Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, Il Ok; Kim, Young Sung; Won, Young Ju; Kim, Heezoo; Kong, Myoung Hoon
Abstract Background: This study was designed to determine whether a deep hypnotic state with a bispectral index (BIS) value less than 40 could alleviate withdrawal movement (WM) upon rocuronium injection during anesthesia induction in children. Methods: Finally, 135 healthy children (3–12 years) scheduled for minor elective surgery were studied. Without premedication, anesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium 5 mg/kg. Patients were randomized into 2 groups (control vs experimental) and then by virtue of rocuronium injection time, patients in the experimental group were allocated into 2 groups, as follows: in the control group (group C; n = 45), rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered at the loss of eyelash reflex; in the 1st experimental group, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered when BIS fell to less than 40 (group T; n = 45); however, if BIS did not fall below 40 after thiopental sodium administration, manual ventilation was provided with oxygen 6 L/minute using sevoflurane 8% and then rocuronium was administered when BIS fell below 40 (the 2nd experimental group, group S; n = 45). Rocuronium-induced WM was evaluated using a 4-point scale (no movement; movement/withdrawal involving the arm only; generalized response, with movement/withdrawal of more than 1 extremity, but no requirement for restraint of the body; and generalized response which required restraint of the body and caused coughing or breath-holding). Results: No significant differences were found among the groups for patient characteristics including age, sex, height, and location of venous cannula. However, body weight, height, and body mass index in group S were all smaller than those in group T. The incidence of WM caused by rocuronium was 100% in group C, 95.6% in group T, and 80% in group S, and was significantly lower in group S than in group C. The grade of WM was 3.7 ± 0.6 in group C, 3.2 ± 0.9 in group T, and 2.6 ± 1.0 in group S. It was significantly
Lee, Yong Cheol; Jang, Young Ho; Kim, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Gyu
To test whether rapid injection of rocuronium reduces withdrawal movement on injection. Randomized, prospective trial. Operating room in a university hospital. 150 ASA physical status I and II patients aged 18 to 60 years, undergoing general anesthesia. Patients were randomized to three groups. After undergoing anesthesia induction with thiopental sodium, then 5 seconds later receiving a rubber tourniquet applied to the mid-forearm to stop intravenous (IV) flow by gravity, the pretreatment drug was injected. The tourniquet was held for 15 seconds then released, and 1.0 mg/kg of 1% rocuronium was injected IV. Group C patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of 0.9% NaCl and then injected with rocuronium slowly within 10 seconds. Group L patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of preservative-free 1% lidocaine and then injected with rocuronium slowly within 10 seconds. Group R patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of 0.9% NaCl and then rapidly injected with rocuronium within approximately one second (as quickly as possible). After injection of the patient with the study drug, a single anesthesiologist with no knowledge of the study protocol graded each patient's response as follows: 0 = no response; 1 = mild movement limited to the wrist only; 2 = moderate movement involving the elbow and shoulder; and 3 = severe movement involving more than one extremity. Group C had the most intense and frequent withdrawal response. The frequency and intensity of withdrawal movement was significantly less in Groups L and R than Group C. No significant difference in withdrawal response between Groups L and R was noted. Withdrawal response can be significantly reduced for rocuronium injection without lidocaine pretreatment, simply through rapid injection.
Takazawa, Tomonori; Mitsuhata, Hiromasa; Mertes, Paul Michel
Perioperative anaphylaxis is a life-threatening clinical condition that is typically the result of drugs or substances used for anesthesia or surgery. The most common cause of anaphylaxis during anesthesia is reportedly neuromuscular blocking agents. Of the many muscle relaxants that are clinically available, rocuronium is becoming popular in many countries. Recent studies have demonstrated that succinylcholine (but also rocuronium use) is associated with a relatively high rate of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis compared with other muscle relaxant agents. Sugammadex is widely used for reversal of the effects of steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, such as rocuronium and vecuronium. Confirmed cases of allergic reactions to clinical doses of sugammadex have also been recently reported. Given these circumstances, the number of cases of hypersensitivity to either sugammadex or rocuronium is likely to increase. Thus, anesthesiologists should be familiar with the epidemiology, mechanisms, and clinical presentations of anaphylaxis induced by these drugs. In this review, we focus on the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis to sugammadex and neuromuscular blocking agents. Moreover, we discuss recent studies in this field, including the diagnostic utility of flow cytometry and improvement of rocuronium-induced anaphylaxis with the use of sugammadex.
Askin, Tugba; Unver, Suheyla; Oguz, Deniz; Kutay, Kubra
We present a case in which rocuronium was applied for muscle relaxation following the administration of sugammadex. An emergency surgery under general anesthesia was planned for a 43-year-old male patient due to an L1 vertebral corpus and right tibia-fibula shaft fracture. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl, propofol and lidocaine. After applying only 30mg of the total induction dose of rocuronium, it was learned that the neurological examination should be controlled again from the surgeon because of the controversial of the neurological deficit. As a result, patient awakened from anesthesia. We administered 2mg/kg sugammadex and spontaneous breathing of patient returned immediately. The patient became conscious and orientated immediately afterwards. The neurological examination of the lower extremities was performed. The patient was anesthetized once again and 0.6mg/kg rocuronium was given in order to gain neoromuscular block approximately 10min after sugammadex administration. 2min later, the patient was smoothly intubated. Neuromuscular monitorization was not used because of emergency. We administered 2mg/kg sugammadex at the end of the procedure and the patient was extubated. The most suitable time for the re-establishment of rocuronium following sugammadex is currently unclear. This case showed that neuromuscular block can be effectively re-induced by rocuronium following the reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block with sugammadex. In this case, we consider that the ability to effectively reuse normal induction doses of rocuronium is an important clinical observation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Jong-Taek; Choi, Jae-Chan; Yoo, Young-Soo; Lee, Young-Bok; Kim, Soon-Yul; Lim, Hyun-Kyo
We examined whether pretreatment with a small dose of thiopental was effective in reducing pain induced by the intravenous injection of rocuronium. Withdrawal movement was used to assess pain reduction. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: patients in the control group were pretreated with 2 mL saline, and those in the thiopental group were pretreated with 2 mL (50 mg) thiopental. Thiopental 5 mg/kg was injected intravenously. After a loss of consciousness, the upper arm was compressed with a rubber tourniquet, and the pretreatment drugs were administered. Thirty seconds later the tourniquet was removed and 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium was administered. Withdrawal movement was assessed using a four-grade scale: no movement, movement limited to the wrist, to the elbow or to the shoulder. The frequency of withdrawal movement in the group pretreated with thiopental was lower than in the control group (34 vs. 13, p < 0.05). We concluded that pretreatment with 2 mL (50 mg) thiopental is effective in reducing pain caused by the intravenous injection of rocuronium.
McDonnell, N J; Pavy, T J G; Green, L K; Platt, P R
Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia is a rare event that in ∼60-70% of cases is secondary to neuromuscular blocking agents. It has been suggested previously that the recent introduction of sugammadex may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the management of rocuronium-induced anaphylaxis. We describe the case of a 33-yr-old female who suffered a severe anaphylactic reaction to rocuronium, presenting with cardiovascular collapse on induction of anaesthesia. After 19 min of traditional management, she was given a bolus of sugammadex 500 mg. This was associated with an improvement in the adverse haemodynamic state. The underlying reasons for this are unclear, but sugammadex may potentially be a useful adjunct in the management of rocuronium-induced anaphylaxis.
Kalkan, Yıldıray; Tumkaya, Levent; Bostan, Habib; Tomak, Yakup; Altuner, Durdu; Yilmaz, Adnan; Erdivanli, Başar; Bedir, Recep; Yalcin, Alper; Turan, Alparslan
Mast cells play a vital role in hypersensitivity reactions. Rocuronium is known to cause mast cell mobilization, hypersensitivity, and pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sugammadex on pancreatic changes due to rocuronium. A total of 42 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into six equal groups to receive either rocuronium 1 mg/kg intravenously (i.v., R group), rocuronium 1 mg/kg + sugammadex 16 mg/kg i.v. (RS16 group), rocuronium 1 mg/kg + sugammadex 96 mg/kg i.v. (RS96 group), sugammadex 16 mg/kg (S16), sugammadex 96 mg/kg i.v. (S96 group), or 0.9% sodium chloride (control group). Sugammadex was administered 5s later following rocuronium. In R group, mast count was higher, and the distribution rate of granules and nuclear changes were different compared with other groups. Distribution rate of granules in groups S16 and S96 were similar to the control group and lower compared with other groups. The amount of mast cells and granule density in groups RS16 and RS96 was lower compared with R group. The amount of mast cells in groups RS16 and RS96 was significantly lower compared with other treatment groups. These results suggest that sugammadex may have an inhibitory effect on mobilization and morphological changes in pancreatic mast cells induced by administration of rocuronium and sugammadex in rats.
Yamaoka, Masakazu; Deguchi, Miki; Ninomiya, Kiichiro; Kurasako, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Mutsuko
An anaphylactic reaction during a cesarean section occurs rarely, and rocuronium is thought to be one of the common agents causing perioperative anaphylaxis. Here we report an anaphylactic shock after cesarean section that is suggested to be induced by the rocuronium-sugammadex complex. A 36-year-old primigravida underwent an elective cesarean section under general anesthesia due to placenta previa. While the operation was completed uneventfully, she developed anaphylactic shock following sugammadex administration. She was successfully managed with rapid treatments. Serum tryptase level was significantly elevated. Although sugammadex was first suspected to be the causative agent, the result of intradermal skin tests with sugammadex were negative. Surprisingly, a subsequent intradermal test with undiluted rocuronium caused the patient to fall into a state of shock. Furthermore, a later skin-prick test with pre-mixed rocuronium-sugammadex complex also revealed a strong positive reaction, and a test with only rocuronium showed negative. We finally concluded that the rocuronium-sugammadex complex is the causative agent in this case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting anaphylaxis caused by the rocuronium-sugammadex complex. This case highlights the importance of appropriate examinations to determinate the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis in order to establish risk reduction strategies.
Qiu, Min; Zong, Ya-nan; Lu, Jian; Ma, Lu-lin; Zheng, Qing; Guo, Xiang-yang
Anaphylaxis is an acute and fatal systemic allergic reaction to an allergen, and it could be an unpredictable and life-threatening cause during anesthesia. The main purpose of this paper is to report a case of anaphylactic shock during the anesthesia induction and to review the prophylaxis and treatment of anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions during the anesthesia period. A 63-year-old man, with a mass on his adrenal, was scheduled to a laparoscopic adrenal tumor excision. During the anesthesia induction period, after administrated sulfentanil, propofol and rocuronium, the blood pressure was decreased and the heart rate was increased. Then, the patient had rash on his whole body and developed an anaphylactic shock. After being treated with the anti-allergic agents and norepinephrine, the rash disappeared and the vital sign become stable. The patient felt nothing uncomfortable during the two weeks'follow-up. Anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions are not rare during the anesthesia period. The most common inducements are muscle relaxant, latex and antibiotics. Anaphylactic reactions in the perioperative period are often serious and potentially life-threatening conditions, involving multiple organ systems in which the clinical manifestations are the consequence of the release of preformed mediators from mast cells and basophils. Before anesthesia, we should acquire the allergic history. During the anesthesia period, the vital sign and the skin should be observed carefully.
Yamada, Yuko; Yamamoto, Takuji; Tanabe, Kumiko; Fukuoka, Naokazu; Takenaka, Motoyasu; Iida, Hiroki
Rocuronium is the agent most frequently involved in perioperative anaphylaxis, and sugammadex has also been known to induce anaphylactic reactions. We describe a case of successive anaphylactic episodes that seemed to be induced by clinical doses of rocuronium and sugammadex. The patient was a 19-year-old woman who had a medical history of asthma, but no history of surgery. She had been injured in a fall, and several surgeries were scheduled for multiple bone fractures. At the first surgery under general anesthesia, she developed anaphylaxis 5 min after sugammadex administration. A second general anesthesia for treatment of calcaneal fracture was induced uneventfully without neuromuscular blockade after 10 days. A third general anesthesia was scheduled to reinforce the spinal column 12 days after the first surgery. She developed anaphylaxis 8 min after rocuronium administration. The level of plasma histamine was elevated, but serum tryptase level remained normal. This surgery was canceled and rescheduled without use of a neuromuscular blockade. Skin tests were performed in a later investigation. The patient showed positive results on intradermal tests for sugammadex and rocuronium, supporting a diagnosis of allergic reactions to both drugs. Clinicians must be aware that anaphylactic reactions can be induced by both sugammadex and rocuronium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kleijn, Huub J; Zollinger, Daniel P; van den Heuvel, Michiel W; Kerbusch, Thomas
AIMS An integrated population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model was developed with the following aims: to simultaneously describe pharmacokinetic behaviour of sugammadex and rocuronium; to establish the pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model for rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade and reversal by sugammadex; to evaluate covariate effects; and to explore, by simulation, typical covariate effects on reversal time. METHODS Data (n = 446) from eight sugammadex clinical studies covering men, women, non-Asians, Asians, paediatrics, adults and the elderly, with various degrees of renal impairment, were used. Modelling and simulation techniques based on physiological principles were applied to capture rocuronium and sugammadex pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and to identify and quantify covariate effects. RESULTS Sugammadex pharmacokinetics were affected by renal function, bodyweight and race, and rocuronium pharmacokinetics were affected by age, renal function and race. Sevoflurane potentiated rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. Posterior predictive checks and bootstrapping illustrated the accuracy and robustness of the model. External validation showed concordance between observed and predicted reversal times, but interindividual variability in reversal time was pronounced. Simulated reversal times in typical adults were 0.8, 1.5 and 1.4 min upon reversal with sugammadex 16 mg kg−1 3 min after rocuronium, sugammadex 4 mg kg−1 during deep neuromuscular blockade and sugammadex 2 mg kg−1 during moderate blockade, respectively. Simulations indicated that reversal times were faster in paediatric patients and slightly slower in elderly patients compared with adults. Renal function did not affect reversal time. CONCLUSIONS Simulations of the therapeutic dosing regimens demonstrated limited impact of age, renal function and sevoflurane use, as predicted reversal time in typical subjects was always <2 min. PMID:21535448
Ozmete, Ozlem; Bali, Cagla; Cok, Oya Yalcin; Turk, Hatice Evren Eker; Ozyilkan, Nesrın Bozdogan; Civi, Soner; Aribogan, Anıs
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sugammadex in reversing profound neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium in infant patients. Retrospective observational study. University teaching hospital. Twenty-six infants (2-12 months of age; 3-11 kg) with an American Society of Anesthesiologists classification I, II, or III who were scheduled to undergo neurosurgical procedures were included in the study. Anesthesia was induced with 5 mg/kg thiopental, 1 μg/kg fentanyl and 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium. Sevoflurane was administered to all patients after intubation. The neuromuscular block was monitored with acceleromyography using train-of-four (TOF) stimuli. Patients received additional doses of rocuronium to maintain a deep block during surgery. If profound neuromuscular block (TOF, 0) persisted at the end of the surgery, 3mg/kg sugammadex was administered. The demographic data, surgeries, and anesthetic agents were recorded. The time from sugammadex administration to recovery of neuromuscular function (TOF ratio, >0.9) and complications during and after extubation were also recorded. Twenty-six infants who had a deep neuromuscular block (TOF, 0) at the end of surgery received 3 mg/kg sugammadex. The mean recovery time of the T4/T1 ratio of 0.9 was 112 seconds. No clinical evidence of recurarization or residual curarization was observed. The efficacy and safety of sugammadex were confirmed in infant surgical patients for reversal of deep neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Purpose Rocuronium bromide is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug and has been used as an adjunct for relaxation or paralysis of the skeletal muscles, facilitation of endotracheal intubation, and improving surgical conditions during general anesthesia. However, intravenous injection of rocuronium bromide induces injection pain or withdrawal movement. The exact mechanism of rocuronium bromide-induced injection pain or withdrawal movement is not yet understood. We investigated whether rocuronium bromide treatment is involved in the induction of inflammation and pain in vascular endothelial cells. Methods For this study, calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells were used, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Western blot, nitric oxide detection, and prostaglandin E2 immunoassay were conducted. Results Rocuronium bromide treatment inhibited endothelial nitric oxide synthase and suppressed nitric oxide production in CPAE cells. Rocuronium bromide activated cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and increased prostaglandin E2 synthesis in CPAE cells. Conclusions Rocuronium bromide induced inflammation and pain in CPAE cells. Suppressing nitric oxide production and enhancing prostaglandin E2 synthesis might be associated with rocuronium bromide-induced injection pain or withdrawal movement. PMID:28043117
Kim, Kyo Sang; Shim, Yon Hee; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Yoon, Suk Min; Lim, Young Jin; Yang, Hong Seuk; Phiri, Phillip; Chon, Jin Young
Background Rapid and complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is desirable at the end of surgery. Sugammadex reverses rocuronium-induced NMB by encapsulation. It is well tolerated in Caucasian patients, providing rapid reversal of moderate (reappearance of T2) rocuronium-induced NMB. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sugammadex versus neostigmine in Korean patients. Methods This randomized, safety assessor-blinded trial (NCT01050543) included Korean patients undergoing general anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given prior to intubation with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as required. Patients received sugammadex 2.0 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 µg/kg with glycopyrrolate 10 µg/kg to reverse the NMB at the reappearance of T2, after the last rocuronium dose. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time from sugammadex or neostigmine administration to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. The safety of these medications was also assessed. Results Of 128 randomized patients, 118 had evaluable data (n = 59 in each group). The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) time to recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was 1.8 (1.6, 2.0) minutes in the sugammadex group and 14.8 (12.4, 17.6) minutes in the neostigmine group (P < 0.0001). Sugammadex was generally well tolerated, with no evidence of residual or recurrence of NMB; four patients in the neostigmine group reported adverse events possibly indicative of inadequate NMB reversal. Conclusions Sugammadex was well tolerated and provided rapid reversal of moderate rocuronium-induced NMB in Korean patients, with a recovery time 8.1 times faster than neostigmine. These results are consistent with those reported for Caucasian patients. PMID:24427455
Buonanno, Pasquale; Laiola, Anna; Palumbo, Chiara; Spinelli, Gianmario; Servillo, Giuseppe; Di Minno, Raffaele Maria; Cafiero, Tullio; Di Iorio, Carlo
Sugammadex is a relatively new molecule that reverses neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium. The particular structure of sugammadex traps the cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring of rocuronium in its hydrophobic cavity. Dexamethasone shares the same steroidal structure with rocuronium. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that dexamethasone interacts with sugammadex, reducing its efficacy. In this study, we investigated the clinical relevance of this interaction and its influence on neuromuscular reversal. In this retrospective case-control study, we analyzed data from 45 patients divided into 3 groups: dexamethasone after induction group (15 patients) treated with 8 mg dexamethasone as an antiemetic drug shortly after induction of anesthesia; dexamethasone before reversal group (15 patients) treated with dexamethasone just before sugammadex injection; and control group (15 patients) treated with 8 mg ondansetron. All groups received 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium at induction, 0.15 mg/kg rocuronium at train-of-four ratio (TOF) 2 for neuromuscular relaxation, and 2 mg/kg sugammadex for reversal at the end of the procedure at TOF2. Neuromuscular relaxation was monitored with a TOF-Watch® system. The control group had a recovery time of 154 ± 54 seconds (mean ± SD), the dexamethasone after induction group 134 ± 55 seconds, and the dexamethasone before reversal group 131 ± 68 seconds. The differences among groups were not statistically significant (P = 0.5141). Our results show that the use of dexamethasone as an antiemetic drug for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting does not interfere with reversal of neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in patients undergoing elective surgery with general anesthesia in contrast to in vitro studies that support this hypothesis.
Ishikawa, Tomoki; Kawanoue, Naoya; Minami, Eriko; Iwasaki, Etsu; Ishii, Mizue; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Oku, Satoru; Mikane, Takeshi; Tokioka, Hiroaki; Kanazawa, Keiko
We report a case of a 19-year-old male with rocuronium-induced anaphylactic shock. He was scheduled for endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis under general anesthesia. Induction of anesthesia was done with fentanyl, propofol and sevoflurane. Just after administration of rocuronium, he developed tachycardia with extended exanthema on the face, anterior chest wall and abdomen. He was difficult to ventilate manually with mask and then intubated without difficulty. The carotid arterial pulse was not palpable and adrenaline was given intermittently to maintain blood pressure. Although the systolic blood pressure increased to 80 mmHg, hemodynamics was unstable with adrenaline. Sugammadex was then given and the blood pressure became stable without adrenaline. Exanthema also disappeared gradually. He was then transferred to ICU and extubated without any sequela. The plasma beta-tryptase increased to 46 microg x l(-1) during the shock state and returned to 14.1 microg x l(-1) 8 hrs after the event. The blood hemoglobin level also increased to 21.3 g x dl(-1) during the shock state and returned to 17.2 g x dl(-1) during the recovery phase. The laboratory data showed a marked increase in vascular permeability caused by rocuronium-induced anaphylactic shock.
Lee, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyo Sang; Jeong, Ji Seon; Kim, Kyu Nam; Lee, Byeong Chan
Mild hypothermia may be frequently induced due to cool environments in the operating room. The study analyzed patient recovery time and response to sugammadex after a prolonged rocuronium-induced deep neuromuscular block (NMB) during mild hypothermia. Sixty patients were randomly (1:1) allocated to the mild hypothermia and normothermia groups, defined as having core temperatures between 34.5-35°C and 36.5-37°C, respectively. Patients received 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium, followed by 7-10 μg/kg/min to maintain a deep NMB [post-tetanic count (PTC) 1-2]. After surgery, the deep NMB was reversed with sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg. The primary end-point was the time until the train-of-four (TOF) ratio was 0.9. The appropriate neuromuscular function (TOF ratio ≥ 0.9) was restored after sugammadex was administered, even after hypothermia. The length of recovery in the hypothermia patients [mean (SD), 171.1 (62.1) seconds (s)] was significantly slower compared with the normothermia patients [124.9 (59.2) s] (p = 0.005). There were no adverse effects from sugammadex. Sugammadex safely and securely reversed deep rocuronium-induced NMB during mild hypothermia. An additional 46 s was required for recovery from a deep NMB in hypothermia patients. Based on the results, we think this prolonged recovery time is clinically acceptable. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01965067.
Herring, William Joseph; Woo, Tiffany; Assaid, Christopher A; Lupinacci, Robert J; Lemmens, Hendrikus J; Blobner, Manfred; Khuenl-Brady, Karin S
To summarize and compare efficacy of sugammadex with neostigmine or placebo for reversal of rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB), and to demonstrate consistency of sugammadex results across various patient populations. Pooled analysis on data from 26 multicenter, randomized, Phase II and III studies. Operating room. 1855 adults undergoing surgery under general anesthesia and receiving rocuronium or vecuronium for NMB. Sugammadex (2.0mg/kg at second twitch reappearance [T2; moderate NMB], 4.0mg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic counts [PTC; deep NMB] or 16.0mg/kg at 3min after rocuronium 1.2mg/kg), neostigmine or placebo. Time to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. Geometric mean (95% CI) times to recovery to TOF ratio of 0.9 were 1.9 (1.8-2.0) min following sugammadex 2.0mg/kg and 10.6 (9.8-11.6) min following neostigmine administration at T2 after rocuronium, and 2.9 (2.5-3.4) min and 17.4 (13.4-22.6) min, respectively, after vecuronium. Recovery times were 2.2 (2.1-2.3) min following sugammadex 4.0mg/kg and 19.0 (14.8-24.6) min following neostigmine administered at a target of 1-2 PTC after rocuronium, and 3.8 (3.0-5.0) min and 67.6 (56.3-81.2) min after vecuronium. Sugammadex administered 3min after rocuronium 1.2mg/kg resulted in rapid recovery (1.7 [1.5-2.0] min). Modest increases in mean recovery time were associated with vecuronium use (+1.6min [78%; (61%-98%)] versus rocuronium), mild-to-moderate renal impairment (+0.4min [20%; (9%-32%)] versus normal renal function) and geographic location (+1.0min [38%; (25%-52%)] in subjects in USA/Canada versus Europe/Japan). Sugammadex administered at recommended doses provides rapid and predictable reversal of rocuronium and vecuronium-induced moderate and deep NMB, and effective reversal 3min after rocuronium 1.2mg/kg. Robust recovery was seen across various patient factors, providing further confirmation of labeled dose recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pavoni, Vittorio; Gianesello, Lara; Martinelli, Cristiana; Horton, Andrew; Nella, Alessandra; Gori, Gabriele; Simonelli, Martina; De Scisciolo, Giuseppe
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sugammadex in reversing profound rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block at the laryngeal adductor muscles using motor-evoked potentials (mMEPs). A prospective observational study. University surgical center. Twenty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical class I-II status who underwent propofol-remifentanil anesthesia for the surgery of the thyroid gland. Patients were enrolled for reversal of profound neuromuscular block (sugammadex 16 mg/kg, 3 minutes after rocuronium 1.2 mg/kg). To prevent laryngeal nerve injury during the surgical procedures, all patients underwent neurophysiologic monitoring using mMEPs from vocal muscles. At the same time, the registration of TOF-Watch acceleromyograph at the adductor pollicis muscle response to ulnar nerve stimulation was performed; recovery was defined as a train-of-four (TOF) ratio ≥0.9. After injection of 16 mg/kg of sugammadex, the mean time to recovery of the basal mMEPs response at the laryngeal adductor muscles was 70 ± 18.2 seconds. The mean time to recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was 118 ± 80 seconds. In the postoperative period, 12 patients received follow-up evaluation of the vocal cords and no lesions caused by the surface laryngeal electrode during electrophysiological monitoring were noted. Recovery from profound rocuronium-induced block on the larynx is fast and complete with sugammadex. In urgent scenarios, "early" extubation can be performed, even with a TOF ratio ≤0.9. However, all procedures to prevent postoperative residual curarization should still be immediately undertaken. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Loupec, T; Frasca, D; Rousseau, N; Faure, J-P; Mimoz, O; Debaene, B
In morbidly obese patients, the speed of reversal of neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex based on ideal body weight is still matter of debate. In this single-center, randomised, double-blinded study, neuromuscular blockade was monitored in 50 patients using acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis. At the end of surgery with deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, patients randomly received sugammadex 4 mg.kg(-1) (high dose group), 2 mg.kg(-1) (middle dose group), or 1 mg.kg(-1) (low dose group) of ideal body weight. After administration of the first dose of sugammadex, the mean (SD) recovery time (censored at 600 s) from deep neuromuscular blockade was significantly shorter (p < 0.001) in the high-dose group (n = 14; 255 (63) s) vs the middle-dose group (n = 13; 429 (102) s), or low-dose group (n = 4; 581 (154) s). Success rate from neuromuscular blockade reversal defined by a train-of-four ≥ 0.9 within 10 min after sugammadex administration, were 93%, 77% and 22% for these high, middle and low-dose groups respectively (p < 0.05 vs low-dose group). In morbidly obese patients, 4 mg.kg(-1) of ideal body weight of sugammadex allows suitable reversal of deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. Monitoring remains essential to detect residual curarisation or recurarisation.
Takeda, Junzo; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Otagiri, Tetsutaro; Katoh, Takasumi; Shingu, Koh; Obara, Hidefumi; Nakatsuka, Hideki; Tomiyama, Yoshinobu; Kasaba, Toshiharu
Efficacy and safety of sugammadex in reversing neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium or vecuronium were investgated in Japanese patients. We studied 99 Japanese patients undergoing surgery requiring general anesthesia. Patients were allocated randomly to receive intubation dose of rocuronium or vecuronium. During surgery, patients received additional dose of rocuronium or vecuronium for maintenance of deep block. At 1-2 PTC, 0.5-8.0 mg . kg-1 of sugammadex was administered. The neuromuscular block was monitored with acceleromyography using TOF stimuli. Sevoflurane was administered to all treatment groups after intubation. For the rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block, the mean recovery time of the T4/T1 ratio to 0.9 decreased from 66.9 min in the sugammadex 0.5 mg kg-1 group to 1.3 min in the sugammadex 8.0 mg kg-1 group. For the vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block it decreased from 79.5 min in the sugammadex 0.5 mg . kg-1 group to 2.9 min in the sugammadex 8.0 mg . kg-1 group. No clinical evidence of recurarization or residual curarization was observed. The efficacy and safety of sugammadex were confirmed in Japanese surgical patients for reversal from deep block.
Kang, Woon Seok; Song, Shin Mi
Background Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has been used in the treatment of pre-eclampsia, hypertension and arrhythmia. Magnesium enhances the neuromuscular block of rocuronium. This study has been conducted to evaluate the reversal efficacy of sugammadex from deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) during consistent pretreatment of MgSO4 in rabbits. Methods Twenty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups, a control group or study groups (50% MgSO4 150–200 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg/h IV), and received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. When post-tetanic count 1–2 appeared, sugammadex 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg was administered in the 2-mg group, control and 4-mg group, and 8-mg group, respectively. The recovery course after reversal of sugammadex administration was evaluated in each group. Results The mean serum concentration of magnesium was maintained at more than 2 mmol/L in the study groups, and the total dose of MgSO4 was more than 590 mg. The reversal effect of sugammadex on rocuronium-induced NMB in pretreated MgSO4 was not different from that in the group without MgSO4. The recovery time to train-of-four ratio 0.9 after sugammadex administration in the 2-mg group was longer than in the other groups (P < 0.001); there were no other significant differences among the groups. Conclusions The reversal of sugammadex from a deep rocuronium-induced NMB during large pretreatment of MgSO4 was not affected. However, we should consider that the reversal effect of sugammadex varied depending on the dose. PMID:28367292
Kang, Woon Seok; Kim, Kyo Sang; Song, Shin Mi
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has been used in the treatment of pre-eclampsia, hypertension and arrhythmia. Magnesium enhances the neuromuscular block of rocuronium. This study has been conducted to evaluate the reversal efficacy of sugammadex from deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) during consistent pretreatment of MgSO4 in rabbits. Twenty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups, a control group or study groups (50% MgSO4 150-200 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg/h IV), and received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. When post-tetanic count 1-2 appeared, sugammadex 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg was administered in the 2-mg group, control and 4-mg group, and 8-mg group, respectively. The recovery course after reversal of sugammadex administration was evaluated in each group. The mean serum concentration of magnesium was maintained at more than 2 mmol/L in the study groups, and the total dose of MgSO4 was more than 590 mg. The reversal effect of sugammadex on rocuronium-induced NMB in pretreated MgSO4 was not different from that in the group without MgSO4. The recovery time to train-of-four ratio 0.9 after sugammadex administration in the 2-mg group was longer than in the other groups (P < 0.001); there were no other significant differences among the groups. The reversal of sugammadex from a deep rocuronium-induced NMB during large pretreatment of MgSO4 was not affected. However, we should consider that the reversal effect of sugammadex varied depending on the dose.
Won, Young Ju; Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, Dong Kyu; Kim, Heezoo; Kong, Myoung Hoon; Lee, Il Ok
Abstract Background: Previous studies have shown that sugammadex, a modified γ-cyclodextrin, is a well-tolerated agent for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) induced by a steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug in adult patients. However, its use has not been reviewed in pediatric patients. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sugammadex in the reversal of rocuronium-induced NMB during surgery under general anesthesia in pediatric patients. Methods: A literature search was performed using the Pubmed, EMBASE: Drugs and pharmacology, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3. Data collected from different trials were pooled; the weighted mean difference or the pooled risk ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for analysis, and heterogeneity (I2) assessment was performed. Results: Six randomized controlled trials comparing 253 pediatric patients (age range, 2–18 years) were included in the final analysis. The mean time taken to reach a train-of-four ratio of ≥0.9 was significantly shorter in the sugammadex groups (2 and 4 mg/kg) than in the control group (neostigmine or placebo), although the heterogeneity was high. The weighted mean differences of the 2 and 4 mg/kg sugammadex groups were −7.15 (95% CI: −10.77 to −3.54; I2 = 96%; P = 0.0001) and −17.32 (95% CI: −29.31 to −5.32; I2 = 98%; P = 0.005), respectively. The extubation time in the sugammadex group was shorter than that in the control group; the weighted mean difference of the sugammadex group was −6.00 (95% CI: −11.46 to −0.53; I2 = 99%; P = 0.03). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the incidence of postanesthetic adverse events; the pooled risk ratio was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.27–1.71; I2 = 59%; P = 0.41). Conclusion: We suggest that sugammadex is fast and
Fabregat López, J; Porta Vila, G; Martin-Flores, M
We report two cases in which moderate and intense rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block was reversed intraoperatively with low sugammadex doses in order to facilitate electromyographic evaluation of facial nerve function during surgery of the parotid gland and the middle ear. Acceleromyography was used to assess reversal of neuromuscular block before starting electromyography monitoring. Rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block was reversed with sugammadex 0.22mgkg(-1) when the TOF ratio was 0.14 in the first patient, and with sugammadex 2mgkg(-1) during intense block (PTC 0) in the second patient. In each case, appropriate neuromuscular function (TOF ratio≥0.9) was established soon after sugammadex administration, and electromyographic evaluation of facial nerve was successfully conducted. The use of rocuronium and sugammadex, coupled with objective neuromuscular monitoring with acceleromyography, assured complete restoration of neuromuscular function and created the optimal conditions for the surgical team. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Rahe-Meyer, N; Berger, C; Wittmann, M; Solomon, C; Abels, E A M; Rietbergen, H; Reuter, D A
Deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) may not always be maintained to the end of surgery and the depth of block may be allowed to gradually diminish over time, particularly if reversal of NMB is not routinely performed. The current study aimed to assess recovery from deep rocuronium-induced NMB with sugammadex compared with placebo, provide data regarding the extent of residual blockade after deep rocuronium-induced NMB (placebo group), and to determine whether complete and reliable recovery could be provided by sugammadex (sugammadex group). This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, safety-assessor-blinded study in adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I to III. Patients with clinically relevant kidney or liver insufficiency were excluded. Anesthesia was administered as routinely practiced at each study site. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as needed. After the last rocuronium dose, at deep NMB (target depth 1-2 post-tetanic counts), patients received a single dose of sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg or placebo as randomized. The primary endpoint was time from sugammadex or placebo administration to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. Safety was assessed through monitoring of adverse events, vital signs and physical examination. Patients were also assessed for evidence of residual or recurrence of NMB. With this design, the study will provide data regarding the extent of residual blockade under these conditions (placebo group), and determine whether complete and reliable recovery could be provided by sugammadex (sugammadex group). Recovery to a TOF ratio of ≥ 0.9 with sugammadex was significantly faster (~ 40 times) than spontaneous recovery: geometric mean (95 % confidence interval) times were 2.2 (1.9-2.5) and 89.8 (80.1-100.7) min, respectively (p < 0.0001, N = 134); maximum spontaneous recovery was 289.8 min. Safety was comparable between groups, with no
Cameron, K S; Clark, J K; Cooper, A; Fielding, L; Palin, R; Rutherford, S J; Zhang, M-Q
A series of per-6-substituted cyclodextrin derivatives was synthesized as synthetic host molecules for rocuronium, a steroidal muscle relaxant. By forming host-guest complexes with rocuronium, these cyclodextrin derivatives reverse the muscle relaxation induced by rocuronium in vitro and in vivo. The isothermal microcalorimetry data are consistent with the biological data supporting the encapsulation mechanism of action. Binary and biphasic complexes are reported with NMR experiments clearly showing free and bound rocuronium. [structure: see text
Barsotti, Giovanni; Briganti, Angela; Spratte, Johanna Roselinde; Ceccherelli, Renato; Breghi, Gloria
To evaluate the achievement of a bilateral mydriasis in raptors induced by a concurrent topical application of rocuronium bromide and to assess any side effects that might result from its use. Animals studied Ten healthy adult common buzzards (Buteo buteo) and 10 healthy adult little owls (Athene noctua). Common buzzards (Group 1) received a single dose of 0.40 mg of rocuronium bromide in each eye (total dose 0.80 mg/bird), whereas the little owls (Group 2) received a single dose of 0.20 mg in each eye (total dose 0.40 mg/bird). The drug was topically instilled in all the birds of both groups. The pupil diameter was measured with a pupillary gauge and the assessment of the pupillary light reflexes was performed using a standard light source. Maximal pupillary diameter was 8.10 ± 0.56 mm in the right eye and 8.05 ± 0.59 mm in the left eye for Group 1 and 10.0 ± 0.75 mm in both eyes for Group 2. No statistical differences were evidenced between the achieved pupillary diameters of both eyes in each group. The maximal pupillary diameter was achieved at T110 min and T40 min for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The drug did not cause noticeable adverse effects in the examined birds. A single concurrent topical administration of rocuronium bromide to the eyes of the examined birds induced a complete bilateral mydriasis in both eyes without causing any adverse effect.
Shaw, Michael; Matsa, Ramprasad
A 30-year-old man with a history of epilepsy and substance misuse presented to the hospital with status epilepticus. Difficult seizure control necessitated anaesthetising the patient followed by intubation and ventilation. A clonidine infusion was started as the patient developed withdrawal syndrome and was difficult to wean off mechanical ventilation. Once the withdrawal syndrome was controlled, the clonidine was abruptly stopped. Two hours after stopping the infusion, the patient developed high-grade fever, severe hypertension, tachycardia, profound sweating and lacrimation. The patient then developed respiratory distress syndrome secondary to acute pulmonary oedema. Clonidine withdrawal as a cause of such response was proposed. Reversal of symptoms and successful reweaning was achieved by restarting a low-dose clonidine infusion followed by slow downward titration and use of oral clonidine as a step-down measure. The patient was subsequently discharged from the intensive care unit.
Gatch, Michael B; Selvig, Meghan
This study examined the effects of theophylline on the hyperalgesia produced by ethanol withdrawal using a radiant heat tail-flick assay. Chronic effects of ethanol were tested in four groups of rats which received 10 days exposure to a liquid diet [ethanol alone or with theophylline [0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, twice daily, intraperitoneally (i.p.)], and dextrin control diet]. Ethanol withdrawal was tested 12 h after removal of the liquid diet. Effects of cumulative doses of the non-selective adenosine agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO; 0.6-10 mg/kg, i.p.) were tested during withdrawal in the ethanol-treated groups. Chronic exposure to ethanol produced antinociception, and hyperalgesia was seen during withdrawal. Subchronic administration of theophylline (0.5-1.0 mg/kg, twice daily, i.p.) dose-dependently prevented the ethanol-withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. During ethanol withdrawal, 2-CADO was less potent than when given to non-dependent rats and this effect was prevented by subchronic administration of theophylline (1.0 mg/kg). These findings provide behavioural evidence in agreement with earlier work on the role of adenosine in the development of ethanol tolerance and withdrawal, and suggest that adenosine receptors play an important role in the development of hyperalgesia during ethanol withdrawal.
Dina, Olayinka A; Messing, Robert O; Levine, Jon D
Symptoms of ethanol withdrawal include heightened responses to sensory stimuli, as well as tremors and convulsions. We tested the hypothesis that repeated episodes of ethanol intake and withdrawal exacerbate the symptoms of alcohol-induced peripheral neuropathy. In contrast to the hyperalgesia produced when an alcohol (6.5%)-containing diet was fed continuously to male rats which took 4 weeks to develop (Dina et al., 2000), feeding alcohol (6.5%) in repeated cycles of 4 days of alcohol followed by 3 days without alcohol resulted in a withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia that began at the end of one weekly cycle and reached a maximum during the fourth cycle. For ethanol withdrawal to produce hyperalgesia, ethanol consumption needed to be terminated for a period of 2 days. Paradoxically, as the amount of alcohol consumed decreased, the hyperalgesia induced by withdrawal developed more rapidly, being maximal between 1.4 and 1.6% ethanol. These results suggest that continued exposure to ethanol also has a neuroprotective effect. Withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia, similar to the hyperalgesia induced by continuous, chronic alcohol intake, was inhibited reversibly by intrathecal administration of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to protein kinase C (PKC)epsilon.
Oh, You Na; Kim, Tae Yeon; Oh, Song Yee; Sin, Yeong Hun
Background The primary outcome of sugammadex reversal for rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) is a train-of-four ratio (TOFR) of 0.9, not first twitch (T1) height. We investigated whether the recovery of TOFR or T1 differs based on the reversal of NMB with neostigmine or sugammadex. Methods The acceleromyographic responses from 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium were monitored supramaximally in 80 patients after induction of anesthesia. The TOFR and T1 height were recorded, and saved in a personal computer using TOF-Watch SX Monitor software in all patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive either neostigmine 50 µg/kg with glycopyrrolate 10 µg/kg (neostigmine group, n = 40) or sugammadex 2.0 mg/kg (sugammadex group, n = 40). The primary objective was to determine the difference of recovery time between TOFR to 0.9 and T1 to 0.9 after sugammadex or neostigmine administration during moderate rocuronium-induced NMB. Results The recovery pattern of the TOFR 2 min after sugammadex administration was 1.0 or more, but that of T1 was less than 90% (T1 / control value) up to 6 min after drug was injected. The recovery pattern of TOFR and T1 was similar during the 20 min after reversal with neostigmine. Conclusions If you have not performed the T1 monitoring, both TOFR and T1 should be considered to confirm suitable recovery during the 6 min after reversal with sugammadex during rocuronium-induced moderate NMB. PMID:27274368
Kim, Kyo Sang; Oh, You Na; Kim, Tae Yeon; Oh, Song Yee; Sin, Yeong Hun
The primary outcome of sugammadex reversal for rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) is a train-of-four ratio (TOFR) of 0.9, not first twitch (T1) height. We investigated whether the recovery of TOFR or T1 differs based on the reversal of NMB with neostigmine or sugammadex. The acceleromyographic responses from 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium were monitored supramaximally in 80 patients after induction of anesthesia. The TOFR and T1 height were recorded, and saved in a personal computer using TOF-Watch SX Monitor software in all patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive either neostigmine 50 µg/kg with glycopyrrolate 10 µg/kg (neostigmine group, n = 40) or sugammadex 2.0 mg/kg (sugammadex group, n = 40). The primary objective was to determine the difference of recovery time between TOFR to 0.9 and T1 to 0.9 after sugammadex or neostigmine administration during moderate rocuronium-induced NMB. The recovery pattern of the TOFR 2 min after sugammadex administration was 1.0 or more, but that of T1 was less than 90% (T1 / control value) up to 6 min after drug was injected. The recovery pattern of TOFR and T1 was similar during the 20 min after reversal with neostigmine. If you have not performed the T1 monitoring, both TOFR and T1 should be considered to confirm suitable recovery during the 6 min after reversal with sugammadex during rocuronium-induced moderate NMB.
Won, Young Ju; Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, Dong Kyu; Kim, Heezoo; Kong, Myoung Hoon; Lee, Il Ok
Previous studies have shown that sugammadex, a modified γ-cyclodextrin, is a well-tolerated agent for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) induced by a steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug in adult patients. However, its use has not been reviewed in pediatric patients. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sugammadex in the reversal of rocuronium-induced NMB during surgery under general anesthesia in pediatric patients. A literature search was performed using the Pubmed, EMBASE: Drugs and pharmacology, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3. Data collected from different trials were pooled; the weighted mean difference or the pooled risk ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for analysis, and heterogeneity (I) assessment was performed. Six randomized controlled trials comparing 253 pediatric patients (age range, 2-18 years) were included in the final analysis. The mean time taken to reach a train-of-four ratio of ≥0.9 was significantly shorter in the sugammadex groups (2 and 4 mg/kg) than in the control group (neostigmine or placebo), although the heterogeneity was high. The weighted mean differences of the 2 and 4 mg/kg sugammadex groups were -7.15 (95% CI: -10.77 to -3.54; I = 96%; P = 0.0001) and -17.32 (95% CI: -29.31 to -5.32; I = 98%; P = 0.005), respectively. The extubation time in the sugammadex group was shorter than that in the control group; the weighted mean difference of the sugammadex group was -6.00 (95% CI: -11.46 to -0.53; I = 99%; P = 0.03). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the incidence of postanesthetic adverse events; the pooled risk ratio was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.27-1.71; I = 59%; P = 0.41). We suggest that sugammadex is fast and effective in reversing rocuronium-induced NMB in pediatric patients. Although there
Iwasaki, Hajime; Takahoko, Kenichi; Otomo, Shigeaki; Sasakawa, Tomoki; Kunisawa, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi
We report a temporary decrease in twitch response following reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block with a small dose of sugammadex in our dose-finding study in pediatric patients. A 19-month-old female infant (9.6 kg, 80 cm) was scheduled for elective cheiloplasty surgery. Anesthesia was induced with nitrous oxide 50% and sevoflurane 5% and maintained with air, oxygen, sevoflurane 3%, and fentanyl (total, 3 μg/kg). Neuromuscular monitoring was performed at the adductor pollicis muscle after induction of anesthesia but before the administration of rocuronium. Total dose of rocuronium during the surgery was 0.9 mg/kg. Neuromuscular block was reversed with 0.5 mg/kg sugammadex when one response was observed with post-tetanic count stimulation. Twitch responses after sugammadex administration showed a temporary decrease after its initial recovery. Maximum decreases in twitch responses were observed 17 min after initial dose of sugammadex. Twitch responses recovered to their control values after additional doses of 3.5 mg/kg sugammadex (4 mg/kg in total). Time from sugammadex administration to maximum decreases in twitch responses is earlier than has been reported in adults (20-70 min). It is demonstrated that following neuromuscular block reversal with insufficient dose of sugammadex, there is a possibility of the recurrence of residual paralysis within less than 20 min in pediatric patients.
Kim, Ji Eun; Chun, Hea Rim
Abstract Introduction: Anesthetic management of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is complicated because these patients are more sensitive to nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and are vulnerable to postoperative complications, such as postoperative residual curarization and respiratory failure. Sugammadex is a new reversal agent for aminosteroidal NMBAs, but its safety in children is controversial. Clinical features: An 11-year-old boy with DMD underwent general anesthesia for a percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We used rocuronium bromide and sugammadex to reverse the deep neuromuscular block. Reversal of neuromuscular block was done 15 minutes after administration of 2 mg/kg of sugammadex. The patient's recovery from anesthesia was uneventful, and he was discharged to the postoperative recovery ward. Conclusion: A delayed recovery was achieved, but no adverse events were observed, such as recurarization or hypersensitivity to sugammadex. We report safe use of 2 mg/kg of sugammadex to reverse a deep neuromuscular block in a child with DMD. PMID:28353578
Ammar, A S; Mahmoud, K M; Kasemy, Z A
Sugammadex is designed to be a reversal agent for steroidal muscle relaxants. The current trial was aimed to compare between sugammadex and neostigmine concerning the recovery time from neuromuscular blockade. We hypothesised that sugammadex might have shorter recovery time than neostigmine. Sixty paediatric patients aged 2-10 years scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries were randomly assigned into two equal groups to receive 4 mg/kg sugammadex (Group S) or 0.35 mg/kg neostigmine and 0.02 mg/kg atropine (Group N) as a reversal agent for rocuronium at the end of surgery. Primary outcome was the recovery time [time from starting of sugammadex or neostigmine till reaching train of four (TOF) ratio> 0.9] whereas secondary outcomes included number of patients who needed another dose of sugammadex or neostigmine to reach TOF ratio> 0.9, extubation time (time from stoppage of anaesthetic inhalation until the patient fulfilled criteria for safe extubation, post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge time and post-operative adverse effects. The mean recovery and extubation times were significantly shorter (P = 0.002 and 0.005) in Group S compared with Group N (2.5 and 2.0 min vs. 12.6 min and 4.3 min respectively). In the Group N, eight patients needed another reversal dose compared with one patient in Group S (P = 0.035). PACU discharge time showed no significant difference between both groups. Incidence of nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and dry mouth were significantly higher in Group N. Sugammadex administration in children resulted in faster recovery and extubation times and lower incidence of adverse events compared with neostigmine. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vanlinthout, L E H; Booij, L H D J; van Egmond, J; Robertson, E N
We measured acceleromyography and mechanomyography simultaneously with monitoring of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in four patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Furthermore, we compared neuromuscular block measures from these patients with those from normal controls from previous studies. In myotonic dystrophy type 1 patients, the dose-response curve obtained with acceleromyography was steeper and right-shifted compared with that obtained using mechanomyography. However, the effective doses to produce 95% neuromuscular block determined with both acceleromyography and mechanomyography were similar to each other and to values found in normal patients. In the three myotonic dystrophy type 1 patients with mild to moderate disease, times to recovery from block were similar to those observed in normal controls. In both patients and normal controls, neuromuscular block recovered faster with acceleromyography. However, in one patient with severe muscle wasting, recovery of neuromuscular block was prolonged. We conclude that mechanomyography and acceleromyography cannot be used interchangeably to monitor neuromuscular block in myotonic dystrophy type 1 patients.
Sung, Tae-Yun; You, Hwang-Ju; Cho, Choon-Kyu; Choi, Hey Ran; Kim, Yong Beom; Shin, Yong Sup; Yang, Hong Seuk
Magnesium potentiates the effects of nondepolarising muscle relaxants. However, few studies have used magnesium chloride (MgCl2). Sugammadex reverses neuromuscular block by steroidal nondepolarising muscle relaxants. To assess the effects of MgCl2 on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade and its reversal by sugammadex. In-vitro experimental study. Animal laboratory, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea, from 20 March 2016 to 3 April 2016. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats. Left phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms from 40 Sprague Dawley rats were allocated randomly to four groups (1, 2, 3 and 4 mmol l MgCl2 group, n = 10 each). Rocuronium was administered cumulatively until the first twitch of train-of-four (TOF) disappeared completely. Then, equimolar sugammadex was administered. The effective concentration (EC) of rocuronium was obtained in each group. After administering sugammadex, recovery of the first twitch height and the TOF ratio were measured for 30 min. EC50, EC90 and EC95 significantly decreased as the concentration of MgCl2 increased (all P ≤ 0.001), except the comparison between the 3 and 4 mmol l MgCl2 groups. After administration of sugammadex, the maximal TOF ratio (%) was lower in the 4 mmol l MgCl2 group than the 1 mmol l MgCl2 group [median 91.7 interquartile range (83.4 to 95.8) vs. 98.3 interquartile range (92.2 to 103.4), P = 0.049]. The mean time (s) from sugammadex injection to achieving maximal first twitch was significantly prolonged in the 4 mmol l MgCl2 group vs. the 1 mmol l MgCl2 and 2 mmol l MgCl2 groups [1483.9 (± 237.0) vs. 1039.0 (± 351.8) and 926.0 (± 278.1), P = 0.022 and 0.002, respectively]. Increases in MgCl2 concentration reduce the ECs of rocuronium. In addition, administering sugammadex equimolar to the administered rocuronium shows limited efficacy as MgCl2 concentration is increased. The in-vitro study was not registered in a database.
Baldo, B A; McDonnell, N J; Pham, N H
Rocuronium, a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug has a rapid onset of action, a comparatively low potency and, with a more favourable side effects profile than succinylcholine, it has become a popular alternative to that drug for rapid sequence inductions in anaesthesia. The rocuronium-binding cyclodextrin derivative sugammadex, prepared by per-6 substitution of the primary hydroxyls of γ-cyclodextrin with thiol ether-linked propionic acid side chains to extend the hydrophobic cavity to accommodate rocuronium, is used to reverse neuromuscular blockade by encapsulating the drug as an inclusion complex and removing it from the neuromuscular junction to the plasma. It has recently been suggested that sugammadex might also be of value in the management of rocuronium-induced anaphylaxis and this has been potentially supported by recent case reports. However, before sugammadex can be recommended for this purpose, it is important to establish whether or not the allergenic substituted ammonium groups at each end of the rocuronium molecule in the inclusion complex are masked within the cavity or left exposed for interaction with rocuronium-reactive IgE antibodies in the sera of rocuronium-allergic patients. Detailed experimental strategies and experimental protocols to investigate the allergenic potential of the sugammadex-rocuronium inclusion complex are presented and a possible explanation of the apparently rapid and successful reversal of anaphylaxis by administration of sugammadex is advanced and discussed.
de Souza, Camila M; Tardelli, Maria A; Tedesco, Helio; Garcia, Natalia N; Caparros, Mario P; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose A; de Oliveira Junior, Itamar S
Renal failure affects the pharmacology of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers making recovery of neuromuscular function unpredictable. Sugammadex antagonises rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by encapsulating rocuronium, creating a stable complex molecule that is mainly excreted by the kidneys. Previous studies suggest that sugammadex is effective in reversing moderate neuromuscular block in the presence of renal failure, but no data are available regarding reversal of profound neuromuscular block in patients with renal failure. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of sugammadex in reversing profound neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium in patients with end-stage renal disease and those with normal renal function. A prospective clinical trial. Two university hospitals, from 1 October 2011 to 31 January 2012. Forty patients undergoing kidney transplant: 20 with renal failure [creatinine clearance (ClCr) <30 ml min] and 20 control patients (ClCr >90 ml min). Neuromuscular monitoring was performed by acceleromyography and train-of-four (TOF) stimulation. Profound neuromuscular block (posttetanic count, one to three responses) was maintained during surgery. Sugammadex 4 mg kg was administered on completion of skin closure. Recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was recorded. Monitoring of neuromuscular function continued in the postanesthesia care unit for a further 2 h. The efficacy of sugammadex was evaluated by the time taken for the TOF ratio to recover to 0.9. The safety of sugammadex was assessed by monitoring for recurrence of neuromuscular block every 15 min for 2 h. Secondary variables were time to recovery of TOF ratio to 0.7 and 0.8. After sugammadex administration, the mean time for recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was prolonged in the renal failure group (5.6 ± 3.6 min) compared with the control group (2.7 ± 1.3 min, P = 0.003). No adverse events or evidence of recurrence of
Baine, Katherine; Hendrix, Diane V H; Kuhn, Sonia E; Souza, Marcy J; Jones, Michael P
The efficacy and safety of topically applied rocuronium in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) was assessed in a group of 10 adult birds. A complete ophthalmic examination (including Schirmer tear test, ocular reflexes, applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy) was performed, and rocuronium bromide (0.15 mg in both eyes) was administered. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) and pupillary diameter were recorded in a darkened room at the following time points: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 300, and 360 minutes, and 24 hours. Fluorescein staining in both eyes was performed at 24 hours. By 10 minutes, PLR was absent in all birds (at 5 minutes, 8 birds; at 10 minutes, remaining 2 birds). Pupil diameter differed significantly from baseline at all time points. Additionally, PLR was decreased in 7/10 birds at 360 minutes and normal in all birds at 24 hours. Superficial corneal ulceration was observed at 24 hours in the left eye of 2/10 of the birds after fluorescein stain application. This study demonstrated that rocuronium bromide was an effective mydriatic agent in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots with rapid onset and prolonged duration of action.
D'Souza, Manoranjan S; Markou, Athina
Psychostimulant drugs have powerful reinforcing and hedonic properties and are frequently abused. Cessation of psychostimulant administration results in a withdrawal syndrome characterized by anhedonia (i.e., an inability to experience pleasure). In humans, psychostimulant withdrawal-induced anhedonia can be debilitating and has been hypothesized to play an important role in relapse to drug use. Hence, understanding the neural substrates involved in psychostimulant withdrawal-induced anhedonia is essential. In this review, we first summarize the theoretical perspectives of psychostimulant withdrawal-induced anhedonia. Experimental procedures and measures used to assess anhedonia in experimental animals are also discussed. The review then focuses on neural substrates hypothesized to play an important role in anhedonia experienced after termination of psychostimulant administration, such as with cocaine, amphetamine-like drugs, and nicotine. Both neural substrates that have been extensively investigated and some that need further evaluation with respect to psychostimulant withdrawal-induced anhedonia are reviewed. In the context of reviewing the various neurosubstrates of psychostimulant withdrawal, we also discuss pharmacological medications that have been used to treat psychostimulant withdrawal in humans. This literature review indicates that great progress has been made in understanding the neural substrates of anhedonia associated with psychostimulant withdrawal. These advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of anhedonia may also shed light on the neurobiology of nondrug-induced anhedonia, such as that seen as a core symptom of depression and a negative symptom of schizophrenia.
Nigam, A K; Srivastava, R P; Saxena, S; Chavan, B S; Sundaram, K R
Naloxone-induced withdrawal was studied in seven patients currently dependent only on injecting buprenorphine, within 3 to 6 hours of their last dose. Withdrawal severity began to rise from 5 minutes and reached a peak at 60 minutes after 1.2 mg naloxone given intravenously. The mean withdrawal severity score was significantly higher at 30, 60 and 90 minutes compared to the baseline. The most frequent withdrawal signs and symptoms were mydriasis, systolic hypertension, tachypnoea, muscle pains, yawning, anxiety, restlessness and craving.
Iwasaki, Hajime; Sasakawa, Tomoki; Takahoko, Kenichi; Takagi, Shunichi; Nakatsuka, Hideki; Suzuki, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Hiroshi
We report the use of rocuronium to re-establish neuromuscular block after reversal with sugammadex. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the dose of rocuronium needed to re-establish neuromuscular block and the time interval between sugammadex administration and re-administration of rocuronium. Patients who required re-establishment of neuromuscular block within 12 h after the reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block with sugammadex were included. After inducing general anesthesia and placing the neuromuscular monitor, the protocol to re-establish neuromuscular block was as follows. An initial rocuronium dose of 0.6 mg/kg was followed by additional 0.3 mg/kg doses every 2 min until train-of-four responses were abolished. A total of 11 patients were enrolled in this study. Intervals between sugammadex and second rocuronium were 12-465 min. Total dose of rocuronium needed to re-establish neuromuscular block was 0.6-1.2 mg/kg. 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium re-established neuromuscular block in all patients who received initial sugammadex more than 3 h previously. However, when the interval between sugammadex and second rocuronium was less than 2 h, more than 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium was necessary to re-establish neuromuscular block.
Lu, I-Cheng; Wu, Che-Wei; Chang, Pi-Ying; Chen, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuang-Yi; Randolph, Gregory W; Cheng, Kuang-I; Chiang, Feng-Yu
The use of neuromuscular blocking agent may effect intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) during thyroid surgery. An enhanced neuromuscular-blockade (NMB) recovery protocol was investigated in a porcine model and subsequently clinically applied during human thyroid neural monitoring surgery. Prospective animal and retrospective clinical study. In the animal experiment, 12 piglets were injected with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg and randomly allocated to receive normal saline, sugammadex 2 mg/kg, or sugammadex 4 mg/kg to compare the recovery of laryngeal electromyography (EMG). In a subsequent clinical application study, 50 patients who underwent thyroidectomy with IONM followed an enhanced NMB recovery protocol-rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg at anesthesia induction and sugammadex 2 mg/kg at the operation start. The train-of-four (TOF) ratio was used for continuous quantitative monitoring of neuromuscular transmission. In our porcine model, it took 49 ± 15, 13.2 ± 5.6, and 4.2 ± 1.5 minutes for the 80% recovery of laryngeal EMG after injection of saline, sugammadex 2 mg/kg, and sugammadex 4 mg/kg, respectively. In subsequent clinical human application, the TOF ratio recovered from 0 to >0.9 within 5 minutes after administration of sugammadex 2 mg/kg at the operation start. All patients had positive and high EMG amplitude at the early stage of the operation, and intubation was without difficulty in 96% of patients. Both porcine modeling and clinical human application demonstrated that sugammadex 2 mg/kg allows effective and rapid restoration of neuromuscular function suppressed by rocuronium. Implementation of this enhanced NMB recovery protocol assures optimal conditions for tracheal intubation as well as IONM in thyroid surgery. NA. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Kim, Ji Eun; Chun, Hea Rim
Anesthetic management of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is complicated because these patients are more sensitive to nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and are vulnerable to postoperative complications, such as postoperative residual curarization and respiratory failure. Sugammadex is a new reversal agent for aminosteroidal NMBAs, but its safety in children is controversial. An 11-year-old boy with DMD underwent general anesthesia for a percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We used rocuronium bromide and sugammadex to reverse the deep neuromuscular block. Reversal of neuromuscular block was done 15 minutes after administration of 2 mg/kg of sugammadex. The patient's recovery from anesthesia was uneventful, and he was discharged to the postoperative recovery ward. A delayed recovery was achieved, but no adverse events were observed, such as recurarization or hypersensitivity to sugammadex. We report safe use of 2 mg/kg of sugammadex to reverse a deep neuromuscular block in a child with DMD.
