather, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Schlieren image velocimetry (SIV) measures velocity fields by tracking the motion of naturally-occurring turbulent flow features in a compressible flow. Here the technique is applied to measuring the exhaust velocity profile of a liquid rocket engine. The SIV measurements presented include discussion of visibility of structures, image pre-processing for structure visibility, and ability to process resulting images using commercial particle image velocimetry (PIV) codes. The small-scale liquid bipropellant rocket engine operates on nitrous oxide and ethanol as propellants. Predictions of the exhaust velocity are obtained through NASA CEA calculations and simple compressible flow relationships, which are compared against the measured SIV profiles. Analysis of shear layer turbulence along the exhaust plume edge is also presented.

  7. Altitude-chamber performance of British Rolls-Royce Nene II engine III : 18.00-inch-diameter jet nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, Ralph E; Brightwell, Virginia L; Barson, Zelmar; NACA

    1950-01-01

    An altitude-chamber investigation of British Rolls-Royce Nene II turbojet engine was conducted over range of altitudes from sea level to 65,000 feet and ram pressure ratios from 1.10 to 3.50, using an 18.00-inch-diameter jet nozzle. The 18.00-inch-diameter jet nozzle gave slightly lower values of net-thrust specific fuel consumption than either the 18.41- or the standard 18.75-inch-diameter jet nozzles at high flight speeds. At low flight speeds, the 18.41-inch-diameter jet nozzle gave the lowest value of net-thrust specific fuel consumption.

  8. Engineers demonstrate the pocket rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Part of Stennis Space Center's mission with its traveling exhibits is to educate the younger generation on how propulsion systems work. A popular tool is the 'pocket rocket,' which demonstrates how a hybrid rocket works. A hybrid rocket is a cross breed between a solid fuel rocket and a liquid fuel rocket.

  9. NASA Conducts Final RS-25 Rocket Engine Test of 2017

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-13

    NASA engineers at Stennis Space Center capped a year of Space Launch System testing with a final RS-25 rocket engine hot fire on Dec. 13. The 470-second test on the A-1 Test Stand was a “green run” test of an RS-25 flight controller. The engine tested also included a large 3-D-printed part, a pogo accumulator assembly, scheduled for use on future RS-25 flight engines.

  10. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch. The RBCC's overall objective is to provide a technology test bed to investigate critical technologies associated with opperational usage of these engines. The program will focus on near term technologies that can be leveraged to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsions systems and ultimately a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  11. 6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. "EXPERIMENTAL ROCKET ENGINE TEST STATION AT AFFTC." A low oblique aerial view of Test Area 1-115, looking south, showing Test Stand 1-3 at left, Instrumentation and Control building 8668 at center, and Test Stand 15 at right. The test area is under construction; no evidence of railroad line in photo. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Modeling of Supersonic Film Cooling on the J-2X Nozzle Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Morris, Christopher I.

    2011-01-01

    Supersonic film cooling (SSFC) of nozzles has been used in several liquid rocket engine designs, and is being applied to the nozzle extension (NE) of the J-2X upper stage engine currently under development. Turbine exhaust gas (TEG) is injected tangentially from a manifold along the NE, and provides a thermal barrier from the core nozzle flow for the NE. As the TEG stream mixes with the nozzle flow, the effectiveness of the thermal barrier is reduced. This paper documents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis work performed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to model the flow of the TEG through the manifold, into the nozzle, and the subsequent mixing of the TEG stream with the core flow. The geometry and grid of the TEG manifold, structural support ribs, and the NE wall will be shown, and the CFD boundary conditions described. The Loci-CHEM CFD code used in this work will also be briefly described. A unique approach to modeling the combined TEG manifold/thrust chamber assembly (TCA) was employed, as it was not practical to model the entire 360 circumferential range in one simulation. Prior CFD validation work modeling Calspan SSFC experiments in the early 1990s, documented in a previous AIAA paper, will also be briefly discussed. The fluid dynamics of the TEG flow through the manifold, into and between the structural support ribs, and into the nozzlette that feeds the TCA will be described. Significant swirl and non-uniformities are present, which along with the wakes from the ribs, act to degrade the film cooling effectiveness compared to idealized injection of TEG gas. The effect of these flow characteristics on the adiabatic wall temperature profile on the NE will be discussed.

