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Sample records for rodent mesenteric bed

  1. Acrolein induces vasodilatation of rodent mesenteric bed via an EDHF-dependent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Awe, S.O.; Adeagbo, A.S.O.; D'Souza, S.E.; Bhatnagar, A.; Conklin, D.J. . E-mail: dj.conklin@louisville.edu

    2006-12-15

    Acrolein is generated endogenously during lipid peroxidation and inflammation and is an environmental pollutant. Protein adducts of acrolein are detected in atherosclerotic plaques and neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease. To understand vascular effects of acrolein exposure, we studied acrolein vasoreactivity in perfused rodent mesenteric bed. Acrolein induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation that was more robust and more sensitive than dilation induced by 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, trans-2-hexenal, or propionaldehyde. Acrolein-induced vasodilatation was mediated by K{sup +}-sensitive components, e.g., it was abolished in 0 [K{sup +}]{sub o} buffer or in 3 mM tetrabutylammonium, inhibited 75% in 50 {mu}M ouabain, and inhibited 64% in 20 mM K{sup +} buffer. Moreover, combined treatment with the Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channel inhibitors 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34, 100 nM) and apamin (5 {mu}M) significantly reduced vasodilatation without altering sensitivity to acrolein. However, acrolein-induced % dilation was unaffected by L-NAME or indomethacin pretreatment indicating mechanistic independence of NO and prostaglandins. Moreover, acrolein induced vasodilatation in cirazoline-precontracted mesenteric bed of eNOS-null mice confirming eNOS independence. Pretreatment with 6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanoic acid (PPOH 50 {mu}M), an epoxygenase inhibitor, or the superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol (100 {mu}M) significantly attenuated acrolein-induced vasodilatation. Collectively, these data indicate that acrolein stimulates mesenteric bed vasodilatation due to endothelium-derived signal(s) that is K{sup +}-, ouabain-, PPOH-, and Tempol-sensitive, and thus, a likely endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). These data indicate that low level acrolein exposure associated with vascular oxidative stress or inflammation stimulates vasodilatation via EDHF release in medium-sized arteries - a novel function.

  2. Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared with fresh bedding. When 14-wk-old mice were bred, litter size and total number of weaned pups showed no significant differences between animals raised on recycled or fresh bedding. Because bedding type influences the environment within cages and animal rooms, we evaluated particulate and ammonia data from cages and animal rooms. Values were significantly lower from cages and rooms that used recycled bedding than from those using fresh bedding, thus indicating that recycled bedding has the potential to improve the environment within both cages and animal rooms. Overall, this study revealed that recycled bedding is an excellent material for use in housing laboratory rodents. Specifically, recycled bedding may reduce medical waste and maintain healthy environments within cages and animal rooms. PMID:19653951

  3. Raised tone reveals ATP as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in the porcine mesenteric arterial bed.

    PubMed

    Shatarat, Amjad; Dunn, William R; Ralevic, Vera

    2014-12-01

    The relative importance of ATP as a functional sympathetic neurotransmitter in blood vessels has been shown to be increased when the level of preexisting vascular tone or pressure is increased, in studies carried out in rat mesenteric arteries. The aim of the present study was to determine whether tone influences the involvement of ATP as a sympathetic cotransmitter with noradrenaline in another species. We used the porcine perfused mesenteric arterial bed and porcine mesenteric large, medium and small arteries mounted for isometric tension recording, because purinergic cotransmission can vary depending on the size of the blood vessel. In the perfused mesenteric bed at basal tone, sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses were abolished by prazosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, but there was no significant effect of α,β-methylene ATP, a P2X receptor-desensitizing agent. Submaximal precontraction of the mesenteric arterial bed with U46619, a thromboxane A2 mimetic, augmented the sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses; under these conditions, both α,β-methylene ATP and prazosin attenuated the neurogenic responses. In the mesenteric large, medium and small arteries, prazosin attenuated the sympathetic neurogenic contractile responses under conditions of both basal and U46619-raised tone. α,β-Methylene ATP was effective in all of these arteries only under conditions of U46619-induced tone, causing a similar inhibition in all arteries, but had no significant effect on sympathetic neurogenic contractions at basal tone. These data show that ATP is a cotransmitter with noradrenaline in porcine mesenteric arteries; the purinergic component was revealed under conditions of partial precontraction, which is more relevant to physiological conditions.

  4. A ketolide antibiotic, telithromycin, inhibits vascular adrenergic neurotransmission in the rat mesenteric vascular bed

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Y; Zamami, Y; Koyama, T; Hobara, N; Jin, X; Kitamura, Y; Kawasaki, H

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: A ketolide antibiotic, telithromycin, has side effects including temporary loss of consciousness in clinical use, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the effects of telithromycin on perivascular nerve function in rat mesenteric arteries, in comparison with those of macrolide (erythromycin and clarithromycin) and new quinolone antibiotics (levofloxacin and gatifloxacin). Experimental approach: In vitro, vascular responses and release of noradrenaline induced by periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) of rat perfused mesenteric vascular beds were measured in the presence of each antibiotic. In vivo blood pressure measurement was performed in Wistar rats. Key results: In mesenteric preparations with resting tone, telithromycin (10 nM–10 μM) markedly inhibited PNS (4–12 Hz)-induced adrenergic nerve- and exogenous noradrenaline-mediated vasoconstriction, whereas the other antibiotics slightly inhibited PNS-induced responses without affecting noradrenaline-induced responses. Telithromycin significantly reduced PNS (12 Hz)-evoked noradrenaline release in the perfusate. In pre-constricted preparations with or without endothelium, telithromycin (0.1 nM–10 μM) caused a concentration-dependent vasodilation. Telithromycin (10 nM) inhibited calcium-induced vasoconstriction in high KCl and calcium-free medium. None of the antibiotics used affected PNS (0.5–2 Hz)-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) nerve- and exogenous CGRP-mediated vasodilation. Intravenous injection of telithromycin significantly lowered blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. Conclusions and implications: These results suggest that telithromycin causes not only strong inhibition of perivascular adrenergic neurotransmission but also a vasodilator action in mesenteric vascular beds and hypotension. It is thus possible that telithromycin increases visceral blood flow, consequently reducing cerebral blood flow and resulting

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) prevents the prostanoid imbalance in mesenteric bed of fructose-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Peredo, Horacio A; Mayer, Marcos; Faya, Ileana R; Puyó, Ana M; Carranza, Andrea

    2008-10-01

    In previous studies we reported an altered prostanoid (PR) release-pattern in mesenteric vessels in fructose (F)-overloaded rats, an experimental model of insulin resistance and hypertension. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its precursor Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are the most abundant circulating steroid hormones produced by the adrenal and recent studies in both cells and animals suggest that DHEA may have acute non-genomic actions that mimic both metabolic and vascular actions of insulin. This study was to analyze in F-overloaded rats, the effects of DHEA treatment on arterial blood pressure and the PR production in mesenteric vessels and aorta. Male 6 week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided in four groups: a control group (C), a DHEA (30 mg/kg/sc/48 h)-treated group (D), a fructose (10% w/v in drinking water)-fed group (F), and both treatments simultaneously group (FD). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail cuff method and glycemia and triglyderidemia were measured by enzymatic assays. The mesenteric beds of all groups were dissected, and incubated in Krebs solution. The PR released were measured by HPLC. F overload increased SBP and triglyceridemia and decreased the mesenteric vasodilatory PR release. DHEA treatment prevented the increment in SBP and triglyceridemia and decreased vasoconstrictor PR in F-treated rats. DHEA normalize the PGI(2)/TX ratio, diminished in F-overloaded rats, through the decrease in thromboxane (TX) production and this could be one of the mechanisms by which DHEA prevented the slight hypertension in F-animals.

  6. Endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in various types of rodent bedding.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane

    2010-03-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating-tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedding types; the highest levels of endotoxin were detected in hardwood and corncob beddings. The range of endotoxin content for each bedding type was: corncob bedding, 1913 to 4504 endotoxin units per gram (EU/g); hardwood bedding, 3121 to 5401 EU/g; corncob-paper mixed bedding, 1586 to 2416 EU/g; and paper bedding, less than 5 to 105 EU/g. Coliform counts varied from less than 10 to 7591 cfu/g in corncob beddings, 90 to 4010 cfu/g in corncob-paper mixed beddings, less than 10 to 137 cfu/g in hardwood beddings, and less than 10 cfu/g in paper beddings. Average dust content was less than 0.15% in all commercial bedding types. We conclude that paper bedding is the optimal bedding type for conducting LPS inhalation studies and that rodent bedding containing high levels of endotoxin may alter the results of respiratory and immunologic studies in rodents.

  7. Endotoxin, Coliform, and Dust Levels in Various Types of Rodent Bedding

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane B

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating–tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedding types; the highest levels of endotoxin were detected in hardwood and corncob beddings. The range of endotoxin content for each bedding type was: corncob bedding, 1913 to 4504 endotoxin units per gram (EU/g); hardwood bedding, 3121 to 5401 EU/g; corncob–paper mixed bedding, 1586 to 2416 EU/g; and paper bedding, less than 5 to 105 EU/g. Coliform counts varied from less than 10 to 7591 cfu/g in corncob beddings, 90 to 4010 cfu/g in corncob–paper mixed beddings, less than 10 to 137 cfu/g in hardwood beddings, and less than 10 cfu/g in paper beddings. Average dust content was less than 0.15% in all commercial bedding types. We conclude that paper bedding is the optimal bedding type for conducting LPS inhalation studies and that rodent bedding containing high levels of endotoxin may alter the results of respiratory and immunologic studies in rodents. PMID:20353693

  8. Effects of the dietary flavonoid chrysin in isolated rat mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Villar, Inmaculada Concepción; Galisteo, Milagros; Vera, Rocío; O'Valle, Francisco; García-Saura, María Francisca; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Duarte, Juan

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of the bioflavonoid chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) were analyzed on the perfusion pressure of isolated mesenteric vascular bed. The vasorelaxant effects of chrysin were more potent on intact endothelium than on denuded vessels. This endothelium-dependent response induced by chrysin was inhibited in the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), KCl, tetraethylammonium (TEA), BaCl(2), TEA plus L-NAME, and ouabain plus BaCl(2), while incubations with indomethacin and glibenclamide did not modify the response induced by this bioflavonoid. Neither gap junction inhibition with carbenoxolone nor epoxyeicosatrieconic acid synthesis inhibition with sulfaphenazole (selective CYP 2C/3A inhibitor) or 7-ethoxyresorufin (selective CYP 1A inhibitor) inhibited the chrysin-induced relaxation. Moreover, chrysin increased L-NAME-sensitive cGMP accumulation in intact vascular mesenteric preparation. In conclusion, chrysin shows vasodilator effects on resistance vessels, which depend partially on the functional endothelium and appear to be related to the NO/cGMP pathway and, possibly to the release of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor.

  9. Alpha1A-adrenoceptors predominate in the control of blood pressure in mouse mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salas, S G; Campos-Peralta, J M; Pares-Hipolito, J; Gallardo-Ortíz, I A; Ibarra, M; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2007-07-01

    1 The pressor action of the alpha1A-adrenoceptor agonist, A61603 (N-[5-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl] methanesulfonamide) or the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, and their blockade by selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists in the mouse isolated mesenteric vascular bed were evaluated. 2 A61603 showed a approximately 235-fold higher potency in elevating perfusion pressure in mesenteric bed compared to phenylephrine. 3 The alpha1A-adrenoceptor selective antagonist RS 100329 (5-methyl-3-[3-[4-[2-(2,2,2,-trifluoroethoxy) phenyl]-1-piperazinyl] propyl]-2,4-(1H)-pyrimidinedione), displaced with high affinity agonist concentration-response curves to the right in a concentration-dependent manner. 4 The alpha1D-adrenoceptor selective antagonist BMY 7378 (8-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-8-azaspiro[4.5] decane-7,9-dione), did not displace A61603 nor did it block the phenylephrine-induced pressor response. 5 The alpha1B/D-adrenoceptor alkylating antagonist chloroethylclonidine (CEC), caused a rightward shift of the phenylephrine concentration-response curve and reduced its maximum response; however, CEC only slightly modified A61603 evoked contraction. 6 The results indicate that the isolated mouse mesenteric vascular bed expresses alpha1A-adrenoceptors and suggest a very discrete role for 1B-adrenoceptors.

  10. Vascular responses to compound 48/80 in rat mesenteric vascular beds.

    PubMed

    Jin, Honghua; Li, Zhen; Takatori, Shingo; Koyama, Toshihiro; Jin, Xin; Zamami, Yoshito; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Sun, Pengyuan

    2016-06-01

    A further investigation was performed on the vascular effect of endogenous histamine using the histamine releaser, compound 48/80, in rat mesenteric vascular beds with active tone. In preparations with intact endothelium, low concentrations of compound 48/80 (1.53 × 10(-5) - 3 × 1.53 × 10(-5) mg/mL) perfusion for 1 min only induced a small vasodilation. High concentrations of compound 48/80 (1.53 × 10(-4) - 3 × 1.53 × 10(-2) mg/mL) induced a biphasic vascular responses, an initial vasoconstriction followed a subsequent long-lasting vasodilation. The vasodilation induced by low concentrations of compound 48/80 and the vasoconstriction induced by high concentration of compound 48/80 was inhibited by olopatadine. However, cimetidine did not affect the responses induced by compound 48/80. Endothelium removal enlarged the compound 48/80-induced phase-2 vasoconstriction, while it attenuated the phase-3 vasodilation. Additionally, indomethacin and seratrodast significantly inhibited vasoconstriction but it did not affect the long-lasting vasodilation induced by high concentrations of compound 48/80. Ruthenium red inhibited the vasodilation induced by low concentrations and high concentrations of compound 48/80. These results suggest that the vasoconstriction induce by high concentrations of compound 48/80 is mediated by endogenous histamine released from mast cells. It is also suggested that thromboxane A2 released from mast cells is related to the vasoconstriction.

  11. Carboxypeptidase B and other kininases of the rat coronary and mesenteric arterial bed perfusates.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Eduardo B; Souza, Laura L; Sivieri, Disney O; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz B; Pereira, Hugo J V; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Sousa, Marcelo V; Salgado, Maria Cristina O

    2007-12-01

    We describe the enzymes that constitute the major bradykinin (BK)-processing pathways in the perfusates of mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) and coronary vessels isolated from Wistar normotensive rats (WNR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The contribution of particular proteases to BK degradation was revealed by the combined analysis of fragments generated during incubation of BK with representative perfusate samples and the effect of selective inhibitors on the respective reactions. Marked differences were seen among the perfusates studied; MAB secretes, per minute of perfusion, kininase activity capable of hydrolyzing approximately 300 pmol of BK/min, which is approximately 250-fold larger amount on a per unit time basis than that of its coronary counterpart. BK degradation in the coronary perfusate seems to be mediated by ANG I-converting enzyme, neutral endopeptidase 24.11-like enzyme, and a dl-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid-sensitive basic carboxypeptidase; coronary perfusate of WNR contains an additional BK-degrading enzyme whose specificity resembles that of neurolysin or thimet oligopeptidase. Diversely, a des-Arg(9)-BK-forming enzyme, responsible for nearly all of the kininase activity of MAB perfusates of WNR and spontaneously hypertensive rats, could be purified by a procedure that involved affinity chromatography over potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor-Sepharose column and shown to be structurally identical to rat pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (CPB). Comparable levels of CPB mRNA expression were observed in pancreas, liver, mesentery, and kidney, but very low levels were detected in lung, heart, aorta, and carotid artery. In conclusion, distinct BK-processing pathways operate in the perfusates of rat MAB and coronary bed, with a substantial participation of a des-Arg(9)-BK-forming enzyme identical to pancreatic CPB.

  12. Influence of the dopamine receptor agonists fenoldopam and quinpirole in the rat superior mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, A. G.; Lefebvre, R. A.; Vanderniepen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of local administration of the dopamine 2 (DA2)-receptor agonist quinpirole and of the DA1-receptor agonist fenoldopam was studied in the in situ, constant flow autoperfused, superior mesenteric vascular bed of the rat. Local infusion of quinpirole (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 5 min) had no effect on baseline perfusion pressure; it reduced the pressor responses to electrical stimulation (4 Hz, 1 ms, supramaximal voltage) of the periarterial sympathetic nerves to 45.6 +/- 2.1% of its original value but did not modify similar pressor responses produced by locally administered noradrenaline. The inhibitory effect of quinpirole was antagonized by the selective DA2-receptor antagonist domperidone (10 micrograms kg-1) but not by the selective DA1-receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (50 micrograms kg-1). Local infusion of fenoldopam (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 5 min) reduced baseline perfusion pressure to 89.9 +/- 1.9%, increased the pressor response to electrical stimulation (4 Hz, 1 ms, supramaximal voltage) of the periarterial nerves to 134.7 +/- 14.0%, but reduced the pressor response to locally administered noradrenaline to 37.2 +/- 8.2%. Similar pressor responses induced by the selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine were also reduced by fenoldopam (to 38.4 +/- 6.4%), but responses to locally administered angiotensin II were not modified. Pretreatment with SCH 23390 (50 micrograms kg-1) antagonized the effect of fenoldopam on baseline perfusion pressure, but had no influence on the effect of fenoldopam on responses to electrical stimulation or to noradrenaline. Pretreatment with the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (100 micrograms kg-1) had no effect on the reduction in baseline perfusion pressure induced by fenoldopam nor on its inhibitory effect on the response to noradrenaline, but it antagonized the stimulatory effect of fenoldopam on the response to electrical stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2886174

  13. The Manufacture, Shipping and Receiving and Quality Control of Rodent Bedding Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Lisbeth M.

