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Sample records for rocky flats combustible

  1. Washing of Rocky Flats Combustible Residues (Conducted March - May 1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Mary E. Barr; Ann R. Schake; David A. Romero; Gordon D. Jarvinen

    1999-03-01

    The scope of this project is to determine the feasibility of washing plutonium-containing combustible residues using ultrasonic disruption as a method for dislodging particulate. Removal of plutonium particulate and, to a lesser extent, solubilized plutonium from the organic substrate should substantially reduce potential fire, explosion or radioactive release hazards due to radiolytic hydrogen generation or high flammability. Tests were conducted on polypropylene filters which were used as pre-filters in the rich-residue ion-exchange process at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. These filters are similar to the Ful-Flo{reg_sign} cartridges used at Rocky Flats that make up a substantial fraction of the combustible residues with the highest hazard rating. Batch experiments were run on crushed filter material in order to determine the amount of Pu removed by stirring, stirring and sonication, and stirring and sonication with the introduction of Pu-chelating water-soluble polymers or surfactants. Significantly more Pu is removed using sonication and sonication with chelators than is removed with mechanical stirring alone.

  2. Stabilization of Rocky Flats combustible residues contaminated with plutonium metal and organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, S.M.; Cisneros, M.R.; Jacobson, L.L.; Schroeder, N.C.; Ames, R.L.

    1998-09-30

    This report describes tests on a proposed flowsheet designed to stabilize combustible residues that were generated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during the machining of plutonium metal. Combustible residues are essentially laboratory trash contaminated with halogenated organic solvents and plutonium metal. The proposed flowsheet, designed by RFETS, follows a glovebox procedure that includes (1) the sorting and shredding of materials, (2) a low temperature thermal desorption of solvents from the combustible materials, (3) an oxidation of plutonium metal with steam, and (4) packaging of the stabilized residues. The role of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in this study was to determine parameters for the low temperature thermal desorption and steam oxidation steps. Thermal desorption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was examined using a heated air stream on a Rocky Flats combustible residue surrogate contaminated with CCl{sub 4}. Three types of plutonium metal were oxidized with steam in a LANL glovebox to determine the effectiveness of this procedure for residue stabilization. The results from these LANL experiments are used to recommend parameters for the proposed RFETS stabilization flowsheet.

  3. FY 1992 Annual report: Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste. Final report to Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Kahle, R.W.

    1993-03-01

    The Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) process was studied for destroying low-level combustible mixed wastes at Rocky Flats (RFP). Tests were performed with nonradioactive surrogate materials: Trimsol for the contaminated oils, and reagent-grade cellulose for the cellulosic wastes. Extensive testing was carried out on Trimsol in both small laboratory-scale apparatus and on a large-scale system incorporating an industrial-size electrochemical cell. Preliminary tests were also carried out in the small-scale system with cellulose. The following operating and system parameters were studied: use of a silver-nitric acid versus a cobalt-sulfuric acid system, effect of electrolyte temperature, effect of acid concentration, effect of current density, and use of ultrasonic agitation. Destruction and coulombic efficiencies were calculated using data obtained from continuous carbon dioxide monitors and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis of electrolyte samples. For Trimsol, the best performance was achieved with the silver-nitrate system at high acid concentrations, temperatures, and current densities. Destruction efficiencies of 98% or greater and coulombic efficiencies close to 50% were obtained in both small- and large-scale systems. For the cellulose, high destruction efficiencies and reasonable coulombic efficiencies were obtained for both silver-nitrate and cobalt-sulfate systems.

  4. Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Tuor, N. R.; Schubert, A. L.

    2002-02-26

    Safely accelerating the closure of Rocky Flats to 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy, Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees, and taxpayers across the country. On June 30, 2000, Kaiser-Hill (KH) submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), KH's plan to achieve closure of Rocky Flats by December 15, 2006, for a remaining cost of $3.96 billion (February 1, 2000, to December 15, 2006). The Closure Project Baseline (CPB) is the detailed project plan for accomplishing this ambitious closure goal. This paper will provide a status report on the progress being made toward the closure goal. This paper will: provide a summary of the closure contract completion criteria; give the current cost and schedule variance of the project and the status of key activities; detail important accomplishments of the past year; and discuss the challenges ahead.

  5. Rocky Flats beryllium health surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, A.W.; Furman, F.J.; Hilmas, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. 12 refs., 8 tabs.

  6. Rocky Flats Compliance Program; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The primary objective of the Office of Technology Development, Rocky Flats Compliance Program (RFCP), is to develop altemative treatment technologies for mixed low-level waste (wastes containing both hazardous and radioactive components) to use in bringing the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) into compliance with Federal and state regulations and agreements. Approximately 48,000 cubic feet of untreated low-level mixed waste, for which treatment has not been specified, are stored at the RFP. The cleanup of the Rocky Flats site is driven by agreements between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Under these agreements, a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan (CTMP) was drafted to outline the mechanisms by which RFP will achieve compliance with the regulations and agreements. This document describes DOE`s strategy to treat low-level mixed waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and sets specific milestones related to the regulatory aspects of technology development. These milestones detail schedules for the development of technologies to treat all of the mixed wastes at the RFP. Under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the CTMP has been incorporated into Rocky Flats Plant Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP). The CSTP will become the Rocky Flats Plant site Treatment Plan in 1995 and will supersede the CTMP.

  7. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  8. Status Update: Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Tuor, N.; Schubert, A.

    2003-02-25

    Safely closing Rocky Flats by December 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy (DOE), Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees and taxpayers across the country. This paper will: provide a status of the Closure Project to date; describe important accomplishments of the past year; describe some of the closure-enhancing technologies enabling acceleration; and discuss the remaining challenges ahead.

  9. Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.; Peters, E.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1998-12-01

    Public responses to nuclear technologies are often strongly negative. Events, such as accidents or evidence of unsafe conditions at nuclear facilities, receive extensive and dramatic coverage by the news media. These news stories affect public perceptions of nuclear risks and the geographic areas near nuclear facilities. One result of these perceptions, avoidance behavior, is a form of technological stigma that leads to losses in property values near nuclear facilities. The social amplification of risk is a conceptual framework that attempts to explain how stigma is created through media transmission of information about hazardous places and public perceptions and decisions. This paper examines stigma associated with the US Department of energy`s Rocky Flats facility, a major production plant in the nation`s nuclear weapons complex, located near Denver, Colorado. This study, based upon newspaper analyses and a survey of Denver area residents, finds that the social amplification theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding the events and public responses that took place in regard to Rocky Flats during a 6-year period, beginning with an FBI raid of the facility in 1989.

  10. 29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. IN 1983, THE PERIMETER SECURITY ZONE SURROUNDING THE PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS WAS COMPLETED. IT CONSISTED OF A DOUBLE PERIMETER FENCE, CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISIONS, ALARMS, AND AN UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (7/29/83). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. 12. VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST. AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST. AFTER 38 YEARS, WEAPONS PRODUCTION CEASED IN 1989. IN 1992, THE PLANT MISSION CHANGED FROM WEAPONS PRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN UP AND RESTORATION. BY 1995, THE SITE HAD BEGUN TO BE DISMANTLED (6/27/95). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. BY THE LATE 1960S, THE SITE HAD UNDERGONE TWO MAJOR EXPANSIONS. THE FIRST EXPANSION IN 1956-57, WHEN THE TRIGGER DESIGN CHANGED AND NECESSITATED THE ADDITION OF SEVEN NEW BUILDINGS. THE SECOND LARGE EXPANSION TOOK PLACE FROM 1964-65, WHEN ROCKY FLATS BECAME THE SOLE PRODUCER OF TRIGGERS. DURING THIS EXPANSION, ELEVEN BUILDINGS WERE ADDED, PRIMARILY IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT LABORATORIES, GUARD HOUSES, AND WASTE WATER TREATMENT (7/1/69). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. The Critical Mass Laboratory at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, Robert E

    2003-10-15

    The Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) at Rocky Flats northwest of Denver, Colorado, was built in 1964 and commissioned to conduct nuclear experiments on January 28, 1965. It was built to attain more accurate and precise experimental data to ensure nuclear criticality safety at the plant than were previously possible. Prior to its construction, safety data were obtained from long extrapolations of subcritical data (called in situ experiments), calculated parameters from reactor engineering 'models', and a few other imprecise methods. About 1700 critical and critical-approach experiments involving several chemical forms of enriched uranium and plutonium were performed between then and 1988. These experiments included single units and arrays of fissile materials, reflected and 'bare' systems, and configurations with various degrees of moderation, as well as some containing strong neutron absorbers. In 1989, a raid by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) caused the plant as a whole to focus on 'resumption' instead of further criticality safety experiments. Though either not recognized or not admitted for a few years, that FBI raid did sound the death knell for the CML. The plant's optimistic goal of resumption evolved to one of deactivation, decommissioning, and plantwide demolition during the 1990s. The once-proud CML facility was finally demolished in April of 2002.

  14. Commercial Decommissioning at DOE's Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Freiboth, C.; Sandlin, N.; Schubert, A.; Hansen, S.

    2002-02-25

    Due in large part to the number of nuclear facilities that make up the DOE complex, DOE-EM work has historically been paperwork intensive and driven by extensive regulations. Requirements for non-nuclear facilities are often grouped with those of nuclear facilities, driving up costs. Kaiser-Hill was interested in applying a commercial model to demolition of these facilities and wanted to apply necessary and sufficient standards to the work activities, but avoid applying unnecessary requirements. Faced with demolishing hundreds of uncontaminated or non-radiologically contaminated facilities, Kaiser-Hill has developed a subcontracting strategy to drastically reduce the cost of demolishing these facilities at Rocky Flats. Aiming to tailor the demolition approach of such facilities to more closely follow commercial practices, Kaiser-Hill recently released a Request for Proposals (RFP) for the demolition of the site's former central administration facility. The RFP significantly reduced requirements for compliance with specific DOE directives. Instead, the RFP required subcontractors to comply with health and safety requirements commonly found in the demolition of similar facilities in a commercial setting. This resulted in a number of bids from companies who have normally not bid on DOE work previously and at a reduced cost over previous approaches. This paper will discuss the details of this subcontracting strategy.

  15. 25. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST - NORTHWEST IN 1974. IN 1972, 4,600 ACRES WERE PURCHASED AROUND THE SITE TO BETTER PROTECT THE BORDERS FROM TERRORISM AND INFILTRATION BY PROTESTORS. ANTI-NUCLEAR DEMONSTRATION BEGAN SHORTLY AFTER THE 1969 FIRE IN BUILDING 776/777, AND CONTINUED UNTIL PRODUCTION CEASED AT THE PLANT IN 1989 (10/7/74). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. 20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE PLANT WAS COMPOSED OF FOUR WIDELY SEPARATED AREAS, EACH ONE PERFORMING A DIFFERENT TYPE OF WORK. PLANT A (44), SOUTHWEST, FABRICATED PARTS FROM DEPLETED URANIUM, PLANT B (81), SOUTH, WAS ENRICHED URANIUM OPERATIONS, PLANT C (71), NORTH, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS, AND PLANT D (91), EAST, WAS FINAL ASSEMBLY, SHIPPING AND RECEIVING (2/6/66). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. IN 1951, A GOOD FRIDAY ISSUE OF THE DENVER POST ANNOUNCED THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION'S PLANS TO BUILD THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT. UNDER THE HEADLINE 'THERE'S GOOD NEWS TODAY.' POLITICAL LEADERS EXPRESSED GREAT PRIDE IN THE CHOICE OF THE DENVER-BOULDER AREA AS THE SITE FOR AN ATOMIC PLANT AS QUOTED IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS: 'WE ARE PROUD THAT THE AREA HAS BEEN CHOSEN FOR ANOTHER IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION TO THE NATION'S STRENGTH AND FUTURE SECURITY.' BY THE MID 1970S, PUBLIC OPINION OF THE SITE HAD CHANGED (5/4/78). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. 13. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM DIRECTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD IN 1954. IN 1950, DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY WAS CHOSEN BY THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION TO ESTABLISH THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT AS AN ATOMIC BOMB TRIGGER FABRICATION FACILITY. THE CRITERIA FOR SITING SUCH A PLANT INCLUDED A LOCATION WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI, NORTH OF TEXAS, SOUTH OF THE NORTHERN BORDER OF COLORADO, AND EAST OF UTAH; A DRY MODERATE CLIMATE; A SUPPORTING POPULATION OF AT LEAST 25,000 PEOPLE; AND ACCESSIBILITY FROM LOS ALAMOS, NM, CHICAGO, IL, AND ST. LOUIS, MO. TWENTY-ONE AREAS IN THE UNITED STATES WERE SUGGESTED; SEVEN LOCATIONS WERE SCREENED IN THE DENVER AREA. THIS FOUR-SQUARE MILE AREA WAS SELECTED AND CONSTRUCTION BEGAN IN 1951 (8/31/54). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement implementation successes and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, D.C.

    1997-02-01

    On July 19, 1996 the US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Colorado (CDPHE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into an agreement called the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) for the cleanup and closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Rocky Flats). Major elements of the agreement include: an Integrated Site-Wide Baseline; up to twelve significant enforceable milestones per year; agreed upon soil and water action levels and standards for cleanup; open space as the likely foreseeable land use; the plutonium and TRU waste removed by 2015; streamlined regulatory process; agreement with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to coordinate activities; and a risk reduction focus. Successful implementation of RFCA requires a substantial effort by the parties to change their way of thinking about RFETS and meet the deliverables and commitments. Substantial progress toward Site closure through the implementation of RFCA has been accomplished in the short time since the signing, yet much remains to be done. Much can be learned from the Rocky Flats experience by other facilities in similar situations.

  20. Adsorption study for uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Rupert, M.C.; Harris, M.J.; Duran, A.

    1995-01-01

    Six adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in removing uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater. The bench column and batch (Kd) tests showed that uranium can be removed (>99.9%) by four adsorbents. Bone Charcoal (R1O22); F-1 Alumina (granular activated alumina); BIOFIX (immobilized biological agent); SOPBPLUS (mixed metal oxide); Filtrasorb 300 (granular activated carbon); and Zeolite (clinoptilolite).

  1. TGS measurements of pyrochemical salts at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, D. J.; Hansen, J. S.; Lestone, J. P.; Prettyman, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    A new skid-mounted tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) was designed to assist in the decommissioning of Rocky Flats Building 37 1, This instrument was used to assay pyrochemical salts as a prerequisite for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The following paper discusses measurement challenges and results from the first year of operation of the instrument.

  2. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. DURING THE 1980S, A NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS CONCERNING SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ERRORS SURFACED, CULMINATING IN THE 1989 RAID ON THE PLANT BY THE FBI FOR ALLEGED ENVIRONMENTAL INFRACTIONS. THAT SAME YEAR, PRODUCTION AT THE PLANT WAS HALTED FOR CORRECTION OF SAFETY DEFICIENCIES. BY 1991, A SERIES OF EVENTS WORLDWIDE REDUCED THE COLD WAR THREAT, AND IN 1992, THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY ANNOUNCED THAT THE MISSION AT THE PLANT WOULD BE CHANGED TO ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT, WITH THE GOAL OF CLEANING UP THE PLANT AND SITE (1989). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA.

  4. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1994-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene.

  5. Facility overview for commercial application of selected Rocky Flats facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Facility Overview is to support the Rocky Flats Local Impacts Initiative`s Request for Interest, to solicit interest from commercial corporations for utilizing buildings 865 and 883, and the equipment contained within each building, for a commercial venture. In the following sections, this document describes the Rocky Flats Site, the buildings available for lease, the equipment within these buildings, the site services available to a tenant, the human resources available to support operations in buildings 865 and 883, and the environmental condition of the buildings and property. In addition, a brief description is provided of the work performed to date to explore the potential products that might be manufactured in Buildings 865 and 883, and the markets for these products.

  6. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report.

  7. DECOMMISSIONING CHALLENGES AT THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Dorr, K. A.; Hoover, J.

    2002-02-25

    This paper presents a discussion of the demolition of the Building 788 cluster at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colorado. The Building 788 Cluster was a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage facilities and ancillary structures. Topics covered include the methods employed for Project Planning, Regulatory Compliance, Waste Management, Hazard Identification, Radiological Controls, Risk Management, Field Implementation, and Cost Schedule control, and Lessons Learned and Project Closeout.

  8. Inspection of management of excess personal property at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-17

    Inspection revealed that immediate management attention is needed to properly control, store, and dispose of excess personal property at Rocky Flats. Current system of operation does not allow for efficient, timely, cost effective management; current storage and disposal practices are not consistent with contract requirements or DOE policies and procedures. Other deficiencies are pointed out. Results of inspection are divided into 4 sections: contract changeover issues, moratorium issues, additional excess property issues, and award fee observations. Recommendations are outlined.

  9. Rocky flats closure project - lessons learned in worker stakeholder engagement

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Laura; Mazur, Robert E.; Edelson, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (EPA Superfund site near Denver, Colorado) produced plutonium components for nuclear weapons for the U.S. defense program. The facility shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992. To ensure safe remediation of inactive nuclear sites, site owners have begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. The closure of Rocky Flats aimed to set the standard for stakeholder involvement in doing the work safely, complying with regulations/standards, in a cost-effective manner. We have studied, using ethnographic methods, the extent to which workers at Rocky Flats were involved in communication and decision making strategies. Our results point out that workers can have perceptions of the site remediation process that differ from management and even other workers and that a significant number of workers questioned the commitment by management to engage the worker as stakeholder. The most effective remediation efforts should involve careful consideration of the insights and observations of all workers, particularly those who face immediate and high-level health and safety risks. (authors)

  10. Map of mixed prairie grassland vegetation, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S J.V.; Webber, P J; Komarkova, V; Weber, W A

    1980-01-01

    A color vegetation map at the scale of 1:12,000 of the area surrounding the Rocky Flats, Rockwell International Plant near Boulder, Colorado, provides a permanent record of baseline data which can be used to monitor changes in both vegetation and environment and thus to contribute to future land management and land-use policies. Sixteen mapping units based on species composition were identified, and characterized by two 10-m/sup 2/ vegetation stands each. These were grouped into prairie, pasture, and valley side on the basis of their species composition. Both the mapping units and these major groups were later confirmed by agglomerative clustering analysis of the 32 vegetation stands on the basis of species composition. A modified Bray and Curtis ordination was used to determine the environmental factor complexes controlling the distribution of vegetation at Rocky flats. Recommendations are made for future policies of environmental management and predictions of the response to environmental change of the present vegetation at the Rocky Flats site.

  11. Rocky Flats Neutron Detector Testing at Valduc, France

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S S; Dulik, G M

    2011-01-03

    Recent program requirements of the US Department of Energy/NNSA have led to a need for a criticality accident alarm system to be installed at a newly activated facility. The Criticality Safety Group of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was able to recover and store for possible future use approximately 200 neutron criticality detectors and 20 master alarm panels from the former Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado when the plant was closed. The Criticality Safety Group participated in a facility analysis and evaluation, the engineering design and review process, as well as the refurbishment, testing, and recalibration of the Rocky Flats criticality alarm system equipment to be used in the new facility. In order to demonstrate the functionality and survivability of the neutron detectors to the effects of an actual criticality accident, neutron detector testing was performed at the French CEA Valduc SILENE reactor from October 7 to October 19, 2010. The neutron detectors were exposed to three criticality events or pulses generated by the SILENE reactor. The first excursion was performed with a bare or unshielded reactor, and the second excursion was made with a lead shielded/reflected reactor, and the third excursion with a polyethylene reflected core. These tests of the Rocky Flats neutron detectors were performed as a part of the 2010 Criticality Accident Alarm System Benchmark Measurements at the SILENE Reactor. The principal investigators for this series of experiments were Thomas M. Miller and John C. Wagner of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with Nicolas Authier and Nathalie Baclet of CEA Valduc. Several other organizations were also represented, including the Y-12 National Security Complex, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, CEA Saclay, and Babcock International Group.

  12. Final Land Configuration for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, R. L.; Kapinos, J. M.; Wehner, J. P.; Snyder, B.; Davis, R. W.

    2006-07-01

    Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has been completed. The future land use of the site is designated as a National Wildlife Refuge. A joint effort between Kaiser-Hill, Department of Energy, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Environmental Protection Agency, State of Colorado, and other stakeholders was initiated to provide direction for developing the final land configuration. Through early identification of issues and developing mutually agreeable solutions, the final land configuration of the site was successfully completed. (authors)

  13. Rocky Flats plant qualification testing for PRES Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.D.; Tanaka, G.J.

    1994-06-24

    The authors recently completed several tests for EG&G - Rocky Flats, Inc. (RFP) to qualify welding procedures for the PRESS program. The welds that were tested were the Monel 400 to vanadium friction weld used in the Sail-A and the vanadium electron beam welds from the Mast Inner Subassembly. Tests were performed to determine the structural properties of the parts under conditions similar to those encountered in a weapons handling and storage environment. These tests included impact, tensile and pressure loading. Metallographic analysis was done where appropriate to document weld quality. All results were satisfactory for PRESS program purposes.

  14. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    SciTech Connect

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-06-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found.

  15. Cementation of residue ion exchange resins at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, D.F.; Beckman, T.D.; Madore, C.M.

    1998-03-03

    Ion exchange resins have been used to purify nitric acid solutions of plutonium at Rocky Flats since the 1950s. Spent ion exchange resins were retained for eventual recovery of residual plutonium, typically by incineration followed by the aqueous extraction of plutonium from the resultant ash. The elimination of incineration as a recovery process in the late 1980s and the absence of a suitable alternative process for plutonium recovery from resins led to a situation where spent ion exchange resins were simply placed into temporary storage. This report describes the method that Rocky Flats is currently using to stabilize residue ion exchange resins. The objective of the resin stabilization program is: (1) to ensure their safety during interim storage at the site, and (2) to prepare them for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Included in the discussion is a description of the safety concerns associated with ion exchange resins, alternatives considered for their stabilization, the selection of the preferred treatment method, the means of implementing the preferred option, and the progress to date.

  16. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for EG&G Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences resulting from illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This report presents the 1994 morbidity data for the Rocky Flats plant.

  17. Rocky Flats Plant Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolosi, S.L.; Rodriguez, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of the Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report (RAR) is to provide an authorization basis for operation as required by DOE 5480.16. The existing Live-Fire Range does not have a safety analysis-related authorization basis. EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. has worked with DOE and its representatives to develop a format and content description for development of an RAR for the Live-Fire Range. Development of the RAR is closely aligned with development of the design for a baffle system to control risks from errant projectiles. DOE 5480.16 requires either an RAR or a safety analysis report (SAR) for live-fire ranges. An RAR rather than a SAR was selected in order to gain flexibility to more closely address the safety analysis and conduct of operation needs for a live-fire range in a cost-effective manner.

  18. Plutonium releases from the 1957 fire at Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Mongan, T R; Ripple, S R; Brorby, G P; diTomasso, D G

    1996-10-01

    The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment sponsored a study to reconstruct contaminant doses to the public from the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant. This analysis of the September 1957 fire in a plutonium fabrication building that breached the building air filtration system is part of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment study. The plutonium release from this fire is estimated using environmental data collected around the time of the fire and an air dispersion model. The approximate upper bound on the total plutonium release from the fire is 1.9 GBq (0.05 Ci), with an uncertainty of about two orders of magnitude. Off-site air concentrations and deposition of plutonium resulting from the approximate upper-bound release are estimated. The highest predicted off-site effective dose resulting from the approximate upper-bound release is about 13 microSv (1.3 mrem).

  19. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-04-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes.

  20. Computerized interactive measurement control system at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, P.A.; Hunt, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Traditionally measurement control for the Rocky Flats Plant Analytical Laboratories has been administered by the Chemistry Standards Laboratory (CSL); both groups are under the jurisdiction of the Quality Engineering and Control Department. In the past, control samples were prepared by CSL, submitted to an Analytical Laboratory, and results were compiled by hand and submitted to the plant's central computing center which then generated a statistical report. The old paper-driven system has been replaced by the IMECS, an acronym for ''Interactive Measurement Evaluation and Control System''. The IMECS is a computerized, interactive measurement control system developed in-house with the cooperation of computer programmers., statisticians, analytical chemists, and standards engineers. The software is structured in three parts: (1) a data base section; (2) a statistical analysis section; and (3) supporting routines used for file maintenance, updating, scheduling, and control. This paper will describe how the system was conceived and designed. The paper will also detail the implementation of the system (scheduled for January 1985), and how it compares to the previous measurement control system. Examples will be given on how individual measurement control programs are designed and how control data is entered into the system. Also discussed will be the types of statistical reporting performed by the system.

  1. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Blake P.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides the results of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) conducted November 14 to 18 and November 28 to December 9, 1988. This appraisal covered the effectiveness and improvements in the RFP safety program across the site, evaluating progress to date against standards of accepted practice. The appraisal included coverage of the timeliness and effectiveness of actions taken in response to the recommendations/concerns in three previous Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) of RFP Bldg. 707 conducted in July 1986, Bldgs. 771/774 conducted in October/November 1986, and Bldgs. 776/777 conducted in January/February 1988. Results of this appraisal are given in Section IV for each of 14 technical safety areas at RFP. These results include a discussion, conclusions and any new safety concerns for each technical safety area. Appendix A contains a description of the system for categorizing concerns, and the concerns are tabulated in Appendix B. Appendix C reports on the evaluation of the contractor's actions and the current status of each of the 230 recommendations and concerns contained in the three previous TSA reports.

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), conducted August 11 through 22, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the RFP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations carried on at RFP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activates. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the RFP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the RFP Survey. 75 refs., 24 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. Seismic equipment qualification at Rocky Flats Plant: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Peregoy, W.; Herring, K.

    1993-08-01

    Seismic equipment qualification is being evaluated as a part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Initially it was believed that the experience database developed by the Seismic Qualification Utility Group (SQUG) for commercial nuclear power plants, as outlined in their Generic Implementation Procedure (GIP), would provide a substantial benefit for the seismic adequacy verification of equipment at RFP. However, further review of the simplified guidelines contained in the GIP with respect to the specific RFP structures and components revealed substantial differences from the GIP criteria. Therefore, the number of ``outliers`` from the experience database defined in the GIP is greater than was initially anticipated. This paper presents details of the differences found between the RFP structures and components and those represented in the GIP, and the challenges presented for their evaluation at RFP. Approaches necessary to develop seismic verification data are also discussed. The discussions focus on experience with one of the nuclear facilities at RFP, Building 707. However, the conclusions are generally applicable to other similar facilities that typically comprise the RFP nuclear facilities.

  4. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory code assessment of the Rocky Flats transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report is an assessment of the content codes associated with transuranic waste shipped from the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, to INEL. The primary objective of this document is to characterize and describe the transuranic wastes shipped to INEL from Rocky Flats by item description code (IDC). This information will aid INEL in determining if the waste meets the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The waste covered by this content code assessment was shipped from Rocky Flats between 1985 and 1989. These years coincide with the dates for information available in the Rocky Flats Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS). The majority of waste shipped during this time was certified to the existing WIPP WAC. This waste is referred to as precertified waste. Reassessment of these precertified waste containers is necessary because of changes in the WIPP WAC. To accomplish this assessment, the analytical and process knowledge available on the various IDCs used at Rocky Flats were evaluated. Rocky Flats sources for this information include employee interviews, SWIMS, Transuranic Waste Certification Program, Transuranic Waste Inspection Procedure, Backlog Waste Baseline Books, WIPP Experimental Waste Characterization Program (headspace analysis), and other related documents, procedures, and programs. Summaries are provided of: (a) certification information, (b) waste description, (c) generation source, (d) recovery method, (e) waste packaging and handling information, (f) container preparation information, (g) assay information, (h) inspection information, (i) analytical data, and (j) RCRA characterization.

  5. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Armstrong, C.; Daugherty, N.M.; Foppe, T.L.; Petrocchi, A.J.; Southward, B.

    1990-05-01

    This project plan for Phase II summarizes the design of a project to complete analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Federal, state, and local governments develop emergency plans for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of these plans is to identify EPZs where actions might be necessary to protect public health. Public protective actions include sheltering, evacuation, and relocation. Agencies use EPZs to develop response plans and to determine needed resources. The State of Colorado, with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Rocky Flats contractors, has developed emergency plans and EPZs for the Rocky Flats Plant periodically beginning in 1980. In Phase II, Interim Emergency Planning Zones Analysis, Maximum Credible Accident'' we will utilize the current Rocky Flats maximum credible accident (MCA), existing dispersion methodologies, and upgraded dosimetry methodologies to update the radiological EPZs. Additionally, we will develop recommendations for EPZs for nonradiological hazardous materials releases and evaluate potential surface water releases from the facility. This project will allow EG G Rocky Flats to meet current commitments to the state of Colorado and make steady, tangible improvements in our understanding of risk to offsite populations during potential emergencies at the Rocky Flats Plant. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Technical safety appraisal: Buildings 776/777 Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Field, H C

    1988-03-01

    Buildings 776/777 at the Rocky Flats Plant are major components of the production complex at the plant site. They have been in operation since 1957. The operations taking place in the buildings are nuclear weapons production support, processing of weapons assemblies returned from Pantex, waste processing, research and development in support of production, special projects, and those generated by support groups, such as maintenance. The appraisal team identified nine deficiencies that it believed required prompt attention. DOE management for EH, the program office (Defense Programs), and the field office analyzed the information provided by the appraisal team and instituted compensatory measures for closer monitoring of contractor activities by knowledgeable DOE staff and staff from other sites. Concurrently, the contractor was requested to address both short-term and long-term remedial measures to correct the identified issues as well as the underlying problems. The contractor has provided his action plan, which is included. This plan was under evaluation by EH and the DOE program office at the time this report was prepared. In addressing the major areas of concern identified above, a well as the specific deficiencies identified by the appraisal team, the contractor and the field office are cautioned to search for the root causes for the problems and to direct corrective actions to those root causes rather than solely to the symptoms to assure the sustainability of the improvements being made. The results of prior TSAs led DOE to conclude that previous corrective actions were not sufficient in that a large number of the individual findings are recurrent. Pending completion of remedial actions over the next few months, enhanced DOE oversight of the contractor is warranted.

  7. Transportation of pyrochemical salts from Rocky Flats to Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, S.B.

    1997-02-01

    Radioactive legacy wastes or residues are currently being stored on numerous Sites around the former Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex. Since most of the operating facilities were shut down and have not operated since before the declared end to the Cold War in 1993, the historical method for treating these residues no longer exists. The risk associated with continued storage of these residues will dramatically increase with time. Thus, the DOE was directed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board in its Recommendation 94-1 to address and stabilize these residues and established an eight year time frame for doing so. There are only two options available to respond to this requirement: (1) restart existing facilities to treat and package the residues for disposal or (2) transport the residues to another operating facility within the Complex where they can be treated and packaged for disposal. This paper focuses on one such residue type, pyrochemical salts, produced at one Complex site, the Rocky Flats Plant located northwest of Denver, Colorado. One option for treating the salts is their shipment to Los Alamos, New Mexico, for handling at the Plutonium Facility. The safe transportation of these salts can be accomplished at present with several shipping containers including a DOT 6M, a DOE 9968, Type A or Type B quantity 55-gallon drum overpacks, or even the TRUPACT II. The tradeoffs between each container is examined with the conclusion that none of the available shipping containers is fully satisfactory. Thus, the advantageous aspects of each container must be utilized in an integrated and efficient way to effectively manage the risk involved. 1 fig.

  8. Evaluation of Vitrification Processing Step for Rocky Flats Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Wigent, W.L.; Luey, J.K.; Scheele, R.D.; Li, H.

    1999-04-08

    In 1997, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff developed a processing option for incinerator ash at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS). This work was performed with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Safe Sites of Colorado (SSOC). A description of the remediation needs for the RFETS incinerator ash is provided in a report summarizing the recommended processing option for treatment of the ash (Lucy et al. 1998). The recommended process flowsheet involves a calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material followed by a vitrification processing step for a mixture of glass tit and calcined incinerator ash. Using the calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material reduced process upsets for the vitrification step, allowed for increased waste loading in the final product, and improved the quality of the final product. Figure 1.1 illustrates the flow sheet for the recommended processing option for treatment of RFETS incinerator ash. In 1998, work at PNNL further developed the recommended flow sheet through a series of studies to better define the vitrification operating parameters and to address secondary processing issues (such as characterizing the offgas species from the calcination process). Because a prototypical rotary calciner was not available for use, studies to evaluate the offgas from the calcination process were performed using a benchtop rotary calciner and laboratory-scale equipment (Lucy et al. 1998). This report focuses on the vitrification process step after ash has been calcined. Testing with full-scale containers was performed using ash surrogates and a muffle furnace similar to that planned for use at RFETS. Small-scale testing was performed using plutonium-bearing incinerator ash to verify performance of the waste form. Ash was not obtained from RFETS because of transportation requirements to calcine the incinerator ash prior to shipment of the material. Because part of

  9. FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Joe M. Aldrich

    2004-11-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  10. Hanford/Rocky Flats collaboration on development of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to treat mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.; Biyani, R.K.; Brown, C.M.; Teter, W.L.

    1995-11-01

    Proposals for demonstration work under the Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area, during the 1996 through 1997 fiscal years included two applications of supercritical carbon dioxide to mixed waste pretreatment. These proposals included task RF15MW58 of Rocky Flats and task RL46MW59 of Hanford. Analysis of compatibilities in wastes and work scopes yielded an expectation of substantial collaboration between sites whereby Hanford waste streams may undergo demonstration testing at Rocky Flats, thereby eliminating the need for test facilities at Hanford. This form of collaboration is premised the continued deployment at Rocky Flats and the capability for Hanford samples to be treated at Rocky Flats. The recent creation of a thermal treatment contract for a facility near Hanford may alleviate the need to conduct organic extraction upon Rocky Flats wastes by providing a cost effective thermal treatment alternative, however, some waste streams at Hanford will continue to require organic extraction. Final site waste stream treatment locations are not within the scope of this document.

  11. Establishing bounding internal dose estimates for thorium activities at Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Ulsh, Brant A; Rich, Bryce L; Chew, Melton H; Morris, Robert L; Sharfi, Mutty; Rolfes, Mark R

    2008-07-01

    As part of an evaluation of a Special Exposure Cohort petition filed on behalf of workers at the Rocky Flats Plant, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was required to demonstrate that bounding values could be established for radiation doses due to the potential intake of all radionuclides present at the facility. The main radioactive elements of interest at Rocky Flats were plutonium and uranium, but much smaller quantities of several other elements, including thorium, were occasionally handled at the site. Bounding potential doses from thorium has proven challenging at other sites due to the early historical difficulty in detecting this element through urinalysis methods and the relatively high internal dose delivered per unit intake. This paper reports the results of NIOSH's investigation of the uses of thorium at Rocky Flats and provides bounding dose reconstructions for these operations. During this investigation, NIOSH reviewed unclassified reports, unclassified extracts of classified materials, material balance and inventory ledgers, monthly progress reports from various groups, and health physics field logbooks, and conducted interviews with former Rocky Flats workers. Thorium operations included: (1) an experimental metal forming project with 240 kg of thorium in 1960; (2) the use of pre-formed parts in weapons mockups; (3) the removal of Th from U; (4) numerous analytical procedures involving trace quantities of thorium; and (5) the possible experimental use of thorium as a mold coating compound. The thorium handling operations at Rocky Flats were limited in scope, well-monitored and documented, and potential doses can be bounded.

  12. Plutonium burdens in people living around the Rocky Flats plant. Final report 1976-79

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.C.; Eversole, B.C.; Archer, P.G.; Taggart, R.; Efurd, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the tissues of people who lived near to or downwind from the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility in Colorado contained more plutonium than the tissues from people who lived farther away. Information was collected on the age, sex, smoking history, residence history, presence of disease, and plutonium level in selected tissues from individuals autopsied in various Eastern Colorado hospitals. The 236, 238, 239 and 240 isotopes of plutonium were determined. Plutonium levels in lung and liver tissues were affected by age and smoking history more than by distance from the Rocky Flats Plant. Though the measured 240/239 isotope ratio indicated a small contribution from Rocky Flats, the total amount of plutonium in the samples was no different than in similar samples collected from other areas of the U.S.