  13. High altitude chemically reacting gas particle mixtures. Volume 1: A theoretical analysis and development of the numerical solution. [rocket nozzle and orbital plume flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    The overall contractual effort and the theory and numerical solution for the Reacting and Multi-Phase (RAMP2) computer code are described. The code can be used to model the dominant phenomena which affect the prediction of liquid and solid rocket nozzle and orbital plume flow fields. Fundamental equations for steady flow of reacting gas-particle mixtures, method of characteristics, mesh point construction, and numerical integration of the conservation equations are considered herein.

  14. Review on pressure swirl injector in liquid rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Wang, Zhen-guo; Li, Qinglian; Cheng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    The pressure swirl injector with tangential inlet ports is widely used in liquid rocket engine. Commonly, this type of pressure swirl injector consists of tangential inlet ports, a swirl chamber, a converging spin chamber, and a discharge orifice. The atomization of the liquid propellants includes the formation of liquid film, primary breakup and secondary atomization. And the back pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber could have great influence on the atomization of the injector. What's more, when the combustion instability occurs, the pressure oscillation could further affects the atomization process. This paper reviewed the primary atomization and the performance of the pressure swirl injector, which include the formation of the conical liquid film, the breakup and atomization characteristics of the conical liquid film, the effects of the rocket engine environment, and the response of the injector and atomization on the pressure oscillation.

  15. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine.

  16. Turbine nozzle attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-10-24

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and is attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine. 3 figs.

  17. In-situ propellant rocket engines for Mars missions ascent vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roncace, Elizabeth A.

    1991-01-01

    When contemplating the human exploration of Mars, many scenarios using various propulsion systems have been considered. One propulsion option among them is a vehicle stage with multiple, pump fed rocket engines capable of operating on propellants available on Mars. This reduces the earth launch mass requirements, resulting in economic and payload benefits. No plentiful sources of hydrogen on Mars have been identified on the surface of Mars, so most commonly used high performance liquid fuels, such as hydrogen and hydrocarbons, can be eliminated as possible in situ propellants. But 95 pct of the Martian atmosphere consists of carbon dioxide, which can be converted into carbon monoxide and oxygen. The carbon monoxide oxygen propellant combination is a candidate for a Martian in situ propellant rocket engine. The feasibility is analyzed of a pump fed engine cycle using the propellant combination of carbon monoxide and oxygen.

  18. In-situ propellant rocket engines for Mars mission ascent vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roncace, Elizabeth A.

    1991-01-01

    When comtemplating the human exploration of Mars, many scenarios using various propulsion systems have been considered. One propulsion option among them is a vehicle stage with multiple, pump fed rocket engines capable of operating on propellants available on Mars. This reduces the Earth launch mass requirements, resulting in economic and payload benefits. No plentiful sources of hydrogen on Mars have been identified on the surface of Mars, so most commonly used high performance liquid fuels, such as hydrogen and hydrocarbons, can be eliminated as possible in-situ propellants. But 95 pct. of the Martian atmosphere consists of carbon dioxide, which can be converted into carbon monoxide and oxygen. The carbon monoxide oxygen propellant conbination is a candidate for a Martian in-situ propellant rocket engine. The feasibility is analyzed of a pump fed engine cycle using the propellant combination of carbon monoxide and oxygen.