    1980-01-01

    The criteria for rodent bedding and nesting materials are discussed. The literature is reviewed regarding sources of bedding materials, manufacturing methods, quality control, procedures (microbiological, physical and chemical), storage, methods, shipment, methods of use and disposal, current knowledge concerning bedding effects on animals as related to research and testing and legal aspects. Future needs, especially with respect to the promulgation of standards, also are addressed.

  14. Absorbencies of six different rodent beddings: commercially advertised absorbencies are potentially misleading.

    PubMed

    Burn, C C; Mason, G J

    2005-01-01

    Moisture absorbency is one of the most important characteristics of rodent beddings for controlling bacterial growth and ammonia production. However, bedding manufacturers rarely provide information on the absorbencies of available materials, and even when they do, absorption values are usually expressed per unit mass of bedding. Since beddings are usually placed into cages to reach a required depth rather than a particular mass, their volumetric absorbencies are far more relevant. This study therefore compared the saline absorbencies of sawdust, aspen woodchips, two virgin loose pulp beddings (Alpha-Dri and Omega-Dri), reclaimed wood pulp (Tek-Fresh), and corncob, calculated both by volume and by mass. Absorbency per unit volume correlated positively with bedding density, while absorbency per unit mass correlated negatively. Therefore, the relative absorbencies of the beddings were almost completely reversed depending on how absorbency was calculated. By volume, corncob was the most absorbent bedding, absorbing about twice as much saline as Tek-Fresh, the least absorbent bedding. Conversely, when calculated by mass, Tek-Fresh appeared to absorb almost three times as much saline as the corncob. Thus, in practical terms the most absorbent bedding here was corncob, followed by the loose pulp beddings; and this is generally supported by their relatively low ammonia production as seen in previous studies. Many factors other than absorbency determine whether a material is suitable as a rodent bedding, and they are briefly mentioned here. However, manufacturers should provide details of bedding absorbencies in terms of volume, in order to help predict the relative absorbencies of the beddings in practical situations.

  15. Noladin ether, a putative endocannabinoid, attenuates sensory neurotransmission in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed via a non-CB1/CB2 Gi/o linked receptor

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Marnie; Millns, Paul; Smart, Darren; Wright, James E; Kendall, David A; Ralevic, Vera

    2004-01-01

    Noladin ether has recently been reported to be an endocannabinoid, with selectivity for the cannabinoid (CB) CB1 receptor. In the present study, we investigated the effects of noladin ether in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed, cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells and human vanilloid (TRPV1)-receptor-expressing HEK293 cells (TRPV1-HEK293 cells). Electrical field stimulation of the mesenteric bed evoked frequency-dependent vasorelaxation due to the action of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from sensory nerves. Noladin ether (0.1–3 μM) attenuated sensory neurogenic relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. Noladin ether (1 μM) reduced vasorelaxation at a submaximal frequency (8 Hz), from 57.3±6.8 to 23.3±3.8% (P<0.05, n=4). The inhibitory effects of noladin ether were unaffected by the CB1 antagonists SR141716A and LY320135, and the CB2 antagonist SR144528 (1 μM). Noladin ether had no effect on vasorelaxation elicited by exogenous CGRP or capsaicin. These data suggest that noladin ether is acting at a prejunctional site and no interaction with TRPV1 is involved. In mesenteric beds from pertussis toxin (PTX)-pretreated rats, the inhibitory actions of noladin ether on sensory neurotransmission were abolished, indicating the involvement of Gi/o protein-coupled receptors. Noladin ether evoked a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in TRPV1-HEK293 cells at 10 μM (36.5±3.2% of maximal capsaicin-induced response), but it was a less potent agonist than both capsaicin and anandamide and at 1 μM it was essentially inactive. Noladin ether (1 μM) had no effect on capsaicin-evoked Ca2+ responses in DRG cells, and produced no response alone, indicating it neither modulates nor acts directly on TRPV1 receptors. These data demonstrate that noladin ether attenuates sensory neurotransmission in rat mesenteric arteries via a non-CB1 non-CB2 PTX-sensitive prejunctional site, independently of TRPV1 receptors

  16. Fasudil evokes vasodilatation of rat mesenteric vascular bed via Ca(2+) channels and Rho/ROCK pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Cai; Yuan, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Hui-Fang; Wang, Dan-Shu; Niu, Zi-Ran; Li, Li; Fang, Lian-Hua; Du, Guan-Hua

    2016-10-05

    As a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, fasudil has been used in clinical trials of several cardiovascular diseases. This study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of fasudil on resistance arterial rings including mesenteric, renal, ventral tail and basilar artery. We also examined the potential mechanisms of its vasodilatory action using mesenteric artery rings. A DMT multiwire myograph system was used to test the tension of isolated small arteries. K(+) channel blockers, NO-cGMP pathway blockers and Ca(2+)-free physiological salt solution (PSS) were employed to verify the underlying mechanisms. Fasudil (10(-7)-10(-4)M) relaxed four types of small artery rings pre-contracted by 60mmol/l KCl (pEC50: 6.01±0.09, 5.47±0.03, 5.54±0.04, and 5.72±0.10 for mesenteric, renal, ventral tail and basilar artery rings, respectively). Pre-incubation with fasudil (1, 3, or 10μmol/l) attenuated KCl (10-60mmol/l) and angiotensin II (Ang II; 1μmol/l)-induced vasoconstriction in mesenteric artery rings. Fasudil at the concentration of 10(-6)mol/l showed different relaxant potency in endothelium intact (pEC50:6.01±0.09) or denued (5.75±0.06) mesenteric artery. The influx and release of Ca(2+) were inhibited by fasudil. In addition, fasudil could block the increased phosphorylation level of myosin light chain (MLC) and myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) induced by Ang II. However, pretreatment with various K(+) channel blockers did not affect the relaxant effects of fasudil remarkably. The present results demonstrate that fasudil has a vasorelaxant effect on isolated rat resistance arteries, including mesenteric, renal, ventral tail and basilar artery, and may exert its action through the endothelium, Ca(2+) channels, and the Rho/ROCK pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Estrogenic Content of Rodent Diets, Bedding, Cages, and Water Bottles and Its Effect on Bisphenol A Studies

    PubMed Central

    Thigpen, Julius E; Setchell, Kenneth DR; Kissling, Grace E; Locklear, Jacqueline; Caviness, Gordon F; Whiteside, Tanya; Belcher, Scott M; Brown, Nadine M; Collins, Bradley J; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Camacho, Luísa; Adsit, Floyd G; Grant, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The lowest observed adverse effect level for bisphenol A (BPA) in mice and rats is currently poorly defined due to inconsistent study designs and results in published studies. The objectives of the current study were to (1) compare the estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles to evaluate their impact on the estrogenic activity of BPA and (2) review the literature on BPA to determine the most frequently reported diets, beddings, cages, and water bottles used in animal studies. Our literature review indicated that low-dose BPA animal studies have inconsistent results and that factors contributing to this inconsistency are the uses of high-phytoestrogen diets and the different routes of exposure. In 44% (76 of 172) of all reports, rodents were exposed to BPA via the subcutaneous route. Our literature review further indicated that the type of diet, bedding, caging, and water bottles used in BPA studies were not always reported. Only 37% (64 of 172) of the reports described the diet used. In light of these findings, we recommend the use of a diet containing low levels of phytoestrogen (less than 20 µg/g diet) and metabolizable energy (approximately 3.1 kcal/g diet) and estrogen-free bedding, cages, and water bottles for studies evaluating the estrogenic activity of endocrine-disrupting compounds such as BPA. The oral route of BPA exposure should be used when results are to be extrapolated to humans. PMID:23562095

  18. Mesenteric Lymphadenitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... results from an intestinal infection. It mainly affects children and teens. This painful condition can mimic the warning signs of appendicitis. Unlike appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis is seldom serious and ...

  19. Nitric oxide and Kir6.1 potassium channel mediate isoquercitrin-induced endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilation in the mesenteric arterial bed of rats.

    PubMed

    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Dos Reis Piornedo, Renê; Assreuy, Jamil; Da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo

    2016-10-05

    The vascular effect of flavonoid isoquercitrin was investigated in the perfused mesenteric vascular bed of rats. In preparations with functional endothelium isoquercitrin (100, 300 and 1000nmol) dose-dependently reduced the perfusion pressure by 13±2.2, 33±3.9, and 58±3.7mm Hg, respectively. Endothelium removal or inhibition of the nitric oxide synthase enzymes by l-NAME did not change the effects of 100 and 300 nmol isoquercitrin, but reduced by 30-40% the vasodilation induced by 1000 nmol isoquercitrin. Perfusion with nutritive solution containing 40mM KCl abolished the vasodilatory effect of all isoquercitrin doses. Treatment with glibenclamide, a Kir6.1 (ATP-sensitive) potassium channel blocker, inhibited vasodilation induced by 100 and 300 nmol isoquercitrin, but only partially reduced the effect of 1000 nmol isoquercitrin. The non-selective KCa (calcium-activated) potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium, but not the selective KCa1.1 channel blocker iberiotoxin, reduced by around 60% vasodilation induced by all isoquercitrin doses. In addition, association of tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide, or l-NAME and glibenclamide, fully inhibited isoquercitrin-induced vasodilation. Our study shows that isoquercitrin induces vasodilation in resistance arteries, an effect mediated by K(+) channel opening and endothelial nitric oxide production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... the aorta, the main artery from the heart. Hardening of the arteries occurs when fat, cholesterol, and ...

  1. An ethyl acetate fraction obtained from a Southern Brazilian red wine relaxes rat mesenteric arterial bed through hyperpolarization and NO-cGMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Elke Zuleika; Bet, Angela Cristina; Hort, Mariana Appel; Ianssen, Carla; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ckless, Karina; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2005-06-01

    A number of studies suggest that moderate consumption of red wine may be more effective than other alcoholic beverages in decreasing the risk of coronary heart disease (CAD). In this study, we investigated the effect of a crude extract (CE), as well as an ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) obtained from a Brazilian red wine in the mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) from rats. Our results showed that after the tonus of MAB was increased with phenylephrine (PE), increasing concentrations of CE induced a concentration-dependent relaxation; moreover, EAF was more potent in relaxing the MAB when compared with CE. In vessels depolarized with KCl (80 mM) or treated with the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump inhibitor, ouabain (OUA; 100 microM), or with the K(+) channel blockers: barium (BaCl(2), 100 microM) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 500 microM), the effect of EAF was significantly reduced. However, this effect was not altered by the ATP-dependent K(+) (K(ATP)) channel blocker, glibenclamide (GLI; 100 microM) as well as Charybdotoxin (ChTx 10 nM), a nonselective inhibitor of K(Ca) channels of large and intermediate conductance plus Apamin (Apamin 100 nM), a specific inhibitor of K(Ca) channels of small conductance. The residual vasodilator effect of EAF observed in vessels pretreated with L-NOARG (100 microM), 1H-[1,2,4,] oxadiazolo[4,3-alfa]quinoxalin, ODQ (10 microM) or KCl (80 mM), given separately, was reduced by the administration of KCl (40 mM) plus L-NOARG (100 microM). The present study demonstrates that the vasodilator effect of EAF is partially dependent upon membrane hyperpolarization in combination with nitric oxide (NO) release.

  2. Differential responses of mesenteric arterial bed to vasoactive substances in L-NAME-induced preeclampsia: Role of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Taline A S; Ognibene, Dayane T; Carvalho, Lenize C R M; Rocha, Ana Paula M; Costa, Cristiane A; Moura, Roberto S; Resende, Angela C

    2017-07-20

    To investigate the systemic and placental oxidant status as well as vascular function in experimental preeclampsia (PE) induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Fetal parameters and maternal blood pressure, proteinuria, mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) reactivity, and systemic and placental oxidative stress were compared between four groups: pregnant rats receiving L-NAME (60 mg/kg/day, orally) (P + L-NAME) or vehicle (P) from days 13 to 20 of pregnancy and nonpregnant rats receiving L-NAME (NP + L-NAME) or vehicle (NP) during 7 days. L-NAME administration during pregnancy induced some hallmarks of PE, such as hypertension and proteinuria. The P + L-NAME group presented lower weight gain and placental mass as well as reduced number and weight of live fetuses than P group. The vasodilator effect induced by acetylcholine (ACh) and angiotensin II (Ang II) was lower in the perfused MAB from NP + L-NAME and P + L-NAME than in control groups. Otherwise, the nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation and the phenylephrine- and Ang II-induced vasoconstriction were higher in MAB from NP + L-NAME and P + L-NAME groups than in the respective controls. Systemic and placental oxidative damage, assessed by malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels, was increased and activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were reduced in P + L-NAME and NP + L-NAME groups compared to controls. The present data suggest that the oxidative stress and reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide may contribute to attenuation of vasodilator responses to ACh and Ang II, and hyperreactivity to Ang II in the mesentery of preeclamptic rat, which may contribute to the increased peripheral vascular resistance and BP, as well as intrauterine growth restriction in L-NAME-induced PE.

  3. Inhibitory action of niflumic acid on noradrenaline- and 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced pressor responses in the isolated mesenteric vascular bed of the rat.

    PubMed

    Criddle, D N; de Moura, R S; Greenwood, I A; Large, W A

    1997-03-01

    1. The effects of niflumic acid, an inhibitor of calcium-activated chloride currents, were compared with the actions of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine on noradrenaline- and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced pressor responses of the rat perfused isolated mesenteric vascular bed. 2. Bolus injections of noradrenaline (1 and 10 nmol) increased the perfusion pressure in a dose-dependent manner. Nifedipine (1 microM) inhibited the increase in pressure produced by 1 nmol noradrenaline by 31 +/- 5%. Niflumic acid (10 and 30 microM) also inhibited the noradrenaline-induced increase in perfusion pressure and 30 microM niflumic acid reduced the pressor response to 1 nmol noradrenaline by 34 +/- 6%. 3. The increases in perfusion elicited by 5-HT (0.3 and 3 nmol) were reduced by niflumic acid (10 and 30 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner and 30 microM niflumic acid inhibited responses to 0.3 and 3 nmol 5-HT by, respectively, 49 +/- 8% and 50 +/- 7%. Nifedipine (1 microM) decreased the pressor response to 3 nmol 5-HT by 44 +/- 9%. 4. In the presence of a combination of 30 microM niflumic acid and 1 microM nifedipine the inhibition of the pressor effects of noradrenaline (10 nmol) and 5-HT (3 nmol) was not significantly greater than with niflumic acid (30 microM) alone. Thus the effects of niflumic acid and nifedipine were not additive. 5. In Ca-free conditions the transient contractions induced by 5-HT (3 nmol) were not reduced by 30 microM niflumic acid, suggesting that this agent does not inhibit calcium release from the intracellular store or the binding of 5-HT to its receptor. 6. Niflumic acid 30 microM did not inhibit the pressor responses induced by KCl (20 and 60 mumol) which were markedly reduced by 1 microM nifedipine. In addition, 1 microM levcromakalim decreased pressor responses produced by 20 mumol KCl. These data suggest that niflumic acid does not block directly calcium channels or activate potassium channels. 7. It is concluded that niflumic

  4. [Mesenteric cysts].