Landaeta, José; Wix, Richard; Eblen, Antonio
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of memantine on schizophrenia-like symptoms in a ketamine-induced social withdrawal model in rats. We examined therapeutic effects of memantine, an NMDA antagonist, and haloperidol, a classic antipsychotic drug, on this behavioral model. Administration of memantine (10 or 15 mg·kg-1) significantly reduced ketamine-induced social withdrawal, and this effect was more effective than that of haloperidol (0.25 mg·kg-1) by restoring the social interaction between rats with no modification in general motor activity. These results suggest that memantine could have a therapeutic potential for schizophrenia. PMID:23585718
Beggs, Ashton E; McCann, Jennifer Quinn; Powers, Jan M
Two cases of malignant hyperthermia suspected to be related to the use of a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker are reported. A pharmacogenetic disorder that may occur in as many as 1 in 3000 anesthesia procedures, malignant hyperthermia has been linked to the use of certain anesthetic gases and depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (e.g., succinylcholine). Although nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers were cited as contributing to the development of malignant hyperthermia in a small number of published reports, the agents are generally considered safe for use in at-risk patients. Here investigators report two cases in which the nondepolarizing agent rocuronium is thought to have triggered malignant hyperthermia in patients with no known history of the disorder. In one case, a critically ill 27-year-old man undergoing an induced-hypothermia protocol developed a fever about 4 days after receiving rocuronium infusions, with temperatures rising over 11 days to a maximum of 105.2 °F. In the other case, a 63-year-old man being treated for serious complications of elective surgery developed extreme fever (maximum temperature of 107.1 °F) about 4 days after receiving two bolus doses and a continuous infusion of rocuronium. In both cases, the discontinuation of rocuronium therapy was followed by the rapid diminution of fever over 12-36 hours. After consultations with medical staff and consideration of other potential causal and contributory factors (e.g., neurologic injury, antimicrobial-induced fever), rocuronium was deemed the most likely trigger of the severe febrile response experienced by these two patients. A 27-year-old man and a 63-year-old man received rocuronium and subsequently developed delayed-onset malignant hyperthermia, which resolved after the rocuronium was discontinued.
Patel, J C; Barvaliya, M J; Patel, T K; Tripathi, C B
As selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have an inhibitory effect on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, they may affect the neuromuscular transmission and interact with neuromuscular blockers. This study was designed to observe the effect of fluoxetine on neuromuscular transmission and its interaction with rocuronium using the rat phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm and rabbit head drop methods. Rat phrenic nerve hemidiaphragms were mounted and stimulated using a train of four pulses (TOF). The effect of fluoxetine was studied on both indirectly and directly stimulated basal twitch responses by plotting cumulative dose response curves (DRCs). DRCs of rocuronium were obtained in the absence, and presence of 5 μm and 20 μm fluoxetine to study its interaction. ED5 , ED50 and ED95 values of rocuronium DRCs in absence and presence of fluoxetine were calculated. Fluoxetine significantly inhibited twitch responses in both indirect and directly stimulated preparations. Fluoxetine (20 μm) caused an increase in the potency of rocuronium such that the ED50 and ED95 values of rocuronium DRCs were significantly decreased. Partially inhibited twitch responses by fluoxetine (100 μm) were not reversed by neostigmine (3.3 μm) or 3,4 diaminopyridine (0.25 μm). Rabbits were given fluoxetine 0.25 mg kg(-1) and 1 mg kg(-1) orally for 15 days, and on 15th day, rocuronium infusion was given, and time for head drop was recorded. The time of head drop was significantly reduced in fluoxetine pretreated as compared to control group. Fluoxetine blocks the neuromuscular transmission and increases the potency of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block.
Baykal, Mehmet; Gökmen, Necati; Doğan, Alper; Erbayraktar, Serhat; Yılmaz, Osman; Ocmen, Elvan; Erdost, Hale Aksu; Arkan, Atalay
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricularly administered rocuronium bromide on the central nervous system, determine the seizure threshold dose of rocuronium bromide in rats, and investigate the effects of rocuronium on the central nervous system at 1/5, 1/10, and 1/100 dilutions of the determined seizure threshold dose. A permanent cannula was placed in the lateral cerebral ventricle of the animals. The study was designed in two phases. In the first phase, the seizure threshold dose of rocuronium bromide was determined. In the second phase, Group R 1/5 (n=6), Group 1/10 (n=6), and Group 1/100 (n=6) were formed using doses of 1/5, 1/10, and 1/100, respectively, of the obtained rocuronium bromide seizure threshold dose. The rocuronium bromide seizure threshold value was found to be 0.056±0.009μmoL. The seizure threshold, as a function of the body weight of rats, was calculated as 0.286μmoL/kg(-1). A dose of 1/5 of the seizure threshold dose primarily caused splayed limbs, posturing, and tremors of the entire body, whereas the dose of 1/10 of the seizure threshold dose caused agitation and shivering. A dose of 1/100 of the seizure threshold dose was associated with decreased locomotor activity. This study showed that rocuronium bromide has dose-related deleterious effects on the central nervous system and can produce dose-dependent excitatory effects and seizures. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Reti, Irving M; Han, Sungho; Miskimon, Matthew; Rosen, Jeffrey B; Baraban, Jay M
The central nucleus of the amygdala plays a key role in mediating aversive responses to drug withdrawal, effects thought to contribute to continued drug use. In previous studies, we found that the immediate early gene Narp, which encodes a secreted protein that binds to AMPA receptors, is induced in this nucleus following opiate withdrawal. Furthermore, Narp deletion alters the acquisition and extinction of aversive conditioning induced by opiate withdrawal. We now report that Narp is also induced in the central nucleus following withdrawal from other drugs of abuse, nicotine and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, indicating that Narp is a common component of the transcriptional response triggered by drug withdrawal.
We present an open source numerical code, Defmod, that allows one to model the induced seismicity in an efficient and standalone manner. The fluid withdraw and injection induced earthquake has been a great concern to the industries including oil/gas, wastewater disposal and CO2 sequestration. Being able to numerically model the induced seismicity is long desired. To do that, one has to consider at lease two processes, a steady process that describes the inducing and aseismic stages before and in between the seismic events, and an abrupt process that describes the dynamic fault rupture accompanied by seismic energy radiations during the events. The steady process can be adequately modeled by a quasi-static model, while the abrupt process has to be modeled by a dynamic model. In most of the published modeling works, only one of these processes is considered. The geomechanicists and reservoir engineers are focused more on the quasi-static modeling, whereas the geophysicists and seismologists are focused more on the dynamic modeling. The finite element code Defmod combines these two models into a hybrid model that uses the failure criterion and frictional laws to adaptively switch between the (quasi-)static and dynamic states. The code is capable of modeling episodic fault rupture driven by quasi-static loading, e.g. due to reservoir fluid withdraw and/or injection, and by dynamic loading, e.g. due to the foregoing earthquakes. We demonstrate a case study for the 2013 Azle earthquake.
Belknap, J.K.; Laursen, S.E.; Crabbe, J.C.
Twenty generations of selective breeding were used to produce lines (strains) of mice which differ markedly from one another in ethanol physical dependence development as indexed by handling-induced convulsions (HIC) induced by withdrawal from ethanol. These withdrawal seizure prone (WSP) and withdrawal seizure resistant (WSR) selection lines now differ by over 10-fold in HIC scores after equivalent exposure to intoxicating levels of ethanol via inhalation. Since handling-induced convulsions can be readily elicited following withdrawal from nitrous oxide, the authors sought to determine if the very large differences in ethanol withdrawal-induced HIC bred into these selection lines would generalize to nitrous oxide. Following a 60 min exposure to 75% nitrous oxide (in O/sub 2/), a greater than 10-fold difference in HIC scores, and a 2-fold difference in tremor incidence was seen upon withdrawal in WSP vs. WSR mice. These finding closely parallel those seen with ethanol, and demonstrate that a large degree of commonality exists in the genes and the mechanisms determining these withdrawal signs. HIC elicited by nitrous oxide withdrawal were readily suppressed by ethanol, and HIC elicited by ethanol withdrawal were promptly suppressed by 75% nitrous oxide in WSP mice. Nitrous oxide also suppressed HIC and tremor associated with nitrous oxide withdrawal. 19 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.
Ren, Zhenyu; Yang, Bing; Yang, Bin; Shi, Le; Sun, Qing-Li; Sun, A-Ping; Lu, Lin; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Rongsheng; Zhai, Suodi
Combined pharmacological treatments are the most used approach for neuropathic pain. Carbamazepine, an antiepileptic agent, is generally used as a third-line treatment for neuropathic pain and can be considered an option only when patients have not responded to the first- and second-line medications. In the case presented herein, a patient with neuropathic pain was treated using a combined pharmacological regimen. The patient's pain deteriorated, despite increasing the doses of opioids, when carbamazepine was discontinued, potentially because carbamazepine withdrawal disrupted the balance that was achieved by the multifaceted pharmacological regimen, thus inducing hyperalgesia. Interestingly, when carbamazepine was prescribed again, the patient's pain was successfully managed. Animal research has reported that carbamazepine can potentiate the analgesic effectiveness of morphine in rodent models of neuropathic pain and postoperative pain. This clinical case demonstrates that carbamazepine may have a synergistic effect on the analgesic effectiveness of morphine and may inhibit or postpone opioid-induced hyperalgesia. We postulate that a probable mechanism of action of carbamazepine may involve -aminobutyric acid-ergic potentiation and the interruption of glutamatergic function via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Further research is warranted to clarify the analgesic action of carbamazepine and its potential use for the prevention of opioid-induced hyperalgesia in chronic neuropathic pain patients.
Zhang, Chengmi; Wang, Zhenmeng; Zhang, Jinmin; Qiu, Haibo; Sun, Yuming; Yang, Liqun; Wu, Feixiang; Zheng, Jijian; Yu, Weifeng
A number of case reports now indicate that rocuronium can induce a number of serious side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects might be mediated by the inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. Conventional patch clamp recordings were used to study the effects of rocuronium on nAChR currents from enzymatically dissociated rat SCG neurons. We found that ACh induced a peak transient inward current in rat SCG neurons. Additionally, rocuronium suppressed the peak ACh-evoked currents in rat SCG neurons in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner, and it increased the extent of desensitization of nAChRs. The inhibitory rate of rocuronium on nAChR currents did not change significantly at membrane potentials between -70 and -20 mV, suggesting that this inhibition was voltage independent. Lastly, rocuronium preapplication enhanced its inhibitory effect, indicating that this drug might prefer to act on the closed state of nAChR channels. In conclusion, rocuronium, at clinically relevant concentrations, directly inhibits nAChRs at the SCG by interacting with both opened and closed states. This inhibition is competitive, dose dependent, and voltage independent. Blockade of synaptic transmission in the sympathetic ganglia by rocuronium might have potentially inhibitory effects on the cardiovascular system.
Poole, Rachel L; Connor, David A; Gould, Thomas J
Withdrawal from chronic nicotine is associated with cognitive deficits. Therapies that ameliorate cognitive deficits during withdrawal aid in preventing relapse during quit attempts. Withdrawal-induced deficits in contextual learning are associated with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor upregulation. The aim of the present study was to determine if the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil has the ability to reverse nicotine withdrawal-induced deficits in contextual learning. Results demonstrated that low doses of donepezil, which do not enhance contextual learning or alter locomotor activity/anxiety-related behavior, can reverse nicotine withdrawal-induced deficits in contextual learning. Thus, donepezil may have therapeutic value for ameliorating cognitive deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal and for preventing relapse.
Zissen, Maurice H.; Zhang, Guohua; McKelvy, Alvin; Propst, John T.; Kendig, Joan J.; Sweitzer, Sarah M.
Our laboratory has previously characterized age-dependent changes in nociception upon acute morphine withdrawal. This study characterizes changes in mechanical and thermal nociception following acute, intermittent, or continuous morphine administration in infant (postnatal day 5–8) and young (postnatal day 19–21). Morphine was given as a single acute administration (AM), intermittently twice a day for 3 days (IM), or continuously for 72 hours via a subcutaneous pump implanted (CM). AM did not produce long-term changes in mechanical or thermal nociception in either infant or young rats. CM produced changes in mechanical nociception that included the development of tolerance, opioid-induced mechanical allodynia and withdrawal-associated mechanical allodynia in young rats, but only tolerance and a prolonged withdrawal-associated mechanical allodynia in infant rats. IM produced withdrawal-associated mechanical allodynia in both infant and young rats. Measuring paw withdrawal responses to thermal stimuli, infant and young rats showed tolerance without opioid-induced thermal hyperalgesia or withdrawal-associated thermal hyperalgesia following CM. In contrast to CM, withdrawal-associated thermal hyperalgesia was seen in both ages following IM. In conclusion, CM versus IM differentially modified mechanical and thermal nociception, suggesting that opioid-dependent thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia can be dissociated from each other in infant and young rats. Furthermore, tolerance, opioid-induced hypersensitivity, and withdrawal-associated hypersensitivity are age-specific and may be mediated by distinct mechanisms. PMID:17055659
Zissen, M H; Zhang, G; McKelvy, A; Propst, J T; Kendig, J J; Sweitzer, S M
Our laboratory has previously characterized age-dependent changes in nociception upon acute morphine withdrawal. This study characterizes changes in mechanical and thermal nociception following acute, intermittent, or continuous morphine administration in infant (postnatal days 5-8) and young (postnatal days 19-21) rats. Morphine was given as a single acute administration (AM), intermittently twice a day for 3 days (IM), or continuously for 72 h via pump (CM). AM did not produce long-term changes in mechanical or thermal nociception in either infant or young rats. CM produced changes in mechanical nociception that included the development of tolerance, opioid-induced mechanical allodynia and withdrawal-associated mechanical allodynia in young rats, but only tolerance and a prolonged withdrawal-associated mechanical allodynia in infant rats. IM produced withdrawal-associated mechanical allodynia in both infant and young rats. Measuring paw withdrawal responses to thermal stimuli, infant and young rats showed tolerance without opioid-induced thermal hyperalgesia or withdrawal-associated thermal hyperalgesia following CM. In contrast to CM, withdrawal-associated thermal hyperalgesia was seen in both ages following IM. In conclusion, CM versus IM differentially modified mechanical and thermal nociception, suggesting that opioid-dependent thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia can be dissociated from each other in infant and young rats. Furthermore, tolerance, opioid-induced hypersensitivity, and withdrawal-associated hypersensitivity are age-specific and may be mediated by distinct mechanisms.
Aouad, Marie T; Alfahel, Waseem S; Kaddoum, Roland N; Siddik-Sayyid, Sahar M
Sugammadex reverses the effect of rocuronium more rapidly and effectively than neostigmine, at all levels of neuromuscular blockade (NMB). However, its cost is prohibitive. The combination of half dose sugammadex with neostigmine would be non-inferior to full dose sugammadex for the reversal of deep NMB. This approach would reduce the cost of sugammadex while preserving its efficacy. Patients were randomly allocated to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg (Group S) or sugammadex 2 mg/kg with neostigmine 50 μg/kg and glycopyrrolate 10 μg/kg (Group NS) for reversal of rocuronium deep NMB. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients who recovered to 90% Train of Four (TOF) ratio within 5 min. The non-inferiority margin was set at 10%. Twenty eight patients were enrolled in each group. The number of patients who reached 90% TOF ratio within 5 min was 27 out of 28 (96%) in group S versus 25 out of 28 (89%) in group NS by intention-to-treat (difference: 7%, 95% CI of the difference: -9% to 24%). The number of patients who reached 90% TOF ratio within 5 min was 26 out of 26 (100%) in group S versus 23 out of 25 (92%) in group NS by per-protocol (difference: 8%, 95% CI of the difference: -6% to 25%). Sugammadex 2 mg/kg with neostigmine 50 μg/kg was at worst 9% and 6% less effective than sugammadex 4 mg/kg by intention-to-treat and by per-protocol analysis respectively. Hence, the combination is non-inferior to the recommended dose of sugammadex. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 02375217 , registered on February 11, 2015.
Barr, Alasdair M; Markou, Athina
A large body of evidence indicates that the withdrawal from high doses of psychostimulant drugs in humans induces a transient syndrome, with symptoms that appear isomorphic to those of major depressive disorder. Pharmacological treatment strategies for psychostimulant withdrawal in humans have focused mainly on compounds with antidepressant properties. Animal models of psychostimulant withdrawal have been shown to demonstrate a wide range of deficits, including changes in homeostatic, affective and cognitive behaviors, as well as numerous physiological changes. Many of these behavioral and physiological sequelae parallel specific symptoms of major depressive disorder, and have been reversed by treatment with antidepressant drugs. These combined findings provide strong support for the use of psychostimulant withdrawal as an inducing condition in animal models of depression. In the current review we propound that the psychostimulant withdrawal model displays high levels of predictive and construct validity. Recent progress and limitations in the development of this model, as well as future directions for research, are evaluated and discussed.
Henricks, Angela M; Berger, Anthony L; Lugo, Janelle M; Baxter-Potter, Lydia N; Bieniasz, Kennedy V; Petrie, Gavin; Sticht, Martin A; Hill, Matthew N; McLaughlin, Ryan J
Alcohol dependence is associated with anxiety during withdrawal. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system participates in the neuroendocrine and behavioral response to stress and changes in corticolimbic ECB signaling may contribute to alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Moreover, symptoms of alcohol withdrawal differ between sexes and sexual dimorphism in withdrawal-induced ECB recruitment may be a contributing factor. Herein, we exposed intact male and female rats and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with or without estradiol (E2) replacement to 6 weeks of chronic intermittent alcohol vapor and measured anxiety-like behavior, ECB content, and ECB-related mRNA in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Acute alcohol withdrawal increased anxiety-like behavior, produced widespread disturbances in ECB-related mRNA, and reduced anandamide (AEA) content in the BLA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) content in the vmPFC of male, but not female rats. Similar to males, alcohol-exposed OVX females showed reductions in Napepld mRNA in the BLA, decreased AEA content in the BLA and vmPFC, and reductions in all ECB-related genes measured in the vmPFC. Importantly, E2 replacement prevented withdrawal-induced alterations in ECB content (but not mRNA) in OVX females, and although alcohol-exposed OVX females failed to exhibit more anxiety compared to their respective control, chronic alcohol exposure abolished the anxiolytic properties of E2 in OVX rats. These data indicate that ovarian sex hormones (but not E2 alone) protect against withdrawal-induced alterations in corticolimbic ECB signaling but do not impart resilience to withdrawal-induced anxiety. Thus, the mechanisms implicated in the manifestation of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety are most likely sex-specific. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled "A New Dawn in Cannabinoid Neurobiology". Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rowlands, Amanda L; Pagán, Oné R
We recently reported that parthenolide and related sesquiterpene lactones are able to prevent and reverse behavioral responses in planarian worms induced by acute cocaine exposure. Previous reports indicate that when planarians are chronically exposed to microM concentrations of cocaine, they display stereotypical withdrawal-like behaviors when the cocaine is removed. Here we report that parthenolide prevents this cocaine-induced expression of planarian withdrawal-like behaviors.
Abulseoud, Osama A; Camsari, Ulas M; Ruby, Christina L; Kasasbeh, Aimen; Choi, Sun; Choi, Doo-Sup
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a potentially fatal outcome of severe alcohol dependence that presents a significant challenge to treatment. Although AWS is thought to be driven by a hyperglutamatergic brain state, benzodiazepines, which target the GABAergic system, comprise the first line of treatment for AWS. Using a rat model of ethanol withdrawal, we tested whether ceftriaxone, a β-lactam antibiotic known to increase the expression and activity of glutamate uptake transporter EAAT2, reduces the occurrence or severity of ethanol withdrawal manifestations. After a 2-week period of habituation to ethanol in two-bottle choice, alcohol-preferring (P) and Wistar rats received ethanol (4.0 g/kg) every 6 h for 3–5 consecutive days via gavage. Rats were then deprived of ethanol for 48 h during which time they received ceftriaxone (50 or 100 mg/kg, IP) or saline twice a day starting 12 h after the last ethanol administration. Withdrawal manifestations were captured by continuous video recording and coded. The evolution of ethanol withdrawal was markedly different for P rats vs Wistar rats, with withdrawal manifestations occurring >12 h later in P rats than in Wistar rats. Ceftriaxone 100 mg/kg per injection twice per day (200 mg/kg/day) reduced or abolished all manifestations of ethanol withdrawal in both rat variants and prevented withdrawal-induced escalation of alcohol intake. Finally, ceftriaxone treatment was associated with lasting upregulation of ethanol withdrawal-induced downregulation of EAAT2 in the striatum. Our data support the role of ceftriaxone in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and open a novel pharmacologic avenue that requires clinical evaluation in patients with AWS. PMID:24452391
Seillier, Alexandre; Martinez, Alex A; Giuffrida, Andrea
The neuronal mechanisms underlying social withdrawal, one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia, are not well understood. Recent studies suggest an involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and, in particular, of negative symptoms. We used biochemical, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches to investigate the role played by the endocannabinoid system in social withdrawal induced by sub-chronic administration of phencyclidine (PCP). Pharmacological enhancement of endocannabinoid levels via systemic administration of URB597, an inhibitor of endocannabinoid degradation, reversed social withdrawal in PCP-treated rats via stimulation of CB1 receptors, but reduced social interaction in control animals through activation of a cannabinoid/vanilloid-sensitive receptor. In addition, the potent CB agonist CP55,940 reversed PCP-induced social withdrawal in a CB₁-dependent manner, whereas pharmacological blockade of CB₁ receptors by either AM251 or SR141716 reduced the time spent in social interaction in control animals. PCP-induced social withdrawal was accompanied by a decrease of anandamide (AEA) levels in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and these deficits were reversed by URB597. As CB₁ receptors are predominantly expressed on GABAergic interneurons containing the anxiogenic peptide cholecystokinin (CCK), we also examined whether the PCP-induced social withdrawal resulted from deficient CB₁-mediated modulation of CCK transmission. The selective CCK2 antagonist LY225910 blocked both PCP- and AM251-induced social withdrawal, but not URB597 effect in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that AEA-mediated activation of CB₁ receptors is crucial for social interaction, and that PCP-induced social withdrawal results from deficient endocannabinoid transmission.
Ninomiya, Asako; Terakawa, Yui; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru
The purpose of this study was to examine how submucosal injection of a clinically relevant dose of a lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing epinephrine affects the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. Sixteen patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery participated in this study. All patients were induced with fentanyl citrate, a target-controlled infusion of propofol and rocuronium bromide. Anesthesia was maintained by total intravenous anesthesia. After nasotracheal intubation, an infusion of rocuronium bromide was started at 7 µg/kg/min, and the infusion rate was then adjusted to maintain a train of four (TOF) ratio at 10 to 15%. The TOF ratio just prior to oral mucosal injection of a 1% lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing 10 µg/mL epinephrine (LE) was taken as the baseline. TOF ratio was observed for 20 minutes, with 1-minute intervals following the start of injection. Mean epinephrine dose was 85.6 ± 18.6 µg and mean infusion rate of rocuronium bromide was 6.3 ± 1.6 µg/kg/min. TOF ratio began to decrease 2 minutes after the injection of LE, reached the minimum value at 3.1 ± 3.6% 12 minutes after the injection, and then began to recover. We conclude that oral mucosal injection of LE enhances the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. PMID:22428970
Hashimoto, Yuko; Gotanda, Yuki; Ito, Takahiko; Ushijima, Kazuo
Motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring has been employed to detect the spinal cord injury during spinal, neurosurgical and cardiovascular operations. Muscle relaxants diminish the amplitude of MEP because MEP is the picture of electromyogram. In 5 cases undergoing MEP monitoring, we examined the effect of rocuronium followed by the administration of sugammadex on MEP Anesthesia was induced with propofol (target controlled infusion 3.0-3.5 microg x ml(-1)) and remifentanil 0.15-0.3 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), and the trachea was intubated with the use of rocuronium 0.6 mg x kg(-1) without any muscle rigidity, bucking and laryngospasm. General anesthesia was maintained by total intravenous anesthesia using propofol and remifentanil with no muscle relaxants. Immediately after the tracheal intubation, sugammadex 4 mg x kg(-1) was intravenously given. The amplitude of MEP was measured just before the administration of rocuronium, immediately after the tracheal intubation, and 1, 2, 3, 5 min following the administration of sugammadex. Sugammadex restored the MEP amplitude, deteriorated by rocuronium, in 3 to 5 min to the level of non-paralytic muscles. In one case, it took 8 min to restore the MEP of hemiparetic leg. Taking these findings into consideration, it is likely that rocuronium might not affect the MEP when reversed by sugammadex, and should be safe for smooth tracheal intubation in patients who need MEP monitoring.
Ninomiya, Asako; Terakawa, Yui; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru
The purpose of this study was to examine how submucosal injection of a clinically relevant dose of a lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing epinephrine affects the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. Sixteen patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery participated in this study. All patients were induced with fentanyl citrate, a target-controlled infusion of propofol and rocuronium bromide. Anesthesia was maintained by total intravenous anesthesia. After nasotracheal intubation, an infusion of rocuronium bromide was started at 7 µg/kg/min, and the infusion rate was then adjusted to maintain a train of four (TOF) ratio at 10 to 15%. The TOF ratio just prior to oral mucosal injection of a 1% lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing 10 µg/mL epinephrine (LE) was taken as the baseline. TOF ratio was observed for 20 minutes, with 1-minute intervals following the start of injection. Mean epinephrine dose was 85.6 ± 18.6 µg and mean infusion rate of rocuronium bromide was 6.3 ± 1.6 µg/kg/min. TOF ratio began to decrease 2 minutes after the injection of LE, reached the minimum value at 3.1 ± 3.6% 12 minutes after the injection, and then began to recover. We conclude that oral mucosal injection of LE enhances the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide.
Jung, M E; Wallis, C J; Gatch, M B; Lal, H
This study investigated the effects of a benzodiazepine partial agonist, abecarnil, and a full agonist, alprazolam, on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behaviors in rats. Anxiety was assessed in two models: elevated plus maze and pentylenetetrazol (GABA(A) antagonist) discrimination assay. Male rats received an ethanol-containing (4.5%) liquid diet for 7 to 10 days and were tested for withdrawal symptoms 12 h after termination of the diet. In the elevated plus maze, ethanol-withdrawn rats displayed less open arm activity and total arm entries than pair-fed rats. Abecarnil (0.08-0.32 mg/kg, IP) and alprazolam (0.08-1.25 mg/kg, IP) each produced a dose-dependent, full reversal of ethanol withdrawal-induced reduction of open arm activity, but only alprazolam increased the total arm entries. In the pentylenetetrazol assay, ethanol-withdrawn rats selected the pentylenetetrazol lever (100%) over the salin-lever. Abecarnil (0.04-0.32 mg/kg, IP) and alprazolam (0.08-0.32 mg/kg, IP) dose dependently reduced pentylenetetrazol-lever responding to control levels (10-20%). Alprazolam was more potent than abecarnil in reversing ethanol withdrawal-induced decrease in open arm activities, but showed comparable potency and efficacy to abecarnil in blocking the pentylenetetrazol-like ethanol withdrawal stimulus. These results suggest that abecarnil and alprazolam may have therapeutic potential for treatment of ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like symptoms.
Background The effectiveness of sugammadex in reversing rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB) in the presence of drugs that may potentiate NMB remains to be fully established. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of data from a Phase III clinical trial (VISTA; NCT00298831) was to investigate the impact of antibiotics on recovery from rocuronium-induced NMB after administration of sugammadex for reversal, and compared the neuromuscular recovery in patients who received antibiotics preoperatively with those who did not. Methods A Phase III, multicenter, open-label study designed to reflect potential use of sugammadex in clinical practice was conducted at 19 sites. Data obtained from patients who received antibiotics were compared with the cohort of patients who underwent the same protocol without antibiotics. Each subject received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg for muscle relaxation, after which tracheal intubation was performed; patients were also permitted to receive maintenance doses of rocuronium 0.15 mg/kg to maintain the desired level of NMB throughout the operation, as required.. At least 15 min after the last rocuronium dose, patients received sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg for reversal. Neuromuscular monitoring was continued until a train-of-four (TOF) ratio of ≥0.9 was achieved or the anesthetic was discontinued. Results The presence of antibiotics prior to the administration of sugammadex did not affect the recovery time from rocuronium-induced NMB when sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg was administered at least 15 min after the last dose of rocuronium. In the presence of antibiotics, the geometric mean (95% CI) time from administration of sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg to recovery of the TOF ratio to ≥0.9 was 1.6 (1.4–1.9) min (range: 0.7–10.5 min), compared with 2.0 (1.8–2.3) min (range: 0.7–22.3 min) for patients who did not receive antibiotics. Conclusions These findings suggest that prophylactic antibiotic use is unlikely to have a major impact on the recovery time
Hudson, Mark E; Rietbergen, Henk; Chelly, Jacques E
The effectiveness of sugammadex in reversing rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB) in the presence of drugs that may potentiate NMB remains to be fully established. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of data from a Phase III clinical trial (VISTA; NCT00298831) was to investigate the impact of antibiotics on recovery from rocuronium-induced NMB after administration of sugammadex for reversal, and compared the neuromuscular recovery in patients who received antibiotics preoperatively with those who did not. A Phase III, multicenter, open-label study designed to reflect potential use of sugammadex in clinical practice was conducted at 19 sites. Data obtained from patients who received antibiotics were compared with the cohort of patients who underwent the same protocol without antibiotics. Each subject received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg for muscle relaxation, after which tracheal intubation was performed; patients were also permitted to receive maintenance doses of rocuronium 0.15 mg/kg to maintain the desired level of NMB throughout the operation, as required.. At least 15 min after the last rocuronium dose, patients received sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg for reversal. Neuromuscular monitoring was continued until a train-of-four (TOF) ratio of ≥0.9 was achieved or the anesthetic was discontinued. The presence of antibiotics prior to the administration of sugammadex did not affect the recovery time from rocuronium-induced NMB when sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg was administered at least 15 min after the last dose of rocuronium. In the presence of antibiotics, the geometric mean (95% CI) time from administration of sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg to recovery of the TOF ratio to ≥0.9 was 1.6 (1.4-1.9) min (range: 0.7-10.5 min), compared with 2.0 (1.8-2.3) min (range: 0.7-22.3 min) for patients who did not receive antibiotics. These findings suggest that prophylactic antibiotic use is unlikely to have a major impact on the recovery time from rocuronium-induced NMB with sugammadex
Meert, T F
Rats given a liquid diet containing 10% (v/v) alcohol consume high quantities of alcohol. Within 8 hr after cessation of the alcohol intake, the animals will show alcohol-withdrawal reactions including a supersensitivity to harmine-induced tremor and an inhibition of exploratory behaviour in a neutral environment. Several drugs can overcome one or more of these alcohol-withdrawal reactions. A reduction of the alcohol withdrawal-induced inhibition of exploration, in terms of both the number of transits into the open field and the time spent in the open field, was obtained with chlordiazepoxide, ritanserin, mianserin and propranolol. Of these four compounds, propranolol and mianserin were also active against the supersensitivity to both 5.00 and 10.00 mg/kg harmine-induced tremor. Chlordiazepoxide and ritanserin were only active against 5.00 mg/kg harmine. Other compounds that reversed the supersensitivity to harmine-induced tremor during alcohol withdrawal included buspirone, fluoxetine, haloperidol, clonidine, flunarizine and baclofen. Very limited effects on both alcohol-withdrawal reactions were observed with ondansetron, nimodipine and MK-801. Risperidone and SCH 23390 were inactive. These results demonstrate that some alcohol withdrawal reactions can be studied in a systematic way and that various pharmacological agents can differentially interact with these alcohol withdrawal reactions.
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by the loss of myelin in the center of the basis pons, and is mainly caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. We report the case of a young woman who presented with gait disturbance and alcohol withdrawal, and who was eventually diagnosed with CPM. Generally, the cause and pathogenesis of CPM in chronic alcoholics remain unclear. In this cases, the CPM may be unrelated to hyponatremia or its correction. However, it is possible that the osmotic pressure changes due to refeeding syndrome after alcohol withdrawal was the likely cause in this case. This case illustrates the need for avoiding hasty, and possibly incomplete diagnoses, and performing more intensive test procedures to ensure a correct diagnosis. PMID:28289647
Abe, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kanayo; Yoshino, Saori; Taguchi, Kyoji; Nojima, Hiroshi
An itch is experientially well known that the scratching response of conditions such as atopic dermatitis is enhanced under psychological stress. Morphine is typical narcotic drug that induces a scratching response upon local application as an adverse drug reaction. Although long-term treatment with morphine will cause tolerance and dependence, morphine withdrawal can cause psychologically and physiologically stressful changes in humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of morphine withdrawal on histamine-induced scratching behavior in mice. Administration of morphine with progressively increasing doses (10-50 mg/kg, i.p.) was performed for 5 consecutive days. At 3, 24, 48, and 72 hr after spontaneous withdrawal from the final morphine dose, histamine was intradermally injected into the rostral part of the back and then the number of bouts of scratching in 60 min was recorded and summed. We found that at 24 hr after morphine withdrawal there was a significant increase in histamine-induced scratching behavior. The spinal c-Fos positive cells were also significantly increased. The relative adrenal weight increased and the relative thymus weight decreased, both significantly. Moreover, the plasma corticosterone levels changed in parallel with the number of scratching bouts. These results suggest that morphine withdrawal induces a stressed state and enhances in histamine-induced scratching behavior. Increased reaction against histamine in the cervical vertebrae will participate in this stress-induced itch enhancement.
Chen, J-C; Tao, P-L; Li, J-Y; Wong, C-H; Huang, E Y-K
In 1997, endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and -2 (EM-2) were identified as the most specific endogenous mu-opioid ligands. These two peptides have shown analgesic effects and many other opioid functions. In the present study, we attempt to investigate the possible ability of endomorphins to induce naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in comparison with that induced by morphine. Using the previously established scoring system in rats, 12 withdrawal signs (chewing, sniffing, grooming, wet-dog shakes, stretching, yawning, rearing, jumping, teeth grinding, ptosis, diarrhea, and penile erection) were observed and scored following naloxone (4 mg/kg, i.p.) challenge. Compared with the sham control, EM-1 and EM-2 (20 microg, i.c.v., b.i.d. for 5 days) both produced significant naloxone-induced withdrawal syndromes with similar severity to that induced by the same dose of morphine. There was no significant difference between EM-1, EM-2, and morphine-treated group for naloxone-induced withdrawal signs, except for grooming. EM-1 and EM-2 induced more grooming than that caused by morphine. Although EM-1 and EM-2 both led to the withdrawal, they displayed different potency for certain signs and suggest their distinct regulations. The present results indicate EM-1 and EM-2 could initiate certain mechanism involved opiate dependence.
Bhutada, Pravinkumar; Mundhada, Yogita; Bansod, Kuldeep; Hiware, Rahul; Rathod, Sumit; Dixit, Pankaj; Mundhada, Dharmendra
Berberine ([C20H18NO4](+) ), one of the major constituents of the Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, is an isoquinoline alkaloid. Plethora of recent reports has indicated its ability to modulate several neurotransmitter systems, especially those implicated in ethanol dependence. Thus, the influence of berberine treatment on the development and expression of ethanol dependence was tested by using the ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability paradigm. Mice were provided with a nutritionally balanced control liquid diet as the sole nutrient source on day 0; from day 1-4 (ethanol, 3% v/v), from day 5-7 (ethanol, 6% v/v) and from day 8-10 (ethanol, 10% v/v) was incorporated into the liquid diet. On day 11, the ethanol liquid diet was replaced with nutritionally balanced control liquid diet, and ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability signs were recorded. The results revealed that acute administration of berberine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently attenuated ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability signs, and these results were comparable to diazepam (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Further, chronic administration of berberine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) to the ethanol diet fed mice markedly attenuated the ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability signs. In conclusion, the results and evidence suggest that berberine exhibited an inhibitory influence against ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability signs, which could be mediated through its neuromodulatory action.
Raybuck, Jonathan D; Portugal, George S; Lerman, Caryn; Gould, Thomas J
Varenicline, a partial agonist for a4ss2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and full agonist for a7 nAChRs, has been approved for the treatment of smoking cessation. Although recent clinical trials support the efficacy of varenicline for managing global nicotine withdrawal symptoms and for smoking cessation, its effects on animal models of specific withdrawal-associated behaviors have not been tested. The present study evaluated the effects of varenicline on contextual fear conditioning and its effects on nicotine (6.3 mg/kg/day) withdrawal-induced deficits in contextual fear conditioning. Varenicline (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mg/kg) had no effect on contextual fear conditioning when administered alone, but (0.1 mg/kg) prevented nicotine withdrawal-associated deficits in contextual fear conditioning. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that varenicline reverses nicotine withdrawal-induced deficits in an animal model and suggest that varenicline may be effective at treating nicotine withdrawal-associated deficits in learning and memory.
Luo, Fu-Cheng; Qi, Lei; Lv, Tao; Wang, Sheng-Dong; Liu, Hua; Nakamura, Hajime; Yodoi, Junji; Bai, Jie
There are few efficacious interventions to combat morphine dependence. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) are emerging as important modulators of neuronal function. They have been shown to be involved in cellular protective mechanisms against a variety of toxic stressors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a pharmacological inducer of Trx-1 and Hsp70, on morphine-induced hyperlocomotion, rewarding effect, and withdrawal syndrome. Trx-1 and Hsp70 expression was increased in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, and nucleus accumbens of mice after GGA treatment. GGA administration reduced morphine-induced motor activity and inhibited conditioned place preference. GGA markedly attenuated the morphine-naloxone-induced withdrawal signs, including jumping, rearing, and forepaw tremor. Furthermore, the activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and the expression of ΔFosB and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 were decreased in the nucleus accumbens by GGA treatment after morphine withdrawal. In the nucleus accumbens, GGA enhanced morphine-induced expression of Trx-1 and Hsp70 after morphine withdrawal. These results suggest that strengthening the expression of Trx-1 and Hsp70 in the brain by using noncytotoxic pharmacological inducers may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for morphine dependence. GGA could be a safe and novel therapeutic agent for morphine dependence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rauf, Khalid; Subhan, Fazal; Abbas, Muzaffar; Ali, Syed Mobasher; Ali, Gowhar; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Abbas, Ghulam
Bacopa monnieri is a perennial herb with a world known image as a nootropic. We investigated the effect of Bacopa monnieri methanolic extract (Mt Ext BM) 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w) on acquisition and expression of morphine withdrawal induced depression in mice. Locally available Bacopa monnieri (BM) was screened for contents of Bacoside A3, Bacopasaponin C, and Bacopaside II using HPLC with UV. Morphine dependence was induced in mice using twice daily escalating chronic morphine treatments (20-65 mg/kg b.w) for eight consecutive days. Morphine withdrawal induced depression was assayed in animals using forced swimming test (FST), three days after last morphine injection. The HPLC analysis revealed that Mt-ext BM contained Bacoside A3 as major component, i.e. 4 µg in each mg of extract. The chronic treatment with Met Ext BM 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg b.w. dosing significantly inhibited opioid withdrawal induced depression in mice. These findings imply a newer potential role of Bacopa monnieri in the clinical management of opioid withdrawal induced depression which can be attributed to Bacoside A3.
Ballard, T M; McAllister, K H
A direct comparison of the effects of clozapine and haloperidol upon naloxone-induced withdrawal jumping was investigated in morphine-dependent mice, as this syndrome may provide a behavioral baseline to differentiate between the two neuroleptics. Neither clozapine ((0.03-3.0 mg/kg s.c., n=9-10) nor haloperidol (0.01-04).1 mg/kg s.c., n=9-10) affected withdrawal jumping precipitated by 0.1 or 15.0 mg/kg i.p. naloxone in morphine-dependent mice. Measurement of locomotor activity immediately prior to naloxone administration revealed a dose-dependent reduction in activity by both compounds, indicating pharmacological effects at the time of naloxone-induced withdrawal. Clonidine (0.02-0.5 mg/kg s.c., n=9-10) also had no affect upon withdrawal jumping, although reductions in locomotor activity prior to naloxone administration were detected. There is no difference in the effects of acutely administered clozapine and haloperidol upon naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice.
Anzenbacherova, Eva; Spicakova, Alena; Jourova, Lenka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Adamus, Milan; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel
Rocuronium is a neuromuscular blocking agent acting as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. Results of an inhibition of eight individual liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) are presented. As the patients are routinely premedicated with diazepam, possible interaction of diazepam with rocuronium has been also studied. Results indicated that rocuronium interacts with human liver microsomal CYPs by binding to the substrate site. Next, concentration dependent inhibition of liver microsomal CYP3A4 down to 42% (at rocuronium concentration 189 μM) was found. This effect has been confirmed with two CYP3A4 substrates, testosterone (formation of 6β-hydroxytestosterone) and diazepam (temazepam formation). CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were inhibited down to 75-80% (at the same rocuronium concentration). Activities of other microsomal CYPs have not been inhibited by rocuronium. To prove the possibility of rocuronium interaction with other drugs (diazepam), the effect of rocuronium on formation of main diazepam metabolites, temazepam (by CYP3A4) and desmethyldiazepam, (also known as nordiazepam; formed by CYP2C19) in primary culture of human hepatocytes has been examined. Rocuronium has caused inhibition of both reactions by 20 and 15%, respectively. The results open a possibility that interactions of rocuronium with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 (and possibly also CYP2C19) may be observed. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Qian, Yaping; Sterling, Robert C; Page, Michelle E
, animals were transcardially perfused and the brains were removed for verification of probe placement. Low dose naltrexone pre-treatment significantly attenuated withdrawal-induced increases of extracellular norepinephrine in the BNST, with a smaller effect in the FC. These findings suggest that alterations in norepinephrine release associated with withdrawal may be attenuated in forebrain targets of noradrenergic brainstem neurons that may underlie reduced behavioral signs of withdrawal following low dose naltrexone administration.
Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.; Qian, Yaping; Sterling, Robert C.; Page, Michelle E.
experiment, animals were transcardially perfused and the brains were removed for verification of probe placement. Low dose naltrexone pre-treatment significantly attenuated withdrawal-induced increases of extracellular norepinephrine in the BNST, with a smaller effect in the FC. These findings suggest that alterations in norepinephrine release associated with withdrawal may be attenuated in forebrain targets of noradrenergic brainstem neurons that may underlie reduced behavioral signs of withdrawal following low dose naltrexone administration. PMID:18367303
Wills, Tiffany A; Knapp, Darin J; Overstreet, David H; Breese, George R
Repeated stress or administration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) prior to ethanol exposure sensitizes anxiety-like behavior in adult rats. Current experiments determined whether adolescent rats were more sensitive to these challenges in sensitizing ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety and altering CRF levels in brain during withdrawal. Male adult and adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were restraint stressed (1 hour) twice 1 week apart prior to a single 5-day cycle of ethanol diet (ED; stress/withdrawal paradigm). Other rats received control diet (CD) and three 1-hour restraint stress sessions. Rats were then tested 5, 24, or 48 hours after the final withdrawal for anxiety-like behavior in the social interaction (SI) test. In other experiments, adolescent rats were given two microinjections of CRF icv 1 week apart followed by 5 days of either CD or ED and tested in social interaction 5 hours into withdrawal. Finally, CRF immunoreactivity was measured in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after rats experienced control diet, repeated ethanol withdrawals, or stress/withdrawal. Rats of both ages had reduced SI following the stress/withdrawal paradigm, and this effect recovered within 24 hours. Higher CRF doses were required to reduce SI in adolescents than previously reported in adults. CRF immunohistochemical levels were higher in the PVN and CeA of CD-exposed adolescents. In adolescent rats, repeated ethanol withdrawals decreased CRF in the CeA but was not associated with decreased CRF cell number. There was no change in CRF from adult treatments. In the production of anxiety-like behavior, adolescent rats have equal sensitivity with stress and lower sensitivity with CRF compared to adults. Further, adolescents had higher basal levels of CRF within the PVN and CeA and reduced CRF levels following repeated ethanol withdrawals. This reduced CRF within the CeA could indicate increased release of CRF, and future work will
Rawls, Scott M; Shah, Hardik; Ayoub, George; Raffa, Robert B
No pharmacological therapy is approved to treat methamphetamine physical dependence, but it has been hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT)-enhancing drugs might limit the severity of withdrawal symptoms. To test this hypothesis, we used a planarian model of physical dependence that quantifies withdrawal as a reduction in planarian movement. Planarians exposed to methamphetamine (10 μM) for 60 min, and then placed (tested) into drug-free water for 5 min, displayed less movement (i.e., withdrawal) than either methamphetamine-naïve planarians tested in water or methamphetamine-exposed planarians tested in methamphetamine. A concentration-related inhibition of withdrawal was observed when methamphetamine-exposed planarians were placed into a solution containing either methamphetamine and 5-HT (0.1-100 μM) or methamphetamine and the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (10, 20 μM). Planarians with prior methamphetamine exposure displayed enhanced withdrawal when tested in a solution of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY 100635) (1 μM). Methamphetamine-induced withdrawal was not affected by the 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPZ) (0.1-20 μM). These results provide pharmacological evidence that serotonin-enhancing drugs inhibit expression of methamphetamine physical dependence in an invertebrate model of withdrawal, possibly through a 5-HT(1A)-like receptor-dependent mechanism.
Rawls, Scott M.; Shah, Hardik; Ayoub, George; Raffa, Robert B.
No pharmacological therapy is approved to treat methamphetamine physical dependence, but it has been hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT)-enhancing drugs might limit the severity of withdrawal symptoms. To test this hypothesis, we used a planarian model of physical dependence that quantifies withdrawal as a reduction in planarian movement. Planarians exposed to methamphetamine (10 µM) for 60 min, and then placed (tested) into drug-free water for 5 min, displayed less movement (i.e., withdrawal) than either methamphetamine-naïve planarians tested in water or methamphetamine-exposed planarians tested in methamphetamine. A concentration-related inhibition of withdrawal was observed when methamphetamine-exposed planarians were placed into a solution containing either methamphetamine and 5-HT (0.1 – 100 µM) or methamphetamine and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-Hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (10, 20 µM). Planarians with prior methamphetamine exposure displayed enhanced withdrawal when tested in a solution of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]- N-(2-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY 100635) (1 µM). Methamphetamine-induced withdrawal was not affected by the 5-HT2B/2C receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPZ) (0.1 – 20 µM). These results provide pharmacological evidence that serotonin-enhancing drugs inhibit expression of methamphetamine physical dependence in an invertebrate model of withdrawal, possibly through a 5-HT1A-like receptor-dependent mechanism. PMID:20709144
Zhao-Shea, Rubing; DeGroot, Steven R; Liu, Liwang; Vallaster, Markus; Pang, Xueyan; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Rando, Oliver J; Martin, Gilles E; George, Olivier; Gardner, Paul D; Tapper, Andrew R
Increased anxiety is a prominent withdrawal symptom in abstinent smokers, yet the neuroanatomical and molecular bases underlying it are unclear. Here we show that withdrawal-induced anxiety increases activity of neurons in the interpeduncular intermediate (IPI), a subregion of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). IPI activation during nicotine withdrawal was mediated by increased corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 expression and signalling, which modulated glutamatergic input from the medial habenula (MHb). Pharmacological blockade of IPN CRF1 receptors or optogenetic silencing of MHb input reduced IPI activation and alleviated withdrawal-induced anxiety; whereas IPN CRF infusion in mice increased anxiety. We identified a mesointerpeduncular circuit, consisting of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic neurons projecting to the IPN, as a potential source of CRF. Knockdown of CRF synthesis in the VTA prevented IPI activation and anxiety during nicotine withdrawal. These data indicate that increased CRF receptor signalling within a VTA-IPN-MHb circuit triggers anxiety during nicotine withdrawal.
Choi, E S; Oh, A Y; Seo, K S; Hwang, J W; Ryu, J H; Koo, B W; Kim, B G
We examined the use of neostigmine for reversing shallow (defined as train-of-four ratio of 0.5), cisatracurium- and rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in 112 patients, by use of 0 μg.kg(-1) , 10 μg.kg(-1) , 20 μg.kg(-1) or 40 μg.kg(-1) dose of neostigmine for reversal. The times from neostigmine administration to train-of-four ratios of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.0 were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed that the duration of action was significantly longer after cisatracurium compared with rocuronium. The time to reach a train-of-four ratio of 1.0 was significantly shorter with neostigmine 40 μg.kg(-1) compared with lower neostigmine doses, and at this dose the time did not differ between cisatracurium and rocuronium. The recovery time from a train-of-four ratio of 0.5-1.0 did not differ between cisatracurium and rocuronium, and was significantly shortened by the administration of neostigmine. We conclude that a neostigmine dose of 40 μg.kg(-1) was the most effective at reducing recovery time after neuromuscular blockade.
Clinical evidence has indicated a high degree of comorbidity of alcoholism and depression. Manifestation of the depression symptoms during abstinence increases the likelihood of relapse and indicates a worse prognosis in terms of treatment outcome. The depressive symptoms may be alcohol independent or alcohol induced. In this paper, only the ethanol-related depression is the focus of interest. In preclinical studies, some models of depressive-like symptoms induced by chronic alcohol treatment and withdrawal were proposed. In this minireview, the results concerning the depression-like behavior and some accompanying biochemical changes induced by prolonged ethanol exposure and its cessation in rats and mice were summarized. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of sigma1 receptor ligands for the treatment of depression disorder induced by ethanol abuse and withdrawal is discussed.
Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Hidalgo, Juana M; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent evidence suggests that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major molecular substrate of addictive properties of drugs of abuse. Hence, we performed a series of experiments to further characterize the role of GR signalling in opiate withdrawal-induced physical signs of dependence, enhanced noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation (activation) as well as GR expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The role of GR signalling was assessed by i.p. pretreatment of the selective GR antagonist, mifepristone. Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later, rats were pretreated with mifepristone or vehicle 30 min before naloxone and physical signs of abstinence, NA turnover, TH activation, GR expression and the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical axis activity were measured using HPLC, immunoblotting and RIA. KEY RESULTS Mifepristone alleviated the somatic signs of naloxone-induced opiate withdrawal. Mifepristone attenuated the increase in the NA metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylen glycol (MHPG), in the PVN, and the enhanced NA turnover observed in morphine-withdrawn rats. Mifepristone antagonized the TH phosphorylation at Ser31 and the expression of c-Fos expression induced by morphine withdrawal. Finally, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced up-regulation of GR in the NTS. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that the physical signs of opiate withdrawal, TH activation and stimulation of noradrenergic pathways innervating the PVN are modulated by GR signalling. Overall, the present data suggest that drugs targeting the GR may ameliorate stress and aversive effects associated with opiate withdrawal. PMID:22364199
Morisot, Nadège; Le Moine, Catherine; Millan, Mark J; Contarino, Angelo
Psychostimulant drug abuse, dependence and withdrawal are associated with cognitive dysfunction and impact stress-sensitive systems. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system orchestrates stress responses via CRF1 and CRF2 receptors and is implicated in substance use disorders. However, CRF2 role in psychostimulant drug-induced cognitive dysfunction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, wild-type and CRF2-/- mice are injected with cocaine and memory assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) task throughout relatively long periods of drug withdrawal. Following recovery from the drug-induced memory deficits, the mice are stressed prior to the NOR task and brain gene expression evaluated by in situ hybridization. Cocaine impairs NOR memory in wild-type and CRF2-/- mice. However, following cocaine withdrawal NOR memory deficits last less time in CRF2-/- than in wild-type mice. Furthermore, a relatively mild stressor induces the re-emergence of NOR deficits in long-term cocaine-withdrawn wild-type but not CRF2-/- mice. Cocaine-withdrawn mice show a genotype-independent higher c-fos expression in the NOR memory-relevant perirhinal cortex than drug-naïve mice. However neither genotype nor drug withdrawal affect the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the ventral tegmental area or the locus coeruleus and CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, brain regions implicated in stress and drug responses. These data indicate a new role for the CRF2 receptor in cognitive deficits induced by cocaine withdrawal, both as regards to their duration and their re-induction by stress. Interestingly, prototypical brain stress systems other than CRF do not appear to be involved.
Junqueira-Ayres, Décio D; Asth, Laila; Ayres, Adriana S F S J; Lobão-Soares, Bruno; Soares-Rachetti, Vanessa de Paula; Gavioli, Elaine C
Anxiety disorders are associated with increased impairments in psychosocial functioning, work productivity and health-related quality of life. In addition, anxiety is a common symptom of ethanol withdrawal and it strongly contributes to relapse. Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed for relief of anxiety and ethanol withdrawal symptoms but considerable side effects, such sedation, tolerance and dependence, are observed during treatment. Therefore, better drugs are needed for the treatment of anxiety states. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether topiramate would reduce basal levels of anxiety and ethanol-withdrawn induced anxiety in male rats; the elevated plus maze (EPM) was used as an animal model of anxiety. In Experiment 1, topiramate (0, 10, and 40 mg/kg, i.g.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was acutely and repeatedly administered to naive rats. In Experiments 2 and 3, topiramate (0 or 40 mg/kg, i.g.) was acutely and chronically administered in early (72 hr after ethanol removal) and protracted (21 days after ethanol removal) ethanol-withdrawn rats, respectively. Acute and repeated topiramate treatment induced anxiolytic-like effects in naive rats. Early ethanol withdrawal increased anxiety, and acute topiramate administration counteracted the anxiogenic-like effects of ethanol removal. Protracted withdrawal did not produce lasting changes in anxiety but topiramate was equally effective at reducing anxiety in ethanol-withdrawn and control animals. Importantly, no signs of tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of topiramate were observed. In conclusion, these data support a role for topiramate in the treatment of basal levels of anxiety and ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Nava-Ocampo, A A; Ramírez-Mora, J C; Moyao-García, D; Garduño-Espinosa, J; Salmerón, J
Background Several neuromuscular blocking (NMB) agents are available for clinical use in anesthesia. The present study was performed in order to identify preferences and behaviors of anesthesiologists for using vecuronium, rocuronium or other NMB agents in their clinical practice. Material and methods The cross-sectional survey was applied at the Updated Course of the Colegio Mexicano de Anestesiología performed last year. Of 989, 282 (28.5%) surveys were returned. Results Most anesthesiologists were working at both public and private hospitals, performed anesthetic procedures for hospitalized and ambulatory patients, and anesthetized children as well as adults. Respondents did not consider mechanomyography as the gold standard method for neuromuscular monitoring. The T25 was not recognized as a pharmacodynamic parameter that represents the clinical duration of the neuromuscular block. Most answered that vecuronium induces less histamine release than rocuronium, had never used any neuromuscular monitor, did not know the cost of vecuronium and rocuronium, and preferred rocuronium in multiple-sampling vials and vecuronium in either a vial for single or multiple sampling. Rocuronium was preferred for emergency surgery in patients with full stomach only. Almost all of anesthesiologists that conserve the unused drug did it without refrigeration and more than 30% conserve the unused drug in one syringe for further use. Conclusion Vecuronium was preferred for most clinical situations, and the decision for this choice was not based on costs. Storage of unused drugs without refrigeration in a single syringe for purpose of future use in several patients represented a dangerous common practice. PMID:11991809
Nava-Ocampo, A A; Ramírez-Mora, J C; Moyao-García, D; Garduño-Espinosa, J; Salmerón, J
BACKGROUND: Several neuromuscular blocking (NMB) agents are available for clinical use in anesthesia. The present study was performed in order to identify preferences and behaviors of anesthesiologists for using vecuronium, rocuronium or other NMB agents in their clinical practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cross-sectional survey was applied at the Updated Course of the Colegio Mexicano de Anestesiología performed last year. Of 989, 282 (28.5%) surveys were returned. RESULTS: Most anesthesiologists were working at both public and private hospitals, performed anesthetic procedures for hospitalized and ambulatory patients, and anesthetized children as well as adults. Respondents did not consider mechanomyography as the gold standard method for neuromuscular monitoring. The T25 was not recognized as a pharmacodynamic parameter that represents the clinical duration of the neuromuscular block. Most answered that vecuronium induces less histamine release than rocuronium, had never used any neuromuscular monitor, did not know the cost of vecuronium and rocuronium, and preferred rocuronium in multiple-sampling vials and vecuronium in either a vial for single or multiple sampling. Rocuronium was preferred for emergency surgery in patients with full stomach only. Almost all of anesthesiologists that conserve the unused drug did it without refrigeration and more than 30% conserve the unused drug in one syringe for further use. CONCLUSION: Vecuronium was preferred for most clinical situations, and the decision for this choice was not based on costs. Storage of unused drugs without refrigeration in a single syringe for purpose of future use in several patients represented a dangerous common practice.
Stoker, Astrid K; Marks, Michael J; Markou, Athina
The anhedonic signs of nicotine withdrawal are predictive of smoking relapse rates in humans. Identification of the neurobiological substrates that mediate anhedonia will provide insights into the genetic variations that underlie individual responses to smoking cessation and relapse. The present study assessed the role of β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nACh receptor) subunits in nicotine withdrawal-induced anhedonia using β2 nACh receptor subunit knockout (β2(-/-)) and wildtype (β2(+/+)) mice. Anhedonia was assessed with brain reward thresholds, defined as the current intensity that supports operant behavior in the discrete-trial current-intensity intracranial self-stimulation procedure. Nicotine was delivered chronically through osmotic minipumps for 28 days (40 mg/kg/day, base), and withdrawal was induced by either administering the broad-spectrum nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (i.e., antagonist-precipitated withdrawal) in mice chronically treated with nicotine or terminating chronic nicotine administration (i.e., spontaneous withdrawal). Mecamylamine (6 mg/kg, salt) significantly elevated brain reward thresholds in nicotine-treated β2(+/+) mice compared with saline-treated β2(+/+) mice and nicotine-treated β2(-/-) mice. Spontaneous nicotine withdrawal similarly resulted in significant elevations in thresholds in nicotine-withdrawing β2(+/+) mice compared with saline-treated β2(+/+) and nicotine-treated β2(-/-) mice, which remained at baseline levels. These results showed that precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal-induced anhedonia was attenuated in β2(-/-) mice. The reduced expression of anhedonic signs during nicotine withdrawal in β2(-/-) mice may have resulted from the lack of neuroadaptations in β2 nACh receptor subunit expression and function that may have occurred during either nicotine exposure or nicotine withdrawal in wildtype mice. In conclusion, individuals with genetic variations that result in diminished
Rawls, Scott M; Baron, Steven; Ding, Zhe; Roth, Christopher; Zaveri, Nurulain; Raffa, Robert B
Planarians display a concentration-related reduction in locomotor activity when amphetamine, cocaine, cannabinoid, or benzodiazepine exposure is abruptly discontinued. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that abrupt discontinuation of methamphetamine would also cause withdrawal-like behavior in planarians and that the withdrawal-like behavior would be prevented by nociceptin, which has been shown to modulate the effects of methamphetamine in mammals. We observed a concentration-related reduction of locomotor behavior when planarians exposed to methamphetamine (0.1-100 microM) were tested in drug-free water. The withdrawal-like behavior was abolished when methamphetamine (10 microM)-exposed planarians were placed into water containing nociceptin (10 microM) or when planarians co-exposed to methamphetamine (10 microM) and nociceptin (10 microM) were placed into drug-free water. The effects of nociceptin were abolished in the presence of a nociceptin receptor antagonist, JTC-801 (1 microM). Planarians did not display a change in locomotor behavior during exposure to nociceptin (10 microM) or JTC-801 (1 microM) by themselves. These results (1) reveal a functional interaction between nociceptin and methamphetamine in planarians and (2) provide evidence that nociceptin blocks methamphetamine-induced withdrawal-like behavior in planarians through a JTC-801-sensitive mechanism.