  13. Comparative risk analysis for the Rocky Flats Plant integrated project planning

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Shain, D.I.

    1994-05-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is developing, with active stakeholder a comprehensive planning strategy that will support transition of the Rocky Flats Plant from a nuclear weapons production facility to site cleanup and final disposition. Final disposition of the Rocky Flats Plant materials and contaminants requires consideration of the interrelated nature of sitewide problems, such as material movement and disposition, facility and land use endstates, costs relative risks to workers and the public, and waste disposition. Comparative Risk Analysis employs both incremental risk and cumulative risk evaluations to compare risks from postulated options or endstates. These postulated options or endstates can be various remedial alternatives, or future endstate uses of federal agency land. Currently, there does not exist any approved methodology that aggregates various incremental risk estimates. Comparative Risk Analysis has been developed to aggregate various incremental risk estimates to develop a site cumulative risk estimate. This paper discusses development of the Comparative Risk Analysis methodology, stakeholder participation and lessons learned from these challenges.

  14. Plutonium contamination in soils in open space and residential areas near Rocky Flats, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Litaor, M I

    1999-02-01

    Spatial analysis of the 240Pu:239Pu isotopic ratio of 42 soil samples collected around Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado, was conducted to assess the effect of Rocky Flats Plant activity on the soil environment. Two probability maps that quantified the uncertainty of the spatial distribution of plutonium isotopic ratios were constructed using the sequential Gaussian simulation technique (sGs). Assuming a plutonium isotopic ratio range of 0.152+/-0.003 to 0.169+/-0.009 is characteristic to global fallout in Colorado, and a mean value of 0.155 is representative for the Rocky Flats Plant area, the main findings of the current work were (1) the areas northwest and southwest of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium ratio > or = 0.155, thus were minimally impacted by the plant activity; (2) the study area east of Rocky Flats Plant (approximately 120 km2) exhibited a plutonium isotopic ratio < or = 0.155, which is a definitive indicator of Rocky Flats Plant-derived plutonium; and (3) inventory calculations across the study area exhibited large standard error of estimates. These errors were originated from the high variability in plutonium activity over a small sampling scale and the uncertainty in the global fallout isotopic ratio. Using the mean simulated estimates of plutonium isotopic ratio, coupled with plutonium activity measured at 11 soil pits and additional plutonium information published elsewhere, the plutonium loading on the open space and residential areas amounted to 111.2 GBq, with a standard error of estimate of 50.8 GBq.

  15. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrincione, D.A.; Erdmann, N.L.

    1992-12-31

    The Rocky Rats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1992. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population.

  16. n-octane combustion in a flat flame

    SciTech Connect

    Axelsson, E.; Rosengren, L.G.

    1986-05-01

    In the present paper new results on the combustion of n-octane obtained by molecular beam mass spectrometry in a flat flame are presented. Corresponding experiments on i-octane have been reported and comparisons to that compound are made to explore the different ignition and combustion behaviour of n- and i-octane.

  17. Vitrification of plutonium at Rocky Flats the argument for a pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1996-05-01

    Current plans for stabilizing and storing the plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant fail to put the material in a form suitable for disposition and resistant to proliferation. Vitrification should be considered as an alternate technology. The vitrification should begin with a small-scale pilot plant.

  18. Radiological/Health physics program assessement at Rocky Flats, the process

    SciTech Connect

    Psomas, P.O.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy, Rocky Flats Office, Safety and Health Group, Health Physics Team (HPT) is responsible for oversight of the Radiation Protection and Health Physics Program (RPHP) of the Integrating Management Contractor (IMC), Kaiser-Hill (K-H) operations at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). As of 1 January 1996 the Rocky Flats Plant employed 300 DOE and 4,300 contractor personnel (K-H and their subcontractors). WSI is a subcontractor and provides plant security. To accomplish the RPHP program oversight HPT personnel developed a systematic methodology for performing a functional RPHP Assessment. The initial process included development of a flow diagram identifying all programmatic elements and assessment criteria documents. Formulation of plans for conducting interviews and performance of assessments constituted the second major effort. The generation of assessment reports was the final step, based on the results of this process. This assessment will be a 6 person-year effort, over the next three years. This process is the most comprehensive assessment of any Radiation Protection and Health Physics (RPHP) Program ever performed at Rocky Flats. The results of these efforts will establish a baseline for future RPHP Program assessments at RFETS. This methodology has been well-received by contractor personnel and creates no Privacy Act violations or other misunderstandings.

  19. Toxic chemical release inventory at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) submits an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (Form R) as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). The Site uses a multi-step process for completing the Form R which includes developing a written procedure, determine thresholds, collection of chemical use and fate information, and peer review.

  20. Frit screening for Rocky Flats ash and sand, slag, and crucible vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, J.D.; Li, Hong; Darab, J.G.

    1997-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing vitrified waste forms for plutonium-bearing ash and plutonium-bearing sand, slag, and crucible (SS&C) materials from Rocky Flats. Waste forms are to meet product criteria (e.g., safeguard termination limits, storage criteria, and target plutonium loading) and processing constraints (e.g., upper temperature limits, processing time, and equipment compatibility). The target waste form for ash is an agglomerated product, while that for SS&C is a fully encapsulated product. Laboratory scoping studies were conducted on glass formulations from six different glass families: (1) antimony vanadium phosphate, (2) iron vanadium phosphate, (3) tin zinc phosphate, (4) soda-lime silicate, (5) alkali borosilicate, and (6) alkali borate. Glass families were selected due to viscosity behavior in the temperature range of interest (< 800C). Scoping study tests included gradient furnace tests to determine processing range and sintering temperature, thermogravimetric analysis to determine weight loss as a function of temperature, and crucible tests to determine frit compositions tolerance to variations in processing temperature, waste loading, and waste type. The primary screening criterion for the selection of frits for future studies was processing temperature below 400C to minimize the potential for foaming in ash caused by the release of gases (main source of gas is combustion of carbon species) and to minimize processing cycle times. Based on this criterion, glass formulations from the tin zinc phosphate and alkali borosilicate families were selected for future variability testing. Variability testing will include final product evaluation, glass system tolerance to waste loading and composition variation, and identification of parameters impacting time/temperature profiles. Variability testing results will give a final frit formulation for ash and SS&C, and identify key processing parameters. 12 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage.

  2. The marriage of RCRA and CERCLA at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, D.C.; Brooks, L.M.

    1998-11-01

    A key goal of the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) signed in July of 1996 was to provide a seamless marriage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (and other media specific programs) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the implementing agencies of each. This paper examines the two years since the signing of RFCA and identifies the successes, failures, and stresses of the marriage. RFCA has provided an excellent vehicle for regulatory and substantive progress at the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats facility. The key for a fully successful marriage is to build on the accomplishments to date and to continually improve the internal and external systems and relationships. To date, the parties can be proud of both the substantial accomplishment of substantive environmental work and the regulatory systems that have enabled the work.

  3. Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Ecological Monitoring Program 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-31

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (ECMP) was established at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) in September 1992. At that time, EcMP staff developed a Program Plan that was peer-reviewed by scientists from western universities before submittal to DOE RFFO in January 1993. The intent of the program is to measure several quantitative variables at different ecological scales in order to characterize the Rocky Flats ecosystem. This information is necessary to document ecological conditions at the Site in impacted and nonimpacted areas to determine if Site practices have had ecological impacts, either positive or negative. This information can be used by managers interested in future use scenarios and CERCLA activities. Others interested in impact analysis may also find the information useful. In addition, these measurements are entered into a database which will serve as a long-term information repository that will document long-term trends and potential future changes to the Site, both natural and anthropogenic.

  4. Rocky Flats 1990--91 winter validation tracer study: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.J.

    1991-10-01

    During the winter of 1990--91, North American Weather Consultants (NAWC) and its subcontractor, ABB Environmental Services (ABBES), conducted a Winter Validation Study (WVS) for EG&G Rocky Flats involving 12 separate tracer experiments conducted between February 3 and February 19, 1991. Six experiments were conducted during nighttime hours and four experiments were conducted during daytime hours. In addition, there was one day/night and one night/day transitional experiment conducted. The primary purpose of the WVS was to gather data to further the approval process for the Terrain Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC). TRAC is an atmospheric dispersion model developed and operated at the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) north of Denver, Colorado. A secondary objective was to gather data that will serve to validate the TRAC model physics.

  5. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  6. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  7. Structural evaluation of existing plutonium buildings and auxiliary structures at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Existing plutonium handling and storage buildings at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant were evaluated for their structural resistance to seismic, tornado, and extreme wind loadings and the impact of tornado-driven missiles. This report presents the summary results of the study for all the buildings included in the study and makes preliminary general recommendations for upgrading where needed. Detailed analyses and backup calculations performed for the several buildings are presented in separate reports.

  8. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1990-10-01

    Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste drums were sampled for gas composition. Glass, metal, graphite, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values were calculated for the waste drums. G(H{sub 2}) was below 0.6 and G(Total) was below 1.3 for all waste forms discussed in this report. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Tomographic gamma scanning of uranium-contaminated waste at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, D.J.; Betts, S.E.; Prettyman, T.H.; Rael, C.D.

    1998-12-31

    A tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS) instrument was deployed at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to assist with the deactivation of Building 886. Many 208-L drums containing waste contaminated with highly enriched uranium were measured in order to certify these sites for shipment and disposal. This project marks a successful cooperation between RFETS and Los Alamos National Laboratory and is the first major field experience using TGS technology to assay uranium.

  10. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Janeen Denise

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  11. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization`s pursuit of continuous ES&H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site`s ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES&H excellence.

  12. Options for the disposition of current inventory of Rocky Flats Plant residues. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.

    1994-10-03

    With the end of the Cold War, much concern has been directed towards the accumulation of special nuclear material resulting from the dismantlement of a large number of nuclear weapons. This concern has opened up a debate over the final disposition of the large inventory of weapons-capable plutonium. Technologies for the conversion of plutonium into acceptable forms will need to be assessed and evaluated. Candidate strategies for interim and final disposition include a variety of immobilization techniques (vitrification in glass, ceramic, or metal), conversion to reactor fuel, or direct discard as waste. The selected disposition strategy will be chosen based upon a range of decision metrics such as expected conversion costs, equipment requirements, and waste generation. To this end, a systems analysis approach is necessary for the evaluation and comparison of the different disposition strategies. Current data on inventory of plutonium, such as that at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), may be useful for the evaluation and selection of candidate disposition technologies. A preliminary analysis of the residues of scrap at Rocky Flats was performed to establish a foundation for comparison of candidate strategies. About 3 metric tons of plutonium and 270 metric tons of other wastes remain in the inventory at Rocky Flats. Estimates on the equipment, facility, manpower, and cost requirements to process this inventory over a proposed 10-year cleanup campaign will provide a benchmark for comparison and assessment of proposed disposition technologies.

  13. Vascular flora of the Rocky Flats area, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2010-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Site (Site) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility near Golden, Colorado that produced nuclear weapons components during the Cold War. Like many federal properties that have been off-limits to public access for decades, it has become a refugia for biodiversity as surrounding landscapes have been lost to agriculture and urbanization. A floristic study of the area was conducted on approximately 2,505 ha (6,189 ac) and includes the parcels currently managed and operated by DOE and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge). A flora of 630 species of vascular plants inmore » 84 families and 340 genera was documented, including 12 species endemic to the southern Rocky Mountains and seven species considered rare or imperiled by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. The flora of the Site is characterized by a predominantly Western North American floristic element, however, an Adventive floristic element contributes the greatest number of species. The vegetation is dominated by xeric tallgrass prairie and mixed grass prairie, with areas of wetland, shrubland, and riparian woodland.« less

  14. Vascular flora of the Rocky Flats area, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2010-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Site (Site) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility near Golden, Colorado that produced nuclear weapons components during the Cold War. Like many federal properties that have been off-limits to public access for decades, it has become a refugia for biodiversity as surrounding landscapes have been lost to agriculture and urbanization. A floristic study of the area was conducted on approximately 2,505 ha (6,189 ac) and includes the parcels currently managed and operated by DOE and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge). A flora of 630 species of vascular plants in 84 families and 340 genera was documented, including 12 species endemic to the southern Rocky Mountains and seven species considered rare or imperiled by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. The flora of the Site is characterized by a predominantly Western North American floristic element, however, an Adventive floristic element contributes the greatest number of species. The vegetation is dominated by xeric tallgrass prairie and mixed grass prairie, with areas of wetland, shrubland, and riparian woodland.

  15. Application of an advanced atmospheric mesoscale model to dispersion in the Rocky Flats, Colorado vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program sponsored a field experiment in the winter of 1991 near Rocky Flats, Colorado. Both meteorological and tracer dispersion measurements were taken. These two data sets provided an opportunity to investigate the influence of terrain-generated, radiatively-driven flows on the dispersion of the tracer. We use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), originally developed at Colorado State University, to simulate meteorological conditions and tracer dispersion on the case night of 4-5 February 1991. The simulations described herein reveal considerable information about the extent to which the Rocky Mountains influence the flow along the Front Range , the importance of diffusion when simulating drainage flows and the computing needs of simulations in complex terrain regions.

  16. Application of an advanced atmospheric mesoscale model to dispersion in the Rocky Flats, Colorado vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1993-02-01

    Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program sponsored a field experiment in the winter of 1991 near Rocky Flats, Colorado. Both meteorological and tracer dispersion measurements were taken. These two data sets provided an opportunity to investigate the influence of terrain-generated, radiatively-driven flows on the dispersion of the tracer. We use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), originally developed at Colorado State University, to simulate meteorological conditions and tracer dispersion on the case night of 4-5 February 1991. The simulations described herein reveal considerable information about the extent to which the Rocky Mountains influence the flow along the Front Range , the importance of diffusion when simulating drainage flows and the computing needs of simulations in complex terrain regions.

  17. Rebaselining seismic risks for resumption of Building 707 plutonium operations at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, F. Jr.; Foppe, T.; Stahlnecker, E.

    1993-08-01

    Natural phenomena risks have been assessed for plutonium handling facilities at the Rocky Flats Plant, based on numerous studies performed for the Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Project. The risk assessment was originally utilized in the facilities Final Safety Analysis Reports and in subsequent risk management decisions. Plutonium production operations were curtailed in 1989 in order for a new operating contractor to implement safety improvements. Since natural phenomena events dominated risks to the public, a re-assessment of these events were undertaken for resumption of plutonium operations.

  18. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2013-07-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several species of biocontrol

  19. Implementation of nondestructive assay instrumentation in the Rocky Flats Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, F.X.; Gilmer, J.E.; Goebel, G.R.; Lawless, J.L.; Pigg, J.L.; Scott, D.L.; Tindall, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Nondestructive assay equipment for the Rocky Flats Processing Facility is described. In-line assay equipment includes calorimeters, passive gamma-ray counters for measurement of residues, a segmented gamma-ray scanner for the assay of electrorefined salts, a liquid assay system, and a thermal neutron coincidence counter for measurement of oxide. Bismuth germanate detectors are used in the inventory station to verify material type using a gamma-ray signature. A portable assay instrument was developed which employs a detector and single channel analyzer whose functions and output are controlled by a programmable calculator. This instrument is applied primarily to hold-up measurements. 5 references, 4 figures.

  20. Vitrification of Rocky Flats ash followed by encapsulation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McKibben, J.M.; Land, B.; Strachan, D.M.; Perez, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 10 to 20 metric tons of plutonium in the US is in the form of scrap, residues, oxides, ash, metal, sludge, compounds, etc. This paper describes a relatively simple concept of stabilizing most of this type of plutonium by converting it into encapsulated glass. A full-scale hot demonstration of the concept is proposed, in which Rocky Flats ash would be vitrified and sealed in small cans, followed by encapsulation of the cans in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters with high-level waste glass. The proposal described in this paper offers an integrated national approach for early stabilization and disposition of the nation`s plutonium-bearing residues.

  1. Safety analyses performed in the Systematic Evaluation Program at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, F.M.; Persinko, D.; Haga, P.B.

    1994-06-01

    Structures, systems, and components (SSC) at Rocky Flats were designed and put into operation before current standards and criteria applicable to these SSCs were developed. The purpose of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) at Rocky Flats (RF) is to systematically compare the design of SSCs to current design requirements and assess the differences to assure that a balanced and integrated level of safety is achieved to support long-term operation of the facilities. The SEP is being performed in three phases. Phase 1, selection of technical subjects (topics) and development of evaluation plans is complete. Phase 2, comparison of the design of structures, systems and components to current design requirements (CDR), is in progress. It is being performed in two parts, Phase 2A and Phase 2B. An Integrated Assessment of the recommendations from Phase 2 will be performed in Phase 3. The RF SEP is not necessarily used to bring the RF facilities into compliance with newer standards, but to ensure that the safety issues addressed by current requirements either do not exist, are acceptably addressed by existing designs, or are addressed by backfit of existing standards into older facilities to the extent appropriate to the concern. For example, administrative controls may provide adequate resolution of issues addressed by design features in more modern facilities.

  2. Utilization of an automated multimeter calibration system by the Rocky Flats Standards Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wickoff, B.; Stant, R.S.; Brown, G.R. Jr.

    1982-09-10

    The Physical Metrology Laboratory (PML) of the Rocky Flats (RF) Standards Laboratory, like many other standards laboratories, was inundated during the past decade with the vast variety of new digital multimeters. These multimeters were produced by several companies, and required accurate calibrations and certification to support the requirements at the Rocky Flats Plant. The need to automate the calibration and certification process accurately was vividly indicated by a time study of performing the process manually, for both the digital and the analog multimeters, in the PML Reference Standards Laboratory. By using an automated calibration system, approximately 90% of these calibrations could be completed in the Physical Metrology Support Laboratories with a reduction of 50% or more in hours required for the calibrations. With these specific requirements and other specifications deemed necessary, the automated calibration systems for digital and analog multimeters were purchased. Two Fluke 5101B Calibrators with Fluke 5220A Transconductance Amplifiers and two printers were procured for use by the Physical Metrology Support Laboratories. There operation and performance are described.

  3. Workforce mobilization for D&D at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.W.; Easdon, R.C.; Bourgeois, T.G.

    1997-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was a nuclear production facility. Products from RFP included nuclear and non-nuclear parts used by other plants to assemble weapons. Operations at the plant generally included metal recovery, processing, machining, assembly, and the physical and administrative support functions associated with this type of production. Construction of the Site began in the early 1950`s. The Site was an active production facility through the Cold War. After nuclear production operations ceased, the Site was renamed to become the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site). Labor policies and precedence began to evolve from the time of initial construction. This paper reviews the labor situation at the plants at the commencement of D&D activities, the problems that were created by that environment, and the efforts made to adjust labor policies to aid effective implementation of D&D activities. Mobilization of the D&D workforce required specific planning for effective implementation. Work assignments for D&D activities had to receive approval prior to performing activities. Once established, the appropriate funding was secured to allow hiring, training and deployment of the workforce. An infrastructure was established to manage activities and control work on a day to day basis. The result of the Site effort in this area provided for an immediate positive impact to D&D activities.

  4. Evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant stored plutonium inventory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Einerson, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate reported inventories of plutonium contained in stored transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). From 1970 to 1989, this waste was shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and placed in aboveground retrievable storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC)-Transuranic Storage Area (TSA). This evaluation was initiated to address potential uncertainty in quantities of stored plutonium reported in the Radioactive Waste Management Information System (RWMIS). The RWMIS includes radionuclide information from generators that shipped TRU waste to INEL for storage. Recent evaluations performed on buried TRU waste (1954-1970) resulted in significant revision to the original reported values of plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium. These evaluations were performed based on Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Inventory Difference (ID) records. This evaluation for stored TRU waste was performed to: (1) identify if significant discrepancies exist between RWMIS reported values and RFP ID records, (2) describe the methodology used to perform the RWMIS evaluation, (3) determine a Best Estimate (BE) and 95% Upper Confidence Bound (UB) on the plutonium inventory, (4) provide conclusions based on this evaluation, and (5) identify recommendations and/or actions that might be needed.

  5. Hydrology of a nuclear-processing plant site, Rocky Flats, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurr, R. Theodore

    1976-01-01

    Accidental releases of contaminants resulting from the operation of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's nuclear-processing and recovery plant located on Rocky Flats will move at different rates through -different parts of the hydrologic system. Rates of movement are dependent upon the magnitude of the accidental release and the hydrologic conditions at the time of the release. For example, during wet periods, a contaminant resulting from a 5,000-gallon (19,000-1itre) release on the land surface would enter the ground-water system in about 2 to 12 hours. Ground-water flow in the Rocky Flats Alluvium might move the contaminant eastward at a rate of about 3 to 11 feet (0.9 to 3.4 metres) per day, if it remains dissolved. Maximum time to a point of discharge would be about 3 years; minimum time could be a few days. A contaminant entering a stream would then move at a rate of about 60 feet (18 metres) per minute under pool-and-riffle conditions. The rate of movement might be about 420 feet (128 metres) per minute under open-channel-flow conditions following intense thunderstorms.

  6. Cement waste-form development for ion-exchange resins at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, G.W.; Ames, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the development of a cement waste form to stabilize ion-exchange resins at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These resins have an elevated potential for ignition due to inadequate wetness and contact with nitrates. The work focused on the preparation and performance evaluation of several Portland cement/resin formulations. The performance standards were chosen to address Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements, compatibility with Rocky Flats equipment, and throughput efficiency. The work was performed with surrogate gel-type Dowex cation- and anion-exchange resins chosen to be representative of the resin inventory at RFETS. Work was initiated with nonactinide resins to establish formulation ranges that would meet performance standards. Results were then verified and refined with actinide-containing resins. The final recommended formulation that passed all performance standards was determined to be a cement/water/resin (C/W/R) wt % ratio of 63/27/10 at a pH of 9 to 12. The recommendations include the acceptable compositional ranges for each component of the C/W/R ratio. Also included in this report are a recommended procedure, an equipment list, and observations/suggestions for implementation at RFETS. In addition, information is included that explains why denitration of the resin is unnecessary for stabilizing its ignitability potential.

  7. History of Uranium-233(sup233U)Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant. In support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moment, R.L.; Gibbs, F.E.; Freiboth, C.J.

    1999-04-01

    This report documents the processing of Uranium-233 at the Rocky Flats Plant (Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site). The information may be used to meet Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)and for determining potential Uranium-233 content in applicable residue waste streams.

  8. Community Surveys: Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    C. K. Mertz; James Flynn; Donald G. MacGregor; Theresa Satterfield; Stephen M. Johnson; Seth Tuler; Thomas Webler

    2002-10-16

    This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones in Arvada and from 99% of the potential telephones in Westminster. Surveying started on August 10, 2001 and finished on September 25, 2001. A total of 401 completed interviews were obtained with a CASRO response rate of 32.5%. The average length of an interview was 15.7 minutes. Overall, respondents hold favorable views of science. They indicate an interest in developments in science and technology, feel that the world is better off because of science, and that science makes our lives healthier, easier, and more comfortable. However, respondents are divided on whether science should decide what is safe or not safe for themselves and their families. The majority of the respondents think that standards for exposure to radiation should be based on what science knows about health effects of radiation and on what is possible with today's technology. Although few respondents had visited the sites, most had heard or read something about Fernald or Rocky Flat s in the

  9. Characterization of Uranium Contamination, Transport, and Remediation at Rocky Flats - Across Remediation into Post-Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecky, D. R.; Boylan, J.; Murrell, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    The Rocky Flats Site is a former nuclear weapons production facility approximately 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado. Built in 1952 and operated by the Atomic Energy Commission and then Department of Energy, the Site was remediated and closed in 2005, and is currently undergoing long-term surveillance and monitoring by the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Areas of contamination resulted from roughly fifty years of operation. Of greatest interest, surface soils were contaminated with plutonium, americium, and uranium; groundwater was contaminated with chlorinated solvents, uranium, and nitrates; and surface waters, as recipients of runoff and shallow groundwater discharge, have been contaminated by transport from both regimes. A region of economic mineralization that has been referred to as the Colorado Mineral Belt is nearby, and the Schwartzwalder uranium mine is approximately five miles upgradient of the Site. Background uranium concentrations are therefore elevated in many areas. Weapons-related activities included work with enriched and depleted uranium, contributing anthropogenic content to the environment. Using high-resolution isotopic analyses, Site-related contamination can be distinguished from natural uranium in water samples. This has been instrumental in defining remedy components, and long-term monitoring and surveillance strategies. Rocky Flats hydrology interlinks surface waters and shallow groundwater (which is very limited in volume and vertical and horizontal extent). Surface water transport pathways include several streams, constructed ponds, and facility surfaces. Shallow groundwater has no demonstrated connection to deep aquifers, and includes natural preferential pathways resulting primarily from porosity in the Rocky Flats alluvium, weathered bedrock, and discontinuous sandstones. In addition, building footings, drains, trenches, and remedial systems provide pathways for transport at the site. Removal of impermeable surfaces (buildings

  10. Comprehensive appraisal of 239 + 240Pu in soils around Rocky Flats, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Litaor, M I; Ellerbroek, D; Allen, L; Dovala, E

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium contamination of soils around Rocky Flats Environmental & Technology Site, near Golden, Colorado, resulted from past outdoor storage practices and subsequent remobilization due to inadequate cleanup practices. Until now human-health risk assessment has not been performed because of a lack of sufficient information regarding the spatial extent of 239 + 240Pu in soils. The purpose of this work was to elucidate the extent of plutonium contamination in surface soils, and to assess the uncertainty associated with the spatial distribution of 239 + 240Pu around Rocky Flats Environmental & Technology Site. Four data sets were collected or compiled for this investigation: (1) samples collected from 240 plots of 1.01- or 4.05-hectare by compositing 25 evenly-spaced samples from the upper 0.64 cm in each plot; (2) samples collected from the upper 5 cm of soil in 167 of the same 240 plots by compositing 10 samples from the center of each plot; (3) historical data compiled from samples collected between 1969 and 1973, considered to be the most indicative of the original release; and (4) the exhaustive data set that contains the samples from 1, 2, and 3 and other published data sets collected between 1974 and 1994. These latter samples varied in depth and method of sampling. Plutonium activity reported in the exhaustive data set ranged from 0.03 Bq kg-1 to 407,000 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 1,443 Bq kg-1, median of 6.6 Bq kg-1, standard deviation of 18,463 Bq kg-1, and a coefficient of variation of 12.6. The technique of nonparametric indicator kriging was used to model four conditional cumulative distribution functions of 239 + 240Pu in soils around Rocky Flats Environmental & Technology Site. Each of the conditional cumulative distribution functions was used to generate an E-type (mean of the conditional cumulative distribution functions) surface. The resulted surfaces were consistent with the hypothesis that the westerly winds were the dominant mechanism of plutonium

  11. Fiscal year 1990 Rocky Flats Plant Environmental Restoration program Current-Year Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, T. ); Waage, E.; Miller, D. Corp., Boulder, CO )

    1990-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is a nuclear weapons manufacturing facility currently operated by EG G for the US Department of Energy (DOE). RFP is located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains in Jefferson Country, Colorado. The Fiscal Year 1990 (FY90) Current-Year Work Plan (CYWP) is intended to serve as a guidance document for the Environmental Restoration (ER) and RCRA Compliance programs that will be implemented at RFP. The CYWP provides in one document any cross-references necessary to understand the interrelationships between the CYWP and the DOE Five-Year Plan (FYP), Site-Specific Plan (SSP), and other related documents. The scope of this plan includes comparison of planned FY90 ER activities to those actually achieved. The CYWP has been updated to include Colorado Department of Health (CDH), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and DOE Inter-Agency Agreement ER activities. It addresses hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, mixed wastes (radioactive and hazardous), and sanitary wastes. The CYWP also addresses facilities and sites contaminated with or used in management of those wastes.

  12. Closure of underground storage tanks at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site - looking beyond the obvious

    SciTech Connect

    Madel, R.E.; Gappa, R.M.; Anderson, M.A.; Warbington, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RIFETS) is in the process of replacing and closing 22 Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) currently in use for fuel storage. The tank closures are in response to Federal and State Regulations requiring tank upgrades or replacement by December 22, 1998 to meet new requirements for leak detection and spill prevention. This paper presents the basis for determining the most cost effective program for closing the USTs. Presented herein is general information relevant to closure alternatives as well as evaluation criteria that can be used to assess the various alternatives. A decision tree for choosing among tank closure alternatives using the evaluation criteria is then discussed. Finally, a summary of the results of the decision process for each of the 22 tank sites is presented. The closure alternatives, the evaluation criteria, and the decision trees are non-site specific which enables the decision process that is presented in this paper to be used at other similar sites.

  13. Retrospective beryllium exposure assessment at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, A.E.; Torma-Krajewski, J.; Viet, S.M.

    1997-05-01

    Since the 1960`s, beryllium machining was performed to make nuclear weapon components at the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant. Beryllium exposure was assessed via fixed airhead (FAH) sampling in which the filter cassette was affixed to the machine, generally within a few feet of the worker`s breathing zone. Approximately 500,000 FAH samples were collected for beryllium over three decades. From 1984 to 1987, personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples were also collected as part of the evaluation of a new high velocity/low volume local exhaust ventilation (HV/LV LEV) system. The purpose of this study was to determine how the two types of sampling data could be used for an exposure assessment in the beryllium shop.

  14. Denitration of Rocky Flats Ion-Exchange Resins: Recommendation of Denitration Processes, October 19, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob Espinoza; Mary Barr; Wayne Smith

    1998-12-01

    Resin denitration via anion-exchange is an implementable process that can effectively mitigate the hazards associated with stored resins in which the bulk of the nitrate consists of an "exchangeable nitrate" ionically bound to the cationic sites of the anion-exchange resins. Salicylate has been selected as the exchange anion of choice because of its superior selectivity for the Rocky Flats resins and its unique potential for comprehensive recovery and recycle. This report outlines a single recommended resin denigration procedure that is reasonably independent of the resin composition and the current stored form. This procedure is not optimized but rather seeks to `over-treat' the resins so that a single procedure works for the variety of stored resins. The recommended treatment with sodium salicylate reduces resins by 95-99+% the measured exothermic behavior of the ion-exchange.

  15. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    A quality assurance plan (QAP) is a documented description or a listing of the controls to be implemented to assure that an operation or activity is accomplished in a consistent manner and in accordance with requirements. Federal, state, and local governments require emergency planning for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of this EG G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) project is to identify the EPZs where actions could be necessary to protect public health. The RFP EPZ project is developing an interim basis for potential sheltering and evacuation recommendations in the event of an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere from this facility. Also, RFP is developing EPZs for accidental releases of major nonradiological hazardous substances to the atmosphere, and will analyze the impacts of an unplanned surface water release from the facility.

  16. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing ash residue with a Stir Melter System

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Kormanyos, K.R.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter{trademark} System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats residue stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{Sigma}Alkali/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt% of ash, the ash was modified to contain {approximately} 5 wt% CeO{sub 2} to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt% water to 40 wt% solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1,050 C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables` settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run.

  17. Cementation and solidification of miscellaneous mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site produces a variety of wastes which are amenable to micro-encapsulation in cement Portland cement is an inexpensive and readily available material for this application. The Waste Projects (WP) group at Rocky Flats evaluated cementation to determine its effectiveness in encapsulating several wastes. These included waste analytical laboratory solutions, incinerator ash, hydroxide precipitation sludge, and an acidic solution from the Delphi process (a chemical oxidation technology being evaluated as an alternative to incineration). WP prepared surrogate wastes and conducted designed experiments to optimize the cement formulation for the waste streams. These experiments used a Taguchi or factorial experimental design, interactions between the variables were also considered in the testing. Surrogate waste samples were spiked with various levels of each of six Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed metals (Cd, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni, and Ag), cemented using the optimized formulation, and analyzed for leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The metal spike levels chosen were based on characterization data, and also based on an estimate of the highest levels of contaminants suspected in the waste. This paper includes laboratory test results for each waste studied. These include qualitative observations as well as quantitative data from TCLP analyses and environmental cycling studies. The results from these experiments show that cement stabilization of the different wastes can produce final waste forms which meet the current RCRA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements. Formulations that resulted in LDR compliant waste forms are provided. The volume increases associated with cementation are also lower than anticipated. Future work will include verification studies with actual mixed radioactive waste as well as additional formulation development studies on other waste streams.

  18. Case History of a Clean Water Act Compliance Agreement at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    A major Clean Water Act (CWA) Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement was signed on March 25, 1991 by the US Department of Energy, Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE, RFFO) and the Water Enforcement Division of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VIII. The agreement revised the Rocky Flats Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and arose from pemittee-requested changes in effluent monitoring points and permit violations, most notably the February 22, 1989 Chromic Acid Incident. The Rocky Flats Plant, now called the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) near Golden Colorado was operated at that time by Rockwell International Corporation, who later plead guilty to six misdemeanor and felony counts of the CWA (the aforementioned NPDES permit violations) and paid a $4 million fine on March 26, 1992. The Compliance Agreement, hereafter referred to as the NPDES FFCA, called for three separate remedial action plans and contained a schedule for their submittal to the EPA. The compliance plans focussed on: (1) Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) performance upgrades, (2) source control and surface water protection, and (3) characterization of the impacts from past sludge disposal practices. Projects that implemented the compliance plans were initiated soon after submittal to the EPA and are forecast to complete in 1997 at a total cost of over $35 million. This paper presents a case history of NPDES FFCA compliance projects and highlights the successes, failures, and lessons learned.

  19. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

  20. Resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing thermal stabilization to enhance the safe storage of plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant until decisions are made on long-term storage and disposition of the material. The proposed action is to resume thermal stabilization of pyrophoric plutonium in Building 707 at Rocky Flats Plant. Thermal stabilization would heat the pyrophoric plutonium under controlled conditions in a glovebox furnace to promote full oxidation and convert the material into stable plutonium oxide in the form of PuO{sub 2}. Other activities associated with thermal stabilization would include post-stabilization characterization of non-pyrophoric plutonium and on-site movement of pyrophoric and non-pyrophoric plutonium. This report covers; purpose and need; proposed action; alternatives to the proposed action; affected environment; environmental effects of proposed action and no action alternative; agencies and person consulted; and public participation.

  1. Groundwater modeling to support risk assessment at Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Newill, R.J.; Zhang, C.M.; Belcher, W.; Roberts, B.

    1994-12-31

    Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2) of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), located west of Denver, Colorado, has been the site of extensive environmental investigations related to contamination from past radioactive and chemical waste storage and disposal practices. As part of the OU2 Phase 2 RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) process, numerical groundwater fate and transport modeling using the MODFLOW, MT3D, and ONED3 codes was performed to support the data needs of the OU2 Human Health Risk Assessment. Characterization of OU2 physical conditions indicates that complex subsurface geologic conditions dominate the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution and transport within OU2. Because the sole purpose of the groundwater fate and transport modeling for this project was to support the needs of the human health risk assessment, it was adequate to limit the degree of model complexity to that necessary to provide conservative estimates of contaminant loading to local creeks, thus resulting in conservative estimates of human health risk. To accomplish this, the complex, multi-layer, highly transient site conditions were simplified to an equivalent, single-layer, steady-state system that incorporated the large-scale behavior of the integrated OU2 system.

  2. Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste -- Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-23

    This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems.

  3. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  4. Site vegetation report: Terrestrial vegetation survey (1993--1995) for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (EcMP) was designed to investigate the long-term ecological trends in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at the US Department of energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) (DOE 1993). Field sampling was conducted during 1993, 1994, and 1995, until the program was terminated in late 1995. This report presents the terrestrial vegetation data that were gathered by the EcMP. The site is located on the Colorado Piedmont, east of the Front Range, between Boulder and Golden, approximately 25 km (16 miles) northwest of Denver. The topography and proximity of the Site to the mountain front result in an interesting mixture of prairie and mountain plant species. The Site is one of the few large, relatively undisturbed areas of its kind that remains along the Colorado Piedmont. Until 1989, the primary mission of the Site was the production of nuclear weapons components (DOE 1993). After production ceased, Site personnel shifted their focus to cleanup and closure.