    PubMed

    Huis, Marijan; Balija, Milivoj; Lez, Cvjetko; Szerda, Ferenc; Stulhofer, Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts and cystic mesenteric tumors are very rare abdominal growths. They may be localized all over the mesentery, from duodenum to rectum, however, they are mostly found in the ileum and right colon mesentery. There are several classifications of these formations, among which the one based on histopathologic features including 6 groups has been most commonly used: 1) cysts of lymphatic origin--lymphatic (hilar cysts) and lymphangiomas; 2) cysts of mesothelial origin--benign or malignant mesothelial cysts; 3) enteric cysts; 4) cysts of urogenital origin; 5) dermoid cysts; and 6) pseudocysts--infectious or traumatic etiology. Two adult female patients treated at the Department of Surgery, Zabok General Hospital, are presented. The diagnosis of mesenteric cyst was based on explorative laparotomy indicated for a cystic abdominal growth and characteristic palpatory finding, US and CT findings. In both patients, the cysts were successfully treated by total cystectomy. Pathohistologic findings pointed to lymphatic cysts. Control US finding at 3 months postoperatively was normal in both patients. Cystic lymphangioma mostly occurs in the first decade of life, with a female predominance. It is usually accompanied by acute abdominal symptomatology. Lymphatic cysts occur later in life (1:100,000 in adults and 1:20,000 in children), also show female predominance, and as a rule are asymptomatic. A mesenteric cyst, especially lymphatic, should be suspected in the presence of painless abdominal tumor, with occasionally painful abdominal pressure, normal laboratory findings, and good general condition in a female patient. In symptomatic cases, acute or chronic abdominal pain is the most common feature, whereas other symptomatology depends on the localization, size and consequential abdominal organ compression (intestinal obstruction, hydronephrosis, lower extremity lymphedema). The term of cystic mesenteric tumor is mostly used to refer to cystic lymphangiomas and

  5. Inhibitory action of niflumic acid on noradrenaline- and 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced pressor responses in the isolated mesenteric vascular bed of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Criddle, D N; Soares de Moura, R; Greenwood, I A; Large, W A

    1997-01-01

    The effects of niflumic acid, an inhibitor of calcium-activated chloride currents, were compared with the actions of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine on noradrenaline- and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced pressor responses of the rat perfused isolated mesenteric vascular bed.Bolus injections of noradrenaline (1 and 10 nmol) increased the perfusion pressure in a dose-dependent manner. Nifedipine (1 μM) inhibited the increase in pressure produced by 1 nmol noradrenaline by 31±5%. Niflumic acid (10 and 30 μM) also inhibited the noradrenaline-induced increase in perfusion pressure and 30 μM niflumic acid reduced the pressor response to 1 nmol noradrenaline by 34±6%.The increases in perfusion elicited by 5-HT (0.3 and 3 nmol) were reduced by niflumic acid (10 and 30 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner and 30 μM niflumic acid inhibited responses to 0.3 and 3 nmol 5-HT by, respectively, 49±8% and 50±7%. Nifedipine (1 μM) decreased the pressor response to 3 nmol 5-HT by 44±9%.In the presence of a combination of 30 μM niflumic acid and 1 μM nifedipine the inhibition of the pressor effects of noradrenaline (10 nmol) and 5-HT (3 nmol) was not significantly greater than with niflumic acid (30 μM) alone. Thus the effects of niflumic acid and nifedipine were not additive.In Ca-free conditions the transient contractions induced by 5-HT (3 nmol) were not reduced by 30 μM niflumic acid, suggesting that this agent does not inhibit calcium release from the intracellular store or the binding of 5-HT to its receptor.Niflumic acid 30 μM did not inhibit the pressor responses induced by KCl (20 and 60 μmol) which were markedly reduced by 1 μM nifedipine. In addition, 1 μM levcromakalim decreased pressor responses produced by 20 μmol KCl. These data suggest that niflumic acid does not block directly calcium channels or activate potassium channels.It is concluded that niflumic acid selectively reduces a

  6. Mesenteric myolipoma.

    PubMed

    Maataoui, Adel; Khan, Fawad M; Vogl, Thomas J; Erler, Alexander

    2013-11-28

    The authors report on a case of benign myolipoma (synonym lipoleiomyoma) which was first described in 1991. The benign soft tissue tumor is composed of smooth muscle and adipose tissue and occurs sporadically in different locations. In the available literature cases were described retroperitoneal, spinal, orbital and subcutaneous and mostly have been discovered in females. Characteristically myolipomas are very large at diagnosis and reach diameters of 7 to 30 cm particularly in peritoneal or retroperitoneal localization. The sometimes enormous size leads to a displacing growth pattern which ultimately leads to the clinical symptoms. The patients often complain of nonspecific, mostly painless abdominal or thoracic pressure. Bordered by an intact capsule the tumors show no signs of malignancy and in the available literature there is no evidence of metastatic seeding. To the best of our knowledge the presented case is the first description of a diffuse mesenteric myolipoma in a male individual. In this article, we present the multidetector computed tomographic image characteristics, macroscopic appearance and histopathological findings.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Human Mesenteric Lymph

    PubMed Central

    Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Wohlauer, Max V.; Moore, Ernest E.; Damle, Sagar; Peltz, Erik; Campsen, Jeffrey; Kelher, Marguerite; Silliman, Christopher; Banerjee, Anirban; Hansen, Kirk C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive animal work has established mesenteric lymph as the mechanistic link between gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and distant organ injury. Our trauma and transplant services provide a unique opportunity to assess the relevance of our animal data to human mesenteric lymph under conditions that simulate those used in the laboratory. Mesenteric lymph was collected from eleven patients; with lymphatic injuries, during semi-elective spine reconstruction, or immediately before organ donation. The lymph was tested for its ability to activate human neutrophils in vitro, and was analyzed by label-free proteomic analysis. Human mesenteric lymph primed human PMNs in a pattern similar to that observed in previous rodent, swine, and primate studies. A total of 477 proteins were identified from the 11 subject’s lymph samples with greater than 99% confidence. In addition to classical serum proteins, markers of hemolysis, extracellular matrix components, and general tissue damage were identified. Both tissue injury and shock correlate strongly with production of bioactive lymph. Products of red blood cell hemolysis correlate strongly with human lymph bioactivity and immunoglobulins have a negative correlation with the pro-inflammatory lymph. These human data corroborate the current body of research implicating post shock mesenteric lymph in the development of systemic inflammation and multiple organ failure. Further studies will be required to determine if the proteins identified participate in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure and if they can be used as diagnostic markers. PMID:21192285

  8. Infected mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Ramesh; Gunadal, Shankar; Banda, Vanaja Reddy; Banda, Naveen Reddy

    2013-04-18

    Mesenteric cyst is a rare condition. Presentation with non-typhoid spontaneous infection in an unusual area makes it even more a rare situation with mesenteric cyst. Its diagnosis is mainly based on the imaging modalities. However, there are difficulties in diagnosis when it is present in an uncommon area and rare known complications. Mesenteric cyst can present with few uncommon emergency conditions which pose difficulties in diagnosis as well as treatment options as mentioned in this case.

  9. Infected mesenteric cyst

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, G Ramesh; Gunadal, Shankar; Banda, Vanaja Reddy; Banda, Naveen Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric cyst is a rare condition. Presentation with non-typhoid spontaneous infection in an unusual area makes it even more a rare situation with mesenteric cyst. Its diagnosis is mainly based on the imaging modalities. However, there are difficulties in diagnosis when it is present in an uncommon area and rare known complications. Mesenteric cyst can present with few uncommon emergency conditions which pose difficulties in diagnosis as well as treatment options as mentioned in this case. PMID:23605820

  10. [Chronic mesenteric ischemia revisited].

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Germano; Rosa, António; Ministro, Augusto; Pestana, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The authors report two clinical cases of rare and complex situations - an aortic dissection and an aortitis -, which had as a common denominator a chronic mesenteric ischemia. They discuss the indications and surgical strategies adopted.

  11. Giant mesenteric cyst

    PubMed Central

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Salman, Shaista; Almaramhy, Hamdi H.

    2011-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18-year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a giant cyst was encountered with displacement of bowel loops. The cyst was completely removed and histology report confirmed mesenteric cyst without evidence of malignancy. PMID:24765349

  12. Giant mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Salman, Shaista; Almaramhy, Hamdi H

    2011-09-28

    Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18-year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a giant cyst was encountered with displacement of bowel loops. The cyst was completely removed and histology report confirmed mesenteric cyst without evidence of malignancy.

  13. Chronic early life stress induced by limited bedding and nesting (LBN) material in rodents: critical considerations of methodology, outcomes and translational potential.

    PubMed

    Walker, Claire-Dominique; Bath, Kevin G; Joels, Marian; Korosi, Aniko; Larauche, Muriel; Lucassen, Paul J; Morris, Margaret J; Raineki, Charlis; Roth, Tania L; Sullivan, Regina M; Taché, Yvette; Baram, Tallie Z

    2017-07-12

    The immediate and long-term effects of exposure to early life stress (ELS) have been documented in humans and animal models. Even relatively brief periods of stress during the first 10 days of life in rodents can impact later behavioral regulation and the vulnerability to develop adult pathologies, in particular an impairment of cognitive functions and neurogenesis, but also modified social, emotional, and conditioned fear responses. The development of preclinical models of ELS exposure allows the examination of mechanisms and testing of therapeutic approaches that are not possible in humans. Here, we describe limited bedding and nesting (LBN) procedures, with models that produce altered maternal behavior ranging from fragmentation of care to maltreatment of infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss important issues related to the implementation of this chronic ELS procedure and to describe some of the most prominent endpoints and consequences, focusing on areas of convergence between laboratories. Effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, gut axis and metabolism are presented in addition to changes in cognitive and emotional functions. Interestingly, recent data have suggested a strong sex difference in some of the reported consequences of the LBN paradigm, with females being more resilient in general than males. As both the chronic and intermittent variants of the LBN procedure have profound consequences on the offspring with minimal external intervention from the investigator, this model is advantageous ecologically and has a large translational potential. In addition to the direct effect of ELS on neurodevelopmental outcomes, exposure to adverse early environments can also have intergenerational impacts on mental health and function in subsequent generation offspring. Thus, advancing our understanding of the effect of ELS on brain and behavioral development is of critical concern for the health and wellbeing of both the current

  14. [Chylous mesenteric cyst].

    PubMed

    Skach, J; Gawlik, V

    2014-09-01

    The authors present a case report of a female patient with a recurrent mesenteric cyst. Chylous cyst is one of rare diagnoses of a cyst close to the pancreas in patients with no history of acute pancreatitis. Chylous cysts need to be managed radically; otherwise, given their nature, they are likely to recur.

  15. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G. Raghavendra; Billa, Srikar; Bhandari, Pavaneel; Hussain, Aijaz

    2013-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric – inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up. PMID:23798814

  16. Managing mesenteric vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Angle, John Fritz; Nida, Berhanemeskel A; Matsumoto, Alan H

    2015-03-01

    Mesenteric vasculitis is a rare diagnosis, but it comprises a group of disorders that may have devastating manifestations. It is often difficult to diagnose using clinical symptoms and biomarkers. Vascular imaging often provides the best opportunity for the noninvasive diagnosis of vasculitis and obviates the need for performing a biopsy. The medical management of vasculitis involves controlling the inflammatory process with the use of steroids or other immunosuppressants, but medical therapy does not consistently provide regression of the vascular changes (ie, aneurysms or vascular occlusions) seen at the time of the initial diagnosis. Operative management remains the mainstay of therapy for focal occlusive or aneurysms, but the treatment options for multifocal disease remain challenging. Endovascular treatment is increasingly being used as a first line of treatment for symptomatic vasculitis. Interventionalists should be familiar with the indications and outcomes associated with the various therapeutic options for mesenteric vasculitis-associated occlusive disease and aneurysms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary mesenteric hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Gupta, Rajni; Mohanti, Satyabrot; Kumar, Surender

    2012-07-09

    Hydatid disease mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a common parasitic infestation of the liver. Most common sites are liver (70%) and lungs (25%). Intraperitoneal hydatid cyst is found in 13% and it is usually secondary to rupture of primary hepatic cyst. Primary intraperitoeal hydatid cyst is rare (2%). Primary hydatid cyst in mesentery is very rare. In this article, the author presents a case of primary mesenteric hydatid cyst with chronic pain in lower abdomen.

  18. Primary mesenteric hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Gupta, Rajni; Mohanti, Satyabrot; Kumar, Surender

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a common parasitic infestation of the liver. Most common sites are liver (70%) and lungs (25%). Intraperitoneal hydatid cyst is found in 13% and it is usually secondary to rupture of primary hepatic cyst. Primary intraperitoeal hydatid cyst is rare (2%). Primary hydatid cyst in mesentery is very rare. In this article, the author presents a case of primary mesenteric hydatid cyst with chronic pain in lower abdomen. PMID:22778458

  19. Mesenteric Artery Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Coles, John C.; Walker, John B.; Gergely, N. F.; Buttigliero, Jorge

    1963-01-01

    The syndromes of superior mesenteric artery insufficiency are briefly reviewed. Three cases associated with infarction of bowel which were treated with restoration of arterial flow and resection of residual irretrievable bowel are reported. In two patients an embolectomy and in one patient a bypass graft were used to restore arterial continuity. The importance of the recognition and removal of irretrievable bowel at the time of vascular reconstruction is emphasized. Success is not necessarily predicated by the time factor alone, although the importance of early diagnosis and surgical intervention cannot be denied. PMID:14042788

  20. CT appearance of mesenteric saponification.

    PubMed

    Paris, A; Willing, S J

    1991-01-01

    Although saponification of the pancreas is a frequent finding on computed tomography, saponification of extrapancreatic mesenteric sites has not been previously recognized. A case is presented of acute pancreatitis in which serial scans over a four-year period documented calcifications in old extrapancreatic phlegmons. Saponification from pancreatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenteric calcifications.

  1. CT diagnosis of mesenteric adenitis.

    PubMed

    Rao, P M; Rhea, J T; Novelline, R A

    1997-01-01

    To quantify how frequently mesenteric adenitis clinically mimics appendicitis and to determine its appearance at computed tomography (CT). The medical records of 651 consecutive patients with an admission diagnosis of appendicitis were reviewed to determine how often mesenteric adenitis was the discharge diagnosis. The CT scans of a separate group of 18 patients with a discharge diagnosis of mesenteric adenitis were reviewed. These patients were part of a group of 100 consecutive patients prospectively evaluated with CT of the appendix for clinically suspected appendicitis. Fifty of 651 patients (7.7%) with an admission diagnosis of appendicitis had a discharge diagnosis of mesenteric adenitis. Mesenteric adenitis constituted 50 of the 252 (19.8%) discharge diagnoses other than appendicitis. All 18 CT scans of mesenteric adenitis showed three or more nodes that measured at least 5 mm in shortest axis clustered in the right lower quadrant, with a normal appendix identified. Eight patients had associated ileal or ileocecal wall thickening. Mesenteric adenitis is an important clinical mimic of appendicitis. It appears at CT as clustered, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes with a normal appendix, and there may be associated ileitis or ileocolitis noted.

  2. Rodent Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Journal of Adult Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Strategies for rodent control in crop fields, threshing yards, and rural residential areas are presented together with an operational plan for implementing a program for rodent control at the national level. Training personnel in rodent control procedures and procedures for educating the public in the necessity for control are covered. (EC)

  3. Rodent Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Journal of Adult Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Strategies for rodent control in crop fields, threshing yards, and rural residential areas are presented together with an operational plan for implementing a program for rodent control at the national level. Training personnel in rodent control procedures and procedures for educating the public in the necessity for control are covered. (EC)

  4. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Giedrius, Bernotavičius; Kęstutis, Saniukas; Irena, Karmonaitė; Rimantas, Zagorskis

    2016-01-01

    Background. An obstruction of the distal part of the duodenum can occur because of the superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) after a surgical correction of scoliosis. It is essential to evaluate the risk factors and diagnose the SMAS in time because complications of this condition are life-threatening and it is associated with a high rate of morbidity. Diagnostics of the SMAS is challenging, because it is rare and its symptoms are non-specific. Therefore, in order to better understand the essence of this pathology and to make diagnosis easier we present a rare clinical case of the superior mesenteric artery syndrome after a surgical correction of neuromuscular scoliosis. The clinical case. A 12-year-old girl with a specific development disorder, sensory neuropathy and progressive kypho-scoliosis was admitted to Vilnius University Children’s Hospital. The patient had right side 50-degree thoracic scoliosis and an 80-degree thoracic kyphosis. She underwent posterior spinal fusion with hooks and screws from Th1 to L2. On the fourth day after the surgery the patient developed nausea and began to vomit each day 1-2 times per day, especially after meals. The SMAS was suspected and a nasogastric tube was inserted, stomach decompression and the correction of electrolytes disbalance were made. After the treatment, the symptoms did not recur and a satisfactory correction and balance of the spine were made in coronal and sagittal planes. Conclusions. It is extremely important to identify the risk factors of the SMAS and begin preoperative diet supplements before surgical correction of scoliosis for patients with a low body mass index. After the first episode of vomiting following the surgery, we recommend to investigate these patients for a gastrointestinal obstruction as soon as possible. Decompression of the stomach, enteral or parenteral nutrition, and fluid therapy are essential in treating the SMAS. PMID:28356803

  5. Vasculitis of the mesenteric circulation.

    PubMed

    Koster, Matthew J; Warrington, Kenneth J

    2017-02-01

    Vasculitis of the mesenteric circulation is an uncommon but life-threatening manifestation of systemic vasculitis. Initial symptoms are frequently non-specific and therefore patients often present to primary care physicians and gastroenterologists with abdominal pain or gastrointestinal bleeding. Given the severity of the conditions associated with mesenteric vasculitis, it is imperative to appropriately diagnose and initiate treatment of suspected cases. This review will focus on diseases commonly associated with vasculitis of the mesenteric vessels. Imaging characteristics and clinical features assisting in diagnosis as well as initial approaches to treatment are emphasized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mesenteric cystic lymphangioma mimicking malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, Khalid; Sunidar, Osama A

    2014-09-01

    Mesenteric cystic lymphangiomas are benign tumours arising from the mesentery, and have no known aetiology. Patients might be discovered incidentally to have asymptomatic mesenteric cysts, or they can present with symptoms such as pain, nausea and vomiting. A 27-year-old man presented with vague abdominal pain, loss of appetite, postprandial fullness and significant weight loss. There was no lymphadenopathy, and abdominal examination was unremarkable. CT showed a mesenteric mass and a diagnosis of abdominal lymphoma was suggested. There was no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis on chest X-ray and the purified protein derivative test was negative. On laparotomy, a 5×9×7 cm sessile cyst containing thick white fluid and arising from the ileal mesentery was found and completely removed. Histopathology proved a diagnosis of mesenteric cystic lymphangioma. The patient made uneventful recovery, and was asymptomatic on clinical follow-up after 6 weeks. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lock, G; Schölmerich, J

    1995-07-01

    Non-occlusive disease of the mesentery is still a rather underdiagnosed and underestimated condition. It is associated with circumstances that may compromise circulation or the intake of drugs that may lower mesenteric blood flow. Pathophysiologically, a "low flow syndrome" of mesenteric circulation is followed by vasoconstriction; a reperfusion injury may contribute to the ischemic injury. Histopathological changes vary between superficial localized lesions and transmural gangrene. Diagnosis within the initial 24 hours of the development of symptoms is crucial for prognosis but remains a difficult task. Clinical presentation, laboratory tests and ultrasound lack specificity; the role of duplex ultrasound, tonometry and reflectance spectophotometry is still under evaluation. Mesenteric angiography remains the only reliable diagnostic tool and should be applied early in all patients in whom acute mesenteric ischemia is a real possibility. Therapy is aimed at the rapid correction of predisposing and precipitating factors and an effective treatment of mesenteric vasoconstriction. Treatment of choice is a papaverine infusion into the superior mesenteric artery via an angiography catheter. Patients with peritoneal signs have to be treated surgically.