Chrestensen, Carol A; Eschenroeder, Andrew; Ross, William G; Ueda, Takeshi; Watanabe-Fukunaga, Rie; Fukunaga, Rikiro; Sturgill, Thomas W
Map kinase-interacting protein kinases 1 and 2 (MNK1, MNK2) function downstream of p38 and ERK MAP kinases, but there are large gaps in our knowledge of how MNKs are regulated and function. Mice deleted of both genes are apparently normal, suggesting that MNKs function in adaptive pathways during stress. Here, we show that mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) obtained from mnk1 (-/-)/mnk2 (-/-) as well as mnk1 (-/-) and mnk2 (-/-) mice are sensitized to caspase-3 activation upon withdrawal of serum in comparison to wild-type cells. Caspase-3 cleavage occurs with all cells in the panel, but most rapidly and robustly in cells derived from mice lacking both MNK genes. Treatment of wild-type MEFs in the panel with a compound (CGP57380) that inhibits MNK1 and MNK2 sensitizes wild-type cells for serum-withdrawal induced apoptosis, suggesting that sensitization is due to loss of MNK function and not to a secondary event. Reintroduction of wild-type MNK1 in the double knockout MEFs results in decreased sensitivity to serum withdrawal that is not observed for wild-type MNK2, or the kinase dead variant. Our work identifies MNKs as kinases involved in anti-apoptotic signaling in response to serum withdrawal.
Adam, Julia M; Bennett, D Jonathan; Bom, Anton; Clark, John K; Feilden, Helen; Hutchinson, Edward J; Palin, Ronald; Prosser, Alan; Rees, David C; Rosair, Georgina M; Stevenson, Donald; Tarver, Gary J; Zhang, Ming-Qiang
A series of mono- and per-6-substituted cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesized as synthetic receptors (or host molecules) of rocuronium bromide, the most widely used neuromuscular blocker in anaesthesia. By forming host-guest complexes with rocuronium, these cyclodextrin derivatives reverse the muscle relaxation induced by rocuronium in vitro and in vivo and therefore can be used as reversal agents of the neuromuscular blocker to assist rapid recovery of patients after surgery. Because this supramolecular mechanism of action does not involve direct interaction with the cholinergic system, the reversal by these compounds, e.g., compound 14 (Org 25969), is not accompanied by cardiovascular side effects usually attendant with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as neostigmine. The structure-activity relationships are consistent with this supramolecular mechanism of action and are discussed herein. These include the effects of binding cavity size and hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction on the reversal activities of these compounds.
Hołuj, Małgorzata; Popik, Piotr; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka
Social withdrawal, one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia, can be modelled in the social interaction (SI) test in rats using N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor glutamate receptor antagonists. We have recently shown that amisulpride, an antipsychotic with a high affinity for serotonin 5-HT7 receptors, reversed ketamine-induced SI deficits in rats. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the potential involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in the prosocial action of amisulpride. Acute administration of amisulpride (3 mg/kg) and SB-269970 (1 mg/kg), a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, reversed ketamine-induced social withdrawal, whereas sulpiride (20 or 30 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) were ineffective. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS19 (10 mg/kg) abolished the prosocial efficacy of amisulpride (3 mg/kg). The coadministration of an inactive dose of SB-269970 (0.2 mg/kg) showed the prosocial effects of inactive doses of amisulpride (1 mg/kg) and sulpiride (20 mg/kg). The anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (2.5 mg/kg) and the antidepressant fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg) were ineffective in reversing ketamine-induced SI deficits. The present study suggests that the antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute towards the mechanisms underlying the prosocial action of amisulpride. These results may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia and other disorders characterized by social withdrawal.
Schunck, Rebeca Vargas Antunes; Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Laste, Gabriela; de Souza, Andressa; Valle, Marina Tuerlinckx Costa; Salomón, Janaína L O; Nunes, Ellen Almeida; Campos, Andreia Cristina Wildner; Gnoatto, Simone Cristina Baggio; Bergold, Ana Maria; Konrath, Eduardo L; Dallegrave, Eliane; Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Torres, Iraci L S; Leal, Mirna Bainy
Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) has been traditionally used for treatment of anxiety, insomnia, drug addiction, mild infections, and pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial extract of P. incarnata in the analgesia induced by alcohol withdrawal syndrome in rats. In addition, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and interleukin-10 levels were evaluated in prefrontal cortex, brainstem, and hippocampus. Male adult rats received by oral gavage: (1: water group) water for 19 days, 1 day interval and water (8 days); (2: P. incarnata group) water for 19 days, 1 day interval and P. incarnata 200 mg/kg (8 days); (3: alcohol withdrawal group) alcohol for 19 days, 1 day interval and water (8 days); and (4: P. incarnata in alcohol withdrawal) alcohol for 19 days, 1 day interval and P. incarnata 200 mg/kg (8 days). The tail-flick and hot plate tests were used as nociceptive response measures. Confirming previous study of our group, it was showed that alcohol-treated groups presented an increase in the nociceptive thresholds after alcohol withdrawal, which was reverted by P. incarnata, measured by the hot plate test. Besides, alcohol treatment increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor and interleukin-10 levels in prefrontal cortex, which was not reverted by P. incarnata. Considering these results, the P. incarnata treatment might be a potential therapy in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fujita, Ai; Ishibe, Natsuki; Yoshihara, Tatsuya; Ohashi, Jun; Makino, Hideichi; Ikeda, Mizuko; Setoguchi, Hidekazu
Sugammadex rapidly reverses neuromuscular blockade (NMB) induced by rocuronium. NMB induced by rocuronium is prolonged in patients with liver dysfunction, because the drug is mainly excreted into the bile. However, the efficacy and safety of sugammadex in terms of reversing rocuronium-induced NMB in patients with liver dysfunction undergoing hepatic surgery have not been evaluated. This observational study investigated the efficacy and safety of sugammadex after continuous infusion of rocuronium in patients with liver dysfunction undergoing hepatic surgery. Remifentanil/propofol anesthesia was administered to 31 patients: 15 patients in the control group, and 16 patients from a group with liver dysfunction. Rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) was administered, followed by continuous infusion. The enrolled patients were then subdivided into two groups according to the dose of sugammadex. In the first group a single dose of sugammadex (2.0 mg/kg) was given at the reappearance of the second twitch (T2). In the second group a single dose of sugammadex (4.0 mg/kg) was given at the first twitch response if T2 did not reappear in 15 minutes after stopping rocuronium. The primary outcome was time from administration of sugammadex to recovery of a train-of-four ratio to 0.9. The dose of rocuronium required in the liver dysfunction group was lower than that in the control group (6.2 vs. 8.2 μg/kg/min, p = 0.002). The mean time from the administration of sugammadex to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was not significantly different between the liver dysfunction group and the control group (2.2 minutes vs. 2.0 minutes in the 2 mg/kg administration group, p = 0.44 and 1.9 minutes vs. 1.7 minutes in the 4 mg/kg administration group, p = 0.70, respectively). No evidence of recurarization was observed in any of the patients. Most of the adverse events were found to be mild and such events were not related to the use of sugammadex. None of the patients was eliminated from the study
Almela, Pilar; Victoria Milanés, Maria; Luisa Laorden, Maria
Our previous studies have shown that morphine withdrawal induced hyperactivity of cardiac noradrenergic pathways. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of morphine withdrawal on site-specific tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation in the rat left ventricle. Dependence on morphine was induced by a 7-day s.c. implantation of morphine pellets. Morphine withdrawal was precipitated on day 8 by an injection of naloxone (2 mg/kg, s.c.). TH phosphorylation was determined by quantitative blot immunolabelling using phosphorylation state-specific antibodies. Ninety min after naloxone administration to morphine-dependent rats there was an increase in phospho-Ser40-TH (139.0 +/- 13%, P < 0.05) and Ser31-TH (135.5 +/- 11%, P < 0.05) in the left ventricle which is associated with both an increase in total TH levels (114.4 +/- 4.6%, P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and an enhancement of TH activity (51.0 +/- 11 dm/microg protein, P < 0.001). When HA-1004 (40 nmol/day), inhibitor of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) was infused, concomitantly with morphine, it diminished the increase in noradrenaline (NA) turnover, total TH expression (95.76 +/- 4.1 %, P < 0.01) and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 (85.5 +/- 11%, P < 0.01) in morphine-withdrawn rats. In addition, we showed that the ability of morphine withdrawal to stimulate phosphorylation at serine 31 is reduced (101.7 +/- 7.7%, P < 0.05) by SL327 (100 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. The present findings demonstrate that the enhancement of total TH expression and the increase of the phosphorylation state of TH during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and ERK and suggest that these transduction pathways might contribute to the activation of the cardiac catecholaminergic neurons in response to morphine- withdrawal.
Karami, Manizheh; Rahimpour, Mahnaz; Karimi, Sara; Sahraei, Hedayat
The aim of this study was to evaluate if nitric oxide (NO) in the central amygdala (CeA) is involved in the expression of withdrawal aspects induced by morphine. Male Wistar rats (weighing 200-250 g) were bilaterally cannulated in the CeA and conditioned to morphine using an unbiased paradigm. Morphine (2.5-10 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected once a day throughout the conditioning phase of the procedure. This phase also included 3-saline paired sessions. Naloxone (0.1-0.4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]), an antagonist of opioid receptors, was administered i.p. 10 min prior to testing of morphine-induced withdrawal features. The NO precursor, L-arginine (0.3-3 μg/rat) was intra-CeA injected prior to testing of naloxone response. To evaluate the involvement of NO system an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (0.3-3 μg/rat), was injected ahead of L-arginine. Control group received saline solely instead of drug. As a complementary study, the activation of NOS was studied by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d). Morphine induced a significant increase in wet dog shaking and grooming behaviors compared with controls. Injection of naloxone pre-testing of morphine response significantly reversed the response to morphine. However, pre-microinjection of L-arginine intra-CeA recovered the response to morphine. Injection of L-NAME intra-CeA ahead of L-arginine though had no effect behaviorally, but, inhibited the NOS which has been evidenced by NADPH-d. The present study shows that NO in the CeA potentiates the expression of conditioned withdrawal induced by morphine paired with naloxone.
Farook, Justin M; Krazem, Ali; Lewis, Ben; Morrell, Dennis J; Littleton, John M; Barron, Susan
In the present study, we examined the effects of acamprosate for its ability to reduce handling induced convulsions (HICs) during alcohol withdrawal. Diazepam was used as a positive control. Swiss Webster male mice received three daily IP injections of alcohol (2.5 g/kg) or alcohol (2.5 g/kg)+methylpyrazole (4-MP) (9 mg/kg). (4-MP, being an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor slows down the breakdown of alcohol. 4-MP in combination with alcohol exhibits a dramatic increase in blood alcohol level compared to alcohol alone). Ten hours following the last alcohol injection, the mice were picked up by the tail and examined for their seizure susceptibility (HICs). Diazepam, a benzodiazepine known to reduce seizures during alcohol withdrawal, significantly reduced these HICs at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg (p's<0.001). Acamprosate, an anti-relapse compound used clinically in newly abstinent alcoholics, also reduced these HICs at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (p's<0.05). This study supports the use of acamprosate during periods of alcohol withdrawal as well as during abstinence.
Farook, Justin M.; Krazem, Ali; Littleton, John M.; Barron, Susan
In the present study, we examined the effects of acamprosate for its ability to reduce handling induced convulsions (HICs) during alcohol withdrawal. Diazepam was used as a positive control. Swiss Webster male mice received three daily IP injections of alcohol (2.5 g/kg) or alcohol (2.5 g/kg) + methylpyrazole (4-MP) (9 mg/kg). (4-MP, being an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor slows down the breakdown of alcohol. 4-MP in combination with alcohol exhibits a dramatic increase in blood alcohol level compared to alcohol alone). Ten hours following the last alcohol injection, the mice were picked up by the tail and examined for their seizure susceptibility (HICs). Diazepam, a benzodiazepine known to reduce seizures during alcohol withdrawal, significantly reduced these HICs at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/kg (p’s < 0.001). Acamprosate, an anti-relapse compound used clinically in newly abstinent alcoholics, also reduced these HICs at doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg (p’s < 0.05). This study supports the use of acamprosate during periods of alcohol withdrawal as well as during abstinence. PMID:18577392
Zhornitsky, Simon; Potvin, Stéphane; Stip, Emmanuel; Rompré, Pierre-Paul
Recent clinical studies show that the atypical antipsychotic medication, quetiapine, may be beneficial in the treatment of substance abuse by alleviating the withdrawal-negative affect stage of addiction. Since the effect of quetiapine on central reward function is largely unknown we studied its effects on brain stimulation reward in animals under withdrawal from escalating doses of d-amphetamine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to produce an operant response to receive a short train of electrical stimulation to the lateral hypothalamus. Measures of reward threshold were determined with the curve-shift method in different groups of rats before, and during four days after treatment with escalating doses (1 to 10mg/kg, i.p.) of d-amphetamine or its vehicle. At 24h of withdrawal, the effects of two doses of quetiapine (2 and 10mg/kg i.p.) were tested. Animals treated with d-amphetamine showed a 25% reward deficit at 24h of withdrawal, an effect that decreased progressively over the next three days. Quetiapine attenuated reward in the vehicle-control animals, and amplified the anhedonia at the moderate, but not the low, dose in the animals under withdrawal. These results show that acute treatment with clinically relevant doses of quetiapine for the treatment of schizophrenia may exacerbate anhedonia induced by amphetamine withdrawal. Further research should investigate whether repeated treatment with quetiapine has the ability to reverse amphetamine withdrawal-induced anhedonia.
Kumar, Jaya; Hapidin, Hermizi; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Ismail, Zalina
Abstinence from chronic ethanol consumption leads to the manifestation of a variety of symptoms attributed to central nervous system hyperexcitability, such as increased irritability, anxiety, and restlessness. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in addictive behaviours. This study investigates the effects of the mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) on ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety using two behavioural paradigms. Male Wistar rats were fed a Modified Liquid Diet (MLD) containing low fat cow milk, sucrose, and maltodextrin with a gradual introduction of 2.4%, 4.8% and 7.2% ethanol for 20 days. Six hours into ethanol withdrawal, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline and MPEP (2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg) and were assessed for ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety-like syndrome using an automated elevated plus maze and an open field. MPEP at 10 mg/kg significantly attenuated ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety without any compromising effects on locomotor activities. Despite reversing several indices of ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety in both the elevated plus maze and the open field, low doses of MPEP (2.5, 5 mg/kg) significantly compromised the locomotor activities of ethanol withdrawn rats. High doses of MPEP (20 and 30 mg/kg) significantly attenuated withdrawal anxiety when tested in the elevated plus maze but not in the open field. Administration of MPEP (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg) has no significant compromising effect on the locomotor activities of ethanol naïve rats. Despite significantly reducing withdrawal anxiety in both behavioural paradigms at 10 mg/kg, the compromising effects of low and high doses of MPEP must be further explored along with the therapeutic efficiency of this drug for relieving withdrawal induced anxiety.
Overstreet, David H; Knapp, Darin J; Breese, George R
Previous work demonstrated that rats subjected to multiple withdrawals from chronic ethanol exhibit a sensitization of anxiety-like behavior compared to animals withdrawn from treatment with an equal but continuous amount of ethanol. This study sought to examine whether corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) could modulate this ethanol-withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. Initially, rats were administered with CRF (1 microg) or vehicle intraventricularly on two occasions 5 days apart while on control diet (CD) followed by exposure to 7% ethanol diet (ED) for 5 days, with social interaction assessed 5 h into withdrawal. Social interaction was significantly reduced in the CRF-treated animals compared to vehicle-treated rats and vehicle- and CRF-treated rats maintained on CD, indicative that CRF given before ethanol exposure was capable of inducing an adaptive change that sensitized withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. Next, the CRF(1) receptor antagonist CRA1000 (3 mg/kg, systemically), the CRF(2) receptor antagonist antisauvagine-30 (20 microg intraventricularly), or vehicle was injected 4 h after the ethanol was removed following the first and second cycles of chronic ethanol exposure and the effect on the multiple-withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior determined after the third withdrawal cycle. The CRF(1) receptor antagonist blocked the reduced social interaction behavior, whereas the CRF(2) receptor antagonist was without effect. Similar pretreatment with another CRF(1) receptor antagonist CP-154,526 (10 mg/kg systemically) during the first and second withdrawals also counteracted anxiety-like behavior. These findings indicate that the CRF system and CRF(1) receptors play key roles in the adaptive change responsible for the anxiety-like behavior induced by repeated withdrawals from chronic ethanol.
Drastichova, Zdenka; Skrabalova, Jitka; Jedelsky, Petr; Neckar, Jan; Kolar, Frantisek; Novotny, Jiri
Morphine belongs among the most commonly used opioids in medical practice due to its strong analgesic effects. However, sustained administration of morphine leads to the development of tolerance and dependence and may cause long-lasting alterations in nervous tissue. Although proteomic approaches enabled to reveal changes in multiple gene expression in the brain as a consequence of morphine treatment, there is lack of information about the effect of this drug on heart tissue. Here we studied the effect of 10-day morphine exposure and subsequent drug withdrawal (3 or 6 days) on the rat heart proteome. Using the iTRAQ technique, we identified 541 proteins in the cytosol, 595 proteins in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction and 538 proteins in the mitochondria-enriched fraction derived from the left ventricles. Altogether, the expression levels of 237 proteins were altered by morphine treatment or withdrawal. The majority of changes (58 proteins) occurred in the cytosol after a 3-day abstinence period. Significant alterations were found in the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP27, α-B crystallin, HSP70, HSP10 and HSP60), whose levels were markedly up-regulated after morphine treatment or withdrawal. Besides that morphine exposure up-regulated MAPK p38 (isoform CRA_b) which is a well-known up-stream mediator of phosphorylation and activation of HSP27 and α-B crystallin. Whereas there were no alterations in the levels of proteins involved in oxidative stress, several changes were determined in the levels of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. These data provide a complex view on quantitative changes in the cardiac proteome induced by morphine treatment or withdrawal and demonstrate great sensitivity of this organ to morphine.
Drastichova, Zdenka; Skrabalova, Jitka; Jedelsky, Petr; Neckar, Jan; Kolar, Frantisek; Novotny, Jiri
Morphine belongs among the most commonly used opioids in medical practice due to its strong analgesic effects. However, sustained administration of morphine leads to the development of tolerance and dependence and may cause long-lasting alterations in nervous tissue. Although proteomic approaches enabled to reveal changes in multiple gene expression in the brain as a consequence of morphine treatment, there is lack of information about the effect of this drug on heart tissue. Here we studied the effect of 10-day morphine exposure and subsequent drug withdrawal (3 or 6 days) on the rat heart proteome. Using the iTRAQ technique, we identified 541 proteins in the cytosol, 595 proteins in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction and 538 proteins in the mitochondria-enriched fraction derived from the left ventricles. Altogether, the expression levels of 237 proteins were altered by morphine treatment or withdrawal. The majority of changes (58 proteins) occurred in the cytosol after a 3-day abstinence period. Significant alterations were found in the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP27, α-B crystallin, HSP70, HSP10 and HSP60), whose levels were markedly up-regulated after morphine treatment or withdrawal. Besides that morphine exposure up-regulated MAPK p38 (isoform CRA_b) which is a well-known up-stream mediator of phosphorylation and activation of HSP27 and α-B crystallin. Whereas there were no alterations in the levels of proteins involved in oxidative stress, several changes were determined in the levels of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. These data provide a complex view on quantitative changes in the cardiac proteome induced by morphine treatment or withdrawal and demonstrate great sensitivity of this organ to morphine. PMID:23056601
... from cocaine; Substance use - cocaine withdrawal; Substance abuse - cocaine withdrawal; Drug abuse - cocaine withdrawal; Detox - cocaine ... ... 2017. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. ...
Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian
The object of this study was to determine the fate of PGE2-(Prostaglandin E2) induced new cortical bone mass after withdrawal of PGE2 administration. Seven-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections of 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 60 days and then withdrawn for 60 and 120 days (on/off treatment). Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified tibial shaft sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction). In a previous report we showed that after 60, 120 and 180 days of daily PGE2 (on)treatment, a new steady state was achieved marked by increased total bone area (+16%, +25% and +34% with 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day) when compared to age-matched controls. The continuous PGE2 treatment stimulated periosteal and endocortical lamellar bone formation, activated endocortical woven trabecular bone formation and intracortical bone resorption. These responses increased cortical bone mass since the bone formation exceeded bone resorption. The current study showed that after withdrawal of PGE2 for 60 and 120 days, the extra endocortical bone, which was induced by the first 60-days treatment, was resorbed, but the new subperiosteal bone persisted resulting in a tibial shaft with larger cross sectional and marrow areas. Despite that, there was still the same amount of bone mass in these shafts as in age-related controls. A new steady state was achieved after 60 days of withdrawal, in which the bone mass and bone formation activity approximated that of age-related controls. It was concluded that maintaining the extra PGE2-induced cortical bone mass depends on continuous daily administration of PGE2.
Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian
The object of this study was to determine the fate of PGE2-induced new cortical bone mass after withdrawal of PGE2 administration. Seven-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections of 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 60 days and then withdrawn for 60 and 120 days (on/off treatment). Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified tibial shaft sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction). In a previous report we showed that after 60, 120 and 180 days of daily PGE2 (on)treatment, a new steady state was achieved marked by increased total bone area (+ 16%, +25% and + 34% with 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day) when compared to age-matched controls. The continuous PGE2 treatment stimulated periosteal and endocortical lamellar bone formation, activated endocortical woven trabecular bone formation and intracortical bone resorption. These responses increased cortical bone mass since the bone formation exceeded bone resorption. The current study showed that after withdrawal of PGE2 for 60 and 120 days, the extra endocortical bone, which was induced by the first 60-days treatment, was resorbed, but the new subperiosteal bone persisted resulting in a tibial shaft with larger cross sectional and marrow areas. Despite that, there was still the same amount of bone mass in these shafts as in age-related controls. A new steady state was achieved after 60 days of withdrawal, in which the bone mass and bone formation activity approximated that of age-related controls. It was concluded that maintaining the extra PGE2-induced cortical bone mass depends on continuous daily administration of PGE2.
Lee, Hwee Min D; Ruggoo, Varuna; Graudins, Andis
Clonidine is a central alpha(2)-agonist antihypertensive used widely for opioid/alcohol withdrawal, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and chronic pain management. We describe a case of clonidine withdrawal causing life-threatening hypertensive crisis and stress-induced cardiomyopathy. A 47-year-old man with chronic back pain, treated with clonidine for many years via intrathecal pump (550 mcg/24 h), presented following a collapse and complaining of sudden worsening of back pain, severe headache, diaphoresis, nausea and vomiting. A few hours prior to presentation, his subcutaneous pump malfunctioned. On presentation, vital signs included pulse 100 bpm, BP 176/103 mmHg, temperature 37.8 °C and O2 saturation 100 % (room air). Acute clonidine withdrawal with hypertensive crisis was suspected. Intravenous clonidine loading dose and a 50 mcg/h infusion were commenced. Five hours later, severe chest pain, dyspnoea, tachycardia, hypoxia, with BP 180/120 mmHg and pulmonary edema ensued. ECG showed sinus tachycardia with no ST elevation. Repeated intravenous clonidine doses were given (25 mcg every 5-10 min), with ongoing clonidine infusion to control blood pressure. Glyceryl trinitrate infusion, positive pressure ventilation and intravenous benzodiazepines were added. Bedside echocardiogram showed stress-induced cardiomyopathy pattern. Serum troponin-I was markedly elevated. His coronary angiography showed minor irregularities in the major vessels. Over the next 3 days in the ICU, drug infusions were weaned. Discharge was 12 days later on oral clonidine, metoprolol, perindopril, aspirin and oxycodone-SR. Two months later, his echocardiogram was normal. The intrathecal pump was removed. We report a case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy resulting from the sudden cessation of long-term intrathecal clonidine. This was managed by re-institution of clonidine and targeted organ-specific therapies.
Ukponmwan, O E; vd Poel-Heisterkamp, A L; Dzoljic, M R
Intraventricular administration of enkephalinase inhibitor, phosphoramidon (1 X 10(-8)-5.6 X 10(-7) moles ICV) induced a behavioural syndrome consisting of excessive grooming with the body scratching as the most prominent symptom and wet-dog-shakes (WDS). The frequency of the phosphoramidon-induced WDS and body scratching were decreased by the pretreatment with the opiate receptor blocking agent, naltrexone (2.9 X 10(-6) moles/kg IP). Both the phosphoramidon-induced WDS in naive rats and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal WDS were decreased in REM sleep deprived rats compared with animals allowed normal sleep (control and stress groups). The results are discussed in light of a possible functional insufficiency of endorphinergic system during REMSD. It has been suggested that this insufficiency might be a background to the increased neuronal excitability during REMSD.
Accidental administration of non-epidural drugs into the epidural or subarachnoid spaces may be associated with unexpected pain, morbidity, adverse effects, increased level of care, prolonged hospital stay, and mortality. We describe a 12-month-old admitted for secondary-stage hypospadias reconstruction. General anesthesia was induced with sevofiurane and a peripheral catheter was placed. Instead of ropivacaine, rocuronium (80 mg; 6.3 mg/kg) was injected into the epidural space by the caudal route. Surgery was uneventful and was completed 160 minutes after rocuronium was given. The patient exhibited paralysis with 1 of 4 twitches to the train-of-four with some posttetanic potentiation at the end of surgery. He was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit for supportive ventilation and recovery. He did not experience oxygen desaturation or hypoventilation between the time of rocuronium administration and intubation. He was hemodynamically stable, without respiratory insufficiency, and his neurologic exam was normal, without motor or sensorial block. The patient was discharged home on the morning of the first postoperative day. Clinical examination 1 week after surgery revealed no lasting sequelae from the error. PMID:27877098
Madeira, A C; Suarez-Kurtz, G
A study was made of the effects of Na removal on the resting tension of single muscle fibres of the crab Callinectes danae. Reduction of [Na]o (replacement with Li, Tris or choline) below a threshold value, typical for each fibre, induced spontaneous, local contractions randomly dispersed along the fibres; this was followed by propagated contractile waves and tension oscillations. Sustained contractures were occasionally seen at threshold [Na]o and were consistently observed when [Na]o was further reduced. The Na withdrawal contractions depended on [Ca]o and were abolished in Ca-free media; they were restored within seconds after the addition of Ca (3-12 mM) or Sr (15-25 mM), but not Ba (10-100 mM), to the media. Caffeine (0.2-1.0 mM) facilitated, whereas La (2-5 mM), procaine (1 mM) or lidocaine (10 mM) inhibited the Na-withdrawal contractions. It is concluded that increased Ca influx across the sarcolemma and release of stored Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum are involved in the contractions induced by Na-deficient solutions in crab fibres.
Gong, Ying-xia; Shou, Wen-ting; Feng, Bo; Zhang, Wei-ping; Wang, Hui-juan; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong
Histamine plays an important role in morphine addiction and memory-dependent behavior. However, little is known about the effect of histamine on the impairment of memory after morphine withdrawal. This study was designed to investigate the effect of histamine on memory impairment induced by morphine withdrawal in histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. WT and HDC-KO mice were given subcutaneous morphine or saline twice daily for 5 consecutive days. The mice received a cued or contextual fear conditioning session 7 days after the last injection. During subsequent days, mice received 4 cued or contextual extinction sessions (one session per day). Western blot was used to assess extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the amygdala and hippocampus. Morphine withdrawal did not affect the acquisition of cued or contextual fear responses. It impaired cued but not contextual fear extinction. The acquisition of cued and contextual fear responses was accelerated in HDC-KO mice. Histamine deficiency aggravated the impairment of cued fear extinction induced by morphine withdrawal, whereas histamine (icv, 5 μg/mouse) reversed this effect. Morphine withdrawal decreased ERK phosphorylation in the amygdala after cued fear extinction, especially in HDC-KO mice. These results suggest that morphine withdrawal specifically impairs cued fear extinction and histamine ameliorates this impairment. Its action might be mediated by the modulation of ERK phosphorylation in the amygdala. Histamine should be explored for possible roles in the prevention or treatment of morphine abuse and relapse.
Zhao-Shea, Rubing; DeGroot, Steven R.; Liu, Liwang; Vallaster, Markus; Pang, Xueyan; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Rando, Oliver J.; Martin, Gilles E.; George, Olivier; Gardner, Paul D.; Tapper, Andrew R.
Increased anxiety is a predominant withdrawal symptom in abstinent smokers, yet the neuroanatomical and molecular bases underlying it are unclear. Here, we show that withdrawal-induced anxiety increases activity of neurons in the interpeduncular intermediate (IPI), a subregion of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). IPI activation during nicotine withdrawal was mediated by increased corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 expression and signaling, which modulated glutamatergic input from the medial habenula (MHb). Pharmacological blockade of IPN CRF1 receptors or optogenetic silencing of MHb input reduced IPI activation and alleviated withdrawal-induced anxiety; whereas IPN CRF infusion in mice increased anxiety. We identified a meso-interpeduncular circuit, consisting of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic neurons projecting to the IPN, as a potential source of CRF. Knock-down of CRF synthesis in the VTA prevented IPI activation and anxiety during nicotine withdrawal. These data indicate that increased CRF receptor signaling within a VTA-IPN-MHb circuit triggers anxiety during nicotine withdrawal. PMID:25898242
Pellegrin, Stéphanie; Heesom, Kate J.; Satchwell, Timothy J.; Hawley, Bethan R.; Daniels, Geoff; van den Akker, Emile; Toye, Ashley M.
The availability of Erythropoietin (Epo) is essential for the survival of erythroid progenitors. Here we study the effects of Epo removal on primary human erythroblasts grown from peripheral blood CD34+ cells. The erythroblasts died rapidly from apoptosis, even in the presence of SCF, and within 24 hours of Epo withdrawal 60% of the cells were Annexin V positive. Other classical hallmarks of apoptosis were also observed, including cytochrome c release into the cytosol, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, Bax translocation to the mitochondria and caspase activation. We adopted a 2D DIGE approach to compare the proteomes of erythroblasts maintained for 12 hours in the presence or absence of Epo. Proteomic comparisons demonstrated significant and reproducible alterations in the abundance of proteins between the two growth conditions, with 18 and 31 proteins exhibiting altered abundance in presence or absence of Epo, respectively. We observed that Epo withdrawal induced the proteolysis of the multi-functional proteins Hsp90 alpha, Hsp90 beta, SET, 14-3-3 beta, 14-3-3 gamma, 14-3-3 epsilon, and RPSA, thereby targeting multiple signaling pathways and cellular processes simultaneously. We also observed that 14 proteins were differentially phosphorylated and confirmed the phosphorylation of the Hsp90 alpha and Hsp90 beta proteolytic fragments in apoptotic cells using Nano LC mass spectrometry. Our analysis of the global changes occurring in the proteome of primary human erythroblasts in response to Epo removal has increased the repertoire of proteins affected by Epo withdrawal and identified proteins whose aberrant regulation may contribute to ineffective erythropoiesis. PMID:22723854
Pellegrin, Stéphanie; Heesom, Kate J; Satchwell, Timothy J; Hawley, Bethan R; Daniels, Geoff; van den Akker, Emile; Toye, Ashley M
The availability of Erythropoietin (Epo) is essential for the survival of erythroid progenitors. Here we study the effects of Epo removal on primary human erythroblasts grown from peripheral blood CD34(+) cells. The erythroblasts died rapidly from apoptosis, even in the presence of SCF, and within 24 hours of Epo withdrawal 60% of the cells were Annexin V positive. Other classical hallmarks of apoptosis were also observed, including cytochrome c release into the cytosol, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, Bax translocation to the mitochondria and caspase activation. We adopted a 2D DIGE approach to compare the proteomes of erythroblasts maintained for 12 hours in the presence or absence of Epo. Proteomic comparisons demonstrated significant and reproducible alterations in the abundance of proteins between the two growth conditions, with 18 and 31 proteins exhibiting altered abundance in presence or absence of Epo, respectively. We observed that Epo withdrawal induced the proteolysis of the multi-functional proteins Hsp90 alpha, Hsp90 beta, SET, 14-3-3 beta, 14-3-3 gamma, 14-3-3 epsilon, and RPSA, thereby targeting multiple signaling pathways and cellular processes simultaneously. We also observed that 14 proteins were differentially phosphorylated and confirmed the phosphorylation of the Hsp90 alpha and Hsp90 beta proteolytic fragments in apoptotic cells using Nano LC mass spectrometry. Our analysis of the global changes occurring in the proteome of primary human erythroblasts in response to Epo removal has increased the repertoire of proteins affected by Epo withdrawal and identified proteins whose aberrant regulation may contribute to ineffective erythropoiesis.
Jung, Marianna E; Metzger, Daniel B
Ethanol withdrawal (EW) is referred to the abrupt termination of long-term heavy drinking, and provokes oxidative brain damage. Here, we investigated whether the cerebellum and hippocampus of female rats are less affected by prooxidant EW than male rats due to the antioxidant effect of 17β-estradiol (E2). Female and male rats received a four-week ethanol diet and three-week withdrawal per cycle for two cycles. Some female rats were ovariectomized with E2 or antioxidant (Vitamin E+Co-Q10) treatment. Measurements were cerebellum (Rotarod) and hippocampus (water-maze)-related behaviors, oxidative markers (O2(-), malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls), mitochondrial membrane swelling, and a key mitochondrial enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). Separately, HT22 (hippocampal) cells were subjected to ethanol-exposure and withdrawal for two cycles to assess the effect of a CcO inhibitor on E2's protection for mitochondrial respiration and cell viability. Ethanol-withdrawn female rats showed a smaller increase in oxidative markers in cerebellum and hippocampus than male rats, and E2 treatment decreased the oxidative markers. Compared to male counterparts, ethanol-withdrawn female rats showed better Rotarod but poorer water-maze performance, accompanied by more severe mitochondrial membrane swelling and CcO suppression in hippocampus. E2 or antioxidant treatment improved Rotarod but not water-maze performance. In the presence of a CcO inhibitor, E2 treatment failed to protect mitochondrial respiration and cell viability from EW. These data suggest that antioxidant E2 contributes to smaller oxidative stress in ethanol-withdrawn female than male rats. They also suggest that EW-induced severe mitochondrial damage in hippocampus may blunt E2's antioxidant protection for hippocampus-related behavior.
Park, Woo Young; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Myeong Hoon; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Choi, Jong Bum
Background Laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery can cause spontaneous respiration due to diaphragmatic stimulation and intra-abdominal CO2 inflation. Therefore, sufficient muscle relaxation is necessary for a safe surgical environment. Methods We investigated if the combination of rocuronium and cisatracurium can counteract the delayed onset of cisatracurium’s action and delayed recovery of muscle relaxation and whether the dosage of rocuronium, which is metabolized hepatically, can be reduced. A total of 75 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy with an American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I-II, in the age range of 20–60 years, and with a 20–30 kg/m2 body mass index were included in the study. Results The patients were divided into the following groups: combination group (Group RC, rocuronium 0.3 mg/kg and cisatracurium 0.05 mg/kg), rocuronium group (Group R, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg), and cisatracurium group (Group C, cisatracurium 0.1 mg/kg), and the onset, 25% duration, recovery index, and addition/time ratio were measured. Patients in Group RC exhibited a significantly different addition/time ratio compared with patients in the other two groups (p = 0.003). Conclusion During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the 95% effective dose of rocuronium in combination with cisatracurium is expected to provide a sufficient muscle relaxant effect. PMID:28261559
Aldasoro, Martin; Jorda, Adrian; Aldasoro, Constanza; Marchio, Patricia; Guerra-Ojeda, Sol; Gimeno-Raga, Marc; Mauricio, Mª Dolores; Iradi, Antonio; Obrador, Elena; Vila, Jose Mª; Valles, Soraya L.
Rocuronium (ROC) and Vecuronium (VEC) are the most currently used steroidal non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking (MNB) agents. Sugammadex (SUG) rapidly reverses steroidal NMB agents after anaesthesia. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate neuronal effects of SUG alone and in combination with both ROC and VEC. Using MTT, CASP-3 activity and Western-blot we determined the toxicity of SUG, ROC or VEC in neurons in primary culture. SUG induces apoptosis/necrosis in neurons in primary culture and increases cytochrome C (CytC), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), Smac/Diablo and Caspase 3 (CASP-3) protein expression. Our results also demonstrated that both ROC and VEC prevent these SUG effects. The protective role of both ROC and VEC could be explained by the fact that SUG encapsulates NMB drugs. In BBB impaired conditions it would be desirable to control SUG doses to prevent the excess of free SUG in plasma that may induce neuronal damage. A balance between SUG, ROC or VEC would be necessary to prevent the risk of cell damage. PMID:28367082
Hsieh, Paul A.
Ground-water withdrawal from a confined or semiconfined aquifer causes three-dimensional deformation in the pumped aquifer and in adjacent layers (overlying and underlying aquifers and aquitards). In response to the deformation, hydraulic head in the adjacent layers could rise or fall almost immediately after the start of pumping. This deformation-induced effect suggest that an adjacent layer undergoes horizontal compression and vertical extension when pumping begins. Hydraulic head initially drops in a region near the well and close to the pumped aquifer, but rises outside this region. Magnitude of head change varies from a few centimeters to more than 10 centimeters. Factors that influence the development of deformation-induced effects includes matrix rigidity (shear modulus), the arrangement of aquifer and aquitards, their thicknesses, and proximity to land surface. Induced rise in hydraulic head is prominent in an aquitard that extends from land surface to a shallow pumped aquifer. Induced drop in hydraulic head is likely observed close to the well in an aquifer that is separated from the pumped aquifer by a relatively thin aquitard. Induced effects might last for hours in an aquifer, but could persist for many days in an aquitard. Induced effects are eventually dissipated by fluid flow from regions of higher head to regions of lower head, and by propagation of drawdown from the pumped aquifer into adjacent layers.
Pagán, Oné R; Rowlands, Amanda L; Fattore, Angela L; Coudron, Tamara; Urban, Kimberly R; Bidja, Apurva H; Eterović, Vesna A
Using an adaptation of published behavioral protocols, we determined that acute exposure to the cholinergic compounds nicotine and carbamylcholine decreased planarian motility in a concentration-dependent manner. A tobacco cembranoid (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-cembra-2,7,11-triene-4,6-diol (4R-cembranoid), also decreased planarian motility. Experiments in the presence of 1 microM 4R-cembranoid did increase the IC50 for nicotine- but not carbamylcholine-induced decrease in planarian motility. When planarians were exposed for 24 h to either nicotine or carbamylcholine at concentrations near their respective IC50 values and then transferred to plain media, nicotine-exposed, but not carbamylcholine- or cembranoid-exposed worms displayed withdrawal-like distress behaviors. In experiments where planarians were pre-exposed to 100 microM nicotine for 24 h in the presence of 1 microM 4R-cembranoid, the withdrawal-like effects were significantly reduced. These results indicate that the 4R-cembranoid might have valuable applications for tobacco abuse research. This experimental approach using planarians is useful for the initial screening of compounds relevant to drug abuse and dependence.
Yildirim, Emre; Connor, David A; Gould, Thomas J
Nicotine withdrawal produces cognitive deficits that can predict relapse. Amelioration of these cognitive deficits emerges as a target in current smoking cessation therapies. In rodents, withdrawal from chronic nicotine disrupts contextual fear conditioning (CFC), whereas acute nicotine enhances this hippocampus-specific learning and memory. These modifications are mediated by β2-subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus. We aimed to test ABT-089, a partial agonist of α4β2*, and ABT-107, an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, for amelioration of cognitive deficits induced by withdrawal from chronic nicotine in mice. Mice underwent chronic nicotine administration (12.6 mg/kg/day or saline for 12 days), followed by 24 h of withdrawal. At the end of withdrawal, mice received 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg ABT-089 or 0.3 mg/kg ABT-107 (doses were determined through initial dose-response experiments and prior studies) and were trained and tested for CFC. Nicotine withdrawal produced deficits in CFC that were reversed by acute ABT-089, but not ABT-107. Cued conditioning was not affected. Taken together, our results suggest that modulation of hippocampal learning and memory using ABT-089 may be an effective component of novel therapeutic strategies for nicotine addiction.
Rada, P; Jensen, K; Hoebel, B G
Prior research suggests that high levels of acetylcholine (ACh) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are associated with aversive states such as morphine withdrawal, but this has not been tested for nicotine withdrawal. The goal was to test the hypothesis that acute nicotine decreases extracellular ACh and increases extracellular dopamine (DA) in the NAc, while withdrawal from nicotine causes an opposite neurochemical imbalance with high extracellular ACh and low DA. Rats were prepared with a microdialysis probe in the NAc (primarily the shell region). They received one injection of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) or chronic nicotine (9 mg/kg per day via osmotic minipump). Naive animals receiving acute nicotine showed a mild, significant increase in both ACh (122% of baseline) and DA (124%). After chronic nicotine administration for 7 days, the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) precipitated withdrawal with the appearance of somatic signs (teeth chattering and shakes/tremors) and a significant increase in extracellular ACh to 125% of baseline, while extracellular DA decreased to 65%. Control groups receiving saline in place of nicotine or mecamylamine did not show these effects. Earlier work suggests that the observed release of accumbens ACh and DA in response to acute nicotine administration may be a factor in nicotine-induced suppression of appetite. ACh release during withdrawal, coupled with the decrease in extracellular DA may play a role in the aversive aspects of nicotine withdrawal that contribute to dependency.
Yildirim, Emre; Connor, David A.; Gould, Thomas J.
Nicotine withdrawal produces cognitive deficits that can predict relapse. Amelioration of these cognitive deficits emerges as a target in current smoking cessation therapies. In rodents, withdrawal from chronic nicotine disrupts contextual fear conditioning (CFC), whereas acute nicotine enhances this hippocampus-specific learning and memory. These modifications are mediated by β2-subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus. We aimed to test ABT-089, a partial agonist of α4β2*, and ABT-107, an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, for amelioration of cognitive deficits induced by withdrawal from chronic nicotine in mice. Mice underwent chronic nicotine administration (12.6 mg/kg/day or saline for 12 days), followed by 24 h of withdrawal. At the end of withdrawal, mice received 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg ABT-089 or 0.3 mg/kg ABT-107 (doses were determined through initial dose–response experiments and prior studies) and were trained and tested for CFC. Nicotine withdrawal produced deficits in CFC that were reversed by acute ABT-089, but not ABT-107. Cued conditioning was not affected. Taken together, our results suggest that modulation of hippocampal learning and memory using ABT-089 may be an effective component of novel therapeutic strategies for nicotine addiction. PMID:25426579
Wilkinson, Derek S; Gould, Thomas J
Current smoking cessation aids are relatively ineffective at maintaining abstinence during withdrawal. Nicotine withdrawal is associated with a variety of symptoms including cognitive deficits and targeting these deficits may be a useful strategy for maintaining abstinence. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with cognitive enhancing effects that may alleviate cognitive deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal. The effects of galantamine on nicotine withdrawal-induced deficits in contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice were examined. An initial acute dose-response experiment revealed that 0.5 and 1mg/kg galantamine had no effect on fear conditioning. To determine if galantamine would reverse nicotine withdrawal-related deficits in contextual fear conditioning, mice were implanted with osmotic mini-pumps that delivered chronic saline or 6.3mg/kg/d nicotine for 12 days and then pumps were removed. Training and testing of fear conditioning occurred 24 and 48 h later, respectively. Nicotine withdrawal disrupted contextual fear conditioning, which was reversed with 1 but not 0.5mg/kg galantamine. Across all conditions in both studies 2mg/kg galantamine led to high levels of freezing that were likely due to nonspecific effects. The ability of galantamine to reverse nicotine withdrawal-deficits in contextual conditioning is likely mediated through enhanced levels of acetylcholine via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, potentiation of hippocampal α4β2* nAChRs, or both. The present study suggests that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and/or drugs that act as allosteric modulators of nAChRs might be targets for smoking cessation aids because they may alleviate withdrawal symptoms such as cognitive deficits that can lead to relapse.
García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa
There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. - Highlights: • Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal increases sympathetic activity in the PVN and heart. • Co-localization of TH phosphorylated at serine 40/c-Fos in the VLM after morphine withdrawal • Naloxone
Richey, Laura; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Buck, Hollin M.; Deak, Terrence
Exposure to an immunogen results in a constellation of behavioral changes collectively referred to as “sickness behaviors,” with alterations in cytokine expression previously shown to contribute to this sickness response. Since behaviors observed during ethanol withdrawal are strikingly similar to sickness behaviors, we hypothesized that behavioral manifestations of ethanol withdrawal might be an expression of sickness behaviors induced by ethanol-related changes in peripheral and/or central cytokine expression. Accordingly, behaviors exhibited during a modified social investigation test were first characterized in male rats following an acute injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg). Subsequently, behavioral changes after either a high (4-g/kg; Experiment 2) or low dose (0.5 g/kg; Experiment 3) of ethanol were also examined in the same social investigation test, as well as in the forced-swim test (FST; Experiment 4). Results from these experiments demonstrated similar reductions in both exploration and social investigatory behavior during acute illness and ethanol withdrawal, while a seemingly paradoxical decrease in immobility was observed in the FST during acute ethanol withdrawal. In follow-up studies, neither indomethacin (Experiment 5) nor interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Experiment 6) pre-exposure reversed the ethanol withdrawal-induced behavioral changes observed in this social investigation test. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that the behavioral sequelae of acute illness and ethanol withdrawal are similar in nature, while antagonist studies suggest that these behavioral alterations are not reversed by blockade of IL-1 receptors or inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Though a direct mechanistic link between cytokines and the expression of acute ethanol withdrawal-related behaviors has yet to be found, future studies examining the involvement of brain cytokines as potential mediators of ethanol effects are greatly needed. PMID
Viganò, Mauro; Brocchieri, Alessandra; Spinetti, Angiola; Zaltron, Serena; Mangia, Giampaolo; Facchetti, Floriana; Fugazza, Alessandro; Castelli, Francesco; Colombo, Massimo; Lampertico, Pietro
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor widely used to treat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Despite the excellent safety records of this regimen, a few cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome have been reported among HIV patients exposed to TDF. In the HBV monoinfection scenario, only two cases of TDF-associated Fanconi syndrome have been reported thus far. Here, we describe two additional patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who developed a TDF-induced Fanconi syndrome that reverted after TDF withdrawal and had viral replication fully suppressed upon switching to entecavir (ETV). Though the overall risk of TDF associated severe renal toxicity in HBV patients appears to be negligible, both glomerular and tubular function should be monitored in patients exposed to TDF, especially when other renal risk factors or a history of previous exposure to adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) are present.
Alajaji, M; Bowers, M S; Knackstedt, L; Damaj, M I
Several studies suggest that repeated nicotine administration causes alterations in glutaminergic transmission that may play an important role in developing and maintaining nicotine addiction. Chronic nicotine administration in rats decreases the expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cysteine-glutamate exchanger (system xC-) in the nucleus accumbens. We hypothesized that ceftriaxone, a GLT-1 and system xC- activator, would decrease murine behavioral aspects of nicotine dependence. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated ceftriaxone administration on the behavioral effects of nicotine using mouse models of conditioned reward and withdrawal. Using male ICR mice, the ability of repeated ceftriaxone injections to modulate the development and reinstatement of a nicotine-conditioned place preference (CPP) was evaluated. Additionally, nicotine withdrawal-associated signs were assessed. These included both physical (somatic signs and hyperalgesia) and affective (anxiety-related behaviors) withdrawal signs in mice. Finally, the effects of ceftriaxone on nicotine-induced antinociception and hypothermia after acute nicotine injection were measured. Ceftriaxone had no effect on the development of nicotine preference but significantly attenuated nicotine-induced reinstatement of CPP. Furthermore, ceftriaxone reversed all nicotine withdrawal signs measured in mice. Altogether, these findings show that a β-lactam antibiotic reduces nicotine withdrawal and nicotine-seeking behavior. Our results suggest that the documented efficacy of ceftriaxone against cocaine and morphine dependence-related behaviors effects extends to nicotine.
Alajaji, M.; Bowers, M. S.; Knackstedt, L.
Rationale Several studies suggest that repeated nicotine administration causes alterations in glutaminergic transmission that may play an important role in developing and maintaining nicotine addiction. Chronic nicotine administration in rats decreases the expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cysteine–glutamate exchanger (system xC−) in the nucleus accumbens. We hypothesized that ceftriaxone, a GLT-1 and system xC− activator, would decrease murine behavioral aspects of nicotine dependence. Objective This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated ceftriaxone administration on the behavioral effects of nicotine using mouse models of conditioned reward and withdrawal. Method Using male ICR mice, the ability of repeated ceftriaxone injections to modulate the development and reinstatement of a nicotine-conditioned place preference (CPP) was evaluated. Additionally, nicotine withdrawal-associated signs were assessed. These included both physical (somatic signs and hyperalgesia) and affective (anxiety-related behaviors) withdrawal signs in mice. Finally, the effects of ceftriaxone on nicotine-induced antinociception and hypothermia after acute nicotine injection were measured. Result Ceftriaxone had no effect on the development of nicotine preference but significantly attenuated nicotine-induced reinstatement of CPP. Furthermore, ceftriaxone reversed all nicotine withdrawal signs measured in mice. Conclusion Altogether, these findings show that a β-lactam antibiotic reduces nicotine withdrawal and nicotine-seeking behavior. Our results suggest that the documented efficacy of ceftriaxone against cocaine and morphine dependence-related behaviors effects extends to nicotine. PMID:23503685
Michaud, Nadine; Couture, Réjean
This study examined the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) effects of three selective tachykinin receptor antagonists on the cardiovascular and behavioural responses induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in rats. I.c.v. injection of naloxone (10 microg) to morphine pre-treated rats (i.c.v. for 5 days) induced an immediate increase in blood pressure ( approximately 10 mmHg) and behavioural activity (sniffing > rearing > face washing approximately grooming approximately wet dog shake) without causing significant heart rate changes. The prior i.c.v. injection of the NK(1) receptor antagonist (6.5 nmol LY306740) reduced face washing and grooming during morphine withdrawal. NK(2) and NK(3) receptor antagonists (6.5 nmol SR48968 and R820) did not affect behavioural effects, yet the co-injection of the three tachykinin antagonists reduced all behavioural activity. The pressor response was not affected by the selective inhibition of NK(1) and NK(3) receptors while both blood pressure and heart rate were markedly enhanced by SR48968 during morphine withdrawal. The potentiating effect of SR48968 was prevented following simultaneous blockade of the three tachykinin receptors. In addition to confirming the involvement of central tachykinins in behavioural manifestations to morphine withdrawal, data suggest a modulatory function for tachykinins, especially the NK(2) receptor, in brain autonomic control of blood pressure and heart rate in supraspinal noloxone-precipitated withdrawal.
Ding, Yonghong; Shi, Wenhui; Xie, Guannan; Yu, Ailan; Wang, Qinghe; Zhang, Zongwang
Previously, we reported that nicotine withdrawal (NT) significantly increased pain sensitivity in rats. Recent reports suggest that fractalkine is involved in the spinal cord neuron-to-microglia activation via CX3CR1 signaling. However, its contribution to NT-induced hyperalgesia and the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, a rat model of NT was used to test the changes in CX3CR1 expression in the spinal cord. We also evaluated the effect of the CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody on spinal microglial activity, the expression of phosphorylated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38-MAPK) and heat-induced pain responses. We established a NT model via subcutaneous injection of pure nicotine (3 mg/kg), three times daily for 7 days. The expression of CX3CR1 was studied by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Following NT, the rats received daily intrathecal injections of CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody for 3 days. The change in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was observed. The activation of microglia and the expression of p-p38-MAPK were investigated by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The expression of CX3CR1 was significantly increased after NT and co-localized with IBA-1. NT rats treated with CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody showed significantly increased PWL on day 4 after NT. Furthermore, the activation of microglia and the expression of p-p38-MAPK in the spinal cord were suppressed. These results indicate that microglial CX3CR1/p38MAPK pathway is critical for the development of pain hypersensitivity after NT.
Ma, Chunling; Meng, Yanxin; Li, Shujin; Ni, Zhiyu; Cong, Bin
Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), a gut-brain peptide, regulates a variety of physiological behavioral processes. Previously, we reported that exogenous CCK-8 attenuated morphine-induced conditioned place preference, but the possible effects of CCK-8 on aversively motivated drug seeking remained unclear. To investigate the effects of endogenous and exogenous CCK on negative components of morphine withdrawal, we evaluated the effects of CCK receptor antagonists and CCK-8 on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). The results showed that CCK2 receptor antagonist (LY-288,513, 10 µg, i.c.v.), but not CCK1 receptor antagonist (L-364,718, 10 µg, i.c.v.), inhibited the acquisition of CPA when given prior to naloxone (0.3 mg/kg) administration in morphine-dependent rats. Similarly, CCK-8 (0.1–1 µg, i.c.v.) significantly attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced CPA, and this inhibitory function was blocked by co-injection with L-364,718. Microinjection of L-364,718, LY-288,513 or CCK-8 to saline pretreated rats produced neither a conditioned preference nor aversion, and the induction of CPA by CCK-8 itself after morphine pretreatments was not significant. Our study identifies a different role of CCK1 and CCK2 receptors in negative affective components of morphine abstinence and an inhibitory effect of exogenous CCK-8 on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced CPA via CCK1 receptor. PMID:22848639
Pellegrini, L; Mercier, M-F; Cornese, A; Blasco, V; Albanèse, J
We report in this clinical case the successful use of a combination of rocuronium and sugammadex in a patient with Steinert myotonic dystrophy to perform a rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia. The patient had both contraindication to succinylcholine and a risk of prolonged neuromuscular blockade with non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. The use of high dose rocuronium (1mg/kg) allowed a quick and easy orotracheal intubation but induced a prolonged neuromuscular block, reversed with success by sugammadex (8 mg/kg).
Stoker, Astrid K; Markou, Athina
Anhedonia is a major symptom of cocaine withdrawal, whereas euphoria characterizes the effects of acute administration of this drug in humans. These mood states can be measured quantitatively in animals with brain reward thresholds obtained from the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. Studies have previously reported the reward-enhancing effects of acute cocaine administration using the ICSS procedure in mice, but the effects of chronic cocaine administration and withdrawal on brain reward thresholds have not been widely investigated in this species. Cocaine withdrawal was induced in C57BL/6J mice by removal of intraperitoneal osmotic minipumps that delivered cocaine (90 or 180 mg/kg/day, salt) for 72 h. Mice were tested in the ICSS procedure 3-100 h post-pump removal. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the light-dark box 24h post-pump removal. After an 18-day washout period, tolerance and sensitization to the reward-enhancing effects of cocaine were assessed by injecting bolus cocaine intraperitoneally (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg). The results indicated that 72 h administration of 90 and 180 mg/kg/day cocaine significantly lowered brain reward thresholds. Withdrawal from 90 and 180 mg/kg/day of cocaine administration elevated ICSS thresholds to similar extents. No anxiety-like behavior was observed in the light-dark box during withdrawal from chronic cocaine administration, although the number of transitions between compartments and locomotion in the dark compartment markedly decreased. Chronic cocaine administration did not induce tolerance or sensitization to the reward-enhancing effects of acute cocaine. In conclusion, alterations in mood states induced by cocaine administration and withdrawal in mice can be measured using the ICSS procedure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Andreoli, María Florencia; Stoker, Cora; Rossetti, María Florencia; Alzamendi, Ana; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge Guillermo
The absence of phytoestrogens in the diet during pregnancy has been reported to result in obesity later in adulthood. We investigated whether phytoestrogen withdrawal in adult life could alter the hypothalamic signals that regulate food intake and affect body weight and glucose homeostasis. Male Wistar rats fed from conception to adulthood with a high phytoestrogen diet were submitted to phytoestrogen withdrawal by feeding a low phytoestrogen diet, or a high phytoestrogen-high fat diet. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens increased body weight, adiposity and energy intake through an orexigenic hypothalamic response characterized by upregulation of AGRP and downregulation of POMC. This was associated with elevated leptin and T4, reduced TSH, testosterone and estradiol, and diminished hypothalamic ERα expression, concomitant with alterations in glucose tolerance. Removing dietary phytoestrogens caused manifestations of obesity and diabetes that were more pronounced than those induced by the high phytoestrogen-high fat diet intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rubio, Marina; Villain, Hélène; Docagne, Fabian; Roussel, Benoit D; Ramos, José Antonio; Vivien, Denis; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; Ali, Carine
Cessation of chronic ethanol consumption can increase the sensitivity of the brain to excitotoxic damages. Cannabinoids have been proposed as neuroprotectants in different models of neuronal injury, but their effect have never been investigated in a context of excitotoxicity after alcohol cessation. Here we examined the effects of the pharmacological activation/inhibition of the endocannabinoid system in an in vitro model of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal followed by an excitotoxic challenge. Ethanol withdrawal increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-evoked neuronal death, probably by altering the ratio between GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits. The stimulation of the endocannabinoid system with the cannabinoid agonist HU-210 decreased NMDA-induced neuronal death exclusively in ethanol-withdrawn neurons. This neuroprotection could be explained by a decrease in NMDA-stimulated calcium influx after the administration of HU-210, found exclusively in ethanol-withdrawn neurons. By contrast, the inhibition of the cannabinoid system with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716) during ethanol withdrawal increased death of ethanol-withdrawn neurons without any modification of NMDA-stimulated calcium influx. Moreover, chronic administration of rimonabant increased NMDA-stimulated toxicity not only in withdrawn neurons, but also in control neurons. In summary, we show for the first time that the stimulation of the endocannabinoid system is protective against the hyperexcitability developed during alcohol withdrawal. By contrast, the blockade of the endocannabinoid system is highly counterproductive during alcohol withdrawal.
Ethanol withdrawal is a potentially life-threatening neurological syndrome owing to decreased GABA transmission and increased glutamatergic transmission resulting in a pro-excitotoxic state. Previous data indicate that ethanol withdrawal may increase CNS lipid peroxidation particularly to the n-3 fa...
Hélaine, L; Le Cocq, C; Saadi, H; Abdelkrim, N; Atti, A
In patients with neuromuscular diseases, the use of rocuronium in the general anesthesia rapid sequence induction provides safety intubation conditions, but induces a deep and prolonged neuromuscular blockade. We report dose reduction to 0.8mg/kg for a 47-year-old female with Landouzy-Dejerine myopathy. Therefore, less dose of sugammadex was given to reverse the neuromuscular block.
Islas-Preciado, D; López-Rubalcava, C; González-Olvera, J; Gallardo-Tenorio, A; Estrada-Camarena, E
Stress vulnerability could influence the treatment response to anxiety associated with abrupt hormonal suppression. The present study explored the effects of different treatments on experimental anxiety induced by progesterone withdrawal (PW) in a stress-sensitive rat strain, Wistar Kyoto (WKY), in the burying behavior test (BBT). The following experimental series was conducted using independent groups of Wistar (control strain) and WKY ovariectomized rats: Experiment 1: Rats were treated for 5days with oil, a constant dose of progesterone (0.5mg/rat, s.c) or a combination of progesterone (0.5mg/rat, s.c) plus fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p); on day 6, all rats were subjected to BBT. Experiment 2: Rats received corn oil or decreasing doses of progesterone (0.84, 0.67, 0.5, 0.33 and 0.17mg/rat; one dose daily); on day 6, the rats were subjected to BBT. Experiment 3: Rats were divided into two groups that were subjected to 30days of standard conditions or environmental enrichment (EE); from days 25 to 30, all rats received a fixed dose of progesterone (0.5mg/rat, s.c.) or vehicle. On day 31, the rats were tested with BBT. Results showed that PW increased anxiety in both strains, and fluoxetine prevented anxiety in WKY rats. In contrast, a gradual reduction of progesterone prevents the anxiety in Wistar but not in WKY. EE was preventive against the anxiety induced by PW in both strains of rats. Thus, the results suggest that anxiety induced by PW is prevented by EE while the anxiolytic effect of pharmacological treatments depends on stress vulnerability.
Ruben, Z.; Anderson, S.N.; Hribar, J.D.; Rorig, K.J.