  19. Rocket engine system reliability analyses using probabilistic and fuzzy logic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    The reliability of rocket engine systems was analyzed by using probabilistic and fuzzy logic techniques. Fault trees were developed for integrated modular engine (IME) and discrete engine systems, and then were used with the two techniques to quantify reliability. The IRRAS (Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System) computer code, developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was used for the probabilistic analyses, and FUZZYFTA (Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis), a code developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, was used for the fuzzy logic analyses. Although both techniques provided estimates of the reliability of the IME and discrete systems, probabilistic techniques emphasized uncertainty resulting from randomness in the system whereas fuzzy logic techniques emphasized uncertainty resulting from vagueness in the system. Because uncertainty can have both random and vague components, both techniques were found to be useful tools in the analysis of rocket engine system reliability.

  20. Numerical Analysis of Base Flowfield for a Four-Engine Clustered Nozzle Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    1995-01-01

    Excessive base heating has been a problem for many launch vehicles. For certain designs such as the direct dump of turbine exhaust inside and at the lip of the nozzle, the potential burning of the turbine exhaust in the base region can be of great concern. Accurate prediction of the base environment at altitudes is therefore very important during the vehicle design phase. Otherwise, undesirable consequences may occur. In this study, the turbulent base flowfield of a cold flow experimental investigation for a four-engine clustered nozzle was numerically benchmarked using a pressure-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. This is a necessary step before the benchmarking of hot flow and combustion flow tests can be considered. Since the medium was unheated air, reasonable prediction of the base pressure distribution at high altitude was the main goal. Several physical phenomena pertaining to the multiengine clustered nozzle base flow physics were deduced from the analysis.

  1. Line drawing of anomaly discovered in redesigned shuttle motor nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Line drawing titled 'DM-9 Case-to-Nozzle Joint' shows anomaly discovered in redesigned shuttle motor nozzle. The second full-duration test firing of NASA's redesigned Space Shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM), designated DM-9, was conducted 12-23-87 at Morton Thiokol's Wasatch facility in Utah. A post-test examination of the motor has revealed an anomaly in one nozzle component. Material was discovered missing from the nozzle outer boot ring, a large carbon phenolic composite ring used to anchor one end of the flexible boot that allows the nozzle to move and 'steer' the vehicle. About one-third of the missing 160 degrees of missing ring material was found adjacent to the forward nozzle section inside the motor. This diagram shows the location of the nozzle joint on an assembled SRM, and points out the shaded location of the outer boot ring that circles the motor within the nozzle joint.

  2. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  3. Simplified Analysis of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Blowdown Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. I.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modellng task. A simplified model for an idealized, straight-tube, single-shot PDRE blowdown process and thrust determination is described and implemented. In order to form an assessment of the accuracy of the model, the flowfield time history is compared to experimental data from Stanford University. Parametric Studies of the effect of mixture stoichiometry, initial fill temperature, and blowdown pressure ratio on the performance of a PDRE are performed using the model. PDRE performance is also compared with a conventional steady-state rocket engine over a range of pressure ratios using similar gasdynamic assumptions.

  4. Optimization of the rocket mode trajectory in a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered SSTO vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Richard W.

    1989-07-01

    The application of rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engines to booster-stage propulsion, in combination with all-rocket second stages in orbital-ascent missions, has been studied since the mid-1960s; attention is presently given to the case of the 'ejector scramjet' RBCC configuration's application to SSTO vehicles. While total mass delivered to initial orbit is optimized at Mach 20, payload delivery capability to initial orbit optimizes at Mach 17, primarily due to the reduction of hydrogen fuel tankage structure, insulation, and thermal protection system weights.

  5. Paraffin-based hybrid rocket engines applications: A review and a market perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Alessandro; Merotto, Laura; Pinarello, Giordano