  8. [Mesenteric cysts in children].

    PubMed

    Fernández Ibieta, M; Rojas Ticona, J; Martinez Castaño, I; Reyes Rios, P; Villamil, V; Giron Vallejo, O; Mendez Aguirre, N; Sanchez Morote, J; Aranda Garcia, M J; Guirao Piñera, M J; Zambudio Carmona, G; Ruiz Pruneda, R; Ruiz Jiménez, J I

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts (MC) are benign cystic tumors that grow within mesentery or omentum tissue. We have reviewed the cases of MC reported and operated on in our centre. Retrospective review of clinical records of MC cases during the period 2002-2012 RESULTS: A total of 7 patients were found. Mean age was 5.3 years (range 3-11). Abdominal ultrasound was the diagnostic tool in all cases, except for one, which was diagnosed during laparotomy. All presented abdominal pain, 5 (71.4%) vomiting, 4 (57%) gross abdominal distension, 3 (42.8%) fever, and none presented complete abdominal obstruction, although 2 patients (28.6%) had slight sub-occlusion symptoms. All MC were pedicled or sesil, except for our last case, which extended into the retroperitoneum. All specimens were reported as Limphatic Malformation. None recurred. MC in children are mostly Lymphatic Malformations of mesentery or omentum origin, and clinical presentation varies from chronic abdominal pain to sudden-onset peritonitis or volvulus. About 50-60% require intestinal resection and anastomosis. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Lack of effect of a selective vasopressin V1A receptor antagonist, SR 49,059, on potentiation by vasopressin of adrenoceptor-mediated pressor responses in the rat mesenteric arterial bed

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Akos; Horina, Gabi; Stauber, Rudolf E; Pertl, Christof; Holzer, Peter; Peskar, Bernhard A

    1998-01-01

    The vasopressin receptor subtype involved in the enhancement by vasopressin of adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction was investigated in rat isolated perfused mesenteric arteries.[Arg8]vasopressin (1–10 nM) dose-dependently increased the perfusion pressure and enhanced the pressor response to the adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine (40 nmol) or electrical stimulation of periarterial nerves (16 Hz), at the concentration of 10 nM of [Arg8]vasopressin up to 4 and 3 fold, respectively.During prolonged exposure (45 min) the direct vasoconstrictor effect of [Arg8]vasopressin (10 nM) rapidly declined whereas the potentiation of methoxamine-induced vasoconstriction was maintained.The selective vasopressin V1A receptor antagonist SR 49,059 (1–3 nM) and the non-selective V1A/B and oxytocin receptor antagonist [deamino-Pen1,Tyr(Me)2,Arg8]vasopressin (15–45 nM) inhibited the direct vasoconstrictor action of [Arg8]vasopressin but had no effect on the enhancement of the pressor response to methoxamine or electrical stimulation.The V1B receptor agonist [deamino-Cys1,β-(3-pyridyl)-D-Ala2,Arg8]vasopressin (100–1000 nM) and the V2 receptor agonist [deamino-Cys1,D-Arg8]vasopressin (1–10 nM) were devoid of any pressor activity and did not potentiate methoxamine-evoked vasoconstriction. In contrast, [1-triglycyl,Lys8]vasopressin (100–1000 nM) potentiated the methoxamine responses without per se inducing vasoconstriction.In arteries precontracted with methoxamine (7.5 μM) pressor responses to [Arg8]vasopressin (3–10 nM) were not inhibited by a dose of SR 49,059 (3 nM) which abolished the peptide's vasoconstrictor effect under control conditions.These data show that the direct vasoconstrictor effect of [Arg8]vasopressin is mediated by V1A receptors while the enhancement of adrenoceptor-mediated pressor responses is insensitive to V1A, V1B, and oxytocin receptor antagonists and is not mimicked by selective agonists of V1B and V2 receptors. In

  10. Functional adaptation of bovine mesenteric lymphatic vessels to mesenteric venous hypertension.

    PubMed

    Quick, Christopher M; Criscione, John C; Kotiya, Akhilesh; Dongaonkar, Ranjeet M; Hardy, Joanne; Wilson, Emily; Gashev, Anatoliy A; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H

    2014-06-15

    Lymph flow is the primary mechanism for returning interstitial fluid to the blood circulation. Currently, the adaptive response of lymphatic vessels to mesenteric venous hypertension is not known. This study sought to determine the functional responses of postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels. We surgically occluded bovine mesenteric veins to create mesenteric venous hypertension to elevate mesenteric lymph flow. Three days after surgery, postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels from mesenteric venous hypertension (MVH; n = 7) and sham surgery (Sham; n = 6) group animals were evaluated and compared. Contraction frequency (MVH: 2.98 ± 0.75 min(-1); Sham: 5.42 ± 0.81 min(-1)) and fractional pump flow (MVH: 1.14 ± 0.30 min(-1); Sham: 2.39 ± 0.32 min(-1)) were significantly lower in the venous occlusion group. These results indicate that postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to mesenteric venous hypertension by reducing intrinsic contractile activity. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Novel β-carboline-tripeptide conjugates attenuate mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei; Bi, Yue; Xue, Ping; Zhang, Yanrong; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Zhibo; Li, Meng; Baudy-Floc'h, Michele; Ngerebara, Nathaniel; Li, Xiaoxu; Gibson, K Michael; Bi, Lanrong

    2011-06-01

    We have synthesized a series of new β-carboline-tripeptide conjugates, and examined their anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse model of xylene-induced ear edema. The analgesic capacity of these compounds was further evaluated in a rodent tail flick assay. Our results indicate that β-carboline conjugate 4a manifests potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity while exerting a protective effect against mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the rat.

  12. Inverse regulation of basal lipolysis in perigonadal and mesenteric fat depots in mice.

    PubMed

    Wueest, Stephan; Yang, Xingyuan; Liu, Jun; Schoenle, Eugen J; Konrad, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Given the strong link between visceral adiposity and (hepatic) insulin resistance as well as liver steatosis, it is crucial to characterize obesity-associated alterations in adipocyte function, particularly in fat depots drained to the liver. Yet these adipose tissues are not easily accessible in humans, and the most frequently studied depot in rodents is the perigonadal, which is drained systemically. In the present study, we aimed to study alterations in lipolysis between mesenteric and perigonadal adipocytes in mice. Basal free fatty acid and glycerol release was significantly lower in perigonadal compared with mesenteric adipocytes isolated from chow-fed C57BL/6J mice. However, this difference completely vanished in high-fat diet-fed mice. Consistently, protein levels of the G(0)/G(1) switch gene 2 (G0S2), which were previously found to be inversely related to basal lipolysis, were significantly lower in mesenteric compared with perigonadal fat of chow-fed mice. Similarly, perilipin was differently expressed between the two depots. In addition, adipocyte-specific overexpression of G0S2 led to significantly decreased basal lipolysis in mesenteric adipose tissue of chow-fed mice. In conclusion, lipolysis is differently regulated between perigonadal and mesenteric adipocytes, and these depot-specific differences might be explained by altered regulation of G0S2 and/or perilipin.

  13. Chylous mesenteric cyst: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doreen L P; Madhuvrata, Priya; Reed, Malcolm W; Balasubramanian, Saba P

    2016-07-01

    A mesenteric cyst is defined as a cyst that is located in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract and may extend from the base of the mesentery into the retroperitoneum. A case report of a patient with mesenteric cyst is presented. In addition, a systematic review was performed of English language literature on chylous mesenteric cysts in adult humans. Of the 18 articles included in the review, there were 19 cases of chylous mesenteric cysts reported. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1 with a median age of 46 years. A preoperative diagnosis of mesenteric cyst was made in four patients based on computed tomography. All patients underwent surgery and there were no reports of recurrence on follow up. Chylous mesenteric cyst is a rare entity that needs to be recognized whenever a preliminary diagnosis of intra-abdominal cystic mass is made. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  14. Reperfusion Hemorrhage Following Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Michael; McSweeney, Sean; Fulton, Gregory; Buckley, John; Maher, Michael Guiney, Michael

    2008-07-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  15. Spontaneous Recanalization of Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion Following Angioplasty and Stenting of Inferior Mesenteric Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Akpinar, Erhan Cil, Barbaros E.; Arat, Anil; Baykal, Atac; Karaman, Kerem; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2006-02-15

    An 84-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease was admitted with a progressively worsening diffuse abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and angiography revealed occlusion of the origin and proximal portion of superior mesenteric artery. Aortography also showed severe origin stenosis of inferior mesenteric artery and that the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery was supplied by a prominent marginal artery of Drummond. Patient was effectively treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the inferior mesenteric artery. Follow-up imaging studies demonstrated patency of the stent and spontaneous recanalization of superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  16. Cocaine-induced mesenteric ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J; Farreras, N; Ortiz De Zárate L; Bachs, E

    2000-01-01

    We report a 33-year-old man with distal ileum infarction after intravenous abuse of cocaine. He underwent resection of a gangrenous bowel segment and survived. We review the literature regarding intestinal ischaemia related to cocaine. To date, 19 cases have been published. Like most previously reported cases, our patient was young and had no previous history of arteriosclerosis. He suffered cocaine-induced rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Mesenteric ischaemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute or chronic abdominal pain in cocaine consumers.

  17. Acute mesenteric ischemia: current multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Savlania, Ajay; Tripathi, Ramesh K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this review was to describe and discuss the mechanisms of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) and the rationale and conduct of currently available endovascular and open surgical techniques in its management. We also propose an algorithm to support the current multidisciplinary approach in decision-making for mesenteric revascularization to manage this high-risk entity.

  18. Rodent repellency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Welch, J.F.; Bellack, E.

    1950-01-01

    In the course of studies involving more than 2,500 chemical repellents, it has been found that certain groups of- compounds containing nitrogen or sulfur are repellent to rats under the , test conditions and it appears probable that some of these compounds might be used for the protection of packaged goods against rodent attacks. Additional tests to determine optimum methods of application will be necessary before final evaluation of these compounds will be possible and extensive field trials will be required to establish the degree of protection which may be afforded by the use of these materials. Pending such final evaluation, it may be assumed that the results,to date offer a means of selecting the most promising types of'materials for further trial....On the basis of the test data, it appears that some amine derivative, such as a salt of some organic, acid, or a complex with trinitrobenzene or with a metallic salt of a dialkyl dithiocarbamic acid might offer promise of protection of packaging materials against rodent attacks....Protection might be obtained through the use of certain 'physical deterrents' such as plastics, waxes or drying oils.

  19. Chylous mesenteric cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hou-Ping; Liu, Wen-Ying; Tang, Yun-Man; Ma, Bu-Yun; Xu, Bing; Yang, Gang; Wang, Xue-Jun

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of chylous mesenteric cysts (CMCs) in children. We analyzed retrospectively the clinical records of 10 children with a CMC, treated in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, between 1987 and 2008. This series comprised five girls and five boys. The CMC manifested as abdominal distention (n = 9), acute abdomen (n = 8), or an asymptomatic abdominal mass (n = 1), and included five mesojejunal cysts and five mesoileal cysts. Intestinal volvulus occurred in four patients with mesoileal cysts and acute chylous effusion occurred in two patients with mesojejunal cysts. All ten children were treated surgically. The cystic content was positive for Sudan III staining and the chylous test. Chylous mesenteric cysts manifest as an abdominal mass, abdominal distention, and/or acute abdomen more often in children than in adults. The clinical presentation suggests some association with the localization of the cysts. A good prognosis can be expected with removal of the cyst and the affected intestinal segment.

  20. A Case of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery Arising from the Superior Mesenteric Artery in a Korean Woman

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Jin; Ku, Min Jung; Cho, Sa Sun

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical variations of the inferior mesenteric artery are extremely uncommon, since the inferior mesenteric artery is regularly diverged at the level of the third lumbar vertebra. We found a rare case in which the inferior mesenteric artery arose from the superior mesenteric artery. The findings were made during a routine dissection of the cadaver of an 82-yr-old Korean woman. This is the tenth report on this anomaly, the second female and the first Korean. The superior mesenteric artery normally arising from abdominal aorta sent the inferior mesenteric artery as the second branch. The longitudinal anastomosis vessels between the superior mesenteric artery and inferior mesenteric artery survived to form the common mesenteric artery. This anatomical variation concerning the common mesenteric artery is of clinical importance, performing procedures containing the superior mesenteric artery. PMID:22022194

  1. Incidental Finding and Management of Mesenteric Fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Gregory; Kfoury, Tony; Shimlati, Rasha; Tohme, Maroon; Wakim, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 45 Final Diagnosis: Mesenteric fibromatosis Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Surgical removal of the mesenteric fibromatosis Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Mesenteric fibromatosis, also known as mesenteric desmoids, is part of the clinical-pathologic spectrum of deep fibromatosis, which encompasses a group of benign fibro-proliferative processes that are locally aggressive and have the capacity to infiltrate or recur without metastasis. Case Report: Case of a 45-year-old man, with a history of hypertension and lung fibrosis, presenting for a left abdominal mass, which was found incidentally during his lung fibrosis imaging. He complained of constipation due to pressure upon his bowel leading to difficulty in defecation. Conclusions: Although there are many overlapping criteria between gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mesenteric fibromatosis, making it difficult to discriminate between the two, there are differences that are unique to mesenteric fibromatosis that should be noticed during the diagnosis. In this case, mesenteric fibromatosis was unusual as it is not associated with Gardner’s syndrome, desmoid tumors, nor familial adenomatous polyposis, but was an incidental finding. PMID:27279600

  2. Traumatic mesenteric cyst after blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Falidas, Evangelos; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Pavlakis, Emmanouil; Anyfantakis, Georgios; Villias, Constantinos

    2011-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumors of unclear histologic origin, usually asymptomatic. Post-traumatic mesenteric cyst usually results as a consequence of a mesenteric lymphangitic rupture or a hematoma followed by absorption and cystic degeneration. The preoperative histological and radiological diagnosis is difficult. We present the case of a 45-year-old male patient with sizable, palpable abdominal tumor, the gradual swelling of which the patient himself combined with the blunt abdominal trauma he acquired from an opponent's knee in a football game 5 months ago. PMID:22096714

  3. The curcumin induced vasorelaxation in rat superior mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Huanhuan; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Yan

    2017-09-21

    Curcumin (Cur) is a natural lipophilic polyphenol compound extracted from the rhizome of turmeric. Recently, protective effect of Cur on cardiovascular system is pay close attention. Some researches demonstrated that Cur could induce vascular relaxation in many arterial beds. However, relaxant effect of Cur on rat superior mesenteric artery is not clear. The present study will investigate the vasorelaxant effect of Cur on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat superior mesenteric arterial rings was recorded by a sensitive myograph system in vitro. The vasodilation of Cur at various concentrations ( range from 10(-8)-10(-4)M) on potassium chloride (KCl,60mmol/L) or phenylephrine (PE,10μmol/L)-precontracted arterial rings were observed.We also observed vasorelaxant effect of Cur on KCl (60mM)-preconstricted rat superior mesenteric arterial rings after incubating inhibitors of Endothelial mechanism, the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor L-NAME, the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor Indo, and inhibitors of Potassium ion channel, 4-AP (KV channels blockers), and TEA (KCa channels blockers), and BaCL2 (Kir channels blockers), and Glib (KATP channels blockers), respectively. The effects of Cur are expressed as percentage of relaxation from the pre-contraction induced by KCl (60mmol/L) or PE (10μmol/L). The Emax value refers to the maximum relaxation. The pD2 value refers to the negative logarithmic value of the drug concentration that produces 50% Emax. Cur concentration-dependently relaxed the superior mesenteric artery rings with endothelium pre-contracted by PE (Emax=84.33 ± 1.11%, pD2=5.03 ± 0.02) or KCl (Emax=80.96 ± 2.12%; pD2=4.32 ± 0.01). The vasorelaxant effect of Cur on the superior mesenteric artery rings relied on endothelium partially. Indomethacin (5 μM) significantly inhibited the effect. Hovever, 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10 μM) and N

  4. Increased wall tension in response to vasoconstrictors in isolated mesenteric arterial rings from patients with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Tahvanainen, Anna; Taurio, Jyrki; Mäki-Jouppi, Jenni; Kööbi, Peeter; Mustonen, Jukka; Kähönen, Mika; Sand, Juhani; Nordback, Isto; Pörsti, Ilkka

    2006-12-01

    Essential hypertension is associated with several alterations in arterial function. A wealth of information from animal models is available concerning hypertensive changes in the mesenteric circulation, while only few studies have examined human mesenteric arterial function. The tone of isolated mesenteric arterial segments (outer diameter 0.7-0.9 mm) was examined from individuals with high (n=17) or normal (n=22) blood pressure, grouped using the current definition of elevated blood pressure (140/90 mmHg). Since the majority of them were operated because of malignancies, we evaluated whether functional vascular properties provided information about patient prognosis. Wall tension development (mN/mm) in response to vasoconstrictors (noradrenaline, 5-hydroxy tryptamine, potassium chloride) was higher in mesenteric arterial rings from patients with high than normal blood pressure. There was no difference in vasoconstrictor sensitivity, or endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. Arterial segment weight was higher in hypertensive subjects, suggesting vascular wall hypertrophy. The 10-year follow-up showed no differences in the control of arterial tone between the surviving (n=14) or deceased (n=25) patients. In conclusion, isolated mesenteric arterial segments from hypertensive patients showed increased wall tension in response to vasoconstrictors. Since the mesenteric circulation is an important regulator of peripheral arterial resistance, possible functional alterations in this vascular bed should be further investigated in hypertensive patients.