When cultured rat urinary bladder carcinoma cells are incubated with medium containing disobutamide (D), they take up D intracellularly and form clear cytoplasmic vacoules (CCV) which apparently are distended lysosomes containing D. To determine whether CCV are reversible, the authors incubated cells with 10/sup -3/M /sup 14/C-labelled D for 25 hr and cells became full of CCV. Then, cells were incubated in medium free of D and examined at 0,2,4,6,24,48,72 and 144 hr of D withdrawal for radioactivity (600 DPM = 1 ..mu..D), and in situ by phase light microscopy for presence of CCV. The DPM counts at these time points were: 1832, 1539, 1564, 1443, 1073, 738, 481 and 84, respectively. This gradual decrease in cellular content of D parallelled a diminution in size and number of CCV. By 72 hr (481 DPM = 0.93 up D) only few small CCB had remained, and by 144 hr (84 DPM = 0.16 ..mu..g D) CCV had entirely disappeared. Mass spectrometric analysis of the culture medium at 144 hr showed presence of D. These results indicate that (1) the induced CCV are reversible (2) reversibility is associated is associated with release of D from cells (3) the principle compound released from cells is D and not its metabolite(s). The results support the interpretation that CCV are formed as a result of intracellular storage of D.
Troiano, Antonio; Di Giuseppe, Maria Giulia; Troise, Claudia; Tramelli, Anna; De Natale, Giuseppe
Fluid injection in and withdrawal from wells are basic procedures in mining activities and deep resources exploitation, such as oil and gas extraction, permeability enhancement for geothermal exploitation and waste fluid disposal. All of these activities have the potential to induce seismicity, as exemplified by the 2006 Basel earthquake (ML 3.4). Despite several decades of experience, the mechanisms of induced seismicity are not known in detail, which prevents effective risk assessment and/or mitigation. In this study, we provide an interpretation of induced seismicity based on computation of Coulomb stress changes that result from fluid injection/withdrawal at depth, mainly focused on the interpretation of induced seismicity due to stimulation of a geothermal reservoir. Seismicity is, theoretically, more likely where Coulomb stress changes are larger. For modeling purposes, we simulate the thermodynamic evolution of a system after fluid injection/withdrawal. The associated changes in pressure and temperature are subsequently considered as sources of incremental stress changes, which are then converted to Coulomb stress changes on favourably oriented faults, taking into account the background regional stress. Numerical results are applied to the water injection that was performed to create the fractured reservoir at the enhanced-geothermal-system site, Soultz-sous-Forets (France). Our approach describes well the observed seismicity, and provides an explanation for the different behaviors of a system when fluids are injected or withdrawn.
Morisot, Nadège; Rouibi, Khalil; Contarino, Angelo
Vulnerability to stressful life events is a hallmark of drug dependence that may persist long after cessation of drug intake and dramatically fuel key clinical features, such as deregulated up-shifted motivational states and craving. However, to date, no effective therapy is available for reducing vulnerability to stressful events in former drug users and drug-dependent patients, mostly because of poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying it. In this study, we report that genetic inactivation of the stress-responsive corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2 (CRF2−/−) completely eliminates the reemergence of increased nonrewarded nose-pokes, reflecting up-shifted motivational states, triggered by ethological environmental stressors long after cessation of morphine administration in mice. Accordingly, CRF2 receptor deficiency completely abolishes the increase in biomarkers of synthesis of major brain motivational substrates, such as ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) and amygdala γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems, associated with the stress-induced reemergence of up-shifted motivational states long after opiate withdrawal. Nevertheless, neither CRF2 receptor deficiency nor long-term opiate withdrawal affects amygdala CRF or hypothalamus CRF expression, indicating preserved brain stress-coping systems. Moreover, CRF2 receptor deficiency does not influence the locomotor or the anxiety-like effect of long-term opiate withdrawal. Thus, the present results reveal an essential and specific role for the CRF2 receptor in the stress-induced reemergence of up-shifted motivational states and related alterations in brain motivational systems long after opiate withdrawal. These findings suggest new strategies for the treatment of the severe and long-lasting vulnerability that inexorably follows drug withdrawal and hinder drug abstinence. PMID:25672976
Kramer, Brandon L; Himmelstein, Mary S; Springer, Kristen W
Previous work has found that traditional masculinity ideals and behaviors play a crucial role in higher rates of morbidity and mortality for men. Some studies also suggest that threatening men's masculinity can be stressful. Over time, this stress can weigh on men's cardiovascular and metabolic systems, which may contribute to men's higher rates of cardiometabolic health issues. The purpose of this study is to explore how masculinity threats affect men's heart rate and heart rate variability reactivity (i.e., vagal withdrawal) to masculinity feedback on a social speaking task. Two hundred and eighty-five undergraduate males were randomly assigned to one of six conditions during a laboratory-based speech task. They received one of two feedback types (masculinity or control) and one of three feedback levels (low, high, or dropping) in order to assess whether masculinity threats influence heart rate reactivity and vagal withdrawal patterns during the speech task. Men who receive low masculinity feedback during the speech task experienced more pronounced vagal withdrawal relative to those who received the control. Masculinity threats can induce vagal withdrawal that may accumulate over the life course to contribute to men's relatively worse cardiometabolic health.
Hinton, David J; Lee, Moonnoh R; Jacobson, Taylor L; Mishra, Prasanna K; Frye, Mark A; Mrazek, David A; Macura, Slobodan I; Choi, Doo-Sup
Acamprosate is clinically used to treat alcohol-dependent patients. While the molecular and pharmacological mechanisms of acamprosate remain unclear, it has been shown to regulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glutamate levels in the cortex and striatum. To investigate the effect of acamprosate on brain metabolites in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), we employed in vivo 16.4 T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We utilized type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) null mice since acamprosate attenuates ethanol drinking in these mice. Our findings demonstrated that ethanol withdrawal reduced GABA levels and increased phosphorylated choline compounds in the mPFC of both wild-type and ENT1 null mice. Notably, acamprosate normalized these withdrawal-induced changes only in ENT1 null mice. In the NAc, ethanol withdrawal increased glutamate and glutamine (Glx) levels only in wild-type mice. Interestingly, acamprosate reduced Glx levels in the NAc compared to the withdrawal state in both genotypes. These results provide a molecular basis for the pharmacological effect of acamprosate in the cortical-striatal circuit.
Madhavan, Anuradha; He, Li; Stuber, Garret D; Bonci, Antonello; Whistler, Jennifer L
Chronic morphine drives adaptations in synaptic transmission thought to underlie opiate dependence. Here we examine the role of micro-opioid receptor (MOR) trafficking in one of these adaptations, specifically, changes in GABA transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). To address this question, we used a knock-in mouse, RMOR (for recycling MOR), in which genetic change in the MOR promotes morphine-induced receptor desensitization and endocytosis in GABA interneurons of the VTA. In wild-type mice (postnatal days 23-28) chronic morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily for 5 d), induced a cAMP-dependent increase in the probability of GABA release onto VTA dopamine neurons. The increased GABA release frequency correlated with physical dependence on morphine measured by counting somatic signs of morphine withdrawal, such as, tremors, jumps, rears, wet-dog shakes, and grooming behavior precipitated by subcutaneous administration of naloxone (NLX) (2 mg/kg). This adaptation in GABA release was prevented in RMOR mice given the same morphine treatment, implicating MOR trafficking in this morphine-induced change in plasticity. Importantly, treatment with the cAMP activity inhibitor rp-cAMPS [(R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium] (50 ng/0.5 microl), directly to the VTA, attenuated somatic withdrawal signs to systemic morphine produced by intra-VTA NLX (500 ng/0.5 microl), directly tying enhanced cAMP-driven GABA release to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in the VTA.
Iemolo, Attilio; Valenza, Marta; Tozier, Lisa; Knapp, Clifford M; Kornetsky, Conan; Steardo, Luca; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro
The increased availability of highly palatable foods is a major contributing factor toward the development of compulsive eating in obesity and eating disorders. It has been proposed that compulsive eating may develop as a form of self-medication to alleviate the negative emotional state associated with withdrawal from highly palatable foods. This study was aimed at determining whether withdrawal from chronic, intermittent access to a highly palatable food was responsible for the emergence of depressive-like behavior. For this purpose, a group of male Wistar rats was provided a regular chow diet 7 days a week (Chow/Chow), whereas a second group of rats was provided chow for 5 days a week, followed by a 2-day access to a highly palatable sucrose diet (Chow/Palatable). Following 7 weeks of diet alternation, depressive-like behavior was assessed during withdrawal from the highly palatable diet and following renewed access to it, using the forced swim test, the sucrose consumption test, and the intracranial self-stimulation threshold procedure. It was found that Chow/Palatable rats withdrawn from the highly palatable diet showed increased immobility time in the forced swim test and decreased sucrose intake in the sucrose consumption test compared with the control Chow/Chow rats. Interestingly, the increased immobility in the forced swim test was abolished by renewing access to the highly palatable diet. No changes were observed in the intracranial self-stimulation threshold procedure. These results validate the hypothesis that withdrawal from highly palatable food is responsible for the emergence of depressive-like behavior, and they also show that compulsive eating relieves the withdrawal-induced negative emotional state.
Lobaz, Steven; Sammut, Mario; Damodaran, Anand
We describe our experience of a 71-year-old patient with severe renal failure, who exhibited an unusually prolonged rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (>4 h) and apparent recurarisation, following emergency rapid sequence induction (RSI). At the end of operation, 45 min post induction, train-of-four (TOF) testing had been 4/4 prior to wake up. No respiratory effort was seen 150 min postinduction, despite further neostigmine/glycopyrrolate and repeat TOF 4/4. The patient was resedated and transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU). At 180 min postinduction, fade was evident on TOF, suggestive of rocuronium reblockade. At 285 min, the patient was extubated safely following sugammadex administration and discharged uneventfully from the ICU. An important lesson to recognise is the potential for extremely prolonged neuromuscular blockade following rocuronium in patients with severe renal failure, particularly when using the higher doses (1.2 mg/kg) required for RSI, and that TOF in such cases may not be reliable in detecting residual blockade. PMID:23396837
Weinstein, Ali A; Deuster, Patricia A; Kop, Willem J
Negative mood symptoms occur frequently in sedentary populations, but individual vulnerability factors for developing these complaints have not been systematically evaluated. This investigation examined whether the autonomic nervous system (ANS) serves a role in the development of negative mood after controlled exercise withdrawal. Forty participants (mean age of 31.3 +/- 7.5 yr, 55% women) who exercised regularly (>or= 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise at least three times a week during the past 6 months) were randomized either to withdrawal from regular aerobic exercise (N=20) or to continue regular aerobic exercise (N=20) for 2 wk. Measurements were taken before exercise withdrawal and at 2-wk follow-up. Various dimensions of negative mood were measured with the multidimensional fatigue inventory, profile of mood states, and Beck depression inventory-II. ANS activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) analyses, examining low-frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz: lf) and high-frequency (hf) domains (0.15-0.40 Hz). The lf/hf ratio was used as index of sympathovagal balance. Protocol adherence was documented by ambulatory activity monitoring. Exercise withdrawal resulted in significantly higher negative mood scores at follow-up compared with control (P<0.05). Baseline lf/hf ratios correlated with the increases in symptoms (r>0.4; P<0.05) in the exercise-withdrawal group independently of gender, age, weight, baseline fitness level, and baseline symptom status. The exercise-withdrawal and control groups displayed no significant change in hf HRV, lf HRV, or lf/hf HRV during the 2 wk. Reduced parasympathetic ANS activity as measured by HRV is predictive of the development of negative mood after deprivation of usual exercise activities. No significant changes in HRV were observed during the 2-wk exercise deprivation period. These findings are relevant to the understanding of mood changes in response to short-term exercise withdrawal, such as sports injuries and
Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) If you stop taking antidepressants, could you experience antidepressant withdrawal? Do withdrawal symptoms mean you were addicted to the drug? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Antidepressant withdrawal is possible if you ...
Russell, Shayla E.; Puttick, Daniel J.; Sawyer, Allison M.; Potter, David N.; Mague, Stephen; Carlezon, William A.
Dependence is a hallmark feature of opiate addiction and is defined by the emergence of somatic and affective withdrawal signs. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) integrates dopaminergic and glutamatergic inputs to mediate rewarding and aversive properties of opiates. Evidence suggests that AMPA glutamate-receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity within the NAc underlies aspects of addiction. However, the degree to which NAc AMPA receptors (AMPARs) contribute to somatic and affective signs of opiate withdrawal is not fully understood. Here, we show that microinjection of the AMPAR antagonist NBQX into the NAc shell of morphine-dependent rats prevented naloxone-induced conditioned place aversions and decreases in sensitivity to brain stimulation reward, but had no effect on somatic withdrawal signs. Using a protein cross-linking approach, we found that the surface/intracellular ratio of NAc GluA1, but not GluA2, increased with morphine treatment, suggesting postsynaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPARs. Consistent with this, 1-naphthylacetyl spermine trihydrochloride (NASPM), an antagonist of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, attenuated naloxone-induced decreases in sensitivity to brain stimulation reward. Naloxone decreased the surface/intracellular ratio and synaptosomal membrane levels of NAc GluA1 in morphine-dependent rats, suggesting a compensatory removal of AMPARs from synaptic zones. Together, these findings indicate that chronic morphine increases synaptic availability of GluA1-containing AMPARs in the NAc, which is necessary for triggering negative-affective states in response to naloxone. This is broadly consistent with the hypothesis that activation of NAc neurons produces acute aversive states and raises the possibility that inhibiting AMPA transmission selectively in the NAc may have therapeutic value in the treatment of addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Morphine dependence and withdrawal result in profound negative-affective states that play a major role in the
Russell, Shayla E; Puttick, Daniel J; Sawyer, Allison M; Potter, David N; Mague, Stephen; Carlezon, William A; Chartoff, Elena H
Dependence is a hallmark feature of opiate addiction and is defined by the emergence of somatic and affective withdrawal signs. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) integrates dopaminergic and glutamatergic inputs to mediate rewarding and aversive properties of opiates. Evidence suggests that AMPA glutamate-receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity within the NAc underlies aspects of addiction. However, the degree to which NAc AMPA receptors (AMPARs) contribute to somatic and affective signs of opiate withdrawal is not fully understood. Here, we show that microinjection of the AMPAR antagonist NBQX into the NAc shell of morphine-dependent rats prevented naloxone-induced conditioned place aversions and decreases in sensitivity to brain stimulation reward, but had no effect on somatic withdrawal signs. Using a protein cross-linking approach, we found that the surface/intracellular ratio of NAc GluA1, but not GluA2, increased with morphine treatment, suggesting postsynaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPARs. Consistent with this, 1-naphthylacetyl spermine trihydrochloride (NASPM), an antagonist of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, attenuated naloxone-induced decreases in sensitivity to brain stimulation reward. Naloxone decreased the surface/intracellular ratio and synaptosomal membrane levels of NAc GluA1 in morphine-dependent rats, suggesting a compensatory removal of AMPARs from synaptic zones. Together, these findings indicate that chronic morphine increases synaptic availability of GluA1-containing AMPARs in the NAc, which is necessary for triggering negative-affective states in response to naloxone. This is broadly consistent with the hypothesis that activation of NAc neurons produces acute aversive states and raises the possibility that inhibiting AMPA transmission selectively in the NAc may have therapeutic value in the treatment of addiction. Morphine dependence and withdrawal result in profound negative-affective states that play a major role in the maintenance of addiction
Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Ambros, Barbara; Auckland, Crissie D.; Harding, John C.S.
This randomized, prospective, blinded study compared the use of succinylcholine or rocuronium to aid endotracheal intubation of 27 adult sows [mean body weight 261 ± 28 (standard deviation) kg]. Preliminary trials allowed development of the intubation technique and skills. The sows were premedicated with azaperone, atropine, and morphine, and anesthesia was induced with thiopental [6 mg/kg body weight (BW)]. Nine sows each received succinylcholine (1.0 mg/kg BW), rocuronium (0.5 mg/kg BW), or saline (15 mL) after induction. Increments of thiopental (1 mg/kg BW) were used if swallowing impaired intubation. Intubation was performed 45 s after injection of the test drug and was timed and scored. The intubation scores were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA). Time taken for intubation, body weight, and total dose of thiopental were analyzed with ANOVA and Bonferroni’s multiple-comparisons test. No significant differences (at P < 0.05) were found between the groups with regard to intubation score, time taken for intubation, or total thiopental dose. Thus, neuromuscular blocking agents did not aid endotracheal intubation of adult sows anesthetized with thiopental. PMID:22754096
Sermondade, Nathalie; Elloumi, Hanène; Berthaut, Isabelle; Mathieu, Emmanuelle; Delarouzière, Vanina; Ravel, Célia; Mandelbaum, Jacqueline
This is a report of a 6-year follow-up of a male patient's semen parameters during heavy chronic alcohol intoxication and after withdrawal. A slowly progressive negative impact of alcohol could be observed: isolated moderate teratozoospermia was firstly noted followed by oligoasthenoteratospermia. Then a severe worsening resulted in cryptozoospermia and ultimately in azoospermia. At this moment, the histological analysis of a testicular biopsy revealed a maturation arrest of the germinal cells at the pachytene stage with no mature sperm cells. Alcohol withdrawal was then obtained, allowing a very fast and drastic improvement of semen characteristics; strictly normal semen parameters were observed after no more than 3 months. Taking into consideration these data, patients should be questioned about their alcohol intake before assisted reproductive technology and should be informed about this adverse effect. Moreover, this case report emphasizes how quickly benefits can be obtained after withdrawal, even in the case of heavy chronic alcohol intake.
Pickering, Chris; Alsiö, Johan; Hulting, Anna-Lena; Schiöth, Helgi B
Vulnerability for weight gain is an individual trait. Obese people undertake dieting, but permanent weight loss is difficult to attain due to repeated phases of relapse to excess consumption. In this study, male Wistar rats were trained to operantly self-administer pellets followed by free-choice access in the homecage to high-fat high-sugar (HFHS) diet consisting of 30% sucrose, lard, standard rodent chow and water. Animals were divided into obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) groups based on relative weight gain compared to normally fed controls despite equal consumption of HFHS. After 4 weeks of HFHS access, OP and OR animals did not differ in motivation for food pellets in terms of progressive ratio break point, lever pressing or response rate. However, upon discontinuation of the HFHS diet, differences between the OP and OR groups were noted. OP animals increased their motivation (i.e. craving) during the second withdrawal week and reduced time spent in the centre of an open field (increased anxiety) compared to the OR animals. Both OP and OR animals consumed less of the standard rodent chow during the first week of withdrawal when compared to normally fed controls. But, while the OR animals quickly returned to control levels of food consumption, OP animals continued to consume less standard rodent chow. The results show for the first time that withdrawal from free-choice HFHS induces craving that is specific to the OP animals and suggests that OP individuals may have withdrawal symptoms that are similar to those induced by addictive drugs.
Iijima, Michihiko; Koike, Hiroyuki; Chaki, Shigeyuki
Withdrawal from chronic treatment with a psychostimulant precipitates behavioral and physiological conditions similar to the symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Accumulated studies have indicated that withdrawal from a psychostimulant in rodents elicits depressive phenotypes including despair and anhedonia. Recently, the modulation of the group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2/3) receptor has been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach to MDD. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY341495, on the depressive behavior induced by withdrawal from chronic treatment with a psychostimulant, methamphetamine (MAP) (5.0mg/kg/day×5 days). The rats were then tested for depressive behavior using the forced swimming test. Withdrawal from chronic treatment with MAP increased the immobility time during the forced swimming test, indicating increased depressive behavior. Systemically administered LY341495 counteracted the depressive behavior induced by withdrawal from chronic treatment with MAP. Moreover, we found that the microinjection of LY341495 into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) also counteracted the increase in the immobility time caused by withdrawal from chronic treatment with MAP. Taken together, the present results suggested that the blockade of the mGlu2/3 receptor may prevent the depressive symptoms induced by withdrawal from a psychostimulant and that the blockade of the mGlu2/3 receptor in the NAc may contribute to the antidepressant-like effects of the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist in this test.
Laorden, M Luisa; Núñez, Cristina; Almela, Pilar; Milanés, M Victoria
We previously demonstrated that morphine withdrawal induced hyperactivity of noradrenergic pathways innervating the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in rats, in parallel with an increase in the neurosecretory activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, as evaluated by corticosterone release. These neuroendocrine effects were dependent on stimulation of alpha-adrenoceptors. In the present study, Fos immunostaining was used as a reflection of neuronal activity and combined with immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) for immunohistochemical identification of active neurones during morphine withdrawal. Dependence on morphine was induced by 7-day chronic subcutaneous implantation of six morphine pellets (75 mg). Morphine withdrawal was precipitated by administration of naloxone (5 mg/kg subcutaneously) on day 8. Fos immunoreactivity in the PVN and also in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS)-A2 and ventrolateral medulla (VLM)-A1 cell groups, which project to the PVN, increased during morphine withdrawal. Following withdrawal, Fos immunoreactivity was present in most of the TH-positive neurones of the A2 and A1 neurones. In a second study, the effects of administration of adrenoceptor antagonists on withdrawal-induced Fos expression in the PVN were studied. Pre-treatment with alpha1- or alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists, prazosin (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) and yohimbine (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally), respectively, 20 min before naloxone administration to morphine-dependent rats markedly reduced Fos expression in the PVN. Similarly, pre-treatment with the beta antagonist, propranolol (3 mg/kg intraperitoneally), significantly prevented withdrawal-induced Fos expression. Collectively, these results suggest the hypothesis that noradrenergic neurones in the brainstem innervating the PVN are active during morphine withdrawal, and that activation of transcriptional responses mediated by Fos in the HPA axis following withdrawal are dependent
Abrams, Kenneth; Leger, Kate; Schlosser, Laura; Merrill, Anne; Bresslour, Molly; Jalan, Avantika
Independent lines of research suggest that smoking increases the prospective risk of panic disorder. Studies that have examined the hypothesized link between nicotine withdrawal and panic have typically employed light smokers or lacked optimal control groups. Our laboratory team previously found, for example, that smokers who abstained from cigarettes for 12 hr demonstrated greater fear reactivity to a CO(2) rebreathing challenge than nonsmokers. However, the absence of a smoking-as-usual group limited our ability to draw conclusions about the potential role of nicotine withdrawal. We exposed 27 heavy smokers who abstained from smoking for 12 hr and 27 heavy smokers who smoked as usual to a 5-min CO(2) rebreathing challenge. More intense prechallenge nicotine withdrawal symptoms (regardless of group status) were associated with more severe panicky symptoms and a stronger urge to escape during the challenge, even after we controlled for prechallenge anxiety and daily cigarette use. Unexpectedly, group status did not predict challenge reactivity. Smokers who regularly experience intense withdrawal symptoms, regardless of length of smoking abstinence, may be at heightened risk for experiencing panic attacks.
Magendzo, Karin; Bustos, Gonzalo
Repeated amphetamine administration results in behavioral sensitization, an enduring behavioral transformation expressed after short and long periods of withdrawal. To investigate the participation of the opioid system in amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization, we studied the effect of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, on the expression of behavioral sensitization tested after short- (2 days) and long-term (14 days) withdrawal periods. In addition, using quantitative competitive RT-PCR, we examined the levels of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and delta-opioid receptor (DOR) mRNA in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of behaviorally sensitized rats, at these two withdrawal times. This study showed that whereas naloxone did not modify the expression of behavioral sensitization tested after 2 days of withdrawal, it completely blocked the expression when tested after 14 days of withdrawal. DOR and MOR mRNA levels were not modified in the NAcSh of rats expressing behavioral sensitization after 2 or 14 days of withdrawal. Conversely, DOR and MOR mRNA levels were elevated in the VTA of animals expressing behavioral sensitization after 2 days of withdrawal. However, whereas DOR mRNA returned to control levels, MOR mRNA levels remained elevated in animals expressing behavioral sensitization after 14 days of withdrawal. These results indicate a striking difference between the role played by opioid receptors in the expression of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization, when tested after short- or long-term withdrawal periods. In addition, our results support the notion that repeated amphetamine-induced changes in opioid receptor expression may contribute to the perpetuation of psychostimulant abuse and/or relapse.
Differential involvement of 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase in regulation of Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the heart after naloxone induced morphine withdrawal.
Almela, Pilar; Cerezo, Manuela; González-Cuello, A; Milanés, M Victoria; Laorden, M Luisa
We previously demonstrated that morphine withdrawal induced hyperactivity of the heart by the activation of noradrenergic pathways innervating the left and right ventricle, as evaluated by noradrenaline (NA) turnover and Fos expression. We investigated whether cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) plays a role in this process by estimating changes in PKA immunoreactivity and the influence of inhibitor of PKA on Fos protein expression, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity levels and NA turnover in the left and right ventricle. Dependence on morphine was induced by a 7-day s.c. implantation of morphine pellets. Morphine withdrawal was precipitated on day 8 by an injection of naloxone (5 mg/kg). When opioid withdrawal was precipitated, an increase in PKA immunoreactivity and phospho-CREB (cyclic AMP response element protein) levels were observed in the heart. Moreover, morphine withdrawal induces Fos expression, an enhancement of NA turnover and an increase in the total TH levels. When the selective PKA inhibitor HA-1004 was infused, concomitantly with morphine pellets, it diminished the increase in NA turnover and the total TH levels observed in morphine-withdrawn rats. However, this inhibitor neither modifies the morphine withdrawal induced Fos expression nor the increase of nonphosphorylated TH levels. The present findings indicate that an up-regulated PKA-dependent transduction pathway might contribute to the activation of the cardiac catecholaminergic neurons in response to morphine withdrawal and suggest that Fos is not a target of PKA at heart levels.
Schulberg, E M; Webb, A R; Kolawole, H
We present a case of early skin and challenge testing in a patient following severe anaphylaxis to rocuronium. The patient presented for semi-elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and developed anaphylaxis with severe cardiovascular collapse after induction of anaesthesia. Surgery was cancelled but was considered necessary before the recommended four to six weeks for formal allergy testing. Limited skin and challenge testing was performed to rocuronium and cisatracurium while the patient was in the intensive care unit to identify a safe neuromuscular blocking drug for subsequent early surgery. The subsequent surgery, 48 hours after the initial reaction, was uneventful. The case highlights the difficulties when anaesthetising patients with recent anaphylaxis who have not yet had formal allergy testing and presents a potential management strategy involving early skin testing.
Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia
Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios.
Huston, J P; van den Brink, J; Komorowski, M; Huq, Y; Topic, B
The withholding of expected rewards results in extinction of behavior and, hypothetically, to depression-like symptoms. In a test of this hypothesis, we examined the effects of extinction of food-reinforced lever-pressing on collateral behaviors that might be indices of depression. Operant extinction is known to be aversive to the organism and results in avoidance behavior. We hypothesized that avoidance of, or withdrawal from, the former source of reward may serve as a marker for "despair." Adult male Wistar rats (n=6-7 animals per group) were exposed to a Skinner box attached to a second compartment of the same size, providing opportunity for the animals to leave the operant chamber and to enter the "withdrawal" compartment. The animals spent a portion of the time during the extinction trials in this second chamber. To assess the predictive validity of this behavior as a potential marker of "despair," we tested the effects of chronic administration of two common antidepressant drugs on this measure. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (20 mg/kg) as well as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (20 mg/kg) reduced the number of entries and time spent in the withdrawal compartment. We propose that entries into and time spent in the withdrawal compartment may operationalize "avoidance," a core symptom of major depression. Rearing as well as biting behaviors during the extinction trials were also attenuated by the antidepressant treatment. These results lend support to the hypothesis that extinction of positively reinforced operants evokes behaviors that reflect elements of "despair/depression" because these behaviors are modulated by antidepressant treatment. The avoidance of the operant chamber as a consequence of extinction, together with rearing and biting behaviors, may serve as useful measures for the testing of antidepressant treatments.
Berger, Anthony L; Williams, Angela M; McGinnis, Molly M; Walker, Brendan M
Negative affect promotes dysregulated alcohol consumption in non-dependent and alcohol-dependent animals, and cues associated with negative affective states induce withdrawal-like symptoms in rats. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that: (1) the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system mediates phenotypes related to alcohol withdrawal and withdrawal-like negative affective states and (2) cues associated with negative affective states would result in dysregulated alcohol consumption when subsequently presented alone. To accomplish these goals, intracerebroventricular infusion of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) was assessed for the ability to attenuate the increase in 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) associated with alcohol withdrawal and KOR activation in adult male wistar rats. Furthermore, cues associated with a KOR agonist-induced negative affective state were assessed for the ability to dysregulate alcohol consumption and the efficacy of intracerebroventricular KOR antagonism to reduce such dysregulation was evaluated. KOR antagonism blocked the increased number of 22-kHz USVs observed during acute alcohol withdrawal and a KOR agonist (U50,488) resulted in a nor-BNI reversible increase in 22-kHz USVs (mimicking an alcohol-dependent state). Additionally, cues associated with negative affective states resulted in escalated alcohol self-administration, an effect that was nor-BNI sensitive. Taken together, this study implicates negative affective states induced by both alcohol withdrawal and conditioned stimuli as being produced, in part, by activity of the DYN/KOR system.
Hirase, Masahiro; Ishida, Takayuki; Kamei, Chiaki
The present study was performed to examine whether or not rebound insomnia is caused by an abrupt withdrawal of benzodiazepine hypnotics and tandospirone in rats. Etizolam and triazolam caused a significant shortening of sleep latency, increase in non-REM sleep time, and decrease in wake time in a dose-dependent manner. Etizolam and triazolam caused a significant shortening of sleep latency during drug administration (for 7 days), whereas a significant prolongation of sleep latency was observed by the abrupt withdrawal of these drugs. Tandospirone caused a shortening of sleep latency, whereas no effect was observed on non-REM sleep time and wake time during drug administration (for 7 days). On the other hand, tandospirone showed no significant effect on sleep latency through its abrupt withdrawal, differing from etizolam and triazolam. From these findings, a rebound phenomenon in terms of sleep latency was confirmed with etizolam and triazolam in rats. Furthermore, the 5-HT(1A) agonist, tandospirone, caused no rebound phenomenon regarding sleep latency in rats.
Shen, Zui; Sun, Jing; Liu, Boyi; Jiang, Yongliang; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jialing; Shao, Xiaomei; Fang, Jianqiao
Background The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is important in pain expectation. Previous studies demonstrated that mechanical stimulus-induced withdrawal behaviors are spinally-mediated nocifensive reflexes in rats, but it is not known whether pain expectation is influenced by withdrawal behaviors. Material/Methods We reanalyzed previous mechanosensitivity measurements of 244 rats measured 5 times in succession. To study neural oscillation in the rACC, 1 recording microwire array was surgically implanted. Then, we simultaneously recorded the local field potential (LFP) of the rACC over the course of multiple withdrawal behaviors in unanesthetized rats. Results From our previous withdrawal behavioral data in 244 rats, we observed that the distributions of paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were denser and more concentrated after the first withdrawal behavior. Compared to the first mechanical stimulus, increased neuronal synchrony and a stronger delta band component existed in each pre-stimulus LFP in the rACC during subsequent stimuli. Conclusions Pain expectation could be involved in withdrawal behaviors, which is related to increased total power and delta band power of the subsequent pre-stimulus LFPs in the rACC. PMID:28250407
Yoon, Jeoung Seok; Zang, Arno; Zimmermann, Günter; Stephansson, Ove
Operation of fluid injection into and withdrawal from the subsurface for various purposes has been known to induce earthquakes. Such operations include hydraulic fracturing for shale gas extraction, hydraulic stimulation for Enhanced Geothermal System development and waste water disposal. Among these, several damaging earthquakes have been reported in the USA in particular in the areas of high-rate massive amount of wastewater injection  mostly with natural fault systems. Oil and gas production have been known to induce earthquake where pore fluid pressure decreases in some cases by several tens of Mega Pascal. One recent seismic event occurred in November 2013 near Azle, Texas where a series of earthquakes began along a mapped ancient fault system . It was studied that a combination of brine production and waste water injection near the fault generated subsurface pressures sufficient to induced earthquakes on near-critically stressed faults. This numerical study aims at investigating the occurrence mechanisms of such earthquakes induced by fluid injection  and withdrawal by using hydro-geomechanical coupled dynamic simulator (Itasca's Particle Flow Code 2D). Generic models are setup to investigate the sensitivity of several parameters which include fault orientation, frictional properties, distance from the injection well to the fault, amount of fluid withdrawal around the injection well, to the response of the fault systems and the activation magnitude. Fault slip movement over time in relation to the diffusion of pore pressure is analyzed in detail. Moreover, correlations between the spatial distribution of pore pressure change and the locations of induced seismic events and fault slip rate are investigated. References  Keranen KM, Weingarten M, Albers GA, Bekins BA, Ge S, 2014. Sharp increase in central Oklahoma seismicity since 2008 induced by massive wastewater injection, Science 345, 448, DOI: 10.1126/science.1255802.  Hornbach MJ, DeShon HR
Soto Mesa, Diego; Fayad Fayad, Mounir; Pérez Arviza, Laura; Del Valle Ruiz, Verónica; Cosío Carreño, Fernando; Arguelles Tamargo, Luis; Amorín Díaz, Manuel; Fernández-Pello Montes, Sergio
AIM: To evaluate the effects of two different doses of sugammadex after maintenance anesthesia with sevofluorane and remifentanil and deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB). METHODS: Patients between 20 and 65 years of age, with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification I-II, undergoing gynecological surgery were included in a prospective, comparative and randomized study. NMB was induced with an injection of 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium followed by continuous infusion of 0.3-0.6 mg/kg per hour to maintain a deep block. Anesthesia was maintained with sevofluorane and remifentanil. Finally, when surgery was finished, a bolus of 2 mg/kg (group A) or 4 mg/kg (group B) of sugammadex was applied when the NMB first response in the train-of-four was reached. The primary clinical endpoint was time to recovery to a train-of-four ratio of 0.9. Other variables recorded were the time until recovery of train-of-four ratio of 0.7, 0.8, hemodynamic variables (arterial blood pressure and heart rate at baseline, starting sugammadex, and minutes 2, 5 and 10) and adverse events were presented after one hour in the post-anesthesia care unit. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were included in the study: 16 patients in group A and 16 patients in group B. Only 14 patients each group were recorded because arterial pressure values were lost in two patients from each group in minute 10. The two groups were comparable. Median recovery time from starting of sugammadex administration to a train-of-four ratio of 0.9 in group A and B was 129 and 110 s, respectively. The estimated difference in recovery time between groups was 24 s (95%CI: 0 to 45 s, Hodges-Lehmann estimator), entirely within the predefined equivalence interval. Times to recovery to train-of-four ratios of 0.8 (group A: 101 s; group B: 82.5 s) and 0.7 (group A: 90 s; group B: 65 s) from start of sugammadex administration were not equivalent between groups. There was not a significant variation in
Soto Mesa, Diego; Fayad Fayad, Mounir; Pérez Arviza, Laura; Del Valle Ruiz, Verónica; Cosío Carreño, Fernando; Arguelles Tamargo, Luis; Amorín Díaz, Manuel; Fernández-Pello Montes, Sergio
To evaluate the effects of two different doses of sugammadex after maintenance anesthesia with sevofluorane and remifentanil and deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB). Patients between 20 and 65 years of age, with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification I-II, undergoing gynecological surgery were included in a prospective, comparative and randomized study. NMB was induced with an injection of 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium followed by continuous infusion of 0.3-0.6 mg/kg per hour to maintain a deep block. Anesthesia was maintained with sevofluorane and remifentanil. Finally, when surgery was finished, a bolus of 2 mg/kg (group A) or 4 mg/kg (group B) of sugammadex was applied when the NMB first response in the train-of-four was reached. The primary clinical endpoint was time to recovery to a train-of-four ratio of 0.9. Other variables recorded were the time until recovery of train-of-four ratio of 0.7, 0.8, hemodynamic variables (arterial blood pressure and heart rate at baseline, starting sugammadex, and minutes 2, 5 and 10) and adverse events were presented after one hour in the post-anesthesia care unit. Thirty-two patients were included in the study: 16 patients in group A and 16 patients in group B. Only 14 patients each group were recorded because arterial pressure values were lost in two patients from each group in minute 10. The two groups were comparable. Median recovery time from starting of sugammadex administration to a train-of-four ratio of 0.9 in group A and B was 129 and 110 s, respectively. The estimated difference in recovery time between groups was 24 s (95%CI: 0 to 45 s, Hodges-Lehmann estimator), entirely within the predefined equivalence interval. Times to recovery to train-of-four ratios of 0.8 (group A: 101 s; group B: 82.5 s) and 0.7 (group A: 90 s; group B: 65 s) from start of sugammadex administration were not equivalent between groups. There was not a significant variation in the arterial pressure
Kumar, Jaya; Hapidin, Hermizi; Get Bee, Yvonne-Tee; Ismail, Zalina
Withdrawal from long-term ethanol consumption results in overexcitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which induces an anxiety-like syndrome. Most alcoholics that suffer from such symptoms frequently depend on habitual drinking as self-medication to alleviate their symptoms. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) and protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon have been reported to mediate acute and chronic effects of ethanol. This study explores the changes in mGlu5 and PKC epsilon in the amygdala following acute administration of ethanol during ethanol withdrawal (EW) induced anxiety. Male Wistar rats were fed a modified liquid diet containing low-fat cow milk, sucrose, and maltodextrin, with a gradual introduction of 2.4%, 4.8% and 7.2% ethanol for 20 days. Six hours into EW, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline and ethanol (2.5 g/kg, 20% v/v), and exposed to open-field and elevated plus maze tests. Then, amygdala tissue was dissected from the rat brain for Western blot and gene expression studies. EW-induced anxiety was accompanied by a significant increase in mGlu5, total PKC epsilon, and phosphorylated PKC epsilon protein levels, and also of mRNA of mGlu5 (GRM5) in the amygdala. Acute administration of ethanol significantly attenuated EW-induced anxiety as well as an EW-induced increase in GRM5. The acute challenge of ethanol to EW rats had little effect on the phosphorylated and total protein levels of PKC epsilon in the amygdala. Our results demonstrate that amygdala PKC epsilon may not be directly involved in the development of anxiety following EW.
Hogle, Joanne. M.; Kaye, Jesse. T.; Curtin, John. J.
Background Stress response neuroadaptation has been repeatedly implicated in animal addiction models for many drugs including nicotine. Programmatic laboratory research that examines the stress response of nicotine-deprived humans is necessary to confirm that stress neuroadaptations observed in animal models generalize to humans. Methods Two experiments tested the prediction that nicotine deprivation selectively increases startle response associated with anxiety during unpredictable threat but not fear during imminent, predictable threat. Dependent smokers (N=117) were randomly assigned to 24-hour nicotine-deprived or non-deprived groups and participated in one of two experiments wherein electric shock was administered either unpredictably (non-contingent shock; Experiment 1) or predictably (cue-contingent shock; Experiment 2). Results Nicotine deprivation increased overall startle response in Experiment 1, which involved unpredictable administration of shock. Age of first cigarette and years of daily smoking were significant moderators of this deprivation effect. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms also predicted startle response during unpredictable shock. In contrast, nicotine deprivation did not alter overall or fear-potentiated startle in Experiment 2, which involved predictable administration of shock. Conclusions These results provide evidence that startle response during unpredictable threat may be a biomarker of stress neuroadaptations among smokers in nicotine withdrawal. Contrast of results across unpredictable vs. predictable shock experiments provides preliminary evidence that these stress neuroadaptations manifest selectively as anxiety during unpredictable threat rather than in every stressful context. Individual differences in unpredictable threat startle response associated with withdrawal symptoms, age of first cigarette, and years daily smoking link this laboratory biomarker to clinically relevant indices of addiction risk and relapse. PMID
Hogle, Joanne M; Kaye, Jesse T; Curtin, John J
Stress response neuroadaptation has been repeatedly implicated in animal addiction models for many drugs, including nicotine. Programmatic laboratory research that examines the stress response of nicotine-deprived humans is necessary to confirm that stress neuroadaptations observed in animal models generalize to humans. Two experiments tested the prediction that nicotine deprivation selectively increases startle response associated with anxiety during unpredictable threat but not fear during imminent, predictable threat. Dependent smokers (n = 117) were randomly assigned to 24-hour nicotine-deprived or nondeprived groups and participated in one of two experiments wherein electric shock was administered either unpredictably (noncontingent shock; Experiment 1) or predictably (cue-contingent shock; Experiment 2). Nicotine deprivation increased overall startle response in Experiment 1, which involved unpredictable administration of shock. Age of first cigarette and years of daily smoking were significant moderators of this deprivation effect. Self-reported withdrawal symptoms also predicted startle response during unpredictable shock. In contrast, nicotine deprivation did not alter overall or fear-potentiated startle in Experiment 2, which involved predictable administration of shock. These results provide evidence that startle response during unpredictable threat may be a biomarker of stress neuroadaptations among smokers in nicotine withdrawal. Contrast of results across unpredictable versus predictable shock experiments provides preliminary evidence that these stress neuroadaptations manifest selectively as anxiety during unpredictable threat rather than in every stressful context. Individual differences in unpredictable threat startle response associated with withdrawal symptoms, age of first cigarette, and years daily smoking link this laboratory biomarker to clinically relevant indexes of addiction risk and relapse. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological
García-Pérez, Daniel; López-Bellido, Roger; Rodríguez, Raquel E; Laorden, M Luisa; Núñez, Cristina; Milanés, M Victoria
Dopamine (DA) is thought to represent a teaching signal and has been implicated in the induction of addictive behaviours. Previously, it has been proposed that the transcription factors Nurr1 and Pitx3, which are critical for transcription of a set of genes involved in DA metabolism in the mesolimbic pathway, are associated with addiction pathology. The aim of our study was to investigate abnormalities in the mesolimbic pathway associated with morphine dependence and withdrawal. Using quantitative real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, HPLC and Western blotting, here we studied the effects of single morphine administration, morphine dependence and morphine withdrawal on Nurr1 and Pitx3 expression as well as on the DA marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the turnover of DA in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or nucleus accumbens. We showed that the three experimental conditions caused induction of Nurr1 and Pitx3 in the VTA, which correlated with changes in TH expression during chronic morphine administration. Present data also confirmed the colocalization of Nurr1 and Pitx3 with TH-positive neurons in the posterior VTA. Furthermore, during morphine dependence, Nurr1 was detected in the nucleus compartment of VTA TH-positive neurons, whereas Pitx3 was strongly detected in the nucleus of TH-positive neurons after single morphine administration and during morphine withdrawal. The number of TH neurons, number of Nurr1 or Pitx3-positive cells, and the number of TH neurons expressing Nurr1 or Pitx3 were not modified in the subpopulations of DA neurons. Present data provide novel insight into the potential correlation between Nurr1 and Pitx3 and DA neurons plasticity during opiate addiction in the mesolimbic pathway.
Martins, M R A; Pinto, A C A R; Brunner, E; Silva, M R D; Lengyel, A M J
GH releasing peptide (GHRP-6) is a synthetic hexapeptide with potent GH releasing activity both in man and in animals. This peptide is also able to stimulate ACTH and cortisol (F) release. It has been suggested that the ACTH responsiveness to GHRP-6 is modulated by circulating glucocorticoid levels. To further clarify this hypothesis, we studied the effect of GHRP-6 (1 ug/kg, iv) on ACTH and F release in patients with Addison's disease (no.=6) during replacement therapy and after 72 h of glucocorticoid withdrawal. Seven controls were also submitted to a single GHRP-6 test. In control subjects, ACTH values (pmol/l; mean +/- SE) increased from 2.9 +/- 0.8 to 4.7 +/- 1.4 (peak). AUC (pmol.min/l) values were 170.3 +/- 48.8. F (nmol/l) values increased from 257.0 +/- 42.9 to 367.0 +/- 50.8. In patients with Addison's disease there was an increase in ACTH levels from 38.1 +/- 17.1 to 174.9 +/- 79.4 after GHRP-6 administration. AUC values were 5490.4 +/- 2269.1. After 72 h withdrawal of glucocorticoid, there was an increase in basal ACTH values (191.2 +/- 97.3), and a trend toward an increase in ACTH levels after GHRP-6 (p=0.053). Patients with Addison's disease on therapy showed a significantly higher ACTH response to GHRP-6 when compared to controls. Our results show that in patients with Addison's disease on replacement there is an increased ACTH release after GHRP-6 administration, compared to controls. After 72 h glucocorticoid withdrawal, this enhanced responsiveness is not maintained. Our data suggest that circulating glucocorticoids modulate GHRP-6-induced ACTH release and that multiple mechanisms may be involved in this process.
Li, Yan; Raaby, Kasper F; Sánchez, Connie; Gulinello, Maria
Hormonally induced mood disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) are characterized by a range of physical and affective symptoms including anxiety, irritability, anhedonia, social withdrawal and depression. Studies demonstrated rodent models of progesterone withdrawal (PWD) have a high level of constructive and descriptive validity to model hormonally-induced mood disorders in women. Here we evaluate the effects of several classes of antidepressants in PWD female Long-Evans rats using the forced swim test (FST) as a measure of antidepressant activity. The study included fluoxetine, duloxetine, amitriptyline and an investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine (5-HT(3), 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(1D) receptor antagonist; 5-HT(1B) receptor partial agonist; 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist; inhibitor of the serotonin transporter (SERT)). After 14 days of administration, amitriptyline and vortioxetine significantly reduced immobility in the FST whereas fluoxetine and duloxetine were ineffective. After 3 injections over 48 h, neither fluoxetine nor duloxetine reduced immobility, whereas amitriptyline and vortioxetine significantly reduced FST immobility during PWD. When administered acutely during PWD, the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, flesinoxan, significantly reduced immobility, whereas the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, increased immobility. The 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, ondansetron, significantly reduced immobility, whereas the 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, SR-57227, increased immobility. The 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist, SB-269970, was inactive, although the 5-HT(7) receptor agonist, AS-19, significantly increased PWD-induced immobility. None of the compounds investigated (ondansetron, flesinoxan and SB-269970) improved the effect of fluoxetine during PWD. These data indicate that modulation of specific 5-HT receptor subtypes is critical for manipulating FST immobility in this model of hormone-induced depression.
Silva, Mauro Prado DA; Matsui, Christiano; Kim, Daniel Dongiou; Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto; Mathias, Ligia Andrade Silva Telles
to determine the ED90 (minimum effective dose in 90% of patients) of sugammadex for the reversal of rocuronium-induced moderate neuromuscular blockade (NMB) in patients with grade III obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. we conducted a prospective study with the biased coin up-and-down sequential design. We chosen the following doses: 2.0mg/Kg, 2.2mg/Kg, 2.4mg/Kg, 2.6mg/Kg, 2.8mg/Kg. The complete reversal of rocuronium-induced NMB considered a T4/T1 ratio ≥0.9 as measured by TOF. After induction of general anesthesia and calibration of the peripheral nerve stimulator and accelerometer, we injected rocuronium 0.6mg/kg. We administered propofol and remifentanil by continuous infusion, and intermittent boluses of rocuronium throughout the procedure. we evaluated 31 patients, of whom 26 had displayed successful reversal of the NMB with sugammadex, and failure in five. The mean time to complete moderate NMB reversal was 213 seconds (172-300, median 25-75%). The ED90 of sugammadex calculated by regression was 2.39mg/kg, with a 95% confidence interval of 2.27-2.46 mg/kg. the ED90 of sugammadex in patients with grade III obesity or higher was 2.39mg/kg. determinar a ED90 (dose mínima eficaz em 90% dos pacientes) de sugamadex para a reversão de bloqueio neuromuscular (BNM) moderado induzido pelo rocurônio em pacientes com obesidade grau III submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica. estudo prospectivo com o método de projeção sequencial para cima e para baixo da moeda enviesada. As seguintes doses foram escolhidas: 2,0mg/kg-1, 2,2mg/kg-1, 2,4mg/kg-1, 2,6mg/kg-1, 2,8mg/kg-1. A reversão completa de BNM induzido por rocurônio considerou uma relação T4/T1 ≥0,9 na medida do TOF. Após a indução da anestesia geral e calibração do estimulador de nervo periférico e acelerômetro, rocurônio 0,6mg/kg-1 foi injetado. Infusão contínua de propofol e remifentanil, e bolus intermitente de rocurônio foram injetados durante todo o procedimento. trinta e um pacientes foram
Cascio, Maria Grazia; Valeri, Daniela; Tucker, Steven J; Marini, Pietro
In isolated guinea-pig ileum (GPI), the A1-adenosine acute withdrawal response is under the control of several neuronal signalling systems, including the μ/κ-opioid and the cannabinoid CB1 systems. It is now well established that after the stimulation of the A1-adenosine system, the indirect activation of both μ/κ-opioid and CB1 systems is prevented by the peptide cholecystokinin-8 (CCk-8). In the present study, we have investigated the involvement of the Ca(2+)/ATP-activated K(+) channels in the regulation of both acute A1-withdrawal and CCk-8-induced contractures in the GPI preparation. Interestingly, we found that: (a) the A1-withdrawal contracture is inhibited by voltage dependent Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, Kv, while it is enhanced by the voltage independent Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, SKCa; (b) in the presence of CCk-8, the inhibitory effect of the A1 agonist, CPA, on the peptide induced contracture is significantly enhanced by the voltage independent Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, SKCa; and (c) the A1-withdrawal contracture precipitated in the presence of CCk-8 is controlled by the ATP-sensitive potassium channels, KATP. Our data suggest, for the first time, that both Ca(2+)- and ATP-activated K(+) channels are involved in the regulation of both A1-withdrawal precipitated and CCk-8 induced contractures.
... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...
Welzing, Lars; Link, Florian; Junghaenel, Shino; Oberthuer, Andre; Harnischmacher, Urs; Stuetzer, Hartmut; Roth, Bernhard
Short-acting opioids like remifentanil are suspected of an increased risk for tolerance, withdrawal and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). These potential adverse effects have never been investigated in neonates. To compare remifentanil and fentanyl concerning the incidence of tolerance, withdrawal and OIH. 23 mechanically ventilated infants received up to 96 h either a remifentanil- or fentanyl-based analgesia and sedation regimen with low-dose midazolam. We compared the required opioid doses and the number of opioid dose adjustments. Following extubation, withdrawal symptoms were assessed by a modification of the Finnegan score. OIH was evaluated by the CHIPPS scale and by testing the threshold of the flexion withdrawal reflex with calibrated von Frey filaments. Remifentanil had to be increased by 24% and fentanyl by 47% to keep the infants adequately sedated during mechanical ventilation. Following extubation, infants revealed no pronounced opioid withdrawal and low average Finnegan scores in both groups. Only 1 infant of the fentanyl group and 1 infant of the remifentanil group required methadone for treatment of withdrawal symptoms. Infants also revealed no signs of OIH and low CHIPPS scores in both groups. The median threshold of the flexion withdrawal reflex was 4.5 g (IQR = 2.3) in the fentanyl group and 2.7 g (IQR = 3.3) in the remifentanil group (p = 0.312), which is within the physiologic range of healthy infants. Remifentanil does not seem to be associated with an increased risk for tolerance, withdrawal or OIH. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Li, Xia; Chen, Cheng; Luo, Hui; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Ni, Bing; Chang, Qing
The functional interaction of progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PRA and PRB regulates myometrial transition from the resting state to excitation-contraction to initiate parturition. However, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for maintenance and functional alteration of the PRA and PRB expression levels during human pregnancy and term labor, respectively, remain unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether and how epigenetic DNA modifications, specifically methylations, at the PRs' promoter regions contribute to the differential expression of PRA and PRB in laboring term myometrium of humans. Comparative analysis of PRA and PRB messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels and accompanying changes in their promoters' methylation status was carried out using human myometrial samples from women undergoing singleton, term deliveries by cesarean section, either in the absence of labor (designated as NIL for not-in-labor) or in active labor (designated as IL for in labor). The PRA gene expression was shown to be elevated significantly during labor, while PRB gene expression was unaltered, and this differential expression was accompanied by decreased DNA methylation at the PRA promoter and not at the PRB promoter. In addition, labor-related decreased mRNA expression of the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) family members DNMT1 and DNMT3a was found, however whether the increased expression of DNMTs directly supports the functional withdrawal of progesterone needs further investigation. Collectively, these data indicate that DNA methylation might represent an important epigenetic mechanism of labor-related differential expression of PRs, thereby mediating the biological process of functional PR withdrawal at term for parturition. © The Author(s) 2013.
Sparr, H J; Booij, L H; Fuchs-Buder, T
Up to now only acetylcholine esterase inhibitors, such as neostigmine, were available as antagonists of residual neuromuscular blocks. Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin that binds rocuronium and chemically similar aminosteroidal muscle relaxants, such as vecuronium. The underlying mechanism of action is new and differs completely from that of acetylcholine esterase inhibitors. This review summarizes data published so far within the framework of the licensing procedure about the efficacy, safety and side-effects of sugammadex and presents potential new anesthesiological concepts using this compound.
Shi, Jianguo; Wu, Bin; Dang, Wei; Du, Ying; Zhou, Qiong; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Rui
Depression is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric comorbidities associated with opiate addiction. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK phosphatase (MKP) are involved in drug addiction and depression. However, the potential role of MAPK and MKP in depression caused by morphine withdrawal remains unclear. We utilized a mouse model of repeated morphine administration to examine the molecular mechanisms that contribute to prolonged withdrawal induced depressive-like behaviors. Depressive-like behaviors were significant at 1 week after withdrawal and worsened over time. Phospho-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) was decreased and MKP-1 was elevated in the hippocampus, and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase), p38 (p38 protein kinase) and MKP-3 were unaffected. A pharmacological blockade of MKP-1 by intra-hippocampal sanguinarine (SA) infusion prevented the development of depressive-like behaviors and resulted in relatively normal levels of MKP-1 and phospho-ERK after withdrawal. Our findings support the association between hippocampal MAPK phosphorylation and prolonged morphine withdrawal-induced depression, and emphasize the MKP-1 as an negative regulator of the ERK phosphorylation that contributes to depression. PMID:23823128
Fuller, Jasmine J L; Murray, Ryan C; Horner, Kristen A
Withdrawal from chronic D-amphetamine (D-AMPH) can induce negative emotional states, which may contribute to relapse and the maintenance of addiction. Diminished levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), particularly in the hippocampus has been observed after exposure to stress, and recent data indicate that treatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, ketamine may reverse these changes. However, it is unclear whether BDNF levels in the hippocampus or other regions of the limbic system are altered following the stress of D-AMPH withdrawal and it is not currently known if treatment with ketamine has any effect on these changes. The goals of this study were to examine BDNF levels throughout the limbic system following D-AMPH withdrawal and determine whether ketamine treatment would alter D-AMPH-induced changes in BDNF. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with D-AMPH and BDNF protein examined in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus at 24 h and 4 days of withdrawal. Our data show that at 24 h post-D-AMPH, BDNF levels were increased in the nucleus accumbens and decreased in the hippocampus. At 4 d post-D-AMPH, BDNF protein levels were decreased in all areas examined, and these decreases were reversed by treatment with ketamine. These data suggest that diminished BDNF may contribute to the negative affect seen following D-AMPH withdrawal, and that ketamine treatment could offer relief from these symptoms.
Rawls, Scott M; Rodriguez, Tonatiu; Baron, David A; Raffa, Robert B
We previously reported that planarians (Dugesia dorotocephala) that have been exposed to cocaine for 1 h undergo abstinence-induced withdrawal when placed into cocaine-free, but not cocaine-containing, water. We now report that planarians also display dose-related abstinence-induced withdrawal following exposure to the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2, but not its inactive enantiomer (WIN 55212-3). The withdrawal from WIN 55212-2 was manifested as a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the rate of planarian spontaneous locomotor activity over a 5-min observation period, using a recently designed metric (pLMV). We also report that withdrawal from cocaine (80 microM) or WIN 55212-2 (10 microM) was attenuated by the selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis L-NAME (L-nitro-arginine methyl ester), which had no effect of its own on pLMV. These results suggest a common NO-dependent pathway of withdrawal from cocaine and WIN 55212-2 in Planaria.
Devaud, Leslie L; Walls, Shawn A; McCulley, Walter D; Rosenwasser, Alan M
We recently found that voluntary wheel running attenuated ethanol withdrawal-induced increased susceptibility to chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male rats. Since female rats recover from ethanol withdrawal (EW) more quickly than male rats across several behavioral measures, this study was designed to determine whether the effects of exercise on EW seizures also exhibited sex differences. Animals were maintained under no-wheel, locked-wheel or free-wheel conditions and ethanol was administered by liquid diet for 14 days with control animals pair-fed an isocaloric diet, after which seizure thresholds were determined at 1 day or 3 days of EW. Consistent with previous reports, females ran significantly more than males, regardless of diet condition. Introduction of the ethanol-containing liquid diet dramatically increased running for females during the day (rest) phase, with little impact on night phase activity. Consistent with previous reports, EW increased seizure susceptibility at 1 day in non-exercising males and females and at 3 days in males. These effects were attenuated by access to running wheels in both sexes. We also assessed the effects of sex, ethanol diet and exercise on ethanol clearance following an acute ethanol administration at 1 day EW in a separate set of animals. Blood ethanol concentrations at 30 min post-injection were lower in males, ethanol-exposed animals, and runners, but no interactions among these factors were detected. Interestingly, females displayed more rapid ethanol clearance than males and there were no effects of either diet or wheel access on clearance rates. Taken together, these data suggest that voluntary wheel running during ethanol administration provides protective effects against EW seizures in both males and females. This effect may be mediated, in part, in male, but not in female rat, by effects of exercise on early pharmacokinetic contributions. This supports the idea that encouraging alcoholics to exercise may
McLaughlin, Ian; Dani, John A.; De Biasi, Mariella
An aversive abstinence syndrome manifests 4–24 h following cessation of chronic use of nicotine-containing products. Symptoms peak on approximately the 3rd day and taper off over the course of the following 3–4 weeks. While the severity of withdrawal symptoms is largely determined by how nicotine is consumed, certain short nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to predispose individuals to consume larger amounts of nicotine more frequently—as well as to more severe symptoms of withdrawal when trying to quit. Additionally, rodent behavioral models and transgenic mouse models have revealed that specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, cellular components, and neuronal circuits are critical to the expression of withdrawal symptoms. Consequently, by continuing to map neuronal circuits and nAChR subpopulations that underlie the nicotine withdrawal syndrome—and by continuing to enumerate genes that predispose carriers to nicotine addiction and exacerbated withdrawal symptoms—it will be possible to pursue personalized therapeutics that more effectively treat nicotine addiction. PMID:25638335
Pestel, G; Uhlig, T; Unrein, H; Rothhammer, A
This prospective randomized study compares the effects of rocuronium (R) and vecuronium (V) on the early postoperative period in infants. Forty-eight infants between the ages of three and six, scheduled for elective ENT procedures, were studied after prior approval of local ethics committee and informed parental consent. All children were premedicated with chlorprotixene and belladonna. Anaesthesia was induced with 5 mg/kg thiopentone and 1 vol.-% halothane. Subsequently, 0.4 mg/kg rocuronium or 0.075 mg/kg vecuronium were administered, respectively. Anaesthesia and post-operative care were conducted by independent anaesthetists, who were unaware of the drug used and of the relaxometric data obtained. All children were monitored in the recovery room by pulse oximetry until they reached a Steward Score of 6. Demographic data did not differ between the groups. No differences were recorded between the non-depolarizing relaxants regarding intubation time (R: 24.1 +/- 4.2 min, V: 25.8 +/- 6.8 min) and the time interval from end extubation to leaving the operating theatre (R: 2.3 +/- 0.8 min, V: 2.6 +/- 1.2 min), respectively. Similarly, no differences in SaO2 were noted during the recovery period in the recovery room. Significant differences between the non-depolarizing relaxants were found in the TOF-ratios at extubation (R: 0.73 +/- 0.31 min, V: 0.48 +/- 0.34 min) and arrival in the recovery room (R: 0.88 +/- 0.21 min, V: 0.69 +/- 0.26 min). 0.4 mg/kg Rocuronium and 0.075 mg/kg vecuronium can be used for intubation during short operations on pre-school children. Rocuronium may be the better alternative, due to its faster neuromuscular recovery properties.