  5. Plutonium-239 + 240 and Americium-241 in soils east of Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Litaor, M.I.; Barth, G.R.; Molzer, P.C.; Thompson, M.L.

    1994-11-01

    Soils east of the Rocky Flats (RF) near Golden, CO, were contaminated with Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241 as a result of past waste-storage practices. The physiocochemical parameters that govern the actinides distribution in the soil are poorly understood. Twenty-six soil pits at various distances and directions from a contaminated site at RF were excavated, sampled, and analyzed for actinide activities as well as selected physical, chemical, and mineralogical attributes. Plutonium-239+240 and Am-241 activities in the soils ranged form 164 280 Bq/kg to 0.0037 Bq/kg, decreasing with distance from the source. More than 90% of the Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241 activities were confined to the upper 12 cm of the soil, regardless of the soil characteristics, or distance and direction from the source. Evidence of preferential transport in macropores formed along decayed root channels was observed in four soil pits and had translocated Pu-239 + 240 to a depth of 90 cm. This transport mechanism increased by a factor of 30 the level of Pu-239 + 240 activity at this depth. Earthworm activity is probably important in the redistribution of actinides in the upper 40 cm of many of the soils investigated. Planning of future remedial activities at RF should consider the findings of this contaminant-transport study. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John

    2013-07-01

    DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

  7. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

  8. TREATMENT OF PLUTONIUM- AND URANIUM-CONTAMINATED OIL FROM ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-05

    A removal method for plutonium and uranium has been tested at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). This alternative treatment technology is applicable to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organics (mainly used pump oil) contaminated with actinides. In our studies, greater than 70% removal of the actinides was achieved. The technology is based on contacting the oil with a sorbent powder consisting of a surface modified mesoporous material. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Support) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removal and stabilization of RCRA (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and actinides in water and for removal of mercury from organic solvents [1, 2]. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide support provides a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. The testing described in this report was conducted on a small scale but larger-scale testing of the technology has been performed on mercury-contaminated oil without difficulty [3].

  9. The Rocky Flats Plant Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization Program (WSRIC): Progress and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Ideker, V.L.; Doyle, G.M.

    1994-02-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) Program, as described in the WSRIC Program Description delineates the process knowledge used to identify and characterize currently-generated waste from approximately 5404 waste streams originating from 576 processes in 288 buildings at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Annual updates to the WSRIC documents are required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement between the US Department of Energy, the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency. Accurate determination and characterization of waste is a crucial component in RFP`s waste management strategy to assure compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage and treatment requirements, as well as disposal acceptance criteria. The WSRIC Program was rebaselined in September 1992, and serves as the linchpin for documenting process knowledge in RFP`s RCRA operating record. Enhancements to the WSRIC include strengthening the waste characterization rationale, expanding WSRIC training for waste generators, and incorporating analytical information into the WSRIC building books. These enhancements will improve credibility with the regulators and increase waste generators` understanding of the basis for credible waste characterizations.

  10. An assessment of criticality safety at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado, July--September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, Roger J.

    1989-09-01

    This is a report on the 1989 independent Criticality Safety Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant, primarily in response to public concerns that nuclear criticality accidents involving plutonium may have occurred at this nuclear weapon component fabrication and processing plant. The report evaluates environmental issues, fissile material storage practices, ventilation system problem areas, and criticality safety practices. While no evidence of a criticality accident was found, several recommendations are made for criticality safety improvements. 9 tabs.

  11. Shapefile of the Elevation of the Bedrock Surface Beneath the Rocky Flats Alluvial Fan, Boulder and Jefferson Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, Daniel H.

    2003-01-01

    The Rocky Flats alluvial fan is a large early Pleistocene gravel deposit at the mouth of Coal Creek Canyon along the eastern flank of the Colorado Front Range in Jefferson and Boulder Counties, Colorado. Elevations of the bedrock surface beneath the alluvial fan gravels have been compiled at selected points from a variety of sources and recorded in a digital dataset suitable for importing into commonly used GIS and image processing software packages.

  12. The September 1957 Rocky Flats fire: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-19

    The primary purpose of this guide is to help the DOE locate and make available information relating to the 1957 Rocky Flats fire. The records are arranged into six categories: administrative and general; facilities and equipment; production and materials handling; waste management; workplace and environmental monitoring; and employee occupational exposure and health. A brief explanation of each category follows. The administrative and general section pertains to the administration of individual contractor organizations and DOE divisions at Rocky Flats. It also contains records which encompass several different subject areas and therefore can not be placed in a single category. The facilities and equipment category relates to the routine construction and maintenance of plant buildings as well as the purchase and installation of equipment. The production and materials handling records relate primarily to the inventory and production of nuclear materials and weapons components. The waste management records series found under this heading relate to the storage, handling, treatment, and disposal of radioactive, chemical or mixed materials produced or used at Rocky Flats. The records consist mostly of waste sampling and shipment records. The workplace and environmental monitoring records series found in this section pertain to monitoring of the workplace. The section also includes records that document efforts to monitor the environment outside of buildings, either onsite or offsite. Records in this category consist of sampling data and environmental impact reports. The employee occupational exposure and health section pertains to documentation relating to the health and occupational exposures of employees and visitors at Rocky Flats. Records series consist generally of dosimeter data, radiation exposure records, and medical records. Many of the records contain personal data pertaining to individual employees and may therefore be Privacy Act systems and records.

  13. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health related research. Volume 4: Production and materials handling

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the fourth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 4 is to describe record series pertaining to production and materials handling activities at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of production and materials handling practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to production and materials handling policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records.

  14. Enclosure from DOE letter dated 7/20/07 - Table 5-2, Isotopic Compositions of Rocky Flats Plutonium and Uranium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This enclosure from a DOE letter to EPA regarding a waste container disposed at the WIPP from the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project includes Table 5-2, Isotopic Compositions of Rocky Flats Plutonium and Uranium.

  15. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-09-18

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Bedrock erosion surface beneath the rocky flats alluvial fan, Jefferson and Boulder counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    The early Pleistocene Rocky Flats alluvial fan formed at the mouth of unglaciated Coal Creek Canyon along the eastern flank of the Colorado Front Range. The fan consists of boulder, cobble, and pebble gravel deposited on an erosional surface cut on tilted Mesozoic sedimentary strata. A north-trending hogback of steeply dipping Cretaceous Laramie Formation and Fox Hills Sandstone is exposed through the gravel across the central portion of the fan. Elevations on the gravel-bedrock contact were used in a GIS to reconstruct the bedrock surface at the base of the gravel, providing a glimpse of the geomorphology of the early Pleistocene Colorado Piedmont. The reconstructed erosional bedrock surface portrays a landscape carved by a series of easterly flowing streams that eroded headward to the resistant hogback units, creating a bedrock step up to 37 m high. East-trending ridges on the bedrock surface are remnants of drainage divides between the Pleistocene streams. Water gaps in the bedrock step allowed the streams access to the upper surface of the step. This entire surface, except the hogback, was covered by gravel about 1.35 to 1.5 Ma ago. Subsequent erosion of the alluvial fan has been by headward (westward) erosion of easterly flowing streams incising into the eastern portion of the fan. Because the gravel is more resistant than the underlying bedrock, modern streams are established over the Pleistocene drainage divides, where the gravel was thinnest. Thicker gravel in the Pleistocene paleovalleys now caps modern drainage divides, producing an inverted topography.

  17. Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, W.I.; Faucette, A.M.; Jantzen, R.C.; Logsdon, B.W.; Oldham, J.H.; Saiki, D.M.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1993-08-30

    Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews, industry surveys, and lab-scale and pilot-scale tests have been conducted to evaluate several options for encapsulating nitrate salts with LDPE. Most of the effort has focused on identifying compatible drying and extrusion technologies. Other processing options, specifically meltration and non-heated compounding machines, were also investigated. The best approach appears to be pretreatment of the nitrate salt waste brine in either a vertical or horizontal thin film evaporator followed by compounding of the dried waste with LDPE in an intermeshing, co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. Additional pilot-scale tests planned for the fall of 1993 should further support this recommendation. Preliminary evaluation work indicates that meltration is not possible at atmospheric pressure with the LDPE (Chevron PE-1409) provided by RFP. However, meltration should be possible at atmospheric pressure using another LDPE formulation with altered physical and rheological properties: Lower molecular weight and lower viscosity (Epoline C-15). Contract modifications are now in process to allow a follow-on pilot scale demonstration. Questions regarding changed safety and physical properties of the resultant LDPE waste form due to use of the Epoline C-15 will be addressed. No additional work with non-heated mixer compounder machines is planned at this time.

  18. A comprehensive appraisal of 241Am in soils around Rocky Flats, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Litaor, M I; Allen, L

    1996-09-01

    Soils east of Rocky Flats Plant (RFETS) near Golden, Colorado, were contaminated with actinides because of accidental release of oils laden with plutonium isotopes. Consequently, these soils were contaminated by 241Am due to radioactive decay of 241Pu (t1/2 = 14.4 y). A spatial analysis of 241Am activity in soils east of RFETS was conducted to elucidate the magnitude and the mode of 241Am dispersion in the soil environment. 241Am activity of 178 soil samples ranged from 0.037 Bq kg-1 to 10,004 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 214 Bq kg-1, median of 7.28 Bq kg-1, standard deviation of 942 Bq kg-1, and a coefficient of variation of 4.3. Spatial analysis of 241Am in soils around RFETS was conducted using indicator kriging, which is a nonparametric technique especially suitable to model a conditional cumulative distribution function (ccdf) of highly skewed environmental data such as 241Am. The ccdf was used to generate an E-type (mean of the conditional cdf) surface. The resulted surfaces were consistent with the hypothesis that the westerly winds were the dominant mechanism of americium dispersal. The spatial distribution and dispersal mechanisms of 241Am were similar to those of 239+240Pu. The ccdf was also used to construct probability of exceedence maps of 241Am in soils. For the purpose of this report two threshold values for the probability maps were selected: (1) the mean measured background activity of 241Am (0.4 Bq kg-1), and (2) the programmatic preliminary remediation goal for residential occupancy scenario (87.7 Bq kg-1). The probability-of-exceedance maps provide estimates of spatial uncertainty associated with each threshold. The E-type maps in conjunction with the probability-of-exceedance maps provide a robust framework for future cleanup options and land use decisions.

  19. Evaluation of a permeable reactive barrier technology for use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    SciTech Connect

    DWYER,BRIAN P.

    2000-01-01

    Three reactive materials were evaluated at laboratory scale to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The contaminants of concern (COCS) are uranium, TCE, PCE, carbon tetrachloride, americium, and vinyl chloride. The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a peculiar humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site however, the iron filings were determined to be the least expensive media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the fill-scale demonstration of the reactive barrier technology. Additional design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were also determined and provided to the design team in support of the final design. The final design was completed by the Corps of Engineers in 1997 and the system was constructed in the summer of 1998. The treatment system began fill operation in December, 1998 and despite a few problems has been operational since. Results to date are consistent with the lab and pilot scale findings, i.e., complete removal of the contaminants of concern (COCs) prior to discharge to meet RFETS cleanup requirements. Furthermore, it is fair to say at this point in time that laboratory developed design parameters for the reactive barrier technology are sufficient for fuel scale design; however,the treatment system longevity and the long-term fate of the contaminants are questions that remain unanswered. This

  20. Solar-Powered Air Stripping at the Rocky Flats Site, Colorado - 12361

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, John A.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Site (the Site), near Denver, Colorado, is a former nuclear weapons facility that was constructed beginning in 1951. With the end of the Cold War, the Site was cleaned up and closed in 2005. Four gravity-driven groundwater treatment systems were installed during cleanup, and their continued operation was incorporated into the final remedy for the Site. All utilities, including electrical power, were removed as part of this closure, so all Site electrical power needs are now met with small solar-powered systems. The Mound Site Plume Treatment System (MSPTS) was installed in 1998 as an innovative system based on zero-valent iron (ZVI). Groundwater flow from the Mound source area containing elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily in the tetrachloroethene (PCE)-trichloroethene (TCE) family of chlorinated solvents, is intercepted by a collection trench and routed to twin ZVI treatment cells. Later, in 2005, remediation of VOC-contaminated soils at a second up-gradient source area included adding an electron donor to the backfill to help stimulate biodegradation. This reduced concentrations of primary constituents but caused down-gradient groundwater to contain elevated levels of recalcitrant degradation byproducts, particularly cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. A gravel drain installed as part of the 2005 remediation directs contaminated groundwater from this second source area to the MSPTS for treatment. This additional contaminant load, coupled with correspondingly reduced residence time within the ZVI media due to the increased flow rate, resulted in reduced treatment effectiveness. Elevated concentrations of VOCs were then detected in MSPTS effluent, as well as in surface water at the downstream performance monitoring location for the MSPTS. Subsequent consultations with the Site regulators led to the decision to add a polishing component to reduce residual VOCs in MSPTS effluent

  1. Integrated chemical management system: A tool for managing chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Costain, D.

    1995-07-01

    The Integrated Chemical Management System is a computer-based chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Chemical containers are identified by bar code labels and information on the type, quantity and location of chemicals are tracked on individual data bases in separate buildings. Chemical inventories from multiple buildings are uploaded to a central sitewide chemical data base where reports are available from Product, Waste, and Chemical Use modules. Hazardous chemical information is provided by a separate Material Safety Data Sheet module and excess chemicals are traded between chemical owners and users with the aid of the Chemical Exchange Module.

  2. Demonstration, testing and evaluation of nonintrusive characterization technologies at operable Unit 2 of Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution (HR) seismic reflection evaluation was conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), near Golden, Colorado, to demonstrate the applicability of nonintrusive characterization techniques to detect buried objects, contamination, and geological/hydrological features at RFP. The evaluation was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) request for demonstration, testing and evaluation (DT&E) of nonintrusive techniques, under DOE Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) No. DE-RA05-09OR22000.

  3. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume VII. Employee occupational exposure and health

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the seventh in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume VII is to describe record series pertaining to employee occupational exposure and health at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of occupational exposure monitoring and health practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to occupational exposure monitoring and health policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume 1. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, environmental and workplace monitoring, and waste management. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire: A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  4. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume VI, workplace and environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the sixth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume VI is to describe record series pertaining to workplace and environmental monitoring activities at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of workplace and environmental monitoring practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to workplace and environmental monitoring policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of this volume and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume I. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, waste management, and employee health. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire. A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  5. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume III, facilities and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the third in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume M is to describe record series pertaining to facilities and equipment at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of facilities and equipment practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to facilities and equipment policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of this volume and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume I. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, production and materials handling, workplace and environmental monitoring, employee health, and waste management. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire: A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  6. Understanding Contaminant Transport Pathways at Rocky Flats - A Basis for the Remediation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Paton, Ian

    2008-01-15

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a Department of Energy facility located approximately 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado. Processing and fabrication of nuclear weapons components occurred at Rocky Flats from 1952 through 1989. Operations at the Site included the use of several radionuclides, including plutonium-239/240 (Pu), americium-241 (Am), and various uranium (U) isotopes, as well as several types of chlorinated solvents. The historic operations resulted in legacy contamination, including contaminated facilities, process waste lines, buried wastes and surface soil contamination. Decontamination and removal of buildings at the site was completed in late 2005, culminating more than ten years of active environmental remediation work. The Corrective Action Decision/Record of Decision was subsequently approved in 2006, signifying regulatory approval and closure of the site. The use of RFETS as a National Wildlife Refuge is scheduled to be in full operation by 2012. To develop a plan for remediating different types of radionuclide contaminants present in the RFETS environment required understanding the different environmental transport pathways for the various actinides. Developing this understanding was the primary objective of the Actinide Migration Evaluation (AME) project. Findings from the AME studies were used in the development of RFETS remediation strategies. The AME project focused on issues of actinide behavior and mobility in surface water, groundwater, air, soil and biota at RFETS. For the purposes of the AME studies, actinide elements addressed included Pu, Am, and U. The AME program, funded by DOE, brought together personnel with a broad range of relevant expertise in technical investigations. The AME advisory panel identified research investigations and approaches that could be used to solve issues related to actinide migration at the Site. An initial step of the AME was to develop a conceptual model to provide a

  7. Implementation of Revision 19 of the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amico, E.; O'Leary, J.; Bell, S.; Djordjevic, S.; Givens, C,; Shokes, T.; Thompson, S.; Stahl, S.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on July 27, 2001 approved Revision 19 of the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and the associated TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC). Key initiatives in Revision 19 included matrix depletion, unlimited mixing of shipping categories, a flammability assessment methodology, and an alternative methodology for the determination of flammable gas generation rates. All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites shipping transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were required to implement Revision 19 methodology into their characterization and waste transportation programs by May 20, 2002. An implementation process was demonstrated by the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colorado. The three-part process used by RFETS included revision of the site-specific TRAMPAC, an evaluation of the contact-handled TRU waste inventory against the regulations in Revision 19, and design and development of software to facilitate future inventory analyses.

  8. In situ remediation of plutonium from glovebox exhaust ducts at the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dugdale, J.S.; Humiston, T.J.; Omer, G.E.

    1993-10-01

    Plutonium and other miscellaneous hold-up materials have been accumulating in the glovebox exhaust ducts at the Rocky Flats Plant over the 40 years of weapons production at the site. The Duct Remediation Project was undertaken to assess the safety impacts of this material, and to remove it from the ductwork. The project necessitated the development of specialized tools, equipment and methods to remediate the material from continuously operating ventilation systems. Special engineered access locations were also required to provide access to the ductwork, and to ensure that safety and system operability were not degraded as a result of the remediation efforts. Operations personnel underwent significant training and development, and became an important asset to the success of the project. In total, the project succeeded in removing over 40 kilograms of plutonium-bearing material from one of the major weapons production buildings at the plant.

  9. Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) at Rocky Flats Plant: An overview of practical management issues for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, F.M.; Herring, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    Many of the buildings at the Rocky Flats Plant were designed and built before modern standards were developed, including standards for protection against extreme natural phenomenon such as tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods. The purpose of the SEP is to establish an integrated approach to assessing the design adequacy of specific high and moderate hazard Rocky Flats facilities from a safety perspective and to establish a basis for defining any needed facility improvements. The SEP is to be carried out in three Phases. In Phase 1, topics to be evaluated and an evaluation plan for each topic were developed. Any differences between Current Design Requirements (CDR) or acceptance criteria and the design of existing facilities, will be identified during Phase 2 and assessed using an integrated systematic approach during Phase 3. The integrated assessment performed during Phase 3 provides a process for evaluating the differences between existing facility design and CDRs so that decisions on corrective actions can be made on the basis of relative risk reduction and cost effectiveness. These efforts will ensure that a balanced and integrated level of safety is achieved for long-term operation of these buildings. Through appropriate selection of topics and identification of the structures, systems, and components to be evaluated, the SEP will address outstanding design issues related to the prevention and mitigation of design basis accidents, including those arising from natural phenomena. The objective of the SEP is not to bring these buildings into strict compliance with current requirements, but rather to ensure that an adequate level of safety is achieved in an economical fashion.

  10. Post-Closure Land Jurisdiction Transfer to the US Fish and Wildlife Service at Rocky Flats: Surviving the Safari Through Old Records and Other Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Schiesswohl, S.; Hanson, M.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Rocky Flats Site (Rocky Flats), located near Denver, Colorado, was listed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. Subsequent cleanup and closure activities were completed in October 2005 and the final remedy was selected in September 2006. The remedy is 'no further action' for the generally un-impacted Peripheral Operable Unit (OU), formerly known as the Buffer Zone, and institutional and physical controls with continued monitoring for the Central OU, formerly the industrialized area. The Peripheral OU has been deleted from the NPL and jurisdiction over the majority of land in that OU (3,953 acres) was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) on July 12, 2007, to establish the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge. The remaining approximately 929 acres in the Peripheral OU were retained by DOE's Office of Legacy Management where outstanding mineral leases and mining operations exist. As mineral rights are purchased or mining operations and mineral leases are completed and fully reclaimed, jurisdiction of portions of the 929 acres will also be transferred to USFWS for inclusion into the refuge. During the almost 2 years since cleanup and closure work was completed at Rocky Flats, DOE and USFWS have worked the specific legal parameters, timing, and constraints of the 3,953-acre transfer. Many lessons have been learned, based on these early experiences. (authors)

  11. Flatness-based embedded control of air-fuel ratio in combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    A nonlinear controller is designed for air-fuel ratio control in combustion engines, making use of differential flatness theory and of the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. It is proven that the air-fuel ratio system is a differentially flat one and admits dynamic feedback linearization. Using a change of variables that is based on differential flatness theory it is shown that the air-fuel ratio system can be transformed to the linear canonical form, for which the design of a state feedback controller is easier. Moreover, to compensate for modeling uncertainties and external disturbances the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter is designed as a disturbance observer. The estimation of the perturbations that effect the air-fuel systems enables their compensation through the inclusion of an additional term in the feedback control law. The efficiency of the proposed nonlinear feedback control scheme is tested through simulation experiments.

  12. Laboratory and Pilot Scale Evaluation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Technology for Use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Hankins, M.G.

    1999-02-01

    Three reactive materials were evaluated to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a pellicular humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site; however, the iron filings were determined to be the most cost effective media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the full scale demonstration of this reactive barrier technology. Design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were provided to the design team in support of the final design.

  13. Radcalc for windows benchmark study: A comparison of software results with Rocky Flats hydrogen gas generation data

    SciTech Connect

    MCFADDEN, J.G.

    1999-07-19

    Radcalc for Windows Version 2.01 is a user-friendly software program developed by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations for the U.S. Department of Energy (McFadden et al. 1998). It is used for transportation and packaging applications in the shipment of radioactive waste materials. Among its applications are the classification of waste per the US. Department of Transportation regulations, the calculation of decay heat and daughter products, and the calculation of the radiolytic production of hydrogen gas. The Radcalc program has been extensively tested and validated (Green et al. 1995, McFadden et al. 1998) by comparison of each Radcalc algorithm to hand calculations. An opportunity to benchmark Radcalc hydrogen gas generation calculations to experimental data arose when the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) Residue Stabilization Program collected hydrogen gas generation data to determine compliance with requirements for shipment of waste in the TRUPACT-II (Schierloh 1998). The residue/waste drums tested at RFETS contain contaminated, solid, inorganic materials in polyethylene bags. The contamination is predominantly due to plutonium and americium isotopes. The information provided by Schierloh (1 998) of RFETS includes decay heat, hydrogen gas generation rates, calculated G{sub eff} values, and waste material type, making the experimental data ideal for benchmarking Radcalc. The following sections discuss the RFETS data and the Radcalc cases modeled with the data. Results are tabulated and also provided graphically.

  14. Rocky Flats CAAS System Recalibrated, Retested, and Analyzed to Install in the Criticality Experiments Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S; Heinrichs, D; Biswas, D; Huang, S; Dulik, G; Scorby, J; Boussoufi, M; Liu, B; Wilson, R

    2009-05-27

    Neutron detectors and control panels transferred from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) were recalibrated and retested for redeployment to the CEF. Testing and calibration were successful with no failure to any equipment. Detector sensitivity was tested at a TRIGA reactor, and the response to thermal neutron flux was satisfactory. MCNP calculated minimum fission yield ({approx} 2 x 10{sup 15} fissions) was applied to determine the thermal flux at selected detector positions at the CEF. Thermal flux levels were greater than 6.39 x 10{sup 6} (n/cm{sup 2}-sec), which was about four orders of magnitude greater than the minimum alarm flux. Calculations of detector survivable distances indicate that, to be out of lethal area, a detector needs to be placed greater than 15 ft away from a maximum credible source. MCNP calculated flux/dose results were independently verified by COG. CAAS calibration and the testing confirmed that the RFP CAAS system is performing its functions as expected. New criteria for the CAAS detector placement and 12-rad zone boundaries at the CEF are established. All of the CAAS related documents and hardware have been transferred from LLNL to NSTec for installation at the CEF high bay areas.

  15. Status and use of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Pipe Overpack Container for TRU waste storage and shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Thorp, D.T.; Geinitz, R.R.; Rivera, M.A.

    1998-03-03

    The Pipe Overpack Container was designed to optimize shipments of high plutonium content transuranic waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The container was approved for use in the TRUPACT-II shipping container by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in February 1997. The container optimizes shipments to WIPP by increasing the TRUPACT-II criticality limit from 325 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) to 2,800 FGE and provides additional shielding for handling wastes with high americium-241 (Am-241) content. The container was subsequently evaluated and approved for storage of highly dispersible TRU wastes and residues at RFETS. Thermal evaluation of the container shows that the container will mitigate the impact of a worst case thermal event from reactive or potentially pyrophoric materials. These materials contain hazards postulated by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board for interim storage. Packaging these reactive or potentially pyrophoric residues in the container without stabilizing the materials is under consideration at RFETS. The design, testing, and evaluations used in the approvals, and the current status of the container usage, will be discussed.

  16. The determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Postlethwait, P.D.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign} and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a nonradioactive simulated Type 17V RFP sludge was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. In an earlier effort, a simplified method was developed for extraction, cleanup of extract, and determination of PCBs in samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. The simplified method has now been used to determine the presence and quantities of other Aroclors in the simulated sludge, namely, Aroclors 10 1 6, 1221, 1232, 1242, and 1248. The accuracy and precision of the data for these Aroclors were found to be similar to the data for sludges spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. Since actual sludges may vary in composition, the method was also verified by analyzing another source of Type IV simulated sludge, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W).

  17. Report of the oversight assessment of the operational readiness review of the Rocky Flats Plant, Building 707

    SciTech Connect

    Krupar, J.J. Jr.

    1992-12-18

    This report presents the results of an oversight assessment (OA) conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) of the Operational Readiness Review (ORR) activities for the resumption of Building 707 operations at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The EH OA was simultaneously conducted with the Office of Defense Programs (DP) line management ORR, which was conducted from September 21 to October 2, 1992, and November 2 to 13, 1992. The EH OA evaluated the comprehensiveness and effectiveness of the DP ORR. Based on its oversight assessment, the EH OA believes that Building 707 operations may be safely resumed contingent upon satisfactory resolution of all DP ORR findings. The EH OA determined that the DP ORR was conducted in a comprehensive and effective manner and represents an adequate basis for recommending resumption of Building 707 operations. The EH OA was based primarily on an evaluation of the comprehensiveness and effectiveness of the DP ORR and addressed the following areas: Management and Organization, Industrial Safety, Fire Protection, Industrial Hygiene, Conduct of Operations, Maintenance, Quality Assurance, and Training. In a limited number of these areas, the EH OA conducted independent vertical-slice reviews DP ORR results.

  18. Report of the oversight assessment of the operational readiness review of the Rocky Flats Plant, Building 707

    SciTech Connect

    Krupar, J.J. Jr.

    1992-12-18

    This report presents the results of an oversight assessment (OA) conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) of the Operational Readiness Review (ORR) activities for the resumption of Building 707 operations at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The EH OA was simultaneously conducted with the Office of Defense Programs (DP) line management ORR, which was conducted from September 21 to October 2, 1992, and November 2 to 13, 1992. The EH OA evaluated the comprehensiveness and effectiveness of the DP ORR. Based on its oversight assessment, the EH OA believes that Building 707 operations may be safely resumed contingent upon satisfactory resolution of all DP ORR findings. The EH OA determined that the DP ORR was conducted in a comprehensive and effective manner and represents an adequate basis for recommending resumption of Building 707 operations. The EH OA was based primarily on an evaluation of the comprehensiveness and effectiveness of the DP ORR and addressed the following areas: Management and Organization, Industrial Safety, Fire Protection, Industrial Hygiene, Conduct of Operations, Maintenance, Quality Assurance, and Training. In a limited number of these areas, the EH OA conducted independent vertical-slice reviews DP ORR results.

  19. Clarification of Institutional Controls at the Rocky Flats Site Central Operable Unit and Implementation of the Soil Disturbance Review Plan - 13053

    SciTech Connect

    DiSalvo, Rick; Surovchak, Scott; Spreng, Carl; Moritz, Vera

    2013-07-01

    Cleanup and closure of DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado, which was placed on the CERCLA National Priority List in 1989, was accomplished under CERCLA, RCRA, and the Colorado Hazardous Waste Act (CHWA). The physical cleanup work was completed in late 2005 and all buildings and other structures that composed the Rocky Flats industrial complex were removed from the surface, but remnants remain in the subsurface. Other remaining features include two landfills closed in place with covers, four groundwater treatment systems, and surface water and groundwater monitoring systems. Under the 2006 Corrective Action Decision/Record of Decision for Rocky Flats Plant (US DOE) Peripheral Operable Unit and the Central Operable Unit (CAD/ROD), the response actions selected for the Central Operable Unit (OU) are institutional controls (ICs), physical controls, and continued monitoring and maintenance. The objectives of these ICs were to prevent unacceptable exposure to remaining subsurface contamination and to prevent contaminants from mobilizing to surface water and to prevent interfering with the proper functioning of the engineered components of the remedy. An amendment in 2011 of the 2006 CAD/ROD clarified the ICs to prevent misinterpretation that would prohibit work to manage and maintain the Central OU property. The 2011 amendment incorporated a protocol for a Soil Disturbance Review Plan for work subject to ICs that requires approval from the State and public notification by DOE prior to conducting approved soil-disturbing work. (authors)

  20. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of Rocky Flats combustible low level mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Z.

    1992-12-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) was originally developed for dissolution of difficult to dissolve forms of plutonium oxide. It was also found to be effective for oxidizing non-polymerized organic materials. MEO is an inherently safe process since the hazardous and radioactive materials are completely contained in the aqueous phase, and operating temperatures and pressures of the system are low (well below 100 {degree}C and 30 psig). The most commonly used mediator-electrolyte combination is silver in nitric acid. The process produces divalent silver ion, a strong oxidizing agent, which dissolves the radioactive components of mixed wastes and destroys the organic components. In the past, work at LLNL has been focused on understanding the basic science and modeling the dissolution and destruction mechanisms. Reaction rates of water with Ag(H) were measured using spectrophotometric methods, and the diffusivity of silver ions in nitric acid was estimated using a rotating disk electrode.

  1. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic determination of plutonium speciation at the Rocky Flats environmental technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lezama-pacheco, Juan S; Conradson, Steven D; Clark, David L

    2008-01-01

    X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy was used to probe the speciation of the ppm level Pu in thirteen soil and concrete samples from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in support of the site remediation effort that has been successfully completed since these measurements. In addition to X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectra, two of the samples yielded Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra that could be analyzed by curve-fits. Most of these spectra exhibited features consistent with PU(IV), and more specificaJly, PuO{sub 2+x}-type speciation. Two were ambiguous, possibly indicating that Pu that was originally present in a different form was transforming into PuO{sub 2+x}, and one was interpreted as demonstrating the presence of an unusual Pu(VI) compound, consistent with its source being spills from a PUREX purification line onto a concrete floor and the resultant extreme conditions. These experimental results therefore validated models that predicted that insoluble PuO{sub 2+x} would be the most stable form of Pu in equilibrium with air and water even when the source terms were most likely Pu metal with organic compounds or a Pu fire. A corollary of these models' predictions and other in situ observations is therefore that the minimal transport of Pu that occurred on the site was via the resuspension and mobilization of colloidal particles. Under these conditions, the small amounts of diffusely distributed Pu that were left on the site after its remediation pose only a negligible hazard.

  2. Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed Central

    McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

    1999-01-01

    Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10464074

  3. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND

    SciTech Connect

    JEWETT MA

    2011-01-14

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  4. Multiscale Speciation of U and Pu at Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, McGuire AFB, Mayak, and Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Batuk, Olga N; Conradson, Steven D; Aleksandrova, Olga N; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Burakov, Boris E; Clark, David L; Czerwinski, Ken R; Felmy, Andrew R; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Moore, Dean A; Myasoedov, Boris F; Reed, Donald T; Reilly, Dallas D; Roback, Robert C; Vlasova, Irina E; Webb, Samuel M; Wilkerson, Marianne P

    2015-06-02

    The speciation of U and Pu in soil and concrete from Rocky Flats and in particles from soils from Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, and McGuire Air Force Base and bottom sediments from Mayak was determined by a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) element maps. These experiments identify four types of speciation that sometimes may and other times do not exhibit an association with the source terms and histories of these samples: relatively well ordered PuO2+x and UO2+x that had equilibrated with O2 and H2O under both ambient conditions and in fires or explosions; instances of small, isolated particles of U as UO2+x, U3O8, and U(VI) species coexisting in close proximity after decades in the environment; alteration phases of uranyl with other elements including ones that would not have come from soils; and mononuclear Pu-O species and novel PuO2+x-type compounds incorporating additional elements that may have occurred because the Pu was exposed to extreme chemical conditions such as acidic solutions released directly into soil or concrete. Our results therefore directly demonstrate instances of novel complexity in the Å and μm-scale chemical speciation and reactivity of U and Pu in their initial formation and after environmental exposure as well as occasions of unexpected behavior in the reaction pathways over short geological but significant sociological times. They also show that incorporating the actual disposal and site conditions and resultant novel materials such as those reported here may be necessary to develop the most accurate predictive models for Pu and U in the environment.

  5. Riparian and Upland Restoration at the U.S. Department of Energy Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site - 12360

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2012-07-01

    Remedial investigation and cleanup at the Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site was completed in 2005. Uplands, riparian, and wetland habitat were disturbed during cleanup and closure activities and required extensive revegetation. Unavoidable disturbances to habitat of the Preble's meadow jumping mouse (a federally listed species) and wetlands required consultation with regulatory agencies and mitigation. Mitigation wetlands were constructed in two drainages, and a third developed naturally where a soil borrow area intercepted the groundwater table. During the 50-plus years of site operations, 12 ponds were constructed in three drainages to manage and retain runoff and sewage treatment plant discharges prior to release off site. A batch-release protocol has been used for the past several decades at the terminal ponds, which has affected the riparian communities downstream. To return the hydrologic regime to a more natural flow-through system similar to the pre-industrial-use conditions, seven interior dams (of 12) have been breached, and the remaining five dams are scheduled for breaching between 2011 and 2020. At the breached dams, the former open water areas have transformed to emergent wetlands, and the stream reaches have returned to a flow-through system. Riparian and wetland vegetation has established very well. The valves of the terminal ponds were opened in fall 2011 to begin flow-through operations and provide water to the downstream plant communities while allowing reestablishment of vegetation in the former pond bottoms prior to breaching. A number of challenges and issues were addressed during the revegetation effort. These included reaching an agreement on revegetation goals, addressing poor substrate quality and soil compaction problems, using soil amendments and topsoil, selecting seeds, determining the timing and location of revegetation projects relative to continuing closure activities, weed control, erosion control, revegetation project field oversight

  6. Fate and transport of plutonium-239 + 240 and Americium-241 in the soil of Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Litaor, M.I.; Barth, G.R.; Zika, E.M.

    1996-07-01

    Actinides contamination of soils around Rocky Flats, CO, resulted from leaking drums of Pu-contaminated oil stored at an outdoor site. The transport of these actinides through the soil to groundwater was studied using an advanced monitoring system (MS). The fully automated, remotely controlled MS gathered real-time data on soil water content, groundwater level, and timing of gravitationally flowing water. Controlled rain simulations coupled with measurements of volume flux and actinide activities provided essential information about the fate and transport of Pu-239 + 240 and Am-241. Volume fluxes at most sampling locations were similar, regardless of the antecedent moisture or the duration, frequency, and intensity of the simulated rain. Actinide activities were not correlated with the measured volume flux, or the duration, frequency, and intensity of the simulated rain. Flow was facilitated primarily via macropore channeling. The relatively short residence time precluded a continuous interaction between the soil and the flowing water, which minimized the movement of actinides in the soil. Actinide activities in the interstitial water collected from the upper 20 cm of the soil were significantly higher (P>0.001) than water collected at deeper sampling depths (20-70 cm). Actinide activity in water samples from the deepest sampling depth (40-70 cm) did not exceed 0.4 Bq/L. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the movement of actinides was restricted to the top 20 cm. A transport mechanism involving discrete Pu oxide particles, coupled with macropore channeling is proposed to explain the observed actinide activities in the soil. 31 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Stochastic estimates of exposure and cancer risk from carbon tetrachloride released to the air from the rocky flats plant.