  5. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  6. Alosetron, cilansetron and tegaserod modify mesenteric but not colonic blood flow in rats.

    PubMed

    Painsipp, Evelin; Shahbazian, Anaid; Holzer, Peter

    2009-11-01

    As the use of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist alosetron (GlaxoSmithKline) and the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist tegaserod (Novartis) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome has been associated with cases of ischaemic colitis, the effects of alosetron, cilansetron (Solvay) and tegaserod on the rat splanchnic circulation were evaluated. Phenobarbital-anaesthetised rats were instrumented to record blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery and transverse colon and to calculate mesenteric and colonic vascular conductance. Intravenous alosetron (0.03-0.3 mg.kg(-1)) did not alter blood pressure or heart rate but reduced mesenteric blood flow and vascular conductance by 15-20%. This activity profile was also seen after intraduodenal alosetron and shared by the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist cilansetron. In contrast, blood flow, vascular conductance and intraluminal pressure in the colon were not modified by alosetron and cilansetron. Intravenous or intraduodenal tegaserod (0.3-1.0 mg.kg(-1)) had no inhibitory effect on mesenteric and colonic blood flow. Peroral treatment of rats with alosetron or tegaserod for 7 days did not modify mesenteric haemodynamics at baseline and after blockade of nitric oxide synthesis. Mild inflammation induced by dextran sulphate sodium failed to provoke a vasoconstrictor effect of cilansetron in the colon. Alosetron and cilansetron, not tegaserod, caused a small and transient constriction of the rat mesenteric vascular bed, whereas blood flow in the colon remained unaltered. The relevance of these findings to the treatment-associated occurrence of ischaemic colitis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome remains open.

  7. Endothelium-dependent and-independent relaxation induced by resveratrol in rat superior mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Xu, Cangbao; Wei, Yahui; Zhang, Yaping; Cao, Ailan

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (Res) is a specific agonist of sirtuin 1, and has many cardioprotective effects. Although Res is able to relax various vascular beds, its pharmacological properties in rat superior mesenteric arteries and the underlying mechanism are not well clarified. The aim of present study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effects of Res on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat superior mesenteric arterial rings was recorded in vitro using myography. It was found that Res concentration-dependently relaxed endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine hydrochloride (Emax, 97.66±0.79%; pD2, 4.30±0.14) or KCl (Emax, 101.3±0.6%; pD2, 4.12±0.03). The vasorelaxant effect of Res on the superior mesenteric artery rings was partially endothelium-dependent. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 µM) significantly inhibited the Res-induced vasorelaxant effect. However, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (10 µM) and indomethacin (5 µM) each had no effect on the Res-induced vasorelaxation. In artery rings without endothelium, the vasorelaxation induced by Res was attenuated by 4-aminopyridine (100 µM) and glibenclamide (10 µM). However, barium chloride dehydrate (10 µM) and tetraethylammonium chloride (1 mM) did not affect the vasorelaxation induced by Res. Moreover, Res also inhibited the contraction induced by an increase in external calcium concentration in Ca2+-free medium plus KCl (60 mM). These results suggest that Res induces relaxation in superior mesenteric arterial rings through an endothelium-dependent pathway, involving nitric oxide release, and also through an endothelium-independent pathway, with opening of voltage-dependent K+ channels and ATP-sensitive K+ channels and blockade of extracellular Ca2+ influx. PMID:27698719

  8. Changes in mesenteric, renal, and aortic flows with +Gx acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. L.; Erickson, H. H.; Sandler, H.

    1974-01-01

    Previous studies in man and dogs have indicated that the splanchnic bed might contribute to the maintenance of arterial pressure during +Gx acceleration. Eight mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented with Doppler flow probes around the superior mesenteric (SMA) and renal arteries (RA) as well as the terminal aorta (TA). A solid-state pressure transducer was placed in the aorta distal to the flow probe. Using alpha-chloralose anesthesia following a 2-4 week recovery period, the animals were subjected to 120 sec at levels of 5, 10 and 15 +Gx acceleration on a 7.6-m radius centrifuge. The results indicate that both an active component and a mechanical component contribute to the maintenance of arterial pressure during +Gx acceleration.

  9. Changes in mesenteric, renal, and aortic flows with +Gx acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. L.; Erickson, H. H.; Sandler, H.

    1974-01-01

    Previous studies in man and dogs have indicated that the splanchnic bed might contribute to the maintenance of arterial pressure during +Gx acceleration. Eight mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented with Doppler flow probes around the superior mesenteric (SMA) and renal arteries (RA) as well as the terminal aorta (TA). A solid-state pressure transducer was placed in the aorta distal to the flow probe. Using alpha-chloralose anesthesia following a 2-4 week recovery period, the animals were subjected to 120 sec at levels of 5, 10 and 15 +Gx acceleration on a 7.6-m radius centrifuge. The results indicate that both an active component and a mechanical component contribute to the maintenance of arterial pressure during +Gx acceleration.

  10. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to mesenteric venous hypertension by becoming weaker pumps

    PubMed Central

    Dongaonkar, R. M.; Nguyen, T. L.; Heaps, C. L.; Hardy, J.; Laine, G. A.; Wilson, E.; Stewart, R. H.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphangions, the segments of lymphatic vessels between two adjacent lymphatic valves, actively pump lymph. Acute changes in transmural pressure and lymph flow have profound effects on lymphatic pump function in vitro. Chronic changes in pressure and flow in vivo have also been reported to lead to significant changes in lymphangion function. Because changes in pressure and flow are both cause and effect of adaptive processes, characterizing adaptation requires a more fundamental analysis of lymphatic muscle properties. Therefore, the purpose of the present work was to use an intact lymphangion isovolumetric preparation to evaluate changes in mesenteric lymphatic muscle mechanical properties and the intracellular Ca2+ in response to sustained mesenteric venous hypertension. Bovine mesenteric veins were surgically occluded to create mesenteric venous hypertension. Postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels from mesenteric venous hypertension (MVH; n = 6) and sham surgery (Sham; n = 6) animals were isolated and evaluated 3 days after the surgery. Spontaneously contracting MVH vessels generated end-systolic active tension and end-diastolic active tension lower than the Sham vessels. Furthermore, steady-state active tension and intracellular Ca2+ concentration levels in response to KCl stimulation were also significantly lower in MVH vessels compared with those of the Sham vessels. There was no significant difference in passive tension in lymphatic vessels from the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that following 3 days of mesenteric venous hypertension, postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to become weaker pumps with decreased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. PMID:25519727

  11. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to mesenteric venous hypertension by becoming weaker pumps.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Nguyen, T L; Quick, C M; Heaps, C L; Hardy, J; Laine, G A; Wilson, E; Stewart, R H

    2015-03-01

    Lymphangions, the segments of lymphatic vessels between two adjacent lymphatic valves, actively pump lymph. Acute changes in transmural pressure and lymph flow have profound effects on lymphatic pump function in vitro. Chronic changes in pressure and flow in vivo have also been reported to lead to significant changes in lymphangion function. Because changes in pressure and flow are both cause and effect of adaptive processes, characterizing adaptation requires a more fundamental analysis of lymphatic muscle properties. Therefore, the purpose of the present work was to use an intact lymphangion isovolumetric preparation to evaluate changes in mesenteric lymphatic muscle mechanical properties and the intracellular Ca(2+) in response to sustained mesenteric venous hypertension. Bovine mesenteric veins were surgically occluded to create mesenteric venous hypertension. Postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels from mesenteric venous hypertension (MVH; n = 6) and sham surgery (Sham; n = 6) animals were isolated and evaluated 3 days after the surgery. Spontaneously contracting MVH vessels generated end-systolic active tension and end-diastolic active tension lower than the Sham vessels. Furthermore, steady-state active tension and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration levels in response to KCl stimulation were also significantly lower in MVH vessels compared with those of the Sham vessels. There was no significant difference in passive tension in lymphatic vessels from the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that following 3 days of mesenteric venous hypertension, postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to become weaker pumps with decreased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Outcomes after endarterectomy for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Mell, Matthew W; Acher, Charles W; Hoch, John R; Tefera, Girma; Turnipseed, William D

    2008-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed to identify optimal factors affecting outcomes after open revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. All patients who underwent open surgery for chronic mesenteric ischemia from 1987 to 2006 were reviewed. Patients with acute mesenteric ischemia or median arcuate ligament syndrome were excluded. Mortality, recurrent stenosis, and symptomatic recurrence were analyzed using logistic regression, and univariate and multivariate analysis. We identified 80 patients (69% women, 31% men). Mean age was 64 years (range, 31-86 years). Acute-on-chronic symptoms were present in 26%. Presenting symptoms included postprandial pain (91%), weight loss (69%), and food fear and diarrhea (25%). Preoperative imaging demonstrated severe (>70%) stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery in 75 patients (24 occluded), the celiac axis in 63 (20 occluded), and the inferior mesenteric artery in 53 (20 occluded). Multivessel disease was present in 72 patients (90%), and 40 (50%) underwent multivessel reconstruction. Revascularization was achieved by endarterectomy in 37 patients, mesenteric bypass in 29, and combined procedures in 14. Concurrent aortic reconstruction was required in 13 patients (16%). Three hospital deaths occurred (3.8%). Mean follow-up was 3.8 years (range, 0-17.2 years). One- and 5-year survival was 92.2% and 64.5%. Mortality was associated with age (P = .019) and renal insufficiency (P = .007), but not by clinical presentation. Symptom-free survival was 89.7% and 82.1% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Symptoms requiring reintervention occurred in nine patients (11%) at a mean of 29 months (range, 5-127 months). Multivariate analysis showed that freedom from recurrent symptoms correlated with endarterectomy for revascularization (5.2% vs 27.6%; hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.92; P = .02). For open surgical candidates, endarterectomy appears to provide the most durable long-term symptom relief in patients with

  13. DIMINISHED MESENTERIC VASO- AND VENOCONSTRICTION AND ELEVATED PLASMA ANP AND BNP WITH SIMULATED MICROGRAVITY

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Bradley J.; Zawieja, David C.; Gashev, Anatoliy A; Ray, Chester A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Diminished constriction of arteries and veins following exposure to microgravity or bed rest is associated with a reduced ability to augment peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) and stroke volume during orthostasis. We tested the hypothesis that small mesenteric arteries and veins, which are not exposed to large pressure shifts during simulated microgravity via head-down tail suspension (HDT), will exhibit decrements in adrenergic constriction after HDT in rats. Small mesenteric arteries and veins from control (Con; n= 41) and HDT (n= 35) male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in vitro. Vasoactive responsiveness to norepinephrine (NE) in arteries (10−9 to 10−4 M) and veins (pressure-diameter responses from 2–12 cm H2O after incubation in 10−6 or 10−4 M NE) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of atrial (ANP) and brain (NT-proBNP) natriuretic peptides were also measured. In mesenteric arteries, sensitivity and maximal responsiveness to NE were reduced with HDT. In mesenteric veins there was a diminished venoconstriction to NE at any given pressure in HDT. Plasma concentrations of both ANP and NT-proBNP were increased with HDT, and maximal arterial and venous constrictor responses to NE after incubation with 10−7 M ANP or NT-proBNP were diminished. These data demonstrate that, in a vascular bed not subjected to large hydrodynamic differences with HDT, both small arteries and veins have a reduced responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. Elevated levels of circulating ANP or NT-proBNP could adversely affect the ability of these vascular beds to constrict in vivo, and conceivably could alter the intrinsic constrictor properties of these vessels with long-term exposure. PMID:18218919

  14. Stress-induced mesenteric vasoconstriction in rats is mediated by neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Zukowska-Grojec, Z; Dayao, E K; Karwatowska-Prokopczuk, E; Hauser, G J; Doods, H N

    1996-02-01

    The physiological role of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic cotransmitter and vasoconstrictor, has not been determined yet. We used a specific nonpeptide antagonist to the NPY Y1 receptor [BIBP-3226; (R)-N2-(diphenacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl) methyl]-D-arginineamide] to study the involvement of NPY in stress-induced vasoconstriction in the mesenteric bed. In rats subjected to cold water stress (COLD), plasma NPY immunoreactivity levels increased progressively from 0.15 +/- 0.01 to 0.32 +/- 0.05 pmol/ml and remained elevated during recovery. Administration of BIBP-3226 (3 mg.kg-1.h-1 infusion) tended to decrease the stress-induced pressor response and significantly attenuated the post-COLD elevation of blood pressure. The COLD-induced fall in the superior mesenteric artery blood flow and the increase of up to 300% in the mesenteric vascular resistance were either reduced or eliminated by BIBP-3226. Conversely, the Y1 antagonist had no effect on the COLD-induced tachycardia. This study provides the first evidence of the physiological role of NPY. The peptide is released during stress and increases mesenteric vascular resistance via activation of its Y1 receptors. Specific Y1-receptor antagonists may therefore be of potential benefit in prevention or treatment of stress-induced vasospasm.

  15. Rodents And Other Gnawers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about rodents and lagomorphs, including definitions and the characteristics of these animals. Contains teaching activities such as "Habitats for Hoppers,""Cartoon Gnawers," and "The Great Rodent Expedition." Reproducible handouts for two of the activities are provided. (TW)

  16. Systolically gated 3D phase contrast MRA of mesenteric arteries in suspected mesenteric ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wasser, M.N.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Roos, A. de

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of MRA for detecting stenoses in the celiac (CA) and superior mesenteric (SMA) arteries in patients suspected of having chronic mesenteric ischemia, using an optimized systolically gated 3D phase contrast technique. In an initial study in 24 patients who underwent conventional angiography of the abdominal vessels for different clinical indications, a 3D phase contrast MRA technique (3D-PCA) was evaluated and optimized to image the CAs and SMAs. Subsequently, a prospective study was performed to assess the value of systolically gated 3D-PCA in evaluation of the mesenteric arteries in 10 patients with signs and symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischemia. Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography and surgical findings were used as the reference standard. In the initial study, systolic gating appeared to be essential in imaging the SMA on 3D-PCA. In 10 patients suspected of mesenteric ischemia, systolically gated 3D-PCA identified significant proximal disease in the two mesenteric vessels in 4 patients. These patients underwent successful reconstruction of their stenotic vessels. Cardiac-gated MRA may become a useful tool in selection of patients suspected of having mesenteric ischemia who may benefit from surgery. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Leiomyosarcoma arising from the inferior mesenteric vein

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Gennaro; Sarno, Gerardo; Barbaro, Brunella; Nuzzo, Gennaro

    2009-01-01

    Leyomiosarcomas arising from the portal/mesenteric venous system are very rare tumours, and only a few cases have been reported in the global literature. As the other leyomiosarcomas of vascular origin, they are associated with a poor prognosis. The present report describes the case of a 66-year-old woman with a leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein, unexpectedly found during a CT scan performed for another indication. A brief review of the literature is also given. The patient underwent radical surgical excision and enjoys a good health, without radiological signs of recurrence, 24 months after surgery. In this case, an early incidental diagnosis determined an early treatment and, probably, a favourable prognosis. This is the second case of leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein reported in the literature. PMID:21686492

  18. Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  19. Laparoscopic resection of a jejunal mesenteric pseudocyst: case report

    PubMed Central

    RESTA, G.; TARTARINI, D.; FABBRI, N.; BIANCHINI, E.; ANANIA, G.

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare and can occur at any age. They can manifest with abdominal pain or compressive mass effect. The exact etiology is unknown. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and laparoscopy are used in diagnosing mesenteric cysts. Laparoscopic excision of a mesenteric cyst is possible and should be considered as the treatment of choice. We present a case of mesenteric pseudocyst of small bowel treated by laparoscopic excision. PMID:25644729

  20. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia associated with mesenteric teratoma].