Rawls, Scott M; Cavallo, Federica; Capasso, Anna; Ding, Zhe; Raffa, Robert B
Ceftriaxone (a beta-lactam antibiotic) has recently been identified as having the rare ability to increase the expression and functional activity of the glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1) in rat spinal cord cultures. GLT-1 has been implicated in diverse neurological disorders and in opioid dependence and withdrawal. It has been speculated that it might also be involved in the physical dependence and withdrawal of other abused drugs, but demonstration of this property can be difficult in mammalian models. Here, we demonstrate for the first time using a planarian model that ceftriaxone attenuates both the development of physical dependence and abstinence-induced withdrawal from cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and a benzodiazepine (clorazepate) in a concentration-related manner. These results suggest that physical dependence and withdrawal from several drugs involve a common - beta-lactam-sensitive - mechanism in planarians. If these findings can be shown to extend to mammals, beta-lactam antibiotics might represent a novel pharmacotherapy or adjunct approach for treating drug abuse or serve as a template for drug discovery efforts aimed at treating drug abuse, recovery from drug abuse, or ameliorating the withdrawal from chronic use of therapeutic medications.
Trainor, Brian C; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y; Campi, Katharine L; Florez, Stefani A; Greenberg, Gian D; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A; Orr, Veronica N; Silva, Andrea L; Steinman, Michael Q
There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype.
Overstreet, David H; Knapp, Darin J; Breese, George R
There is controversy over whether exposure to stress precipitates relapse and/or increases alcohol (ethanol) intake. Our laboratory has demonstrated that repeated stress prior to withdrawal from a brief forced exposure to alcohol results in withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. Because anxiety is often regarded as a precipitating factor in relapsing alcoholics, we decided to examine the consequences of stressing alcohol-preferring P rats on both voluntary alcohol drinking and withdrawal-induced anxiety. P rats were subjected to 3 cycles of 5 days of voluntary alcohol drinking and 2 days of deprivation. Restraint stress (60 min) was applied to some animals during the first and second deprivations/withdrawals (at 4 h). Drugs (flumazenil, buspirone, SB242,084, CP154,526, CRA1000, naloxone, haloperidol, olanzapine, naloxone, and haloperidol) were given to some rats 30 min prior to restraint stress. Stressed, deprived P rats exhibited both a longer duration of elevated alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in the social interaction test upon withdrawal after the third cycle of voluntary alcohol drinking. When given prior to each of the restraint stresses, the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (5 mg/kg), the corticotrophin releasing factor receptor antagonists CRA1000 (3 mg/kg) and CP154,526 (10 mg/kg), the serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist buspirone (0.6 mg/kg), and the mixed 5-HT(2C)/D2 receptor antagonist olanzapine were effective in reducing the increased duration of elevated alcohol drinking and the withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. In contrast, while the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone (20 mg/kg), the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB242084 (3 mg/kg), and the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg) also reduced drinking, they did not significantly alter anxiety like behavior. These results suggest that stress-induced facilitation of alcohol drinking and withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior in P rats may be
rate or blood pressure . The major site for metabolism for rocuronium is the liver. Approximately 10% of rocuronium is excreted by the kidneys with no...until return of twitch response. TOF was evaluated every five minutes post administration. Changes in heart rate and systolic blood pressure also...period of close to two hours. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate did increase by 20% or greater in 68% of the patients, but was not correlated to
Kaufman, Gretchen E; Seymour, Rosemarie E; Bonner, Barbara B; Court, Michael H; Karas, Alicia Z
To determine whether rocuronium, a reversible neuromuscular blocking agent, would provide safe, short-term immobilization to facilitate endotracheal intubation in turtles. Prospective study. 30 healthy adult Gulf Coast box turtles. Turtles were given rocuronium, and responses were recorded every 3 minutes. Times to onset of effects, intubation, and recovery were recorded and analyzed for associations with dose and patient characteristics to determine an optimal dose range. Neostigmine and glycopyrrolate were given to augment recovery from neuromuscular blockade. Rocuronium administered at a dose of 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg (0.11 to 0.23 mg/lb), IM, permitted intubation; lower doses were not effective. Mean +/- SD time to loss of the palpebral reflex was 6.4 +/- 4.0 minutes, and mean time to intubation was 9.2 +/- 6.4 minutes. Mean time to return of the palpebral reflex was 44 +/- 13.2 minutes, and mean time to walking was 55 +/- 16.6 minutes. Time to onset of effects was not associated with dose, but recovery times were prolonged with higher doses of rocuronium. Cardiac arrhythmias were observed in 13 (43%) turtles. Administration of rocuronium at a dose of 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg is a safe and effective adjunct to general anesthesia in Gulf Coast box turtles. Because rocuronium does not provide any analgesic or sedative effects, the duration of neuromuscular blockade without anesthesia should be minimized to avoid undue distress.
Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Riley, Edward P; Thomas, Jennifer D
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can damage the developing fetus, illustrated by central nervous system dysfunction and deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Binge drinking has been associated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, likely due to increased episodes of ethanol withdrawal. We hypothesized that overactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor during ethanol withdrawal leads to excitotoxic cell death in the developing brain. Consistent with this, administration of NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., MK-801) during withdrawal can attenuate ethanol's teratogenic effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether administration of memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, during ethanol withdrawal could effectively attenuate ethanol-related deficits, without the adverse side effects associated with other NMDA receptor antagonists. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol or isocaloric maltose solution via intubation on postnatal day 6, a period of brain development equivalent to a portion of the 3rd trimester. Twenty-four and 36 hours after ethanol, subjects were injected with 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg memantine, totaling doses of 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg. Motor coordination was tested on a parallel bar task and the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated using unbiased stereology. Alcohol exposure induced significant parallel bar motor incoordination and reduced Purkinje cell number. Memantine administration significantly attenuated both ethanol-associated motor deficits and cerebellar cell loss in a dose-dependent manner. Memantine was neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data provide further support that ethanol withdrawal contributes to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Walker, Brendan M
This article represents one of five contributions focusing on the topic "Plasticity and neuroadaptive responses within the extended amygdala in response to chronic or excessive alcohol exposure" that were developed by awardees participating in the Young Investigator Award Symposium at the "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" conference in Volterra, Italy on May 3-6, 2011 that was organized/chaired by Drs. Antonio Noronha and Fulton Crews and sponsored by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. This review discusses the dependence-induced neuroadaptations in affective systems that provide a basis for negative reinforcement learning and presents evidence demonstrating that escalated alcohol consumption during withdrawal is a learned, plasticity-dependent process. The review concludes by identifying changes within extended amygdala dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor systems that could serve as the foundation for the occurrence of negative reinforcement processes. While some evidence contained herein may be specific to alcohol dependence-related learning and plasticity, much of the information will be of relevance to any addictive disorder involving negative reinforcement mechanisms. Collectively, the information presented within this review provides a framework to assess the negative reinforcing effects of alcohol in a manner that distinguishes neuroadaptations produced by chronic alcohol exposure from the actual plasticity that is associated with negative reinforcement learning in dependent organisms.
Matricon, Julien; Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea
The fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, an endocannabinoid enhancing drug, reverses social withdrawal in the sub-chronic PCP rat model of schizophrenia, but reduces social interaction (SI) in controls. To identify the anatomical substrates associated with PCP-induced social withdrawal and the contrasting effects of URB597 on SI in PCP- versus saline-treated rats, we analyzed SI-induced c-Fos expression in 28 brain areas relevant to schizophrenia and/or social behavior following vehicle or URB597 administration. In saline-treated rats, SI was accompanied by changes in c-Fos expression in the infralimbic and orbitofrontal cortices, dorsomedial caudate putamen, ventrolateral nucleus of the septum, dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) and central amygdala. Except for the dlPAG, these changes were not observed in PCP-treated rats or in saline-treated rats receiving URB597. In the dorsomedial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dmBNST), SI-induced c-Fos expression was observed only in PCP-treated rats. Interestingly, URB597 in PCP-treated rats restored a similar c-Fos expression pattern as observed in saline-treated rats: activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, inhibition of the central amygdala and suppression of activation of the dmBNST. These data suggest that orbitofrontal cortex, central amygdala and dmBNST play a critical role in the reversal of PCP-induced social withdrawal by URB597. PMID:27091613
Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A; Dorrier, Cayce E; Lopez, Alberto J; Kash, Thomas L
One of the hallmarks of alcohol dependence is the presence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence, which manifests as physical craving for alcohol accompanied by subjective feelings of anxiety. Using a model of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor in mice, we investigated the role of serotonin2c receptor (5HT2c-R) signaling in the BNST as a neural substrate underlying ethanol-induced anxiety during withdrawal. Mice were subjected to a 5-day CIE regimen of 16 h of ethanol vapor exposure followed by an 8 h "withdrawal" period between exposures. After the 5th and final exposure, mice were withdrawn for 24 h or 1 week before experiments began. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the social approach, light dark, and open field tests with mice showing deficits in social, but not general anxiety-like behavior that was alleviated by pretreatment with the 5HT2c-R antagonist SB 242,084 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) 24 h and 1 week post-CIE. Using immunohistochemistry and whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology, we also found that CIE increased FOS-IR and enhanced neuronal excitability in the ventral BNST (vBNST) 24 h into withdrawal in a 5HT2c-R dependent manner. This enhanced excitability persisted for 1 week post-CIE. We also found that mCPP, a 5HT2c/b agonist, induced a more robust depolarization in cells of the vBNST in CIE mice, confirming that 5HT2c-R signaling is upregulated in the vBNST following CIE. Taken together, these results suggest that CIE upregulates 5HT2c-R signaling in the vBNST, leading to increased excitability. This enhanced excitability of the vBNST may drive increased anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rawls, Scott M; Gomez, Teresa; Raffa, Robert B
The mechanisms that facilitate the development and expression of cannabinoid physical dependence in humans and other mammals are poorly understood. The present experiments used a planarian model to provide evidence that pharmacological antagonism of NMDA receptors significantly attenuates the development of cannabinoid physical dependence. Abstinence-induced withdrawal from the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2 (10 microM) was manifested as a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the rate of planarian spontaneous locomotor velocity (pLMV) when WIN 55212-2 (10 microM)-exposed planarians were placed into drug-free water. No change in pLMV occurred when WIN 55212-2 (10 microM)-exposed planarians were placed into water containing WIN 55212-2 (10 microM). WIN 55212-2 (10 microM)-exposed planarians placed into water containing LY 235959 (1 or 10 microM) did not display withdrawal (no significant difference, P>0.05, in pLMV). In addition, withdrawal was not observed (no significant difference, P>0.05, in pLMV) in planarians that were co-exposed to a solution containing WIN 55212-2 (10 microM) and LY 235959 (10 microM). The present results reveal that NMDA receptor activation mediates the development of cannabinoid physical dependence and the expression of cannabinoid withdrawal in planarians.
The therapeutic action of opioid analgesics is compromised by peripheral adverse effects among which opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most disabling, with a prevalence reported to vary between 15 and 90 %. Although OIC is usually treated with laxatives, there is insufficient clinical evidence that laxatives are efficacious in this indication. In contrast, there is ample evidence from double- blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trials that peripheral opioid receptor antagonists (PORAs) counteract OIC. This specific treatment modality is currently based on subcutaneous methylnaltrexone for the interruption of OIC in patients with advanced illness, and a fixed combination of oral prolonged-release naloxone with prolonged-release oxycodone for the prevention of OIC in the treatment of non-cancer and cancer pain. Both drugs counteract OIC while the analgesic effect of opioids remains unabated. The clinical studies show that more than 50 % of the patients with constipation under opioid therapy may benefit from the use of PORAs, while PORA-resistant patients are likely to suffer from non-opioid-induced constipation, the prevalence of which increases with age. While the addition of naloxone to oxycodone seems to act by preventing OIC, the intermittent dosing of methylnaltrexone every other day seems to stimulate defaecation by provoking an intestinal withdrawal response. The availability of PORAs provides a novel opportunity to specifically control OIC and other peripheral adverse effects of opioid analgesics (e.g., urinary retention and pruritus). The continuous dosing of a PORA has the advantage of few adverse effects, while intermittent dosing of a PORA can be associated with abdominal cramp-like pain.
Jansone, Baiba; Rumaks, Juris; Dzirkale, Zane; Pupure, Jolanta; Svirskis, Simons; Muceniece, Ruta; Klusa, Vija
Little is known about the endogenous functions of gamma1- and gamma2-melanocyte stimulating hormones (gamma1- and gamma2-MSH). Although gamma-MSHs bind to melanocortin receptor subtypes 3 and 4, we have previously shown that these peptides also influence non-melanocortinergic processes, such as dopaminergic and GABAergic. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma1- and gamma2-MSH (at doses 0.3, 1 and 2 nmol/mouse/5 microl) on the anxiety levels in mice in elevated plus maze. Three experimental paradigms were performed to assess the effects of peptides on: a) ethanol withdrawal; b) acute ethanol-induced anxiolytic action; c) peptides per se. We used ethanol as the model substance, since its action involves either dopaminergic/GABAergic or melanocortinergic processes. gamma-MSHs were administered intracisternally in mice and behavioural responses were assessed in the elevated plus maze test. This study provides the first demonstration of an anxiogenic effect of gamma1- and gamma2-MSH, their synergistic/additive effect on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety behaviour, and an antagonism of peptides involved in the anxiolytic action of ethanol. Furthermore, results suggest that gamma-MSHs belong to an anxiogenic peptide family that may play an important role in anxiety disorders as well as in the development of alcohol dependence and/or alcohol withdrawal-induced behaviours.
Reducing endocannabinoid metabolism with the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, fails to modify reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned floor preference and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned floor avoidance.
McCallum, Amanda L; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A
The potential of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, URB597, to modify drug prime-induced reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned floor preference or naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned floor avoidance was evaluated. In Experiment 1, morphine-induced conditioned floor preference was established across 4 conditioning trials. Following extinction training (4 trials), rats were pretreated with URB597 or vehicle prior to a morphine prime or a saline prime. Morphine reinstated the previously extinguished floor preference, but URB597 did not modify the strength of the reinstated preference. In Experiment 2, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned floor avoidance was established across 2 conditioning trials. Following extinction training (14 trials), rats were pretreated with URB597 or vehicle prior to a saline prime or a morphine withdrawal prime. The morphine withdrawal prime reinstated the previously extinguished floor avoidance, but URB597 did not modify the strength of reinstated avoidance. These results suggest that under the conditions in which URB597 promotes extinction (e.g., Manwell et al. (2009)) it does not interfere with drug-induced reinstatement of either conditioned floor preference or avoidance. That is, although activation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system promotes extinction of aversive learning, it may not prevent reinstatement of that aversion by re-exposure to the aversive treatment.
dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Valli, Thais da Rosa; Marques, Richard Souza; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques; Peccinalli, Ney Ronner; Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; Manhães, Alex C.; Kubrusly, Regina
Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i) to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii) to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours) and long-term (10 days) MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days) with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally), (iii) to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.) presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult life
dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Valli, Thais da Rosa; Marques, Richard Souza; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques; Peccinalli, Ney Ronner; Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; Manhães, Alex C; Kubrusly, Regina
Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i) to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii) to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours) and long-term (10 days) MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days) with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally), (iii) to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.) presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult life.
Choi, Eun-Su; Jeong, Woo-Jin; Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Ah-Young; Jeon, Young-Tae; Do, Sang-Hwan
We evaluated the effect of magnesium sulfate-an enhancer of neuromuscular blockade-on onset and duration of low dose of rocuronium, and on operating conditions during laryngeal microsurgery. Randomized, prospective, double-blinded study. Eighty-four patients scheduled for elective laryngeal microsurgery. Patients were randomly allocated to receive different doses of rocuronium: 0.6 mg/kg (group C, n=28), 0.45 mg/kg (group LR, n=28), or 0.45 mg/kg plus magnesium sulfate 30 mg/kg (group LM, n=28). We measured the onset time and duration of action of rocuronium, and evaluated the surgeon's satisfaction with the operating conditions. Group LR showed significantly delayed onset time (group C: 87±22 seconds, group LR: 127±47 seconds, and group LM: 89±32 seconds; P=.001) and maximal suppression than did other groups (group C: 102±30 seconds, group LR: 155±66 seconds, and group LM: 105±36 seconds; P=.002). Duration of action of rocuronium was significantly longer in group C than in other groups (group C: 39±7 minutes, group LR: 28±8 minutes, group LRM: 31±8 minutes; P<.001). Laryngoscope placement score (P=.002), surgeon's satisfaction (P=.005), and sore throat (P=.035) were significantly worse in group LR. Magnesium sulfate 30 mg/kg accelerated the onset and improved operating conditions of low-dose rocuronium without prolongation of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dais, Jennifer; Khosia, Ankur; Doulatram, Gulshan
Instituting drug holidays for chronic opioid using patients is becoming commonplace for pain practitioners initiating procedures such as intrathecal pump or spinal cord stimulator trials. As such, pain practitioners need to be adept in their management of acute opioid withdrawal. Successfully weaning an opioid dependent patient off of chronic opioids requires a thorough knowledge of the available adjuvants to assist in this process. However, that selection can become exhausted by adjuvant side effects or by ineffective attenuation of opioid withdrawal symptoms. In that case, novel drugs, or novel application of currently available medications must be sought after to assist in the drug holiday. We present a case in which refractory muscle spasms secondary to opioid withdrawal were successfully treated with an over-the-counter supplement that is not typically used for the attenuation of opioid withdrawal symptoms. In a patient intolerant to the side effects of clonidine, we were able to successfully wean chronic opiates by treating refractory muscle spasms with the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). We hypothesize that our success with this medication gives further credence to the role of serotonin in opioid withdrawal somatic symptomatology, and supports the need for future research to clarify the role of serotonin precursors or serotonin modulating drugs as potential alternatives in those unable to follow standard treatment protocols.
Whitman, Buddy A; Knapp, Darin J; Werner, David F; Crews, Fulton T; Breese, George R
Many neurobiological factors may initiate and sustain alcoholism. Recently, dysregulation of the neuroimmune system by chronic ethanol (CE) has implicated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Even though TLR4s are linked to CE initiation of brain cytokine mRNAs, the means by which CE influences neuroimmune signaling in brain in the absence of infection remains uncertain. Therefore, the hypothesis is tested that release of an endogenous TLR4 agonist, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and/or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) during CE withdrawal are responsible for CE protocols increasing cytokine mRNAs. Acute ethanol (EtOH; 2.75 g/kg) and acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 μg/kg) dosing on cytokine mRNAs are first compared. Then, the effects of chronic LPS exposure (250 μg/kg for 10 days) on cytokine mRNAs are compared with changes induced by CE protocols (15 days of continuous 7% EtOH diet [CE protocol] or 3 intermittent 5-day cycles of 7% EtOH diet [CIE protocol]). Additionally, TLR4, HMGB1, and downstream effector mRNAs are assessed after CE, CIE, and chronic LPS. To test whether HMGB1 and/or CRF support the CE withdrawal increase in cytokine mRNAs, the HMGB1 antagonists, glycyrrhizin and ethyl pyruvate, and a CRF1 receptor antagonist (CRF1RA) are administered during 24 hours of CE withdrawal. While cytokine mRNAs were not increased following acute EtOH, acute LPS increased all cytokine mRNAs 4 hours after injection. CE produced no change in cytokine mRNAs prior to CE removal; however, the CE and CIE protocols increased cytokine mRNAs by 24 hours after withdrawal. In contrast, chronic LPS produced no cytokine mRNA changes 24 hours after LPS dosing. TLR4 mRNA was elevated 24 hours following both CE protocols and chronic LPS exposure. While chronic LPS had no effect on HMGB1 mRNA, withdrawal from CE protocols significantly elevated HMGB1 mRNA. Systemic administration of HMGB1 antagonists or a CRF1RA significantly reduced the cytokine m
Whitman, Buddy A.; Knapp, Darin J.; Werner, David F.; Crews, Fulton T.; Breese, George R.
Background Many neurobiological factors may initiate and sustain alcoholism. Recently, dysregulation of the neuroimmune-system by chronic-ethanol (CE) has implicated toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-activation. Even though TLR4s are linked to CE-initiation of brain cytokine-mRNAs, the means by which CE influences neuroimmune signaling in the sterile environment of brain remains uncertain. Therefore, the hypothesis is tested that release of an endogenous TLR4 agonist, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and/or CRF during CE-withdrawal are responsible for CE-protocols increasing cytokine-mRNAs. Methods Acute-ethanol 2.75g/kg) and acute-LPS (lipopolysaccharide)(250μg/kg) dosing on cytokine-mRNAs are first compared. Then, the effects of chronic-LPS exposure (250 μg/kg for 10-days) on cytokine-mRNAs are compared to changes induced by CE-protocols [15-days of continuous 7% ethanol-diet (CE-protocol) or three-intermittent 5-day cycles of 7%-ethanol-diet (CIE-protocol)]. Additionally, TLR4-, HMGB1- and down-stream effector mRNAs are assessed after CE, CIE, and chronic-LPS. To test whether HMGB1 and/or CRF support the CE-withdrawal increase in cytokine-mRNAs, the HMGB1-antagonists, glycyrrhizin and ethyl-pyruvate, and a CRF1-receptor-antagonist (CRF1RA) are administered during 24-hours of CE-withdrawal. Results While cytokine-mRNAs were not increased following acute-ethanol, acute-LPS increased all cytokine-mRNAs 4-hours after injection. CE produced no change in cytokine-mRNAs prior to CE-removal; however, the CE- and CIE-protocols increased cytokine-mRNAs by 24-hours after withdrawal. In contrast, chronic-LPS produced no cytokine-mRNA changes 24-hours after LPS-dosing. TLR4-mRNA was elevated 24-hours following both CE-protocols and chronic-LPS exposure. While chronic-LPS had no effect on HMGB1-mRNA, withdrawal from CE-protocols significantly elevated HMGB1-mRNA. Systemic administration of HMGB1-antagonists or a CRF1RA significantly reduced the cytokine-mRNA increase following
Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A.; Dorrier, Cayce E.; Lopez, Alberto J.; Kash, Thomas L.
One of the hallmarks of alcohol dependence is the presence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence, which manifests as physical craving for alcohol accompanied by subjective feelings of anxiety. Using a model of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor in mice, we investigated the role of serotonin2c signaling in the BNST as a neural substrate underlying ethanol-induced anxiety during withdrawal. Mice were subjected to a 5-day CIE regimen of 16 hours of ethanol vapor exposure followed by an 8 hour “withdrawal” period between exposures. After the 5th and final exposure, mice were withdrawn for 24 hours or 1 week before experiments began. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the social approach, light dark, and open field test with mice showing deficits in social, but not general anxiety-like behavior that was alleviated by pretreatment with the 5HT2c-R antagonist SB 242,084 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) 24 hours and 1 week post-CIE. Using immunohistochemistry and whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology, we also found that CIE increased FOS-IR and enhanced neuronal excitability in the ventral BNST (vBNST) 24 hrs into withdrawal in a 5HT2c-R dependent manner. This enhanced excitability persisted for 1 week post-CIE. We also found that mCPP, a 5HT2c/b agonist, induced a more robust depolarization in cells of the vBNST in CIE mice, confirming that 5HT2c-R signaling is upregulated in the vBNST following CIE. Taken together, these results suggest that CIE upregulates 5HT2c-R signaling in the vBNST, leading to increased excitability. This enhanced excitability of the vBNST may drive increased anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal. PMID:25229718
Cruz, Catarina; Meireles, Manuela; Silva, Susana M
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders. Activation of microglia leads to the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial-mediated neuroinflammation has been proposed as one of the alcohol-induced neuropathological mechanisms. The present study aimed to examine the effect of chronic ethanol exposure and long-term withdrawal on microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the hippocampal formation. Male rats were submitted to 6 months of ethanol treatment followed by a 2-month withdrawal period. Stereological methods were applied to estimate the total number of microglia and activated microglia detected by CD11b immunohistochemistry in the hippocampal formation. The expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, COX-2 and IL-15 were measured by qRT-PCR. Alcohol consumption was associated with an increase in the total number of activated microglia but morphological assessment indicated that microglia did not exhibit a full activation phenotype. These data were supported by functional evidence since chronic alcohol consumption produced no changes in the expression of TNF-α or COX-2. The levels of IL-15 a cytokine whose expression is increased upon activation of both astrocytes and microglia, was induced by chronic alcohol treatment. Importantly, the partial activation of microglia induced by ethanol was not reversed by long-term withdrawal. This study suggests that chronic alcohol exposure induces a microglial phenotype consistent with partial activation without significant increase in classical cytokine markers of neuroinflammation in the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, long-term cessation of alcohol intake is not sufficient to alter the microglial partial activation phenotype induced by ethanol.
Raffa, R B; Valdez, J M
Cocaine-exposed planarians displayed abstinence-induced withdrawal behavior when placed into cocaine-free, but not cocaine-containing, water. The effect, manifested and quantified using a new spontaneous locomotor velocity metric, was dose-dependently related to cocaine exposure (8x10(-9) to 8x10(-5) M). Ultraviolet light (254 nm=7.83x10(-19) J), which was previously shown to interfere with drug-receptor interactions in Planaria, enhanced the abstinence-induced decreased locomotor velocity.
Ran, Yuanyuan; Xu, Bing; Wang, Ran; Gao, Qian; Jia, Qiutian; Hasan, Murtaza; Shan, Shuangquan; Ma, Hong; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong
Dragon's blood (DB), a Chinese traditional herb, was shown to have certain protective effects on radiation-induced bone marrow injury due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. The 50% ethanol extracts (DBE) were separated from DB by the methods of alcohol extracting-water precipitating. The protective effects of DBE on hematopoiesis were studied, particularly on megakaryocytes. In this study, we investigated the in vivo radioprotective effects of DBE on hematopoiesis and pathological changes using an irradiated-mouse model. Moreover, the protective effects and potential molecular mechanisms of DBE on megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro were explored in GM-CSF depletion-induced Mo7e cell model. DBE significantly promoted the recovery of peripheral blood cells in irradiated mice. Histology bone marrow confirmed the protective effect of DBE, as shown by an increased number of hematopoietic cells and a reduction of apoptosis. In a megakaryocytic apoptotic model, DBE (50 µg/mL) markedly alleviated GM-CSF withdrawal-induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest of Mo7e cells. DBE (50 µg/mL) also significantly decreased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 expression, inhibited the active caspase-3 expression. In addition, DBE could induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in GM-CSF-depleted Mo7e cell, but not Akt. Our data demonstrated that DBE could effectively accelerate the recovery of peripheral blood cells, especially platelet. DBE attenuated cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through the decrease of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the reduction of active caspase-3 expression. The effect of DBE on Mo7e cells survival and proliferation is likely associated with the activation of ERK, but not Akt. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wexler, B. C.
Young adult, male and female, normotensive Sprague-Dawley (S-D) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were injected with propranolol three times daily for 3 weeks. None of the animals manifested signs of withdrawal when the injections were terminated. Seven days later, the animals were challenged with a dose of isoproterenol which would produce massive myocardial infarction and 50-60% mortality in non-treated animals. The propranolol pretreatment caused marked tranquilizing and blood pressure lowering effects in SHR exclusively. Despite the 7-day propranolol withdrawal period, very few animals died and myocardial damage was minimal. However, blood pressure levels dropped to shock-like levels, blood CPK and LDH levels showed dynamic increases, there was marked hypertriglyceridaemia, and plasma corticosterone rose to supranormal levels. Microscopically, the hearts of the propranolol pretreated animals showed little evidence of necrosis but the SHR hearts manifested large atrial and ventricular thrombi. It is suggested that in the rat, propranolol treatment causes positive myocardial protective effects mediated through hormonal and metabolic changes and propranolol withdrawal does not lead to hypersensitivity to catecholamines. In fact, the beta-blocking effects of propranolol remain effective for some time after withdrawal. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:4039190
Matricon, Julien; Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea
The fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, an endocannabinoid enhancing drug, reverses social withdrawal in the sub-chronic PCP rat model of schizophrenia, but reduces social interaction (SI) in controls. To identify the anatomical substrates associated with PCP-induced social withdrawal and the contrasting effects of URB597 on SI in PCP- versus saline-treated rats, we analyzed SI-induced c-Fos expression in 28 brain areas relevant to schizophrenia and/or social behavior following vehicle or URB597 administration. In saline-treated rats, SI was accompanied by changes in c-Fos expression in the infralimbic and orbitofrontal cortices, dorsomedial caudate putamen, ventrolateral nucleus of the septum, dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) and central amygdala. Except for the dlPAG, these changes were not observed in PCP-treated rats or in saline-treated rats receiving URB597. In the dorsomedial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dmBNST), SI-induced c-Fos expression was observed only in PCP-treated rats. Interestingly, URB597 in PCP-treated rats restored a similar c-Fos expression pattern as observed in saline-treated rats: activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, inhibition of the central amygdala and suppression of activation of the dmBNST. These data suggest that orbitofrontal cortex, central amygdala and dmBNST play a critical role in the reversal of PCP-induced social withdrawal by URB597. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.
Ho, Grace; Clarke, Russell C; Sadleir, Paul H M; Platt, Peter R
A 50-year-old man developed a severe anaphylactic reaction shortly after the administration of sugammadex at the end of an uneventful laparoscopic appendectomy. Subsequent skin testing was negative to all agents to which the patient was exposed including sugammadex. Because of the temporal relationship to the administration of sugammadex, further skin testing was performed with premixed sugammadex and rocuronium that produced a markedly positive response. This is the first case report of anergy to the individual components but sensitivity to the inclusion complex of rocuronium and sugammadex. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for skin testing, photography, laser perfusion imaging, and publication of this case report.
Greenberg, Gian D; Phillips, Tamara J; Crabbe, John C
Nest building has been used to assess thermoregulatory behavior and positive motivational states in mice. There are known genetic influences on ethanol withdrawal severity as well as individual/thermoregulatory nest building. Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP-1, WSP-2) and Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR-1, WSR-2) mice were selectively bred for high vs low handling-induced convulsion (HIC) severity, respectively, during withdrawal from chronic ethanol vapor inhalation. They also differ in HIC severity during withdrawal from an acute, 4g/kg ethanol injection. In our initial study, withdrawal from an acute dose of ethanol dose-dependently impaired nest building over the initial 24h of withdrawal in genetically segregating Withdrawal Seizure Control (WSC) mice. In two further studies, acute ethanol withdrawal suppressed nest building for up to two days in WSP-1 females. Deficits in nest building from ethanol were limited to the initial 10h of withdrawal in WSR-1 females and to the initial 24h of withdrawal in WSP-1 and WSR-1 males. Effects of ethanol on nest building for up to two days were found in WSP-2 and WSR-2 mice of both sexes. Nest building deficits in female mice from the first replicate could not be explained by a general decrease in locomotor behavior. These results suggest that nest building is a novel behavioral phenotype for indexing the severity of acute ethanol withdrawal, and that genes contributing to this trait differ from those affecting acute withdrawal HIC severity. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Selegiline modifies the extinction of responding following morphine self-administration, but does not alter cue-induced reinstatement, reacquisition of morphine reinforcement, or precipitated withdrawal.
Grasing, Kenneth; He, Shaunteng; Li, Ning
Selegiline is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) with psychostimulant and neuroprotective effects which can prevent decreases in dopamine efflux that follow opiate withdrawal. The present study evaluated effects of selegiline treatment on morphine-seeking behavior and morphine reinforcement in Wistar rats (n = 26). In additional animals (n = 30), the ability of single doses of selegiline to modify naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was determined. After pretreatment with noncontingent morphine to establish opiate dependence, rats acquired self-administration of intravenous morphine. Daily intravenous treatment with saline or 2.0mg kg(-1) doses of selegiline was then initiated and continued over 14 days during extinction, reinstatement, and reacquisition of morphine self-administration. To reduce the potential for psychostimulant effects, selegiline was administered approximately 1h following self-administration, extinction, or reinstatement sessions. In some animals (n = 23), effects of saline or selegiline administration on locomotor activity were determined following extinction sessions. Daily selegiline treatment decreased the number of ratios completed and increased response latency during extinction, without modifying these measures during reinstatement or reacquisition of morphine self-administration. Chronic selegiline treatment increased locomotor activity recorded between 4 and 7h after selegiline administration on day 7 of extinction, but otherwise did not alter locomotor activity. Pretreatment with single, 2.0mg kg(-1) doses of selegiline did not modify naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. In conclusion, pretreatment with selegiline produced only a small decrease in responding during extinction of morphine self-administration and did not modify cue-induced reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior, reacquisition or morphine reinforcement, or precipitated withdrawal.
Padmanabhan, Jaya; Brown, Kristy R; Padilla, Amelia; Shelanski, Michael L
KCl withdrawal-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons is associated with aberrant cell cycle activation, and treatment with cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors protects cells from undergoing apoptosis. Because the Cdk inhibitor flavopiridol is known to inhibit RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent transcription elongation by inhibiting the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, a complex of CDK9 and cyclin T), we examined whether inhibition of RNA Pol II protects neurons from apoptosis. Treatment of neurons with 5, 6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribobenzimidazole (DRB), an RNA Pol II-dependent transcription elongation inhibitor, and flavopiridol inhibited phosphorylation and activation of Pol II and protected neurons from undergoing apoptosis. In addition to Pol II, neurons subjected to KCl withdrawal showed increased phosphorylation and activation of p70 S6 kinase, which was inhibited by both DRB and flavopiridol. Immunostaining analysis of the neurons deprived of KCl showed increased nuclear levels of phospho-p70 S6 kinase, and neurons protected with DRB and flavopiridol showed accumulation of the kinase into large spliceosome assembly factor-positive speckle domains within the nuclei. The formation of these foci corresponded with cell survival, and removal of the inhibitors resulted in dispersal of the speckles into smaller foci with subsequent apoptosis induction. Because p70 S6 kinase is known to induce translation of mRNAs containing a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract, our data suggest that transcription and translation of this subset of mRNAs may contribute to KCl withdrawal-induced apoptosis in neurons.
Olive, M. Foster; Becker, Howard C.
In alcoholic patients, ethanol is often consumed in a repeated cyclic pattern of intoxication followed by abstinence and the emergence of withdrawal symptoms. Repeated cycles of ethanol intoxication and withdrawal lead to a sensitization of CNS hyperexcitability as a result of an imbalance between inhibitory GABAergic transmission and excitatory glutamatergic transmission. Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal are usually treated pharmacologically with either benzodiazepines or anticonvulsant medications. However, recent evidence suggests that inhibition of glutamate transmission by stimulation of presynaptic inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors (i.e., mGluR2/3 receptors) or inhibition of mGluR5 receptors produces anticonvulsant effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the effects the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 and the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP on ethanol withdrawal-induced seizure activity. Adult male C3H/He mice received chronic 16 h of ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers followed by 8 hr of withdrawal daily for 4 consecutive days. During the final (fourth) withdrawal cycle, mice were evaluated hourly for handling-induced convulsions (HIC), and were treated with vehicle, LY379268 (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg) or MPEP (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) treatment at 4 and 8 hr into withdrawal. Significant reductions in overall HIC activity were not observed following administration of either compound. These results suggest that inhibition of glutamate transmission by mGluR2/3 agonists or mGluR5 antagonists does not alter HIC activity during withdrawal from repeated ethanol exposure, and as such these compounds may have limited usefulness in the treatment of CNS hyperexcitability during alcohol withdrawal. PMID:18420113
Jamil, Sarwat; Wang, Shih Wei; Bondy, Lise; Mojtabavi, Shadi; Duronio, Vincent
Growth factor withdrawal from hemopoietic cells results in activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Members of the Bcl-2 family regulate this pathway, with anti-apoptotic members counteracting the effects of pro-apoptotic members. We investigated the effect on Mcl-1 function of mutation at a conserved threonine 163 residue (T163) in its proline, glutamate, serine, and threonine rich (PEST) region. Under normal growth conditions, Mcl-1 half-life increased with alteration of T163 to glutamic acid, but decreased with mutation to alanine. However, both T163 mutants exhibited greater pro-survival effects compared with the wild type, which can be explained by an increased stability of the T163A mutant in cytokine-starved conditions. Both the mutant forms exhibited prolonged binding to pro-apoptotic Bim in cytokine-deprived cells. The extent to which Mcl-1 mutants were able to exert their anti-apoptotic effects correlated with their ability to associate with Bim. We further observed that primary bone marrow derived macrophages survived following cytokine withdrawal as long as Bim and Mcl-1 remained associated. In our study, we were unable to detect a role for GSK-3-mediated regulation of Mcl-1 expression. Based on these results we propose that upon cytokine withdrawal, survival of hemopoietic cells depends on association between Mcl-1 and Bim. Furthermore, alteration of T163 of Mcl-1 may change the protein such that its association with Bim is affected, resulting in prolonged association and increased survival.
Greenberg, Gian D.; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Campi, Katharine L.; Voigt, Heather; Orr, Veronica N.; Schaal, Leslie; Trainor, Brian C.
Depression and anxiety disorders are more common in women than men, and little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to this disparity. Recent data suggest that stress-induced changes in neurotrophins have opposing effects on behavior by acting in different brain networks. Social defeat has been an important approach for understanding neurotrophin action, but low female aggression levels in rats and mice have limited the application of these methods primarily to males. We examined the effects of social defeat in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus), a species in which both males and females defend territories. We demonstrate that defeat stress increases mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein but not mRNA in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in females but not males. Changes in BDNF protein were limited to anterior subregions of the BNST, and there were no changes in the adjacent nucleus accumbens (NAc). The effects of defeat on social withdrawal behavior and BDNF were reversed by chronic, low doses of the antidepressant sertraline. However, higher doses of sertraline restored social withdrawal and elevated BDNF levels. Acute treatment with a low dose of sertraline failed to reverse the effects of defeat. Infusions of the selective tyrosine-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) antagonist ANA-12 into the anterior BNST specifically increased social interaction in stressed females but had no effect on behavior in females naïve to defeat. These results suggest that stress-induced increases in BDNF in the anterior BNST contribute to the exaggerated social withdrawal phenotype observed in females. PMID:24409132
... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a mass...
... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a mass...
... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a mass...
... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a mass...
... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a mass...
Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Koh-ichi; Watabe, Kaname; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Morita, Yoshio; Takemura, Motohiko
A variety of drug treatment regimens have been proposed to model the dysphoric state observed during methamphetamine (METH) withdrawal in rats, but little has been established in experiments using mice. In male ICR mice, a fixed-dose injection regimen of METH (1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., twice daily for 10 consecutive days) induced a significant decrease in the time spent in open arms in an elevated plus maze after 5 days of drug abstinence. Under an escalating-dose injection regimen (0.2-2.0 mg/kg, i.p., 3 times daily for 4 days, total: 15 mg/kg/animal) or continuous subcutaneous administration with osmotic mini-pumps (15 or 76 mg/kg of METH for 2 weeks), no significant behavioral change was observed after 5 days of drug abstinence, compared with control animals. Reduced gains in body weight were observed during repeated treatment with METH in the fixed-dose injection and mini-pump treatment regimens, but not the escalating-dose injection regimen. HPLC analysis revealed significant decreases in the level of cerebral 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, a norepinephrine metabolite, and norepinephrine turnover, which may be attributed to the expression of anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze. These observations suggest that the mice treated with a fixed-dose of METH may model the anxiety-related behavior observed in the dysphoric state induced by METH withdrawal in humans.
Yuan, Menglu; Malagon, Ariana M; Yasuda, Dennis; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M; Zaveri, Nurulain T
The strong reinforcing effects of nicotine and the negative symptoms such as anxiety experienced during a quit attempt often lead to relapse and low success rates for smoking cessation. Treatments that not only block the reinforcing effects of nicotine but also attenuate the motivation to relapse are needed to improve cessation rates. Recent genetic and preclinical studies have highlighted the involvement of the α3, β4, and α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and the α3β4 nAChR subtype in nicotine dependence and withdrawal. However, the involvement of these nAChR in relapse is not fully understood. We previously reported that the α3β4 nAChR partial agonist AT-1001 selectively decreases nicotine self-administration in rats without affecting food responding. In the present experiments, we examined the efficacy of AT-1001 in attenuating reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in a model of stress-induced relapse. Rats extinguished from nicotine self-administration were treated with the pharmacological stressor yohimbine prior to AT-1001 treatment and reinstatement testing. We also examined whether AT-1001 produced any withdrawal-related effects when administered to nicotine-dependent rats. We found that AT-1001 dose-dependently reduced yohimbine stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. When administered to nicotine-dependent rats at the dose that significantly blocked nicotine reinstatement, AT-1001 elicited minimal somatic withdrawal signs in comparison to the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, which is known to produce robust withdrawal. Our data suggest that α3β4 nAChR-targeted compounds may be a promising approach for nicotine addiction treatment because they can not only block nicotine's reinforcing effects, but also decrease motivation to relapse without producing significant withdrawal effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alexandre, Joakim; Benouda, Leila; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Labombarda, Fabien
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible cardiomyopathy frequently precipitated by a sudden emotional or physical stress. The exact physiopathology is still debated and may involve catecholamine-induced myocardial stunning. Alcohol withdrawal is associated with an hyperadrenergic state and may be a period at risk of cardiac events. We report a 56-year-old man with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.
Leach, Prescott T; Holliday, Erica; Kutlu, Munir G; Gould, Thomas J
Cigarette smoking alters a variety of endocrine systems including thyroid hormones. Altered thyroid hormone signaling may lead to a subclinical or overt hypothyroid condition that could contribute to nicotine withdrawal-related symptoms, such as cognitive deficits. Thus, normalizing thyroid hormone levels may represent a novel therapeutic target for ameliorating nicotine withdrawal-associated cognitive deficits. The current studies conducted an analysis of serum thyroid hormone levels after chronic and withdrawal from chronic nicotine treatment in C57BL/6J mice using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The present studies also evaluated the effect of synthetic thyroid hormone (levothyroxine) on contextual and cued memory. The current studies found that nicotine withdrawal reduces secreted thyroid hormone levels by 9% in C57BL/6J mice. Further, supplemental thyroid hormone not only enhanced memory in naïve animals, but also ameliorated deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning associated with nicotine withdrawal. These results suggest that smokers attempting to quit should be monitored closely for changes in thyroid function. If successfully treated, normalization of thyroid hormone levels may ameliorate some deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal and this may lead to higher rates of successful abstinence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Nna, Victor U; Ujah, Godwin A; Mohamed, Mahaneem; Etim, Kingsley B; Igba, Benedict O; Augustine, Ele R; Osim, Eme E
This study assessed the effect of quercetin (QE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2) - induced testicular toxicity, as well as the effect of withdrawal of CdCl2 treatment on same. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks old and weighing 270-300g were assigned into 5 groups and used for this study. Rats in groups 1-4 were administered vehicle, CdCl2 (5mg/kg bwt), CdCl2+QE (5mg/kg bwt and 20mg/kg bwt, respectively) or QE (20mg/kg bwt) orally for 4 weeks. Group 5 rats received CdCl2, with 4 weeks recovery period. Results showed that cadmium accumulated in serum, testis and epididymis, decreased body weight, testicular and epididymal weights, sperm count, motility and viability. Cadmium decreased serum concentrations of reproductive hormones, but increased testicular glucose, lactate and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Cadmium decreased testicular enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione, vitamins C and E) antioxidants, and increased malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide. Cadmium down-regulated Bcl-2 protein, up-regulated Bax protein, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 activity. Histopathology of the testis showed decreased Johnsen's score and Leydig cell count. These negative effects were attenuated by QE administration, while withdrawal of CdCl2 did not appreciably reverse toxicity. We conclude that QE better protected the testis from CdCl2 toxicity than withdrawal of CdCl2 administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Chavan, SG; Gangadharan, S; Gopakumar, AK
Background: The effects of rocuronium at two different doses, that is, 0.6 mg/kg (2 × ED95) and 0.9 mg/kg (3 × ED95), were compared with succinylcholine (2 mg/kg) when used for endotracheal intubation in adult patients for elective surgeries under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients were divided into three groups of 30 each. Groups A, B received injection rocuronium at 0.6 mg/kg, 0.9 mg/kg respectively and Group C received succinylcholine at 2 mg/kg. Onset of action of relaxant, intubation conditions, time taken to intubate and duration of action were compared. Statistical Analysis Used: To compare the statistical difference in the age, weight, height of the study subjects, onset of action of relaxant, intubation conditions, time taken to intubate, and duration of action analysis of variance and unpaired t-test were used. Results: The onset time was considerably shorter with rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg than 0.6 mg/kg. The onset time of rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was found to be significantly longer than succinylcholine 2 mg/kg. Time taken to intubate was shortest with succinylcholine 2 mg/kg. The time taken to intubate with the rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was found to be comparable to that of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Intubation score of rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was the best (17.75), which was comparable with succinylcholine. However, the intubation score obtained with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was inferior. Duration of action was shortest with succinylcholine. The duration of action is prolonged when the dose of rocuronium is increased from 0.6 to 0.9 mg/kg. Conclusion: Rapid sequence induction of anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl, succinylcholine allowed a more rapid endotracheal intubation sequence and created superior intubation conditions than rocuronium. However, the technique of using a large dose of rocuronium to achieve perfect conditions for tracheal intubation may have application whenever succinylcholine is relatively contraindicated. PMID:27833478
Kim, M H; Oh, A Y; Jeon, Y T; Hwang, J W; Do, S H
We investigated whether magnesium sulphate combined with rocuronium priming shortens the onset of neuromuscular blockade, compared with these methods used alone. Ninety-two patients scheduled for general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to one of four groups: controls were given 0.6 mg.kg(-1) rocuronium; patients in the prime group were given 0.06 mg.kg(-1) rocuronium three minutes before a further dose of 0.54 mg.kg(-1) rocuronium; patients in the magnesium group were given an infusion of 50 mg.kg(-1) magnesium sulphate before rocuronium and patients in the magnesium and prime group were given both the magnesium sulphate and the priming dose of rocuronium. Tracheal intubation was attempted 40 s after the rocuronium injection. The time to onset of neuromuscular blockade was the primary outcome; duration of blockade and tracheal intubating conditions were also measured. The group allocation and study drugs were coded and concealed until statistical analyses were completed. The magnesium and prime group had the shortest mean (SD) onset time (55 (16)s; p < 0.001), and best tracheal intubating conditions (p < 0.05). No statistical difference was found for the duration of blockade. As for adverse events, a burning or heat sensation was reported in eight (35%) and six (26%) patients in the magnesium and magnesium and prime groups, respectively. The combination of magnesium sulphate and rocuronium priming accelerated the onset or neuromuscular blockade and improved rapid-sequence intubating conditions, compared with either magnesium sulphate or priming used alone. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Shulyakova, Natalya; Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Fong, Jamie; Zhang, Guangming; Mills, Linda R; Eubanks, James H
Sirt3 is a mitochondrial sirtuin whose deacetylase activity regulates facets of oxidative metabolic efficiency, anti-oxidative capacity, and intra-mitochondrial signaling. In this study, we tested whether the over-expression of a human Sirt3-myc transgene in differentiated PC12 cells, a model of sympathetic catecholaminergic neurons, would affect the sensitivity of these cells to oxidative stress or trophic withdrawal insults. Expression analysis revealed the Sirt3-myc product was expressed as a 45kDa pro-form, which localized primarily within the cytosol, and a 30kDa processed form that localized predominantly within mitochondria. When subjected to acute glucose deprivation or acute oxygen-glucose deprivation, differentiated PC12 cells over-expressing Sirt3-myc displayed significantly lower levels of cytotoxicity, both at the end of the insult, and at different times following media reperfusion, than cells transfected with a control plasmid. Further, Sirt3-myc over-expression also protected differentiated PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by trophic withdrawal. Collectively, these data indicate that an elevation of Sirt3 is sufficient to protect neuronal PC12 cells from cytotoxic insults, and add to the growing evidence that Sirt3 could be targeted for neuroprotective intervention.
Yue, Hui; Han, Jinyu; Liu, Ling; Wang, Kaiyuan; Li, Jincheng
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various doses of rocuronium on bispectral index (BIS) responses to propofol induction and tracheal intubation, as well as the role of the non-depolarization muscle relaxant rocuronium on the depth of sedation. A total of 72 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I–II) were anaesthetized with propofol using a target-controlled infusion, and randomly divided into two sedation level groups (n=36). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the BIS value: A normal sedation group (group 1), with a stable BIS value at 40–60, and a deep sedation group (group 2), with a BIS value <20 or with burst suppression. Each group was randomly divided into 4 subgroups A-D (n=9) according to the various doses of rocuronium (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg). Tracheal intubation was performed after 2 min of rocuronium administration. BIS, electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded continuously and averaged over 1 min during baseline (T1), steady state (T2), 2 min after rocuronium infusion (T3), and 0, 2 and 5 min after tracheal intubation. The results demonstrated that HR and MAP decreased significantly at T2 and T3 compared with T1. Following tracheal intubation (L0), HR and MAP significantly increased compared with T2 and T3, and returned to levels similar to those prior to intubation after 5 min. In group 1C and 1D, BIS was significantly decreased at T3 compared with T2; BIS was significantly increased at L0 compared with T3 in group 1A and 1B. EMG at earlier stages of anesthesia was significantly higher compared with other points, and was significantly increased at L0 compared with T3 in group 1A and 1B. These results demonstrated that BIS response may be associated with the dosage of rocuronium in the normal sedation group, although no association was observed with the deep sedation group. Tracheal intubation resulted in marked hemodynamic
Welters, Hannah J; Tadayyon, Moh; Scarpello, John H B; Smith, Stephen A; Morgan, Noel G
Long-chain saturated fatty acids are cytotoxic to pancreatic beta-cells while shorter-chain saturated and long-chain unsaturated molecules are better tolerated. Mono-unsaturated fatty acids are not, however, inert since they inhibit the pro-apoptotic effects of saturated molecules. In the present work we show that the mono-unsaturates palmitoleate (C16:1) or oleate (C18:1) also cause marked inhibition of apoptosis induced by exposure of clonal BRIN-BD11 beta-cells to serum withdrawal or a combination of interleukin-1beta plus interferon-gamma. This response was dose-dependent and not accompanied by changes in NO formation. Taken together, the results suggest that mono-unsaturated fatty acids regulate a distal step common to several apoptotic pathways in pancreatic beta-cells.
Chronic intragastric administration of haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 21 days followed by a 3-day withdrawal period resulted in the development of enhanced locomotor activity response to apomorphine, and an increase in the number of binding sites for /sup 3/H-spiroperidol in the striatal membranes of the rat brain. Subcutaneous administration of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH/sub 2/ or cyclo-(Leu-Gly) in doses of 2 mg/kg/day given for 3-days after termination of haloperidol treatment inhibited the enhanced response to apomorphine, as well as the increases in the number of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol binding sites in the striatum. If indeed, the supersensitivity of striatal dopamine receptors is one of the mechanisms in the development of tardive dyskinesia symptoms, the present results suggest that the above peptides may be helpful in ameliorating some of the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia induced by neuroleptic drugs. 31 references, 3 figures.
Lee, Kaziya M.; Coelho, Michal A.; McGregor, Hadley A.; Solton, Noah R.; Cohen, Matan; Szumlinski, Karen K.
Binge-drinking is the most prevalent form of alcohol abuse and while an early life history of binge-drinking is a significant risk factor for subsequent alcoholism and co-morbid affective disorders, relatively little is known regarding the biobehavioral impact of binge-drinking during the sensitive neurodevelopmental period of adolescence. In adult mice, a month-long history of binge-drinking elicits a hyper-glutamatergic state within the nucleus accumbens (Acb), coinciding with hyper-anxiety. Herein, we employed a murine model of binge-drinking to determine whether or not: (1) withdrawal-induced changes in brain and behavior differ between adult and adolescent bingers; and (2) increased behavioral signs of negative affect and changes in Acb expression of glutamate-related proteins would be apparent in adult mice with less chronic binge-drinking experience (14 days, approximating the duration of mouse adolescence). Adult and adolescent male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a 14-day binge-drinking protocol (5, 10, 20 and 40% alcohol (v/v) for 2 h/day), while age-matched controls received water. At 24 h withdrawal, half of the animals from each group were assayed for negative affect, while tissue was sampled from the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) subregions of the remaining mice for immunoblotting analyses. Adult bingers exhibited hyper-anxiety when tested for defensive marble burying. Additionally, adult bingers showed increased mGlu1, mGlu5, and GluN2b expression in the AcbSh and PKCε and CAMKII in the AcbC. Compared to adults, adolescent mice exhibited higher alcohol intake and blood alcohol concentrations (BACs); however, adolescent bingers did not show increased anxiety in the marble-burying test. Furthermore, adolescent bingers also failed to exhibit the same alcohol-induced changes in mGlu and kinase protein expression seen in the adult bingers. Irrespective of age, bingers exhibited behavioral hyperactivity in the forced swim test (FST) compared to water
Beckley, Ethan H.; Fretwell, Andrea M.; Tanchuck, Michelle A.; Gililland, Katherine R.; Crabbe, John C.; Finn, Deborah A.
SUMMARY The GABAergic neurosteroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) has been repeatedly shown to have an increased anticonvulsant effect during ethanol withdrawal in rats and in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, the seizure prone DBA/2J inbred strain and the Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) selected line exhibited decreased sensitivity to ALLO's anticonvulsant effect during ethanol withdrawal, with no change in sensitivity in the Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR) line. To date, only male mice have been tested. Thus, the present study examined ALLO sensitivity during ethanol withdrawal in female WSP and WSR mice, since females display less severe physical symptoms of withdrawal and have higher circulating ALLO levels than males. Female WSP and WSR mice were exposed to ethanol vapor or air for 72 hr. During peak ethanol withdrawal, separate groups of mice were injected with vehicle or ALLO (0, 3.2, 10, or 17 mg/kg, ip) prior to the timed tail vein infusion of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). ALLO injection significantly increased the threshold dose for onset to PTZ-induced convulsions, indicating an anticonvulsant effect, in female WSP and WSR mice. During ethanol withdrawal, sensitivity to ALLO's anticonvulsant effect was slightly increased in female WSR mice but was significantly decreased in female WSP mice. This line difference in sensitivity to ALLO during ethanol withdrawal in female mice was similar to that in the male mice. Notably, all seizure prone genotypes tested to date displayed tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of ALLO during ethanol withdrawal, suggesting that decreased sensitivity of GABAA receptors to ALLO may contribute to the increased ethanol withdrawal phenotype. PMID:18045626
Nemeth, Miguel; Williams, George N; Prichard, Debbie; McConnico, Angie; Johnson, Don; Loughren, Michael
Compare the onset and duration of rocuronium administered via the intravenous (IV), and intraosseous (IO) routes in a hypovolemic swine model. Prospective, between subjects, experimental study. Vivarium. Yorkshire-cross swine (N = 8). Electromyography (EMG) amplitudes were recorded at baseline and for every 15 seconds after administering 1.2 mg/kg of rocuronium via IV or IO routes to hypovolemic swine. EMG amplitudes were measured until termination of EMG activity and then measured every 5 minutes until there was a return to baseline values. Individual data were transformed to percent baseline. The time from the end of injection to 90 percent reduction of baseline EMG activity (Onset90), the time to maximum reduction (Onsetpeak), and the maximum reduction of the neuromuscular response (peak effect), as well as, time from the end of injection to the return of 25, 50, 75, and 95 percent of baseline EMG activity was used to characterize onset and recovery of neuromuscular function. Maximum reduction, Onset 90 and Onset peak times were not statistically different between groups. The IV group's mean time to recovery of all benchmarks was faster than the IO group. The IO group took statistically longer than the IV group to return to 25, 50, 75, and 95 percent of baseline activity. The IO route is an effective method of administering rocuronium and is comparable to the IV route even under conditions of significant hemorrhage.
Wegener, Olaf; Harms, Guido; Volmer, Dietrich A; Hayen, Heiko
Rocuronium bromide is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent that causes rapid muscle relaxation after intravenous injection. Regulatory authorities for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use require the evaluation of the stability of active compounds under various stress conditions. Forced degradation of rocuronium bromide was performed under hydrolytic, thermal, photolytic, and oxidative settings. HPLC-UV/vis analysis revealed an unknown degradation product under oxidative conditions (1% H2 O2 , reflux for 1 h). Investigation of the respective HPLC fraction by high resolution mass spectrometry indicated a formal loss of CH2 and an addition of one oxygen atom to the intact drug molecule. Additional multistage mass spectrometric structural elucidation experiments aided by complementary information from analysis of the intact drug and known rocuronium-related compounds showed that the morpholine moiety was unstable under oxidative stress. The data demonstrated that the morpholine ring was opened and transformed to an N-ethanoyl-formamide group. The structure was supported by appropriate mechanistic explanations.
Wang, Long; Zhou, Mai-Tao; Chen, Cai-Yang; Yin, Wen; Wen, Da-Xiang; Cheung, Chi-Wai; Yang, Li-Qun; Yu, Wei-Feng
Requirement for rocuronium upon surgery changes only minimally in patients with end-stage liver diseases. Our study consisted of both human and rat studies to explore the reason. The reduction rate of rocuronium infusion required to maintain neuromuscular blockade during the anhepatic phase (relative to paleohepatic phase) was examined in 16 children with congenital biliary atresia receiving orthotopic liver transplantation. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of rocuronium were studied based on BDL rats. The role of increased Oatp2 and decrease Oatp1 expressions in renal compensation were explored. The reduction of rocuronium requirements significantly decreased in obstructively jaundiced children (24 ± 9 vs. 39 ± 11%). TOF50 in BDL rats was increased by functional removal of the kidneys but not the liver, and the percentage of rocuronium excretion through urine increased (20.3 ± 6.9 vs. 8.6 ± 1.8%), while that decreased through bile in 28d-BDL compared with control group. However, this enhanced renal secretion for rocuronium was eliminated by Oatp2 knock-down, rather than Oatp1 overexpression (28-d BDL vs. Oatp1-ShRNA or Oatp2-ShRNA, 20.3 ± 6.9 vs. 17.0 ± 6.6 or 9.3 ± 3.2%). Upon chronic/sub-chronic loss of bile excretion, rocuronium clearance via the kidneys is enhanced, by Oatp2 up-regulation. PMID:28084414
Muldoon, P P; Chen, J; Harenza, J L; Abdullah, R A; Sim-Selley, L J; Cravatt, B F; Miles, M F; Chen, X; Lichtman, A H; Damaj, M I
Background and Purpose Abrupt discontinuation of nicotine, the main psychoactive component in tobacco, induces a withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent animals, consisting of somatic and affective signs, avoidance of which contributes to drug maintenance. While blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase, the primary catabolic enzyme of the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), exacerbates withdrawal responses in nicotine-dependent mice, the role of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the main hydrolytic enzyme of a second endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), in nicotine withdrawal remains unexplored. Experimental Approach To evaluate the role of MAGL enzyme inhibition in nicotine withdrawal, we initially performed a genetic correlation approach using the BXD recombinant inbred mouse panel. We then assessed nicotine withdrawal intensity in the mouse after treatment with the selective MAGL inhibitor, JZL184, and after genetic deletion of the enzyme. Lastly, we assessed the association between genotypes and smoking withdrawal phenotypes in two human data sets. Key Results BXD mice displayed significant positive correlations between basal MAGL mRNA expression and nicotine withdrawal responses, consistent with the idea that increased 2-AG brain levels may attenuate withdrawal responses. Strikingly, the MAGL inhibitor, JZL184, dose-dependently reduced somatic and aversive withdrawal signs, which was blocked by rimonabant, indicating a CB1 receptor-dependent mechanism. MAGL-knockout mice also showed attenuated nicotine withdrawal. Lastly, genetic analyses in humans revealed associations of the MAGL gene with smoking withdrawal in humans. Conclusions and Implications Overall, our findings suggest that MAGL inhibition maybe a promising target for treatment of nicotine dependence. PMID:25258021
The kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-BNI inhibits cocaine and amphetamine, but not cannabinoid (WIN 52212-2), abstinence-induced withdrawal in planarians: an instance of 'pharmacologic congruence'.