    PubMed

    Rood, A S; McGavran, P D; Aanenson, J W; Till, J E

    2001-08-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is a degreasing agent that was used at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado to clean product components and equipment. The chemical is considered a volatile organic compound and a probable human carcinogen. During the time the plant operated (1953-1989), most of the carbon tetrachloride was released to the atmosphere through building exhaust ducts. A smaller amount was released to the air via evaporation from open-air burn pits and ground-surface discharge points. Airborne releases from the plant were conservatively estimated to be equivalent to the amount of carbon tetrachloride consumed annually by the plant, which was estimated to be between 3.6 and 180 Mg per year. This assumption was supported by calculations that showed that most of the carbon tetrachloride discharged to the ground surface would subsequently be released to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transport of carbon tetrachloride from the plant to the surrounding community was estimated using a Gaussian Puff dispersion model (RATCHET). Time-integrated concentrations were estimated for nine hypothetical but realistic exposure scenarios that considered variation in lifestyle, location, age, and gender. Uncertainty distributions were developed for cancer slope factors and atmospheric dispersion factors. These uncertainties were propagated through to the final risk estimate using Monte Carlo techniques. The geometric mean risk estimates varied from 5.2 x 10(-6) for a hypothetical rancher or laborer working near the RFP to 3.4 x 10(-9) for an infant scenario. The distribution of incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk for the hypothetical rancher was between 1.3 x 10(-6) (5% value) and 2.1 x 10(-5) (95% value). These estimates are similar to or exceed estimated cancer risks posed by releases of radionuclides from the site.

  8. Combustion efficiency and emission factors for wildfire-season fires in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains, US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, S. P.

    2013-07-01

    In the US, wildfires and prescribed burning present significant challenges to air regulatory agencies attempting to achieve and maintain compliance with air quality regulations. Fire emission factors (EF) are essential input for the emission models used to develop wildland fire emission inventories. Most previous studies quantifying wildland fire EF of temperate ecosystems have focused on emissions from prescribed burning conducted outside of the wildfire season. Little information is available on EF for wildfires in temperate forests of the conterminous US. The goal of this work is to provide information on emissions from wildfire-season forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountains, US. In August 2011, we deployed airborne chemistry instruments and sampled emissions over eight days from three wildfires and a prescribed fire that occurred in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured the combustion efficiency, quantified as the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), and EF for CO2, CO, and CH4. Our study average values for MCE, EFCO2, EFCO, and EFCH4 were 0.883, 1596 g kg-1, 135 g kg-1, 7.30 g kg-1, respectively. Compared with previous field studies of prescribed fires in temperate forests, the fires sampled in our study had significantly lower MCE and EFCO2 and significantly higher EFCO and EFCH4. The fires sampled in this study burned in areas reported to have moderate to heavy components of standing dead trees and down dead wood due to insect activity and previous fire, but fuel consumption data was not available. However, an analysis of MCE and fuel consumption data from 18 prescribed fires reported in the literature indicates that the availability of coarse fuels and conditions favorable for the combustion of these fuels favors low MCE fires. This analysis suggests that fuel composition was an important factor contributing to the low MCE of the fires measured in this study. This study only measured EF for CO2, CO, and CH4; however, we

  9. A Study of the Stability and Characterization Plutonium Dioxide and Chemical Characterization [of] Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, A.K.; Boettger, J.C.; Behrens, Robert G.

    1999-11-29

    In the presentation ''A Study of the Stability and Characterization of Plutonium Dioxide'', the authors discuss their recent work on actinide stabilities and characterization, in particular, plutonium dioxide PuO{sub 2}. Earlier studies have indicated that PuO{sub 2} has the fluorite structure of CaF{sub 2} and typical oxide semiconductor properties. However, detailed results on the bulk electronic structure of this important actinide oxide have not been available. The authors have used all-electron, full potential linear combinations Gaussian type orbitals fitting function (LCGTO-FF) method to study PuO{sub 2}. The LCGTO-FF technique characterized by its use of three independent GTO basis sets to expand the orbitals, charge density, and exchange-correlation integral kernels. Results will be presented on zero pressure using both the Hedin-Lundquist local density approximation (LDA) model or the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximation (GGA) model. Possibilities of different characterizations of PuO{sub 2} will be explored. The paper ''Chemical Characterization Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash'' describes the results of a comprehensive study of the chemical characteristics of virgin, calcined and fluorinated incinerator ash produced at the Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory prior to 1988. The Rocky Flats and Los Alamos virgin, calcined, and fluorinated ashes were also dissolved using standard nitrate dissolution chemistry. Corresponding chemical evaluations were preformed on the resultant ash heel and the results compared with those of the virgin ash. Fluorination studies using FT spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool were also performed to evaluate the chemistry of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, and silicon containing species in the ash. The distribution of plutonium and other chemical elements with the virgin ash, ash heel, fluorinated ash, and fluorinated ash heel particulates were studied in detail using

  10. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-02-27

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant.

  11. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume I, introduction

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This guide consists of seven volumes which describe records useful for conducting health-related research at the DOE`s Rocky Flats Plant. Volume I is an introduction, and the remaining six volumes are arranged by the following categories: administrative and general, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, waste management, workplace and environmental monitoring, and employee occupational exposure and health. Volume I briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Project and provides information on the methodology used to inventory and describe the records series contained in subsequent volumes. Volume II describes records concerning administrative functions and general information. Volume III describes records series relating to the construction and routine maintenance of plant buildings and the purchase and installation of equipment. Volume IV describes records pertaining to the inventory and production of nuclear materials and weapon components. Records series include materials inventories, manufacturing specifications, engineering orders, transfer and shipment records, and War Reserve Bomb Books. Volume V describes records series pertaining to the storage, handling, treatment, and disposal of radioactive, chemical, or mixed materials produced or used at Rocky Flats. Volume VI describes records series pertaining to monitoring of the workplace and of the environment outside of buildings onsite and offsite. Volume VII describes records series pertaining to the health and occupational exposures of employees and visitors.

  12. Evaluation of beryllium exposure assessment and control programs at AWE, Cardiff Facility, Rocky Flats Plant, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L.; Slawski, J.W.; Cogbill, G.

    1995-04-28

    Site visits were made to DOE beryllium handling facilities at the Rocky Flats Plant; Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, LLNL; as well as to the AWE Cardiff Facility. Available historical data from each facility describing its beryllium control program were obtained and summarized in this report. The AWE Cardiff Facility computerized Be personal and area air-sampling database was obtained and a preliminary evaluation was conducted. Further validation and documentation of this database will be very useful in estimating worker Be. exposure as well as in identifying the source potential for a variety of Be fabrication activities. Although all of the Be control programs recognized the toxicity of Be and its compounds, their established control procedures differed significantly. The Cardiff Facility, which was designed for only Be work, implemented a very strict Be control program that has essentially remained unchanged, even to today. LLNL and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant also implemented a strict Be control program, but personal sampling was not used until the mid 1980s to evaluate worker exposure. The Rocky Flats plant implemented significantly less controls on beryllium processing than the three previous facilities. In addition, records were less available, management and industrial hygiene staff turned over regularly, and less control was evident from a management perspective.

  13. Observation and Responses to Post-Closure Instances of Localized Instability and Subsidence at the DOE Legacy Management Rocky Flats Site, Colorado-13052

    SciTech Connect

    DiSalvo, Rick; Darr, Bob; Boylan, John; Surovchak, Scott

    2013-07-01

    The former Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado began operations as part of the nation's nuclear weapons complex in the early 1950's. By the 1980's the associated heavily industrialized area covered approximately 1.2 km{sup 2} (300 acres) and was surrounded by an approximately 25.3 km{sup 2} (6,245 acre) security buffer zone. The federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priority List in 1989. To complete closure, all buildings and other structures that composed the Rocky Flats industrial complex were removed from the surface, but remnants remain in the subsurface. Contouring and grading to return the surface to approximate conditions that were present prior to the plant's construction was completed in 2005. A goal of the final land configuration was to provide long-term surface and subsurface land stability. Several instances of localized surface subsidence or instability have occurred since the final configuration. The localized nature and the relatively small areas of observed subsidence and instability indicate that, overall, the final configuration is performing well, but responses to these occurrences and the observations that followed may be useful in planning for the closure and designing the final land configuration and post-closure monitoring at other sites. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of S-101 course Supervisors' orientation to occupational safety in DOE'' taught at Rocky Flats, Colorado, April 23--May 2, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Vinther, R W

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the DOE Safety Training Institute's course, Supervisors Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE,'' which was conducted twice at the Rocky Flats facility between April 23, 1991 and May 2, 1991. The first part of the report summarizes the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course and provides a transcript of the trainees written comments in Appendices A and B. The second part summarizes results from the final examination designed to measure the knowledge gained from the course. The third part of the report summarizes course modifications and recommendations for improvement. Numeric course ratings were generally positive and show that the course material and instruction was very effective. Written comments supported the positive numeric ratings. The course content and knowledge gained by the trainees exceeded most of the students expectations of the course. Results from the final examination showed that students gained appropriate knowledge from the course.

  15. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) support to Department of Energy Rocky Flats Facility (DOE RF) saltcrete processing. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-26

    Accomplishments during this report period for waste cementation/processing operations are summarized. During this report period, the team completed an important site visit to the Rocky Flats Facility (RF). This visit focused on extensive interaction with DOE contract personnel about microstructural and phase characterization of saltcrete. A copy of the trip report prepared by the WES team is enclosed. The team prepared a document detailing procedures for sample preparation and analysis to enhance the usefulness of results of the forensic work underway at RF. A copy of this document is enclosed. A proposal was prepared for additional short-term tasks to contribute significantly to gaining the most benefit from data gathered during forensic analyses of saltcrete, and waste-treatment studies, by EG and G. A copy of this proposal was forwarded to RF at the end of May, and it is included.

  16. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) support to Department of Energy Rocky Flats Facility (DOE RF) saltcrete processing. Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-27

    This report summarizes work authorized for technical and scientific support to waste cementation and saltcrete processing operations. During this report period, tasks described in amendment M003 were initiated, some were completed, and an additional task not listed in M003 also was completed at the request of DOE RF. Summaries of task-specific activities are in four enclosures to this progress report. Other activities during this quarter included negotiation and initiation of amendment M004, to extend the period of performance and continue WES assistance to DOE RF. The four enclosures are: continuing support to waste cementation and saltcrete operations at DOE Rocky Flats Facility; review of ``Analyses of saltcrete``; review of Connell, et al ``Saltcrete evaluation`` report dated August 16, 1993; and scoping study of simulated saltcrete.

  17. Assay of impure plutonium oxide with the large neutron multiplicity counter for IAEA verification of excess weapons material at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, D.G.; Franco, J.B.; Larsen, R.K.

    1997-11-01

    The large neutron multiplicity counter (LNMC), also known as the 30-gal.-drum neutron multiplicity counter, has now been used successfully by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Initial Physical Inventory Verification (IPIV) and the first annual Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) of excess weapons plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These excess plutonium oxide materials contain a variety of impurities. They are stored two cans to a 10-gal.-drum. The drums contain from 1.3 to 4.0 kg of plutonium. The isotopic declarations vary from can to can but the material averages 6% {sup 240}Pu. During the IPIV, 94 samples were measured in the LNMC; 19 were measured during the PIV. The assays for all but a single drum agreed to within three standard deviations of the declared value. This problematic drum could not be measured by the LNMC because of its unusually high neutron emission rate. In this paper we will report on the overall performance of the LNMC in these inspections.

  18. The utility of a geographic information system in facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.

    1994-12-31

    Facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints analysis, which is indispensable for the evaluation of potential future uses for a site, is essentially spatial in nature. Spatial analysis is best accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), as a GIS allows the identification and reporting or mapping of complex relationships among multiple data layers such as geology, soils, vegetation, contamination, and facilities. GIS-based maps and reports are valuable tools for communicating facility/land use-related opportunities and constraints to decision makers. This paper defines the term {open_quotes}GIS,{close_quotes}, provides an example of how a GIS could be used to conduct opportunities and constraints analysis at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and summarizes the benefits of using a GIS for this analysis. Because a GIS is often seen as a {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} shrouded in technical jargon, this paper attempts to describe the concepts and benefits of a GIS in language understandable to decision makers who are not GIS experts but who migth profit from the use of GIS products. The purpose of this paper is to alert DOE decision makers to a valuable source of facility/land use-related information that already exists at many sites and that should not be overlook during the analysis of future use options.

  19. A research study to determine the effect of Total Quality Management (TQM) on employee morale in Plant Procedures Division at EG&G, Rocky Flats, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Erleen F.

    1994-01-01

    EG&G at Rocky Flats, Golden, Colorado, experienced a high amount of low morale, due to the plant site having been designated to close, and the uneasiness of the working force was very visible. Some employees accepted early retirement in October 1992, however, all received letters of 120 days notice in March 1993, and were advised several cuts Would be made by October 1, 1993. This information alone caused many insecurities in employees, and caused morale to decrease even more. This is an in depth study of morale, which was upgraded in Plant Procedures Group (PPG), through the effect of TQM. The primary research included a survey of employees with results included. The study also increased additional questions in PPG, some of which were added to the agenda of the Process Improvement Team (PIT) to improve PPG in the eyes of customers. Statistics did show that morale improved, not necessarily because of TQM or the progress of the Process Improvement Team (PIT), but due to efforts of the staff implementing the principles of TQM the best they knew how.

  20. Analyses of combined mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E S; Fry, S A; Wiggs, L D; Voelz, G L; Cragle, D L; Petersen, G R

    1989-10-01

    An important objective of studies of workers exposed occupationally to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation is to provide a direct assessment of health risks resulting from this exposure. This objective is most effectively accomplished by conducting combined analyses that allow evaluation of the totality of evidence from all study populations. In this paper, combined analyses of mortality in workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant are presented. These combined analyses provide no evidence of a correlation between radiation exposure and mortality from all cancer or from leukemia. Of 11 other specific types of cancer analyzed, multiple myeloma was the only cancer found to exhibit a statistically significant correlation with radiation exposure. Estimates of the excess risk of all cancer and of leukemia, based on the combined data, were negative. Upper confidence limits based on the combined data were lower than for any single population, and were similar to estimates obtained from recent analyses of A-bomb survivor data. These results strengthen support for the conclusion that estimates obtained through extrapolation from high-dose data do not seriously underestimate risks of low-dose exposure, but leave open the possibility that extrapolation may overestimate risks.

  1. Updated analyses of combined mortality data for workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Weapons Plant.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E S; Cragle, D L; Wiggs, L D

    1993-12-01

    Updated analyses of mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Rocky Flats Weapons Plant are presented with the objective of providing a direct assessment of health risks resulting from protracted low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation. For leukemia, the combined excess relative risk estimate was negative (-1.0 per Sv), and confidence limits excluded risks that were more than slightly larger than those forming the basis of ICRP recommendations. For all cancer except leukemia, the excess relative risk estimate was 0.0 per Sv, but confidence limits indicated consistency with estimates several times those forming the basis of ICRP recommendations. Of 24 cancer types tested, 12 showed positive correlations with radiation dose and 12 showed negative correlations, as would be expected by chance fluctuation. Cancer of the esophagus, cancer of the larynx, and Hodgkin's disease showed statistically significant correlations with radiation dose (P < 0.05), but these correlations were interpreted as likely to have resulted from bias or chance fluctuation. Evidence of an increase in the excess relative risk with increasing age at risk was found for all cancer in both Hanford and ORNL, and both populations showed significant correlations of all cancer with radiation dose among those 75 years and older. Although this age effect may have resulted from bias in the data, its presence suggests that risk estimates based on nuclear worker data be interpreted cautiously.

  2. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign}) and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated.

  3. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  4. Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste. Final report, FY 1993 and 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Murguia, L.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is an aqueous process which destroys hazardous organics by oxidizing a mediator at the anode of an electrochemical cell; the mediator in turn oxidizes the organics within the bulk of the electrolyte. With this process organics can be nearly completely destroyed, that is, the carbon and hydrogen present in the hydrocarbon are almost entirely mineralized to carbon dioxide and water. The MEO process is also capable of dissolving radioactive materials, including difficult-to-dissolve compounds such as plutonium oxide. Hence, this process can treat mixed wastes, by destroying the hazardous organic components of the waste, and dissolving the radioactive components. The radioactive material can be recovered if desired, or disposed of as non-mixed radioactive waste. The process is inherently safe, since the hazardous and radioactive materials are completely contained in the aqueous phase, and the system operates at low temperatures (below 80{degree}C) and at ambient pressures.

  5. More rain, less often: Extreme precipitation events and the impact on carbon cycling in the grasslands of Rocky Flats NWR, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, K. M.; Blanken, P.

    2014-12-01

    The grasslands of the U.S. Great Plains vary greatly year-to-year in aboveground productivity due in large part to rainfall patterns. The timing and magnitude of productivity is further influenced by the composition of plants that are C3 (cool season) or C4 (warm season) photosynthetic types. This region is forecasted to undergo seasonal shifts in precipitation, with large rain events separated by longer dry intervals, and much uncertainty remains about the impact that this will have on carbon cycling in these grasslands. Furthermore, past observations may be inadequate for estimating how arid and semi-arid grasslands will respond to more extreme precipitation patterns. Our study at Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) contrasts above and belowground fluxes of water and CO2 between a C3 dominated, reclaimed grassland and a nearby C4 dominated, native tallgrass prairie. Each grassland is instrumented with an eddy covariance tower, soil moisture and temperature arrays, and soil gas wells measuring soil CO2 concentrations at 5, 10, and 15 cm depths. Leaf area index (LAI) and biomass were obtained through destructive sampling about every 2 weeks throughout the growing season. Measurements of water and carbon cycling include the growing seasons for 2011-2014, with special focus on the late growing season and highly saturated conditions following the extreme precipitation events of September 2013. Cumulative rainfall measurements at the study sites for the period September 9-15, 2013 were approximately 200mm, and soil moisture increased from 15% to over 50% (completely saturated) during the same period. Preliminary results in the C3 dominated grassland during this event showed a rapid increase in the CO2 concentration gradient, with the soil CO2 concentration at the 15cm depth increasing from 1339 ppm to 4246 ppm in less than 1 hour. Yet increasing soil water content caused a decrease in diffusion of CO2, with efflux going from 0.1 mgC/m2/hr to zero during the same

  6. Hydrogen combustion in a flat semi-confined layer with respect to the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, M.; Yanez, J.; Grune, J.; Friedrich, A.; Jordan, T.

    2012-07-01

    The hydrogen accumulation at the top of containment or reactor building may occur due to an interaction of molten corium and water followed by a severe accident of a nuclear reactor (TMI, Chernobyl, Fukushima Daiichi). The hydrogen, released from the reactor, accumulates usually as a stratified semi-confined layer of hydrogen-air mixture. A series of large scale experiments on hydrogen combustion and explosion in a semi-confined layer of uniform and non-uniform hydrogen-air mixtures in presence of obstructions or without them was performed at the Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT). Different flame propagation regimes from slow subsonic to relative fast sonic flames and then to the detonations were experimentally investigated in different geometries and then simulated with COMSD code with respect to evaluate amount of burnt hydrogen taken place during the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (FDA). The experiments were performed in a horizontal semi-confined layer with dimensions of 9x3x0.6 m with/without obstacles opened from below. The hydrogen concentration in the mixtures with air was varied in the range of 0-34 vol. % without or with a gradient of 0-60 vol. %H{sub 2}/m. Effects of hydrogen concentration gradient, thickness of the layer, geometry of the obstructions, average and maximum hydrogen concentration on flame propagation regimes were investigated with respect to evaluate the maximum pressure loads of internal structures. Blast wave strength and dynamics of propagation after explosion of the layer of hydrogen-air mixture was numerically simulated to reproduce the hydrogen explosion process during the Fukushima Daiichi Accident. (authors)

  7. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  8. Design and performance of a fluidized-bed incinerator for TRU combustible wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.

    1982-01-01

    Problems encountered in the incineration of glovebox generated waste at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) led to the development of a fluidized-bed incineration (FBI) system for transuranic (TRU) combustible wastes. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the process preceded the installation of an 82-kg/h production demonstration incinerator at RFP. The FBI process is discussed, and the design of the demonstration incinerator is described. Operating experience and process performance for both the pilot and demonstration units are presented.

  9. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residue

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-04-06

    The development of the immobilization process for graphite fines has proceeded through a series of experimental programs. The experimental procedures and results from each series of experiments are discussed in this report.

  10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a ...

  11. Rocky Martian Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The rocky Martian plain surrounding Viking 2 is seen in high resolution in this 85-degree panorama sweeping from north at the left to east at right during the Martian afternoon on September 5. Large blocks litter the surface. Some are porous, sponge-like rocks like the one at the left edge (size estimate: 1 1/2 to 2 feet); others are dense and fine-grained, such as the very bright rounded block (1 to 1 1/2 feet across) toward lower right. Pebbled surface between the rocks is covered in places by small drifts of very fine material similar to drifts seen at the Viking 1 landing site some 4600 miles to the southwest. The fine-grained material is banked up behind some rocks, but wind tails seen by Viking 1 are not well-developed here. On the right horizon, flat-topped ridges or hills are illuminated by the afternoon sun. Slope of the horizon is due to the 8-degree tilt of the spacecraft.

  12. Rocky Martian Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The rocky Martian plain surrounding Viking 2 is seen in high resolution in this 85-degree panorama sweeping from north at the left to east at right during the Martian afternoon on September 5. Large blocks litter the surface. Some are porous, sponge-like rocks like the one at the left edge (size estimate: 1 1/2 to 2 feet); others are dense and fine-grained, such as the very bright rounded block (1 to 1 1/2 feet across) toward lower right. Pebbled surface between the rocks is covered in places by small drifts of very fine material similar to drifts seen at the Viking 1 landing site some 4600 miles to the southwest. The fine-grained material is banked up behind some rocks, but wind tails seen by Viking 1 are not well-developed here. On the right horizon, flat-topped ridges or hills are illuminated by the afternoon sun. Slope of the horizon is due to the 8-degree tilt of the spacecraft.

  13. 5. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST OF BUILDING 444. (1/1/98) Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST OF BUILDING 444. (1/1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 4. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT BUILDING 444. (1/1/98) Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT BUILDING 444. (1/1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. 7. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: National Archives, Rocky Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, Salt River Project History, Final History to 1916. p. 506) Interior view of transformer house. No date. CA. 1916. - Theodore Roosevelt Dam, Transformer House, Salt River, Tortilla Flat, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 7. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: National Archives, Rocky Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, Salt River Project History, Final History to 1916. p. 504) Inside Roosevelt power plant showing size of valve. CA. 1916. - Theodore Roosevelt Dam, Power Plant, Salt River, Tortilla Flat, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Activity measurements of a suite of radionuclides (90Sr, 137Cs, 210Pb, 210Po, 228Ra, 234U, 235U, 238U, 238Pu, 239,240Pu) in soil reference material (Rocky Flats II): CCRI(II)-S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, S.; Inn, K. G. W.; Karam, L. R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the CCRI decided that a comparison undertaken from 2002 to 2007 by the NIST (SIM) in the development of a new soil (Rocky Flats II) standard reference material (SRM) was sufficiently well constructed that it could be converted into a supplementary comparison under CCRI(II), with comparison identifier CCRI(II)-S2, so as to support calibration and measurement capability (CMC) claims for radionuclide measurements in reference material (specifically, low calcium-content soils). Previous comparisons of radionuclides have been of single or multiple nuclides in non-complex matrices and results of such could not be extended to support capabilities to measure the same nuclides in reference materials. The results of this comparison have been reported to the participants, and have been used to determine the certified reference value of the SRM. The key comparison working group (KCWG) of the CCRI(II) has approved this approach as a mechanism to link all the results to certified 'reference values' in lieu of the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of these specified radionuclides in this type of matrix (soil) so as to support CMCs of similar materials. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  18. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Flats Wetlands in the Everglades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    available at the following Web sites : the context of the 404 Regulatory Program. http://www.wes.army.mil/el/wetlands/wlpubs. html or http...created by rock plowing on this Rocky Flats Everglades site ........................................... 29 Figure 6. Relationship between soil thickness...Figure 12. Periphyton, found on all reference standard sites in the Rocky and Marl Flats Everglades wetlands

  19. The Rocky Mountain Trench

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Acquisition Date: February 2004 The high reflectance of clouds compared to the surrounding land, coupled with the low sun elevation when this image was acquired, causes low clouds to appear red as they fill a portion of the Rocky Mountain Trench. Running parallel with the peaks of the Canadian Rockies and ranging from 2 to 10 miles (3 to 16 kilometers) wide and about 900 miles (1,448 kilometers) long, the Trench aligns with the Fraser River and makes its way past Mount Robson, the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies at 12,972 feet (3,954 meters). Mount Robson is near the center of this image. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Landsat/USGS To learn more about Landsat and to see the orginal high res file go to: landsat.usgs.gov/gallery_view.php?category=greenflag&...

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan

    2017-01-01

    The tick-borne disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) can have deadly outcomes unless treated appropriately, yet nonspecific flu-like symptoms complicate diagnosis. Occupational health nurses must have a high index of suspicion with symptomatic workers and recognize that recent recreational or occupational activities with potential tick exposure may suggest RMSF.

  1. Historians' Rocky Job Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafton, Anthony; Townsend, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how the historians' job market is perennially rocky. The history profession had its "golden age" in the 1950s and early 1960s when a generation born in the demographic trench of the Depression entered the market just as the first of the baby boomers began to swell college enrollments. But that moment was…

  2. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  3. Historians' Rocky Job Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafton, Anthony; Townsend, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how the historians' job market is perennially rocky. The history profession had its "golden age" in the 1950s and early 1960s when a generation born in the demographic trench of the Depression entered the market just as the first of the baby boomers began to swell college enrollments. But that moment was…

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Lacz, N L; Schwartz, R A; Kapila, R

    2006-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an unusual but important dermatological condition to identify without hesitation. The classic triad of headache, fever, and a rash that begins on the extremities and travels proximally to involve the trunk is found in a majority of patients. The cutaneous centripetal pattern is a result of cell to cell migration by the causative organism Rickettsia rickettsii. Such individuals should receive prompt antimicrobial therapy and supportive care to avoid serious and potentially fatal complications.

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kamper, C A; Chessman, K H; Phelps, S J

    1988-02-01

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever are reviewed. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a severe infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted to man by various species of ticks. High-incidence areas exist in the southeast and south central United States. Only 60-70% of patients with the disease report a history of tick bite or exposure to tick-infested areas. The disease is initially characterized by fever, headache, gastrointestinal complaints, myalgia, and a generalized rash. In several days generalized vasculitis may lead to periorbital edema and nonpitting edema of the face and extremities. Central nervous system involvement is common. Because signs and symptoms associated with the disease are nonspecific, the diagnosis is often delayed or missed. Traditionally diagnostic confirmation relied on serologic testing, but an indirect fluorescent antibody assay will soon be commercially available. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is usually treated with the rickettsiostatic agents chloramphenicol or tetracycline, but few comparative data on these agents in patients with the disease are available. For patients who cannot tolerate oral medications, intravenous chloramphenicol sodium succinate is the preferred treatment; chloramphenicol is also the drug of choice for children less than eight years of age. Otherwise, oral tetracycline hydrochloride is the drug of choice. Antibiotic therapy should be continued for 7-10 days or until the patient is afebrile for two to five days. All cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever must be reported to the Centers for Disease Control. The best ways to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease are to increase awareness of its signs and symptoms and to prevent exposure to ticks.

  6. Fish Assemblages on Estuarine Artificial Reefs: Natural Rocky-Reef Mimics or Discrete Assemblages?

    PubMed Central

    Folpp, Heath; Lowry, Michael; Gregson, Marcus; Suthers, Iain M.

    2013-01-01

    If the primary goal of artificial reef construction is the creation of additional reef habitat that is comparable to adjacent natural rocky-reef, then performance should be evaluated using simultaneous comparisons with adjacent natural habitats. Using baited remote underwater video (BRUV) fish assemblages on purpose-built estuarine artificial reefs and adjacent natural rocky-reef and sand-flat were assessed 18 months post-deployment in three south-east Australian estuaries. Fish abundance, species richness and diversity were found to be greater on the artificial reefs than on either naturally occurring reef or sand-flat in all estuaries. Comparisons within each estuary identified significant differences in the species composition between the artificial and natural rocky-reefs. The artificial reef assemblage was dominated by sparid species including Acanthopagrus australis and Rhabdosargus sarba. The preference for a range of habitats by theses sparid species is evident by their detection on sand-flat, natural rocky reef and artificial reef habitats. The fish assemblage identified on the artificial reefs remained distinct from the adjacent rocky-reef, comprising a range of species drawn from naturally occurring rocky-reef and sand-flat. In addition, some mid-water schooling species including Trachurus novaezelandiae and Pseudocaranx georgianus were only identified on the artificial reef community; presumably as result of the reef's isolated location in open-water. We concluded that estuarine artificial reef assemblages are likely to differ significantly from adjacent rocky-reef, potentially as a result of physical factors such as reef isolation, coupled with species specific behavioural traits such as the ability of some species to traverse large sand flats in order to locate reef structure, and feeding preferences. Artificial reefs should not be viewed as direct surrogates for natural reef. The assemblages are likely to remain distinct from naturally occurring

  7. Fish assemblages on estuarine artificial reefs: natural rocky-reef mimics or discrete assemblages?

    PubMed

    Folpp, Heath; Lowry, Michael; Gregson, Marcus; Suthers, Iain M

    2014-01-01

    If the primary goal of artificial reef construction is the creation of additional reef habitat that is comparable to adjacent natural rocky-reef, then performance should be evaluated using simultaneous comparisons with adjacent natural habitats. Using baited remote underwater video (BRUV) fish assemblages on purpose-built estuarine artificial reefs and adjacent natural rocky-reef and sand-flat were assessed 18 months post-deployment in three south-east Australian estuaries. Fish abundance, species richness and diversity were found to be greater on the artificial reefs than on either naturally occurring reef or sand-flat in all estuaries. Comparisons within each estuary identified significant differences in the species composition between the artificial and natural rocky-reefs. The artificial reef assemblage was dominated by sparid species including Acanthopagrus australis and Rhabdosargus sarba. The preference for a range of habitats by theses sparid species is evident by their detection on sand-flat, natural rocky reef and artificial reef habitats. The fish assemblage identified on the artificial reefs remained distinct from the adjacent rocky-reef, comprising a range of species drawn from naturally occurring rocky-reef and sand-flat. In addition, some mid-water schooling species including Trachurus novaezelandiae and Pseudocaranx georgianus were only identified on the artificial reef community; presumably as result of the reef's isolated location in open-water. We concluded that estuarine artificial reef assemblages are likely to differ significantly from adjacent rocky-reef, potentially as a result of physical factors such as reef isolation, coupled with species specific behavioural traits such as the ability of some species to traverse large sand flats in order to locate reef structure, and feeding preferences. Artificial reefs should not be viewed as direct surrogates for natural reef. The assemblages are likely to remain distinct from naturally occurring

  8. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever].

    PubMed

    Reinauer, K M; Jaschonek, K; Kusch, G; Heizmann, W R; Döller, P C; Jenss, H

    1990-01-12

    After returning from a holiday in the USA a 24-year-old man fell ill with diarrhoea, high fever and marked rash including the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. When a history of a tick bite in the USA was elicited, a rickettsial infection was suspected. Treatment with doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily, was instituted finally and the fever slowly resolved. The patient became completely well again within four weeks. Serological tests confirmed the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  9. Charlie Flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows a region of the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars, dubbed 'Charlie Flats.' This region is a rich science target for Opportunity because it contains a diverse assortment of small grains, pebbles and spherules, as well as both dark and light soil deposits. The area seen here measures approximately 0.6 meters (2 feet) across. The smallest grains visible in this image are only a few millimeters in size. The approximate true color image was acquired on Sol 20 of Opportunity's mission with panoramic camera filters red, green and blue. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view Charlie Flats Spectra The chart above shows examples of spectra, or light wave patterns, extracted from the region of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop dubbed 'Charlie Flats,' a rich science target for the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The spectra were extracted from the similarly colored regions in the image on the left, taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The green circle identifies a bright, dust-like soil deposit. The red circle identifies a dark soil region. The yellow identifies a small, angular rock chip with a strong near-infrared band. The pink identifies a sphere-shaped pebble with a different strong near-infrared band. The cyan circle shows a dark, grayish pebble.

  10. Charlie Flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows a region of the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars, dubbed 'Charlie Flats.' This region is a rich science target for Opportunity because it contains a diverse assortment of small grains, pebbles and spherules, as well as both dark and light soil deposits. The area seen here measures approximately 0.6 meters (2 feet) across. The smallest grains visible in this image are only a few millimeters in size. The approximate true color image was acquired on Sol 20 of Opportunity's mission with panoramic camera filters red, green and blue. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view Charlie Flats Spectra The chart above shows examples of spectra, or light wave patterns, extracted from the region of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop dubbed 'Charlie Flats,' a rich science target for the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The spectra were extracted from the similarly colored regions in the image on the left, taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The green circle identifies a bright, dust-like soil deposit. The red circle identifies a dark soil region. The yellow identifies a small, angular rock chip with a strong near-infrared band. The pink identifies a sphere-shaped pebble with a different strong near-infrared band. The cyan circle shows a dark, grayish pebble.

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2007-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a life-threatening disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, an obligately intracellular bacterium that is spread to human beings by ticks. More than a century after its first clinical description, this disease is still among the most virulent human infections identified, being potentially fatal even in previously healthy young people. The diagnosis of RMSF is based on the patient's history and a physical examination, and often presents a dilemma for clinicians because of the non-specific presentation of the disease in its early course. Early empirical treatment is essential to prevent severe complications or a fatal outcome, and treatment should be initiated even in unconfirmed cases. Because there is no vaccine available against RMSF, avoidance of tick-infested areas is still the best way to prevent the infection.

  12. Rocky Mountain Snow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired December 19, 2012 In time for the 2012 winter solstice, a storm dropped snow over most of the Rocky Mountains in the United States. On December 20, the National Weather Service reported snow depths exceeding 100 centimeters (39 inches) in some places—the result of the recent snowfall plus accumulation from earlier storms. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this natural-color image on December 19, 2012. Clouds had mostly cleared from the region, though some cloud cover lingered over parts of the Pacific Northwest and Colorado. Showing more distinct contours than the clouds, the snow cover stretched across the Rocky Mountains and the surrounding region, from Idaho to Arizona and from California to Colorado. Snowfall did not stop in Colorado, as the storm continued moving eastward across the Midwest. By December 20, 2012, a combination of heavy snow and strong winds had closed schools, iced roads, and delayed flights, complicating plans for holiday travelers. Though troublesome for travel, the snow brought much-needed moisture; multiple cities had set new records for consecutive days without measurable snow, CBS news reported. As of December 18, the U.S. Drought Monitor stated that a substantial portion of the continental United States continued to suffer from drought, and “exceptional” drought conditions extended from South Dakota to southern Texas. NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE MODIS Rapid Response. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: Aqua - MODIS To read more go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=80035 Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission

  13. "Roadrunner Flats"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-10-14

    This enhanced color image of the Pathfinder landing site shows the eastern horizon. The elongated, reddish, low contrast region in the distance is "Roadrunner Flats." This image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). Sojourner spent 83 days of a planned seven-day mission exploring the Martian terrain, acquiring images, and taking chemical, atmospheric and other measurements. The final data transmission received from Pathfinder was at 10:23 UTC on September 27, 1997. Although mission managers tried to restore full communications during the following five months, the successful mission was terminated on March 10, 1998. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00979

  14. Hot, Rocky World Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-30

    This artist's rendition shows one possible appearance for the planet HD 219134b, the nearest confirmed rocky exoplanet found to date outside our solar system. The planet is 1.6 times the size of Earth, and whips around its star in just three days. Scientists predict that the scorching-hot planet -- known to be rocky through measurements of its mass and size -- would have a rocky, partially molten surface with geological activity, including possibly volcanoes. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19833

  15. Rocky Mountain Arsenal NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  16. Archipelago Tidal Flats in Korea: Sedimentological and Geoheritage Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Kyung Sik; Chun, SeungSoo; Moon, Kyong O.