    PubMed

    Ntanishyan, K I; Sabirov, K R; Shcherbakova, O V; Vybornykh, D E; Shupletsova, I A; Tsvetaeva, N V

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a case of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in a 27-year-old woman whose examination revealed mesenteric teratoma. AIHA was characterized by a hypertensive crisis and a temporary response to corticosteroid therapy that was complicated by the development of somatogenic psychosis and discontinued. A relapse of hemolysis developed 6 months later. The patient underwent laparoscopic splenectomy and removal of mesenteric root teratoma. Immediately after surgery, a hematological response was obtained as relief of hemolysis and restoration of a normal hemoglobin level. There is a sustained remission of AIHA for the next 16 months.

  1. [Mesenteric infarct in primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kurz, R; Eder, A; Buck, J; Heinkelein, J

    1997-09-01

    The mesenteric infarction is a rare but life threatening cause of acute abdomen. A 55-year-old woman was referred to the hospital because of acute mesenteric infarction and in the history claudication. In the absence of risk factors (atrial fibrillation, atherosclerosis, nicotin abusus) a postoperative work up was started to identify the cause of the arterial occlusions. A primary antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome was found. The patient is now receiving low-dose aspirin and anticoagulation therapy. The follow-up over now 14 months shows no further events.

  2. Rodent Research-1 Validation of Rodent Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth; Beegle, Janet

    2013-01-01

    To achieve novel science objectives, validation of a rodent habitat on ISS will enable - In-flight analyses during long duration spaceflight- Use of genetically altered animals- Application of modern analytical techniques (e.g. genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics)

  3. [Anatomicosurgical study of the superior mesenteric vein].

    PubMed

    Dell'Isola, C; Tucci, G F

    1991-01-01

    Results of an autoptic study of the superior mesenteric vein in thirty cadavers are reported. The anatomo-surgical patterns of the venous axis are emphasized. In fact, a better knowledge of this vessel allows an easier and safer surgical approach during pancreatic resections.

  4. Mesenteric calcification following abdominal stab wound

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Caitlin W.; Velopulos, Catherine G.; Sacks, Justin M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Heterotopic ossification (HO) refers to the formation of bone in non-ossifying tissue. Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is a rare form of HO that is characterized by the formation of an ossifying pseudotumour at the base of the mesentery, usually following abdominal surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe a case of mesenteric HO in a young male who presented for elective ventral incisional hernia repair following a stab wound to the abdomen requiring exploratory laparotomy 21 months earlier. Preoperative workup was unremarkable, but a hard, bone-like lesion was noted to encircle the base of the mesentery upon entering the abdomen, consistent with HO. The lesion was excised with close margins, and his hernia was repaired without incident. DISCUSSION Traumatic HO describes the ossification of extra-skeletal tissue that specifically follows a traumatic event. It usually occurs adjacent to skeletal tissue, but has been occasionally described in the abdomen as well, usually in patients who suffer abdominal trauma. Overall the prognosis of HO is good, as it is considered a benign lesion with no malignant potential. However, the major morbidity associated with mesenteric HO is bowel obstruction. CONCLUSION The size, location, and symptoms related to our patient's mesenteric HO put him risk for obstruction in the future. As a result, the mass was surgically excised during his ventral hernia repair with good outcomes. PMID:24981165

  5. Mesenteric venous thrombosis: diagnosis and noninvasive imaging.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Michelle S; Kavanagh, Peter V; Bechtold, Robert E; Chen, Michael Y; Ott, David J; Regan, John D; Weber, Therese M

    2002-01-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis is an uncommon but potentially lethal cause of bowel ischemia. Several imaging methods are available for diagnosis, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. Doppler ultrasonography allows direct evaluation of the mesenteric and portal veins, provides semiquantitative flow information, and allows Doppler waveform analysis of the visceral vessels; however, it is operator dependent and is often limited by overlying bowel gas. Conventional contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) allows sensitive detection of venous thrombosis within the central large vessels of the portomesenteric circulation and any associated secondary findings; however, it is limited by respiratory misregistration, motion artifact, and substantially decreased longitudinal spatial resolution. Helical CT and CT angiography, especially when performed with multi-detector row scanners, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, particularly gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography, enable volumetric acquisitions in a single breath hold, eliminating motion artifact and suppressing respiratory misregistration. Helical CT angiography and three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography should be considered the primary diagnostic modalities for patients with a high clinical suspicion of mesenteric ischemia. Conventional angiography is reserved for equivocal cases at noninvasive imaging and is also used in conjunction with transcatheter therapeutic techniques in management of symptomatic portal and mesenteric venous thrombosis. Copyright RSNA, 2002

  6. Chronic mesenteric volvulus in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Spevakow, Andrea B.; Nibblett, Belle Marie D.; Carr, Anthony P.; Linn, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A chronic, partial mesenteric volvulus was found on laparotomy of an adult Bernese mountain dog with a 4-month history of intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The dog had elevated cholestatic and hepatocellular leakage enzymes, increased bile acids, azotemia, isosthenuria, and a hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis. The dog recovered fully following reduction of the volvulus. PMID:20357947

  7. [Mesenteric cyst--clinical and pathological aspects].

    PubMed

    Santana, Wagner Barreto de; Poderoso, Wendell Luiz Santos; Alves, José Antonio Barreto; Melo, Valdinaldo Aragão de; Barros, Celso de; Fakhouri, Ricardo

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic and therapeutic characteristics of the mesenteric cysts in hospitals of Sergipe, Brazil. Mesenteric cysts were assessed by a non-interventional cross-sectional study from the archives of the Pathology Laboratory of Federal University of Sergipe between 1995 and 2007. The charts of the patients were reviewed in order to find out: gender, age, clinical findings, complementary exams and therapeutic approach. Eighteen cases of mesenteric cysts were found. Females were more affected (72.2%). Mean of age of the patients was 30.46. More frequent symptoms were pain and abdominal mass. Ultrasonography of abdomen, performed in all patients, was not conclusive in half of the cases. CTscan of abdomen with contrast was performed in six cases, being cystic tumor well identified in all of them. Regarding histopathology, 6 lymphangiomas, 8 mesotheliomas, 1 hemorrhagic cyst in organization and 1 mucinous cyst were found. Surgical treatment was performed in all cases. Intracystic bleeding was the main complication in 3 cases. The mesenteric cysts presented clinically with unspecific symptoms. CTscan was more effective than ultrasonography for the diagnosis. Lymphangiomas and mesothelioma had been found in equal ratios. The complete resection of the cyst was the treatment of election. There were no deaths in postoperative period.

  8. Bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Foulke, Galen T; Anderson, Bryan E

    2014-09-01

    The term bed bug is applied to 2 species of genus Cimex: lectularius describes the common or temperate bed bug, and hemipterus its tropical cousin. Cimex lectularius is aptly named; its genus and species derive from the Latin words for bug and bed, respectively. Though the tiny pest is receiving increased public attention and scrutiny, the bed bug is hardly a new problem.

  9. Successful Treatment of Acute on Chronic Mesenteric Ischaemia by Common Iliac to Inferior Mesenteric Artery Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Coakley, D. N.; Shaikh, F. M.; Kavanagh, E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischaemia is a rare and potentially fatal condition most commonly due to atherosclerotic stenosis or occlusion of two or more mesenteric arteries. Multivessel revascularisation of both primary mesenteric vessels, the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), is the current mainstay of treatment; however, in a certain cohort of patients, revascularisation one or both vessels may not be possible. Arteries may be technically unreconstructable or the patient may be surgically unfit for the prolonged aortic cross clamping times required. Here we present a case involving a 72-year-old woman with acute on chronic mesenteric ischaemia. She was a high risk surgical patient with severe unreconstructable stenotic disease of the SMA and celiac arteries. She was successfully treated with single vessel revascularisation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) via a common iliac to IMA reversed vein bypass. At two-year follow-up, the graft remains patent and the patient continues to be symptom-free and is maintaining her weight. PMID:26421207

  10. Retrograde aorto-mesenteric by-pass grafting as treatment option of recurrent chronic mesenteric ischemia after thrombosed superior mesenteric artery stenting. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Nano, G; Dalainas, I; Bianchi, P; Stegher, S; Casana, R; Malacrida, G; Tealdi, D G

    2006-12-01

    We report a case of early stent failure in a patient with chronic mesenteric ischemia and its treatment with a retrograde aorto-mesenteric by-pass. The patient was initially treated with angioplasty and stenting. Seven months after the procedure complete thrombosis of the stent was achieved. A retrograde aorto-mesenteric by-pass was performed. After two years the patient remains asymptomatic and color Duplex scan confirm the patency of the graft.

  11. Ovarian undifferentiated carcinoma with voluminous mesenteric presentation

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Hernández, Rosa Angélica; Lino-Silva, Leonardo Saúl; Cantú de León, David; Pérez-Montiel, María Delia; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION About 5% of ovarian cancers are so poorly differentiated and difficult to classify that they are called undifferentiated carcinomas and usually have disseminated disease at presentation. Extra pelvic debulking it is difficult to complete. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of a rare ovarian tumor presented as a large mesenteric tumor of 14 cm diameter in a 73 years old woman. DISCUSSION Undifferentiated carcinomas are usually large, solid with hemorrhage and necrosis, bilateral and most are difficult to classify histologically. Rarely are pure, generally identified through the extensive sampling of lesions, some other components of surface epithelial carcinoma and usually the predominant element is the latter. Cases with predominantly undifferentiated component are rare. CONCLUSION The treatment and diagnostic approach is the same as for other high-grade epithelial tumors of the ovary, but in this particular case the differential diagnosis and diagnostic approach is that of a mesenteric tumor. PMID:22922357

  12. Cytologic findings of urogenital mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

    2013-07-01

    Mesenteric cysts are heterogeneous groups of lesions. Most of them are developmental cysts of lymphatic and enteric origin or cystic neoplasm such as mesothelioma or cystic teratoma. Urogenital cysts are a subcategory of developmental cysts of the mesentery. They are thought to arise from vestigial remnants of urogenital apparatus. These cysts may show evidence of mesonephric or metanephric differentiation. An 11 -year -old boy was presented with undescended testis. During preoperative work- up, an incidental cystic lesion was discovered which was attached to the ileum. Aspiration cytology of the cyst content revealed cuboidal to columnar cells; some of them were ciliated. Histologic examination showed a cyst with fibromuscular wall, lined by Mullerian type ciliated epithelium; so the diagnosis of urogenital mesenteric cyst of Mullerian type was made. Urogenital cysts are rare lesions, but they should be considered in differential diagnosis of any cystic lesion of the mesentery. Cytology could be a useful method for evaluation and revealing the nature of these cysts.

  13. [Laparoscopic resection of a mesenteric cyst].

    PubMed

    Dede, Kristóf; Mersich, Tamás; Faludi, Sándor; Blans, Beáta; Salamon, Ferenc; Jakab, Ferenc

    2010-03-14

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intraabdominal tumors, which cause plain symptoms. Despite the modern imaging techniques, the correct preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The optimal treatment is surgical excision of the cysts with open surgery, laparoscopy, or even retroperitoneoscopy. Surgical excision needs to be considered in case of complaints, growing cyst, or suspicion of malignancy. Indications for urgent surgery treatment are: bleeding, volvulus, torquation or ileus. Most frequently, mesenterial cysts are diagnosed during the operation of an unknown palpable abdominal cystic resistance. We present a case of a 32-year-old female patient with a jejunal mesenteric cyst, treated by laparoscopic resection. Postoperative period was uneventful, and after an early discharge the patient's recovery was free of symptoms. Histopathological examination revealed a benign cyst. We conclude that laparoscopic resection of abdominal cysts with unknown origin is a safe operation and can be recommended.

  14. Mesenteric dermoid cyst in a child.

    PubMed

    Punguyire, Damien; Iserson, Kenneth Victor

    2011-01-01

    If a pediatric abdominal mass is not organomegaly or colonic stool, narrowing the diagnostic possibilities may be difficult, especially in resource-poor areas where ancillary tests and treatment options may be limited. A 2-year-old girl was brought to the rural Kintampo Municipal Hospital in Ghana with a freely moveable, non-tender abdominal mass. A huge mesenteric dermoid cyst was surgically removed. Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal lesions, most commonly occurring in children <10 years old. Making a preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Dermoid cysts (mature cystic teratoma) rarely occur in the mesentery. Poverty, family circumstances and the rural location led to general physicians doing surgery. As in this case, due to economic, social and transportation issues common throughout Africa, children with abdominal masses may need at least initial surgery in hospitals without dedicated pediatric surgery or even a trained surgeon.

  15. Mesenteric dermoid cyst in a child

    PubMed Central

    Punguyire, Damien; Iserson, Kenneth Victor

    2011-01-01

    If a pediatric abdominal mass is not organomegaly or colonic stool, narrowing the diagnostic possibilities may be difficult, especially in resource-poor areas where ancillary tests and treatment options may be limited. A 2-year-old girl was brought to the rural Kintampo Municipal Hospital in Ghana with a freely moveable, non-tender abdominal mass. A huge mesenteric dermoid cyst was surgically removed. Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal lesions, most commonly occurring in children <10 years old. Making a preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Dermoid cysts (mature cystic teratoma) rarely occur in the mesentery. Poverty, family circumstances and the rural location led to general physicians doing surgery. As in this case, due to economic, social and transportation issues common throughout Africa, children with abdominal masses may need at least initial surgery in hospitals without dedicated pediatric surgery or even a trained surgeon. PMID:22384287

  16. Chylous mesenteric cysts: a rare surgical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Perri, Giampaolo; Freschi, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    A mesenteric cyst is defined as a cyst that is located in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract and may extend from the base of the mesentery into the retroperitoneum. It is often asymptomatic and therefore it is usually found as an incidental finding. Preoperative diagnosis may be possible with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, the correct diagnosis can only be made with histology. The first-choice therapy is the complete removal of the cyst, which must be accurately planned according to the anatomy of the lesion, its dimensions and its relationships with major abdominal structures. We present two clinical cases: the one of a 30-year-old man with a mesenteric cyst that was removed by laparoscopy and the other of a 61-year-old woman who underwent open excision of a huge retroperitoneal cyst. PMID:24876395

  17. Chylous mesenteric cysts: a rare surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Perri, Giampaolo; Freschi, Giancarlo

    2014-03-01

    A mesenteric cyst is defined as a cyst that is located in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract and may extend from the base of the mesentery into the retroperitoneum. It is often asymptomatic and therefore it is usually found as an incidental finding. Preoperative diagnosis may be possible with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, the correct diagnosis can only be made with histology. The first-choice therapy is the complete removal of the cyst, which must be accurately planned according to the anatomy of the lesion, its dimensions and its relationships with major abdominal structures. We present two clinical cases: the one of a 30-year-old man with a mesenteric cyst that was removed by laparoscopy and the other of a 61-year-old woman who underwent open excision of a huge retroperitoneal cyst. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014.

  18. [Infected jejunal mesenteric pseudocyst: A case report].

    PubMed

    Bolívar-Rodríguez, Martín Adrián; Cazarez-Aguilar, Marcel Antonio; Luna-Madrid, Eduardo Esaú; Morgan-Ortiz, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are very rare abdominal growths, generally asymptomatic, and which are usually detected incidentally while performing a physical examination or an imaging test. Complications such as infections, haemorrhage, torsion, rupture, or bowel obstruction, are seldom found in this pathology, but they can be a cause of acute abdomen. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics and the clinical outcome of a male patient with an infected mesenteric pseudocyst of the jejunum. A 49 year-old male was admitted to the emergency department with 6-day onset of abdominal pain, bowel obstruction signs, palpable tumour located in the upper hemi-abdomen, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, 36,100/mm(3) white cells, 4.21 ng/ml procalcitonin, abdominal computed tomography scan with evidence of a mesenteric cystic tumour. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, finding the presence of a mesenteric pseudocyst of the jejunum with infection signs, extirpated and sent for histopathological examination. The clinical progress of the patient was satisfactory with the discharge of the patient 7 days after the surgical intervention. These cysts can debut as an acute abdomen due to haemorrhage, infection, obstruction and/or bowel perforation, complications can be life threatening if not detected and surgically treated at an early stage by performing a resection of the pseudocysts, with or without bowel resection, depending on the location and the size of the cyst. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Fetal and postnatal ovine mesenteric vascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jayasree; Gugino, Sylvia F.; Nielsen, Lori C.; Caty, Michael G.; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal circulation and mesenteric arterial (MA) reactivity may play a role in preparing the fetus for enteral nutrition. We hypothesized that MA vasoreactivity changes with gestation and vasodilator pathways predominate in the postnatal period. METHODS Small distal MA rings (0.5-mm diameter) were isolated from fetal (116-d, 128-d, 134-d, and 141-d gestation, term ~ 147 d) and postnatal lambs. Vasoreactivity was evaluated using vasoconstrictors (norepinephrine (NE) after pretreatment with propranolol and endothelin-1(ET-1)) and vasodilators (NO donors A23187 and s-nitrosopenicillamine (SNAP)). Protein and mRNA assays for receptors and enzymes (endothelin receptor A, alpha-adrenergic receptor 1A (ADRA1A), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and phosphodiesterase5 (PDE5)) were performed in mesenteric arteries. RESULTS MA constriction to NE and ET-1 peaked at 134 d. Relaxation to A23187 and SNAP was maximal after birth. Basal eNOS activity was low at 134 d. ADRA1A mRNA and protein increasedsignificantlyat134danddecreasedpostnatally.sGC and PDE5 protein increased from 134 to 141 d. CONCLUSION Mesenteric vasoconstriction predominates in late-preterm gestation (134 d; the postconceptional age with the highest incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)) followed by a conversion to vasodilatory influences near the time of full-term birth. Perturbations in this ontogenic mechanism, including preterm birth, may be a risk factor for NEC. PMID:26672733

  20. Biomechanical analysis of traumatic mesenteric avulsion.

    PubMed

    Bège, Thierry; Ménard, Jérémie; Tremblay, Jaelle; Denis, Ronald; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Petit, Yvan

    2015-02-01

    Mesenteric avulsion, corresponding to a tearing of intestine's root, generally results from high deceleration in road accidents. The biomechanical analysis of bowel and mesenteric injuries is a major challenge for injury prevention, particularly because seat belt restraint may paradoxically increase their risk of occurrence. The aim of this study was to identify the biomechanical behavior of mesentery and small bowel (MSB) tissue samples under dynamical loading conditions. A dedicated test bench was designed in order to perform tensile tests on fresh MSB porcine specimens, with quasi-static (1 mm/s) and dynamic (100 mm/s) loading conditions. The mechanical behavior of MSB specimens was investigated and compared to isolated mesenteric and isolated small bowel specimens. The results show a high sensitivity of MSB stiffness (1.0 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.3 N/mm at 1 and 100 mm/s, p = 0.001) and ultimate force (22 ± 5 and 35 ± 8 N at 1 and 100 mm/s, p = 0.001) to the loading rate but not for the displacement at failure. This leads to postulate on a failure criteria based on strain level regardless of the strain rate. These experimental results could be further used to develop refined finite element models and to further investigate on injury mechanisms associated to seat belt restraints, as well as to evaluate and improve protective devices.