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion technology for aerospace applications has received growing attention in recent years due to its important advantages over competitive solutions. Hybrid rocket engines have a great potential for several aeronautics and aerospace applications because of their safety, reliability, low cost and high performance. As a consequence, this propulsion technology is feasible for a number of innovative missions, including space tourism. On the other hand, hybrid rocket propulsion's main drawback, i.e. the difficulty in reaching high regression rate values using standard fuels, has so far limited the maturity level of this technology. The complex physico-chemical processes involved in hybrid rocket engines combustion are of major importance for engine performance prediction and control. Therefore, further investigation is ongoing in order to achieve a more complete understanding of such phenomena. It is well known that one of the most promising solutions for overcoming hybrid rocket engines performance limits is the use of liquefying fuels. Such fuels can lead to notably increased solid fuel regression rate due to the so-called "entrainment phenomenon". Among liquefying fuels, paraffin-based formulations have great potentials as solid fuels due to their low cost, availability (as they can be derived from industrial waste), low environmental impact and high performance. Despite the vast amount of literature available on this subject, a precise focus on market potential of paraffins for hybrid propulsion aerospace applications is lacking. In this work a review of hybrid rocket engines state of the art was performed, together with a detailed analysis of the possible applications of such a technology. A market study was carried out in order to define the near-future foreseeable development needs for hybrid technology application to the aforementioned missions. Paraffin-based fuels are taken into account as the most promising segment for market development

  6. Spiral cooled fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy; Schilp, Reinhard

    2012-09-25

    A fuel nozzle for delivery of fuel to a gas turbine engine. The fuel nozzle includes an outer nozzle wall and a center body located centrally within the nozzle wall. A gap is defined between an inner wall surface of the nozzle wall and an outer body surface of the center body for providing fuel flow in a longitudinal direction from an inlet end to an outlet end of the fuel nozzle. A turbulating feature is defined on at least one of the central body and the inner wall for causing at least a portion of the fuel flow in the gap to flow transverse to the longitudinal direction. The gap is effective to provide a substantially uniform temperature distribution along the nozzle wall in the circumferential direction.

  7. Improved maintainability of space-based reusable rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Szemenyei, B.; Nelson, R. S.; Pauckert, R.; Harmon, T.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced, noninferential, noncontacting, in situ measurement technologies, combined with automated testing and expert systems, can provide continuous, automated health monitoring of critical space-based rocket engine components, requiring minimal disassembly and no manual data analysis, thus enhancing their maintainability. This paper concentrates on recent progress of noncontacting combustion chamber wall thickness condition-monitoring technologies.

  8. Pretest uncertainty analysis for chemical rocket engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric pretest uncertainty analysis has been performed for a chemical rocket engine test at a unique 1000:1 area ratio altitude test facility. Results from the parametric study provide the error limits required in order to maintain a maximum uncertainty of 1 percent on specific impulse. Equations used in the uncertainty analysis are presented.

  9. Heat-Transfer Characteristics of Partially Film Cooled Plug Nozzle on a J-85 Afterburning Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosek, S. M.; Straight, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    Plug nozzle film cooling data were obtained downstream of a slot located at 42 percent of the total plug length on a J-85 engine. Film cooling reduced the aft end wall temperature as much as 150 K, reduced total pressure loss in the upstream convection cooling passages by 50 percent, and reduced estimated compressor bleed flow requirement by 14 percent compared to an all convectively cooled nozzle. Shock waves along the plug surface strongly influenced temperature distributions on both convection and film cooled portions. The effect was most severe at nozzle pressure ratios below 10 where adverse pressure gradients were most severe.

  10. Hyperthermal Environments Simulator for Nuclear Rocket Engine Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Foote, John P.; Clifton, W. B.; Hickman, Robert R.; Wang, Ten-See; Dobson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    An arc-heater driven hyperthermal convective environments simulator was recently developed and commissioned for long duration hot hydrogen exposure of nuclear thermal rocket materials. This newly established non-nuclear testing capability uses a high-power, multi-gas, wall-stabilized constricted arc-heater to produce hightemperature pressurized hydrogen flows representative of nuclear reactor core environments, excepting radiation effects, and is intended to serve as a low-cost facility for supporting non-nuclear developmental testing of hightemperature fissile fuels and structural materials. The resulting reactor environments simulator represents a valuable addition to the available inventory of non-nuclear test facilities and is uniquely capable of investigating and characterizing candidate fuel/structural materials, improving associated processing/fabrication techniques, and simulating reactor thermal hydraulics. This paper summarizes facility design and engineering development efforts and reports baseline operational characteristics as determined from a series of performance mapping and long duration capability demonstration tests. Potential follow-on developmental strategies are also suggested in view of the technical and policy challenges ahead. Keywords: Nuclear Rocket Engine, Reactor Environments, Non-Nuclear Testing, Fissile Fuel Development.