    2015-04-01

    Over one thousand islands with rocky shores are distributed and concentrated along the southwestern coast of the Korean Peninsula. Various tidal flats formed along the rocky coasts of the archipelago have been developed due to the relative decrease in accommodation space by slow sea-level rise on broad marginal epicontinental seas during the Holocene. Sedimentation and evolution on these archipelago tidal flats (ATF) show quite distinctive and various tidal flat patterns, depending upon the location and direction of rocky shores which have been constantly influenced by monsoon winds reversely changing with season. Generally ATF is characterized by surrounding wave-dominated sand flats along the outside of the archipelago and by broad tide-dominated mud flats in its central part with spring tidal range reaching up to 6 meters. The open-coast outside sand flats and inner mud flats are completely different in terms of sedimentation and the evolution of sedimentary sequences. The former has been deposited by the transgressive sedimentation with strongly destructive and weakly constructive wave/tide processes, forming relative thin and younger (ca. 3,000 yrs BP) remnant storm-dominated sandflat units. The latter has been deposited by continuous transgressive settling with constructive tidal processes during Holocene, forming relative thick and older (from ca. 7,000 yrs BP) mud-flat units. Geomorphological features and the geological evolution of the ATF (Shinan archipelago and Yoobudo islands in Seocheon) display a quite distinctive pattern of ongoing geological processes from the Wadden Sea tidal flats which was already inscribed as World Natural Heritage. Therefore, the Outstanding Universal Values of the Korean ITF for criteria (vii) and (viii) should provide a strong support for the additional World Natural Heritage Site.

  17. Drought in the Rockies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the difference between the amount of vegetation in July 2000 and the average July vegetation for North America. Of particular interest are the dry conditions in the western United States. This spring and summer the Rocky Mountains have been relatively dry, and the brown regions stretching from the Canadian to the Mexican border, indicate the effect on the regions' forests. Western Montana and eastern Idaho are particularly parched, and appear darker brown. The dry conditions have contributed to this year's devastating fire season, during which millions of acres have burned in the west. Scientists find that during the growing season, land plants can be used to measure drought. Healthy, thriving plants reflect and absorb visible and near-infrared light differently than plants under stress. These variations in reflectance and absorption can be measured by satellites to produce maps of healthy and stressed vegetation. This image shows Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, which indicates where vegetation growth was above average (green pixels), below average (brown pixels), or normal (white pixels). For more images and information about measuring vegetation and drought from space visit: Drought and Vegetation Monitoring. Image courtesy NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Biospheric Sciences Branch, based on data from NOAA.

  18. Drought in the Rockies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the difference between the amount of vegetation in July 2000 and the average July vegetation for North America. Of particular interest are the dry conditions in the western United States. This spring and summer the Rocky Mountains have been relatively dry, and the brown regions stretching from the Canadian to the Mexican border, indicate the effect on the regions' forests. Western Montana and eastern Idaho are particularly parched, and appear darker brown. The dry conditions have contributed to this year's devastating fire season, during which millions of acres have burned in the west. Scientists find that during the growing season, land plants can be used to measure drought. Healthy, thriving plants reflect and absorb visible and near-infrared light differently than plants under stress. These variations in reflectance and absorption can be measured by satellites to produce maps of healthy and stressed vegetation. This image shows Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, which indicates where vegetation growth was above average (green pixels), below average (brown pixels), or normal (white pixels). For more images and information about measuring vegetation and drought from space visit: Drought and Vegetation Monitoring. Image courtesy NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Biospheric Sciences Branch, based on data from NOAA.

  19. Rocky road in the Rockies: Challenges to biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomback, Diana F.; Kendall, Katherine C.

    2002-01-01

    To people worldwide, the Rocky Mountains of the United States and Canada represent a last bastion of nature in its purest and rawest form-unspoiled forests teeming with elk and deer stalked by mountain lions and grizzly bears; bald eagles nesting near lakes and rivers; fat, feisty native trout in rushing mountain streams; and dazzling arrays of wildflowers in lush meadows. In fact, the total biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains is considerable, with relatively high diversity in birds, mammals, butterflies, reptiles, and conifers (Ricketts et al. 1999) and with geographic variation in the flora and fauna of alpine, forest, foothill, and adjacent shortgrass prairie and shrub communities over more than 20 degrees of latitude and more than 10' of longitude. Although the biodiversity of most North American regions has declined because of anthropogenic influences, the perception remains that the biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains is intact. This view exists in part because the Rocky Mountains are remote from urban centers, in part because so much of the land comprises protected areas such as national parks and wilderness areas, and in part because of wishful thinking-that nothing bad could happen to the biodiversity that is so much a part of the history, national self-image, legends, nature films, and movies of the United States and Canada. Despite modern technology and the homogenization and globalization of their cities and towns, at heart North Americans still regard their land as the New World, with pristine nature and untamed landscapes epitomized by the Rockies. The reality is that the biodiversity of the Rocky Mountains has not been free of anthropogenic influences since the West was settled in the 1800s, and in fact it was altered by Native Americans for centuries prior to settlement. A number of escalating problems and consequences of management choices are currently changing Rocky Mountain ecological communities at a dizzying pace. In Order to maintain some

  20. New criteria expected from East Flat project

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.P.

    1980-04-01

    The East Flat in-situ combustion project began in June 1979 in the isolated East Flat area of the North Ward-Estes field and is expected to provide Gulf with a new set of criteria for in-situ fireflooding. The East Flat area is a small, separate and isolated Queen sand reservoir. Conditions in East Flat are expected to give more control to the combustion process, primarily because of the size and homogeneity of the reservoir. The East Flat project was initiated in an old caustic pilot, which was started in 1973 to determine the effect of a caustic slug injected early in the life of a waterflood. The caustic pilot consisted of 4 injection wells drilled around a single producer to form a 5-arce regular 5-spot pattern. In the combustion project, the in-situ fire was started in the center producing well after its being converted to air injection. As the burn approaches the observation wells, small amounts of water will be injected into them to project the casing from the corrosive gases caused by high temperatures.

  1. The Rocky Planet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Debra

    In direct support of the NASA Origins program, we propose the Rocky Planet Survey, a high cadence exoplanet search of sixty late G and K dwarf stars using the CHIRON spectrometer, which we built and commissioned at CTIO. CHIRON operates in two high- resolution modes (R=90,000 and R=120,000) and has a demonstrated precision of better than 1 m s-1. We are contributing 200 nights of telescope time for the next three years, for the excellent phase coverage needed to carry out this work. We have developed simulation software to optimize scheduling of observations to suppress aliases and quickly extract dynamical signals. Our science objectives are to (1) provide a statistical assessment of planet occurrence as a function of decreasing mass in the range of parameter space 3 < Msini < 30 MEARTH for orbital periods up to 50 days, (2) to determine the fraction of low mass planets in multi-planet architectures, and (3) detect planets with Msini < 3 MEARTH in orbital periods shorter than ~20 days. In addition to the science objectives, we intend to push the frontiers of extreme precision Doppler measurements to keep the U.S. competitive with the next generation of European Doppler spectroscopy (ESPRESSO on the VLT). Our team has significant expertise in optical design, fiber coupling, raw extraction, barycentric velocity corrections, and Doppler analysis. The proposed work includes a new optimal extraction algorithm, with the optical designers and software engineers working together on the 2-D PSF description needed for a proper row-by-row extraction and calibration. We will also develop and test upgrades to the barycentric correction code and improvements in the Doppler code that take advantage of stability in the dispersion solution, afforded by a new vacuum-enclosed grating upgrade (scheduled for November 2011). We will test use of emission wavelength calibrations to extend the iodine (absorption) wavelength calibration that we currently use to prepare for eventual use of

  2. 27 CFR 9.43 - Rocky Knob.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocky Knob. 9.43 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.43 Rocky Knob. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rocky Knob.” (b) Approved maps...

  3. 27 CFR 9.43 - Rocky Knob.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rocky Knob. 9.43 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.43 Rocky Knob. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rocky Knob.” (b) Approved maps...

  4. 27 CFR 9.43 - Rocky Knob.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rocky Knob. 9.43 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.43 Rocky Knob. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rocky Knob.” (b) Approved maps...

  5. 27 CFR 9.43 - Rocky Knob.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rocky Knob. 9.43 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.43 Rocky Knob. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rocky Knob.” (b) Approved maps...

  6. 27 CFR 9.43 - Rocky Knob.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rocky Knob. 9.43 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.43 Rocky Knob. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rocky Knob.” (b) Approved maps...

  7. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  8. The potential of Biochar technology in combating rocky desertification in the Karst area of south China*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, X.; Xing, Y.; Fang, B.; Zhang, L.; Yang, F.; Zhou, H.

    2012-04-01

    Land degradation in the Karst region is characterized by soil erosion and subsequent exposure of bedrocks in hillsides, i.e. the rocky desertification. The primary causative forces lie in the deforestation and cultivation on the slopes of mountain topography that inherently lacks for soil deposition due to the dissolving nature of the limestone or dolomite. Realizing the far-reaching impact of the Karst land degradation, which not only impoverishes the local farmers, but also jeopardizes the ecosystem's safety in the middle and lower reaches of the Xijiang and Yangtze rivers, the important economic zones in the south and east China, the Chinese central and provincial governments pushed very hard in recent decade to implement restoration of the hill slopes. Hundreds of millions of money have been invested in this effort. The achievement, however, falls far short of the expectations because, as we believe, of the neglect of the inevitability of the mass development of the mountain slopes. As the most intensely degraded area in southwest China, Guizhou province exemplies the other Karst regions in south China in the development of the rocky desertification. With the establishment of the P. R. China, this mountainous province, like other regions of China, witnessed the soaring of population, of which 86% occurred in the countryside. The urge to support the increased population led to the most prevalent land reclamation in Guizhou's history. Due to lack of plat land resources, the farmers have no alternative but to turn their axes and hoes to the hillsides. The disturbances deprived the meager soil of its fragile stability and made it an easy prey to the flooding waters and thus resulted in the widespread rocky desertification. The restoration of the hillsides, therefore, must be compensated by incomes from other sources. Accordingly, we proposed an approach through increasing the productivity of the basic farmland, the fields that are located in the flat lands, and did

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    PubMed

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  11. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

    2007-01-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. PMID:18214179

  12. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Zaki, Sherif

    2007-01-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America. PMID:18217566

  13. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  14. Simulating Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.

  15. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  16. Ser1333 phosphorylation indicates ROCKI activation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiang-Hao; Liang, Shao-Wei; Chang, Zee-Fen; Lee, Hsiao-Hui

    2013-10-29

    Two isoforms of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), ROCKI and ROCKII, play a pivotal role in regulation of cytoskeleton and are involved in multiple cellular processes in mammalian cells. Knockout mice experiments have indicated that the functions of ROCKI and II are probably non-redundant in physiology. However, it is difficult to differentiate the activation status of ROCKI and ROCKII in biological samples. Previously, we have identified phosphorylation site of ROCKII at Ser1366 residue sensitive to ROCK inhibition. We further investigated the activity-dependent phosphorylation site in ROCKI to establish the reagents that can be used to detect their individual activation. The phosphorylation site of ROCKI sensitive to its inhibition was identified to be the Ser1333 residue. The ROCKI pSer1333-specific antibody does not cross-react with phosphorylated ROCKII. The extent of S1333 phosphorylation of ROCKI correlates with myosin II light chain phosphorylation in cells in response to RhoA stimulation. Active ROCKI is phosphorylated at Ser1333 site. Antibodies that recognize phospho-Ser1333 of ROCKI and phospho-S1366 residues of ROCKII offer a means to discriminate their individual active status in cells and tissues.

  17. 1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the Oregon coast, view looking east - Rocky Creek Bridge, Spanning Rocky Creek on Oregon Coast Highway (U.S. Route 101), Depoe Bay, Lincoln County, OR

  18. Capacitance Flatness Gauge Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Pitas, A.; Angstadt, R.; /Fermilab

    1986-03-20

    The DO calorimeter has within it thousands of large plates. Our ability to construct the detector depends on the flatness of these plates. The performance of the detector depends on the flatness of the plates after they are assembled into a module. It has been proposed that the flatness of the plates before and after assembly could be determined by measuring capacitance. This device demonstrates the viability of using capacitance to measure the flatness of individual plates. No attempt has been made to extrapolate the results to measuring the flatness of the plates once they are in a module.

  19. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hugues

    2013-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  20. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    PubMed

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2004 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2005-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of six regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 14-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great...

  3. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2003 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of six regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 14-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains and parts of the Great...

  4. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  5. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2011 Annual Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  6. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2002 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2003-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of six regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 14-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains and parts of the Great...

  7. Combustion detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimpi, R. L.; Nealy, J. E.; Grose, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A device has been developed for generating a rapid response signal upon the radiation-emitting combustion reaction of certain gases in order to provide a means for the detection and identification of such reaction and concurrently discriminate against spurious signals. This combustion might be the first stage of a coal mine explosion process, and thereby this device could provide a warning of the impending explosion in time to initiate quenching action. This device has the capability of distinguishing between the light emitted from a combustion reaction and the light emitted by miners' lamps, electric lamps, welding sparks or other spurious events so that the quenching mechanism is triggered only when an explosion-initiating combustion occurs.

  8. Combustion Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-01

    This photograph depicts one of over thirty tests conducted on the Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) test stand 115, a joint effort between NASA's MSFC and the U.S. Army AMCOM of Redstone Arsenal. The engine tests were conducted to evaluate an irnovative, "self-cooled", vortex combustion chamber, which relies on tangentially injected propellants from the chamber wall producing centrifugal forces that keep the relatively cold liquid propellants near the wall.

  9. Combustion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  10. Rockies

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... orbit 7447) include portions of southern Wyoming, central Colorado, and western Nebraska. The top view is from the instrument's ... 422 kilometers x 213 kilometers. The South Platte River enters just to the right of center at the top of the images. It winds its ...

  11. MAMA FUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2012-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining FUV-MAMA flat-field observations to create a new p-flats with a SNR of 100 per {low resolution} pixel. The flats are obtained with the Krypton-lamp and the MR grating G140M, similarly to the cycle 17 and 18 programs. However the exact instrument setup {slit width and central wavelength} might change depending on the desired count level {which will be close to the internally allowed global rate limit}.

  12. Establishing a flatness standard.

    PubMed

    Elssner, K E; Vogel, A; Grzanna, J; Schulz, G

    1994-05-01

    A further-developed three-plate rotation method [Appl. Opt. 31, 3767 (1992)] for the absolute testing of flats is used as a measuring method for establishing flatness standards. A special phase-stepping Fizeau interferometer was built that permits flats of diameters up to 200 mm to be tested. First results show a mean error between 0.002 and 0.003 λ in the determination of the absolute flatness deviations (λ = 632.8 nm). These deviations are obtained at 500-600 points on each plate. A number of experimental conditions connected with the thermal and mechanical stability of the plates must be fulfilled.

  13. Fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Hattwick, M A; Retailliau, H; O'Brien, R J; Slutzker, M; Fontaine, R E; Hanson, B

    1978-09-29

    Forty-four fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) occurring in 1974 were compared with 50 nonfatal cases of similar age, sex, date of onset, and place of occurrence. Diagnosis and initiation of treatment in fatal cases were substantially delayed compared with nonfatal cases. Several reasons for this delay were identified: (1) the rash appeared later in the course of illness in the fatal cases, often not until the patient was terminal, (2) a history of tick bite was less often obtained during life or obtained late in the clinical course in fatal cases, and (3) initial nonspecific symptoms or unexpected symptoms led to an initial diagnosis of more common diseases. Only two fatal cases were treated with either tetracycline or chloramphenicol before the sixth day of illness. Presumptive diagnosis of RMSF and initiation of tetracycline therapy before onset of rash may be necessary to reduce mortality.

  14. Biofuels combustion*

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  15. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE PAGES

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  16. Biofuels combustion.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  17. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  18. Biofuels Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  19. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  20. Flat Pack Toy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the concept of flat pack toys. Flat pack toys are designed using a template on a single sheet of letter-sized card stock paper. Before being cut out and built into a three-dimensional toy, they are scanned into the computer and uploaded to a website. With the template accessible from the website, anyone with…

  1. Flat feet in children.

    PubMed

    Barry, R J; Scranton, P E

    1983-12-01

    In the assessment of the child with flat feet a sound knowledge of arch and subtalar biomechanics, epidemiology, and etiology is important. The occurrence and natural history of flat feet are presented, and treatment modalities that have withstood the test of time are discussed.

  2. The Rocky Road to Logical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Fern; Aaronson, Tim

    1985-01-01

    Presents offline logic activities to extend concepts in "Rocky's Boots." Activities focus on: (1) building logic circuits; (2) recognizing logic in language; (3) playing logic games; and (4) testing logic circuits. Detailed procedures accompanied by illustrative examples are included. (JN)

  3. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... tick Diseases transmitted by ticks More Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Rocky Mountain ... lower case fatality rate observed in recent decades. Epidemiology Figure 1 – Reported incidence and case fatality of ...

  4. Kepler Discovers Its First Rocky Planet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Kepler mission confirmed the discovery of its first rocky planet, named Kepler-10b. Measuring 1.4 times the size of Earth, it is the smallest planet ever discovered outside our solar system....

  5. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety for the Whole Family Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Hey! A Tick Bit Me! Bug Bites and Stings Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Lyme Disease Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  6. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ticks? First Aid: Tick Bites Bug Bites and Stings Woods and Camping Safety for the Whole Family ... Hey! A Tick Bit Me! Bug Bites and Stings Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Lyme Disease Contact Us ...

  7. Lightning fire research in the Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    J. S. Barrows

    1954-01-01

    Lightning is the major cause of fires in Rocky Mountain forests. The lightning fire problem is the prime target of a broad research program now known as Project Skyfire. KEYWORDS: lightning, fire research

  8. Traveling the road to Rocky Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    In July 1995, the Rocky Mountain Project began providing 848 MW of generating capacity and power system services for two Georgia utilities and their customers. To develop the giant pumped-storage project, Rocky Mountain`s developers overcame numerous technical, economic, and management challenges. Now they celebrate the creation of a valuable tool for meeting the demands of today`s changing electricity market.

  9. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  10. Flat-spectrum speech.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M R; Strube, H W

    1986-05-01

    Flat-spectrum stimuli, consisting of many equal-amplitude harmonics, produce timbre sensations that can depend strongly on the phase angles of the individual harmonics. For fundamental frequencies in the human pitch range, many realizable timbres have vowel-like perceptual qualities. This observation suggests the possibility of constructing intelligible voiced speech signals that have flat-amplitude spectra. This paper describes a successful experiment of creating several different diphthongs by judicious choice of the phase angles of a flat-spectrum waveform. A possible explanation of the observed vowel timbres lies in the dependence of the short-time amplitude spectra on phase changes.

  11. FLATs: Warming Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  12. FLATs: Warming Up - continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  13. Flat-space singletons

    SciTech Connect

    Fronsdal, C.

    1987-02-15

    Singletons exist, as particles and as local fields, only in 3+2 de Sitter space. Their kinematical properties make them natural candidates for constituents of massless fields, and perhaps for quarks. It is interesting to find out how to describe this type of compositeness in flat space. A theory of interacting singleton fields in de Sitter space is now available, and in this paper we study the flat-space limit of the Green's functions of that theory. The flat-space limit is an autonomous theory of Green's functions, but is not an operator field theory. The three-point function is calculated and its flat-space limit is found to reveal glimpses of a physical interpretation. Causal and spectral properties are in accord with the tenets of axiomatic field theory. The theory is a generalization of local field theory, in which photons appear as composite objects although the physical S matrix is the same as in conventional QED.

  14. Flat plate solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

  15. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  16. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  17. Polarimetry for rocky exoplanet characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, Daphne; Karalidi, Theodora

    2013-04-01

    Since the first discovery of a planet around a solar-type star by Mayor & Queloz in 1995, several hundreds of exoplanets have been detected. Indeed, it appears that practically all Sun-like stars have planets. Inevitable, Earth-sized, rocky planets that orbit in their star's habitable zone, where temperatures could be just right to allow liquid water on a planet's surface, will be found. Liquid water is generally considered to be essential for the existence of life. Whether liquid water actually exists on a planet depends strongly on the atmosphere's thickness and characteristics, such as the surface pressure and composition. Famous examples in the Solar System are Venus and the Earth, with similar sizes, inner compositions and orbital radii, but wildly different surface conditions. The characterization of the atmospheres and/or surfaces of exoplanets will allow a comparison with Solar System planets and it will open up a treasure trove of knowledge about the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres and surfaces, thanks to the vast range of orbital distances, planet sizes and ages that can be studied. Characterization will also allow studying conditions for life and ultimately the existence of life around other stars. Information about the upper atmospheres of close-in, hot, giant exoplanets, can be derived from measurements of the combined flux of the star and the planet, in particular when the planet is transiting its star. This method has also provided traces of an atmosphere around a large solid planet orbiting red dwarf star GJ1214. Detection and characterization of the atmospheres and/or surfaces of small, solid, Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars, is virtually impossible with transit observations. For these exiting planets, polarimetry appears to be a strong tool. Polarimetry helps the detection of exoplanets, because direct starlight is usually unpolarized, while starlight that has been reflected by a planet is usually

  18. Folding above faults, Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetric folds formed above basement faults can be observed throughout the Rocky Mountains. Several previous interpretations of the folding process made the implicit assumption that one or both fold hinges migrated or rolled'' through the steep forelimb of the fold as the structure evolved (rolling hinge model). Results of mapping in the Bighorn and Seminoe Mountains, WY, and Sangre de Cristo Range, CO, do not support this hypothesis. An alternative interpretation is presented in which fold hinges remained fixed in position during folding (fixed hinge model). Mapped folds share common characteristics: (1) axial traces of the folds intersect faults at or near the basement/cover interface, and diverge from faults upsection; (2) fold hinges are narrow and interlimb angles cluster around 80--100[degree] regardless of fold location; (3) fold shape is typically angular, despite published cross sections that show concentric folds; and, (4) beds within the folds show thickening and/or thinning, most commonly adjacent to fold hinges. The rolling hinge model requires that rocks in the fold forelimbs bend through narrow fold hinges as deformation progressed. Examination of massive, competent rock units such as the Ord. Bighorn Dolomite, Miss. Madison Limestone, and, Penn. Tensleep Sandstone reveals no evidence of the extensive internal deformation that would be expected if hinges rolled through rocks of the forelimb. The hinges of some folds (e.g. Golf Creek anticline, Bighorn Mountains) are offset by secondary faults, effectively preventing the passage of rocks from backlimb to forelimb. The fixed hinge model proposes that the fold hinges were defined early in fold evolution, and beds were progressively rotated and steepened as the structure grew.

  19. Mars rover mechanisms designed for Rocky 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    1993-01-01

    A Mars rover prototype vehicle named Rocky 4 was designed and built at JPL during the fall of 1991 and spring 1992. This vehicle is the fourth in a series of rovers designed to test vehicle mobility and navigation software. Rocky 4 was the first attempt to design a vehicle with 'flight like' mass and functionality. It was consequently necessary to develop highly efficient mechanisms and structures to meet the vehicles very tight mass limit of 3 Kg for the entire mobility system (7 Kg for the full system). This paper will discuss the key mechanisms developed for the rover's innovative drive and suspension system. These are the wheel drive and strut assembly, the rocker-bogie suspension mechanism and the differential pivot. The end-to-end design, analysis, fabrication and testing of these components will also be discussed as will their performance during field testing. The lessons learned from Rocky 4 are already proving invaluable for the design of Rocky 6. Rocky 6 is currently being designed to fly on NASA's MESUR mission to Mars scheduled to launch in 1996.

  20. Retro-action model for the erosion of rocky coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapoval, B.; Baldassarri, A.

    2009-12-01

    Rocky coasts are estimated to represent 75% of the world’s shorelines [1]. We discuss various situations where the formation of rocky coast morphology could be attributed to the retro-action of the coast morphology on the erosive power of the see. In the case of rocky coasts, erosion can spontaneously create irregular seashores. But, in turn, the geometrical irregularity participates to the damping of sea-waves, decreasing the average wave amplitude and erosive power. There may then exist a mutual self-stabilization of the waves amplitude together with the irregular morphology of the coast. A simple model of such stabilization is discussed. It leads, through a complex dynamics of the earth-sea interface, to the spontaneous appearance of an irregular sea-shore. The final coast morphology is found to depend on the morphology/damping coupling of the coast and on the possible existence of built-in correlations within the coast lithologic properties. This is illustrated in the figure. In the limit case where the morphology/damping coupling is weak and when the earth lithology distribution exhibit only short range correlations, the process spontaneously build fractal morphologies with a dimension close to 4/3 [2]. It is shown that this dimension refers to the dimension of the so-called accessible perimeter in gradient percolation. However, even rugged but non-fractal sea-coasts morphology may emerge for strong damping or during the erosion process. When the distributions of the lithologies exhibit long range correlations, a variety of complex morphologies are obtained which mimics observed coastline complexity, well beyond simple fractality. On a somewhat different perspective, the design of breakwaters is suggested to be improved by using global irregular geometry with features sizes of the order of the wave-length of the sea oscillations. [1] R. A. Davis, Jr, D. M. Fitzgerald, Beaches and Coasts,(Blackwell, Oxford 2004). [2] B. Sapoval, A. Baldassarri, A. Gabrielli

  1. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  2. Poker Flat improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee approved on September 14 a $10.8 million upgrade to University of Alaska Fairbanks Poker Flat Research Range pending full House and Senate approval. The funding will provide for building design, scientific program planning, and initial road and foundation construction. Senator Ted Stevens (RAK) said, “It is an important recognition of the roles Poker Flat, the Geophysical Institute and this university play in the international science area,“ that the Senate approved the money in a time of budget pressure.Poker Flat's facilities include rocket assembly and launching capabilities, telemetry receiving stations and ground-based diagnostic systems needed for launch decisions for space, aeronomy and atmospheric science experiments.

  3. Combustion Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  4. Consequences of early snowmelt in Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-01-01

    Snow melted significantly earlier in the Rocky Mountains in 2012 than in previous years, with serious consequences for plants and animals, scientists reported at the AGU Fall Meeting. David Inouye of the University of Maryland, College Park, and the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory said that "the timing of winter's end is changing." He has been observing snowmelt dates and flowering of plants at a site at 2900 meters altitude. This year's snowmelt occurred 23 April, whereas the previous year, snow melted 19 June, he reported.

  5. Flat shoes increase neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Flensmark, J

    2016-12-01

    The impairment of the horizontal is caused by elevation of the heel of the foot from the ground. Receptors in the soles of the feet provide a mapping of body orientation to the upright, and is identical to Mittelstaedt's idiotropic tendency. Initiation of gait wearing flat shoes without elevation of the heel is sufficient to change to a truthful horizontal. Using flat shoes increases neurogenesis and leads to a decreased frequency of diseases of the nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  7. Holograms of Flat Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Grumiller, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The holographic principle has a concrete realization in the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. If this principle is a true fact about quantum gravity then it must also hold beyond AdS/CFT. In this paper, we address specifically holographic field theory duals of gravitational theories in asymptotically flat spacetimes. We present some evidence of our recent conjecture that three-dimensional (3d) conformal Chern-Simons gravity (CSG) with flat space boundary conditions is dual to an extremal CFT.

  8. Multilayer flat electrical cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Flat electrical cable is lightweight, flexible over wide temperature range, withstands continuous exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation, and can carry high currents with minimum of temperature rise. Its magnetic cleanliness is equal to or better than twisted pair of wires, and it can be terminated in conventional electrical connector.

  9. Flat-cable fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot, K. J.

    1982-11-01

    Processes, environment, designs, and materials were reviewed to lower the attrition rate and improve the manufacturing ability of flat, flexible cables. Attrition caused by foreign material, damage, and dents was lowered. A new termination was developed for two cables. An alternative design for Kapton insulated cables reduced notch sensitivity. Alternative methods of cable manufacturing and inspection are investigated.

  10. Is flat fair?

    SciTech Connect

    Bunzl, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing holds out the promise of shifting peak demand as well as reducing overall demand. But it also raises thorny issues of fairness. All practical pricing systems involve tradeoffs between equity and efficiency. I examine the circumstances under which equity ought to be allowed to trump efficiency and whether or not this constitutes a defense of flat pricing. (author)

  11. Stereoscopic Flat Panel Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    the display of stereo imagery have been demonstrated. Stereoscopic displays typically require the user to wear special headgear. Autostereoscopic ...components and the resulting changes in the encoding algorithm. Keywords: Stereoscopic display, LCD, 3D , polarization encoding, flat panel 1...panel display when viewing non-stereoscopic imagery or data. Remotely operated vehicles do not represent the only potential application for 3D

  12. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  14. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  15. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  16. Transportation Fuels Markets, Midwest and Rocky Mountain

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    A new study commissioned by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), finds that changes in North American energy markets over the past decade have strengthened the supply of transportation fuels including motor gasoline, distillates, and jet fuel in the Midwest and Rocky Mountain regions.

  17. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2005 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2006-01-01

    During 2005, the USDA Forest Service celebrated its Centennial, recognizing 100 years of successfully caring for the land and serving people. The Rocky Mountain Research Station has been, and continues to be, an integral part of the Forest Service mission, dating back to the Agency's beginning, with the establishment of the Santa Rita Experimental Range near...

  18. Limber pine health in the Canadian Rockies

    Treesearch

    Cyndi M. Smith; David Langor; Colin Myrholm; Jim Weber; Cameron Gillies; Jon Stuart-Smith

    2011-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) reaches the northern limit of its range at about 52 degrees latitude in Alberta (AB) and 51 degrees latitude in British Columbia (BC). Most populations are found on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, with a few disjunct populations west of the Continental Divide in southeastern BC.

  19. Rocky Mountain juniper study: Preliminary results

    Treesearch

    Jill Barbour

    2002-01-01

    Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.) seed are hard to germinate in the nursery, containers, or laboratory because they have multiple dormancies. The seedcoat and prophylactic sheath surrounding the embryo impede water absorption. The embryo's epicotyl is not dormant; only the hypocotyl displays dormancy and requires cold...

  20. Field Trip to a Rocky Shore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Field trip activities designed for use on Maine's coast are provided, with brief definitions of the major physical zones to be found in this area. An introduction to the study of zonation of plants and animals living on the rocky shore is presented along with a list of the materials needed and the procedures to be followed when making a study of…

  1. Prophylactic treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, R H; Williams, R G; Oster, C N; Pedersen, C E

    1978-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever with a single dose of oxytetracycline was investigated in guinea pigs. Disease was prevented when treatment was administered shortly before expected onset. Relapses occurred when treatment preceded expected onset by 48 h or more. PMID:97307

  2. Field Trip to a Rocky Shore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Field trip activities designed for use on Maine's coast are provided, with brief definitions of the major physical zones to be found in this area. An introduction to the study of zonation of plants and animals living on the rocky shore is presented along with a list of the materials needed and the procedures to be followed when making a study of…

  3. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2008 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2009-01-01

    Another year has come and gone and was marked by several milestones for the Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). It was a year of many exciting breakthroughs in our science, effective applications of science tools, starts for new employees, the move of our Station headquarters, reinvigorating existing partnerships, and co-hosting the celebration of the Nation's...

  4. Rocky Mountain Research Station: Strategic Framework

    Treesearch

    Lane Eskew

    2003-01-01

    A strategic plan is a tool for charting a path into the future. This Strategic Framework will help guide the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station over the next decade during inevitable socioeconomic and environmental change. It is the product of a dialog with our stakeholders and employees to examine the Station's capabilities, anticipate research...

  5. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2007 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2008-01-01

    This past year has been a period of transition for the Rocky Mountain Research Station. In 2006, we identified the need to move from an organization of approximately 30 research work units whose work was formed around national Strategic Program Areas, to a more streamlined team-oriented organization composed of Science Programs and Research, Development, and...

  6. Geology Highlights for Ride the Rockies 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slate, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The author provides a brief description of the geology along the route for each day of the ride, from June 14 through June 19, 2009. Ride the Rockies begins and ends in Glenwood Springs, with stops in Hotchkiss, Gunnison, Salida, Leadville, Aspen, and back to Glenwood Springs, Colorado. A small, generalized geologic map also is shown.

  7. Geology highlights for Ride the Rockies 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slate, J.L.; Hess, Amber; Van Sistine, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The author provides a brief description of the geology along the route for each day of the ride, from June 13 through June 19, 2010. Ride the Rockies begins in Grand Junction, with stops in Delta, Ouray, Durango, Pagosa Springs, Alamosa, and ends in Salida, Colorado. A small, generalized geologic map also is shown.

  8. Geology highlights, Ride the Rockies 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slate, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The author provides a brief description of the geology along the route for each day of the ride, from June 12 through June 17, 2011. Ride the Rockies begins in Crested Butte, Colorado, with stops in Buena Vista, Edwards, Steamboat Springs, Granby, and Georgetown. A small, generalized geologic map also is shown.

  9. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2006 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2007-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station has a long and celebrated legacy of conducting relevant natural resources research throughout the Interior West and beyond. Land managers and planners regularly rely upon our science to help make wise resource decisions. Our niche among research organizations is distinct: mission-oriented, close to the customers, a reputation for...

  10. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  11. COS NUV Flat Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining COS NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for monitoring purpose only.The program uses the internal deuterium lamp and the MR grism G185M {at the central wavelengths 1835, 1850 and 1864 A}, as during thermal vacuum testing and SMOV4. The estimated SNR reached at the end of the program {13 hr integration during 10 orbits} is 20-25 per 3x3 pixel.

  12. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  14. Atmospheric Formation of Rocky Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, L. K.; Fegley, B., Jr.; Lodders, K.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric formation on rocky planets (both in our solar system and in other planetary systems) can be divided into three stages [1]. The first stage is a silicate vapor atmosphere produced during accretion when energy deposition is large enough to melt and partially vaporize rocky material (Fe, silicates, sulfides). One source of large energy comes from giant impacts. The Moon-forming impact exemplifies this stage for the Earth [1,2]. For exoplanets, other sources, such as stellar insolation and tidal heating, may produce sufficient heat to melt and vaporize a rocky planet. For example, stellar insolation is sufficient for the hot, rocky exoplanet CoRoT-7b to have a silicate vapor atmosphere [3]. The second stage of atmosphere formation is the generation of a "steam" atmosphere. This stage also occurs during accretion, when energy deposition is still high, but insufficient to vaporize rocky material. Depending on the redox state of the accreted materials, the "steam" atmosphere may contain varying amounts of water vapor. Enstatite, ordinary, and CV chondritic materials are examples of reduced materials that give an H2O-poor "steam" atmosphere, whereas CI and CM chondritic materials are more oxidized and generate an H2O-rich "steam" atmosphere [4,5]. The third stage of atmosphere formation, which occurs both during and after the accretion of most of the planetary mass, is outgassing of the accreted material. The oxidation state of the planet's silicate material may evolve as planetary processes, such as core formation and differentiation, proceed. As the oxidation state changes from more reducing (e.g., like that of chondritic material) to more oxidizing (e.g., like that of the bulk silicate Earth BSE), atmospheric composition changes similarly. Outgassing of BSE material produces a CO2-rich atmosphere that also contains water vapor and SO2 [6, 7]. In this talk we focus on this third stage atmosphere, which is also relevant for understanding the atmospheres of

  15. Combustible particluate fuel heater

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.H.; Jurgens, H.J.W.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a combustible particulate fired heater. It consists of: a combustion chamber defined by upright side walls extending between open top and bottom ends; an enclosure surrounding the combustion chamber; a retort within the combustion chamber adjacent the bottom end and having a lower particulate receiving end and an upper open end; feed conveyor means leading through the enclosure to the retort for delivering metered quantities of combustible particulates to the lower particulate receiving end of the retort; primary combustion air supply means having a primary combustion air supply manifold extending at least partially about the upper open end of the retort; primary air control means on the primary air supply means for selectively allowing entry of combustion air from outside the enclosure in to the retort; secondary combustion air supply means including a secondary air supply manifold within the combustion chamber above the primary combustion air supply manifold; secondary air control means independent of the primary air control means for selectively allowing entry of secondary air from outside the enclosure to an area within the combustion chamber above the retort; an exhaust duct opening into the enclosure; and vacuum means connected to the exhaust duct for producing a pressure differential between the area confined by the enclosure and the ambient atmosphere such that ambient air is drawn through at least one of the combustion air supply means to induce a high level of gasification and to support combustion at the retort and for drawing combustion exhaust gases out through the exhaust duct.