  1. Acute mesenteric ischemia in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Gurkan; Aydinli, Bulent; Atamanalp, S Selcuk; Yildirgan, M Ilhan; Ozoğul, Bünyami; Kısaoğlu, Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is commonly seen in old patients. This study was undertaken to show that mesenteric ischemia might be seen in individuals under 40 years of age and that its diagnosis is challenging. Twenty-six patients with acute mesenteric ischemia under the age of 40 were studied. The main symptom on admission was abdominal pain. Symptom duration varied between 12 h and 5 days. The medical history of the patients revealed that 9 had no previous diseases. Other 17 had predisposing factors in the first evaluation. None of the patients had any history of narcotic or drug abuse. Ten patients presented with signs and symptoms of sepsis and septic shock. Preoperative diagnosis was acute intestinal ischemia only in 6 patients. Preoperatively, all the patients had intestinal or colonic ischemia and necrosis; one had additional ischemia of the liver, stomach, duodenum, and pancreas. Six patients had massive intestinal necrosis. The overall postoperative complication and overall mortality rates were 61.5 and 26.9 %, respectively. Complications and mortality were determined to be associated with previous pulmonary disease, acidosis, presence of septic shock, acute renal failure, extent of the ischemia and extent of resection, second look operations, previous cardiac events, and the kind of affected bowel (colon involvement).

  2. Mesenteric cyst in infancy: presentation and management.

    PubMed

    Belhassen, Samia; Meriem, Braiki; Rachida, Laamiri; Nahla, Kechiche; Saida, Hidouri; Imed, Krichen; Sana, Mosbahi; Amine, Ksiaa; Lassad, Sahnoun; Mongi, Mekki; Mohsen, Belguith; Abdellatif, Nouri

    2017-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are documented as a rare entity in pediatric population. They are considered as benign intra-abdominal tumors with an unknown etiology. Symptoms are not specific and knowledge of such condition is essential in order to establish a proper management. We report three pediatrics cases of mesenteric cysts managed between 2000 and 2009 in the pediatric surgery Department of Monastir College Hospital. We described the clinical, radiological and operative findings. Two males and a female were managed (age range: 10 days-5years, mean age: 6,3years). Two patients were presented with an intestinal obstruction. A preoperative diagnosis was made basing on imaging. Thus, abdominal ultrasonography was performed in all of our reported cases and showed a cystic mass in all cases. The cystic nature of the mass, its margins and its extension were better described on tomographic images. The mesenteric cyst was completely and successfully removed in all cases. The histopathological report confirmed the diagnosis and showed a multiloculated cyst with columnar mesothelial lining, without any defined muscular layer or cellular atypia and without any evidence of malignancy. The children were evaluated post-operatively with a mean follow-up of 2 years and a half. No recurrence was noted in our patients during the follow-up period. It is known that clinical features are not specific of such anomaly but once the diagnosis is made, the complete surgical removal of the cyst remains the treatment of choice with excellent outcomes.

  3. Mesenteric cyst in infancy: presentation and management

    PubMed Central

    Belhassen, Samia; Meriem, Braiki; Rachida, Laamiri; Nahla, Kechiche; Saida, Hidouri; Imed, Krichen; Sana, Mosbahi; Amine, Ksiaa; Lassad, Sahnoun; Mongi, Mekki; Mohsen, Belguith; Abdellatif, Nouri

    2017-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are documented as a rare entity in pediatric population. They are considered as benign intra-abdominal tumors with an unknown etiology. Symptoms are not specific and knowledge of such condition is essential in order to establish a proper management. We report three pediatrics cases of mesenteric cysts managed between 2000 and 2009 in the pediatric surgery Department of Monastir College Hospital. We described the clinical, radiological and operative findings. Two males and a female were managed (age range: 10 days-5years, mean age: 6,3years). Two patients were presented with an intestinal obstruction. A preoperative diagnosis was made basing on imaging. Thus, abdominal ultrasonography was performed in all of our reported cases and showed a cystic mass in all cases. The cystic nature of the mass, its margins and its extension were better described on tomographic images. The mesenteric cyst was completely and successfully removed in all cases. The histopathological report confirmed the diagnosis and showed a multiloculated cyst with columnar mesothelial lining, without any defined muscular layer or cellular atypia and without any evidence of malignancy. The children were evaluated post-operatively with a mean follow-up of 2 years and a half. No recurrence was noted in our patients during the follow-up period. It is known that clinical features are not specific of such anomaly but once the diagnosis is made, the complete surgical removal of the cyst remains the treatment of choice with excellent outcomes. PMID:28674584

  4. Mesenteric infarction due to iatrogenic polycythemia.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Katrina; Carmelle-Elie, Marie; Ferguson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Polycythemia vera is defined as a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased red blood cell count. There have been no reports on mesenteric thrombosis resulting from iatrogenic polycythemia. We present a patient with a history of non-small cell lung cancer undergoing maintenance oral chemotherapy on tarceva and adjunctive use of procrit. The patient presented to our emergency department with an acute abdomen and was found to have ischemic bowel from unmonitored procrit, which lead to hyperviscosity of blood and mesenteric infarction. The patient remained intubated with ventilator support. He refused a tracheostomy. He continued on feeding through the J port of the nasojejunal tube. His white cell count, and hematocrit and creatinine levels remained normal. Procrit use and chemotherapy were not restarted. He was transferred to a subacute nursing facility for further treatment. Procrit and other erythropoiesis stimulating drugs can cause significant morbidity and mortality with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, gastrointestinal bleeding, thromboembolism and stroke. This case report suggests that without closely monitoring hematocrit levels, epoetin may also be associated with an increased risk of mesenteric infarction.

  5. Mesenteric infarction due to iatrogenic polycythemia

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, Katrina; Carmelle-Elie, Marie; Ferguson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycythemia vera is defined as a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased red blood cell count. There have been no reports on mesenteric thrombosis resulting from iatrogenic polycythemia. METHODS: We present a patient with a history of non-small cell lung cancer undergoing maintenance oral chemotherapy on tarceva and adjunctive use of procrit. The patient presented to our emergency department with an acute abdomen and was found to have ischemic bowel from unmonitored procrit, which lead to hyperviscosity of blood and mesenteric infarction. RESULTS: The patient remained intubated with ventilator support. He refused a tracheostomy. He continued on feeding through the J port of the nasojejunal tube. His white cell count, and hematocrit and creatinine levels remained normal. Procrit use and chemotherapy were not restarted. He was transferred to a subacute nursing facility for further treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Procrit and other erythropoiesis stimulating drugs can cause significant morbidity and mortality with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, gastrointestinal bleeding, thromboembolism and stroke. This case report suggests that without closely monitoring hematocrit levels, epoetin may also be associated with an increased risk of mesenteric infarction. PMID:25215125

  6. Effects of prolonged hemorrhagic hypotensive stress on catecholamine concentration of mesenteric blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Lombard, J H; Loegering, D J; Stekiel, W J

    1977-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) concentrations were determined fluorometrically as an index of functional adrenergic innervation in small mesenteric arteries, veins, and superior mesenteric arteries of dogs and rats subjected to a period of prolonged hemorrhage at a constant mean arterial pressure of 35 mm Hg. In nonhemorrhaged animals, highest catecholamine concentrations were found in the small principal arteries, next highest in the small veins, and least in superior mesenteric arteries. A significant decrease occurred in the NE and E concentrations of all three vessel types in the dog during the decompensatory phase of the hypotensive stress (defined as the hypotensive period beyond the time at which maximum bleedout volume occurred). In the rat significant decreases were detectable only in the NE concentrations of the small arteries and veins during this phase. It is concluded that the increase in neurogenic vascular tone accompanying severe hemorrhagic stress is lost simultaneously on the arterial and venous sides of compensatory vascular beds. Such loss is closely related to transmitter depletion at the adrenergic neuromuscular junction and, if allowed to continue uncorrected, can contribute significantly to irreversible cardiovascular collapse.

  7. Measurement of angiogenic phenotype by use of two-dimensional mesenteric angiogenesis assay.

    PubMed

    Benest, Andrew V; Bates, David O

    2009-01-01

    Successful therapeutic angiogenesis requires an understanding of how the milieu of growth factors available combine to form a mature vascular bed. This requires a model in which multiple physiological and cell biological parameters can be identified. The adenoviral-mediated mesenteric angiogenesis assay as described here is ideal for that purpose. Adenoviruses expressing growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and angiopoietin 1 [Ang-1]) were injected into the mesenteric fat pad of adult male Wistar rats. The clear, thin, and relatively avascular mesenteric panel was used to measure increased vessel perfusion by intravital microscopy. In addition, high-powered microvessel analysis was carried out by immunostaining of features essential for the study of angiogenesis (endothelium, pericyte, smooth muscle cell area, and proliferation), allowing functional data to be obtained in conjunction with high-power microvessel ultrastructural analysis. A combination of individual growth factors resulted in a distinct vascular phenotype from either factor alone, with all treatments increasing the functional vessel area. VEGF produced shorter, narrow, highly branched, and sprouting vessels with normal pericyte coverage. Ang-1 induced broader, longer neovessels with no apparent increase in branching or sprouting. However, Ang-1-induced blood vessels displayed a significantly higher pericyte ensheathment. Combined treatment resulted in higher perfusion, larger and less-branched vessels, with normal pericyte coverage, suggesting them to be more mature. This model can be used to show that Ang-1 and VEGF use different physiological mechanisms to enhance vascularisation of relatively avascular tissue.

  8. Laparoscopic excision of mesenteric cyst of sigmoid mesocolon

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarwar, Ajay H; Tayade, Mukund B; Borisa, Ashok D; Kasat, Gaurav V

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumours. They are found in the mesentery of small bowel (66%) and mesentery of large intestine (33%), usually in the right colon. Very few cases have been reported of tumours found in mesentery of descending colon, sigmoid or rectum. Mesenteric cysts do not show classical clinical findings and are detected incidentally during imaging due to absent or non-specific clinical presentation or during management of one of their complications. Ultrasonography (USG)/computed tomography (CT)/ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used in diagnosing mesenteric cyst but they cannot determine the origin of cyst. Laparoscopy not only helps in diagnosing the site and origin of the mesenteric cyst but also has a therapeutic role. Laparoscopic treatment of mesenteric cyst is a safe, preferred method of treatment and is a less-invasive surgical technique. Here, we present an unusual case of mesenteric cyst arising from the sigmoid mesocolon treated by laparoscopic excision. PMID:23626420

  9. Laparoscopic excision of mesenteric cyst of sigmoid mesocolon.

    PubMed

    Bhandarwar, Ajay H; Tayade, Mukund B; Borisa, Ashok D; Kasat, Gaurav V

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumours. They are found in the mesentery of small bowel (66%) and mesentery of large intestine (33%), usually in the right colon. Very few cases have been reported of tumours found in mesentery of descending colon, sigmoid or rectum. Mesenteric cysts do not show classical clinical findings and are detected incidentally during imaging due to absent or non-specific clinical presentation or during management of one of their complications. Ultrasonography (USG)/computed tomography (CT)/ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used in diagnosing mesenteric cyst but they cannot determine the origin of cyst. Laparoscopy not only helps in diagnosing the site and origin of the mesenteric cyst but also has a therapeutic role. Laparoscopic treatment of mesenteric cyst is a safe, preferred method of treatment and is a less-invasive surgical technique. Here, we present an unusual case of mesenteric cyst arising from the sigmoid mesocolon treated by laparoscopic excision.

  10. Endothelial Mineralocorticoid Receptors Differentially Contribute to Coronary and Mesenteric Vascular Function Without Modulating Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Katelee Barrett; Bender, Shawn B; Hong, Kwangseok; Yang, Yan; Aronovitz, Mark; Jaisser, Frederic; Hill, Michael A; Jaffe, Iris Z

    2015-11-01

    Arteriolar vasoreactivity tightly regulates tissue-specific blood flow and contributes to systemic blood pressure (BP) but becomes dysfunctional in the setting of cardiovascular disease. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is known to regulate BP via the kidney and by vasoconstriction in smooth muscle cells. Although endothelial cells (EC) express MR, the contribution of EC-MR to BP and resistance vessel function remains unclear. To address this, we created a mouse with MR specifically deleted from EC (EC-MR knockout [EC-MR-KO]) but with intact leukocyte MR expression and normal renal MR function. Telemetric BP studies reveal no difference between male EC-MR-KO mice and MR-intact littermates in systolic, diastolic, circadian, or salt-sensitive BP or in the hypertensive responses to aldosterone±salt or angiotensin II±l-nitroarginine methyl ester. Vessel myography demonstrated normal vasorelaxation in mesenteric and coronary arterioles from EC-MR-KO mice. After exposure to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation was prevented in EC-MR-KO mice in mesenteric vessels but not in coronary vessels. Mesenteric vessels from angiotensin II-exposed EC-MR-KO mice showed increased maximum responsiveness to acetylcholine when compared with MR-intact vessels, a difference that is lost with indomethacin+l-nitroarginine methyl ester pretreatment. These data support that EC-MR plays a role in regulating endothelial function in hypertension. Although there was no effect of EC-MR deletion on mesenteric vasoconstriction, coronary arterioles from EC-MR-KO mice showed decreased constriction to endothelin-1 and thromboxane agonist at baseline and also after exposure to hypertension. These data support that EC-MR participates in regulation of vasomotor function in a vascular bed-specific manner that is also modulated by risk factors, such as hypertension.

  11. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome in the modern trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Adams, John B; Hawkins, Michael L; Ferdinand, Coville H; Medeiros, Regina S

    2007-08-01

    In 1861, von Rokitansky described obstruction of the third part of the duodenum by external compression of the duodenum by the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). In 1926, this entity was furthermore described by Wilke in his presentation of 75 patients with "chronic duodenal compression". In 1968, Mansberger used angiography to define anatomical measurements as the diagnostic criteria for this condition. Current modalities of diagnosis of SMA syndrome include esophagogastroduodenoscopy, computerized tomography angiogram, fluoroscopy, transabdominal ultrasound, and endoscopic ultrasound. The SMA syndrome has been associated with prolonged confinement in the supine position, loss of weight, loss of abdominal wall muscle tone, application of a body cast, and severe burns. With current surgical techniques allowing early ambulation, patients are able to avoid prolonged bed rest. The use of parenteral and enteral nutritional support has limited the loss of weight associated with trauma and burn patients, making this syndrome uncommon in this patient population. Recent reports of SMA syndrome focus on the association with corrective surgical procedures for scoliosis and obesity.

  12. Mesenteric Panniculitis Associated With Vibrio cholerae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Roginsky, Grigory; Mazulis, Andrew; Ecanow, Jacob S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of acute Vibrio cholerae infection with computed tomography (CT) changes consistent with mesenteric panniculitis (MP). A 78-year-old Indian man returned from overseas travel with progressively severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea. His stool tested positive twice for Vibrio cholerae. CT revealed prominent lymph nodes and a hazy mesentery consistent with MP. Antibiotic treatment resulted in complete resolution of MP on follow-up CT 8 months later. In the setting of Vibrio cholerae infection, the CT finding of MP appears to be the result of a immunologically mediated reactive inflammatory disorder of the mesentery. PMID:26504876

  13. Mesenteric Panniculitis Associated With Vibrio cholerae Infection.

    PubMed

    Roginsky, Grigory; Mazulis, Andrew; Ecanow, Jacob S; Ehrenpreis, Eli D

    2015-10-01

    We report the first case of acute Vibrio cholerae infection with computed tomography (CT) changes consistent with mesenteric panniculitis (MP). A 78-year-old Indian man returned from overseas travel with progressively severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea. His stool tested positive twice for Vibrio cholerae. CT revealed prominent lymph nodes and a hazy mesentery consistent with MP. Antibiotic treatment resulted in complete resolution of MP on follow-up CT 8 months later. In the setting of Vibrio cholerae infection, the CT finding of MP appears to be the result of a immunologically mediated reactive inflammatory disorder of the mesentery.