Raffa, Robert B; Stagliano, Gregory W; Ross, Geoffrey; Powell, Jenay A; Phillips, Austin G; Ding, Zhe; Rawls, Scott M
The broad applicability of receptor theory to diverse species, from invertebrates to mammals, provides evidence for the evolution in complexity of pharmacologic receptor diversification and of receptor-effector signal transduction mechanisms. However, pre-mammalian species have less receptor subtype differentiation, and thus, might share signal transduction pathways to a greater extent than do mammals, a phenomenon that we term 'pharmacologic congruence'. We have demonstrated previously that the lowest species considered to have a centralized nervous system, planarians, display both abstinence-induced and antagonist-precipitated withdrawal signs, indicative of the development of physical dependence. We report here: (1) amphetamine abstinence-induced withdrawal, and (2) the attenuation of cocaine and amphetamine, but not cannabinoid agonist (WIN 52212-2), abstinence-induced withdrawal by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and by the selective kappa-opioid receptor subtype antagonist nor-BNI (nor-Binaltorphimine), but not by the selective mu-opioid or the delta-opioid receptor subtype antagonists CTAP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2)) and naltrindole. These results provide evidence that the withdrawal from cocaine and amphetamine, but not cannabinoids, in planarians is mediated through a common nor-BNI-sensitive (kappa-opioid receptor-like) pathway.
Sutter, Mary Beth; Leeman, Lawrence; Hsi, Andrew
Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome is common due to the current opioid addiction epidemic. Infants born to women covertly abusing prescription opioids may not be identified as at risk until withdrawal signs present. Buprenorphine is a newer treatment for maternal opioid addiction and appears to result in a milder withdrawal syndrome than methadone. Initial treatment is with nonpharmacological measures including decreasing stimuli, however pharmacological treatment is commonly required. Opioid monotherapy is preferred, with phenobarbital or clonidine uncommonly needed as adjunctive therapy. Rooming-in and breastfeeding may decease the severity of withdrawal. Limited evidence is available regarding long-term effects of perinatal opioid exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Notice of Withdrawal: 'Odanacatib restores trabecular bone of skeletally mature female rabbits with osteopenia but induces brittleness of cortical bone: a comparative study of the investigational drug with PTH, Estrogen and Alendronate' by Mohd. Parvez Khan, Atul Kumar Singh, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Pragya Shrivastava, Mahesh Chandra Tiwari, Geet Kumar Nagar, Himangshu Kousik Bora, Venkitanarayanan Parameswaran, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Jayesh R. Bellare and Naibedya Chattopadhyay The above article from the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, published online on 27 March 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been withdrawn by agreement between the journal's editor-in-chief, Juliet E. Compston, the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This action has been agreed due to an error at the publishers which caused a duplicate of the article to be published on 22 September 2015. The correct version of the article is to be found at: 'Odanacatib restores trabecular bone of skeletally mature female rabbits with osteopenia but induces brittleness of cortical bone: a comparative study of the investigational drug with PTH, Estrogen and Alendronate' by Mohd. Parvez Khan, Atul Kumar Singh, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Pragya Shrivastava, Mahesh Chandra Tiwari, Geet Kumar Nagar, Himangshu Kousik Bora, Venkitanarayanan Parameswaran, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Jayesh R. Bellare and Naibedya Chattopadhyay (doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2719).
Chickering, Arthur W.; Hannah, William
Study of college dropouts and students who plan to withdraw from 13 small institutions. Discusses how motivation, personal and financial problems, life styles, goal orientation, parents, friends, college staff and environment contribute to or prevent student withdrawals. Proposes ways of dealing with problem. (AD)
O'Dell, Laura E; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Ghozland, Sandy; Markou, Athina; Koob, George F
Previous research with animal models has demonstrated that adolescent rats display heightened sensitivity to the reinforcing and stimulant effects of nicotine relative to adult rats. Little work has focused on the response of adolescent rats to measures of nicotine withdrawal. To test the hypothesis that adolescent rats may be differentially sensitive to withdrawal relative to their adult counterparts, the present study was designed to compare precipitated withdrawal in adolescent and adult rats following chronic nicotine administration. Adult and adolescent rats were prepared with subcutaneous osmotic minipumps that delivered either saline or nicotine (9 mg/kg per day, salt; N =12 per group). All rats were challenged with the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (1.5 mg/kg) on day 7 of chronic nicotine treatment. Twenty minutes after the injection, overt somatic signs of withdrawal (i.e., eye blinks, writhes, body shakes, teeth chatter, gasps, and ptosis) were recorded for 10 min. Adult rats were observed on postnatal day 73-77, and adolescent rats were tested on postnatal day 36-40. The results revealed a robust increase in mecamylamine-induced withdrawal signs in adult rats receiving chronic nicotine relative to adult rats receiving saline. In contrast, mecamylamine did not precipitate withdrawal signs in adolescent rats receiving chronic nicotine. These results indicate that there is decreased sensitivity to the somatic aspects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent rats that may maximize the reinforcing effects of nicotine during adolescence by minimizing the aversive effects of abstinence.
Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Hall, F. Scott; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Takemura, Motohiko; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Uhl, George R.
Neuronal adaptations have been found to occur in multiple brain regions after chronic intake of abused drugs, and are therefore thought to underlie drug dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal. Pathophysiological changes in drug responsiveness as well as behavioral sequelae of chronic drug exposure are thought to depend largely upon the altered state of heterotrimeric GTP binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR)-G protein interactions. Responsiveness of GPCR-related intracellular signaling systems to drugs of abuse is heterogeneous, depending on the types of intracellular effectors to which the specific Gα protein subtypes are coupled and GPCR-G protein coupling efficiency, factors influenced by the class of drug, expression levels of G protein subunits, and drug treatment regimens. To enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of pathophysiological states resulting from chronic intake of abused drugs, this review focuses on alterations in the expression levels of G protein subunits induced by various drugs of abuse. Changes in these mechanisms appear to be specific to particular drugs of abuse, and specific conditions of drug treatment. PMID:18566973
Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Hall, F Scott; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Takemura, Motohiko; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Uhl, George R
Neuronal adaptations have been found to occur in multiple brain regions after chronic intake of abused drugs, and are therefore thought to underlie drug dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal. Pathophysiological changes in drug responsiveness as well as behavioral sequelae of chronic drug exposure are thought to depend largely upon the altered state of heterotrimeric GTP binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR)-G protein interactions. Responsiveness of GPCR-related intracellular signaling systems to drugs of abuse is heterogeneous, depending on the types of intracellular effectors to which the specific Galpha protein subtypes are coupled and GPCR-G protein coupling efficiency, factors influenced by the class of drug, expression levels of G protein subunits, and drug treatment regimens. To enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of pathophysiological states resulting from chronic intake of abused drugs, this review focuses on alterations in the expression levels of G protein subunits induced by various drugs of abuse. Changes in these mechanisms appear to be specific to particular drugs of abuse, and specific conditions of drug treatment. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Vega, E A; Ibacache, M E; Anderson, B J; Holford, N H G; Nazar, C E; Solari, S; Allende, F A; Cortínez, L I
The aim of this study was to characterize the dose-effect relationship of rocuronium at the adductor pollicis and masseter muscles. Ten, ASA I, adult patients, received a bolus dose of rocuronium 0.3 mg/kg during propofol based anesthesia. Train-of-four (TOF) was simultaneously monitored at the masseter and the adductor pollicis muscles until recovery. Rocuronium arterial serum concentrations were measured during 120 min. The first twitch of the TOF response was used to characterize the time-effect profile of both muscles using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis in NONMEM. A decrease in NONMEM objective function (∆OFV) of 3.84 points for an added parameter was considered significant at the 0.05 level. Onset time at the masseter (mean ± SD, 1.5 ± 0.9 min) was faster than at the adductor pollicis (2.7 ± 1.4 min, P < 0.05). Recovery, measured as the time to TOF ratio = 0.9 was similar between muscles 29.9 ± 6.7 (adductor pollicis) vs. 29.3 ± 8.1 (masseter). (P = 0.77). The estimated pharmacodynamic parameters [mean (95% CI)] of the adductor pollicis muscle and the masseter muscle were; plasma effect-site equilibration half-time (teq) 3.25 (2.34, 3.69) min vs. 2.86 (1.83, 3.29) min, (∆OFV 383.665); Ce50 of 1.24 (1.13, 1.56) mg/l vs. 1.19 (1.00, 1.21) mg/l, (∆OFV 184.284); Hill coefficient of 3.97 (3.82, 5.62) vs. 4.68 (3.83, 5.71), (∆OFV 78.906). We found that the masseter muscle has faster onset of blockade and similar recovery profile than adductor pollicis muscle. These findings were best, explained by a faster plasma effect-site equilibration of the masseter muscle to rocuronium. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kyle, B C; Gaylard, D; Riley, R H
A 'can't intubate, can't oxygenate' airway crisis is a rare event which most anaesthetists will never experience during their career(1,2). This report highlights the outcome of time-critical decisions in a potential airway catastrophe. Rocuronium was used as an alternative muscle relaxant for rapid sequence induction. The use of sugammadex in 'can't intubate, can't oxygenate' crises is discussed and highlights how, despite adequate reversal of neuromuscular blockade, the 'can't intubate, can't oxygenate' situation failed to resolve. An asymptomatic vallecular cyst was the causal factor in this scenario. Anaesthetic issues surrounding this pathology are discussed.
Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.
Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760
Hudak, Mark L; Tan, Rosemarie C
Maternal use of certain drugs during pregnancy can result in transient neonatal signs consistent with withdrawal or acute toxicity or cause sustained signs consistent with a lasting drug effect. In addition, hospitalized infants who are treated with opioids or benzodiazepines to provide analgesia or sedation may be at risk for manifesting signs of withdrawal. This statement updates information about the clinical presentation of infants exposed to intrauterine drugs and the therapeutic options for treatment of withdrawal and is expanded to include evidence-based approaches to the management of the hospitalized infant who requires weaning from analgesics or sedatives.
Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Fledderus, Joost O; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A
Background and Purpose Whether NO, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) compensate for each other when one or more is depleted is unclear. Inhibiting NOS causes hypertension and kidney injury. Both global depletion of H2S by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) gene deletion and low levels of exogenous H2S cause hypertension. Inhibiting CO-producing enzyme haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) makes rodents hypersensitive to hypertensive stimuli. We hypothesized that combined inhibition of NOS and HO-1 exacerbates hypertension and renal injury, but how combined inhibition of NOS and CSE affect hypertension and renal injury was unclear. Experimental Approach Rats were treated with inhibitors of NOS (L-nitroarginine; LNNA), CSE (DL-propargylglycine; PAG), or HO-1 (tin protoporphyrin; SnPP) singly for 1 or 4 weeks or in combinations for 4 weeks. Key Results LNNA always reduced NO, decreased H2S and increased CO after 4 weeks. PAG abolished H2S, always enhanced CO and reduced NO, but not when used in combination with other inhibitors. SnPP always increased NO, enhanced H2S and inhibited CO after 1 week. Rats treated with LNNA, but not PAG and SnPP, rapidly developed hypertension followed by renal dysfunction. LNNA-induced hypertension was ameliorated and renal dysfunction prevented by all additional treatments. Renal HO-1 expression was increased by LNNA in injured tubules and increased in all tubules by all other treatments. Conclusions and Implications The amelioration of LNNA-induced hypertension and renal injury by additional inhibition of H2S and/or CO-producing enzymes appeared to be associated with secondary increases in renal CO or NO production. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24597655
Previous studies have shown that in neuronal cells the developmental phenomenon of programmed cell death is an active process, requiring synthesis of both RNA and protein. This presumably reflects a requirement for novel gene products to effect cell death. It is shown here that the death of nerve growth factor-deprived neuronal PC12 cells occurs at the same rate as that of rat sympathetic neurons and, like rat sympathetic neurons, involves new transcription and translation. In nerve growth factor-deprived neuronal PC12 cells, a decline in metabolic activity, assessed by uptake of [3H]2-deoxyglucose, precedes the decline in cell number, assessed by counts of trypan blue-excluding cells. Both declines are prevented by actinomycin D and anisomycin. In contrast, the death of nonneuronal (chromaffin-like) PC12 cells is not inhibited by transcription or translation inhibitors and thus does not require new protein synthesis. DNA fragmentation by internucleosomal cleavage does not appear to be a consistent or significant aspect of cell death in sympathetic neurons, neuronal PC12 cells, or nonneuronal PC12 cells, notwithstanding that the putative nuclease inhibitor aurintricarboxylic acid protects sympathetic neurons, as well as neuronal and nonneuronal PC12 cells, from death induced by trophic factor removal. Both phenotypic classes of PC12 cells respond to aurintricarboxylic acid with similar dose-response characteristics. Our results indicate that programmed cell death in neuronal PC12 cells, but not in nonneuronal PC12 cells, resembles programmed cell death in sympathetic neurons in significant mechanistic aspects: time course, role of new protein synthesis, and lack of a significant degree of DNA fragmentation. PMID:1469055
Gibula-Bruzda, Ewa; Marszalek-Grabska, Marta; Witkowska, Ewa; Izdebski, Jan; Kotlinska, Jolanta H
An analog of enkephalin, cyclo[N(ε),N(β)-carbonyl-D-Lys(2),Dap(5)] enkephalinamide (cUENK6), is predominantly a functional agonist of μ-opioid receptors (MOPr) and, to a lesser extent, of δ-opioid receptors (DOPr) in vitro. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cUENK6 could affect ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test in rats. An anxiety-like effect of withdrawal was predicted to occur in the EPM test 24 h after the last ethanol administration (2 g/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]; 15% w/v once daily for 9 days). Ethanol withdrawal decreased the percent of time spent by rats in the open arms and the percent of open-arms entries. cUENK6 (0.25 nmol), given by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection, significantly reversed these anxiety-like effects of ethanol withdrawal and elevated the percent of time spent by rats in the open arms and the percent of open-arms entries. These effects of cUENK6 were significantly inhibited by the DOPr antagonist naltrindole (NTI) (5 nmol, i.c.v.), but not by the MOPr antagonist β-funaltrexamine (β-FNA) (5 nmol, i.c.v.). The preferential DOPr agonist [Leu(5)]-enkephalin (LeuEnk) (2.7 and 5.4 nmol, i.c.v.) and the MOPr agonist morphine (6.5 and 13 nmol, i.c.v.) reduced the anxiety-like effects of ethanol withdrawal. cUENK6 at the dose of 0.25 nmol did not disturb locomotor activity in the EPM, in contrast to cUENK6 at the dose of 0.5 nmol, and morphine at 6.5 and 13 nmol. However, similarly to LeuEnk, cUENK6 induced the anxiolytic-like effects in naïve rats. Thus, our study suggests that cUENK6 reduced ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior by activation of δ-opioid receptors rather than μ-opioid receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodriguez, L.; Banks, S.; Major, B. T.; Rodriguez, Y.
Introduction. Maintenance dosing of neuromuscular blocking agents is complex and varies with patient, procedure, and clinical situation. With this in mind, we sought to identify factors impacting the maintenance dosing of neuromuscular blockers as a step toward identifying best practice with respect to minimizing residual neuromuscular blockade. Methods. Cases utilizing rocuronium from July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2014, at the sponsoring institution were analyzed. Using a mixed model to account for repeated measures, patients were analyzed by dose and weight category as defined by the World Health Organization (eight categories ranging from very severely underweight to very severely obese) as well as by the administering provider's level of experience. Results. The study included 12,671 patients with a mean age of 49.7 (SD 16.7). Increasing weight category and higher levels of provider experience were associated with higher doses for rocuronium. There were no differences in initial dose or in frequency of maintenance dosing by weight category after controlling for case length. Discussion. The two dosing patterns identified, higher doses for overweight patients and higher doses administered by experienced providers, are modifiable factors that could enhance patient safety. PMID:27429615
Raffa, Robert B; Desai, Prarthna
Previous work provided indirect evidence that planarians undergo abstinence-induced withdrawal from cocaine. The present study's purpose was to determine if planarians display withdrawal signs and, if so, to quantify the behaviors. Planarians were soaked in cocaine then transferred to either the same cocaine concentration or cocaine-free water. Compared to the cocaine/cocaine group, the cocaine/water group displayed a significant number of atypical behaviors, providing direct evidence of a 'withdrawal phenomenon' in planarians.
Richardson, Kimberlei A; Yohay, Anne-Lise J; Gauda, Estelle B; McLemore, Gabrielle L
The symptoms of opiate withdrawal in infants are defined as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). NAS is a significant cause of morbidity in term and preterm infants. Factors, such as polysubstance abuse, inadequate prenatal care, nutritional deprivation, and the biology of the developing central nervous system contribute to the challenge of evaluating and treating opiate-induced alterations in the newborn. Although research on the effects of opiates in neonatal animal models is limited, the data from adult animal models have greatly contributed to understanding and treating opiate tolerance, addiction, and withdrawal in adult humans. Yet the limited neonatal data that are available indicate that the mechanisms involved in these processes in the newborn differ from those in adult animals, and that neonatal models of opiate withdrawal are needed to understand and develop effective treatment regimens for NAS. In this review, the behavioral and neurochemical evidence from the literature is presented and suggests that mechanisms responsible for opiate tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal differ between adult and neonatal models. Also reviewed are studies that have used neonatal rodent models, the authors' preliminary data based on the use of neonatal rat and mouse models of opiate withdrawal, and other neonatal models that have been proposed for the study of neonatal opiate withdrawal.
Wassum, Kate M.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Linker, Kay E.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Ostlund, Sean B.
Through incentive learning the emotional experience of a reward in a relevant need state (e.g., hunger for food) sets the incentive value that guides the performance actions that earn that reward when the need state is encountered again. Opiate withdrawal has been proposed as a need state in which, through experience, opiate value can be increased resulting in escalated opiate self-administration. Endogenous opioid transmission plays anatomically dissociable roles in the positive emotional experience of reward consumption and incentive learning. We, therefore, sought to determine if chronic opiate exposure and withdrawal produces a disruption in the fundamental incentive learning process such that reward seeking, even for non-opiate rewards, can become maladaptive, inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption and irrespective of need. Rats trained to earn sucrose or water on a reward-seeking chain were treated with morphine (10-30 mg/k.g., s.c.) daily for 11 d prior to testing in withdrawal. Opiate withdrawn rats showed elevated reward-seeking actions, but only after they experienced the reward in withdrawal, an effect that was strongest in early (1-3 d), as opposed to late (14-16 d) withdrawal. This was sufficient to overcome a negative reward value change induced by sucrose experience in satiety and, in certain circumstances, was inconsistent with the emotional experience of reward consumption. Lastly, we found that early opiate withdrawal-induced inflation of reward value was blocked by inactivation of basolateral amygdala mu opioid receptors. These data suggest that in early opiate withdrawal the incentive learning process is disrupted resulting in maladaptive reward seeking. PMID:25081350
Metten, P; Belknap, J K; Crabbe, J C
High Alcohol Withdrawal (HAW) and Low Alcohol Withdrawal (LAW) mice were selectively bred from a foundation population of C57BL6/J (B6) x DBA/2J (D2) F2 intercross progeny for display of intense or mild handling-induced withdrawal convulsions, respectively, following a single injection of a hypnotic dose of ethanol (alcohol; 4 g/kg). The HAW line had significantly greater alcohol withdrawal severity scores compared to the LAW line after only a single generation of selection; the magnitude of the line difference was 8-fold by the fourth selected generation. We tested these lines for severity of withdrawal convulsions following the benzodiazepine, diazepam; the gaseous anesthetic, nitrous oxide; the imidazopyridine, zolpidem and the barbiturate, pentobarbital. In all cases, HAW mice had significantly greater withdrawal severity than mice of the LAW line. These results indicate that some genes influencing withdrawal convulsion severity following ethanol also affect withdrawal from other CNS depressants. D2 mice are more sensitive to a variety of convulsants than B6 mice (and have more severe withdrawal convulsions). We, therefore, tested separate groups of mice of both selectively bred lines for threshold sensitivity to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid (KA). No line differences were detected. These results indicate that genes influencing severity of withdrawal from several depressant drugs are largely different from those affecting susceptibility to GABAergic or glutamatergic convulsants.
Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H
A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome?
Kuric, Vladimir; Zaza, Khaled J; Algazlan, Sulaiman S
The danger of anaphylaxis, a rare but life threatening complication of general anesthesia (GA) can be summarized in two: 1. General Anesthesia masks the typical early signs of allergy which can be seen in an awake patient. 2. Anaphylaxis during GA manifests mostly as circulatory/ventilatory failures which can be interpreted as adverse effects of anesthetics or surgery and this can lead to critical delay of effective therapy. A 19-year-old female admitted for posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation (the 5th surgery in patient's life) desaturated seconds after intubation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started and the absence of cutaneous signs along with a loud holosystolic murmur were questioned. The patient was promptly resuscitated and allergy to rocuronium was confirmed by intradermal tests 6weeks later. Factors influencing decision making and potential etiology of the newly heard holosystolic murmur during anaphylaxis are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Single Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Infusion into the Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex Attenuates Cocaine Self-Administration-Induced Phosphorylation of Synapsin in the Nucleus Accumbens during Early Withdrawal
Sun, Wei-Lun; Eisenstein, Sarah A.; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka
Background: Dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex-nucleus accumbens pathway has been implicated in cocaine addiction. We have previously demonstrated that one intra-dorsomedial prefrontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) infusion immediately following the last cocaine self-administration session caused a long-lasting inhibition of cocaine-seeking and normalized the cocaine-induced disturbance of glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens after extinction and a cocaine prime. However, the molecular mechanism mediating the brain-derived neurotrophic factor effect on cocaine-induced alterations in extracellular glutamate levels is unknown. Methods: In the present study, we determined the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on cocaine-induced changes in the phosphorylation of synapsin (p-synapsin), a family of presynaptic proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle mobilization, in the nucleus accumbens during early withdrawal. Results: Two hours after cocaine self-administration, p-synapsin Ser9 and p-synapsin Ser62/67, but not p-synapsin Ser603, were increased in the nucleus accumbens. At 22 hours, only p-synapsin Ser9 was still elevated. Elevations at both time points were attenuated by an intra-dorsomedial prefrontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion immediately after the end of cocaine self-administration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor also reduced cocaine self-administration withdrawal-induced phosphorylation of the protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit, suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor disinhibits protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit, consistent with p-synapsin Ser9 dephosphorylation. Further, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit and synapsin are associated in a protein-protein complex that was reduced after 2 hours of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration and reversed by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings demonstrate that
A single brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion into the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex attenuates cocaine self-administration-induced phosphorylation of synapsin in the nucleus accumbens during early withdrawal.
Sun, Wei-Lun; Eisenstein, Sarah A; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka; McGinty, Jacqueline F
Dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex-nucleus accumbens pathway has been implicated in cocaine addiction. We have previously demonstrated that one intra-dorsomedial prefrontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) infusion immediately following the last cocaine self-administration session caused a long-lasting inhibition of cocaine-seeking and normalized the cocaine-induced disturbance of glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens after extinction and a cocaine prime. However, the molecular mechanism mediating the brain-derived neurotrophic factor effect on cocaine-induced alterations in extracellular glutamate levels is unknown. In the present study, we determined the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on cocaine-induced changes in the phosphorylation of synapsin (p-synapsin), a family of presynaptic proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle mobilization, in the nucleus accumbens during early withdrawal. Two hours after cocaine self-administration, p-synapsin Ser9 and p-synapsin Ser62/67, but not p-synapsin Ser603, were increased in the nucleus accumbens. At 22 hours, only p-synapsin Ser9 was still elevated. Elevations at both time points were attenuated by an intra-dorsomedial prefrontal cortex brain-derived neurotrophic factor infusion immediately after the end of cocaine self-administration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor also reduced cocaine self-administration withdrawal-induced phosphorylation of the protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit, suggesting that brain-derived neurotrophic factor disinhibits protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit, consistent with p-synapsin Ser9 dephosphorylation. Further, co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A C-subunit and synapsin are associated in a protein-protein complex that was reduced after 2 hours of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration and reversed by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor normalizes
Saiful, Faisal B; Lafferty, James; Jun, Chin Hee; Teli, Sumaya; Duvvuri, Srinivas; Khattri, Saakshi; Bhat, Tariq
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a syndrome characterized by transient apical ballooning or reversible midventricular systolic dysfunction. Most cases occur in postmenopausal women and are typically triggered by an acute medical illness or emotional or physical stress. Its presentation is highly suggestive of myocardial ischemia, but there is little or no evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease. To our knowledge there are only three reported cases in the literature of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by opioid agonist withdrawal in adults; ours is the first reported case of iatrogenic methadone withdrawal leading to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
Lei, Jing; Jin, Lin; Zhao, Ye; Sui, Mei-Yu; Huang, Li; Tan, Yong-Xiang; Chen, Yan-Ke; You, Hao-Jun
Sex-associated differences in the perception and modulation of pain have widely been reported in humans as well as animals. The aim of the present study performed in conscious rats of both sexes was to systematically investigate the role of sex in endogenous descending controls of nociceptive paw withdrawal reflex during experimental muscle pain elicited by intramuscular (i.m.) injection with different doses (0.1-0.4 ml of 0.9-5.8%) of saline. Ipsilateral i.m. injection of 0.2-0.4 ml, but not 0.1 ml, isotonic (0.9%, IT) saline elicited long lasting (about 7d), secondary and contralateral mechanical hyperalgesia in female rats, whereas male rats exhibited a bilateral, short-term (less than 1d) mechanical hyperalgesia only during the exposure to 0.4 ml IT saline injection (P < 0.05). A bolus of 0.4 ml, but not 0.1-0.2 ml, IT saline significantly induced a one-week, secondary and contralateral heat hypoalgesia in both male and female rats (P < 0.05). In contrast to the IT saline injection, 0.1 ml hypertonic (5.8%, HT) saline started to evoke bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia in male and female rats. During the HT saline induced muscle nociception, mechanical hyperalgesia in female rats was greater in magnitude and longer in duration than that of in male rats (P < 0.05). Heat hypoalgesia was bilaterally found in male rats receiving either 0.2 ml or 0.4 ml HT saline injection, whereas female rats showed heat hypoalgesia, subjected only to the 0.4 ml HT saline injection (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). Intrathecal (i.th.) administration of either 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (6-OHDA) or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) significantly attenuated the HT saline induced heat hypoalgesia, not mechanical hyperalgesia, in male rats. By contrast, in female rats i.th. 6-OHDA markedly blocked heat hypoalgesia, and mechanical hyperalgesia was prevented by 5,7-DHT treatment. It is suggested that i.m. injection of saline dose-dependently elicits ipsilateral secondary and contralateral
Aldridge, Sue; Rowley, Jennifer
A survey at Edge Hill College of Higher Education in Canada, designed to be part of the mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the quality of the student experience, revealed that key factors influencing withdrawal were: course not as expected, traveling difficulties, institution not as expected, domestic difficulties, and financial difficulties.…
Husserl, F E; deCarvalho, J G; Batson, H M; Frohlich, E D
Rebound hypertension occurred in two patients upon clonidine withdrawal. Treatment of the hypertensive crisis consists of both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, reserpine, or the reintroduction of clonidine. With effective control of pressure during the crisis, long-term antihypertensive therapy must be resumed.
This document addresses the problem of students withdrawing from courses before completion and in the process attempts to devise ways that Mendocino College can aid students complete their courses. The report uses findings from two research reports. The first report was completed at the Florida Community College (FCC), which discovered that 75% of…
... RA, et al. Coitus interruptus (withdrawal). In: Contraceptive Technology. 20th ed. New York, N.Y.: Ardent Media; 2011. Zieman M. Overview of contraception. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 29, 2015. Lentz GM, et al. Family planning. In: Comprehensive ...
Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina
Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results
Strong, Moriah N; Kaufman, Katherine R; Crabbe, John C; Finn, Deborah A
Recent findings suggest that the ability of ethanol (EtOH) to increase the levels of neurosteroids with potent gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic properties can influence measures of EtOH sensitivity. Earlier studies determined that removal of the adrenals and gonads diminished the steroidogenic effect of EtOH and significantly increased acute EtOH withdrawal severity in two inbred mouse strains that differed in withdrawal severity, suggesting the contribution of anticonvulsant GABAergic steroids to acute withdrawal in intact animals. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate the consequence of steroid removal on acute EtOH withdrawal through excision of the adrenals and gonads, in another genetic animal model of EtOH withdrawal differences, the Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) and Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR) selected lines. Male and female WSP and WSR mice underwent surgical removal of the adrenals and gonads or no organ removal (SHAM). One to 2 weeks later, baseline handling-induced convulsions (HICs) were assessed, mice were given a 4 g/kg dose of EtOH, and HICs were measured hourly for 12 h and then at 24 h. The combination surgery significantly increased EtOH withdrawal in WSP and WSR female mice, as measured by area under the curve (AUC) and peak HIC scores. The AUC was significantly positively correlated with plasma corticosterone levels and significantly negatively correlated with progesterone levels. In contrast, surgical status did not alter withdrawal severity in male WSP and WSR mice. Overall, the increase in acute EtOH withdrawal severity in female WSP and WSR mice after adrenalectomy and gonadectomy corroborate our recent evidence that withdrawal from a high dose of EtOH can be modulated by anticonvulsant steroids produced in the periphery.
Riegle, Melissa A.; Masicampo, Melissa L.; Shan, Hong Qu; Xu, Victoria; Godwin, Dwayne W.
Aims We recently demonstrated that T-type calcium channels are affected by alcohol abuse and withdrawal. Treatment with ethosuximide, an antiepileptic drug that blocks T-type calcium channels, reduces seizure activity induced by intermittent ethanol exposures and withdrawals. Here, we expand on these findings to test whether ethosuximide can reduce the sensitivity to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures during ethanol withdrawal. Methods We used an intermittent ethanol exposure model to produce withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability in DBA/2J mice. Results Ethosuximide (250 mg/kg) reduced seizure severity in mice undergoing ethanol withdrawal with concurrent PTZ treatment (20 mg/kg). Importantly, ethosuximide did not produce rebound excitability and protected against ethanol withdrawal-induced mortality produced by concurrent PTZ treatment (40 mg/kg). Conclusion These results, in addition to previous preclinical findings, suggest that ethosuximide should be further evaluated as a safe, effective alternative to benzodiazepines for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. PMID:25870316
Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Pise, Ashish; Sharma, Jay N; Shukla, Praveen
Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of endogenous gut-derived hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). DPP-IV is known for its role in energy homeostasis and pharmacological blockade of this enzyme is a recently approved clinical strategy for the management of type II diabetes. Accumulating evidences suggest that enzyme DPP-IV can affect spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) functions. However, little is known about the role of this enzyme in ethanol-mediated neurobehavioral complications. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of DPP-IV inhibitor, sitagliptin on the development of tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol and anxiety associated with ethanol withdrawal in rats. A dose-response study revealed that sitaglitpin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) per se exhibit anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test in rats. Tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.; 8 % w/v) was observed from 7(th) day of ethanol-diet (6 % v/v) consumption. In contrast, tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol was delayed in rats that were treated daily with sitagliptin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) as tolerance was observed from 13(th)day since commencement of ethanol-diet consumption. Discontinuation of rats from ethanol-diet after 15-days of ethanol consumption resulted in withdrawal anxiety between 8 h and 12 h post-abstinence. However, rats on 15-day ethanol-diet with concomitant sitagliptin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment exhibited delay in appearance (24 h post-withdrawal) of withdrawal anxiety. In summary, DPP-IV inhibitors may prove as an attractive research strategy against ethanol tolerance and dependence.
Petritz, Olivia A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Gustavsen, Kate; Wiggans, K Tomo; Kass, Philip H; Houck, Emma; Murphy, Christopher J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne
OBJECTIVE :To determine the mydriatic effects of topical rocuronium bromide administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and to identify any adverse effects associated with treatment. Randomized crossover study. 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Rocuronium bromide (20 μL/eye; 10 mg/mL) or saline (20 μL/eye; 0.9% NaCl) solution was administered in both eyes of each bird with a 26-day washout period. The birds were manually restrained in lateral recumbency with the apex of the cornea positioned upward for 2 minutes following administration in each eye. Infrared pupillometry and direct pupillary light reflex measurements were used to evaluate the mydriatic effects. Pupillary measurements were recorded prior to administration and every 20 minutes for 2 hours after administration, then hourly for a total of 7 hours. A brief physical examination was performed, direct pupillary light reflex was tested, and fluorescein staining was performed on each eye of each bird 24 hours after administration. A significant difference in pupillary diameter for the active versus control treatment group was noted from 20 to 360 minutes after drug administration, but not at 420 minutes. Minimal adverse effects were noted. Three birds had transient inferior eyelid paresis noted in both eyes after receiving rocuronium; 24 hours after the treatment, no differences in ocular measurements existed between the active and control treatments. Results suggested that topical rocuronium bromide administration may be safely used for pupillary dilation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could be used for clinical evaluation, fundus imaging, and surgical interventions involving the lens and posterior segment in this species.
A neuroimmunologic model of alcohol withdrawal symptoms is developed according to which these may be considered as an idiopathic auto-immune disease. During the alcohol abuse period of non-addicts, homeostasis may alter pathologically by gradual adaptation of the organism: auto-sensitisation develops and finally leads to the breakdown of auto-immune tolerance of the structural modifications set by alcohol withdrawal. The immunosystem regards the existing assimilation of alcohol as self, the withdrawal of alcohol as non-self. Alcohol withdrawal may be considered as an acknowledged physical stressor, and physical stressors as potential triggers of auto-immune diseases. Some so-called alcohol-induced diseases may originate in the pathogenic effects of preceding auto-immune responses to repeated alcohol withdrawals. Neuroimmunologic preconditions of potential auto-immune diseases exactly fit the alcohol withdrawal situation. Neuroimmunologic diseases themselves show close analogies respectively to alcohol withdrawal symptoms as well as to some alcohol-induced diseases. The myelin basis protein is assumed to be a potential auto-allergen. Finally withdrawal symptoms being the expression of physical dependence on alcohol, the model may highlight the very nature of physical dependence.
Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Julie C.
Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood. PMID:18851686
Puppala, Bhagya L; Bhalla, Shaifali; Matwyshyn, George; Gulati, Anil
The involvement of central endothelin (ET) receptors in neonatal morphine tolerance has been demonstrated. The present study investigates the role of central ET receptors in morphine withdrawal in neonatal rats. The aim was to determine whether activation of G-proteins coupled to opioid and ET receptors by morphine and various ET receptor modulators is affected during morphine withdrawal in neonatal rats. Pregnant female rats were rendered tolerant to morphine by chronic exposure to morphine pellets during 7 days. On Day 8, pellets were removed and rats were allowed to undergo withdrawal for 24 hrs. Rat pups were delivered by cesarean section. G-protein stimulation induced by morphine; ET-1; the ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874; and the ET(B) receptor agonist, IRL1620, were determined in the brain of neonatal rats undergoing morphine withdrawal by [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay. Morphine produced higher (P < 0.05) maximal stimulation of G-protein in the morphine-withdrawal group (83.60%) compared with the placebo group (66.81%). ET-1-induced G-protein stimulation was also altered, and the median effective concentration (EC50) during morphine withdrawal (170.60 nM) was significantly higher than placebo (62.5 nM; P< 0.05). The maximal stimulation induced by the ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874, in the morphine-withdrawal group (86.07%; EC50 = 31.25 nM) was significantly higher than in the placebo group (EC50 > 1000 nM). The ET(B) agonist, IRL1620, induced G-protein stimulation was similar in placebo (73.43%, EC50 = 13.26 nM) and morphine-withdrawal groups (75.08%, EC(50) = 11.70 nM), respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating involvement of central ET(A) receptors in neonatal morphine withdrawal.
Wu, Xinmin; Oerding, Helle; Liu, Jin; Vanacker, Bernard; Yao, Shanglong; Dahl, Vegard; Xiong, Lize; Claudius, Casper; Yue, Yun; Huang, Yuguang; Abels, Esther; Rietbergen, Henk; Woo, Tiffany
This study compared efficacy and safety of the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex (2 mg/kg) with neostigmine (50 μg/kg) for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in Chinese and Caucasian subjects. This was a randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, safety-assessor-blinded study (NCT00825812) in American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 subjects undergoing surgery with propofol anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered for endotracheal intubation, with 0.1-0.2 mg/kg maintenance doses given as required. NMB was monitored using TOF-Watch(®) SX. At second twitch reappearance, after last rocuronium dose, subjects received sugammadex 2 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 μg/kg plus atropine 10-20 μg/kg, according to randomization. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex/neostigmine to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. Overall, 230 Chinese subjects (sugammadex, n = 119, neostigmine, n = 111); and 59 Caucasian subjects (sugammadex, n = 29, neostigmine, n = 30) had evaluable data. Geometric mean (95% CI) time to recovery to TOF ratio 0.9 was 1.6 (1.5-1.7) min with sugammadex vs 9.1 (8.0-10.3) min with neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Corresponding times for Caucasian subjects were 1.4 (1.3-1.5) min and 6.7 (5.5-8.0) min, respectively. Sugammadex 2 mg/kg was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. There was no residual NMB or recurrence of NMB. Both Chinese and Caucasian subjects recovered from NMB significantly faster after sugammadex 2 mg/kg vs neostigmine 50 μg/kg, with a ~5.7 times (p < 0.0001) faster recovery with sugammadex vs neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00825812.
Background This study compared efficacy and safety of the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex (2 mg/kg) with neostigmine (50 μg/kg) for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in Chinese and Caucasian subjects. Methods This was a randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, safety-assessor-blinded study (NCT00825812) in American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 subjects undergoing surgery with propofol anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered for endotracheal intubation, with 0.1–0.2 mg/kg maintenance doses given as required. NMB was monitored using TOF-Watch® SX. At second twitch reappearance, after last rocuronium dose, subjects received sugammadex 2 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 μg/kg plus atropine 10–20 μg/kg, according to randomization. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex/neostigmine to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. Results Overall, 230 Chinese subjects (sugammadex, n = 119, neostigmine, n = 111); and 59 Caucasian subjects (sugammadex, n = 29, neostigmine, n = 30) had evaluable data. Geometric mean (95% CI) time to recovery to TOF ratio 0.9 was 1.6 (1.5–1.7) min with sugammadex vs 9.1 (8.0–10.3) min with neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Corresponding times for Caucasian subjects were 1.4 (1.3–1.5) min and 6.7 (5.5–8.0) min, respectively. Sugammadex 2 mg/kg was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. There was no residual NMB or recurrence of NMB. Conclusion Both Chinese and Caucasian subjects recovered from NMB significantly faster after sugammadex 2 mg/kg vs neostigmine 50 μg/kg, with a ~5.7 times (p < 0.0001) faster recovery with sugammadex vs neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00825812. PMID:25187755
Mattoo, Surendra K.; Gaur, Navendu; Das, Partha P.
The Z-category hypnotics are promoted for their relative safety. However, this view is challenged by the emerging clinical evidence in the form of zolpidem related intoxication delirium and seizures, and dependence and complicated withdrawal. We report the case of a zolpidem-naive alcohol-dependent inpatient that, while undergoing alcohol de-addiction, was prescribed zolpidem for insomnia and developed delirium during taper-off. He was successfully detoxified for alcohol, treated for delirium and put on disulfiram prophylaxis. The case highlights the need for being cautious while using zolpidem for insomnia in alcohol dependent subjects. PMID:22144786
Manbeck, Katherine E; Shelley, David; Schmidt, Clare E; Harris, Andrew C
Development of medications that attenuate symptoms of nicotine withdrawal may be useful for facilitating smoking cessation. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXY) decreases withdrawal signs and other addiction-related effects of several drugs of abuse in animals, but has not been examined in a preclinical model of nicotine addiction. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of OXY on nicotine withdrawal in rats, measured as increases in somatic signs and elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior) during antagonist-precipitated withdrawal from a chronic nicotine infusion. Effects of OXY on baseline ICSS thresholds in non-dependent rats were also evaluated. OXY (0.06 - 1.0mg/kg, i.p.) blocked withdrawal-induced elevations in somatic signs in nicotine-dependent rats without affecting somatic signs in non-dependent rats. In contrast, OXY did not affect nicotine withdrawal-induced elevations in ICSS thresholds. Relatively high doses of OXY (0.75 or 2.0mg/kg) elevated baseline ICSS thresholds in non-dependent rats. These findings demonstrate that OXY blocks somatic signs but not elevations in ICSS thresholds during antagonist-precipitated nicotine withdrawal. The ability of higher OXY doses to elevate baseline ICSS thresholds in non-dependent rats may reflect an aversive and/or motoric effect. These data suggest that OXY-based medications may be useful for treating the somatic component of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome, but may not be effective in attenuating withdrawal-induced anhedonia.
This study evaluated 44 separate medication withdrawal periods in 17 subjects who were attending a hospital anticoagulation clinic for management of anticoagulation medication. The data suggest that when anticoagulant withdrawal is needed for particular dental procedures, a 2-day hold is an effective period of medication withdrawal. No thromboembolic events were observed after any of the withdrawal periods. Further, no posttreatment hemorrhagic episodes were observed when the anticoagulant medication was reinstituted after dental treatment. Prothrombin time blood levels should be determined in the immediate pretreatment period, however, because the prothrombin time can fluctuate even in the best maintained patients.
Messeha, Medhat M.; Elhesy, Abd-Elmonem
Background: The aim of this study was to compare orbital muscle akinesia caused by rocuronium versus hyaluronidase when mixed with the local anesthetic in single-injection peribulbar anesthesia (PBA). Patients and Methods: Sixty patients were included in the study and subjected to cataract extraction using phacoemulsification technique with intraocular lens implantation. Group I received peribulbar block with 5 ml mixture of 30 IU/ml hyaluronidase and 2% lidocaine. Group II received peribulbar block with 5 ml mixture of rocuronium 5 mg and 2% lidocaine. The onset and duration of akinesia were assessed; the akinesia score at 2, 5, and 10 min was measured after injection. The need for supplementary injection was also recorded. Results and Conclusion: PBA using a mixture of rocuronium and lidocaine provides optimal globe akinesia and faster establishment of suitable conditions to start eye surgery and shortens the block onset time as compared with the addition of hyaluronidase to lidocaine. PMID:26712977
It is not uncommon for patients who are receiving antipsychotic medication to be given anticholinergic agents, such as biperiden, despite the relative absence of neurological side-effects. Two cases of schizophrenia are reported in which insomnia developed after biperiden withdrawal or reduction. The insomnia continued until biperiden treatment was reinstated, despite the fact that the patients did not exhibit signs or report symptoms indicative of antipsychotic drug-induced neurological side-effects. The occurrence of insomnia following the withdrawal of biperiden or reduction in the dose has not been previously reported. One potential explanation for the insomnia is cholinergic rebound following the withdrawal of biperiden.
Evangelio, Alvaro; Campo-Cortes, Francisco; Gordillo, Jose Manuel
It is well known that the controlled production of monodisperse simple and composite emulsions possesses uncountable applications in medicine, pharmacy, materials science and industry. Here we present both experiments and slender-body theory regarding the generation of simple emulsions using a configuration that we have called Confined Selective Withdrawal, since it is an improved configuration of the classical Selective Withdrawal. We consider two different situations, namely, the cases when the outer flow Reynolds number is high and low, respectively. Several geometrical configurations and a wide range of viscosity ratios are analyzed so that the physics behind the phenomenon can be fully understood. In addition, we present both experiments and theory regarding the generation of composite emulsions. This phenomenon is only feasible when the outer flow Reynolds number is low enough. In this case, we propose a more complex theory which requires the simultaneous resolution of two interfaces in order to predict the shape of the jet and the sizes of the drops formed. The excellent agreement between our slender-body approximation and the experimental evidence fully validates our theories.
Montemayor, J. Joaquin; And Others
A sample of students who withdrew from Mesa (Arizona) Community College (MCC) during spring 1986 was surveyed to determine reasons for withdrawal and dropout characteristics. Study findings included the following: (1) the primary reason for withdrawing was conflicting job hours, with 52% of the students who were employed working over 40 hours per…
Soto, Roy; Jahr, Jonathan S; Pavlin, Janet; Sabo, Daniel; Philip, Beverly K; Egan, Talmage D; Rowe, Everton; de Bie, Joris; Woo, Tiffany
Complex surgical procedures are increasingly performed in an outpatient setting, with emphasis on rapid recovery and case turnover. In this study, the combination of rocuronium for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversed by single-dose sugammadex was compared with succinylcholine followed by spontaneous recovery in outpatient surgery. This multicenter, randomized, safety assessor-blinded study enrolled adults undergoing a short elective outpatient surgical procedure requiring NMB and tracheal intubation. Patients were randomized to NMB with either rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg for tracheal intubation with incremental doses of rocuronium 0.15 mg/kg and subsequent reversal with sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg at 1-2 posttetanic counts or succinylcholine 1.0 mg/kg for intubation with spontaneous recovery. The primary efficacy end point was the time from sugammadex administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9; for succinylcholine, time from administration to recovery of the first twitch (T1) to 90% was assessed. From 167 patients enrolled, 150 received treatment. The all-subjects-treated population comprised 70 patients in the rocuronium-sugammadex group and 80 in the succinylcholine group. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval) time from the start of sugammadex administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 1.8 (1.6-2.0) minutes. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval) time from succinylcholine administration to recovery of T1 to 90% was 10.8 (10.1-11.5) minutes. Health outcome variables were similar between the groups. Adverse events were reported in 87.1% and 93.8% of patients for rocuronium-sugammadex and succinylcholine, respectively. In conclusion, rocuronium for intubation followed by sugammadex for reversal of NMB offers a viable treatment option in outpatient surgery without prolonging recovery duration or jeopardizing safety.
Lyons, Danika; de Jaeger, Xavier; Rosen, Laura G; Ahmad, Tasha; Lauzon, Nicole M; Zunder, Jordan; Coolen, Lique M; Rushlow, Walter; Laviolette, Steven R
Opiate reward memories are powerful triggers for compulsive opiate-seeking behaviors. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is an important structure for the processing of opiate-related associative memories and is functionally linked to the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway. Transmission through intra-BLA DA D1-like and D2-like receptors independently modulates the formation of opiate reward memories as a function of opiate-exposure state. Thus, in the opiate-naive state, intra-BLA D1 transmission is required for opiate-related memory formation. Once opiate dependence and withdrawal has developed, a functional switch to a DA D2-mediated memory mechanism takes place. However, the downstream molecular signaling events that control this functional switch between intra-BLA DA D1 versus D2 receptor transmission are not currently understood. Using an unbiased place conditioning procedure in rats combined with molecular analyses, we report that opiate reward memory acquisition requires intra-BLA ERK1/2 signaling only in the previously opiate-naive state. However, following chronic opiate exposure and withdrawal, intra-BLA reward memory processing switches to a CaMKIIα-dependent memory substrate. Furthermore, the ability of intra-BLA DA D1 or D2 receptor transmission to modulate the motivational salience of opiates similarly operates through a D1-mediated ERK-dependent mechanism in the opiate-naive state, but switches to a D2-mediated CaMKIIα-dependent mechanism in the dependent/withdrawn state. Protein analysis of BLA tissue revealed a downregulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a dramatic reduction in both total and phosphorylated CaMKIIα signaling, specifically in the opiate-dependent/withdrawn state, demonstrating functional control of ERK1/2-dependent versus CaMKIIα-dependent memory mechanisms within the BLA, controlled by opiate-exposure state.
Vouga, Alexandre; Gregg, Ryan A.; Haidery, Maryah; Ramnath, Anita; Al-Hassani, Hassan K.; Tallarida, Christopher S.; Grizzanti, David; Raffa, Robert B.; Smith, Garry R.; Reitz, Allen B.; Rawls, Scott M.
Knowledge about the neuropharmacology of mephedrone (MEPH) applies primarily to the racemate, or street form of the drug, but not to its individual enantiomers. Here, through chemical isolation of MEPH enantiomers and subsequent behavioral characterization in established invertebrate (planarian) assays, we began separating adverse effects of MEPH from potential therapeutic actions. We first compared stereotypical and environmental place conditioning (EPC) effects of racemic MEPH, S-MEPH, and R-MEPH. Stereotypy was enhanced by acute treatment (100–1000 μM) with each compound; however, S-MEPH was less potent and efficacious than racemate and R-MEPH. Both R-MEPH (10, 100, 250 μM) and racemate (100 μM) produced EPC, but S-MEPH was ineffective at all concentrations (10–100 μM). After showing that S-MEPH lacked rewarding efficacy, we investigated its ability to alter three of cocaine's behavioral effects (EPC, withdrawal, and stereotypy). Cocaine (1 μM) produced EPC that was abolished when S-MEPH (100 μM) was administered after cocaine conditioning. Spontaneous withdrawal from chronic cocaine exposure caused a reduction in motility that was not evident during acute or continuous cocaine treatment but was attenuated by S-MEPH (100 μM) treatment during the cocaine abstinence interval. Acute stereotypy produced by 1 mM cocaine, nicotine or racemic MEPH was not affected by S-MEPH (10–250 μM). The present results obtained using planarian assays suggest that the R-enantiomer of MEPH is predominantly responsible for its stimulant and rewarding effects and the S-enantiomer is capable of antagonizing cocaine's addictive-like behaviors without producing rewarding effects of its own. PMID:25496724
Zahr, Natalie M; Mayer, Dirk; Vinco, Shara; Orduna, Juan; Luong, Richard; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in human alcoholics report decreases in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing (Cho) compounds. Whether alterations in brain metabolite levels are attributable to alcohol per se or to physiological effects of protracted withdrawal or impaired nutritional or liver status remains unclear. Longitudinal effects of alcohol on brain metabolites measured in basal ganglia with single-voxel MRS were investigated in sibling pairs of wild-type Wistar rats, with one rat per pair exposed to escalating doses of vaporized alcohol, the other to vapor chamber air. MRS was conducted before alcohol exposure and twice during exposure. After 16 weeks of alcohol exposure, rats achieved average blood alcohol levels (BALs) of ~ 293 mg per 100 ml and had higher Cho and a trend for higher glutamine + glutamate (Glx) than controls. After 24 weeks of alcohol exposure, BALs rose to ~ 445 mg per 100 ml, and alcohol-exposed rats had higher Cho, Glx, and glutamate than controls. Thiamine and thiamine monophosphate levels were significantly lower in the alcohol than the control group but did not reach levels low enough to be considered clinically relevant. Histologically, livers of alcohol-exposed rats exhibited greater steatosis and lower glycogenosis than controls, but were not cirrhotic. This study demonstrates a specific pattern of neurobiochemical changes suggesting excessive membrane turnover or inflammation, indicated by high Cho, and alterations to glutamate homeostasis in the rat brain in response to extended vaporized alcohol exposure. Thus, we provide novel in vivo evidence for alcohol exposure as causing changes in brain chemistry in the absence of protracted withdrawal, pronounced thiamine deficiency, or severe liver damage. PMID:18704091
Vouga, Alexandre; Gregg, Ryan A; Haidery, Maryah; Ramnath, Anita; Al-Hassani, Hassan K; Tallarida, Christopher S; Grizzanti, David; Raffa, Robert B; Smith, Garry R; Reitz, Allen B; Rawls, Scott M
Knowledge about the neuropharmacology of mephedrone (MEPH) applies primarily to the racemate, or street form of the drug, but not to its individual enantiomers. Here, through chemical isolation of MEPH enantiomers and subsequent behavioral characterization in established invertebrate (planarian) assays, we began separating adverse effects of MEPH from potential therapeutic actions. We first compared stereotypical and environmental place conditioning (EPC) effects of racemic MEPH, S-MEPH, and R-MEPH. Stereotypy was enhanced by acute treatment (100-1000 μM) with each compound; however, S-MEPH was less potent and efficacious than racemate and R-MEPH. Both R-MEPH (10, 100, 250 μM) and racemate (100 μM) produced EPC, but S-MEPH was ineffective at all concentrations (10-100 μM). After showing that S-MEPH lacked rewarding efficacy, we investigated its ability to alter three of cocaine's behavioral effects (EPC, withdrawal, and stereotypy). Cocaine (1 μM) produced EPC that was abolished when S-MEPH (100 μM) was administered after cocaine conditioning. Spontaneous withdrawal from chronic cocaine exposure caused a reduction in motility that was not evident during acute or continuous cocaine treatment but was attenuated by S-MEPH (100 μM) treatment during the cocaine abstinence interval. Acute stereotypy produced by 1 mM cocaine, nicotine or racemic MEPH was not affected by S-MEPH (10-250 μM). The present results obtained using planarian assays suggest that the R-enantiomer of MEPH is predominantly responsible for its stimulant and rewarding effects and the S-enantiomer is capable of antagonizing cocaine's addictive-like behaviors without producing rewarding effects of its own. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zahr, Natalie M; Mayer, Dirk; Vinco, Shara; Orduna, Juan; Luong, Richard; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in human alcoholics report decreases in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing (Cho) compounds. Whether alterations in brain metabolite levels are attributable to alcohol per se or to physiological effects of protracted withdrawal or impaired nutritional or liver status remains unclear. Longitudinal effects of alcohol on brain metabolites measured in basal ganglia with single-voxel MRS were investigated in sibling pairs of wild-type Wistar rats, with one rat per pair exposed to escalating doses of vaporized alcohol, the other to vapor chamber air. MRS was conducted before alcohol exposure and twice during exposure. After 16 weeks of alcohol exposure, rats achieved average blood alcohol levels (BALs) of approximately 293 mg per 100 ml and had higher Cho and a trend for higher glutamine+glutamate (Glx) than controls. After 24 weeks of alcohol exposure, BALs rose to approximately 445 mg per 100 ml, and alcohol-exposed rats had higher Cho, Glx, and glutamate than controls. Thiamine and thiamine monophosphate levels were significantly lower in the alcohol than the control group but did not reach levels low enough to be considered clinically relevant. Histologically, livers of alcohol-exposed rats exhibited greater steatosis and lower glycogenosis than controls, but were not cirrhotic. This study demonstrates a specific pattern of neurobiochemical changes suggesting excessive membrane turnover or inflammation, indicated by high Cho, and alterations to glutamate homeostasis in the rat brain in response to extended vaporized alcohol exposure. Thus, we provide novel in vivo evidence for alcohol exposure as causing changes in brain chemistry in the absence of protracted withdrawal, pronounced thiamine deficiency, or severe liver damage.
Hagen, Peter F.; Cartnal, Ryan
The spring 1999 student withdrawal survey was made available for approximately two weeks before the final withdrawal deadline to all students who formally dropped a class through the admissions office at either the North County or San Luis Obsipo campus of Cuesta College in California. A total of 438 useable surveys were collected. The identical…
Fuller, J A
Nicotine addiction makes it very difficult for most smokers to quit. This study examined the relapse rate of 194 people (118 men and 76 women) who were given acupuncture treatment to help them stop smoking. Ninety five per cent of patients quit smoking after three acupuncture treatments. Fifty-five (32%) of the 174 patients who replied to a mailed questionnaire said they had not smoked since treatment; the success rate was: one week, 86%; six months 41%; 12 months, 34% and 24 months, 30%. There were no further relapses amongst those patients who abstained for more than 24 months. Eighty-five per cent of those who responded reported that acupuncture had eased the symptoms of smoking withdrawal. However, if the patient's motivation is weak, subsequent relapse will occur.
... Free Resources Medications Can Help You Quit Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy Busting NRT Myths Smokefree Phone Apps ... Withdrawal Understanding Withdrawal Quiz: How Strong is Your Nicotine Addiction? Quiz: What Are Your Withdrawal Symptoms? Dealing ...
Bemer, V; Truffa-Bachi, P
Cyclosporin A (CSA), an immunosuppressive agent used in organ transplantation and to treat some autoimmune diseases, blocks the Ca2+-dependent steps involved in T cell receptor triggering leading to interleukin (IL)-2 production. Considering that the early steps of T cell activation are insensitive to CSA, we asked whether the initial activation achieved in presence of this immunosuppressor could affect the capacity of the T cell to respond to a mitogenic restimulation. We found that T cells activated by concanavalin A (ConA) for 48 h in the presence of CSA retain the capacity to proliferate in response to ConA once the immunosuppressor is removed. These cells are able to transcribe anew the IL-2 gene, without the requirement of new protein synthesis, and to up-regulate the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor. Furthermore, we present the first direct evidence that the nuclear factor AP-1 is present in the nucleus of the T cells primed for 48 h in presence of CSA and that withdrawal of the immunosuppressor leads to the translocation of NFATp from the cytoplasm to the nucleus.
Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M
Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction.
Aguirre, Claudia; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M.
Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and three unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (10≥cig/day; N=286) attended two counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1-hour vs. 17-hours). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically-unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. PMID:25961814
Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning
Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL. We also searched registers of ongoing trials. We handsearched the references quoted in the identified trials, and sought information from researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and relevant trial authors about unpublished or uncompleted trials. We placed no restrictions on language. We included all randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating baclofen versus placebo or any other treatment for people with AWS. We excluded uncontrolled, non-randomised, or quasi-randomised trials. We included both parallel group and cross-over studies. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included three RCTs with 141 randomised participants. We did not perform meta-analyses due to the different control interventions. For the comparison of baclofen and placebo (1 study, 31 participants), there was no significant difference in Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, Revised (CIWA-Ar) scores (very low quality evidence). For the comparison of baclofen and diazepam (1 study, 37 participants), there was no significant difference in CIWA-Ar scores (very low quality evidence), adverse events (risk difference (RD) 0.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence), dropouts (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence), and dropouts due to adverse events (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.10; very low quality evidence). For the comparison of
El jaouhari, Sidi Driss; Meziane, Mohamed; Ahtil, Redouane; Bensghir, Mustapha; Haimeur, Charki
La laryngoscopie directe en suspension est un geste chirurgical diagnostique et/ou thérapeutique des lésions endo-laryngées. Sa gestion anesthésique est compliquée. Différentes techniques anesthésiques peuvent être proposées. Malgré les contraintes, les curares gardent tout leur intérêt. L’association rocuronium et sugammadex est envisageable, elle permet une inversion rapide du bloc neuromusculaire profond et par conséquent une réduction de la morbidité postopératoire. Nous rapportons un cas d’une laryngoscopie directe en suspension réalisée sous anesthésie générale dont l’utilisation de l’association rocuronium-sugammadex a permis une facilité du geste chirurgicale, une sécurité pour le patient et un confort pour l’anesthésiste. PMID:28690746
Gong, Ya-Hong; Yi, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Li
The flexible laryngeal mask airway (FLMA) is becoming more and more popular in general anesthesia during surgery of head, neck and upper chest. But very limited information has been published about whether muscle relaxant was necessary or not for anesthesia with FLMA. To investigate whether low-dose muscle relaxant is necessary in preventing ventilation leak of FLMA in radical mastectomy, forty-eight female patients undergoing radical mastectomy were enrolled in the study. They were randomly divided into low-dose muscle relaxant (LD-MR) group and non-muscle relaxant (non-MR) group. All the included patients received total intravenous anesthesia (with propofol, fentanyl and remifentanil) and controlled mechanical ventilation with FLMA during the surgery. Patients in LD-MR group received 0.4 mg/kg rocuronium during anesthesia induction, while patients in non-MR group received equivalent volumes of physiological saline. Insertion time was shorter in LD-MR group than that in non-MR group (P < 0.05). Peak airway pressures and ventilation leak volumes at 10, 20 and 30 minutes were lower in LD-MR group than those in non-MR group (P < 0.05). No difference was found between LD-MR and non-MR group in terms of emergence time, FLMA extraction time, and maximum tidal volumes before FLMA extraction. The results show that low-dose rocuronium could reduce the ventilation leak for mechanical ventilation with FLMA during radical mastectomy without prolonging the emergence time. PMID:26550303
Wang, T; Huang, S; Geng, G
We investigated whether laparoscopic vs open surgical approaches affected the duration of neuromuscular blockade following a single bolus dose of rocuronium. Fifty-three female patients underwent either laparoscopic or open gynaecological surgery. Rocuronium 0.6 mg.kg(-1) was administered to achieve neuromuscular blockade in all subjects, and adductor pollicis train-of-four responses following ulnar nerve stimulation were monitored with mechanomyography. The mean (SD) time from injection of rocuronium until spontaneous recovery of the first twitch, and to 5% and 25% of baseline, was significantly prolonged in the laparoscopic group (27.2 (8.3) min, 31.3 (9.1) min and 38.1 (10.6) min, respectively) compared with the open surgery group (21.1 (5.8) min, 25.6 (6.3) min and 31.2 (6.7) min, respectively). Changes in liver function both before surgery and at 24 h postoperatively were similar between the two groups (p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that neuromuscular blockade may be prolonged following a single bolus dose of rocuronium given during laparoscopic procedures.