  16. Combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Barsin, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The presentation will cover the highlights of sludge, providing information as to where it comes from, projection of how much more is expected, what is sludge, what can be done with them, and finally focus in one combustion technology that can be utilized and applied to recycle sludge. The author is with Gotaverken Energy Systems Inc. where for the past 100 years they have been involved in the recovery of chemicals in chemical pulp mills. One week ago, our name was changed to Kvaerner Pulping Inc. to better reflect our present make-up which is a combination of Kamyr AB (suppliers of proprietary highly engineered totally chlorine free chemical pulp manufacturing systems, including digesters, O{sub 2} delignification systems, and bleach plant systems) and Goetaverken. Sludges that we are concerned with derive from several sources within chemical pulp mills such as: such as primary clarifier sludges, secondary clarifier sludges, and most recently those sludges derived from post consumer paper and board recycle efforts including de-inking and those from the thermal mechanical pulping processes. These sludges have been classified as non-hazardous therefore, residue can be landfilled, but the volumes involved are growing at an alarming rate.

  17. Rocky desertification treatment project in karst areas in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jinxing; Pang, Danbo; Wan, Long; Wu, Xiuqin; Wang, Genzhu

    2017-04-01

    Rocky desertification is one of the most severe ecological problems in karst areas of South China. Severe vegetation degradation, high soil erosion, high exposed bedrock and fast groundwater flow through karst conduits are typical characteristics in the rocky desertification areas. From 2008, the rocky desertification treatment project was conducted by the Chinese government to improve the local ecological environment. This paper has offered an overview of the rocky desertification treatment project, and the partitions for the rocky desertification treatment. Changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of different severity of rocky desertification were investigated. Diverse vegetation restoration modes and ecological engineering technology modes for rocky desertification management were introduced. We also discussed the vegetation restoration effects and the carbon absorbing effects by Chinese rocky desertification treatment project. Besides, the problems exist in the rocky desertification treatment were analyzed in our study. The new rocky desertification treatment project will be carried out from 2016 in China. We need continue to summarize the past experiences, and gain more achievements from the new project.

  18. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  19. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Masters, Edwin J; Olson, Gary S; Weiner, Scott J; Paddock, Christopher D

    2003-04-14

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is still the most lethal tick-vectored illness in the United States. We examine the dilemmas facing the clinician who is evaluating the patient with possible Rocky Mountain spotted fever, with particular attention to the following 8 pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment: (1) waiting for a petechial rash to develop before diagnosis; (2) misdiagnosing as gastroenteritis; (3) discounting a diagnosis when there is no history of a tick bite; (4) using an inappropriate geographic exclusion; (5) using an inappropriate seasonal exclusion; (6) failing to treat on clinical suspicion; (7) failing to elicit an appropriate history; and (8) failing to treat with doxycycline. Early diagnosis and proper treatment save lives.

  20. Oxidation of Pu-bearing solids: A process for Pu recovery from Rocky Flats incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    1997-07-18

    High-fired PuO{sub 2}, RFP ash heels, and synthetic RFP incinerator ash were easily soluble after oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) by heating with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} or KO{sub 2} to 450{degrees} for two hours. This offers a route to the recovery of Pu from these and similar PuO{sub 2}-bearing solids that can be carried out in present equipment. Evidence for new compounds K{sub 2}PuO{sub 4}, K{sub 4}PuO{sub 5} and K{sub 6}PuO{sub 6} is presented. A process for recovery of Pu from RFP incinerator ash is presented.

  1. Fire hazard analysis of Rocky Flats Building 776/777 duct systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiNenno, P.J.; Scheffey, J.L.; Gewain, R.G.; Shanley, J.H. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this analysis is to determine if ventilation ductwork in Building 776/777 will maintain their structural integrity during expected fire conditions as well as standard design fires typically used to ascertain fire resistance ratings. If the analysis shows that ductwork will not maintain structural integrity, the impact of this failure will be determined and analyzed, and alternative solutions recommended. Associated with this analysis is the development of a computer fire model which can be used as an engineering tool in analyzing the effect of fires on ductwork in other areas and buildings.

  2. Observations on coyote-mule deer interactions at Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Alldredge, A.W.; Arthur, W.J. III

    1980-01-01

    Observations of interactions between coyotes (Canis latrans) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in N-central Colorado indicated that, upon discovering a coyote close to a herd, mule deer would become alert, bunch together and either flee or pursue the coyote. Two observations of coyotes attacking deer indicated that the rump was the probable point of attack and in one case the deer began a defense using its front hooves.

  3. Rocky Flats Plant precipitate sludge surrogate vitrification demonstration. Technical Task Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1994-06-17

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. The preferred disposal method would be one that is capable of consistently producing a durable leach resistant wasteform, while simultaneously minimizing disposal volumes. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment.

  4. An overview of fatigue failures at the Rocky Flats Wind System Test Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldon, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    Potential small wind energy conversion (SWECS) design problems were identified to improve product quality and reliability. Mass produced components such as gearboxes, generators, bearings, etc., are generally reliable due to their widespread uniform use in other industries. The likelihood of failure increases, though, in the interfacing of these components and in SWECS components designed for a specific system use. Problems relating to the structural integrity of such components are discussed and analyzed with techniques currently used in quality assurance programs in other manufacturing industries.

  5. Geologic and seismologic investigations for Rocky Flats Plant. Volume II. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This volume contains the results of a seismic refraction study of the Ralston Reservoir area, soil stratigraphic investigations, unit descriptions, an analysis of geodetic data, experimental models, seismological evaluation, a seismicity survey of the Northern Golden Fault, historical data for the November 7, 1882 earthquake, and a dendrochronology study. (ACR)

  6. Aerodynamic research efforts at SERI wind energy research center at Rocky Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangler, J. L.

    1985-03-01

    Performance prediction and enhancement of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are discussed. A general purpose blade-element/momentum code was developed for rapid parametric studies and for use in annual energy calculations. A post-stall airfoil data synthesization routine accounts for blade aspect ratio effects. A version of the performance code provides better determination of dynamic stall effects on blade loads and performance as influenced by machine yaw angle, unsteady winds, tower shadow, and wind shear. For detailed wind turbine blade optimization, a more sophisticated lifting-surface/prescribed-wake analysis was developed. This code is a transfer of state-of-the-art helicopter theory into a wind turbine design analysis. Airfoil design effort is directed toward satisfying the need to tailor airfoil characteristics specifically for HAWT's. The design criteria and status of this effort are presented.

  7. Location of Nearest Rocky Exoplanet Known

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-30

    This sky map shows the location of the star HD 219134 (circle), host to the nearest confirmed rocky planet found to date outside of our solar system. The star lies just off the "W" shape of the constellation Cassiopeia and can be seen with the naked eye in dark skies. It actually has multiple planets, none of which are habitable. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19832

  8. Rocky Mountain futures: An ecological perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations has proclaimed 2002 as the International Year of Mountains to increase international awareness of the global importance of mountain ecosystems. The case-based multidisciplinary approach of this book constitutes an important new model for understanding the implications of land-use practices and economic activity on mountains, and will serve a vital role in improving decisionmaking both in the Rocky Mountains and in other parts of the world that face similar challenges.

  9. THERMODYNAMIC LIMITS ON MAGNETODYNAMOS IN ROCKY EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidos, Eric; Conrad, Clinton P.; Manga, Michael; Hernlund, John

    2010-08-01

    To ascertain whether magnetic dynamos operate in rocky exoplanets more massive or hotter than the Earth, we developed a parametric model of a differentiated rocky planet and its thermal evolution. Our model reproduces the established properties of Earth's interior and magnetic field at the present time. When applied to Venus, assuming that planet lacks plate tectonics and has a dehydrated mantle with an elevated viscosity, the model shows that the dynamo shuts down or never operated. Our model predicts that at a fixed planet mass, dynamo history is sensitive to core size, but not to the initial inventory of long-lived, heat-producing radionuclides. It predicts that rocky planets larger than 2.5 Earth masses will not develop inner cores because the temperature-pressure slope of the iron solidus becomes flatter than that of the core adiabat. Instead, iron 'snow' will condense near or at the top of these cores, and the net transfer of latent heat upward will suppress convection and a dynamo. More massive planets can have anemic dynamos due to core cooling, but only if they have mobile lids (plate tectonics). The lifetime of these dynamos is shorter with increasing planet mass but longer with higher surface temperature. Massive Venus-like planets with stagnant lids and more viscous mantles will lack dynamos altogether. We identify two alternative sources of magnetic fields on rocky planets: eddy currents induced in the hot or molten upper layers of planets on very short-period orbits, and dynamos in the ionic conducting layers of 'ocean' planets with {approx}10% mass in an upper mantle of water (ice).

  10. Thermodynamic Limits on Magnetodynamos in Rocky Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidos, Eric; Conrad, Clinton P.; Manga, Michael; Hernlund, John

    2010-08-01

    To ascertain whether magnetic dynamos operate in rocky exoplanets more massive or hotter than the Earth, we developed a parametric model of a differentiated rocky planet and its thermal evolution. Our model reproduces the established properties of Earth's interior and magnetic field at the present time. When applied to Venus, assuming that planet lacks plate tectonics and has a dehydrated mantle with an elevated viscosity, the model shows that the dynamo shuts down or never operated. Our model predicts that at a fixed planet mass, dynamo history is sensitive to core size, but not to the initial inventory of long-lived, heat-producing radionuclides. It predicts that rocky planets larger than 2.5 Earth masses will not develop inner cores because the temperature-pressure slope of the iron solidus becomes flatter than that of the core adiabat. Instead, iron "snow" will condense near or at the top of these cores, and the net transfer of latent heat upward will suppress convection and a dynamo. More massive planets can have anemic dynamos due to core cooling, but only if they have mobile lids (plate tectonics). The lifetime of these dynamos is shorter with increasing planet mass but longer with higher surface temperature. Massive Venus-like planets with stagnant lids and more viscous mantles will lack dynamos altogether. We identify two alternative sources of magnetic fields on rocky planets: eddy currents induced in the hot or molten upper layers of planets on very short-period orbits, and dynamos in the ionic conducting layers of "ocean" planets with ~10% mass in an upper mantle of water (ice).

  11. Thunderstorm analysis in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    DeVer. Colson

    1957-01-01

    Lightning-caused fires are a continuing serious threat to forests in the northern Rocky Mountain area. More than 70 percent of all forest fires in this area are caused by lightning. In one 10-day period in July 1940 the all-time record of 1,488 lightning fires started on the national forests in Region l of the U.S. Forest Service.

  12. Strain monitoring averts line failure in Rockies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.; Bukovansky, M.

    1987-08-10

    The case history of a landslide in the U.S. Rocky Mountains shows that the potential for pipeline monitoring in geologically sensitive areas, those subject to landslides and subsidence, for example. A properly installed monitoring system monitored by the pipeline operator, Western Gas Supply Co. (West Gas), Denver, provided an early warning of increasing line strains. The problem was complicated by rugged topography which is described here. Stability analysis was the key technique utilized in the process.

  13. Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nanus, L.; Campbell, D.H.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0kg/ha SO4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

  14. IR Earth Flats Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Peter

    2009-07-01

    This program is an experimental path finder for Cycle 18 calibration. {The WFC3 UVIS version of this is program 11914 and contains additional detail in its description}. Infrared-wavelength flat fields will be obtained by observing the dark side of the Earth during periods of full moon illumination. The observations will consist of full-frame streaked WFC3 IR imagery: per single "dark-sky" orbit, we anticipate achieving Poisson S/N > 100 per pixel in each of three to five exposures, depending on sample sequence {SPARS25 or SPARS50}.Why not use the Sunlit Earth? It is too bright for WFC3 IR full-frame minimum exposure time of 3 sec. Similarly, for NICMOS the sunlit-Earth is too bright which saturates the detector too quickly and/or induces abnormal behaviors such as super-shading {Gilmore 1998, NIC 098-011}. In the narrowband IR filters the sunlit earth sometimes is faint enough to not saturate immediately, but based upon predictions {Cox et al. 1987 "Standard Astronomical Sources for HST: 6. Spatially Flat Fields."} and observations {Gilmore 1998}, we consider sunlit Earth unlikely to be successful unless it is twilight.Other possibilities? Cox et al.'s Section II.D addresses many other possible sources for flat fields, rejecting them for a variety of reasons. A remaining possibility would be the totally eclipsed moon. Such eclipses provide approximately 2 hours {1 HST orbit} of opportunity per year, so they are too rare to be generically useful. An advantage of the moon over the Earth is that the moon subtends less than 0.25 square degree, whereas the Earth subtends a steradian or more, so scattered light and light prior to the unshuttered exposure presents additional problems for the Earth. Also, we're unsure if HST can point 180 deg from the Sun.

  15. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  16. Asymptotically flat multiblack lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomizawa, Shinya; Okuda, Taika

    2017-03-01

    We present an asymptotically flat and stationary multiblack lens solution with biaxisymmetry of U (1 )×U (1 ) as a supersymmetric solution in the five-dimensional minimal ungauged supergravity. We show that the spatial cross section of each degenerate Killing horizon admits different lens space topologies of L (n ,1 )=S3/Zn as well as a sphere S3. Moreover, we show that, in contrast to the higher-dimensional Majumdar-Papapetrou multiblack hole and multi-Breckenridge-Myers-Peet-Vafa (BMPV) black hole spacetime, the metric is smooth on each horizon even if the horizon topology is spherical.

  17. UVIS Earth Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Peter

    2009-07-01

    This program is an experimental path finder for Cycle 18 calibration. Visible-wavelength flat fields will be obtained by observing the dark side of the Earth during periods of full moon illumination. The observations will consist of full-frame streaked WFC3 UVIS imagery: per 22-min total exposure time in a single "dark-sky" orbit, we anticipate collecting 7000 e/pix in F606W or 4500 e/pix in F814W. To achieve Poisson S/N > 100 per pixel, we requires at least 2 orbits of F606W and 3 orbits of F814W. For UVIS narrowband filters, exposures of 1 sec typically do not saturate on the sunlit Earth, so we will take sunlit Earth flats for three of the more-commonly used narrowband filters in Cycle 17 plus the also-popular long-wavelength quad filters, for which we get four filters at once.Why not use the Sunlit Earth for the wideband visible-light filters? It is too bright in the visible for WFC3 UVIS minimum exposure time of 0.5 sec. Similarly, for NICMOS the sunlit-Earth is too bright which saturates the detector too quickly and/or induces abnormal behaviors such as super-shading {Gilmore 1998, NIC 098-011}. In the narrowband visible and broadband near-UV its not too bright {predictions in Cox et al. 1987 "Standard Astronomical Sources for HST: 6. Spatially Flat Fields." and observations in ACS Program 10050}.Other possibilities? Cox et al.'s Section II.D addresses many other possible sources for flat fields, rejecting them for a variety of reasons. A remaining possibility would be the totally eclipsed moon. Such eclipses provide approximately 2 hours {1 HST orbit} of opportunity per year, so they are too rare to be generically useful. An advantage of the moon over the Earth is that the moon subtends less than 0.25 square degree, whereas the Earth subtends a steradian or more, so scattered light and light potentially leaking around the shutter presents additional problems for the Earth. Also, we're unsure if HST can point 180 deg from the Sun.

  18. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  19. Spectral Flat Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Anne

    1990-12-01

    The diode to diode variations and photocathode non- uniformities of the FOS detectors were determined in SV for spectra obtained through the single apertures. Additional flat field calibrations will be performed in cycle 1 to verify stability and to extend the calibration to include the paired aperture spectra. In this test, we will obtain spectra of G191-B2B, which is known to have a very smooth, relatively featureless spectrum. The star will be observed in every useful detector/disperser combination through single apertures, and with the most useful dispersers at the photocathode locations corresponding to paired aperture spectra. Spatial scanning in the dispersion direction is used to shift the spectra, so that instrumental and features can be distinguished. The most useful polarizer configurations are also calibrated (excluding red side polarimetry and including blue side polarimetry for POL0-B but not for POL0-A). A second star, BD+28D4211, is also observed in the same manner, about 6 months later, to establish photometric and flat-field stability.

  20. Symposium 9: Rocky Mountain futures: preserving, utilizing, and sustaining Rocky Mountain ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Seastedt, Timothy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Tomback, Diana; Garcia, Elizabeth; Bowen, Zachary H.; Logan, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002 we published Rocky Mountain Futures, an Ecological Perspective (Island Press) to examine the cumulative ecological effects of human activity in the Rocky Mountains. We concluded that multiple local activities concerning land use, hydrologic manipulation, and resource extraction have altered ecosystems, although there were examples where the “tyranny of small decisions” worked in a positive way toward more sustainable coupled human/environment interactions. Superimposed on local change was climate change, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and other pollutants, regional population growth, and some national management policies such as fire suppression.

  1. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  2. Fundamentals of Gas Turbine combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstein, M.

    1979-01-01

    Combustion problems and research recommendations are discussed in the areas of atomization and vaporization, combustion chemistry, combustion dynamics, and combustion modelling. The recommendations considered of highest priority in these areas are presented.

  3. Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-22

    NASA Glenn engineer Chris Mroczka installs a gas-jet burner in a chamber within the center’s Combustion Integrated Rack. This chamber is where scientists conduct gaseous combustion experiments in a zero gravity environment.

  4. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-20

    future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean... future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability...C. Bruno, Italy 1430-1500 Technology to Ramjet Combustion Application of FLameless H. Mongia , GE Transportation, 1500-1530 Combustion (FLC) for

  5. Mechanisms of droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms governing droplet vaporization and combustion are discussed. Specific topics include governing equations and simplifications, the classical d(2)-Law solution and its subsequent modification, finite-rate kinetics and the flame structure, droplet dynamics, near- and super-critical combustion, combustion of multicomponent fuel blends/emulsions/suspensions, and droplet interaction. Potential research topics are suggested.

  6. Pulse combustion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, J.A.

    1986-07-22

    A pulse combustion apparatus is described which includes: a combustion chamber; an exhaust system including an exhaust pipe forming a resonant system with the combustion chamber and a generally cylindrical exhaust cushion chamber downstream of the exhaust pipe for receiving combustion gases from the pipe and communicating with an exhaust outlet form the apparatus; means for delivering successive fuel charges to the chamber; combustion air supply means including a housing of generally rectangular, box shape enclosing the exhaust cushion chamber and defining a space around the chamber through which combustion air can be conducted from an air inlet to the combustion chamber for permitting heat exchange between exhaust gases in the exhaust cushion chamber and the combustion air when the apparatus is in operation, for pre-heating the combustion air; means adapted to cause combustion air to flow in a convoluted path in the space for promoting improved heat transfer between exhaust gases in the chamber and the combustion air, the means comprising partitions between the exhaust cushion chamber and housing extending generally longitudinally of the exhaust cushion chamber and arranged to cause the combustion air to flow alternately from end to end of the chamber in the convoluted path.

  7. Modeling rocky coastline evolution and equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limber, P. W.; Murray, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    Many of the world’s rocky coastlines exhibit planform roughness in the form of alternating headlands and embayments. Along cliffed coasts, it is often assumed that headlands consist of rock that is more resistant to wave attack than in neighboring bays, because of either structural or lithologic variations. Bays would then retreat landward faster than headlands, creating the undulating planform profiles characteristic of a rocky coastal landscape. While the interplay between alongshore rock strength and nearshore wave energy is, in some circumstances, a fundamental control on coastline shape, beach sediment is also important. Laboratory experiments and field observations have shown that beach sediment, in small volumes, can act as an abrasive tool to encourage sea cliff retreat. In large volumes, though, sediment discourages wave attack on the cliff face, acting as a protective barrier. This nonlinearity suggests a means for headland persistence, even without alongshore variations in rock strength: bare-rock headlands could retreat more slowly than, or at the same rate as, neighboring sediment-filled embayments because of alongshore variations in the availability of beach sediment. Accordingly, nearshore sediment dynamics (i.e. sediment production from sea cliff retreat and alongshore sediment transport) could promote the development of autogenic planform geometry. To explore these ideas, we present numerical and analytical modeling of large-scale (> one kilometer) and long-term (millennial-scale) planform rocky coastline evolution, in which sediment is supplied by both sea cliff erosion and coastal rivers and is distributed by alongshore sediment transport. We also compare model predictions with real landscapes. Previously, our modeling exercises focused on a basic rocky coastline configuration where lithologically-homogeneous sea cliffs supplied all beach sediment and maintained a constant alongshore height. Results showed that 1) an equilibrium alongshore

  8. The role of ridges in the formation and longevity of flat slabs.

    PubMed

    Antonijevic, Sanja Knezevic; Wagner, Lara S; Kumar, Abhash; Beck, Susan L; Long, Maureen D; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando; Condori, Cristobal

    2015-08-13

    Flat-slab subduction occurs when the descending plate becomes horizontal at some depth before resuming its descent into the mantle. It is often proposed as a mechanism for the uplifting of deep crustal rocks ('thick-skinned' deformation) far from plate boundaries, and for causing unusual patterns of volcanism, as far back as the Proterozoic eon. For example, the formation of the expansive Rocky Mountains and the subsequent voluminous volcanism across much of the western USA has been attributed to a broad region of flat-slab subduction beneath North America that occurred during the Laramide orogeny (80-55 million years ago). Here we study the largest modern flat slab, located in Peru, to better understand the processes controlling the formation and extent of flat slabs. We present new data that indicate that the subducting Nazca Ridge is necessary for the development and continued support of the horizontal plate at a depth of about 90 kilometres. By combining constraints from Rayleigh wave phase velocities with improved earthquake locations, we find that the flat slab is shallowest along the ridge, while to the northwest of the ridge, the slab is sagging, tearing, and re-initiating normal subduction. On the basis of our observations, we propose a conceptual model for the temporal evolution of the Peruvian flat slab in which the flat slab forms because of the combined effects of trench retreat along the Peruvian plate boundary, suction, and ridge subduction. We find that while the ridge is necessary but not sufficient for the formation of the flat slab, its removal is sufficient for the flat slab to fail. This provides new constraints on our understanding of the processes controlling the beginning and end of the Laramide orogeny and other putative episodes of flat-slab subduction.

  9. Is classical flat Kasner spacetime flat in quantum gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet

    2016-05-01

    Quantum nature of classical flat Kasner spacetime is studied using effective spacetime description in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We find that even though the spacetime curvature vanishes at the classical level, nontrivial quantum gravitational effects can arise. For the standard loop quantization of Bianchi-I spacetime, which uniquely yields universal bounds on expansion and shear scalars and results in a generic resolution of strong singularities, we find that a flat Kasner metric is not a physical solution of the effective spacetime description, except in a limit. The lack of a flat Kasner metric at the quantum level results from a novel feature of the loop quantum Bianchi-I spacetime: quantum geometry induces nonvanishing spacetime curvature components, making it not Ricci flat even when no matter is present. The noncurvature singularity of the classical flat Kasner spacetime is avoided, and the effective spacetime transits from a flat Kasner spacetime in asymptotic future, to a Minkowski spacetime in asymptotic past. Interestingly, for an alternate loop quantization which does not share some of the fine features of the standard quantization, flat Kasner spacetime with expected classical features exists. In this case, even with nontrivial quantum geometric effects, the spacetime curvature vanishes. These examples show that the character of even a flat classical vacuum spacetime can alter in a fundamental way in quantum gravity and is sensitive to the quantization procedure.

  10. What's new in Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

    PubMed

    Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) remains an important illness despite an effective therapy because it is difficult to diagnose and is capable of producing a fatal outcome. The pathogenesis of RMSF remains, in large part, an enigma. However, recent research has helped shed light on this mystery. Importantly, the diagnosis of RMSF must be considered in all febrile patients who have known or possible exposure to ticks, especially if they live in or have traveled to endemic regions during warmer months. Decisions about giving empiric therapy to such patients are difficult and require skill and careful judgement.

  11. Pumped storage job is a rocky challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Setzer, S.W.

    1994-03-07

    Georgia mountain lives up to its rugged name as excavators fight some unexpected ground conditions. When settlers pushed into the remote valleys of far northwestern Georgia, they had no idea just how apt the name given one odd geologic formation would become to a new generation of pioneers. Rocky Mountain`s 700 ft of diagonally upthrusting limestone, shale and sandstone layers have become the main antagonists in a decade-long struggle to place an 848-Mw pumped storage power project in and around the mountain.

  12. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park. (a...

  13. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park. (a...

  14. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park. (a...

  15. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park. (a...

  16. Limber pine conservation in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Treesearch

    Jeff Connor; Anna Schoettle; Kelly Burns; Erin Borgman

    2012-01-01

    Limber pines are one of the most picturesque trees in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). Growing in some of the park's most exposed rocky sites, the trees' gnarled trunks give testimony to fierce winds that buffet them in winter. Limber pines live to great ages, with some in the park exceeding 1,000 years. An especially photogenic stand of ancient trees...

  17. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park. (a...

  18. 74. Rocky Knob Recreation area contact station. In the foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Rocky Knob Recreation area contact station. In the foreground is one of the Rocky Fins which is representative of the area. In the background is the contact station which opened as a gas station in September 1949. Facing northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  19. Water chemistry of Rocky Mountain Front Range aquatic ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Musselman; Laura Hudnell; Mark W. Williams; Richard A. Sommerfeld

    1996-01-01

    A study of the water chemistry of Colorado Rocky Mountain Front Range alpine/subalpine lakes and streams in wilderness ecosystems was conducted during the summer of 1995 by the USDA Forest Service Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, and the University of Colorado Institute of Alpine and Arctic Research. Data...

  20. Vegetation Resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    season. These included Rocky Mountain bee -plant (Cleome serrulata), blazing star (Liatris punctata), and silvery tansy- aster (Machaeranthera canescens...Cactus S N C PPARIDACEAE A N Cleome serrulata Rocky Mountain Bee Plant AF Polanisia dodecandra Clammy-weed AF N CAPRIFOLIACEAE Symphoricarpos...Astragalus missouriensis Missouri Milkvetch PF N Gledltsia triacanthos: Honey Locust T I Glycyrrhiza lepidota Wild Licorice ITF N Lupinus argenteus

  1. Rocky Mountain Research Station: Looking back on 2014

    Treesearch

    Cass Cairns

    2015-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains and parts of...

  2. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2012-2013 Annual Report

    Treesearch

    Cass Cairns

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the...

  3. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2013-2014 Annual Report

    Treesearch

    Cass Cairns

    2014-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains and parts of the Great...

  4. SDO FlatSat Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amason, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is to understand and, ideally, predict the solar variations that influence life and society. It's instruments will measure the properties of the Sun and will take hifh definition images of the Sun every few seconds, all day every day. The FlatSat is a high fidelity electrical and functional representation of the SDO spacecraft bus. It is a high fidelity test bed for Integration & Test (I & T), flight software, and flight operations. For I & T purposes FlatSat will be a driver to development and dry run electrical integration procedures, STOL test procedures, page displays, and the command and telemetry database. FlatSat will also serve as a platform for flight software acceptance and systems testing for the flight software system component including the spacecraft main processors, power supply electronics, attitude control electronic, gimbal control electrons and the S-band communications card. FlatSat will also benefit the flight operations team through post-launch flight software code and table update development and verification and verification of new and updated flight operations products. This document highlights the benefits of FlatSat; describes the building of FlatSat; provides FlatSat facility requirements, access roles and responsibilities; and, and discusses FlatSat mechanical and electrical integration and functional testing.

  5. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  6. Quantifying the Effects of Temperature on Rocky Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Sabrina; Rogers, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Rocky planets can be very diverse in structure and composition compared to the Earth. Their temperature profiles could also differ greatly from Earth’s depending on their mass and distance from their host stars. Interior structure models of rocky exoplanets have not yet studied the full range of possible temperature profiles. We develop a simulation, PyPlanet, for a rocky planet with an arbitrary number of layers and equations of state. We apply this model to explore many possible temperature profiles and quantify the thermal effects on the mass-radius relations of rocky planets.This detailed modeling will be crucial for making robust inferences about rocky planet structure and composition from transit and radial velocity observations.

  7. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    SciTech Connect

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  8. Rocky River Watershed Based Curriculum Guide Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Phillip Howard

    Environmental education has the ability to increase cognitive ability, have a positive impact on group work skills, attitudes and self-efficacy, and increase student performance. Due to Federal "No Child Left Behind Act" legislation, increased standardized testing has resulted in the disenfranchisement of students from formal learning. The purpose of this project was to develop a curriculum guide based on the Rocky River watershed so teachers could use the Rocky River watershed as a means to satisfy the objectives of the NC Standard Course of Study and at the same time increase student environmental awareness, classroom engagement, sense of place and scores on the NC Earth/Environmental Final Exams. The project was developed to correlate with the newly revised North Carolina Standard Course of Study for Earth/Environmental Science. The curriculum guide was developed by utilizing the best practices suggested by scientific literature, the NC Standard Course of Study for Earth/Environmental Science, the North American Association for Environmental Education and the National Education Association.

  9. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.

    1998-12-08

    A microgap flat panel display is disclosed which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y ``pixel`` strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a ``pixel`` in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel. 6 figs.

  10. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.

    1998-01-01

    A microgap flat panel display which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y "pixel" strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a "pixel" in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel.

  11. Flat as a pancake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-23

    Located some 25 million light-years away, this new Hubble image shows spiral galaxy ESO 373-8. Together with at least seven of its galactic neighbours, this galaxy is a member of the NGC 2997 group. We see it side-on as a thin, glittering streak across the sky, with all its contents neatly aligned in the same plane. We see so many galaxies like this — flat, stretched-out pancakes — that our brains barely process their shape. But let us stop and ask: Why are galaxies stretched out and aligned like this? Try spinning around in your chair with your legs and arms out. Slowly pull your legs and arms inwards, and tuck them in against your body. Notice anything? You should have started spinning faster. This effect is due to conservation of angular momentum, and it’s true for galaxies, too. This galaxy began life as a humungous ball of slowly rotating gas. Collapsing in upon itself, it spun faster and faster until, like pizza dough spinning and stretching in the air, a disc started to form. Anything that bobbed up and down through this disc was pulled back in line with this motion, creating a streamlined shape. Angular momentum is always conserved — from a spinning galactic disc 25 million light-years away from us, to any astronomer, or astronomer-wannabe, spinning in his office chair.

  12. Investigating types and sources of organic aerosol in Rocky Mountain National Park using aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurman, M. I.; Lee, T.; Sun, Y.; Schichtel, B. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impacts of atmospheric particles are highlighted in remote areas where visibility and ecosystem health can be degraded by even relatively low particle concentrations. Submicron particle size, composition, and source apportionment were explored at Rocky Mountain National Park using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. This summer campaign found low average, but variable, particulate mass (PM) concentrations (max = 93.1 μg m-3, avg. = 5.13 ± 2.72 μg m-3) of which 75.2 ± 11.1% is organic. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosol (LV-OOA, 39.3% of PM1 on average) identified using Positive Matrix Factorization appears to be mixed with ammonium sulfate (3.9% and 16.6% of mass, respectively), while semi-volatile OOA (27.6%) is correlated with ammonium nitrate (nitrate: 4.3%); concentrations of these mixtures are enhanced with upslope (SE) surface winds from the densely populated Front Range area, indicating the importance of transport. A local biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, 8.4%) source is suggested by mass spectral cellulose combustion markers (m/z 60 and 73) limited to brief, high-concentration, polydisperse events (suggesting fresh combustion), a diurnal maximum at 22:00 local standard time when campfires were set at adjacent summer camps, and association with surface winds consistent with local campfire locations. The particle characteristics determined here represent typical summertime conditions at the Rocky Mountain site based on comparison to ~10 years of meteorological, particle composition, and fire data.

  13. Investigating types and sources of organic aerosol in Rocky Mountain National Park using aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurman, M. I.; Lee, T.; Sun, Y.; Schichtel, B. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-07-01

    The environmental impacts of atmospheric particles are highlighted in remote areas where visibility and ecosystem health can be degraded by even relatively low particle concentrations. Submicron particle size, composition, and source apportionment were explored at Rocky Mountain National Park using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. This summer campaign found low average, but variable, particulate mass (PM) concentrations (max = 93.1 μg m-3, avg. = 5.13 ± 2.72 μg m-3) of which 75.2 ± 11.1% is organic. Low-volatility oxidized organic aerosol (LV-OOA, 39.3% of PM1 on average) identified using Positive Matrix Factorization appears to be mixed with ammonium sulfate (3.9 and 16.6% of mass, respectively), while semi-volatile OOA (27.6%) is correlated with ammonium nitrate (nitrate: 4.3%); concentrations of these mixtures are enhanced with upslope (SE) surface winds from the densely populated Front Range area, indicating the importance of transport. A local biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, 8.4%) source is suggested by mass spectral cellulose combustion markers (m/zs 60 and 73) limited to brief, high-concentration, polydisperse events (suggesting fresh combustion), a diurnal maximum at 22:00 local standard time (LST) when campfires were set at adjacent summer camps, and association with surface winds consistent with local campfire locations. The particle characteristics determined here represent typical summertime conditions at the Rocky Mountain site based on comparison to ∼10 years of meteorological, particle composition, and fire data.

  14. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  15. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  16. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Sites § 230.42 Mud flats. (a) Mud flats are broad flat areas along the sea coast and in coastal rivers to the head of tidal influence and in inland lakes, ponds, and riverine systems. When mud flats are inundated, wind and wave action may resuspend bottom sediments. Coastal mud flats are exposed...

  17. CESAR at Poker Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsiev, D.; Slanger, T. G.; Hedin, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Compact Echelle Spectrograph for Aeronomic Research (CESAR) has been sited at Poker Flat Research Range since November 2013, collecting data over two seasons of the nightglow and the aurora. CESAR has operated with a field of view of seven degrees in the zenith direction, with a resolution of 5000, although a resolution three times greater is available. So far, data collection times have been in the range of 20 minutes, while the wavelength range used has been 500-1050 nm. Detailed studies of a number of optical features have been carried out. 1) It is demonstrated that the v = 2 level of the O2(b) state is best studied by using the weak b-X 2-1 band near 697 nm, it being free of auroral contamination. 2) Similarly, the best uncontaminated feature of the N2+ Meinel system is the complex A-X 0-1 band, which has been accurately simulated for the first time [Dubowsky and McCall, private communication, 2014]. 3) The N(2P-2D) quartet of lines near 1040 nm is an important auroral feature, being the N-atom equivalent of the oxygen green line. These lines are uncontaminated in many of our spectra. For lower altitude auroral excitation, there may be some overlap with the N2 First Positive 0-0 band [Pendleton et al, 1989]. 4) Time series on the O+(2P-2D) lines near 732-733 nm have been studied, showing variable background emission in this region depending on auroral type. Information on OH Meinel band lines is available throughout the region studied, and there is substantial evidence from sky spectra (Keck, VLT) that the attempt to extract kinetic temperatures from OH intensity distributions is strongly influenced by non-LTE effects [Cosby and Slanger, 2007; Noll et al, 2014].

  18. A comparative assessment of alternative combustion turbine inlet air cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Katipamula, S.; Konynenbelt, J.H.