  11. Liquid-hydrogen rocket engine development at Aerojet, 1944 - 1950

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, G. H.; Gordon, R.; Coplen, H. L.; James, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    This program demonstrated the feasibility of virtually all the components in present-day, high-energy, liquid-rocket engines. Transpiration and film-cooled thrust chambers were successfully operated. The first liquid-hydrogen tests of the coaxial injector was conducted and the first pump to successfully produce high pressures in pumping liquid hydrogen was tested. A 1,000-lb-thrust gaseous propellant and a 3,000-lb-thrust liquid-propellant thrust chamber were operated satisfactorily. Also, the first tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of jet overexpansion and separation on performance of rocket thrust chambers with hydrogen-oxygen propellants.

  12. Experimental aerodynamic and acoustic model testing of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) testbed coannular exhaust nozzle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.; Morris, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance and jet noise characteristics of a one sixth scale model of the variable cycle engine testbed exhaust system were obtained in a series of static tests over a range of simulated engine operating conditions. Model acoustic data were acquired. Data were compared to predictions of coannular model nozzle performance. The model, tested with an without a hardwall ejector, had a total flow area equivalent to a 0.127 meter (5 inch) diameter conical nozzle with a 0.65 fan to primary nozzle area ratio and a 0.82 fan nozzle radius ratio. Fan stream temperatures and velocities were varied from 422 K to 1089 K (760 R to 1960 R) and 434 to 755 meters per second (1423 to 2477 feet per second). Primary stream properties were varied from 589 to 1089 K (1060 R to 1960 R) and 353 to 600 meters per second (1158 to 1968 feet per second). Exhaust plume velocity surveys were conducted at one operating condition with and without the ejector installed. Thirty aerodynamic performance data points were obtained with an unheated air supply. Fan nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.8 to 3.2 at a constant primary pressure ratio of 1.6; primary pressure ratio was varied from 1.4 to 2.4 while holding fan pressure ratio constant at 2.4. Operation with the ejector increased nozzle thrust coefficient 0.2 to 0.4 percent.

  13. Development of Flow and Heat Transfer Models for the Carbon Fiber Rope in Nozzle Joints of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Q.; Ewing, M. E.; Mathias, E. C.; Heman, J.; Smith, C.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for modeling both gas dynamics and heat transfer inside the carbon fiber rope (CFR) for applications in the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motor joints. Specifically, the CFR is modeled using an equivalent rectangular duct with a cross-section area, friction factor and heat transfer coefficient such that this duct has the same amount of mass flow rate, pressure drop, and heat transfer rate as the CFR. An equation for the friction factor is derived based on the Darcy-Forschheimer law and the heat transfer coefficient is obtained from pipe flow correlations. The pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas inside the CFR are calculated using the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Various subscale tests, both cold flow and hot flow, have been carried out to validate and refine this CFR model. In particular, the following three types of testing were used: (1) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle-to-case joint geometry, (2) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle joint No. 2 geometry, and (3) hot flow in a RSRM nozzle joint environment simulator. The predicted pressure and temperature history are compared with experimental measurements. The effects of various input parameters for the model are discussed in detail.