Coupar, I M; Tran, B L
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the A1/A2 receptor agonist, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), and the selective A1 agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), induced physical dependence by quantifying specific antagonist-precipitated withdrawal syndromes in conscious rats. In addition, the presence of bidirectional cross-withdrawal was also investigated. The agonists were administered s.c. to groups of rats at 12 h intervals. Antagonists were administered s.c., 12 hours after the last dose, followed by observation and measurement of faecal output for 20 min. NECA (4 x 0.03 mg kg(-1), s.c) and CPA (4 x 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg(-1), s.c.) induced physical dependence, as shown by the expression of a significant withdrawal syndrome when challenged with the adenosine A1/A2 receptor antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX, 0.1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and the A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPDPX, 0.1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) respectively. The syndromes consisted of teeth chattering and shaking behaviours shown to occur in morphine-dependent animals withdrawn with naloxone viz, paw, body and 'wet-dog' shakes, but with the additional behaviours of head shaking and yawning. In further contrast to the opiate withdrawal syndrome, no diarrhoea occurred in the groups of animals treated with adenosine agonists and withdrawn with their respective antagonists. Bidirectional cross-withdrawal syndromes were also revealed when naloxone (3 mg kg(-1), s.c.) was administered to adenosine agonist pre-treated rats and adenosine antagonists were given to morphine pre-treated rats. This study provides further information illustrating that close links exist between the adenosine and opiate systems.
Lambert, P.M.; Marston, T.; Kimball, B.A.; Stolp, B.J.
Roosevelt City, Utah, asserts a need for an additional supply of water to meet municipal demands and has identified a potential location for additional groundwater development at the Sprouse well field near the West Channel of the Uinta River. Groundwater is commonly hydraulically linked to surface water and, under some conditions, the pumpage of groundwater can deplete water in streams and other water bodies. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Roosevelt City, the Utah Department of Natural Resources, and the Ute Indian Tribe, began a study to improve understanding of the local interconnection between groundwater and surface water and to assess the potential for streamflow depletion from future groundwater withdrawals at a potential Roosevelt City development location—the Sprouse well field near the West Channel of the Uinta River.In the study, streamflow gains and losses at the river/aquifer boundary near the well field and changes in those conditions over time were assessed through (1) synoptic measurement of discharge in the stream at multiple sites using tracer-dilution methods, (2) periodic measurement of the vertical hydraulic gradient across the streambed, and (3) continuous measurement of stream and streambed water temperature using heat as a tracer of flow across the streambed. Although some contradictions among the results of the three assessment methods were observed, results of the approaches generally indicated (1) losing streamflow conditions on the West Channel of the Uinta River north of and upstream from the Sprouse well field within the study area, (2) gaining streamflow conditions south of and downstream from the well field, and (3) some seasonal changes in those conditions that correspond with seasonal changes in stream stage and local water-table altitudes.A numerical groundwater flow model was developed on the basis of previously reported observations and observations made during this study, and was used to estimate
Wscieklica, Tatiana; de Barros Viana, Milena; Le Sueur Maluf, Luciana; Pouza, Kathlein Cristiny Peres; Spadari, Regina Célia; Céspedes, Isabel Cristina
Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsion to seek and take the drug, loss of control in limiting intake and, eventually, the emergence of a negative emotional state when access to the drug is prevented. Both dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated systems seem to play important roles in the modulation of alcohol abuse and dependence. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on anxiety and locomotor parameters and on the activation of dopamine and CRF-innervated brain regions. Male Wistar rats were given a choice of two bottles for 31 days, one containing water and the other a solution of saccharin + alcohol. Control animals only received water and a solution of 0.2% saccharin. On the 31st day, animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze and open field, and euthanized immediately after the behavioral tests. An independent group of animals was treated with ethanol and used to measure blood ethanol concentration. Results showed that alcohol intake did not alter behavioral measurements in the plus-maze, but increased the number of crossings in the open field, an index of locomotor activity. Additionally, alcohol intake increased Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the prefrontal cortex, in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens, in the medial and central amygdala, in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, in the septal region, and in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus, structures that have been linked to reward and to approach/withdrawal behavior. These observations might be relevant to a better understanding of the behavioral and physiological alterations that follow alcohol consumption.
Marella, Richard L.
The largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals was from the South Florida Water Management District (46 percent), followed by the St. Johns River Water Management District (20 percent), Southwest Florida Water Management District (19 percent), Northwest Florida Water Management District (9 percent), and Suwannee River Water Management District (6 percent). The South Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for public-supply use (46 percent), commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied use (24 percent), agricultural self-supplied use (59 percent), and recreational-landscape irrigation use (63 percent). The Northwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for power-generation use (44 percent), and the Southwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of saline-water withdrawals for power-generation use (58 percent).
Gatch, Michael B.; Nguyen, Jacques D.; Carbonaro, Theresa; Forster, Michael J.
Aims Carisoprodol is a muscle relaxant that acts at the GABAA receptor. Concerns about the abuse liability of carisoprodol are increasing, but evidence that carisoprodol produces tolerance and a significant withdrawal syndrome has yet to be established. The purpose of the current study was to determine if repeated administration of carisoprodol produces tolerance and withdrawal signs in a mouse model. Methods Carisoprodol (0, 100, 200, 300, or 500 mg/kg bid, i.p.) was administered to Swiss-Webster mice for 4 days and loss-of-righting reflex was measured 20 to 30 minutes following each administration. On the fourth day, bemegride (20 mg/kg), flumazenil (20 mg/kg), or vehicle was administered following carisoprodol and withdrawal signs were measured. Separate groups of mice receiving the same treatment regimen and dose range were tested for spontaneous withdrawal at 6, 12 and 24 hr after the last dose of carisoprodol. Results The righting reflex was dose-dependently impaired following the first administration of carisoprodol. A 75 to 100% decrease in the magnitude of the impairment occurred over the four days of exposure, indicating the development of tolerance to the carisoprodol-elicited loss-of-righting reflex. Withdrawal signs were not observed within 24 hours following spontaneous withdrawal; however, bemegride and flumazenil each precipitated withdrawal within 15 to 30 min of administration. Conclusions Carisoprodol treatment resulted in tolerance and antagonist-precipitated withdrawal, suggesting it may have an addiction potential similar to that of other long-acting benzodiazepine or barbiturate compounds. PMID:22055010
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....
... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply...
... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply...
... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall comply...
Progestins Upregulate FKBP51 Expression in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells to Induce Functional Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Withdrawal: Implications for Contraceptive- Associated Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.
Guzeloglu Kayisli, Ozlem; Kayisli, Umit A; Basar, Murat; Semerci, Nihan; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J
. The resultant PR and/or GR-mediated functional withdrawal may contribute to associated endometrial inflammation, aberrant angiogenesis, and bleeding.
Withdrawal is an essential component of classical addiction theory; it is a vital manifestation of dependence and motivates relapse. However, the traditional conceptualization of withdrawal as a cohesive collection of symptoms that emerge during drug deprivation and decline with either the passage of time or reinstatement of drug use, may be inadequate to explain scientific findings or fit with modern theories of addiction. This article expands the current understanding of tobacco withdrawal by examining: (1) withdrawal variability; (2) underlying causes of withdrawal variability, including biological and person factors, environmental influences, and the influence of highly routinized behavioral patterns; (3) new withdrawal symptoms that allow for enhanced characterization of the withdrawal experience; and (4) withdrawal-related cognitive processes. These topics provide guidance regarding the optimal assessment of withdrawal and illustrate the potential impact modern withdrawal conceptualization and assessment could have on identifying treatment targets. PMID:25744958
Miller, Shannon C
As part of a synthesis of evidence regarding the abuse and addiction liability of dextromethorphan (DM), an over-the-counter cough medicine available in over 140 preparations, an uncommonly published case of dextromethorphan dependence (addiction) is described, with specific, rarely published complications. The individual was interviewed and several medical databases were also reviewed (Medline, 1966-present; PubMed) for all content relating to the Keywords: dextromethorphan, abuse, dependence, cough medicine, addiction, withdrawal, psychosis. The patient evidenced history suggesting substance dependence, substance-induced psychosis and substance withdrawal in relation to DM. A literature review revealed that DM has specific serotonergic and sigma-1 opioidergic properties. Dextrorphan (DOR), the active metabolite of DM, has similar properties; however, DOR is a weaker sigma opioid receptor agonist, and a stronger NMDA receptor antagonist. DM and DOR display specific biological features of addiction, and are capable of inducing specific psychiatric sequelae. A specific, reproducible toxidrome with significant psychiatric effects occurred, when DM was abused at greater than indicated doses, with more profound and potentially life-threatening effects at even higher doses. DM withdrawal appears evident. DM's active metabolite, DOR, has pharmacodynamic properties and intoxication effects similar to dissociatives, and may be more responsible for the dissociative effect that this DM abuser sought. However, it is this same metabolite that may be fraught with the potentially life-threatening psychoses and dissociative-induced accidents, as well as addiction. While DM has been hypothesized as the most commonly abused dissociative, health-care providers seem largely unaware of its toxidrome and addiction liability.
Mattei, Vincenzo; Martellucci, Stefano; Santilli, Francesca; Manganelli, Valeria; Garofalo, Tina; Candelise, Niccolò; Caruso, Alessandra; Sorice, Maurizio; Scaccianoce, Sergio
The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain structure susceptible to damage during aging and chronic stress. Repeated exposure to opioids may alter the brain so that it functions normally when the drugs are present, thus, a prolonged withdrawal might lead to homeostatic changes headed for the restoration of the physiological state. Abuse of morphine may lead to Reacting Oxygen Species-induced neurodegeneration and apoptosis. It has been proposed that during morphine withdrawal, stress responses might be responsible, at least in part, for long-term changes of hippocampal plasticity. Since prion protein is involved in both, Reacting Oxygen Species mediated stress responses and synaptic plasticity, in this work we investigate the effect of opiate withdrawal in rats after morphine treatment. We hypothesize that stressful stimuli induced by opiate withdrawal, and the subsequent long-term homeostatic changes in hippocampal plasticity, might modulate the Prion protein expression. Our results indicate that abstinence from the opiate induced a time-dependent and region-specific modification in Prion protein content, indeed during morphine withdrawal a selective unbalance of hippocampal Prion Protein is observable. Moreover, Prion protein overexpression in hippocampal tissue seems to generate a dimeric structure of Prion protein and α-cleavage at the hydrophobic domain. Stress factors or toxic insults can induce cytosolic dimerization of Prion Protein through the hydrophobic domain, which in turn, it stimulates the α-cleavage and the production of neuroprotective Prion protein fragments. We speculate that this might be the mechanism by which stressful stimuli induced by opiate withdrawal and the subsequent long-term homeostatic changes in hippocampal plasticity, modulate the expression and the dynamics of Prion protein. PMID:28081197
Jin, Biao; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yan; Wang, Di; Jiang, Xiao X; Zhang, Min; Wang, Li
The pollination drop (PD) is a characteristic feature of many wind-pollinated gymnosperms. Although accumulating evidence shows that the PD plays a critical role in the pollination process, the mechanism of PD withdrawal is still unclear. Here, we carefully observed the PD withdrawal process and investigated the underlying mechanism of PD withdrawal, which will aid the understanding of wind-pollination efficiency in gymnosperms. In Ginkgo biloba, PDs were secreted on the micropyle during the pollination period and persisted for about 240 h when not pollinated under laboratory conditions. The withdrawal of an isolated PD required only 1 h for evaporation, much less than a PD on the living ovule, which required 100 h. When pollinated with viable pollen, PDs withdrew rapidly within 4 h. In contrast, nonviable pollen and acetone-treated pollen did not cause PD withdrawal. Although 100% relative humidity significantly inhibited PD withdrawal, pollinated PDs still could withdraw completely within 48 h. Pollen grains of Cycas revoluta, which are similar to those of G. biloba, could induce PD withdrawal more rapidly than those of two distantly related gymnosperms (Pinus thunbergii and Abies firma) or two angiosperms (Paeonia suffruticosa and Orychophragmus violaceus). Furthermore, pollen of G. biloba and C. revoluta submerged immediately when encountering the PD, then sank to the bottom and entered the micropyle. The saccate pollen of P. thunbergii and A. firma submerged into the PD, but remained floating at the top and finally accumulated on the micropyle after PD withdrawal. In contrast, pollen of the angiosperms P. suffruticosa, Salix babylonica, and O. violaceus did not submerge, instead remaining clustered at the edge without entering the PD. We conclude that PD withdrawal is primarily determined by the dynamic balance between evaporation and ovule secretion, of which pollen is a critical stimulator. When conspecific pollen grains were submerged in the PD, ovule
Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...
Zimmerman, Ryan D; Swider, Brian W; Woo, Sang Eun; Allen, David G
Psychological individual differences, such as personality, affectivity, and general mental ability, have been shown to predict numerous work-related behaviors. Although there is substantial research demonstrating relationships between psychological individual differences and withdrawal behaviors (i.e., lateness, absenteeism, and turnover), there is no integrative framework providing scholars and practitioners a guide for conceptualizing how, why, and under what circumstances we observe such relationships. In this integrative conceptual review we: (a) utilize the Cognitive-Affective Processing System framework (Mischel & Shoda, 1995) to provide an overarching theoretical basis for how psychological individual differences affect withdrawal behaviors; (b) create a theoretical model of the situated person that summarizes the existing empirical literature examining the effect of psychological differences on withdrawal behavior; and (c) identify future research opportunities based on our review and integrative framework.
Kelschenbach, Jennifer; Barke, Roderick A; Roy, Sabita
The consequences that drug withdrawal has on immune functioning has only recently been appreciated; however, given the wide variety of use and abuse of opiate analgesics, understanding the decrements to immune function that withdrawal from these drugs causes is of crucial importance. In previous work, we have demonstrated that morphine treatment contributes to immunosuppression by polarizing Th cells toward the Th2 lineage. In the current study, it was hypothesized that morphine withdrawal would result in Th2 differentiation and subsequent immune dysfunction. To address this hypothesis, mice were chronically treated with morphine for 72 h followed by a 24-h withdrawal period. It was determined that 24-h morphine withdrawal resulted in a decrease in IFN-gamma, the Th1 signature cytokine, whereas the Th2 cytokine, IL-4, was increased. In addition, Western blot and EMSA experiments revealed that morphine withdrawal-induced Th2 differentiation was mediated through the classical Th2 transcription factors Stat-6 and GATA-3. In addition, the consequence of morphine withdrawal in the presence of an immune stimulation was also examined by treating mice in vivo with LPS before morphine withdrawal. Following withdrawal, it was found that the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12 was significantly decreased, providing further support for the observation that withdrawal results in Th2 differentiation by possibly impacting the generation of an appropriate innate immune response which directs subsequent adaptive Th1/Th2 responses.
Umathe, S N; Mundhada, Y R; Bhutada, P S
Recent studies have provided convincing evidences for co-morbidity between opioid addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and the involvement of the corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in the effects of morphine-withdrawal. Some scanty evidences also point towards the role of CRF in OCD and related disorders. But, no evidence indicated the role of CRF in morphine withdrawal associated obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB). Therefore, the present study investigated the role of CRF in morphine-withdrawal induced OCB in mice. Marble-burying behavior in mice was used to assess OCB as this model has good predictive and face validity. The results revealed that acute morphine dose dependently attenuated the marble burying behavior, whereas withdrawal of chronic morphine was associated with significant rise in marble burying behavior. This indicates the differential effect of acute morphine and chronic morphine-withdrawal on OCB. Further, acute treatment with CRF receptor antagonists like antalarmin (2 and 4 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) or astressin-2B (3 and 10 nmol/mouse, i.c.v.) dose dependently attenuated the peak morphine-withdrawal induced increase in marble burying behavior. Moreover, concomitant treatment with antalarmin (4 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) or astressin-2B (10 nmol/mouse, i.c.v.) along with morphine blocked the morphine-withdrawal associated exacerbation of OCB. These results indicate that OCB associated with morphine withdrawal state is partly mediated by the activation of central CRF receptors.
Pickard, Amelia; Lobo, Clinton; Stoddart, Peter A
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) is the commonest muscular dystrophy found in adults; however, it may present in the neonatal period with hypotonia, talipes, poor feeding, and respiratory failure. Inheritance is autosomal dominant with a defect in the DMPK gene found on the long arm of chromosome 19 with variable expansion of the cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) triplet repeat. A 14-month-old boy with congenital MD type 1 was scheduled for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) insertion, orchidopexy, and division of tongue-tie. Following induction of anesthesia, acceleromyography was used to monitor neuromuscular function. This revealed a very rapid onset of profound neuromuscular block which lasted significantly longer than would be expected in a child without MD1. Sugammadex reversed the block rapidly. The anesthetic management of children with MD1 has been well described but not the acceleromyographic monitored use of rocuronium and its subsequent reversal with the new cyclodextrin sugammadex.
This project investigated the effects of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers on behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of ethanol withdrawal. The effects of the dihydropyridine (+)-PN 200-110, on changes in neuronal function during ethanol withdrawal, were compared with effects on changes caused by the GABAergic convulsant drug bicuculline. Behavioral correlates of ethanol withdrawal were measured in two strains of mice using a rating of handling-induced convulsions. Concurrent chronic treatment with ethanol and the dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers ([plus minus])-nitrendipine, ([plus minus])-nimodipine or ([plus minus])-PN 200-110 prevented withdrawal-induced increased in convulsive behavior. This effect was dose dependent. The duration of chronic treatment with calcium channel blocker affected the degree of protection against increases in convulsive behavior seen during ethanol withdrawal. Concurrent chronic treatment with ethanol, and the mixed calcium channel activator/blocker ([plus minus])-BAY K 8644, prevented ethanol withdrawal-induced increases in convulsive behavior. Single acute injections of nitrendipine immediately on cessation of chronic treatment with ethanol, or 2h later, reduced withdrawal-induced increases in convulsive behavior in a dose-dependent manner throughout the 12h test period. Slices isolated from mice after chronic ethanol treatment showed a complex, time-dependent pattern of changes in the above measurements, culminating in epileptiform discharges seen from 4h to 7h into withdrawal.
Shahidi, Siamak; Hasanein, Parisa
Chronic morphine exposure causes tolerance and dependence. The cessation of morphine consumption induces a withdrawal syndrome that may involve cannabinoids and is characterized by undesirable psychological and physical signs. The present study examined whether augmentation of the endocannabinoid system by inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase could suppress the morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-addicted rats. Morphine dependency was induced by 7 consecutive days of morphine injection. The morphine-addicted rats received URB597 (1, 0.5, 0.3, 0.1, 0.03 mg/kg), a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, before the precipitation of morphine withdrawal syndromes by naloxone. Withdrawal symptoms including jumping, teeth chattering, paw tremor, wet dog shakes, face grooming, penis licking, standing, rearing, sniffing and percent of weight loss were recorded during 30 min after naloxone injection. The results showed that the morphine withdrawal precipitated rats had significantly more withdrawal symptoms than naive control rats and the administration of URB597 (all doses except 0.03 mg/kg) reduced most of the morphine withdrawal symptoms. We conclude that the administration of URB597 modulated morphine withdrawal symptoms. This finding shows that endocannabinoids interact with the opioid system during the morphine withdrawal period and that potentiation of the endogenous cannabinoid system by URB597 may be a new target strategy for the management of morphine addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cortese, Silvia; Risso, Marina
Although the opiate dependence is of low frequency in our midst, it is important to know its management because it requires medical treatment in most cases. At present, in our country, we may classify the different patient populations able to submit an opioid withdrawal syndrome in patients undergoing chronic treatment with opioids, patients in intensive care units, neonatal mother addicted patients and addicts from the general population or linked to the health system. Detoxification programs are typically characterized by a low rate of completion of treatment and a high rate of relapse. The opioid withdrawal syndrome is objectively and subjectively severe and moderate and the goals of the therapy for the Opiates Withdrawal Syndrome are: to prevent or reduce the objective and subjective symptoms of abstinence; to prevent or treat its most serious complications; to treat preexisting or concurrent psychiatric disorders; to reduce the frequency or severity of relapses and to rehabilitate in the long term.
Veatch, Lynn M; Becker, Howard C
Repeated cycles of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal result in sensitization of withdrawal-related CNS hyperexcitability that generally reflects an imbalance in activity of GABA and glutamate systems. Many pharmacological treatments for ethanol withdrawal target neuroadaptive changes in GABA and glutamate neurotransmission. The present study utilized a mouse model of repeated withdrawals to evaluate the ability of lorazepam and MK-801 treatments to antagonize behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of sensitized withdrawal seizure activity. Adult male C3H/He mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers (16 h/day) and during each withdrawal cycle, separate groups of mice were evaluated for handling-induced convulsions (HIC) or abnormal EEG (high-voltage "brief spindle episodes" (BSE)) activity. Lorazepam (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) or MK-801 (0.1-0.3 mg/kg) treatment at 1 h into each of three withdrawal cycles reduced behavioral (HIC) and electrographic (BSE) signs of seizure activity in a dose-related fashion compared to vehicle-treated mice. During a subsequent untreated withdrawal, mice previously treated with lorazepam or MK-801 for earlier withdrawals exhibited reduced HIC activity during the acute phase but exacerbated HIC activity during the protracted phase of this final (fourth) withdrawal cycle. Both lorazepam and MK-801 treatment conditions resulted in enhanced BSE activity during the entire fourth (untreated) withdrawal episode. Collectively, these results suggest that while treatment of repeated ethanol withdrawals with a benzodiazepine (lorazepam) or an NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801) may have some initial benefits in ameliorating the development of sensitized withdrawal excitability, such treatment may also render subjects more vulnerable to seizure activity at later time points.
Hall, Brandon J; Pearson, Laura S; Buccafusco, Jerry J
The use-dependent, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist bis-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl) sebacate (BTMPS) was studied for its potential to reduce the self-administration of nicotine in rats, as well as to reduce context-induced recidivistic-like behavior after a six-week period of cessation. Rats were allowed to self-administer nicotine (FR1 schedule) inside an operant chamber with a response lever active on a 24 h basis for 14 days. After the self-administration phase, the rats were returned to standard maintenance cages for a period of six weeks. At the end of six weeks the rats were returned to the operant chambers for 7 days and lever responses were recorded under conditions identical to the original self-administration phase, except that lever responses were not rewarded. Daily administration (s.c.) of BTMPS produced a dose-dependent decrease in the self-administration of nicotine 55-80% compared to control animals, and significantly decreased context-induced lever responding initiated six weeks after cessation (35-78% reduction vs. controls). Decreasing the BTMPS regimen to administration once every 3 days was not effective in reducing nicotine self-administration, but lever responding induced during the return to the operant chambers 6 weeks later was significantly decreased (40% reduction vs. controls). Therefore BTMPS can selectively reduce both self-administration of nicotine and long-term recidivistic-like behavior depending upon the dose regimen. Since BTMPS does not evoke anti-nicotinic effects under normal physiological conditions, these data support a proof of concept for the safe use of such compounds in the treatment of tobacco abuse. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bachis, Alessia; Campbell, Lee A; Jenkins, Kierra; Wenzel, Erin; Mocchetti, Italo
Morphine has been shown to increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. However, little is known about the effect of morphine withdrawal on BDNF and its precursor protein, or proBDNF, which induces neuronal apoptosis. In this work, we examined whether BDNF and proBDNF levels change in rats chronically injected with escalating doses of morphine and those who undergo spontaneous withdrawal for 60 h. We observed, in the frontal cortex and striatum, that the ratio of BDNF to proBDNF changed depending upon the experimental paradigm. Morphine treatment and morphine withdrawal increased both BDNF and proBDNF levels. However, the increase in proBDNF immunoreactivity in withdrawal rats was more robust than that observed in morphine-treated rats. proBDNF is processed either intracellularly by furin or extracellularly by the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasminogen system or matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). To examine the mechanisms whereby chronic morphine treatment and morphine withdrawal differentially affects BDNF/proBDNF, the levels MMP-3 and MMP-7, furin, and tPA were analyzed. We found that morphine increases tPA levels, whereas withdrawal causes a decrease. To confirm the involvement of tPA in the morphine-mediated effect on BDNF/proBDNF, we exposed cortical neurons to morphine in the presence of the tPA inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). This inhibitor reversed the morphine-mediated decrease in proBDNF, supporting the hypothesis that morphine increases the availability of BDNF by promoting the extracellular processing of proBDNF by tPA. Because proBDNF could negatively influence synaptic repair, preventing withdrawal is crucial for reducing neurotoxic mechanisms associated with opioid abuse.
Snelling, Christopher; Tanchuck-Nipper, Michelle A.; Ford, Matthew M.; Jensen, Jeremiah P.; Cozzoli, Debra K.; Ramaker, Marcia J.; Helms, Melinda; Crabbe, John C.; Rossi, David J.; Finn, Deborah A.
Rationale The rapid membrane actions of neuroactive steroids, particularly via an enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acidA receptors (GABAARs), participate in the regulation of central nervous system excitability. Prior evidence suggests an inverse relationship between endogenous GABAergic neuroactive steroid levels and behavioral changes in excitability during ethanol withdrawal. Objectives Previously, we found that ethanol withdrawal significantly decreased plasma allopregnanolone (ALLO) levels, a potent GABAergic neuroactive steroid, and decreased GABAAR sensitivity to ALLO in Withdrawal Seizure–Prone (WSP) but not in Withdrawal Seizure–Resistant (WSR) mice. However, the effect of ethanol withdrawal on levels of other endogenous GABAAR-active steroids is not known. Methods After validation of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of 10 neuroactive steroids, we analyzed plasma from control male WSP-1 and WSR-1 mice and during ethanol withdrawal. Results We quantified levels of 9 neuroactive steroids in WSP-1 and WSR-1 plasma; levels of pregnanolone were not detectable. Basal levels of 5 neuroactive steroids were higher in WSR-1 versus WSP-1 mice. Ethanol withdrawal significantly suppressed 5 neuroactive steroids in WSP-1 and WSR-1 mice, including ALLO. Conclusions Due to lower basal levels of some GABAAR-active steroids in WSP-1 mice, a withdrawal-induced decrease in WSP-1 mice may have a greater physiological consequence than a similar decrease in WSR-1 mice. Because WSP-1 mice also exhibit a reduction in GABAAR sensitivity to neuroactive steroids during withdrawal, it is possible that the combined decrease in neuroactive steroids and GABAAR sensitivity during ethanol withdrawal in WSP-1 mice represents a neurochemical substrate for severe ethanol withdrawal. PMID:24871700
Nakata, Chihiro; Nara, Keinosuke; Kinoshita, Fumihiko; Kikuchi, Ken; Asai, Masahiro
We experienced a case showing various psychotic symptoms following cessation of alcohol consumption. The symptoms included depressive state, delusion, confusion, psychomotor excitement and delirium, all of which disappeared in about two months. At first, we regarded all the symptoms as alcoholic hallucinosis, by a clinical standpoint, in spite of no auditory hallucination in this case. However, taking the overall clinical course into consideration, withdrawal syndrome could have been affected by some factors. One of the possibilities is that delusion might have been induced by aripiprazole. There still may be some other unknown influential factors on withdrawal, which are indicated by previous papers.
Riegle, Melissa A.; Masicampo, Melissa M.; Caulder, Erin H.; Godwin, Dwayne W.
Chronic alcohol abuse depresses the nervous system and, upon cessation, rebound hyperexcitability can result in withdrawal seizure. Withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, may drive individuals to relapse, thus representing a significant barrier to recovery. Our lab previously identified an upregulation of the thalamic T-type calcium (T channel) isoform CaV3.2 as a potential contributor to the generation and propagation of seizures in a model of withdrawal. In the present study, we examined whether ethosuximide (ETX), a T-channel antagonist, could decrease the severity of ethanol withdrawal seizures by evaluating electrographical and behavioral correlates of seizure activity. DBA/2J mice were exposed to an intermittent ethanol exposure paradigm. Mice were treated with saline or ETX in each withdrawal period, and cortical EEG activity was recorded to determine seizure severity. We observed a progression in seizure activity with each successive withdrawal period. Treatment with ETX reduced ethanol withdrawal-induced spike and wave discharges (SWDs), in terms of absolute number, duration of events, and contribution to EEG power reduction in the 6–10 Hz frequency range. We also evaluated the effects of ETX on handling-induced convulsions. Overall, we observed a decrease in handling-induced convulsion severity in mice treated with ETX. Our findings suggest that ETX may be a useful pharmacological agent for studies of alcohol withdrawal and treatment of resulting seizures. PMID:24933286
Paolini, Michael; De Biasi, Mariella
Smoking is responsible for over 400,000 premature deaths in the United States every year, making it the leading cause of preventable death. In addition, smoking-related illness leads to billions of dollars in healthcare expenditures and lost productivity annually. The public is increasingly aware that successfully abstaining from smoking at any age can add years to one’s life and reduce many of the harmful effects of smoking. Although the majority of smokers desire to quit, only a small fraction of attempts to quit are actually successful. The symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal are a primary deterrent to cessation and they need to be quelled to avoid early relapse. This review will focus on the neuroadaptations caused by chronic nicotine exposure and discuss how those changes lead to a withdrawal syndrome upon smoking cessation. Besides examining how nicotine usurps the endogenous reward system, we will discuss how the habenula is part of a circuit that plays a critical role in the aversive effects of high nicotine doses and nicotine withdrawal. We will also provide an updated summary of the role of various nicotinic receptor subtypes in the mechanisms of withdrawal. This growing knowledge provides mechanistic insights into current and future smoking cessation therapies. PMID:21782803
... losses; (ii) The party desires to make an expenditure for research, development or design and such an... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.10 Nonqualified withdrawals. (a) In general—(1) Defined. Any withdrawal from a fund...
... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw... diligence; (3) Use after marketing demonstrates that postmarketing restrictions are inadequate to...
Sivakumar, Thanapal; Yadav, Anil; Sood, Mamta; Khandelwal, Sudhir K
Catatonia is a rare manifestation of benzodiazepine withdrawal in elderly patients who have used it for a long time. We present a case of lorazepam withdrawal catatonia and highlight issues in diagnosis and management.
... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw... Evaluation and Research (CDER) will give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing on...
... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw... Evaluation and Research (CDER) will give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing on...
... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw... Evaluation and Research (CDER) will give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing on...
Berg, C M; Heier, T; Wilhelmsen, V; Florvaag, E
Muscle relaxants are believed to be responsible for 2/3 of the cases of anaphylactic reactions during anesthesia. This assumption is based mainly on positive skin tests obtained in individuals that have experienced anesthesia-related anaphylaxis. A positive skin test is supposed to be associated with mast cell degranulation of vasoactive amines. In the present study we tested the frequency of positive skin tests with two commonly used muscle relaxants, rocuronium and cisatracurium, in a selected group of volunteers with low potential for allergic reactions. Thirty healthy volunteers without known allergy or previous exposure to muscle relaxants were studied. Low potential for allergic reactions was determined prior to inclusion in the study, using various allergy tests. Each individual was tested with intradermal and skin prick tests, and molar drug concentration thresholds for positive skin reactions were determined using a dilution titration technique. The presence or absence of mast cell degranulation was tested by electron microscopic investigation of skin biopsies obtained from positive and negative skin reactions. None of the volunteers had a positive skin prick test. More than 90% of the volunteers had a positive intradermal test with both rocuronium and cisatracurium. The highest molar drug concentration that was not associated with a positive intradermal test was 10(-6) M (rocuronium) and 10(-7) M (cisatracurium), equivalent to vial dilution 1 : 1000 for both drugs. In none of the volunteers was mast cell degranulation detected. Non-mast-cell-mediated positive intradermal skin reactions are frequently occurring with rocuronium and cisatracurium, even at vial dilution 1 : 1000. A clinically applicable test technique is needed that is able to separate positive skin tests associated with mast cell degranulation from non-mast-cell-mediated reactions.
Briganti, Angela; Barsotti, Giovanni; Portela, Diego A; Di Nieri, Camilla; Breghi, Gloria
To evaluate the effect on globe position and respiration of three dosages of intravenous rocuronium in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Thirty-two dogs anesthetized for ophthalmic procedures. The dogs were divided into four groups, each of eight animals (G1-G4). G1, G2, G3 received 0.075, 0.05, 0.03 mg/kg of IV rocuronium, respectively; G4 received 0.9% NaCl IV; all the treatments were administered when an end-tidal isoflurane of 1.1-1.2% was reached. Anesthesia was obtained with dexmedetomidine (2.5 mcg/kg IV), methadone (0.1 mg/kg IV), propofol (2 mg/kg IV), and isoflurane in oxygen. Neuromuscular function was assessed with acceleromyography by stimulation of the peroneal nerve using the train-of-four (ToF) and the ToF ratio (ToFR). Monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory functions was performed. Changes in globe position were recorded. All three dosages of rocuronium produced centralization of the globe. Duration was 24.3 ± 4.2, 23.4 ± 3.6, and 8.7 ± 2.8 min, for G1, G2, and G3, respectively. The control group did not show globe centralization. No significant differences were found among the four groups in cardiovascular and respiratory parameters. Minute volume and ToFR were significantly lower in G1 compared with baseline values. All doses of rocuronium resulted in globe centralization. The higher dose provoked a transient respiratory depression and some degree of skeletal muscular blockade detectable with ToFR. No alterations in respiratory activity were present when 0.05 mg/kg was used. The 0.03 mg/kg dosage could be useful for very short ophthalmic procedures. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Li, Xiaolei; Ghezzi, Alfredo; Pohl, Jascha B.; Bohm, Arun Y.; Atkinson, Nigel S.
Drug tolerance and withdrawal are insidious responses to drugs of abuse; the first increases drug consumption while the second punishes abstention. Drosophila generate functional tolerance to benzyl alcohol sedation by increasing neural expression of the slo BK-type Ca2+ activated K+ channel gene. After drug clearance this change produces a withdrawal phenotype—increased seizure susceptibility. The drug-induced histone modification profile identified the 6b element (60 nt) as a drug responsive element. Genomic deletion of 6b produces the allele, sloΔ6b, that reacts more strongly to the drug with increased induction, a massive increase in the duration of tolerance, and an increase in the withdrawal phenotype yet does not alter other slo-dependent behaviors. The 6b element is a homeostatic regulator of BK channel gene expression and is the first cis-acting DNA element shown to specifically affect the duration of a drug action. PMID:24086565
Jung, Marianna E
Cerebellar disorders trigger the symptoms of movement problems, imbalance, incoordination, and frequent fall. Cerebellar disorders are shown in various CNS illnesses including a drinking disorder called alcoholism. Alcoholism is manifested as an inability to control drinking in spite of adverse consequences. Human and animal studies have shown that cerebellar symptoms persist even after complete abstinence from drinking. In particular, the abrupt termination (ethanol withdrawal) of long-term excessive ethanol consumption has shown to provoke a variety of neuronal and mitochondrial damage to the cerebellum. Upon ethanol withdrawal, excitatory neurotransmitter molecules such as glutamate are overly released in brain areas including cerebellum. This is particularly relevant to the cerebellar neuronal network as glutamate signals are projected to Purkinje neurons through granular cells that are the most populated neuronal type in CNS. This excitatory neuronal signal may be elevated by ethanol withdrawal stress, which promotes an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) level and a decrease in a Ca(2+)-binding protein, both of which result in the excessive entry of Ca(2+) to the mitochondria. Subsequently, mitochondria undergo a prolonged opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the overproduction of harmful free radicals, impeding adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-generating function. This in turn provokes the leakage of mitochondrial molecule cytochrome c to the cytosol, which triggers a cascade of adverse cytosol reactions. Upstream to this pathway, cerebellum under the condition of ethanol withdrawal has shown aberrant gene modifications through altered DNA methylation, histone acetylation, or microRNA expression. Interplay between these events and molecules may result in functional damage to cerebellar mitochondria and consequent neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Mitochondria-targeting research may help develop a powerful new
Lurry, Dee L.
This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Texas by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: self-supplied irrigation, thermoelectric-power generation, water supply, industrial and mining, and other (domestic, commercial, livestock). Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, thermoelectric-power generation, water supply, and industrial and mining are illustrated in this report, although all data are tabulated.
Kuttappan, V A; Vicuña, E A; Faulkner, O B; Huff, G R; Freeman, K A; Latorre, J D; Menconi, A; Tellez, G I; Hargis, B M; Bielke, L R
Dextran sodium sulfate ( DSS: ) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, 2 doses of DSS (0.45 g/dose) administered as oral gavage resulted in increased mucosal permeability. The main objective of the present study was to compare serum turbidity in control and DSS treated birds plus with feed restriction ( FR: ), and evaluate the associated serum chemistry. Three independent experiments were conducted with different combinations of treatment groups. In Experiment 1, control full-fed ( CON: ) and DSS full-fed ( FFD: ) with n = 15 birds/group were evaluated, Experiment 2 had groups (n = 15/group) CON, FFD, feed restriction ( FRS: for 34 h), and DSS with feed restriction ( FRD: ), and Experiment 3 (n = 15/group) had CON, FFD, and FRS (29 h FRS). All DSS treated birds received one or 2 doses of DSS by oral gavage (0.45 g/dose/bird). Results showed that, compared to CON group, there was an increase (P < 0.05) in serum turbidity in FFD birds, even though the difference between FRS and FRD was not apparent (P > 0.05). Administration of DSS did not result in increase of serum enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH: ), nonetheless, the FFD showed lower (P < 0.05) LDH level compared to CON in Experiment 2. Among the various serum chemistry parameters evaluated triglycerides had the highest positive correlation (r(2) = 0.85; P < 0.05) with serum turbidity. DSS administration resulted in decreased serum protein levels, especially albumin. These results suggest that oral gavage with DSS in broiler chicks could result in changes to serum chemistry parameters which could be developed as potential marker/s for gut leakage.
Zhang, Dengke; Zhou, Xuhui; Wang, Xuyi; Xiang, Xiaojun; Chen, Hongxian; Hao, Wei
Previous studies have shown that withdrawal from psychostimulant drugs such as d-amphetamine or methamphetamine decreases motivation to work for a natural reinforcement, which is thought to be associated with the withdrawal-induced depressive state and hypofunction of the mesolimbic dopamine system. However, to our knowledge, studies exploring the effect of morphine withdrawal on motivation for a natural reinforcement are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether motivation to work for a natural reinforcement changes during morphine withdrawal. Three groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to respond on a nose poke for a 4% sucrose solution under a progressive ratio schedule and were subsequently administered a 10-day regimen of injection of high or low dose of morphine or saline. Their duration of break point and withdrawal symptoms were assessed. The finding showed that break points were significantly reduced on day 1 and persisted to at least day 10 of withdrawal without change in locomotor activity. There were hardly any differences bear mentioning when comparing the magnitude of the decrease between the high- and the low-dose group, whereas the withdrawal scales were significant greater in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group. The results suggest that the morphine withdrawal resulted in decreased motivation to obtain the natural reinforcement. The progressive ratio procedure may be a useful technique for evaluation of changes in motivation for natural reinforcing stimuli following withdrawal from opiates.
Charkhpour, M; Jafari, R M; Ghavimi, H; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Parvizpur, A
Long term exposure to morphine can induce dependence. The exact mechanisms of dependence are not yet fully understood. Many studies have been conducted to find new drugs that can prevent dependence. This study examined the effects of the chronic administration of duloxetine on the morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats. To this end, male Wistar rats (170-220 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups including one saline treated group (non-dependent group) and 4 morphine dependent groups. The experimental groups received additive doses of morphine for 9 days in order to induce dependence according to the following protocol: day 1:5 mg/kg/12 h, days 2 and 3: 10 mg/kg/12 h, days 4, 5:15 mg/kg/12 h, days 6 and 7: 20 mg/kg/12 h and days 8 and 9: 25 mg/kg/12 h. On the ninth day, the morning dose of morphine was only injected. It is worth noting that 30 min before the morning dose of morphine, duloxetine (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. In addition, 2 h after the last injection of morphine, the morphine withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone. The withdrawal signs were recorded for 30 min; these signs included jumping, rearing, genital grooming, abdominal writhing, wet dog shaking, and teeth grinding. The results of the study revealed that the chronic administration of duloxetine decreased all the withdrawal signs. Besides, it attenuated the total withdrawal scores significantly. Results indicate that the regulatory effects on serotonergic and noradrenergic parameters might be associated with the amelioration of the withdrawal symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
... CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY... a partial or complete withdrawal from a plan subsequent to a partial withdrawal from that plan in a prior plan year shall be reduced in accordance with part 4206 of this chapter....
... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw. 4219.18 Section 4219.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination...
Dominguez, Karen D; Lomako, Dawn M; Katz, Robert W; Kelly, H William
To determine the occurrence of and risk factors for opioid withdrawal in critically ill neonates receiving continuous infusions of fentanyl. A prospective interventional cohort study was conducted in a university hospital neonatal intensive care unit with 19 neonates who received a minimum of 24 hours of fentanyl by continuous infusion. Fentanyl total dose, duration of infusion, and peak infusion rate were recorded. Patients were evaluated for withdrawal using the Neonatal Abstinence Scoring System of Finnegan. Patients with a score >/=8 were considered to have opioid withdrawal. Withdrawal was observed in 10 (53%) of 19 neonates. The fentanyl total dose (median 525 vs. 168 micro g/kg, respectively; p = 0.03) and infusion duration (median 10 vs. 7 d, respectively; p = 0.04) were significantly greater in neonates with withdrawal compared to those without withdrawal. A fentanyl total dose >/=415 micro g/kg predicted withdrawal with 70% sensitivity and 78% specificity. A fentanyl infusion duration >/=8 days predicted withdrawal with 90% sensitivity and 67% specificity. The most frequent symptoms of withdrawal were sleeping <3 hours after feeding (81%) and increased muscle tone (55%). In all neonates with withdrawal, onset occurred within 24 hours of fentanyl discontinuation. Opioid withdrawal occurs frequently in critically ill neonates who receive continuous infusions of fentanyl. Longer infusion duration and higher total dose were associated with withdrawal symptoms.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slot withdrawal. 93.223 Section 93.223... (excluding slots used for operations described in § 93.212(a)(1)), if withdrawal would reduce the number of... Operations at High Density Traffic Airports § 93.223 Slot withdrawal. (a) Slots do not represent a property...
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonqualified withdrawals. 390.10 Section 390.10 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.10 Nonqualified withdrawals. (a) In general—(1) Defined. Any withdrawal from a...
... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping... TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the fund during the taxable year which is in accordance with...
... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping... TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the fund during the taxable year which is in accordance with...
... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping... TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the fund during the taxable year which is in accordance with...
Turkington, D; Drummond, D C
Comparison is made between subjective and objective measurements of opiate withdrawal severity in a group of 24 regular opiate takers undergoing inpatient detoxification. A lack of correlation is found between patients' subjective ratings, objective nurse ratings and physiological parameters of withdrawal severity. This indicates that in future research the subjective and objective dimensions of withdrawal should be considered and measured separately.
Pleskac, Timothy J.; Keeney, Jessica; Merritt, Stephanie M.; Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.
Many students during their college careers consider withdrawing from their respective college or university. Understanding why some students decide to withdraw yet others persist has implications for both the well being of students as well as for institutes of higher education. The present study develops a model of the decision to withdraw drawing…
Montemayor, J. Joaquin; And Others
In spring 1984, a three-part withdrawal study was conducted at Glendale (Arizona) Community College (GCC) to investigate reasons for course withdrawal, and official and unofficial college withdrawal. Study findings, based on responses from 138 students who withdrew from courses, 282 students who officially withdrew from GCC, and 9 students who…
Pleskac, Timothy J.; Keeney, Jessica; Merritt, Stephanie M.; Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.
Many students during their college careers consider withdrawing from their respective college or university. Understanding why some students decide to withdraw yet others persist has implications for both the well being of students as well as for institutes of higher education. The present study develops a model of the decision to withdraw drawing…
Vera-Portocarrero, Louis P.; Ossipov, Michael H; Lai, Josephine; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank
Opioids produce analgesic effects and extended use can produce physical dependence in both humans and animals. Dependence to opiates can be demonstrated by either termination of drug administration or through precipitation of the withdrawal syndrome by opiate antagonists. Key features of the opiate withdrawal syndrome include hyperalgesia, anxiety and autonomic signs such as diarrhea. The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) plays an important role in the modulation of pain and for this reason, may influence withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. The mechanisms that drive opiate withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia have not been elucidated. Here, rats made dependent upon morphine received naloxone to precipitate withdrawal. RVM microinjection of lidocaine, kynurenic acid (excitatory amino acid antagonist) or YM022 (CCK2 receptor antagonist) blocked withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. Additionally, these treatments reduced both somatic and autonomic signs of naloxone-induced withdrawal. Spinal application of ondansetron, a 5HT3 receptor antagonist thought to ultimately be engaged by descending pain facilitatory drive, also blocked hyperalgesia and somatic and autonomic features of the withdrawal syndrome. These results indicate that the RVM plays a critical role in mediating components of opioid withdrawal that may contribute to opioid dependence. Perspective Manipulations targeting these descending pathways from the RVM may diminish the consequences of prolonged opioid administration-induced dependence and be useful adjunct strategies in reducing the risk of opioid addiction. PMID:21354865
Moradi, Sabah; Charkhpour, Mohammad; Ghavimi, Hamed; Motahari, Rasoul; Ghaderi, Majid; Hassanzadeh, Kambiz
The exact mechanisms of morphine-induced dependence and withdrawal symptoms remain unclear. In order to identify an agent that can prevent withdrawal syndrome, many studies have been performed. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of gap junction blockers; carbenoxolone (CBX) or mefloquine (MFQ); on morphine withdrawal symptoms in male rat. Adult male Wistar rats (225 - 275 g) were selected randomly and divided into 10 groups. All groups underwent stereotaxic surgery and in order to induce dependency, morphine was administered subcutaneously) Sc) at an interval of 12 hours for nine continuous days. On the ninth day of the experiment, animals received vehicle or CBX (100, 400, 600 μg/10 μl/rat, icv) or MFQ (50, 100 and 200 μg/10 μl/rat, icv) after the last saline or morphine (Sc) injection. Morphine withdrawal symptoms were precipitated by naloxone hydrochloride 10 min after the treatments. The withdrawal signs including: jumping, rearing, genital grooming, abdomen writhing, wet dog shake and stool weight, were recorded for 60 minutes. Results showed that CBX and MFQ decreased all withdrawal signs; and the analysis indicated that they could attenuate the total withdrawal scores significantly. Taking together it is concluded that gap junction blockers prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.
Casas Reza, P; Gestal Vázquez, M; Outeiro Rosato, Á; López Álvarez, S; Diéguez García, P
Neuroleptics are a group of drugs widely used in the treatment of psychotic symptoms. Among their adverse effects is the ability to trigger a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). The diagnosis of NMS is determined by exclusion, and its initial therapeutic management should be the withdrawal of neuroleptics, the administration of benzodiazepines, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). ECT is an effective treatment in these patients, and in those cases with a poor response to treatment with antipsychotic drugs. A review is presented on the treatment options and anaesthetic implications of ECT used to handle a patient diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia in the context of NMS. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Conneen, S; Tzamaloukas, A H; Adler, K; Keller, L K; Bordenave, K; Murata, G H
Since 1991, death following withdrawal from dialysis has increased greatly in our dialysis unit. This report is based on our observations of those patients who followed that course. Four types of patients who withdrew from dialysis were identified: those with a terminal illness, demented patients, those with a progressive disability, and those who had no serious medical problem other than end-stage renal failure. We analyzed the risk factors for withdrawal and attempted to define the ethical principles involved in each patient category. The authors conclude that although the decision of a competent patient to stop dialysis must be honored, some of those deaths might be preventable if patients on chronic dialysis are prospectively followed and treated by those who are expert in the behavior of patients with chronic illness.
Metten, Pamela; Sorensen, Michelle L.; Cameron, Andy Jade; Yu, Chia-Hua; Crabbe, John C.
Background To study withdrawal, ethanol is usually administered chronically without interruption. However, interest has recurred in models of episodic exposure. Increasing evidence suggests that chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol leads to a sensitization effect in both withdrawal severity and in ethanol consumption. The goal of the present study was to examine mouse inbred strain differences in withdrawal severity following chronic intermittent exposure using the handling induced convulsion as the behavioral endpoint. We also sought to compare the withdrawal responses of inbred strains across acute, chronic continuous, and chronic intermittent exposure regimens. Methods Male mice from 15 standard inbred strains were exposed to ethanol vapor for 16 hours each day for 3 days and removed to an air chamber during the intervening 8 hours. Mice in the control groups were handled the same, except that they were exposed only to air. Daily blood ethanol concentrations were averaged for each mouse to estimate total dose of ethanol experienced. Results Across strains, mice had an average daily blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of 1.45 ± 0.02 mg/ml and we restricted the range of this value to 1.00 to 2.00 mg/ml. To evaluate strain differences, we divided data into two dose groups based on BEC, Low Dose (1.29 ± 0.1 mg/ml) and High Dose (1.71 ± 0.02 mg/ml). After the third inhalation exposure, ethanol- and air-exposed groups were tested hourly for handling-induced convulsions for 10 hr and at hr 24 and 25. Strains differed markedly in the severity of withdrawal (after subtraction of air control values) in both dose groups. Conclusion The chronic intermittent exposure paradigm is sufficient to elicit differential withdrawal responses across nearly all strains. Data from the High Dose groups correlated well with withdrawal data derived from prior acute (single high dose) and chronic continuous (for 72 hrs) ethanol withdrawal studies, supporting the influence of common
Stratton, John R; Levy, Wayne C; Caldwell, James H; Jacobson, Arnold; May, Janet; Matsuoka, Dale; Madden, Ken
The study was done to determine whether the effects of parasympathetic withdrawal on heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and systolic and diastolic function are altered with normal aging. Cardiac responses to beta-adrenergic sympathetic stimulation decline with aging as does the heart rate response to parasympathetic withdrawal, but the extent to which other responses to parasympathetic withdrawal decrease is less clear. Heart rate, BP, systolic function, and diastolic filling responses to parasympathetic withdrawal induced by atropine (0.02 mg/kg) were compared in 50 healthy subjects, 28 older (ages 65 to 80 years, mean 70 years; 18 females all on estrogen) and 22 young (age 18 to 32 years, mean 26 years; 12 females) subjects, using radionuclide angiography. Parasympathetic withdrawal in the older group caused less of an increase in heart rate (+33 vs. +48 beats/min), cardiac index (+0.6 vs. +1.5 l/m(2)), systolic blood pressure (-1 vs. +7 mm Hg), and early diastolic filling rate (+1.7 vs. +2.4 end-diastolic volumes/s) (all p < or = 0.01). At similar declines in the diastolic filling period, end-diastolic volume index (EDVI) fell substantially more in the older group (-11.6 vs. -2.4 ml/m(2), p < 0.001). The only gender difference was in diastolic filling rate, which was similar in the young males and females, but significantly less in older males than in older females. The responses to parasympathetic withdrawal as well as sympathetic stimulation decline with aging, and both contribute to the reduced cardiovascular responses to stress with advancing age.
Chu, Larry F; Sun, John; Clemenson, Anna; Erlendson, Matthew J; Rico, Tom; Cornell, Erika; Obasi, Hannah; Sayyid, Zahra N; Encisco, Ellen M; Yu, Jeff; Gamble, Jamison G; Carroll, Ian; Clark, J David
Individuals taking opioids for an extended period of time may become physically dependent, and will therefore experience opioid withdrawal should they stop taking the medication. Previous work in animal and human models has shown that the serotonin (5-HT3) receptor may be implicated in opioid withdrawal. In this study, we investigated if ondansetron, a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, could reduce the symptoms of opioid withdrawal after chronic opioid exposure in humans. In this double-blinded, randomized, crossover study, 33 chronic back pain patients (N = 33) were titrated onto sustained-release oral morphine for 30 days. After titration, participants attended 2 study sessions, 1 week apart, in which opioid withdrawal was induced with intravenous naloxone, with or without 8 mg intravenous ondansetron pretreatment. Opioid withdrawal symptoms were assessed by a blinded research assistant (objective opioid withdrawal score [OOWS]) and by the research participant (subjective opioid withdrawal score [SOWS]). Clinically significant signs of withdrawal were observed during both the ondansetron (ΔOOWS = 3.58 ± 2.22, P < 0.0001; ΔSOWS = 12.48 ± 11.18, P < 0.0001) and placebo sessions (ΔOOWS = 3.55 ± 2.39, P < 0.0001; ΔSOWS = 12.21 ± 10.72, P < 0.0001), but no significant differences were seen between the treatment sessions in either the OOWS or SOWS scores. We hypothesized that ondansetron would reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms in human subjects, but found no difference in withdrawal severity between ondansetron and placebo sessions. These findings suggest that more investigation may be necessary to determine if 5-HT3-receptor antagonists are suitable treatment options for opioid withdrawal.
Lunden, Jason; Kirby, Lynn G.
Previous results from our lab suggest that hypofunctioning of the serotonergic (5-HT) dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is involved in stress-induced opiate reinstatement. To further investigate the effects of morphine dependence and withdrawal on the 5-HT DRN system, we measured gene expression at the level of mRNA in the DRN during a model of morphine dependence, withdrawal and post withdrawal stress exposure in rats. Morphine pellets were implanted for 72h and then either removed or animals were injected with naloxone to produce spontaneous or precipitated withdrawal, respectively. Animals exposed to these conditions exhibited withdrawal symptoms including weight loss, wet dog shakes and jumping behavior. Gene expression for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB, corticotrophin releasing-factor (CRF)-R1, CRF-R2, GABAA-α1, μ-opioid receptor (MOR), 5-HT1A, tryptophan hydroxylase2 and the 5-HT transporter was then measured using quantitative real-time PCR at multiple time-points across the model of morphine exposure, withdrawal and post withdrawal stress. Expression levels of BDNF, TrkB and CRF-R1 mRNA were decreased during both morphine exposure and following seven days of withdrawal. CRF-R2 mRNA expression was elevated after seven days of withdrawal. 5-HT1A receptor mRNA expression was decreased following 3 hours of morphine exposure, while TPH2 mRNA expression was decreased after seven days of withdrawal with swim stress. There were no changes in the expression of GABAA-α1, MOR or 5-HT transporter mRNA. Collectively these results suggest that alterations in neurotrophin support, CRF-dependent stress signaling, 5-HT synthesis and release may underlie 5-HT DRN hypofunction that can potentially lead to stress-induced opiate relapse. PMID:24055683
Hoefer, Michael E; Voskanian, Steven J; Koob, George F; Pulvirenti, Luigi
Withdrawal from psychostimulants, including methamphetamine, induces a depressive state associated with lethargy, dysphoria, hyperphagia and psychomotor retardation. Previous work with repeated administration of amphetamine in rats has shown that amphetamine withdrawal produces decreased motivation to work for a non-drug reward, and this withdrawal is reversed by administration of a dopamine partial agonist. The purpose of the present study was to examine decreased motivation to work for a non-drug reward during methamphetamine withdrawal and explore the effects of a dopamine agonist, dopamine partial agonist, and indirect monoamine agonist on methamphetamine withdrawal. During withdrawal from repeated methamphetamine administration, rats showed reduced responding for a sweet solution in a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement, and this effect was significantly more pronounced than previously observed with amphetamine. Repeated systemic treatment with the dopamine partial agonist terguride (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg, i.p., twice daily), the full dopamine agonist ropinirole (1 mg/kg, i.p., twice daily), and acetyl-L-carnitine (60 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.), a compound with a potential antidepressant effect, during methamphetamine withdrawal restored responding for the sweet solution, suggesting that these drugs may represent potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction during the withdrawal phase.
de Moraes, Natália Valadares; Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Lopes, Bruno Carvalho Portes; Lanchote, Vera Lucia
Rocuronium (ROC) is a neuromuscular blocking agent used in surgical procedures which is eliminated primarily by biliary excretion. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of ROC in human plasma. Separation of ROC and IS (verapamil) was performed using an endcapped C-18 column and a mixture of water:acetonitrile:trifluoracetic acid (50:50:0.1, v/v) as mobile phase. Aliquots of 100 μL of human plasma were extracted at pH 3, using dichloromethane. The lower limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL shows the high sensitivity of this method. Intra- and inter-assay precision (as relative standard deviation) was all ≤14.2% and accuracy (as relative standard error) did not exceed 10.1%. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify ROC concentrations in patients under surgical procedures up to 6h after the administration of the 0.4-0.9 mg/kg ROC. The pharmacokinetic parameter estimations of ROC showed AUC/dose of 563 μg min/mL, total clearance of 2.5 mL/min/kg, volume of distribution at steady state of 190 mL/kg and mean residence time of 83 min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Contraception Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Birth Control Methods: How Well Do They Work? How Can I Get on the Pill Without Telling My Parents? Do You Need a Pelvic Exam to Get Birth Control? Does Douching Prevent Pregnancy? About Sexually Transmitted Diseases ( ...
Lohr, R H
Alcoholism can be encountered in many aspects of medicine. Frequently, primary-care physicians are asked to treat patients who are experiencing various stages of alcohol withdrawal while hospitalized for intercurrent illness. A thorough assessment of the patient is important because the symptoms and signs of alcohol withdrawal are nonspecific. Recognizing the patient who is at risk for alcohol withdrawal and initiating appropriate treatment can prevent progression to more serious symptoms and complications. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice for pharmacologic treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Their application by means of a symptom-triggered approach based on frequent, objective assessment of the patient is recommended. Adjunctive therapy for specific complications of alcohol withdrawal is discussed. After the acute withdrawal symptoms have been controlled, psychiatric or chemical dependence assessment (or both) is strongly encouraged.
Suwa, Mami; Suzuki, Kunifumi
This article attempts to clarify the psychopathological features of "primary social withdrawal". Since the concept of "social withdrawal" in general may include various diseases, we isolated and defined "primary social withdrawal" by excluding cases that could be diagnosed by established classifications of mental disorders. First, we examined two cases of "primary social withdrawal" which could not be classified using DSM-IV. We then compared these patients' psychopathological features to those seen in apathy syndrome, taijin kyofu sho and personality disorders. Based on this comparison, we identified five pathological features of "primary social withdrawal": (1) episodes of defeat without a struggle, (2) protecting the ideal image of the expected self, (3) parents' investment in that ideal self, (4) holding an ideal self image shaped more by the desires of others than those of themselves, and (5) avoidance behavior to maintain the positive opinion of others. Finally, we discuss the socio-cultural background of social withdrawal and possible therapies.
Lane, Ron C.; Welch, Wendy B.
The amount of public- and self-supplied water used for domestic, irrigation, livestock, aquaculture, industrial, mining, and thermoelectric power was estimated for state, county, and eastern and western regions of Washington during calendar year 2010. Withdrawals of freshwater for offstream uses were estimated to be about 4,885 million gallons per day. The total estimated freshwater withdrawals for 2010 was approximately 15 percent less than the 2005 estimate because of decreases in irrigation and thermoelectric power withdrawals.
Bozikas, Vasilis; Petrikis, Petros; Gamvrula, Katerina; Savvidou, Ioanna; Karavatos, Athanasios
Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant agent, also effective in the treatment of mood disorders and anxiety disorders. Three cases of alcohol withdrawal treated with gabapentin are presented. All patients received gabapentin 400 mg tid for 3 days, 400 mg bid for 1 day, and finally 400 mg for 1 day. Withdrawal symptoms subsided and no adverse effects were observed. The possible effectiveness of gabapentin in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal warrants further investigation by systematic and well-designed studies.
Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Willson, Douglas F; Berger, John; Harrison, Rick; Meert, Kathleen L; Zimmerman, Jerry; Carcillo, Joseph; Newth, Christopher J L; Prodhan, Parthak; Dean, J Michael; Nicholson, Carol
After prolonged opioid exposure, children develop opioid-induced hyperalgesia, tolerance, and withdrawal. Strategies for prevention and management should be based on the mechanisms of opioid tolerance and withdrawal. Relevant manuscripts published in the English language were searched in Medline by using search terms "opioid," "opiate," "sedation," "analgesia," "child," "infant-newborn," "tolerance," "dependency," "withdrawal," "analgesic," "receptor," and "individual opioid drugs." Clinical and preclinical studies were reviewed for data synthesis. Mechanisms of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance suggest important drug- and patient-related risk factors that lead to tolerance and withdrawal. Opioid tolerance occurs earlier in the younger age groups, develops commonly during critical illness, and results more frequently from prolonged intravenous infusions of short-acting opioids. Treatment options include slowly tapering opioid doses, switching to longer-acting opioids, or specifically treating the symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Novel therapies may also include blocking the mechanisms of opioid tolerance, which would enhance the safety and effectiveness of opioid analgesia. Opioid tolerance and withdrawal occur frequently in critically ill children. Novel insights into opioid receptor physiology and cellular biochemical changes will inform scientific approaches for the use of opioid analgesia and the prevention of opioid tolerance and withdrawal.