    1996-02-01

    Interest in combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTAC) has increased during the last few years as electric utilities face increasing demand for peak power. Inlet air cooling increases the generating capacity and decreases the heat rate of a combustion turbine during hot weather when the demand for electricity is generally the greatest. Several CTAC systems have been installed, but the general applicability of the concept and the preference for specific concepts is still being debated. Concurrently, Rocky Research of Boulder City, Nevada has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct research on complex compound (ammoniated salt) chiller systems for low-temperature refrigeration applications.

  19. Geodiversity of Island-type tidal flat of Korea: Their uniqueness and potential to be inscribed as a World Heritage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Kyung Sik; Chun, Seung Soo; Monn, Kyong O.

    2017-04-01

    Over one thousand rocky islands are distributed along the coast of the Korean Peninsula. Many of these islands form are covered by muddy sediments as tidal flats. These 'Island-type Tidal Flats' (ITF) have developed due to the decreasing accommodation space during the slow Late Holocene sea-level rise on the broad epicontinental shelf. Sedimentation and evolution show a variety of quite distinctive tidal flat patterns with intertidal and subtidal drainage systems depending upon the location and orientation of rocky shores. They are constantly influenced by the seasonal reversals of monsoonal winds, and are characterized by distinctive depositional settings such as of archipelago type (Shinan Archipelago), estuary type (Yuboodo Island, Seocheon), open bay type (Gochang) and semi-closed bay type (Boseong and Suncheon). Upper intertidal zone dips gently seaward with numerous intertidal creeks. The sediments progressively coarsen seaward from almost pure mud near shores, through mixed-flats (sandy mud and muddy sand) to sand flats with numerous tidal channels towards sea. The dominant sedimentary facies of upper tidal flats consist of homogeneous mud (highly bioturbated) and thinly interlaminated sand/mud to coarsely interlaminated sand/mud (wavy and lenticular bedding) showing seasonal stratification. Surface topography of lower intertidal flats shows landward migrating sand-bar complexes. The ITF is the only place in the world where tide-controlled sedimentation processes have produced special tidal flats surrounding numerous rocky islands on a broad epicontinental shelf. Macrotidal currents combined with waves and typhoons in this semi-closed oceanographic setting have provided unique geological and oceanographic conditions for their formation. We strongly believe that the ITF has great potential to be inscribed on a World Heritage List for the criteria (vii), (viii), (ix) and (x).

  20. Geodiversity of Island-type Tidal Flats of Korea: Their Uniqueness and Potential to be Inscribed as a World Heritage Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, K. S.; Chun, S. S.; Moon, K. O.

    2016-12-01

    Over one thousand rocky islands are distributed along the coast of the Korean Peninsula. Many of these islands form are covered by muddy sediments as tidal flats. These `Island-type Tidal Flats' (ITF) have developed due to the decreasing accommodation space during the slow Late Holocene sea-level rise on the broad epicontinental shelf. Sedimentation and evolution show a variety of quite distinctive tidal flat patterns with intertidal and subtidal drainage systems depending upon the location and orientation of rocky shores. They are constantly influenced by the seasonal reversals of monsoonal winds, and are characterized by distinctive depositional settings such as of archipelago type (Shinan Archipelago), estuary type (Yuboodo Island, Seocheon), open bay type (Gochang) and semi-closed bay type (Boseong and Suncheon). Upper intertidal zone dips gently seaward with numerous intertidal creeks. The sediments progressively coarsen seaward from almost pure mud near shores, through mixed-flats (sandy mud and muddy sand) to sand flats with numerous tidal channels towards sea. The dominant sedimentary facies of upper tidal flats consist of homogeneous mud (highly bioturbated) and thinly interlaminated sand/mud to coarsely interlaminated sand/mud (wavy and lenticular bedding) showing seasonal stratification. Surface topography of lower intertidal flats shows landward migrating sand-bar complexes. The ITF is the only place in the world where tide-controlled sedimentation processes have produced special tidal flats surrounding numerous rocky islands on a broad epicontinental shelf. Macrotidal currents combined with waves and typhoons in this semi-closed oceanographic setting have provided unique geological and oceanographic conditions for their formation. We strongly believe that the ITF has great potential to be inscribed on a World Heritage List for the criteria (vii), (viii), (ix) and (x).

  1. Pulse combustion space heater

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, W.H.; Pavlik, C.M.; Moon, L.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a pulse combustion space heater for heating air in a space to be temperature conditioned. It comprises: a cabinet having exterior walls providing a cabinet volume for enclosing and supporting the heater, interior housing means located within the cabinet volume including walls providing a substantially closed heat transfer chamber having inlet and outlet openings through which air to be heated is circulated and a chamber volume substantially smaller than the cabinet volume, pulse combustion burner means including an assembly of closely spaced elongate burner elements operably connected in a fluid-tight manner for pulse combustion of a combustible gaseous mixture and discharge of combustion products to the atmosphere. The burner elements having exterior heat transfer surface located within the heat transfer chamber for transfer of combustion heat to air contacting the heat transfer surfaces, and blower means for circulating air from the space through the heat transfer chamber.

  2. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  3. Flats: Preliminary WFC Data and Plans for Flight Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Hartig, G.; Tsvetanov, Z.

    2000-10-01

    The ACS WFC pixel-to-pixel P-flats with the build-3 detector repeat over a three month time span to a precision of better than 0.1% rms. The shape of the low frequency Lflat field varies with wavelength, where the ratio of the F435W/F814W L-flats differs from unity by - 10% in two patches near opposite corners of the field of view. At ~0.5%, the high frequency pixel-to-pixel structure in the WFC P-flats is about half that of the HRC build-2 and does not increase as much toward shorter wavelengths as the HRC build-2 with the Lesser coating. The amplitude of the fringes for continuum illumination is less than 1%, even in the narrow band ramp filters, while the fringing in monochromatic light is - 10% at 9300 Å. The goals of the laboratory WFC and HRC flat field program are to obtain the set of external flats that fully populates the pipeline database and to archive a baseline of high S/N internal flats for tracking post-launch changes.

  4. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  5. Fuels Combustion Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-18

    uncertainties in the future sources and characteristics of fuels has emphasized the need to better understand fuel effects on combustion , e.g. energy release...experimentally to be made. Unsuccessful comparisons can lead to impro- vements in modelling concepts . Two simplified models for the combustion of slurry...AD-A149 186 FUELS COMBUSTION RESEACCH(U) PRINCETON UNIV NJ DEPT OF i/i MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING F L DRYER ET AL. 18 JUL 84 NAE-i668 AFOSR

  6. Nitrogen saturation in the Rocky Mountains: Linking emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects using stable isotopes of nitrogen compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, D.H.; Nanus, L.; Böhlke, J.K.; Harlin, K.; Collett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition are affecting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at high elevations in Rocky Mountain National Park and adjacent areas of the Front Range of Colorado. Federal and state agencies are now working together to develop cost-effective means for reducing atmospheric N deposition. A discussion on N saturation covers the need for better understanding of N emission source areas and source types that contribute to N deposition in the Rocky Mountains Front Range of Colorado; reductions in NO emissions that resulted from Clean Air Act Amendments, which caused NO3 deposition to decrease between 1984 and 2003; factors contributing to N deposition, e.g., rapid population growth and energy development; origins of NO3, e.g., as NO emissions from fossil fuel combustion, including stationary sources (e.g. emission from coal combustion in electric generating units), and mobile sources (vehicle emissions); disperse stationary sources from energy resource development, e.g., natural gas production; and the importance of incorporating local source characterization and finer spatial and temporal sampling into future studies, which could provide additional insight into N deposition source attribution. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 100th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association (Pittsburgh, PA 6/26-29/2007).

  7. Microhabitat use by two rocky shore gastropods in an intertidal sandy substrate with rocky fragments.

    PubMed

    Turra, A; Denadai, M R

    2006-02-01

    Sandy beaches in some areas of the São Sebastião Channel in southeastern Brazil have unremittingly undergone a variety of impacts, including the deposition of rock fragments in the intertidal region. Consequently, these environments support a rich fauna comprising both sandy beach and rocky shore organisms. Two rocky shore gastropods, Tegula viridula and Morula nodulosa, are particularly abundant in such environments. An evaluation of the use of microhabitats by these two species revealed that they occupy the available microhabitats in different proportions and the presence of one species is associated with the absence of the other. Morula nodulosa is randomly dispersed, occupying mostly areas with rock fragments covered with sediment and branching brown algae. Tegula viridula shows a clumped dispersion associated with the patchiness of the microhabitats used: the presence of encrusting green algae and absence of sediment and branching brown algae covering the rocks. These findings suggest T. viridula has a lower tolerance than M. nodulosa to sand inundation of the rocky fragments, a stochastic event common to the environment in question.

  8. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  9. Nurse Plants vs. Nurse Objects: Effects of Woody Plants and Rocky Cavities on the Recruitment of the Pilosocereus leucocephalus Columnar Cactus

    PubMed Central

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel Angel; Sosa, Vinicio J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Most studies on cactus recruitment have focused on the role of woody plants as seedling facilitators. Although the spatial association of cacti with objects had been described, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unknown. The aims of this study were to identify which mechanisms facilitate the establishment of a columnar cactus under the shade and protection of objects and to compare these mechanisms with those involved in plant–plant facilitation. Methods Three split-split-plot field experiments were conducted to compare the effects of two microhabitats (inside rocky cavities and beneath plant canopies) on seed removal, germination, seedling survivorship and dry weight. Flat, open spaces were used as the control. For each microhabitat, the effect of seed or seedling protection and substrate limitation were explored; aboveground microclimate and some soil properties were also characterized. Key Results The permanence of superficial seeds was greater inside rocky cavities than beneath woody plant canopies or on flat, open areas. Germination was similar in cavities and beneath plant canopies, but significantly higher than on flat, open areas. Seedling survivorship was greater beneath plant canopies than inside cavities or on flat, open spaces. Conclusions The mechanisms of plant facilitation are different from those of object facilitation. There are seed–seedling conflicts involved in the recruitment of P. leucocephalus: nurse plants favour mainly seedling survivorship by providing a suitable microenvironment, while nurse objects mainly favour seed permanence, by protecting them from predators. PMID:18056054

  10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  11. Ecosystem trends in the Colorado Rockies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T. J.; Baron, J. S.; Kittel, T. G. F.; Binkley, D.

    1995-01-01

    Biological conservation is increasingly moving toward an ecosystem and landscape approach, recognizing the prohibitive cost and difficulty of a species-by-species approach (LaRoe 1993). Also, statewide (e.g., Gap Analysis Program) and national surveys (e.g., Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program or EMAP) are conducted at a scale and level of resolution that do not meet the needs of most small land-management units that require detailed information at the ecosystem and landscape scale (Stohlgren 1994). The Colorado Rockies are an ideal outdoor laboratory for ecosystem science and management. The escalating environmental threats described in this article compelled us to design a landscape-scale assessment of the status and trends of biotic resources.

  12. Kepler-454b: Rocky or Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Small exoplanets tend to fall into two categories: the smallest ones are predominantly rocky, like Earth, and the larger ones have a lower-density, more gaseous composition, similar to Neptune. The planet Kepler-454b was initially estimated to fall between these two groups in radius. So what is its composition?Small-Planet DichotomyThough Kepler has detected thousands of planet candidates with radii between 1 and 2.7 Earth radii, we have only obtained precise mass measurements for 12 of these planets.Mass-radius diagram (click for a closer look!) for planets with radius 2.7 Earth radii and well-measured masses. The six smallest planets (and Venus and Earth) fall along a single mass-radius curve of Earth-like composition. The six larger planets (including Kepler-454b) have lower-density compositions. [Gettel et al. 2016]These measurements, however, show an interesting dichotomy: planets with radii less than 1.6 Earth radii have rocky, Earth-like compositions, following a single relation between their mass and radius. Planets between 2 and 2.7 Earth radii, however, have lower densities and dont follow a single mass-radius relation. Their low densities suggest they contain a significant fraction of volatiles, likely in the form of a thick gas envelope of water, hydrogen, and/or helium.The planet Kepler-454b, discovered transiting a Sun-like star, was initially estimated to have a radius of 1.86 Earth radii placing it in between these two categories. A team of astronomers led by Sara Gettel (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) have since followed up on the initial Kepler detection, hoping to determine the planets composition.Low-Density OutcomeGettel and collaborators obtained 63 observations of the host stars radial velocity with the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, and another 36 observations with the HIRES spectrograph at Keck Observatory. These observations allowed them to do several things:Obtain a more accurate radius estimate

  13. Utility of microfossils in Rocky Mountain exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Wornardt, W.W. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Prior to 1960, exploration geologists in the Rocky Mountain area primarily used lithology, E-logs, geophysics, and a few microfossil groups (fusulinids, invertebrates) for stratigraphic correlations. From 1960 to about 1968, these exploration geologists added several additional groups of microfossils (spores, pollen, and foraminifers) to their tools for correlation. During the past 15 yrs, there has been an explosion in the scientific study of microfossils ranging in age from Cambrian to Holocene. Currently, oil finders are integrating the age-dates and paleoenvironmental information obtained from analyzing 20 different groups of microfossils with the stratigraphy, sedimentology, structure, and geophysical data to create a synergistic exploration program. The addition of micropaleontology and paleoenvironmental data into an exploration program has helped managers make better management decisions, save millions of dollars for the company, and find economical pools of hydrocarbons.

  14. Terrestrial ecosystem biomonitoring at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.; Matiatos, D.; Seery, D.; Hetrick, M.; Griess, J.; Henry, C.; Vaughn, S.; Miesner, J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1987 the Fish and Wildlife Service became actively involved in wildlife population monitoring at the Arsenal because of the discovery of a bald eagle roost on the site. Since that time the Service has conducted or funded a variety of investigations to inventory the wildlife species present at the Arsenal and determine their population status. As time progressed and as a result of the passage of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Refuge legislation in 1992, the Service developed a biomonitoring strategy to determine the current effects of contaminants on terrestrial wildlife resources at the Arsenal and evaluate the efficacy of remediation to ensure the protection and restoration of wildlife resources at the future refuge. This poster will present an overview of the species being studied, measurement and assessment endpoints, strategies, and methods being used by the Service to assess wildlife health as it relates to contaminant exposure.

  15. Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

  16. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  17. Tripropellant combustion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

  18. Design study of flat belt CVT for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumm, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A continuously variable transmission (CVT) was studied, using a novel flat belt pulley arrangement which couples the high speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle. A specific CVT arrangement was recommended and its components were selected and sized, based on the design requirements of a 1700 KG vehicle. A design layout was prepared and engineering calculations made of component efficiencies and operating life. The transmission efficiency was calculated to be significantly over 90% with the expected vehicle operation. A design consistent with automotive practice for low future production costs was considered, together with maintainability. The technology advancements required to develop the flat belt CVT were identified and an estimate was made of how the size of the flat belt CVT scales to larger and smaller design output torques. The suitability of the flat belt CVT for alternate application to an electric vehicle powered by an electric motor without flywheel and to a hybrid electric vehicle powered by an electric motor with an internal combustion engine was studied.

  19. Landscape Morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlan, K. T.; Barnes, J. B.; Pavelsky, T.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers and rivers can significantly modify the shape of mountain landscapes. Following deformation and glaciation, bedrock river form and incision patterns are primarily controlled by variations in geologic structure, the glacial preconditioning of the landscape, and climate. However, the extent to which these factors integrate to affect Holocene patterns and rates of fluvial processes is poorly understood. Fluvial processes dominate the morphology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains today, though the inherited imprint of glaciers remains substantial. This study of fluvial geomorphology in the Athabasca River watershed in Jasper National Park, Alberta, addresses two primary ideas: (1) the fluvial response to deglaciation in alpine environments, and (2) the role of thrust belt geology affecting differential erosion in shaping post-orogenic topography. We use the 0.75 arc-second GeoBase Digital Elevation Model (~18m resolution) to analyze patterns of river concavity (θ) and normalized steepness index (ksn), estimate rock erodibility with field-based proxy measurements, and determine basin-averaged erosion rates using existing river gauge data. We find that bedrock geology and glacial preconditioning exhibit different yet recognizable morphological signatures and that they appear to be related to basin erosion rate. The principal differences we observe include the shape and scale of knickzones, magnitude of channel steepness values, channel concavity patterns, and relationship to bedrock geology. We find that lithologically controlled channel steepness patterns are contained to local spatial scales (<500m) and feature sharp increases in channel steepness at or near contacts between lithologies with differences in measured erodibility. By contrast, glacially controlled steepness patterns are expansive in spatial extent (1-10km), are insensitive to bedrock geology, and have higher overall channel steepness values than areas of lithologically controlled channel steepness

  20. Modeling Sediment Bypassing around Rocky Headlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, D. A.; Largier, J. L.; Pasternack, G. B.; Erikson, L. H.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Barnard, P.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment bypassing rocky headlands remains understudied despite the importance of characterizing littoral processes and sediment budgets for erosion abatement, climate change adaptation, and beach management. This study was developed to identify controlling factors on and the mechanisms supporting sediment bypassing. Sediment flux around four idealized rocky headlands was investigated using the hydrodynamic model Delft3D and spectral wave model SWAN. The experimental design involved 120 simulations to explore the influence of headland morphology, substrate composition, sediment grain size, and oceanographic forcing. Headlands represented sizes and shapes found in natural settings, grain sizes ranged from fine to medium sand, and substrates from sandy beds to offshore bedrock reefs. The oceanography included a constructed representative tide, an alongshore background current, and four wave conditions derived from observational records in the eastern Pacific Ocean. A bypassing ratio was developed for alongshore flux between upstream and downstream cross-shore transects to determine the degree of blockage by a headland. Results showed that northwesterly oblique large waves (Hs = 7 m, Tp = 16 s) generated the most flux around headlands, whereas directly incident waves blocked flux across a headland apex. The headland shape heavily influenced the sediment fate by changing the relative angle between the shoreline and the incident waves. The bypassing ratio characterized each headland's capacity to allow alongshore flux under different wave conditions. All headlands may allow flux, although larger ones block sediment more effectively, promoting their ability to be littoral cell boundaries compared to smaller headlands. The controlling factors on sediment bypassing were determined to be wave angle, shape and size of the headland, and sediment grain size. This novel numerical modeling study advances headland modeling from the generic realm to broadly applicable classes of

  1. Testing flat-conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loggins, R. W.; Herndon, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Report describes characteristics of type of FCC which consists of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with self-extinguishing polyester adhesive.

  2. Climate change and the Rocky Mountains: Chapter 20

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, James M.; Fagre, Daniel B.; MacDonald, Ryan; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2014-01-01

    For at least half of the year, the Rocky Mountains are shrouded in snow that feeds a multitude of glaciers. Snow and ice eventually melt into rivers that have eroded deep valleys that contain rich aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Because the Rocky Mountains are the major divide on the continent, rainfall and melt water from glaciers and snowfields feed major river systems that run to the Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic oceans. The Rockies truly are the water tower for much of North America, and part of the Alpine backbone of North and South America. For purposes of this chapter, we limit our discussion to the Rocky Mountains of the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, and the U.S. states of Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado. Similar to other mountain systems, the altitude of the Rocky Mountains condenses the weather, climate and ecosystems of thousands of kilometres of latitude into very short vertical distances. In one good day, a strong hiker can journey by foot from the mid-latitude climates of the great plains of North America to an arctic climate near the top of Rocky Mountain peaks. The steep climatic gradients of mountain terrain create some of the most diverse ecosystems in the world, but it is those rapid changes in microclimate and ecology that make mountains sensitive to climate change. The energy budget in mountains varies dramatically not only with elevation but with slope and aspect. A modest change in the slope of the terrain over short distances may radically change the solar radiation available in that location. Shaded or north facing slopes have very different microclimates than the same elevations in a sunlit location, or for a hill slope facing south. The complexities associated with the mountain terrain of the Rockies compound complexities of weather and climate to create diverse, amazing ecosystems. This chapter addresses the impacts of climate change on Rocky Mountain ecosystems in light of their complexities and

  3. Rocky core solubility in Jupiter and giant exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Hugh F; Militzer, Burkhard

    2012-03-16

    Gas giants are believed to form by the accretion of hydrogen-helium gas around an initial protocore of rock and ice. The question of whether the rocky parts of the core dissolve into the fluid H-He layers following formation has significant implications for planetary structure and evolution. Here we use ab initio calculations to study rock solubility in fluid hydrogen, choosing MgO as a representative example of planetary rocky materials, and find MgO to be highly soluble in H for temperatures in excess of approximately 10,000 K, implying the potential for significant redistribution of rocky core material in Jupiter and larger exoplanets.

  4. Flat-space chiral gravity.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Arjun; Detournay, Stéphane; Grumiller, Daniel

    2012-10-12

    We provide the first evidence for a holographic correspondence between a gravitational theory in flat space and a specific unitary field theory in one dimension lower. The gravitational theory is a flat-space limit of topologically massive gravity in three dimensions at a Chern-Simons level of k=1. The field theory is a chiral two-dimensional conformal field theory with a central charge of c=24.

  5. Flat slices in Minkowski space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchadha, Niall Ó.; Xie, Naqing

    2015-03-01

    Minkowski space, flat spacetime, with a distance measure in natural units of d{{s}2}=-d{{t}2}+d{{x}2}+d{{y}2}+d{{z}2}, or equivalently, with spacetime metric diag(-1, +1, +1, +1), is recognized as a fundamental arena for physics. The Poincaré group, the set of all rigid spacetime rotations and translations, is the symmetry group of Minkowski space. The action of this group preserves the form of the spacetime metric. Each t = constant slice of each preferred coordinate system is flat. We show that there are also nontrivial non-singular representations of Minkowski space with complete flat slices. If the embedding of the flat slices decays appropriately at infinity, the only flat slices are the standard ones. However, if we remove the decay condition, we find non-trivial flat slices with non-vanishing extrinsic curvature. We write out explicitly the coordinate transformation to a frame with such slices.

  6. Investigation of the Effect of the Combustion Site on Wood Specimens with the Use of IR Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, V. P.; Kasymov, D. P.

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated under laboratory conditions the effect of the combustion site modeled by a steppe combustible on wood specimens of different profiles (flat and cylindrical specimens) with the use of IR diagnostics. Experiments were carried out with the use of a JADE J5330SB infrared imager in the spectral range of 2.64-3.25 μm. The temperature profiles on the surface of wood specimens of different forms (flat and cylindrical specimens) have been obtained and the heat-stressed parts under the action of the model combustion site imitating a low-intensity low forest fire have been determined.

  7. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  8. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  9. 3. FIRSTFLOOR LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FIRST-FLOOR LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Administration-Laboratory- Change House-Bomb Rail, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 530 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 1. SUBMERGED QUENCH INCINERATOR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rocky Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SUBMERGED QUENCH INCINERATOR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Submerged Quench Incinerator, 3940 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 930 feet West of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-02-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  12. 2. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Paint Storage, 40 feet North of Road EW-2; 2900 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. The Rocky World of Young Planetary Systems Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-10-18

    This artist concept illustrates how planetary systems arise out of massive collisions between rocky bodies. NASA Spitzer Space Telescope show that these catastrophes continue to occur around stars even after they have developed full-sized planets.

  14. 48. VIEW OF SKYLINE DRIVE FROM THE ROCKY PEAK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. VIEW OF SKYLINE DRIVE FROM THE ROCKY PEAK OF STONY MAN MOUNTAIN (EL. 4,011). LOOKING NORTHEAST. STONY MAN OVERLOOK VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  15. 9. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. 8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO EAST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. 7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Tail Fin Storage & Assembly, 2750 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 3480 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. Ongoing Cerebral Vasculitis During Treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lisa R; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Yeshokumar, Anusha K; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne infection that produces a systemic small-vessel vasculitis; its prognosis is excellent if appropriate treatment is initiated early. Because the advent of effective antirickettsial therapies predates the widespread use of brain magnetic resonance imaging, there are limited data on the effect of untreated Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection on neuroimaging studies. We describe a 7-year-old girl with delayed treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever who suffered severe neurological impairment. Serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed a progressive "starry sky appearance," which is proposed to result from the same small vessel vasculitis that causes the characteristic skin rash of this infection. Neurological injury can continue to occur despite specific antirickettsial therapy in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This child's clinical features raise questions about the optimal management of this infection, particularly the utility of immune modulating therapies in cases of delayed treatment and neurological involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How is Pluto Classified as a Rocky World?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    When it comes to Pluto, classification is tricky, but it’s unquestioningly a rocky body. This is Pluto in a Minute. The bodies in our solar system fall more or less into set categories like gas g...

  1. 3. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Boiler Plant-Central Gas Heat Plant, 1022 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 525 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 2. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Boiler Plant-Central Gas Heat Plant, 1022 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 525 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 1. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Boiler Plant-Central Gas Heat Plant, 1022 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 525 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. 18. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. 10. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 9. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 22. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO NORTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 19. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 13. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 11. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 23. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1607. VIEW TO NORTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1607. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO NORTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 20. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. 1. BUILDING 411A. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 411A. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sulfur Monochloride & Dichloride Manufacturing, 1003 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 412 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. Japan's microgravity combustion science program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Junichi

    1993-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of fuels. On the other hand, combustion is responsible for contamination of our living earth. Combustion, also, gives us damage to our life as fire or explosive accidents. Therefore, clean and safe combustion is now eagerly required. Knowledge of the combustion process in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding on combustion is far from complete. Especially, there is few useful information on practical liquid and solid particle cloud combustion. Studies on combustion process under microgravity condition will provide many informations for basic questions related to combustors.

  18. High turbulence combustion chamber for turbocharged lean burn gaseous fueled engine

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, R.S.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a gaseous fueled engine having at least a cylinder with an fuel/air intake and combustion product exhaust to be used in a cylinder head having a flat lower surface enclosing one end of the cylinder, and a piston with a flat top piston head slidably received in the cylinder. The improvement consists of: a. an ignition device extending from the flat lower surface of the cylinder head in the center of the cylinder, and b. a baffleless combustion chamber eccentrically located in the head of the piston with respect to the piston axis such that ignition of the fuel/air mixture by the ignition device occurs within but on the outer periphery of the combustion chamber.

  19. The oldest known Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, F.C.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines >1600 yr old, including four that are >2100 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the S Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 BC. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr. -from Authors

  20. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Offpost Contamination Assessment Technical Plan A003.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-09

    This prevents mixing and causes accumulation of * pollutants . * The prevailing winds at RMA are from the south and south-southwest, paralleling the...I IT Contract DAAK11-83-D-0007 Task Order 0006 I ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL OFFPOST CONTAMINATION ASSESSMENTITECENICAL PLAN A003 I I )ELE~CTE S, I ~JEC 2...Contract DAAK 1-83-D-0007 Task Order 0006 I ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL OFFPOST CONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT TECHNICAL PLAN A003 LIj ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND

  1. Half-flat quantum hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Compeán, Hugo; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a half-flat manifold, we construct an effective supersymmetric black hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four dimensions. Specifically, we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric Neveu-Schwarz flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the half-flat black hole as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanish. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the loss of quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomaly and the assumption of self-duality for the 5-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we compute the presence of discrete Ramond-Ramond charge of D-branes wrapping torsional cycles in a half-flat manifold.

  2. Space Radar Image of Rocky Mountains, Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective of the eastern front range of the Rocky Mountains, about 120 kilometers (75 miles) west of Great Falls, Montana. The image was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are useful to scientists because they show the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. This technique helps to clarify the relationships of the different types of materials on the surface detected by the radar. The view is looking south-southeast. Along the right edge of the image is the valley of the north fork of the Sun River. The western edge of the Great Plains appears on the left side. The valleys in the lower center, running off into the plains on the left, are branches of the Teton River. The highest mountains are at elevations of 2,860 meters (9,390 feet), and the plains are about 1,400 meters (4,500 feet) above sea level. The dark brown areas are grasslands, bright green areas are farms, light brown, orange and purple areas are scrub and forest, and bright white and blue areas are steep rocky slopes. The two radar images were taken on successive days by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue are the differences seen in the L-band data between the two days. This image is centered near 47.7 degrees north latitude and 112.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a

  3. Kepler's First Rocky Planet: Kepler-10b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Ciardi, David; Dunham, Edward W.; Fressin, Francois; Gautier, Thomas N., III; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Haas, Michael R.; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Koch, David G.; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Seager, Sara; Steffen, Jason H.; Torres, Guillermo; Basri, Gibor S.; Brown, Timothy M.; Charbonneau, David; Christiansen, Jessie; Clarke, Bruce; Cochran, William D.; Dupree, Andrea; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Fischer, Debra; Ford, Eric B.; Fortney, Jonathan; Girouard, Forrest R.; Holman, Matthew J.; Johnson, John; Isaacson, Howard; Klaus, Todd C.; Machalek, Pavel; Moorehead, Althea V.; Morehead, Robert C.; Ragozzine, Darin; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph; Quinn, Samuel; VanCleve, Jeffrey; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Welsh, William F.; Devore, Edna; Gould, Alan

    2011-03-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission uses transit photometry to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in or near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The mission reached a milestone toward meeting that goal: the discovery of its first rocky planet, Kepler-10b. Two distinct sets of transit events were detected: (1) a 152 ± 4 ppm dimming lasting 1.811 ± 0.024 hr with ephemeris T [BJD] =2454964.57375+0.00060 -0.00082 + N*0.837495+0.000004 -0.000005 days and (2) a 376 ± 9 ppm dimming lasting 6.86 ± 0.07 hr with ephemeris T [BJD] =2454971.6761+0.0020 -0.0023 + N*45.29485+0.00065 -0.00076 days. Statistical tests on the photometric and pixel flux time series established the viability of the planet candidates triggering ground-based follow-up observations. Forty precision Doppler measurements were used to confirm that the short-period transit event is due to a planetary companion. The parent star is bright enough for asteroseismic analysis. Photometry was collected at 1 minute cadence for >4 months from which we detected 19 distinct pulsation frequencies. Modeling the frequencies resulted in precise knowledge of the fundamental stellar properties. Kepler-10 is a relatively old (11.9 ± 4.5 Gyr) but otherwise Sun-like main-sequence star with T eff = 5627 ± 44 K, M sstarf = 0.895 ± 0.060 M sun, and R sstarf = 1.056 ± 0.021 R sun. Physical models simultaneously fit to the transit light curves and the precision Doppler measurements yielded tight constraints on the properties of Kepler-10b that speak to its rocky composition: M P = 4.56+1.17 -1.29 M ⊕, R P = 1.416+0.033 -0.036 R ⊕, and ρP = 8.8+2.1 -2.9 g cm-3. Kepler-10b is the smallest transiting exoplanet discovered to date. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology.

  4. Exploring groundwater processes in Rocky Mountain headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, D.; Ireson, A. M.; Yassin, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    More than one-sixth of the Earth's human population relies on freshwater originating in mountain headwaters, which is understood to be generated largely from snowpacks that melt throughout the spring and summer. Annual hydrographs in these regions are characterized by large peaks occurring in the spring, followed by slow recession towards winter baseflow conditions. However, atmospheric warming trends are found to coincide with earlier periods of snowmelt, leading to increased flows in spring and decreased flows in summer. This decreased ability of our 'water towers' to store snow late into the summer suggests that other mechanisms of storage and release may become more important in sustaining baseflows. In particular, subsurface processes leading to late summer and winter flow will become increasingly important earlier on, but are as yet poorly understood. By utilising historical data to inform a better understanding of late-season subsurface processes, we will be better prepared to predict how these mountains will temporarily store and release groundwater in a warmer climate. Here, we analyse long-term data sets from a small (Marmot Creek, Alberta ~10 km2) and a large (Bow River at Banff, Alberta ~1000 km2) basinwithin the Canadian Rocky Mountains, comparing observations with model outputs, to investigate late-season hydrological responses, and particularly the role of groundwater as a temporary storage mechanism.

  5. Planned Parenthood of Rocky Mountains v. Owens.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    Court Decision: 287 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 910; 2002 Apr 17 (date of decision). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit agreed with a lower court that Colorado's Parental Notification Act (PNA) was unconstitutional because it failed to provide an exception for a minor's health. Planned Parenthood of the Rocky Mountain Services brought an action challenging the constitutionality of the PNA which required parental notice and a waiting period before a minor could obtain an abortion. The PNA granted an exception in cases where a physician reports that the minor is a victim of child abuse or neglect at the hands of the persons entitled to notice and where an immediate abortion is necessary to prevent the minor's imminent death. The Tenth Circuit held that state abortion regulations must provide an exception to protect maternal health. Noting that medical complications could result in significant harm to the the health of a pregnant woman without constituting a threat of imminent death, the court held that the PNA infringed on the ability of any pregnant woman to protect her health because it failed to provide adequate exceptions to parental notice in cases where maternal health was at risk. The court rejected the defendant's argument that Colorado's Children's Code could be read as superseding the PNA and providing a maternal health exception, and held that the PNA superseded other Colorado law.

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a seasonal alert.

    PubMed

    Walker, D H

    1995-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever occurs during seasonal tick activity. A history of exposure to tick-containing habitats within the 3- to 12-day incubation period is a key epidemiological factor. The signs of fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia at onset of infection are difficult to distinguish from those of self-limited viral infections. Rash usually appears later and, if present, progresses through a sequence of stages and distribution that are never pathognomonic. The effects of disseminated Rickettsia rickettsii infection of endothelial cells include increased vascular permeability, edema, hypovolemia, hypotension, prerenal azotemia, and, in life-threatening cases, pulmonary edema, shock, acute tubular necrosis, and meningoencephalitis. In severe cases, fluid management is a challenge. The clinical diagnosis, which is difficult, is rarely assisted by laboratory findings because antibodies are usually detected only in convalescence, and immunohistologic methods for detection of rickettsiae are unavailable in most clinics. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice except for pregnant or allergic patients, who are treated with chloramphenicol.

  7. Elemental compositions of two extrasolar rocky planetesimals

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D. E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu

    2014-03-10

    We report Keck/HIRES and Hubble Space Telescope/COS spectroscopic studies of extrasolar rocky planetesimals accreted onto two hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs, G29-38 and GD 133. In G29-38, eight elements are detected, including C, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Fe while in GD 133, O, Si, Ca, and marginally Mg are seen. These two extrasolar planetesimals show a pattern of refractory enhancement and volatile depletion. For G29-38, the observed composition can be best interpreted as a blend of a chondritic object with some refractory-rich material, a result from post-nebular processing. Water is very depleted in the parent body accreted onto G29-38, based on the derived oxygen abundance. The inferred total mass accretion rate in GD 133 is the lowest of all known dusty white dwarfs, possibly due to non-steady state accretion. We continue to find that a variety of extrasolar planetesimals all resemble to zeroth order the elemental composition of bulk Earth.

  8. Mercury audit at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Jensen, M.K.; Anderson, G.M.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of an environmental compliance audit to identify potential mercury-containing equipment in 261 building and 197 tanks at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA). The RMA, located near Denver, Colorado, is undergoing clean up and decommissioning by the Department of the Army. Part of the decommissioning procedure is to ensure that all hazardous wastes are properly identified and disposed of. The purpose of the audit was to identify any mercury spills and mercury-containing instrumentation. The audit were conducted from April 7, 1992, through July 16, 1992, by a two-person team. The team interviewed personnel with knowledge of past uses of the buildings and tanks. Information concerning past mercury spills and the locations and types of instrumentation that contain mercury proved to be invaluable for an accurate survey of the arsenal. The team used a Jerome{reg_sign} 431-X{trademark} Mercury Vapor Analyzer to detect spills and confirm locations of mercury vapor. Twelve detections were recorded during the audit and varied from visible mercury spills to slightly elevated readings in the corners of rooms with past spills. The audit also identified instrumentation that contained mercury. All data have been incorporated into a computerized data base that is compatible with the RMA data base.