  14. RL10A-3-3A Rocket Engine Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael; Tomsik, Thomas; Veres, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    Two RL10A-3-3A rocket engines comprise the main propulsion system for the Centaur upper stage vehicle. Centaur is used with bod Titan and Atlas launch vehicles, carrying military and civilian payloads from high altitudes into orbit and beyond. The RL10 has delivered highly reliable service for the past 30 years. Recently, however, there have been two in-flight failures which have refocused attention on the RL10. This heightened interest has sparked a desire for an independent RL10 modeling capability within NASA and th Air Force. Pratt & Whitney, which presently has the most detailed model of the RL10, also sees merit in having an independent model which could be used as a cross-check with their own simulations. The Space Propulsion Technology Division (SPTD) at the NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a computer model of the RL10A-3-3A. A project team was formed, consisting of experts in the areas of turbomachinery, combustion, and heat transfer. The overall goal of the project was to provide a model of the entire RL10 rocket engine for government use. In the course of the project, the major engine components have been modeled using a combination of simple correlations and detailed component analysis tools (computer codes). The results of these component analyses were verified with data provided by Pratt & Whitney. Select modeling results and test data curves were then integrated to form the RL10 engine system model The purpose of this report is to introduce the reader to the RL10 rocket engine and to describe the engine system model. The RL10 engine and its application to U.S. launch vehicles are described first, followed by a summary of the SPTD project organization, goals, and accomplishments. Simulated output from the system model are shown in comparison with test and flight data for start transient, steady state, and shut-down transient operations. Detailed descriptions of all component analyses, including those not selected for integration with the

  15. NASA SLS Booster Nozzle Plug Pieces Fly During Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-28

    On June 28, a test version of the booster that will help power NASA's new rocket, the Space Launch System, fired up at nearly 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit for a successful, two-minute qualification test at Orbital ATK's test facilities in Promontory, Utah. This video shows the booster's nozzle plug intentionally breaking apart. The smoky ring coming off the booster is condensed water vapor created by a pressure difference between the motor gas and normal air. The nozzle plug is an environmental barrier to prevent heat, dust and moisture from getting inside the booster before it ignites. The plug isn't always part of a static test but was included on this one due to changes made to the hardware. The foam on the plug is denser than previous NASA launch vehicles, as the engines are now in the same plane as the boosters. A numbered grid was placed on the exterior of the plug before the test so the pieces retrieved could support plug breakup assessment and reconstruction. Along with video, collecting the pieces helps determine the size and speed of them when they break apart. Nozzle plug pieces were found as far as 1,500 to 2,000 feet away from the booster. This is the last full-scale qualification test for the booster before the first, uncrewed flight of SLS with the Orion spacecraft in 2018.

  16. Preburner of Staged Combustion Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    A regeneratively cooled LOX/hydrogen staged combustion assembly system with a 400:1 expansion area ratio nozzle utilizing an 89,000 Newton (20,000 pound) thrust regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and 175:1 tubular nozzle was analyzed, assembled, and tested. The components for this assembly include two spark/torch oxygen-hydrogen igniters, two servo-controlled LOX valves, a preburner injector, a preburner combustor, a main propellant injector, a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber, a regeneratively cooled tubular nozzle with an expansion area ratio of 175:1, an uncooled heavy-wall steel nozzle with an expansion area ratio of 400:1, and interconnecting ducting. The analytical effort was performed to optimize the thermal and structural characteristics of each of the new components and the ducting, and to reverify the capabilities of the previously fabricated components. The testing effort provided a demonstration of the preburner/combustor chamber operation, chamber combustion efficiency and stability, and chamber and nozzle heat transfer.

  17. Fatigue life prediction of liquid rocket engine combustor with subscale test verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, In-Kyung