Nyland, Jennifer E; Grigson, Patricia S
Addiction is a chronic disease where periods of abstinence are riddled with instances of craving, withdrawal, and eventual relapse to escalated drug use. Cues previously associated with drug use can have a deleterious effect on this cycle by precipitating withdrawal symptoms. Here we focus specifically on the relationship between avoidance of a drug-paired taste cue and the ability of the drug-paired cue to elicit withdrawal and, ultimately, drug seeking and taking. We used a rat model of drug addiction and naloxone-induced loss of body weight to test whether a taste cue elicits withdrawal in anticipation of drug availability. Experiment 1 investigated the ability of a taste cue to elicit signs of withdrawal when it predicted experimenter-administered morphine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). In Experiment 2, a saccharin taste cue was paired with the opportunity to actively self-administer cocaine (0.167 mg/infusion, i.v.). The results show that presentation of a morphine- or cocaine-paired taste cue is sufficient to elicit naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms, and greater withdrawal predicts greater cocaine self-administration in rats.
Anand, Kanwaljeet J. S.; Willson, Douglas F.; Berger, John; Harrison, Rick; Meert, Kathleen L.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Carcillo, Joseph; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Prodhan, Parthak; Dean, J. Michael; Nicholson, Carol
OBJECTIVE After prolonged opioid exposure, children develop opioid-induced hyperalgesia, tolerance, and withdrawal. Strategies for prevention and management should be based on the mechanisms of opioid tolerance and withdrawal. PATIENTS AND METHODS Relevant manuscripts published in the English language were searched in Medline by using search terms “opioid,” “opiate,” “sedation,” “analgesia,” “child,” “infant-newborn,” “tolerance,” “dependency,” “withdrawal,” “analgesic,” “receptor,” and “individual opioid drugs.” Clinical and preclinical studies were reviewed for data synthesis. RESULTS Mechanisms of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance suggest important drug- and patient-related risk factors that lead to tolerance and withdrawal. Opioid tolerance occurs earlier in the younger age groups, develops commonly during critical illness, and results more frequently from prolonged intravenous infusions of short-acting opioids. Treatment options include slowly tapering opioid doses, switching to longer-acting opioids, or specifically treating the symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Novel therapies may also include blocking the mechanisms of opioid tolerance, which would enhance the safety and effectiveness of opioid analgesia. CONCLUSIONS Opioid tolerance and withdrawal occur frequently in critically ill children. Novel insights into opioid receptor physiology and cellular biochemical changes will inform scientific approaches for the use of opioid analgesia and the prevention of opioid tolerance and withdrawal. PMID:20403936
Parikh, Vinay; Cole, Robert D.; Patel, Purav J.; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas J.
Nicotine is a major psychoactive and addictive component of tobacco. Although cessation of tobacco use produces various somatic and affective symptoms, withdrawal-related cognitive deficits are considered to be a critical symptom that predict relapse. Therefore, delineating the cognitive mechanisms of nicotine withdrawal may likely provide gainful insights into the neurobiology of nicotine addiction. The present study was designed to examine the effects of nicotine withdrawal induced by mecamylamine, a non-specific nicotinic receptor (nAChR) antagonist, on cognitive control processes in mice using an operant strategy switching task. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates synaptic transmission in frontostriatal circuits, and these circuits are critical for executive functions. Thus, we examined the effects of mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal on prefrontal and striatal BDNF protein expression. Mice undergoing precipitated nicotine withdrawal required more trials to attain strategy switching criterion as compared to the controls. Error analysis indicated that impaired performance in these animals was mostly related to their inability to execute the new strategy. The striatal/prefrontal BDNF ratios robustly increased following precipitated nicotine withdrawal. Moreover, higher BDNF ratios were associated with longer task acquisition. Collectively, our findings illustrate that mecamylamine-induced nicotine withdrawal disrupts cognitive control processes and that these changes are possibly linked to perturbations in frontostriatal BDNF signaling. PMID:26775017
Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L.; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela
Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nurses were more confident in caring for patients with alcohol withdrawal. (See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A9) PMID:25816126
Grau-López, Lara; Daigre, Constanza; Mercado, Nestor; Casas, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos
Few studies have described movement disorders as withdrawal symptoms during psychostimulant detoxification. Although dystonia has been reported as an uncommon adverse effect of methylphenidate treatment, it has not been described in the context of methylphenidate withdrawal. We report a case of dystonia as the main withdrawal symptom in a methylphenidate-dependent adult participating in an inpatient methylphenidate detoxification program. Although movement disorders such as dystonia are very rare adverse effects of methylphenidate withdrawal, practitioners need to be alert to this risk in order to initiate appropriate treatment.
... the spouse of a civilian participant covered under the Federal Employees' Retirement System; those... account contains combat zone contributions, the withdrawal will be distributed pro rata from all...
Hermann, Derik; Klages, Eckard; Welzel, Helga; Mann, Karl; Croissant, Bernhard
Opioid withdrawal, stress or cues associated with opioid consumption can induce opioid craving. If opioids are not available, opioid-dependent patients usually search for alternative drugs. Because several non-opioid drugs stimulate the endogenous opioidergic system, this concept may explain their frequent use by opioid-dependent patients. We hypothesized that non-opioid drugs alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms and are therefore consumed by opioid addicts. We asked 89 opioid-dependent patients participating in an out-patient opioid maintenance program to estimate the potential of several non-opioid drugs in being able to alleviate opioid withdrawal. We applied a five-point Lickert scale (1 = very good reduction of opioid withdrawal; 5 = no reduction of opioid withdrawal). Patients could also indicate a worsening of opioid withdrawal. Values (mean +/- SD) were: for benzodiazepines, 3.2 +/- 1.1; tricyclic antidepressants, 3.6 +/- 1.1; cannabis, 3.6 +/- 1.0; alcohol, 4.1 +/- 1.1; cocaine, 4.2 +/- 1.1; amphetamine, 4.4 +/- 0.9; nicotine, 4.7 +/- 0.7; and caffeine, 4.9 +/- 0.5. A worsening of opioid withdrawal was reported by 62% of the patients for cocaine, 62% for amphetamine, 50% for caffeine, 37.5% for cannabis, 27% for nicotine, 26% for alcohol, 8% for tricyclic antidepressants and 3% for benzodiazepines. Our study shows a low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms. The data basis of this study was good and the sample was suitable to be asked for estimations of drug-drug interactions. Of the patients, 26 - 62% even reported a worsening of opioid withdrawal for cannabis, alcohol, cocaine and amphetamine. Only benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were reported to have a moderate positive effect on opioid withdrawal.
Huang, Ming-Chyi; Schwandt, Melanie L; Chester, Julia A; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Kao, Chung-Feng; Liang, Tiebing; Tapocik, Jenica D; Ramchandani, Vijay A; George, David T; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Heilig, Markus
Alcohol withdrawal is associated with hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction. The FKBP5 gene codes for a co-chaperone, FK506-binding protein 5, that exerts negative feedback on HPA axis function. This study aimed to examine the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FKBP5 gene in humans and the effect of Fkbp5 gene deletion in mice on alcohol withdrawal severity. We genotyped six FKBP5 SNPs (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs3777747, rs9380524, rs1360780, and rs9470080) in 399 alcohol-dependent inpatients with alcohol consumption 48 h before admission and recorded scores from the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment-Alcohol revised (CIWA-Ar). Fkbp5 gene knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for alcohol withdrawal using handling-induced convulsions (HICs) following both acute and chronic alcohol exposure. We found the minor alleles of rs3800373 (G), rs9296158 (A), rs1360780 (T), and rs9470080 (T) were significantly associated with lower CIWA-Ar scores whereas the minor alleles of rs3777747 (G) and rs9380524 (A) were associated with higher scores. The haplotype-based analyses also showed an association with alcohol withdrawal severity. Fkbp5 KO mice showed significantly greater HICs during withdrawal from chronic alcohol exposure compared with WT controls. This study is the first to show a genetic effect of FKBP5 on the severity of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. In mice, the absence of the Fkbp5 gene enhances sensitivity to alcohol withdrawal. We suggest that FKBP5 variants may trigger different adaptive changes in HPA axis regulation during alcohol withdrawal with concomitant effects on withdrawal severity. PMID:24603855
... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this subpart...
... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this subpart...
... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this subpart...
... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this subpart...
Pergadia, Michele L; Der-Avakian, Andre; D'Souza, Manoranjan S; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Shiffman, Saul; Markou, Athina; Pizzagalli, Diego A
Reward-related disturbances after withdrawal from nicotine are hypothesized to contribute to relapse to tobacco smoking but mechanisms underlying and linking such processes remain largely unknown. To determine whether withdrawal from nicotine affects reward responsiveness (ie, the propensity to modulate behavior as a function of prior reinforcement experience) across species using translational behavioral assessments in humans and rats. Experimental studies used analogous reward responsiveness tasks in both humans and rats to examine whether reward responsiveness varied in (1) an ad libitum smoking condition compared with a 24-hour acute nicotine abstinence condition in 31 human smokers with (n = 17) or without (n = 14) a history of depression; (2) rats 24 hours after withdrawal from chronic nicotine (n = 19) or saline (n = 20); and (3) rats following acute nicotine exposure after withdrawal from either chronic nicotine or saline administration. Performance on a reward responsiveness task under nicotine and nonnicotine conditions. In both human smokers and nicotine-treated rats, reward responsiveness was significantly reduced after 24-hour withdrawal from nicotine (P < .05). In humans, withdrawal-induced deficits in reward responsiveness were greater in those with a history of depression. In rats previously exposed to chronic nicotine, acute nicotine reexposure long after withdrawal potentiated reward responsiveness (P < .05). These findings across species converge in suggesting that organisms have diminished ability to modulate behavior as a function of reward during withdrawal of nicotine. This blunting may contribute to relapse to tobacco smoking, particularly in depression-vulnerable individuals, to reinstate responsiveness to natural rewards and to experience potentiated nicotine-induced reward responsiveness. Moreover, demonstration of behavioral homology across humans and rodents provides a strong translational framework for the
Espejo, E F; Serrano, M I; Caillé, S; Stinus, L
The objective of this study was to establish the effects of prefrontocortical dopamine depletion on opiate withdrawal and prefrontocortical neurochemical changes elicited by morphine dependence and withdrawal. The dopaminergic content was also measured in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal, in order to detect reactive changes induced by prefrontocortical lesion. Withdrawal was induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent rats. Monoamine levels were analyzed post-mortem by high performance liquid cromatography. The results showed that chronic morphine dependence did not modify basal levels of monoamines in sham rats, revealing neuroadaptation of prefrontocortical dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin systems to chronic morphine. The neuroadaptive phenomenon remained after prefrontocortical lesion (> 79% dopamine depletion). On the other hand, a strong increase of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents in the medial prefrontal cortex of sham rats was detected during opiate withdrawal. However, in lesioned rats, the increase of prefrontocortical dopamine and serotonin content, but not that of noradrenaline, was much lower. In the nucleus accumbens, prefrontocortical lesion reactively enhanced the dopaminergic tone and, although opiate withdrawal reduced dopaminergic activity in both sham and lesioned rats, this reduction was less intense in the latter group. At a behavioral level, some symptoms of physical opiate withdrawal were exacerbated in lesioned rats (writhing, mastication, teeth-chattering, global score) and exploration was reduced. The findings hence indicate that: (i) prefrontocortical monoaminergic changes play a role in the behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal; (ii) the severity of some withdrawal signs are related to the dopaminergic and serotonergic tone of the medial prefrontal cortex rather than to the noradrenergic one, and (iii) an inverse relationship between mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems exists.
Gambolati, Giuseppe; Teatini, Pietro
Land subsidence and uplift, ground ruptures, and induced seismicity are the principal geomechanic effects of groundwater withdrawal and injection. The major environmental consequence of groundwater pumping is anthropogenic land subsidence. The first observation concerning land settlement linked to subsurface processes was made in 1926 by the American geologists Pratt and Johnson, who wrote that "the cause of subsidence is to be found in the extensive extraction of fluid from beneath the affected area." Since then, impressive progress has been made in terms of: (a) recognizing the basic hydrologic and geomechanic principles underlying the occurrence; (b) measuring aquifer compaction and ground displacements, both vertical and horizontal; (c) modeling and predicting the past and future event; and (d) mitigating environmental impact through aquifer recharge and/or surface water injection. The first milestone in the theory of pumped aquifer consolidation was reached in 1923 by Terzaghi, who introduced the principle of "effective intergranular stress." In the early 1970s, the emerging computer technology facilitated development of the first mathematical model of the subsidence of Venice, made by Gambolati and Freeze. Since then, the comprehension, measuring, and simulation of the occurrence have improved dramatically. More challenging today are the issues of ground ruptures and induced/triggered seismicity, which call for a shift from the classical continuum approach to discontinuous mechanics. Although well known for decades, anthropogenic land subsidence is still threatening large urban centers and deltaic areas worldwide, such as Bangkok, Jakarta, and Mexico City, at rates in the order of 10 cm/yr.
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 390.9 Section 390.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.9 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general—(1) Defined. In accordance with 46 U.S.C....
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1)...
Grasing, K; Wang, A; Schlussman, S
Heightened anxiety is a major component of the withdrawal syndromes associated with ethanol and sedative hypnotic medications. Because of similarities between the opiate and sedative-hypnotic withdrawal syndromes as well as data implicating heightened noradrenergic tone with opiate withdrawal, we investigated changes in anxiety measures identified by plus-maze and social interaction testing during opiate withdrawal. Because Sprague Dawley rats had very low levels of entry into plus-maze open arms, further studies were conducted using the Long-Evans strain. Long-Evans rats received continuous infusions of morphine sulfate at 44 mg/kg per day delivered by osmotic pump over 7 days while control animals received inert implants. During the first 3 days of withdrawal, the number and time of entries into open and closed arms of a plus-maze was recorded. Both social and aggressive behaviors were scored durings pairings of groups of two socially naive animals. Body weight was significantly reduced in morphine-treated animals prior to and during withdrawal. Both the number of entries into open plus-maze arms and the time spent in open areas increased over the 3 days of testing. However, no difference in plus-maze activity was detected between morphine-treated and control subjects. On the third day of withdrawal, social interaction time was greater in pairs of withdrawn and control subjects compared to pairs of two control subjects. In conclusion, behavioral measures of anxiety are not increased during opiate withdrawal.
Jackson, K.J.; Muldoon, P.P.; De Biasi, M.; Damaj, M.I.
Diseases associated with tobacco use constitute a major health problem worldwide. Upon cessation of tobacco use, an unpleasant withdrawal syndrome occurs in dependent individuals. Avoidance of the negative state produced by nicotine withdrawal represents a motivational component that promotes continued tobacco use and relapse after smoking cessation. With the modest success rate of currently available smoking cessation therapies, understanding mechanisms involved in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome are crucial for developing successful treatments. Animal models provide a useful tool for examining neuroadaptative mechanisms and factors influencing nicotine withdrawal, including sex, age, and genetic factors. Such research has also identified an important role for nicotinic receptor subtypes in different aspects of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome (e.g., physical vs. affective signs). In addition to nicotinic receptors, the opioid and endocannabinoid systems, various signal transduction pathways, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides have been implicated in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Animal studies have informed human studies of genetic variants and potential targets for smoking cessation therapies. Overall, the available literature indicates that the nicotine withdrawal syndrome is complex, and involves a range of neurobiological mechanisms. As research in nicotine withdrawal progresses, new pharmacological options for smokers attempting to quit can be identified, and treatments with fewer side effects that are better tailored to the unique characteristics of patients may become available. PMID:25433149
... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal. 107.711 Section 107.711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURES Approvals, Registrations and Submissions § 107.711 Withdrawal. An application may be withdrawn at...
... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal. 107.711 Section 107.711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURES Approvals, Registrations and Submissions § 107.711 Withdrawal. An application may be withdrawn at...
... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal. 107.711 Section 107.711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURES Approvals, Registrations and Submissions § 107.711 Withdrawal. An application may be withdrawn at...
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal. 107.711 Section 107.711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... PROCEDURES Approvals, Registrations and Submissions § 107.711 Withdrawal. An application may be withdrawn at...
... spousal rights in the context of a withdrawal (and the process by which a service member may obtain an... any) can be transferred only if the IRA or plan accepts such funds. (d) Separation. The definition of separation from service at § 1604.2 applies when determining a service member's eligibility for a withdrawal....
... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.10 Nonqualified withdrawals. (a) In general—(1) Defined. Any withdrawal from a fund... impaired his working capital and it becomes necessary to reimburse its general funds to the extent of such losses; (ii) The party desires to make an expenditure for research, development or design and such an...
Zheng, Karl; Brodsky, Jay B
Abrupt cessation of intrathecal baclofen can lead to a serious withdrawal syndrome. The anesthesiologist must be prepared to avoid intraoperative interruption of baclofen delivery before starting spinal surgery and to recognize and treat the symptoms of baclofen withdrawal in the immediate postoperative period.
Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka
This study reviewed the literature on static and impact withdrawal of nails driven into the end grain of wood members. From this, an empirical relationship was created relating the specific gravity of the wood, the diameter of the nail, and the depth of penetration of the nail to the static withdrawal capacity of nails driven into the wood and withdrawn immediately....
....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...
....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...
....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...
....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...
....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...
...) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170...
...) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170...
...) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170...
...) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170...
...) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170...
Gossop, M R; Bradley, B P; Brewis, R K
Sleep duration and indices of disturbed sleep, such as night-time waking and day-time sleep, were investigated in amphetamine users following hospital admission and withdrawal from the drug. Compared to controls, the amphetamine group showed an initial period of oversleeping and, towards the end of the first week, they showed a considerable degree of reduced sleep which persisted for the 20 days of this study. There was greater variability in sleep duration within the amphetamine group on almost all nights, and the variability in sleep duration from one night to the next was also greater. More night-time sleep disturbance was evident among the amphetamine ex-users. These results are discussed with respect to previous work and the pattern is seen to be more complex than had been imagined. A tentative neurochemical model is suggested and clinical implications are considered.
McPhie, A A; Barr, G A
Exposure to opiates such as morphine can lead to psychological and physical dependence in both adult and infant humans. Infant rats experience opiate withdrawal behaviors that are qualitatively different from the withdrawal behaviors displayed by adult rats. In the adult, withdrawal is largely mediated by the mu-opioid receptor. We sought to understand more about what role each opioid receptor (mu, kappa, and delta) plays in the display of the physical withdrawal in the infant rat. Beginning on postnatal day 1, infant rats were injected with morphine sulfate twice a day for 6.5 days. On the afternoon of the seventh day the infant rats were given an i.c. injection of a vehicle, the mu-opioid receptor antagonist CTOP, the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-BNI, or the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. CTOP precipitated withdrawal behaviors in the 7-day-old rat in a dose-dependent manner. Neither nor-BNI nor naltrindole induced any significant changes in the frequency of the withdrawal behaviors. These data suggest that in the infant rat control of certain behavioral withdrawal signs is modulated primarily by the mu-opioid receptor, as is the case in the adult rat.
Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L
Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B
Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L.; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.
Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippo-campus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20 min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1 h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippo-campus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal. PMID:27208490
Slayden, Ov D; Brenner, Robert M
Macaques are menstruating nonhuman primates that provide important animal models for studies of hormonal regulation in the uterus. In women and macaques the decline of progesterone (P) at the end of the cycle triggers endometrial expression of a variety of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes that participate in tissue breakdown and menstrual sloughing. To determine the minimal duration of P withdrawal required to induce menses, we assessed the effects of adding P back at various time points after P withdrawal on both frank bleeding patterns and endometrial MMP expression. Artificial menstrual cycles were induced by treating the animals sequentially with implants releasing estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). To assess bleeding patterns, P implants were removed at the end of a cycle and then added back at 12, 24, 30, 36, 40, 48, 60, or 72 hours (h) after the initial P withdrawal. Observational analysis of frank bleeding patterns showed that P replacement at 12 and 24 h blocked menses, replacement at 36 h reduced menses but replacement after 36 h failed to block menses. These data indicate that in macaques, a critical period of P withdrawal exists and lasts approximately 36 h. In other similarly cycled animals, we withdrew P and then added P back either during (12–24 h) or after (48 h) the critical period, removed the uterus 24 h after P add back and evaluated endometrial MMP expression. Immunocytochemistry showed that replacement of P during the critical period suppressed MMP-1, -2 and -3 expression along with menses, but replacement of P at 48 h, which failed to suppress mense, suppressed MMP-1 and MMP-3 but did not block MMP-2. We concluded that upregulation of MMPs is essential to menses induction, but that after the critical period, menses will occur even if some MMPs are experimentally blocked. PMID:17118170
Slayden, Ov D; Brenner, Robert M
Macaques are menstruating nonhuman primates that provide important animal models for studies of hormonal regulation in the uterus. In women and macaques the decline of progesterone (P) at the end of the cycle triggers endometrial expression of a variety of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes that participate in tissue breakdown and menstrual sloughing. To determine the minimal duration of P withdrawal required to induce menses, we assessed the effects of adding P back at various time points after P withdrawal on both frank bleeding patterns and endometrial MMP expression. Artificial menstrual cycles were induced by treating the animals sequentially with implants releasing estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). To assess bleeding patterns, P implants were removed at the end of a cycle and then added back at 12, 24, 30, 36, 40, 48, 60, or 72 hours (h) after the initial P withdrawal. Observational analysis of frank bleeding patterns showed that P replacement at 12 and 24 h blocked menses, replacement at 36 h reduced menses but replacement after 36 h failed to block menses. These data indicate that in macaques, a critical period of P withdrawal exists and lasts approximately 36 h. In other similarly cycled animals, we withdrew P and then added P back either during (12-24 h) or after (48 h) the critical period, removed the uterus 24 h after P add back and evaluated endometrial MMP expression. Immunocytochemistry showed that replacement of P during the critical period suppressed MMP-1, -2 and -3 expression along with menses, but replacement of P at 48 h, which failed to suppress mense, suppressed MMP-1 and MMP-3 but did not block MMP-2. We concluded that upregulation of MMPs is essential to menses induction, but that after the critical period, menses will occur even if some MMPs are experimentally blocked.
Capasso, A; Piacente, S; De Tommasi, N; Rastrelli, L; Pizza, C
Our interest has been centered on isoquinoline alkaloids obtained from Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae), Aristolochia constricta (Aristolochiaceae) and the opium alkaloid, papaverine. In this respect, the effect of these isoquinoline alkaloids was investigated on contractions induced by naloxone of isolated guinea pig ileum acutely exposed to morphine in vitro. The activity of these alkaloids was compared to the control compound, papaverine. Furthermore, the effect of these isoquinoline alkaloids was also determined on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in isolated guinea pig ileum exposed to DAMGO (highly selective mu opioid receptor agonist) and U50-488H (highly selective kappa opioid receptor agonist) to test whether the possible interaction of isoquinoline alkaloids on opioid withdrawal involves mu- and/or kappa-opioid receptors. Isoquinoline alkaloids from A. mexicana (from 5 x 10(-6) to 1 x 10(-4) M), from A. constricta (1 x 10(-5) x 10(-5)-1 x 10(-4) M) as well as papaverine treatment (1 x 10(-7)-5 x 10(-6)-1 x 10(-6) M) before or after the opioid agonists were able of both preventing and reversing the naloxone-induced contraction after exposure to mu (morphine and DAMGO) or kappa (U50-488H) opiate receptor agonists in a concentration-dependent manner. Both acetylcholine response and electrical stimulation were also reduced by isoquinoline alkaloids and papaverine treatment as well as the final opiate withdrawal was still reduced. The results of the present study indicate that isoquinoline alkaloids as well as papaverine were able to produce significant influence on the opiate withdrawal in vitro and these compounds were able to exert their effects both at mu and kappa opioid agonists.
Ceger, P; Kuhn, C M
Treatment of developing rat pups with morphine (MOR) causes the development of physical dependence, but the relationship of the withdrawal syndrome to the duration/intensity of treatment has not been described. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the emergence of various behavioral components of withdrawal in neonatal rats, and to develop a useful measure of overall intensity of withdrawal (OIW). Rat pups were treated with morphine (MOR) (20 mg/kg, SC, b.i.d.) for 0-5 days. On postnatal day 10 (P10), animals received saline (SAL) or a challenge dose of MOR (25 mg/kg). Withdrawal was precipitated with naloxone HCl (NAL) (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg/kg) 2 h after the MOR injection, and behaviors were quantitated for 10 min. To investigate the ability of clonidine HCl (CLON) to suppress withdrawal, pups were treated for 0 or 5 days with MOR, given a MOR challenge and either SAL or CLON (0.2 mg/kg), followed by SAL or NAL (2.5 mg/kg, SC). To evaluate endocrine components of withdrawal, growth hormone responses to withdrawal were examined. The OIW and NAL-induced GH suppression increased with increasing NAL dose and duration of morphine treatment. However, individual behaviors showed differing patterns of expression. Clonidine decreased the severity of tremor and reduced the OIW. These results demonstrate that the intensity of neonatal opiate withdrawal is related to the duration and intensity of treatment. The profile of observed withdrawal behaviors may reflect the involvement of the noradrenergic system.
Gamage, Thomas F.; Ignatowska-Jankowska, Bogna M.; Muldoon, Pretal P.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Damaj, M. Imad; Lichtman, Aron H.
Background Inhibition of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and/or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) reduces somatic morphine withdrawal signs, but its effects on aversive aspects of withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the MAGL inhibitor JZL184, the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845, or the dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor SA-57 would reduce acquisition of morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned place avoidance (CPA) and jumping. Methods Mice were implanted with placebo or 75 mg morphine pellets, 48 h later injected with naloxone or saline and placed in the conditioning apparatus, and assessed for CPA at 72 h. Subjects were also observed for jumping behavior following naloxone challenge. Results Naloxone (0.056 mg/kg) produced robust CPA in morphine-pelleted, but not placebo-pelleted, mice. Morphine pretreatment prevented the occurrence of withdrawal CPA and withdrawal jumping, while clonidine (an α2 adrenergic receptor agonist) only blocked withdrawal CPA. THC, JZL184, and SA-57 significantly reduced the percentage of mice that jumped during the conditioning session, but did not affect acquisition of withdrawal CPA. PF-3845 did not reduce morphine withdrawal CPA or jumping. Finally, neither THC nor the endocannabinoid catabolic enzyme inhibitors in non-dependent mice elicited a conditioned place preference or aversion. Conclusions These findings suggest that inhibiting endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes reduces somatic morphine withdrawal signs, but not aversive aspects as inferred in the CPA paradigm. The observation that non-dependent mice administered inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation did not display place preferences is consistent with the idea that that endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes might be targeted therapeutically, with reduced risk of abuse. PMID:25479915
Park, Young-Min; Park, Hye Kyeong; Kim, Leen; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kang, Seung-Gul
We report a young man who had received tramadol for pain control and experienced an uncomfortable sensation in both legs immediately after tramadol withdrawal that worsened at rest and at night, and which could be relieved only by moving the legs. He suffered from insomnia and paced up and down in his house every night. Readministration of tramadol dramatically resolved his symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS), but they reappeared after tramadol withdrawal. Tramadol was therefore replaced with ropinirole, which was discontinued after several weeks, and there was no recurrence of his RLS symptoms. This patient appeared to have developed tramadol-withdrawal-induced RLS, and this case report emphasizes the importance of monitoring for withdrawal-type symptoms like RLS when tramadol intake is being stopped.
Watson, W P; Robinson, E; Little, H J
The effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, were investigated, in mice, on the withdrawal convulsive behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour that are produced by cessation of prolonged intake of ethanol. When given at 50 or 100 mg/kg, this compound decreased the rise in handling-induced hyperexcitability which occurs during the withdrawal period; the effects were most pronounced for the first 4 hr after administration. Gabapentin also decreased the convulsive response to an audiogenic stimulus during the withdrawal period. The elevated plus-maze, with both traditional and ethological indices of activity was used as a test of anxiety-related behaviour after cessation of chronic ethanol treatment. Gabapentin, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, was found to decrease some, although not all, of the signs of withdrawal-induced anxiety. At doses up to and including 200 mg/kg, gabapentin had no effect on motor co-ordination or spontaneous locomotor activity in control animals. The results demonstrated that gabapentin has a selective action in decreasing both convulsive and anxiety-related aspects of withdrawal behaviour after chronic ethanol treatment. It is possible that further studies with this compound may shed further light on the mechanisms involved in the withdrawal syndrome.
Rouibi, Khalil; Contarino, Angelo
Altered motivational processes are key features of drug dependence and withdrawal, yet their neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study shows that genetic disruption of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2 (CRF₂-/-) does not impair motivation for palatable food in drug-naïve mice. However, CRF₂ receptor-deficiency effectively reduces the increase in palatable food-driven motivation induced by opiate withdrawal. Indeed, both in male and female wild-type mice, withdrawal from escalating morphine doses (20-100 mg/kg) induces a dramatic and relatively long-lasting (6 days) increase in palatable food-driven operant behavior under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. In contrast, either male or female morphine-withdrawn CRF₂-/- mice show smaller and shorter (2 days) increases in motivation than wild-type mice. Nevertheless, CRF₂ receptor-deficiency does not impair the ability to discriminate reinforced behavior prior to, during the partial opiate withdrawal periods occurring between morphine injections and following drug discontinuation, indicating preserved cognitive function. Moreover, CRF₂ receptor-deficiency does not affect the ambulatory or body weight effects of intermittent morphine injections and withdrawal. These results provide initial evidence of a gender-independent and specific role for the CRF₂ receptor in the motivational effects of opiate withdrawal.
Bonnet, U; Banger, M; Leweke, F M; Maschke, M; Kowalski, T; Gastpar, M
Four in-patients with moderate alcohol-withdrawal syndromes benefited from treatment with gabapentin administered in an add-on fashion to clomethiazole. In comparison with the amount of clomethiazole required as estimated using a specially developed score during previous detoxifications of these patients at our hospital, gabapentin (400 mg q.i.d.) clearly reduced the amount of clomethiazole needed now Gabapentin, an anticonvulsant with favorable pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability, and with no known risk of dependence, may therefore be a useful new drug in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We believe that the potential value of gabapentin in alcohol withdrawal deserves further controlled studies.
Mannucci, C; Pieratti, A; Firenzuoli, F; Caputi, A P; Calapai, G
Antidepressants may be effective treatment for smoking cessation and new evidence on relationship between smoking and depression is emerging. Extracts of the plant Hypericum perforatum possess antidepressant activity in humans and reduce nicotine withdrawal signs in mice. Both nicotine and H. perforatum administration elicit changes in serotonin (5-HT) formation in the brain. On this basis, we investigated the possible involvement of 5-HT in the beneficial effects of H. perforatum on nicotine withdrawal signs. With the aim to induce nicotine dependence, nicotine (2 mg/kg, four intraperitoneal injections daily) was administered for 14 days to mice (NM). Saline (controls, M) or H. perforatum extract (Ph 50, 500 mg/kg) were orally administered immediately after the last nicotine injection for 30 days after nicotine withdrawal. Another group of animals treated with nicotine (14 days) and successively with H. perforatum extract was intraperitoneally co-administered with selective 5-HT receptorial antagonist WAY 100635 (WAY) (1 mg/kg). All animals were evaluated for locomotor activity and abstinence signs, 24 after nicotine withdrawal. Brain 5-HT metabolism was evaluated in the cortex of mice sacrificed 30 days after nicotine withdrawal through evaluation of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio. After nicotine withdrawal measurement of 5-HT metabolism in the cortex showed a reduction of 5-HT content while animals treated only with Hypericum extract showed a significant reduction of total abstinence score compared to controls. WAY inhibited the reduction of total abstinence score induced by H. perforatum. Moreover, 5-HT1A expression has been evaluated 30 days after nicotine withdrawal. Our results, show a significant increase of cortical 5-HT content in NM treated with H. perforatum, with a concomitant significant increase of 5-HT1A receptor. So, it is possible to suggest an involvement of 5-HT in beneficial effects of H. perforatum on suffering
Ista, Erwin; van Dijk, Monique; Gamel, Claudia; Tibboel, Dick; de Hoog, Matthijs
Prolonged administration of benzodiazepines and/or opioids to children in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) may induce physiological dependence and withdrawal symptoms. We reviewed the literature for relevant contributions on the nature of these withdrawal symptoms and on availability of valid scoring systems to assess the extent of symptoms. The databases PubMed, CINAHL, and Psychinfo (1980-June 2006) were searched using relevant key terms. Symptoms of benzodiazepine and opioid withdrawal can be classified in two groups: central nervous system effects and autonomic dysfunction. However, symptoms of the two types show a large overlap for benzodiazepine and opioid withdrawal. Symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction in the PICU population have been described for opioid withdrawal only. Six assessment tools for withdrawal symptoms are used in children. Four of these have been validated for neonates only. Two instruments are available to specifically determine withdrawal symptoms in the PICU: the Sedation Withdrawal Score (SWS) and the Opioid Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Scale (OBWS). The OBWS is the only available assessment tool with prospective validation; however, the sensitivity is low. Withdrawal symptoms for benzodiazepines and opioids largely overlap. A sufficiently sensitive instrument for assessing withdrawal symptoms in PICU patients needs to be developed.
Mutschler, Jochen; Koopmann, Anne; Grosshans, Martin; Hermann, Derik; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dextromethorphan has been available in pharmacies without a prescription since 1954 as an antitussive agent. There is an alarming increase in reports of its abuse. Dextromethorphan is avidly taken, mainly by young people, as a psychoactive drug. The currently available data yield incomplete information about the extent of the problem and its significance for addiction medicine in Germany. We report the case of a 44-year-old man who became dependent on dextromethorphan through years of abuse, buying the substance for himself without a prescription in German pharmacies. He told us he had taken it regularly for six years. He had become dependent on dextromethorphan, ultimately taking it in a dose of 1800 mg daily. This led him to overt neglect of his work and leisure activities. A urine sample taken on admission to the hospital was found to contain dextromethorphan. During inpatient detoxification, he developed an vegetative withdrawal syndrome consisting of craving, diaphoresis, nausea, hypertension, and tachycardia. He was treated on our ward for three weeks, and a stay in a residential detoxification facility was planned thereafter. Dextromethorphan is a psychotropic substance that carries a potential for abuse and dependence. On the basis of the currently available data, its reclassification as a prescription drug should be considered.
Leventhal, Adam M; Ameringer, Katherine J; Osborn, Elly; Zvolensky, Michael J; Langdon, Kirsten J
The complex concordance and discordance across and within anxiety and depressive symptoms complicates understanding of the relation between emotional symptoms and manifestations of tobacco withdrawal. The goal of this study was to parse the broad variation in anxiety and depressive symptoms into conceptually discrete components and explore their relative predictive influence on affective patterns of acute tobacco withdrawal. We employed a within-participant experimentally manipulated tobacco abstinence design involving: (i) a baseline visit at which past-week depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed and (ii) two counterbalanced experimental visits-one after ad lib smoking and one after 16-h of tobacco abstinence-at which state affect was assessed. Participants were community-dwelling adults (N=187) smoking 10+ cig/day for at least two years without an active mood disorder. Anxiety-related general distress symptoms (e.g., tension, nervousness) predicted greater abstinence-induced increases in various negative affective states but not changes in positive affect (βs .17-.33). Depression-related general distress symptoms (e.g., sadness, worthlessness) predicted greater abstinence-induced increases in acute depressed affect only (βs .24-.25). Anhedonic symptoms (e.g., diminished interest, lack of pleasure) predicted larger abstinence-induced decreases in acute positive affect only (βs .17-.20). Anxious Arousal symptoms (e.g., shakiness, heart racing) predicted larger abstinence-induced increases in fatigue and depressive affect (βs .15-.24). Different components of anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with unique affective patterns of acute tobacco withdrawal. These results provide insight into the affective mechanisms underlying tobacco dependence and could inform smoking cessation treatment approaches tailored to individuals with emotional distress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Han, T.-H.; Martyn, J. A. J.
Background Burn injury leads to resistance to the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants. We tested the hypothesis that a larger bolus dose is as effective as priming for rapid onset of paralysis after burns. Methods Ninety adults, aged 18–59 yr with 40 (2)% [mean (se)] burn and 30 (2) days after injury, received rocuronium as a priming dose followed by bolus (0.06+0.94 mg kg−1), or single bolus of either 1.0 or 1.5 mg kg−1. Sixty-one non-burned, receiving 1.0 mg kg−1 as a primed (0.06+0.94 mg kg−1) or full bolus dose, served as controls. Acceleromyography measured the onset times. Results Priming when compared with 1.0 mg kg−1 bolus in burned patients shortened the time to first appearance of twitch depression (30 vs 45 s, P<0.05) and time to maximum twitch inhibition (135 vs 210 s, P<0.05). The onset times between priming and higher bolus dose (1.5 mg kg−1) were not different (30 vs 30 s for first twitch depression and 135 vs 135 s for maximal depression, respectively). The onset times in controls, however, were significantly (P<0.05) faster than burns both for priming and for full bolus (15 and 15 s, respectively, for first twitch depression and 75 and 75 s for maximal depression). Priming caused respiratory distress in 10% of patients in both groups. Intubating conditions in burns were significantly better with 1.5 mg kg−1 than with priming or full 1.0 mg kg−1 bolus. Conclusions A dose of 1.5 mg kg−1 not only produces an initial onset of paralysis as early as 30 s, which we speculate could be a reasonable onset time for relief of laryngospasm, but also has an onset as fast as priming with superior intubating conditions and no respiratory side-effects. PMID:19029093
Karler, R.; Turkanis, S. A.
1 The effects of subacute treatment with cannabidiol, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), phenytoin and phenobarbitone on anticonvulsant activity and on withdrawal excitability in mice were compared in three electrically induced seizure-threshold tests. 2 In the maximal electroshock-threshold test, subacute treatment did not alter the anticonvulsant activity of cannabidiol, phenytoin or phenobarbitone, but tolerance developed to delta 9-THC. 3 In the 60 Hz electroshock-threshold test, the activity of delta 9-THC and cannabidiol did not change, but tolerance developed to phenobarbitone, and there was an increase in sensitivity to phenytoin. 4 In the 6 Hz electroshock-threshold test, there was an increase in sensitivity to both delta 9-THC and cannabidiol, there was tolerance to phenobarbitone, while the activity of phenytoin did not change. 5 Although tolerance developed in some of the seizure-threshold tests to delta 9-THC and phenobarbitone, tolerance to cannabidiol and phenytoin did not develop in any of the tests. 6 Hyperexcitability followed withdrawal from only delta 9-THC (6 Hz and 60 Hz electroshock-threshold tests) and phenobarbitone (maximal electroshock-threshold and 60 Hz electroshock-threshold tests). 7 The delta 9-THC withdrawal hyperexcitability suggests that the use of marihuana may jeopardize the control of seizures in epileptics. PMID:6301593
Ferreira, R; Bassi, G S; Cabral, A; Nobre, M J
Ritalin (methylphenidate hydrochloride, MP) is a non-amphetamine psychostimulant and is the drug of choice to treat children and adults diagnosed with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Several studies have demonstrated that rats treated with MP during early developmental stage exhibit alterations in anxiety-related processes such as an increased response to stressful stimuli and elevated plasma levels of corticosterone. Accordingly, the present study was designed to further characterize the neural and behavioral consequences of withdrawal from MP in adult rats and its influence on the neural reactivity of the dorsal midbrain. After initial exposure to an elevated plus-maze (EPM), brainstem neural activation, elicited by exposure to EPM aversive cues, was analyzed using a Fos-protein immunolabeling technique. Additional independent groups of animals were submitted to electrical stimulation of the dorsal column (DPAG) or the startle response procedure, in order to verify the influence of withdrawal from MP on the expression of unconditioned fear induced by DPAG activation and the effects of or withdrawal from MP on motor response, respectively. Our results provide new findings about the influence of MP treatment in adult rats, showing that, after a sudden MP treatment-break, increased anxiety, associated with the neural sensitization of anxiety-related regions, ensues.
Gortney, Justine S; Raub, Joshua N; Patel, Pragnesh; Kokoska, Lianne; Hannawa, Mae; Argyris, Amy
The authors provide a critical review focusing on pharmacotherapy of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in hospitalized patients who are not critically ill. They outline recommendations for patient assessment and monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.
Lurry, Dee L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.
This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Oklahoma by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: irrigation, water supply, livestock, thermoelectric-power generation, domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, water supply, livestock, and thermoelectric-power generation are illustrated in this report, although data for all categories are tabulated. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established the National Water-Use Information Program in 1977 to collect uniform, current, and reliable information on water use. The Oklahoma District of the USGS and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board participate in a cooperative program to collect and publish water-use information for Oklahoma. Data contained in this report were made available through the cooperative program.
Mirijello, Antonio; D’Angelo, Cristina; Ferrulli, Anna; Vassallo, Gabriele; Antonelli, Mariangela; Caputo, Fabio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni
Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome may develop within 6–24 hours after the abrupt discontinuation or decrease of alcohol consumption. Symptoms can vary from autonomic hyperactivity and agitation to delirium tremens. The gold-standard treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome is represented by benzodiazepines. Among them, different agents (i.e., long-acting or short-acting) and different regimens (front-loading, fixed dose or symptom-triggered) may be chosen on the basis of patient characteristics. Severe withdrawal could require ICU admission and the use of barbiturates or propofol. Other drugs, such as alpha2-agonists (clonidine and dexmetedomidine) and beta-blockers can be used as adjunctive treatments to control neuroautonomic hyperactivity. Furthermore, neuroleptics can help control hallucinations. Finally, other medications for the treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome have been investigated with promising results. These include carbamazepine, valproate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, gabapentin, and topiramate. The usefulness of these agents will be discussed in the text. PMID:25666543
Li, Hao; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Hassell, James E; Watt, Michael J; Forster, Gina L; Renner, Kenneth J
Withdrawal from amphetamine increases anxiety and reduces the ability to cope with stress, which are factors that are believed to contribute to drug relapse. Stress-induced serotonergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala is associated with anxiety states and fear. Conversely, stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) levels have been linked to coping mechanisms. The goal of this study was to investigate the neurobiological changes induced by amphetamine that contribute to stress sensitivity during withdrawal. We tested the hypothesis that limbic serotonergic responses to restraint stress would be altered in male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically pretreated with amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and then subjected to 2 weeks of withdrawal. Amphetamine withdrawal resulted in increased stress-induced behavioral arousal relative to control treatment, suggesting that drug withdrawal induced greater sensitivity to the stressor. When microdialysis was used to determine the effects of restraint on extracellular 5-HT, stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels were abolished in the ventral hippocampus and augmented in the central amygdala during amphetamine withdrawal. Reverse dialysis of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone into the ventral hippocampus blocked the stress-induced increase in 5-HT levels in saline-pretreated rats, suggesting that glucocorticoid receptors mediate stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus. However, mifepristone had no effect on stress-induced increases in 5-HT levels in the central amygdala, indicating that stress increases 5-HT levels in this region independently of glucocorticoid receptors. During amphetamine withdrawal, the absence of stress-induced increases in ventral hippocampal 5-HT levels combined with enhanced stress-induced serotonergic responses in the central amygdala may contribute to drug relapse by decreasing stress-coping ability and heightening
During 1990, the amount of water withdrawn from ground- and surface-water sources in Mississippi was about 3,600 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). Of this amount, 91 percent, or 3,300 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from freshwater sources. Of the total freshwater withdrawals, about 82 percent, or 2,700 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from ground-water sources. Total water withdrawals in Mississippi in 1990 for eight categories of use were as follows: irrigation, 1,900 Mgal/d; thermoelectric power, 700 Mgal/d; aquaculture, 400 Mgal/d; public supply, 320 Mgal/d; industrial and mining, 270 Mgal/d; domestic, 33 Mgal/d; commercial, 16 Mgal/d; and livestock, 16 Mgal/d. Overall, total withdrawals increased by 20 percent from 1985 to 1990, although the total population decreased about 2 percent. During the same period, total freshwater withdrawals increased by about 17 percent. Total saline with- drawals increased by about 60 percent from 1985 due to an increase in salin withdrawals for thermo- electric power generation. Total fresh and saline surface-water withdrawals decreased by about 6 percent from 1985, due to decrease in surface-water withdrawals for irrigation. Fresh ground-water withdrawals in Mississippi increased by about 33 percent, primarily due to an increase in irrigation. Since 1960, total ground- and surface-water with- drawals increased 70 percent for the same period. Irrigation had the greatest increase in with- drawals since 1960, with a 269 percent increase. Public supply had the second greatest, with a 178 percent increase.
Berghella, Vincenzo; Lim, Pearl J; Hill, Mary K; Cherpes, Jennifer; Chennat, Jennifer; Kaltenbach, Karol
The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal methadone dosage correlates with neonatal withdrawal in a large heroin-addicted pregnant population. A retrospective review of all maternal/neonatal records of pregnancies that were maintained on methadone therapy in our institution was conducted. After in-hospital stabilization, women were given daily methadone therapy under direct surveillance, with liberal dosage increases according to maternal withdrawal symptoms. Neonatal withdrawal was assessed objectively by the neonatal abstinence score. The average methadone dose in the last 12 weeks of pregnancy and the last methadone dose before delivery (cutoffs of 40, 60, or 80 mg) were correlated to various objective measures of neonatal withdrawal. One hundred mother/neonate pairs on methadone therapy were identified. Women who received an average methadone dose of <80 mg (n=50 women) had a trend toward a higher incidence of illicit drug abuse before delivery than women who received doses of >/=80 mg (n=50 women; 48% vs 32%; P=.1). Women who received an average methadone dose of <80 mg had similar highest neonatal abstinence score, need for neonatal treatment for withdrawal, and duration of withdrawal compared with women whose condition was maintained with dosages of >/=80 mg (score, 11.1 vs 11.5; 68% vs 66%; and 13.3 vs 13.6 days, respectively; all P>.5). For all cutoffs that were used for high versus low dose and for both the average and last methadone dosage analyses, neonatal withdrawal was similar. The maternal methadone dosage does not correlate with neonatal withdrawal; therefore, maternal benefits of effective methadone dosing are not offset by neonatal harm.
Shahrour, Tarek; Siddiq, Muez; Ghalib, Saad
Catatonia as a clozapine-withdrawal syndrome has only been documented in the medical literature as case reports. We are reporting a case in which a 32-year-old man develops a catatonic state upon withdrawal of clozapine. The state was quite severe and needed ICU admission. The course was chronic and intermittent which we think was caused by the poor adherence to antipsychotics. The importance of identifying such cases early is underlined. PMID:26788394
... subpart can make a post-employment withdrawal election described at 5 U.S.C. 8433(b): (1) Upon separation... section, a post-employment withdrawal election can be made by: (i) A justice or judge of the United States (as defined in 28 U.S.C. 451) who retires under 28 U.S.C. 317(a) or (b) or 372(a); (ii) A...
... subpart can make a post-employment withdrawal election described at 5 U.S.C. 8433(b): (1) Upon separation... section, a post-employment withdrawal election can be made by: (i) A justice or judge of the United States (as defined in 28 U.S.C. 451) who retires under 28 U.S.C. 317(a) or (b) or 372(a); (ii) A...
... subpart can make a post-employment withdrawal election described at 5 U.S.C. 8433(b): (1) Upon separation... section, a post-employment withdrawal election can be made by: (i) A justice or judge of the United States (as defined in 28 U.S.C. 451) who retires under 28 U.S.C. 317(a) or (b) or 372(a); (ii) A...
Kuhbandner, Christof; Haager, Julia S
Both everyday intuition and experimental evidence suggest that habits are difficult to change. However, despite the abundance of research, it is unknown whether the ease of habit breaking differs with respect to the most elementary forms of behavior, approach versus withdrawal. In the present study, we addressed this question by monitoring the formation and overriding of approach and withdrawal habits. In an initial habit-formation phase, participants intensely practiced approach or withdrawal behavior to neutral everyday objects (Experiments 1) and emotionally laden persons (Experiment 2) until strong behavioral habits were formed. In a subsequent habit-breaking phase, they were asked to change their behavior for half of the approach stimuli to withdrawal, and for half of the withdrawal stimuli to approach. Two intriguing results were observed. First, the results in the habit-formation phase showed that the typically observed speed advantage of approach over withdrawal cannot be diminished by practice. Second, the results in the habit-breaking phase showed that overriding a withdrawal habit by approach is easier than overriding an approach habit by withdrawal. In the latter case, participants were more often caught by their older habit, even when responses were bolstered by appropriate emotions. Thus, other than reflected in everyday thinking, approaching former enemies seems to be easier than withdrawing from former friends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Lader, Malcolm; Kyriacou, Andri
The large class of CNS-depressant medications-the benzodiazepines-have been extensively used for over 50 years, anxiety disorders being one of the main indications. A substantial proportion (perhaps up to 20-30 %) of long-term users becomes physically dependent on them. Problems with their use became manifest, and dependence, withdrawal difficulties and abuse were documented by the 1980s. Many such users experience physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms on attempted cessation and may develop clinically troublesome syndromes even during slow tapering. Few studies have been conducted to establish the optimal withdrawal schedules. The usual management comprises slow withdrawal over weeks or months together with psychotherapy of various modalities. Pharmacological aids include antidepressants such as the SSRIs especially if depressive symptoms supervene. Other pharmacological agents such as the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil, and the hormonal agent, melatonin, remain largely experimental. The purpose of this review is to analyse the evidence for the efficacy of the usual withdrawal regimes and the newer agents. It is concluded that little evidence exists outside the usual principles of drug withdrawal but there are some promising leads.
Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication.
Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina
Alcohol dependence is an increasing and pervasive problem. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a part of alcohol dependence syndrome and are commonly encountered in general hospital settings, in most of the departments. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome ranges from mild to severe. The severe complicated alcohol withdrawal may present with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the largest and the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and are considered the gold standard. Others, such as anticonvulsants, barbiturates, adrenergic drugs, and GABA agonists have been tried and have evidence. Supportive care and use of vitamins is essential in the management. Symptom triggered regime is favoured over fixed tapering dose regime, although monitoring through scales is cumbersome. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on ‘Alcohol withdrawal syndrome’ in humans during the last 10 years. A total of 1182 articles came up. Articles not relevant to clinical utility and management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full text articles, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were obtained from this list and were considered for review. PMID:26500991
Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952
Rosse, Joseph G.
Studies of employee tardiness, absence, and turnover generally adhere to one of five models: generalized withdrawal, which proposes positive intercorrelations among withdrawal behaviors; independent forms, which hypothesizes non-significant correlations among withdrawal behaviors; progression of withdrawal, which suggests that individuals engage…
... immediately preceding the plan year in which the partial withdrawal occurs include a plan year during the... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability for subsequent partial withdrawals. 4207.8... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY §...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review and extensions of withdrawals. 2310... Withdrawals, General: Procedure § 2310.4 Review and extensions of withdrawals. (a) Discretionary withdrawals... provisions of section 204(c) of the Act (43 U.S.C. 1714(c)), or section 204(d) of the Act (43 U.S.C....
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review and extensions of withdrawals. 2310... Withdrawals, General: Procedure § 2310.4 Review and extensions of withdrawals. (a) Discretionary withdrawals... provisions of section 204(c) of the Act (43 U.S.C. 1714(c)), or section 204(d) of the Act (43 U.S.C....
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Review and extensions of withdrawals. 2310... Withdrawals, General: Procedure § 2310.4 Review and extensions of withdrawals. (a) Discretionary withdrawals... provisions of section 204(c) of the Act (43 U.S.C. 1714(c)), or section 204(d) of the Act (43 U.S.C....
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time...
... (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.31 Right to withdraw. Withdrawals from bonded warehouse may be made only by the person primarily liable for the payment of duties on the merchandise being withdrawn, i.e., the importer of record on the warehouse...
... insolvency laws, except that a plan sponsor may determine that such an employer is liable for reallocation... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 1263.26... BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 1263.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In general. (1) Any institution may withdraw from membership by providing to the Bank written notice of...
... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 1263.26... BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 1263.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In general. (1) Any institution may withdraw from membership by providing to the Bank written notice of...
... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 1263.26... BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 1263.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In general. (1) Any institution may withdraw from membership by providing to the Bank written notice of...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 925.26... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 925.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In general. (1) Any institution may withdraw from membership by providing to the Bank...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...
Shahidi, Siamak; Hashemi-Firouzi, Nasrin
Withdrawal from opioids leads to the expression of aversion behaviors. Previous studies have shown that the serotonergic system has an important role in morphine withdrawal syndrome. The 5-HT7 receptor is a recently discovered member of the 5-HT receptor family that has been shown to be involved in these behaviors. The aim of the present study was to test the role of the 5-HT7 receptor in withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice with AS19 and SB269970, a selective agonist and antagonist of this receptor, respectively. Dependence was induced by the repeated administration of morphine for five consecutive days. The morphine-dependent mice received AS19 (3, 5, or 10mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or SB269970 (1, 3, or 10mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 15 min prior to the precipitation of morphine withdrawal syndromes by naloxone (3mg/kg, subcutaneous). Withdrawal symptoms, including percent weight loss, jumping, teeth chattering, writhing, body and face grooming, sniffing, standing, and head and limb shaking, were recorded for 30 min after the naloxone injection. The morphine-dependent mice had significantly more withdrawal symptoms than naive control mice. The administration of AS19 reduced most of the morphine withdrawal symptoms. However, SB2699 increased some of the withdrawal symptoms, including teeth chattering, face grooming, jumping, and head and limb shaking. These findings suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor is involved in morphine withdrawal. Its activation decreased and its inactivation increased the morphine withdrawal syndrome. Further studies are recommended to better understand the role of the 5-HT7 receptor in morphine dependence and withdrawal.
Etoh, Masaya; Yamaguchi, Akira
Various animal experiments and human studies have shown that intermittent injections of parathyroid hormone (PTH) exert anabolic effects on bone, whereas continuous PTH treatment decreases the bone mass and causes hypercalcemia in animals. However, limited data are available with regard to the effects of a repetitive regimen of continuous treatments of PTH followed by periodic withdrawals on the bone metabolism. We investigated the effects of this regimen by comparing the findings of intermittent and continuous PTH treatments in rats. Infusions of PTH for 24 h followed by 6-day withdrawal periods from PTH transiently increased the serum calcium levels on day 1, but these levels were within the normocalcemic range. The repetition of 4 cycles of continuous PTH infusions followed by PTH withdrawals as well as intermittent PTH treatment increased the trabecular bone thickness, osteoblast surface, and bone formation rate. Continuous PTH infusions followed by PTH withdrawals also increased the cortical thickness of the femoral diaphysis and the osteoid volume in trabecular bones, whereas the continuous treatment failed to induce these changes. These findings suggest that continuous PTH treatment followed by PTH withdrawal is a potential regimen that can induce the anabolic effects of PTH in bone metabolism without inducing hypercalcemia.
Drone, David; Thuras, Paul; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Brauer, Lisa; Adson, David E.; al’Absi, Mustafa
Introduction: Studies suggest that in smokers attempting to quit smoking, the occurrence of stressful events is associated with smoking relapse. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bupropion (an agent known to increase smoking cessation rates) on the craving, withdrawal, and mood response to stressful tasks administered in a laboratory setting. Methods: Response to three tasks (a speech, math, and cold pressor task) was measured in 65 smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smokers were then randomized to either bupropion or placebo. Fourteen days after starting medication, 43 subjects (28 receiving bupropion and 15 receiving placebo) quit smoking and laboratory procedures were repeated on the third day of abstinence. Results: Prior to cessation, stressors presented in a laboratory setting increased craving, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and subjective distress but decreased positive affect. Thirty minutes of relaxation after the stressors did not result in these measures returning to prestress levels. During the nicotine withdrawal period, stress-induced responses were generally smaller than during the precessation period. Bupropion (relative to placebo) reduced overall levels of craving and withdrawal symptoms but did not have significant effects on response to stress during the nicotine withdrawal period. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that stress results in sustained increases in craving and withdrawal symptoms and changes in mood symptoms and that bupropion affects overall levels of these symptoms. Further research is needed to determine if modifying response to stress is predictive of an effective treatment for facilitating smoking cessation. PMID:21378081
Heinz, Andreas; Löber, Sabine; Georgi, Alexander; Wrase, Jana; Hermann, Derik; Rey, Eibe-R; Wellek, Stefan; Mann, Karl
Craving for the rewarding effects of alcohol may be evoked by conditioned alcohol-like effects whereas conditioned compensatory responses may induce withdrawal relief craving. We tested the hypothesis that drinking in positive emotional states is associated with appetitive reactions to alcohol-associated cues and contributes to reward craving, while conditioned withdrawal is associated with drinking in negative situations and distressful, obsessive preoccupations with alcohol. In 38 detoxified alcoholics, the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale was used to assess the craving factors 'impaired control', 'interference with social functioning' and 'obsession'. Affective responses to alcohol-associated visual stimuli were measured with the affect-modulated eyeblink startle reflex, positive and negative drinking situations with the Inventory of Drinking Situations (IDS) and withdrawal-like symptoms preceding alcohol intake with the revised Clinical Institute Assessment for Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar). Appetitive reactions to alcohol-associated cues correlated positively with drinking in positive situations and contributed significantly to the craving factor 'interference' with social and work functioning. The severity of withdrawal-like symptoms preceding alcohol intake contributed to the craving factor 'obsession'; however, contrary to our hypothesis, this measure of conditioned withdrawal correlated with drinking not only in negative but also in positive situations. Drinking in positive and negative situations, appetitive reactions to alcohol and withdrawal-like symptoms contributed differentially to the craving factors 'obsession' and 'interference', supporting the notion of different craving factors with separate underlying mechanisms.
Morris, S A; Kelso, M L; Liput, D J; Marshall, S A; Nixon, K
Alcohol use during adolescence leads to increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) during adulthood. Converging evidence suggests that this period of enhanced vulnerability for developing an AUD may be due to the adolescent's unique sensitivity and response to alcohol. Adolescent rats have been shown to be less sensitive to alcohol intoxication and withdrawal susceptibility; however, age differences in ethanol pharmacokinetics may underlie these effects. Therefore, this study investigated alcohol intoxication behavior and withdrawal severity using a modified Majchrowicz model of alcohol dependence that has been shown to result in similar blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) despite age differences. Adolescent (postnatal day, PND, 35) and adult rats (PND 70+) received ethanol according to this 4-day binge paradigm and were observed for withdrawal behavior for 17h. As expected, adolescents showed decreased sensitivity to alcohol-induced CNS depression as evidenced by significantly lower intoxication scores. Thus, adolescents received significantly more ethanol each day (12.3+/-0.1g/kg/day) than adults (9.2+/-0.2g/kg/day). Despite greater ethanol dosing in adolescent rats, both adolescent and adult groups had comparable peak BECs (344.5+/-10.2 and 338.5+/-7.8mg/dL, respectively). Strikingly, withdrawal severity was similar quantitatively and qualitatively between adolescent and adult rats. Further, this is the first time that withdrawal behavior has been reported for adolescent rats using this model of alcohol dependence. A second experiment confirmed the similarity in BECs at various time points across the binge. These results demonstrate that after consideration of ethanol pharmacokinetics between adults and adolescents by using a model that produces similar BECs, withdrawal severity is nearly identical. This study, in combination with previous reports on ethanol withdrawal in adolescents and adults, suggests only a BEC-dependent effect of ethanol on
Duncan, S D; Devlin, L A
Baclofen is a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist used primarily as a muscle relaxant to treat spasticity in children and adults. Withdrawal of oral baclofen is known to cause a withdrawal syndrome in adults. Only one previous case describes a withdrawal syndrome in a term infant, manifested by seizures, associated with the use of oral baclofen in the mother. This case describes a withdrawal syndrome and the unique use of baclofen for withdrawal in a preterm infant.