  9. Introduction: European bioethics on a rocky road.

    PubMed

    Sass, H M

    2001-06-01

    There are quite a number of rocky roads on which the 'old continent' has embarked. There is, first, a harmonization of cultures and attitudes in the creation of a common European market of values and valuables, a harmonization undertaken in order to survive in an increasingly competitive global market. Second, there is a reactivation of specific European traditions in discourse, peaceable hermeneutics, solidarity, subsidiarity, tolerance in both conflict reduction and solution, and respect for self-determination and self-responsibility. Third, there is an integration of theory and practice, of visions and reality, of national identity or pride and common European rights, and of obligations and cultural heritages. Last but not least, there is a question about the definition of 'European' in a world which, at least in part, has been developed by successful European missionary work in the distribution of Age-of-Reason principles such as personal autonomy and social and ideational tolerance, the promotion of science-based technologies, and the creation of global markets for goods and services.

  10. The Rocky World of Young Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Panel A of Inset Panel B of Inset Panel C of Inset

    This artist's concept illustrates how planetary systems arise out of massive collisions between rocky bodies. New findings from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope show that these catastrophes continue to occur around stars even after they have developed full-sized planets, when they are as old as one hundred million years. For reference, our own Sun, at 4.5 billion years old, is far past this late stage of planet formation.

    In this image, a young star is shown circled by full-sized planets, and rings of dust beyond. These rings, also called 'debris discs,' arise when embryonic planets smash into each other. One of these collisions is illustrated in the inset of Figure 1.

    Spitzer was able to see the dust generated by these collisions with its powerful infrared vision.

  11. Effective discharge in Rocky Mountain headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, Kristin; Abt, Steven R.; Swingle, Kurt W.; Cenderelli, Dan A.

    2014-11-01

    Whereas effective discharge (Qeff) in mountain streams is commonly associated with a moderate flow such as bankfull discharge (Qbf), this study found that the maximum discharge (Qmax), and not bankfull discharge, is the channel forming or effective flow for gravel transport in plane-bed streams where partial bed mobility causes steep gravel transport rating curves. Qeff may approach bankfull flow in some step-pool channels where gravel moves over a static cobble/boulder bed. Our conclusions are based on magnitude-frequency analyses conducted at 41 gauged Rocky Mountain headwater streams. Because these gauged streams lacked gravel transport data, as is typical, comparable streams with measured transport rates were used to develop scaling relations for rating curve exponents with stream and watershed characteristics. Those scaling relations were then used to estimate the steepness of gravel rating curves at the 41 gauged but unsampled sites. The measured flow frequency distributions were characterized by two fitted power functions. The steepness of the flow frequency distributions and the estimated steepness of gravel transport relations were combined in magnitude-frequency analyses to compute Qeff.

  12. Method for assuring uniform combustion in an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1981-04-28

    A substantially flat combustion zone is established in a fragmented mass of particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. By igniting a portion of the mass of particles, a heated zone including a combustion zone is established in the retort. For a first period of time, an oxidizing gas is introduced into the retort and heated zone at a rate sufficient to advance the heated zone through the fragmented mass. The locus of the combustion zone is monitored to determine if the combustion zone is substantially flat. If the combustion zone is not substantially flat, introduction of oxidizing gas into the retort is reduced temporarily for a second period of time to a rate such that the flow of heated gas through the retort for retorting oil shale in a retorting zone on the advancing side of the combustion zone is substantially reduced for a sufficient time to appreciably flatten the heated zone. Thereafter, introduction of gas comprising an oxidizing gas to the retort is resumed at a sufficient rate to advance the heated zone through the fragmented mass. Off gas withdrawn from the retort during the second period of time can be enriched having a heating value of at least about 75 btu/scf, and often in excess of about 150 btu/scf. To produce such enriched off gas, introduction of gas into the retort can be temporarily reduced even when it is not necessary to establish a substantially flat combustion zone in the retort. This enriched off gas can be withdrawn from the top of the retort and can be used for igniting another retort or for sustaining a secondary combustion zone in another retort.

  13. The Fallacies of Flatness: Thomas Friedman's "The World Is Flat"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight; Roberts, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Friedman's best-selling "The World is Flat" has exerted much influence in the west by providing both an accessible analysis of globalization and its economic and social effects, and a powerful cultural metaphor for globalization. In this review, we more closely examine Friedman's notion of the social contract, the moral center of his…

  14. The Fallacies of Flatness: Thomas Friedman's "The World Is Flat"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight; Roberts, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Friedman's best-selling "The World is Flat" has exerted much influence in the west by providing both an accessible analysis of globalization and its economic and social effects, and a powerful cultural metaphor for globalization. In this review, we more closely examine Friedman's notion of the social contract, the moral center of his…

  15. Nonlocal gravity: Conformally flat spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2016-04-01

    The field equations of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation are presented in a form that is reminiscent of general relativity. The implications of the nonlocal field equations are studied in the case of conformally flat spacetimes. Even in this simple case, the field equations are intractable. Therefore, to gain insight into the nature of these equations, we investigate the structure of nonlocal gravity (NLG) in 2D spacetimes. While any smooth 2D spacetime is conformally flat and satisfies Einstein’s field equations, only a subset containing either a Killing vector or a homothetic Killing vector can satisfy the field equations of NLG.

  16. The revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Sharina, M. E.; Parnovskij, S. L.

    The authors present a new improved and completed version of the Flat Galaxy Catalogue (FGC) named the Revised Flat Galaxy Catalogue (RFGC) containing 4236 thin edge-on spiral galaxies and covering the whole sky. The Catalogue is intended to study large-scale cosmic streamings as well as other problems of observational cosmology. The dipole moment of distribution of the RFGC galaxies (l = 273°, b = +19°) lies within statistical errors (±10°) in the direction of the Local Group motion towards the Microwave Background Radiation.

  17. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-84-2042 ESL-TR-84-29 ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCH 0) PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO CANADA In JULY 1984 Final Report for...in small engincs. -291 REFERENCES 1. Gratton, M., Sampath, P., " Alternate Fuels Combustion Research Phase If", Pratt & Whitney Canada , AFWAL-TR-83-2057...for Period May 80 Sep e ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCHMa80-Sp3 4. PERFORMING ORIJ. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) 4. 60ONTRA-CT-WI GANUMNER(s) *M

  18. New Combustion Regimes and Kinetic Studies of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of plasma assisted combustion Nov.6-7, 2012 MURI Plasma 3rd Yr Review Meeting MURI Topic #11: Chemical...TITLE AND SUBTITLE New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of plasma assisted combustion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Flow reactor Species and kinetics (Ju) 1. New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of in situ plasma discharge in counterflow flames

  19. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOEpatents

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  20. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  1. Rocky desertification in Southwest China: Impacts, causes, and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhongcheng; Lian, Yanqing; Qin, Xiaoqun

    2014-05-01

    Rocky desertification, which is relatively less well known than desertification, refers to the processes and human activities that transform a karst area covered by vegetation and soil into a rocky landscape. It has occurred in various countries and regions, including the European Mediterranean and Dinaric Karst regions of the Balkan Peninsula, Southwest China on a large scale, and alarmingly, even in tropical rainforests such as Haiti and Barbados, and has had tremendous negative impacts to the environment and social and economic conditions at local and regional scales. The goal of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the impacts, causes, and restoration measures of rocky desertification based on decades of studies in the southwest karst area of China and reviews of studies in Europe and other parts of the world. The low soil formation rate and high permeability of carbonate rocks create a fragile and vulnerable environment that is susceptible to deforestation and soil erosion. Other natural processes related to hydrology and ecology could exacerbate rocky desertification. However, disturbances from a wide variety of human activities are ultimately responsible for rocky desertification wherever it has occurred. This review shows that reforestation can be successful in Southwest China and even in the Dinaric Karst region when the land, people, water, and other resources are managed cohesively. However, new challenges may arise as more frequent droughts and extreme floods induced by global climate change and variability may slow the recovery process or even expand rocky desertification. This review is intended to bring attention to this challenging issue and provide information needed to advance research and engineering practices to combat rocky desertification and to aid in sustainable development.

  2. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  3. Dynamic effects of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic effects of combustion are due to the evolution of exothermic energy and its deposition in the compressible medium where the process takes place. The paper examines the dynamics of combustion phenomena, including ignition, turbulent flame propagation (inflammation), explosion, and detonation, with emphasis on their exothermic characteristics. Ignition and explosion are treated as problems of nonlinear mechanics, and their dynamic behavior is described in terms of phase space models and cinematographic laser shear interferograms. The results of a numerical random vortex model of turbulent flame propagation are confirmed in a combustion tunnel experiment, where it was observed that a fresh mixture of burnt and unburnt gases can sustain combustion with a relatively small expenditure of overall mass flow, due to the increasing specific volume of burnt gases inside the flame front. An isentropic pressure wave is found to precede the accelerating flame in the process of detonation, and components of this presssure wave are shown to propagate at local sonic velocities.

  4. Fluidized coal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  5. Studies in premixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.I.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on premixed combustion: theory of turbulent flame propagation; pattern formation in premixed flames and related problems; and pattern formation in extended systems. (LSP)

  6. Combustion Technology Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  7. Carburetor for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Csonka, John J.; Csonka, Albert B.

    1978-01-01

    A carburetor for internal combustion engines having a housing including a generally discoidal wall and a hub extending axially from the central portion thereof, an air valve having a relatively flat radially extending surface directed toward and concentric with said discoidal wall and with a central conoidal portion having its apex directed toward the interior of said hub portion. The housing wall and the radially extending surface of the valve define an air passage converging radially inwardly to form an annular valving construction and thence diverge into the interior of said hub. The hub includes an annular fuel passage terminating at its upper end in a circumferential series of micro-passages for directing liquid fuel uniformly distributed into said air passage substantially at said valving constriction at right angles to the direction of air flow. The air valve is adjustable axially toward and away from the discoidal wall of the carburetor housing to regulate the volume of air drawn into the engine with which said carburetor is associated. Fuel is delivered under pressure to the fuel metering valve and from there through said micro-passages and controlled cams simultaneously regulate the axial adjustment of said air valve and the rate of delivery of fuel through said micro-passages according to a predetermined ratio pattern. A third jointly controlled cam simultaneously regulates the ignition timing in accordance with various air and fuel supply settings. The air valve, fuel supply and ignition timing settings are all independent of the existing degree of engine vacuum.

  8. Muddy Seafloors and Tidal Flats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    gravity waves, circulation, sediment transport , and the subsequent morphological response in shallow waters on sandy and muddy coasts and on macrotidal...water, and for circulation, sediment transport , and morphological change on macrotidal flats. Specific goals relating to waves over muddy seafloors...Investigate the relative importance to the circulation of riverine and tidal flows, - Test and improve models for circulation, sediment transport

  9. The complexity of flat origami

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, M.; Hayes, B.

    1996-12-31

    We study a basic problem in mathematical origami: determine if a given crease pattern can be folded to a flat origami. We show that assigning mountain and valley folds is NP-hard. We also show that determining a suitable overlap order for flaps is NP-hard, even assuming a valid mountain and valley assignment.

  10. Automated Wafer Flatness Characterization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Stephen; Sobczak, Zbigniew; Lynch, Gary; Reid, Lee

    1981-07-01

    As VLSI technology pushes toward micrometer range geometries, wafer flatness becomes critical to direct step on wafer projection printing. This paper describes a system that utilizes the automatic focusing capability of a wafer stepper to achieve in situ measurement of wafer flatness. A depth gauge attached to the lens column conveys to the system a voltage analog of column height during exposure of each die. The system then computes locations of isoplanar contour lines on the wafer and plots a topographic map on an X-Y recorder. Any vertical interval between contour lines can be specified between 0.5 and 2 micrometers. A close correlation has been found between interferometric images of wafer flatness and topographic maps produced by the system while attached to a wafer stepper. The chief advantage of the wafer topographic map over the interferometric image is its ability to capture flatness measurements during actual exposure. Also beneficial are tick marks on all contour lines which indicate direction of increasing wafer height. Application of the system will enhance prediction of photolithographic yield, identification of process steps causing wafer deformation and effectiveness of process quality control.

  11. Beryllium particle combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A two-year study of the combustion efficiency of single beryllium droplets burning in a variety of oxidizers (primarily mixtures of oxygen/argon and oxygen/nitrogen) is summarized. An advanced laser heating technique was used to acquire systematic quantitative data on the burning of single beryllium droplets at atmospheric pressure. The research confirmed the sensitivity of beryllium droplet combustion to the chemistry of environmental species and provides experimental documentation for the nitrogen-induced droplet fragmentation of burning beryllium droplets.

  12. Generalities on combustion instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuentzmann, Paul

    The main manifestations of combustion instabilities are reviewed, and the specific characteristics of instabilities in solid-propellant rocket engines are analyzed, with the Minuteman III third-stage engine and the SRB engine of Titan 34 D considered as examples. The main approaches for predicting combustion instabilities are discussed, including the linear approach based on the acoustic balance, the nonlinear mode-coupling approach, and the nonlinear approach using numerical calculation. Projected directions for future research are also examined.

  13. Combustion Dynamics in Rockets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-30

    IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side it necessary and identify, by block number) Solid propellant combustion; Aluminum...continued on the behavior of aluminum and other nonvolatile ingredients .: in the propellant combustion zone. A method for observation of particle behavior...PBAN propellant . The results showed enh~nced agglomeration, and indicate that Fe20L affects agglomeration through two competing mechanisms. rombustion

  14. METC Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Halow, J.S.; Maloney, D.J.; Richards, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) high pressure combustion facility is to provide a mid-scale facility for combustion and cleanup research to support DOE`s advanced gas turbine, pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion, and hot gas cleanup programs. The facility is intended to fill a gap between lab scale facilities typical of universities and large scale combustion/turbine test facilities typical of turbine manufacturers. The facility is now available to industry and university partners through cooperative programs with METC. Currently two combustion rigs are operating and one additional project is under construction for the facility. Space is available in the test cells for at least one additional test rig. A pressurized pulsed combustor began operating in July of 1993. The combustor will carry out pulsed combustion of natural gas at pressures up to 10 atmospheres. A high pressure steady flow rig is currently completely fabricated. The objective of this rig is to test novel, steady-flow, pressurized combustors that produce very low NO{sub x} and other emissions. An evaporation rig currently is in startup. This rig will test the concept of water injection in an externally fired cycle. The specific technical issue that the unit will address is evaporation rates of water droplets in high pressure flows.

  15. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  16. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  17. To improve the stability of combustion of low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Bin Wei

    1995-03-01

    A new aerothermodynamic method, Bi-Flat Inlet Flow Precombustor with Control Jets, developed for flame stabilization of pulverized-coal and the improvement of the ignition condition of low grade coal is described in this paper. The BI-flat flow precombustor consists of a rectangular combustion chamber which can be installed in the location of the burner in the utility and industrial boilers to be used to advance ignition of fuel and primary air mixture and to increase combustion stability of the furnace flames. This type of precombustor simply constructs with two flattened primary air flow and control jets at the head end of the combustor. The velocity of control jets is higher than that of primary flow. A very large recirculation zone with high temperature burnt gases and high turbulent intensity as an ignition source is created in the center of combustion chamber based upon the principles of the actions of jets entraining and Coanda effect. Meanwhile, the higher velocity air layers with lower concentration of coal characteristics on preventing walls from slagging accumulation. Another very important feature is that coal particles could enter directly into the recirculation zone as their inertia and diffusion forces so that it shows a good compatibility of the flow paths of coal particles and high temperature gases. Finally, it is full of promise to be a low pollution emissions combustor since its staged flow and combustion structures.

  18. Cutaneous histopathology of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kao, G F; Evancho, C D; Ioffe, O; Lowitt, M H; Dumler, J S

    1997-11-01

    The dermatologic diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is often presumptive; the clinical presentation includes skin rash and febrile illness with or without a clear history of tick bite. The characteristic cutaneous manifestations include a generalized skin eruption with purpuric, blanching or non-blanching macules and papules usually involving the extremities. Although skin biopsies are often performed to confirm the diagnosis, the spectrum of cutaneous histopathology in RMSF has not been well described. We studied a series of 26 cases of RMSF, of which 10 were surgical specimens and 16 were autopsies. The microscopic changes were correlated with the duration of illness. The main histopathologic feature was lymphohistiocytic capillaritis and venulitis with extravasation of erythrocytes, edema, predominantly perivascular and some interstitial infiltrate. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) with neutrophilic infiltrate and nuclear dust was seen in 11 of 15 (73%) specimens from involved skin. These lesions with LCV also showed notable epidermal change including basal layer vacuolar degeneration with mild dermoepidermal interface lymphocytic exocytosis. Six lesions with LCV displayed focal fibrin thrombi and capillary wall necrosis. Apoptotic keratinocytes were noted in 3 lesions with LCV. Subepidermal blister was observed in the skin lesion of an autopsied patient with LCV changes. Another lesion of a fatal case with LCV also contained features of acute neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis. Focal small nerve twig inflammation was noted in a third autopsy case with LCV. Plasma cells were seen in 6 of 34 specimens (18%); and eosinophils were observed in 3 (9%). The subcutaneous fat contained a mild perivascular inflammation and one case revealed focal lobular neutrophilic inflammation. Immunohistologic (IH) staining using polyclonal rabbit anti-Rickettsia rickettsii demonstrated positive staining of the organisms in the affected endothelial cells in all 12 cases

  19. Weighing Rocky Exoplanets with Improved Radial Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuesong Wang, Sharon; Wright, Jason; California Planet Survey Consortium

    2016-01-01

    The synergy between Kepler and the ground-based radial velocity (RV) surveys have made numerous discoveries of small and rocky exoplanets, opening the age of Earth analogs. However, most (29/33) of the RV-detected exoplanets that are smaller than 3 Earth radii do not have their masses constrained to better than 20% - limited by the current RV precision (1-2 m/s). Our work improves the RV precision of the Keck telescope, which is responsible for most of the mass measurements for small Kepler exoplanets. We have discovered and verified, for the first time, two of the dominant terms in Keck's RV systematic error budget: modeling errors (mostly in deconvolution) and telluric contamination. These two terms contribute 1 m/s and 0.6 m/s, respectively, to the RV error budget (RMS in quadrature), and they create spurious signals at periods of one sidereal year and its harmonics with amplitudes of 0.2-1 m/s. Left untreated, these errors can mimic the signals of Earth-like or Super-Earth planets in the Habitable Zone. Removing these errors will bring better precision to ten-year worth of Keck data and better constraints on the masses and compositions of small Kepler planets. As more precise RV instruments coming online, we need advanced data analysis tools to overcome issues like these in order to detect the Earth twin (RV amplitude 8 cm/s). We are developing a new, open-source RV data analysis tool in Python, which uses Bayesian MCMC and Gaussian processes, to fully exploit the hardware improvements brought by new instruments like MINERVA and NASA's WIYN/EPDS.

  20. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  1. Combustion in microgravity: The French contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, Roger; Legros, Guillaume; Torero, José L.

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity (drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets and space stations) are particularly relevant to combustion problems given that they show high-density gradients and in many cases weak forced convection. For some configurations where buoyancy forces result in complex flow fields, microgravity leads to ideal conditions that correspond closely to canonical problems, e.g., combustion of a spherical droplet in a far-field still atmosphere, Emmons' problem for flame spreading over a solid flat plate, deflagration waves, etc. A comprehensive chronological review on the many combustion studies in microgravity was written first by Law and Faeth (1994) and then by F.A. Williams (1995). Later on, new recommendations for research directions have been delivered. In France, research has been managed and supported by CNES and CNRS since the creation of the microgravity research group in 1992. At this time, microgravity research and future activities contemplated the following: Droplets: the "D2 law" has been well verified and high-pressure behavior of droplet combustion has been assessed. The studies must be extended in two main directions: vaporization in mixtures near the critical line and collective effects in dense sprays. Flame spread: experiments observed blue flames governed by diffusion that are in accordance with Emmons' theory. Convection-dominated flames showed significant departures from the theory. Some theoretical assumptions appeared controversial and it was noted that radiation effects must be considered, especially when regarding the role of soot production in quenching. Heterogeneous flames: two studies are in progress, one in Poitiers and the other in Marseilles, about flame/suspension interactions. Premixed and triple flames: the knowledge still needs to be complemented. Triple flames must continue to be studied and understanding of "flame balls" still needs to be addressed.

  2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Roldán, Jesús Felipe González; Milan, Néstor Saúl Hernández; Lash, R Ryan; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Paddock, Christopher D

    2017-03-29

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the most lethal of all infectious diseases in the Americas. In Mexico, the disease was first described during the early 1940s by scientists who carefully documented specific environmental determinants responsible for devastating outbreaks in several communities in the states of Sinaloa, Sonora, Durango, and Coahuila. These investigators also described the pivotal roles of domesticated dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (brown dog ticks) as drivers of epidemic levels of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. After several decades of quiescence, the disease re-emerged in Sonora and Baja California during the early 21st century, driven by the same environmental circumstances that perpetuated outbreaks in Mexico during the 1940s. This Review explores the history of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico, current epidemiology, and the multiple clinical, economic, and social challenges that must be considered in the control and prevention of this life-threatening illness.

  3. Inversion Breakup in Small Rocky Mountain and Alpine Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Pospichal, Bernhard; Eisenbach, Stefan; Weihs, P.; Clements, Craig B.; Steinacker, Reinhold; Mursch-Radlgruber, Erich; Dorninger, Manfred

    2004-08-01

    Comparisons are made between the post-sunrise breakup of temperature inversions in two similar closed basins in quite different climate settings, one in the eastern Alps and one in the Rocky Mountains. The small, high-altitude, limestone sinkholes have both experienced extreme temperature minima below -50°C. On undisturbed clear nights, temperature inversions reach to 120 m heights in both sinkholes, but are much stronger in the drier Rocky Mountain basin (24K versus 13K). Inversion destruction takes place 2.6 to 3 hours after sunrise and is accomplished primarily by subsidence warming associated with the removal of air from the base of the inversion by the upslope flows that develop over the sidewalls. Differences in inversion strengths and post-sunrise heating rates are caused by differences in the surface energy budget, with drier soil and a higher sensible heat flux in the Rocky Mountain sinkhole.

  4. Rocky Planetesimal Formation via Fluffy Aggregates of Nanograins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Sota; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2016-12-01

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that silicate grains in primitive meteorites are not interstellar grains but condensates formed in the early solar system. Moreover, the size distribution of matrix grains in chondrites implies that these condensates might be formed as nanometer-sized grains. Therefore, we propose a novel scenario for rocky planetesimal formation in which nanometer-sized silicate grains are produced by evaporation and recondensation events in early solar nebula, and rocky planetesimals are formed via aggregation of these nanograins. We reveal that silicate nanograins can grow into rocky planetesimals via direct aggregation without catastrophic fragmentation and serious radial drift, and our results provide a suitable condition for protoplanet formation in our solar system.

  5. Entanglement entropy in flat holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongliang; Song, Wei; Wen, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    BMS symmetry, which is the asymptotic symmetry at null infinity of flat spacetime, is an important input for flat holography. In this paper, we give a holographic calculation of entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy in three dimensional Einstein gravity and Topologically Massive Gravity. The geometric picture for the entanglement entropy is the length of a spacelike geodesic which is connected to the interval at null infinity by two null geodesics. The spacelike geodesic is the fixed points of replica symmetry, and the null geodesics are along the modular flow. Our strategy is to first reformulate the Rindler method for calculating entanglement entropy in a general setup, and apply it for BMS invariant field theories, and finally extend the calculation to the bulk.

  6. Parallel spinors on flat manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Michał

    2006-05-01

    Let p(M) be the dimension of the vector space of parallel spinors on a closed spin manifold M. We prove that every finite group G is the holonomy group of a closed flat spin manifold M(G) such that p(M(G))>0. If the holonomy group Hol(M) of M is cyclic, then we give an explicit formula for p(M) another than that given in [R.J. Miatello, R.A. Podesta, The spectrum of twisted Dirac operators on compact flat manifolds, Trans. Am. Math. Soc., in press]. We answer the question when p(M)>0 if Hol(M) is a cyclic group of prime order or dim⁡M≤4.

  7. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  8. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57 eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.

  9. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  10. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  11. Development of a flat cable system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neel, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    A flat conductor cabling system for electrical/electronic interwiring is described. Six major items comprise the system: the cables, splices - one for flat cable to round wires and one for flat cable to flat cable; a series of flat cable connectors; the distributor, which is used for interconnecting the circuits; and a repair technique for the falt cable. Polyarylene, a new high performance melt-processable insulation material, permits the design of a completely standardized, modular flat conductor flat cable. The development of an advanced heat-shrinkable plastics technology involving the use of selectively bonded plastic film has resulted in the multiple termination module, used for making high-reliability sealed solder terminations to either flat conductor cable or round wires. All necessary tools and application equipment are included in the system design.

  12. Sombrero Galaxy Not So Flat After All

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-24

    New observations from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope reveal the Sombrero galaxy is not simply a regular flat disk galaxy of stars as previously believed, but a more round elliptical galaxy with a flat disk tucked inside.

  13. Fluctuations along supersymmetric flat directions during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, Kari; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos

    2012-01-01

    We consider a set of scalar fields, consisting of a single flat direction and one or several non-flat directions. We take our cue from the MSSM, considering separately D-flat and F-flat directions, but our results apply to any supersymmetric scenario containing flat directions. We study the field fluctuations during pure de Sitter inflation, following the evolution of the infrared modes by numerically solving the appropriate Langevin equations. We demonstrate that for the Standard Model U(1)Y, SU(2)L or SU(3)c gauge couplings, as well as for large enough Yukawa couplings, the fluctuations along the non-flat directions effectively block the fluctuations along the flat directions. The usual expected behaviour langlephi2rangleproptoN, with N the number of e-folds, may be strongly violated, depending on the coupling strengths. As a consequence, those cosmological considerations, which are derived assuming that during inflation flat directions fluctuate freely, should be revised.

  14. Stigmatic flat focal field spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemczyk, T. M.; Gobeli, G. W.

    Advances in two dimensional detectors have created a need for a spectrograph that can produce high fidelity images. Aberrations that detract from image quality in conventional spectrographs are discussed. Ray trace and experimental results obtained for a unique spectrograph designed for use with array detectors, i.e., designed to produce high fidelity images, are presented. The spectrograph employs toroidal mirrors to achieve stigmatic imaging in a flat focal field.

  15. Flat space physics from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-02-06

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational backreaction. Instead, it is protected by--and in this sense, predicts--the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

  16. Flat panel planar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  17. Coal-bed gas resources of the Rocky Mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.; Nuccio, V.F.; Flores, R.M.; Johnson, R.C.; Roberts, S.B.; Collett, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain region contains several sedimentary provinces with extensive coal deposits and significant accumulations of coal-bed gas. This summary includes coal-bed gas resources in the Powder River Basin (Wyoming and Montana), Wind River Basin (Wyoming), Southwest Wyoming (Greater Green River Basin of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah), Uinta-Piceance Basin (Colorado and Utah), Raton Basin (Colorado and New Mexico), and San Juan Basin (Colorado and New Mexico). Other provinces in the Rocky Mountain region may contain significant coal-bed gas resources, but these resource estimates are not available at this time.

  18. An exhumed Late Paleozoic canyon in the rocky mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soreghan, G.S.; Sweet, D.E.; Marra, K.R.; Eble, C.F.; Soreghan, M.J.; Elmore, R.D.; Kaplan, S.A.; Blum, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Landscapes are thought to be youthful, particularly those of active orogenic belts. Unaweep Canyon in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, a large gorge drained by two opposite-flowing creeks, is an exception. Its origin has long been enigmatic, but new data indicate that it is an exhumed late Paleozoic landform. Its survival within a region of profound late Paleozoic orogenesis demands a reassessment of tectonic models for the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, and its form and genesis have significant implications for understanding late Paleozoic equatorial climate. This discovery highlights the utility of paleogeomorphology as a tectonic and climatic indicator. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  19. Transforming the Rockies: Human forces, settlement patterns, and ecosystem effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Travis, William R.; Theobald, David M.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    The current ecological condition of the Rocky Mountains can be viewed from two somewhat opposing perspectives. The first is that human occupation has had relatively little effect on the Rockies: large natural, if not pristine, areas remain, and the region's open spaces provide wildlife habitat, majestic scenery, and a sense of wildness. Unlike the situation in, say, the Swiss Alps, where even high-elevation meadows have been mown and grazed intensively for as long as 500 years and many large mammals have been extirpated, most elements of Rocky Mountain landscapes and biota are reasonably unaltered. Even the presumption that Native Americans changed regional landscapes with deliberately set fires has been challenged by Baker and Ehle (2001) and others who think that most fires were lightning-caused or accidental ignitions. The second view is that humans have dramatically transformed the Rockies, at least since Euro-American settlement in the mid- to late 1800s. The slaughter of vast buffalo herds, the clearing of timber for railroad ties, and even the removal of whole hillsides in hydraulic placer mining represented substantial transformation. Ranch, resort, and residential development marks the latest incarnation of this transformation. Numerous, complex layers of land use have left landscape legacies, some of which may be unrecognized or underappreciated in modern assessments (Wohl 2001). Here we consider both perspectives because we are impressed with both the many effects of human use of the Rockies and the region's remaining wild landscapes. Ironically, much of the recent population growth and development in the Rockies is driven by the region's wild landscapes, which make the present widespread transformation seem all the more significant. It is, of course, the rapid clip of current human transformation—high population growth rates, pervasive rural residential development, and landscape fragmentation (Baron, Theobald, and Fagre 2000)—that worries

  20. Physiological ecology of rocky intertidal organisms: a synergy of concepts.

    PubMed

    Tomanek, Lars; Helmuth, Brian

    2002-08-01

    The rocky intertidal zone is among the most physically harsh environments on earth. Marine invertebrates and algae living in this habitat are alternatively pounded by waves and exposed to thermal extremes during low tide periods (Denny and Wethey, 2001). Additionally, they must deal with strong selective pressures related to predation and competition for space (Connell, 1961). As a result, the steep physical gradient and spatially condensed community has made the rocky intertidal zone an ideal "natural laboratory" to study the coupled role of physical and biological factors in determining the abundance and distribution of organisms in nature (Connell, 1961; Paine, 1966, 1994).

  1. Combustion in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, F.J.; La Nauze, R.D. )

    1990-07-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion systems have become popular since the late 1970s, and, given the current level of activity in the area,it is clear that this technology has a stable future in the boiler market. For standard coal combustion applications, competition is fierce with mature pulverized-fuel-based (PF) technology set to maintain a strong profile. CFB systems, however, can be more cost effective than PF systems when emission control is considered, and, as CFB technology matures, it is expected that an ever-increasing proportion of boiler installations will utilize the CFB concept. CFB systems have advantages in the combustion of low-grade fuels such as coal waste and biomass. In competition with conventional bubbling beds, the CFB boiler often demonstrates superior carbon burn-out efficiency. The key to this combustion technique is the hydrodynamic behavior of the fluidized bed. This article begins with a description of the fundamental fluid dynamic behavior of the CFB system. This is followed by an examination of the combustion process in such an environment and a discussion of the current status of the major CFB technologies.

  2. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  3. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  4. High efficiency RCCI combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splitter, Derek A.

    An experimental investigation of the pragmatic limits of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine efficiency was performed. The study utilized engine experiments combined with zero-dimensional modeling. Initially, simulations were used to suggest conditions of high engine efficiency with RCCI. Preliminary simulations suggested that high efficiency could be obtained by using a very dilute charge with a high compression ratio. Moreover, the preliminary simulations further suggested that with simultaneous 50% reductions in heat transfer and incomplete combustion, 60% gross thermal efficiency may be achievable with RCCI. Following the initial simulations, experiments to investigate the combustion process, fuel effects, and methods to reduce heat transfer and incomplete combustion reduction were conducted. The results demonstrated that the engine cycle and combustion process are linked, and if high efficiency is to be had, then the combustion event must be tailored to the initial cycle conditions. It was found that reductions to engine heat transfer are a key enabler to increasing engine efficiency. In addition, it was found that the piston oil jet gallery cooling in RCCI may be unnecessary, as it had a negative impact on efficiency. Without piston oil gallery cooling, it was found that RCCI was nearly adiabatic, achieving 95% of the theoretical maximum cycle efficiency (air standard Otto cycle efficiency).

  5. Combustion chamber noise suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.M.

    1986-08-19

    A combustion chamber is described for a hot fog generating machine comprising a hollow cylindrical combustion chamber shell having a closure plate at one end and outlet means at the opposite end for directing hot combustion gasses to a fogging nozzle, air inlet means disposed adjacent the outlet means, fuel inlet means and ignition means mounted in the closure plate and liner means disposed concentrically within the cylindrical combustion chamber for controlling the flow of air and combustion gasses within the shell. The liner means includes a liner base having a frustroconical configuration with the smaller diameter end thereof disposed in communication with the outlet means and with the larger diameter end thereof disposed in spaced relation to the shell, circumferentially spaced, longitudinally extending fins extending outwardly from the liner base intermediate the liner base and the shell, a cylindrical liner midsection having circumferentially spaced fins extending outwardly therefrom between the midsection and the shell with the fins supporting the midsection on the larger diameter end of the liner base.

  6. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  7. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  8. Flat beams in the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, C.; Barklow, T.; Burke, D.

    1993-05-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to operate with round beams; horizontal and vertical emittance made equal in the damping rings. The main motivation was to facilitate the optical matching through beam lines with strong coupling elements like the solenoid spin rotator magnets and the SLC arcs. Tests in 1992 showed that ``flat`` beams with a vertical to horizontal emittance ratio of around 1/10 can be successfully delivered to the end of the linac. Techniques developed to measure and control the coupling of the SLC arcs allow these beams to be transported to the Interaction Point (IP). Before flat beams could be used for collisions with polarized electrons, a new method of rotating the electron spin orientation with vertical arc orbit bumps had to be developed. Early in the 1993 run, the SLC was switched to ``flat`` beam operation. Within a short time the peak luminosity of the previous running cycle was reached and then surpassed. The average daily luminosity is now a factor of about two higher than the best achieved last year. In the following we present an overview of the problems encountered and their solutions for different parts of the SLC.

  9. On Flat Objects of Finitely Accessible Categories

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Flat objects of a finitely accessible additive category 𝒞 are described in terms of some objects of the associated functor category of 𝒞, called strongly flat functors. We study closure properties of the class of strongly flat functors, and we use them to deduce the known result that every object of a finitely accessible abelian category has a flat cover. PMID:24292562

  10. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  11. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  12. LES of Mild Combustion using Pareto-efficient Combustion Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Evans, Michael; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Moderate or Intense Low-Oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is a combustion regime that provides opportunities for improved thermal efficiency and reduced pollutant emissions. In this study, large-eddy simulation is used to investigate the ignition, mixing, and stabilization of a jet flame in this kinetics-controlled combustion regime. The combustion process is modeled by a Pareto-efficient combustion (PEC) formulation that optimally combines reaction-transport and chemistry combustion models. In this approach, a three-stream flamelet/progress variable model is used as a computationally efficient description of equilibrated flame regions, and a finite-rate chemistry representation is employed to accurately represent the ignition behavior and flame stabilization. Through comparisons with experiments and simulations with single-regime combustion models, it will be shown that this Pareto-efficient combustion submodel assignment accurately captures important dynamics in complex turbulent flame configurations.

  13. 78 FR 32441 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... National Park Service Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain... Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain... Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. DATES: The National Park Service...

  14. 76 FR 9350 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization: AHRQ has accepted a notification of voluntary relinquishment from Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization, a...

  15. Internal combustion engine squish jet combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.L.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a internal combustion engine block having a piston and cylinder head, one of which has: (a) a substantially cylindrical bowl opening into the face thereof; (b) a pair of squish jet passages having respective inlets communicating with the face thereof, and respective, transversely spaced, outlets directed substantially tangentially into the bowl, the outlet of a first one of the pair being directed upwardly, and the outlet of second one of the pair being directed downwardly from a position above the outlet of the first one, so that a counter-rotating, bilevel swirl can be produced in the bowl by the squish jet outlets.

  16. Symmetries in flat space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the following flat spacetimes with a high degree of symmetry are studied. The first part completes the classification of all homogeneous flat spacetimes begun by Wolf. The second part explores classification of flat spacetimes with symmetry groups having codimension one orbits. In this case attention is restricted to spacetimes which model a centrally symmetric gravitational field.

  17. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  18. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  19. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  20. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...