    Reusable rocket systems such as the Space Shuttle introduced a new era in propulsion system design for economic feasibility. Practical reusable systems require an order of magnitude increase in life. To achieve this improved methods are needed to assess failure mechanisms and to predict life cycles of rocket combustor. A general goal of the research was to demonstrate the use of subscale rocket combustor prototype in a cost-effective test program. Life limiting factors and metal behaviors under repeated loads were surveyed and reviewed. The life prediction theories are presented, with an emphasis on studies that used subscale test hardware for model validation. From this review, low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue interaction (ratcheting) were identified as the main life limiting factors of the combustor. Several life prediction methods such as conventional and advanced viscoplastic models were used to predict life cycle due to low cycle thermal stress, transient effects, and creep rupture damage. Creep-fatigue interaction and cyclic hardening were also investigated. A prediction method based on 2D beam theory was modified using 3D plate deformation theory to provide an extended prediction method. For experimental validation two small scale annular plug nozzle thrusters were designed, built and tested. The test article was composed of a water-cooled liner, plug annular nozzle and 200 psia precombustor that used decomposed hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizer and JP-8 as the fuel. The first combustor was tested cyclically at the Advanced Propellants and Combustion Laboratory at Purdue University. Testing was stopped after 140 cycles due to an unpredicted failure mechanism due to an increasing hot spot in the location where failure was predicted. A second combustor was designed to avoid the previous failure, however, it was over pressurized and deformed beyond repair during cold-flow test. The test results are discussed and compared to the analytical and numerical

  18. Reusability aspects for space transportation rocket engines: programmatic status and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preclik, D.; Strunz, R.; Hagemann, G.; Langel, G.

    2011-09-01

    Rocket propulsion systems belong to the most critical subsystems of a space launch vehicle, being illustrated in this paper by comparing different types of transportation systems. The aspect of reusability is firstly discussed for the space shuttle main engine, the only rocket engine in the world that has demonstrated multiple reuses. Initial projections are contrasted against final reusability achievements summarizing three decades of operating the space shuttle main engine. The discussion is then extended to engines employed on expendable launch vehicles with an operational life requirement typically specifying structural integrities up to 20 cycles (start-ups) and an accumulated burning time of about 6,000 s (Vulcain engine family). Today, this life potential substantially exceeds the duty cycle of an expendable engine. It is actually exploited only during the development and qualification phase of an engine when system reliability is demonstrated on ground test facilities with a reduced number of hardware sets that are subjected to an extended number of test cycles and operation time. The paper will finally evaluate the logic and effort necessary to qualify a reusable engine for a required reliability and put this result in context of possible cost savings realized from reuse operations over a time span of 25 years.

  19. Monomethylhydrazine versus hydrazine fuels - Test results using a 100 pound thrust bipropellant rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A.; Stechman, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A test program was performed to evaluate hydrazine (N2H4) as a fuel for a 445 Newton (100 lbf) thrust bipropellant rocket engine. Results of testing with an identical thruster utilizing monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are included for comparison. Engine performance with hydrazine fuel was essentially identical to that experienced with monomethylhydrazine although higher combustor wall temperatures (approximately 400 F) were obtained with hydrazine. Results are presented which indicate that hydrazine as a fuel is compatible with Marquardt bipropellant rocket engines which use monomethylhydrazine as a baseline fuel.

  20. Advanced oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.; Ewen, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study identifies and evaluates promising LO2/HC rocket engine cycles, produces a consistent and reliable data base for vehicle optimization and design studies, demonstrates the significance of propulsion system improvements, and selects the critical technology areas necessary to realize an improved surface to orbit transportation system. Parametric LO2/HC engine data were generated over a range of thrust levels from 890 to 6672 kN (200K to 1.5M 1bF) and chamber pressures from 6890 to 34500 kN (1000 to 5000 psia). Engine coolants included RP-1, refined RP-1, LCH4, LC3H8, LO2, and LH2. LO2/RP-1 G.G. cycles were found to be not acceptable for advanced engines. The highest performing LO2/RP-1 staged combustion engine cycle utilizes LO2 as the coolant and incorporates an oxidizer rich preburner. The highest performing cycle for LO2/LCH4 and LO2/LC3H8 utilizes fuel cooling and incorporates both fuel and oxidizer rich preburners. LO2/HC engine cycles permitting the use of a third fluid LH2 coolant and an LH2 rich gas generator provide higher performance at significantly lower pump discharge pressures. The LO2/HC dual throat engine, because of its high altitude performance, delivers the highest payload for the vehicle configuration that was investigated.