  14. Increased endothelin-1 vasoconstriction in mesenteric resistance arteries after superior mesenteric ischaemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Revelles, S; Caracuel, L; Márquez-Martín, A; Dantas, AP; Oliver, E; D'Ocon, P; Vila, E

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an important role in the maintenance of vascular tone. We aimed to evaluate the influence of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) on mesenteric resistance artery vasomotor function and the mechanism involved in the changes in vascular responses to ET-1. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH SMA from male Sprague-Dawley rats was occluded (90 min) and following reperfusion (24 h), mesenteric resistance arteries were dissected. Vascular reactivity was studied using wire myography. Protein and mRNA expression, superoxide anion (O2•−) production and ET-1 plasma concentration were evaluated by immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative PCR, ethidium fluorescence and elisa, respectively. KEY RESULTS I/R increased ET-1 plasma concentration, ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction and ETB mRNA expression, and down-regulated ETA mRNA expression. Immunofluorescence confirmed mRNA results and revealed an increase in ETB receptors in the mesenteric resistance artery media layer after I/R. Therefore, the ETB receptor agonist sarafotoxin-6 induced a contraction that was inhibited by the ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 only in vessels, with and without endothelium, from I/R rats. Furthermore, BQ788 potentiated ET-1 vasoconstriction only in sham rats. Endothelium removal in rings from I/R rats unmasked the inhibition of ET-1 vasoconstriction by BQ788. Endothelium removal, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and superoxide dismutase abolished the differences in ET-1 vasoconstriction between sham and I/R rats. We also found that I/R down-regulates endothelial NOS mRNA expression and concomitantly enhanced O2•− production by increasing NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX-1) and p47phox mRNA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Mesenteric I/R potentiated the ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction by a mechanism that involves up-regulation of muscular ETB receptors and decrease in NO bioavailability. PMID:21806604

  15. Role of the kallikrein-kinin system in Ang-(1-7)-induced vasodilation in mesenteric arterioles of Wistar rats studied in vivo-in situ.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Rossana Anderson; Carmona, Adriana Karaoglanovic; Passaglia, Rita Cássia A Tostes; Nigro, Dorothy; Fortes, Zuleica Bruno; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli

    2006-07-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], exerts a variety of actions in the cardiovascular system, with an important effect being vasodilation. In this work, we investigated the relationship between the vasodilatory activity of Ang-(1-7) and the kallikrein-kinin system. Intravital microscopy was used to study the vasodilation caused by Ang-(1-7) in the mesenteric vascular bed of anesthetized Wistar rats. The topical application of Ang-(1-7) caused vasodilation of mesenteric arterioles that was reduced by A-779, JE 049 and peptidase inhibitors (aprotinin, SBTI, PKSI 527, E-64, PMSF). These results indicated that the vasodilation induced by Ang-(1-7) in the mesenteric arterioles of Wistar rats was heavily dependent on the activation of kallikrein and subsequent kinin formation.

  16. Cutaneous sclerosis: a previously undescribed manifestation of sclerosing mesenteritis.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Brian R; Bahrami, Soon; Bernardi, John M; Callen, Jeffrey P

    2010-09-01

    Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by self-limited, nonspecific inflammation and fibrosis of the mesenteric adipose tissue. Histologic classification characterizes 3 main stages in the evolution of the fibroinflammatory process: mesenteric lipodystrophy (ML), mesenteric panniculitis (MP), and sclerosing (retractile) mesenteritis (SM). A 68-year-old woman with biopsy-proven MP presented with multiple asymptomatic, indurated subcutaneous nodules on both arms, as well as 2 indurated plaques on her abdomen. The cutaneous changes preceded the diagnosis of SM by roughly 3 years. The arm lesions were centrally depressed with a prominent groove and a peau d'orange appearance. Biopsy findings revealed a subcutaneous process with almost total replacement of adipocytes by zones of woody sclerosis and fat necrosis identical to that observed in the mesentery. To our knowledge, this manifestation of sclerosing mesenteritis has not been reported previously. Sclerosing mesenteritis has rarely been associated with extra-abdominal idiopathic fibrosclerotic disorders, but a cutaneous component of SM has never been characterized. The fact that the cutaneous lesions were histopathologically identical to the mesenteric changes and their presence prior to the recognition of intra-abdominal disease suggests that future patients with such lesions might be evaluated for this disorder leading to earlier recognition.

  17. Infected mesenteric ileocaecal dermoid cyst in a child

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, M; Rogers, T; Thyagrajan, MS

    2010-01-01

    Mesenteric dermoid cysts are a rare cause of abdominal pain. Although dermoid cysts occur in many parts of the body there have been only a few case reports involving the bowel mesentery. We present a case of a symptomatic mesenteric dermoid cyst involving the ileocaecal junction in a child. PMID:24945842

  18. Cross-sectional imaging of nontraumatic peritoneal and mesenteric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Patlas, Michael N; Alabousi, Abdullah; Scaglione, Mariano; Romano, Luigia; Soto, Jorge A

    2013-05-01

    Multiple nontraumatic peritoneal and mesenteric emergencies are encountered at imaging of patients in the emergency department. Peritoneal and mesenteric emergencies are usually detected in patients in the emergency department during evaluation of nonspecific abdominal pain. A high index of suspicion is required for the establishment of early diagnosis and aversion of life-threatening complications in cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis, nontraumatic hemoperitoneum, and peritonitis. A correct diagnosis of omental infarction, mesenteric adenitis, and mesenteric panniculitis helps patients primarily by avoiding unnecessary surgery. In this review article, we illustrate the cross-sectional imaging appearance of various nontraumatic peritoneal and mesenteric emergencies by emphasizing the role of the emergency radiologist in detecting and managing these entities.

  19. Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery for a Mesenteric Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Shinsuke; Shiki, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Mature cystic teratomas are benign neoplasms of germ cell tumors that occur most frequently in gonadal sites. The tumors usually contain 2 or 3 well-differentiated elements of endodermal, ectodermal, and mesodermal origin. Although relatively uncommon, teratomas can be composed of mature tissue originating from only 1 germ cell layer. This is known as a monodermal teratoma. Extragonadal teratomas, especially mesenteric teratomas, are extremely rare. Currently, only 21 cases of mesenteric teratoma have been described in the English literature. Mesenteric teratomas are rarely diagnosed preoperatively because pathological examination is necessary to make a definitive diagnosis. We herein report a rare case of mesenteric monodermal teratoma and review the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of mesenteric teratoma treated with hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery. PMID:24680163

  20. Treatment options for spontaneous and postoperative sclerosing mesenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Klasen, Jennifer; Güller, Ulrich; Muff, Brigitte; Candinas, Daniel; Seiler, Christian A; Fahrner, René

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare pathology with only a few described cases in the literature. The etiology is unclear; however, several potential triggers, including abdominal surgery and abdominal trauma, have been discussed. The pathology includes a benign acute or chronic inflammatory process affecting the adipose tissue of the mesenterium. Despite it being a rare disease, sclerosing mesenteritis is an important differential diagnosis in patients after abdominal surgery or patients presenting spontaneously with signs of acute inflammation and abdominal pain. We present here three cases with sclerosing mesenteritis. In two cases, sclerosing mesenteritis occurred postoperatively after abdominal surgery. One patient was treated because of abdominal pain and specific radiological signs revealing spontaneous manifestation of sclerosing mesenteritis. So far there are no distinct treatment algorithms, so the patients were treated differently, including steroids, antibiotics and watchful waiting. In addition, we reviewed the current literature on treatment options for this rare disease. PMID:27933138

  1. GLP-2 and mesenteric blood flow.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lasse Bremholm

    2013-05-01

    The 33 amino acid peptide hormone GLP-2 is produced by enteroendocrine L-cells, the density of which is highest in the ileum and the colon, in response to the presence of nutrients in the lumen. The biological effect of GLP-2 is mediated by activation of a G-protein-coupled 7-transmembrane receptor. GLP-2 receptors are expressed in the brainstem, lungs, stomach, small intestine and colon, but not in the heart. It has been shown in several animal studies that GLP-2 infusion increases intestinal blood flow and that this increase is confined to the small intestine. The aim of the three studies, on which the thesis is based, was to investigate basic physiological effects of GLP-2, in healthy volunteers and in SBS patients, with focus on the effects on mesenteric blood flow, blood flow at other vascular sites and effects on cardiac parameters. These parameters have been evaluated after both meal stimulation and GLP-2 administration. The studies showed the following results: Blood flow: In all three studies, blood flow changes in the SMA after GLP-2 administration were similar regarding changes over time and degree of change. Blood flow changes were similar to changes seen after a standard meal. Only RI changes were registered in all three studies, but the TAMV changes in study 2 and 3 had similar characteristics. Cardiovascular parameters: In all three studies no significant changes in blood pressure were registered in relation to GLP-2 administration. In study two and three, where cardiac parameters also were registered by impedance cardiography, increases in CO and SV were seen. Plasma GLP-2: There were, as expected, supraphysiological GLP-2 plasma levels after SC administration. All three studies have shown rapid changes in mesenteric blood flow after administration GLP-2. The changes have been the same both in regards to time to maximum changes (increase) and relatively close in regards to maximum extent of change. The changes in the SBS patients were less than in

  2. Cannabinoid-induced mesenteric vasodilation through an endothelial site distinct from CB1 or CB2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Járai, Zoltán; Wagner, Jens A.; Varga, Károly; Lake, Kristy D.; Compton, David R.; Martin, Billy R.; Zimmer, Anne M.; Bonner, Tom I.; Buckley, Nancy E.; Mezey, Eva; Razdan, Raj K.; Zimmer, Andreas; Kunos, George

    1999-01-01

    Cannabinoids, including the endogenous ligand arachidonyl ethanolamide (anandamide), elicit not only neurobehavioral but also cardiovascular effects. Two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, have been cloned, and studies with the selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A have implicated peripherally located CB1 receptors in the hypotensive action of cannabinoids. In rat mesenteric arteries, anandamide-induced vasodilation is inhibited by SR141716A, but other potent CB1 receptor agonists, such as HU-210, do not cause vasodilation, which implicates an as-yet-unidentified receptor in this effect. Here we show that “abnormal cannabidiol” (Abn-cbd) is a neurobehaviorally inactive cannabinoid that does not bind to CB1 receptors, yet causes SR141716A-sensitive hypotension and mesenteric vasodilation in wild-type mice and in mice lacking CB1 receptors or both CB1 and CB2 receptors. Hypotension by Abn-cbd is also inhibited by cannabidiol (20 μg/g), which does not influence anandamide- or HU-210-induced hypotension. In the rat mesenteric arterial bed, Abn-cbd-induced vasodilation is unaffected by blockade of endothelial NO synthase, cyclooxygenase, or capsaicin receptors, but it is abolished by endothelial denudation. Mesenteric vasodilation by Abn-cbd, but not by acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, or capsaicine, is blocked by SR141716A (1 μM) or by cannabidiol (10 μM). Abn-cbd-induced vasodilation is also blocked in the presence of charybdotoxin (100 nM) plus apamin (100 nM), a combination of K+-channel toxins reported to block the release of an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). These findings suggest that Abn-cbd and cannabidiol are a selective agonist and antagonist, respectively, of an as-yet-unidentified endothelial receptor for anandamide, activation of which elicits NO-independent mesenteric vasodilation, possibly by means of the release of EDHF. PMID:10570211

  3. Atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery stenosis resulting in large intestinal hypoperfusion: a paradigm shift in the diagnosis and management of symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lotun, Kapildeo; Shetty, Ranjith; Topaz, On

    2012-11-01

    Symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia results from intestinal hypoperfusion and is classically thought to result from involvement of two or more mesenteric arteries. The celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery are most frequently implicated in this disease process, and their involvement usually results in symptoms of small intestinal ischemia. Symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia resulting predominantly from inferior mesenteric artery involvement has largely been overlooked but does gives rise to its own, unique clinical presentation with symptoms resulting from large intestinal ischemia. We present four patients with atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery stenosis with symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia that have unique clinical presentations consistent with large intestinal ischemia that resolved following percutaneous endovascular treatment of the inferior mesenteric artery stenosis. These cases represent a novel approach to the diagnosis and management of this disease process and may warrant a further subclassification of chronic mesenteric ischemia into chronic small intestinal ischemia and chronic large intestinal ischemia.

  4. Potentiation of responses to sympathetic nerve stimulation and vasoconstrictor agents by SK&F 103829 in the feline mesenteric circulation.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, E. M.; Kaumann, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    1. The amplification of vasoconstrictor effects of several agonists and sympathetic nerve stimulation, caused by 5-HT2 receptor activation, was studied in the autoperfused mesenteric circulation of anaesthetized cats. To produce long lasting and selective 5-HT2 receptor stimulation we used SK&F 103829 (2,3,4,5 tetrahydro-8[methyl-sulphonyl]-1H3-benzazepin-7-ol methensulphonate). We assessed that SK&F 103829 was a strong contractile partial agonist in isolated preparations of rat tail artery and calf pulmonary artery. 2. The intrinsic activity of SK&F 103829 with respect to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was 0.8 in rat tail artery and 0.6 in calf pulmonary artery. SK&F 103829-induced contractile responses were surmountably antagonized by ketanserin with a potency expected from its affinity for 5-HT2 receptors. SK&F 103829 surmountably antagonized the effects of 5-HT in rat tail artery with a pKp of 5.8. 3. Concentrations of SK&F 103829 causing greater than threshold constrictions enhanced vasoconstrictor responses of sympathetic nerve stimulation, noradrenaline, angiotensin II, methoxamine and alpha, beta-methylene ATP in the mesenteric arterial bed. Increases in mesenteric arterial pressure by noradrenaline, observed in the presence of prazosin, were also potentiated by SK&F 103829. 4. Ketanserin prevented both the constrictor effect of SK&F 103829 and the SK&F 103829-evoked potentiation of the responses to noradrenaline and angiotensin II in the mesenteric arterial bed. Ketanserin, however, failed to abolish (once established) the SK&F 103829-evoked potentiation of the constrictor effects caused by both noradrenaline and angiotensin II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8012704

  5. The largest fossil rodent

    PubMed Central

    Rinderknecht, Andrés; Blanco, R. Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved skull permits the description of the new South American fossil species of the rodent, Josephoartigasia monesi sp. nov. (family: Dinomyidae; Rodentia: Hystricognathi: Caviomorpha). This species with estimated body mass of nearly 1000 kg is the largest yet recorded. The skull sheds new light on the anatomy of the extinct giant rodents of the Dinomyidae, which are known mostly from isolated teeth and incomplete mandible remains. The fossil derives from San José Formation, Uruguay, usually assigned to the Pliocene–Pleistocene (4–2 Myr ago), and the proposed palaeoenvironment where this rodent lived was characterized as an estuarine or deltaic system with forest communities. PMID:18198140

  6. The largest fossil rodent.

    PubMed

    Rinderknecht, Andrés; Blanco, R Ernesto

    2008-04-22

    The discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved skull permits the description of the new South American fossil species of the rodent, Josephoartigasia monesi sp. nov. (family: Dinomyidae; Rodentia: Hystricognathi: Caviomorpha). This species with estimated body mass of nearly 1000kg is the largest yet recorded. The skull sheds new light on the anatomy of the extinct giant rodents of the Dinomyidae, which are known mostly from isolated teeth and incomplete mandible remains. The fossil derives from San José Formation, Uruguay, usually assigned to the Pliocene-Pleistocene (4-2Myr ago), and the proposed palaeoenvironment where this rodent lived was characterized as an estuarine or deltaic system with forest communities.

  7. In vivo OCT microangiography of rodent iris.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo June; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2014-04-15

    We report on the functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of iris tissue morphology and microcirculation in living small animals. Anterior segments of healthy mouse and rat eyes are imaged with high-speed spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) utilizing ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) imaging protocol. 3D iris microvasculature is produced by the use of an algorithm that calculates absolute differences between the amplitudes of the OCT interframes. We demonstrate that the UHS-OMAG is capable of delineating iris microvascular beds in the mouse and rat with capillary-level resolution. Furthermore, the fast imaging speed enables dynamic imaging of iris micro-vascular response during drug-induced pupil dilation. We believe that this OCT angiographic approach has a great potential for in situ and in vivo monitoring of the microcirculation within iris tissue beds in rodent disease models that have microvascular involvement.

  8. Spontaneous Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Anand; Yewale, Sayali; Kousha, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A true isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection is a rare occurrence. The increasing use of diagnostic imaging studies has resulted in this rare disease being more recognized. A 68-year-old Caucasian female presented with sharp upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed dissection with thrombosis in the proximal SMA. Conservative management with bowel rest, blood pressure control, and anticoagulation relieved her symptoms. Follow-up CT showed stable dissection. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of isolated spontaneous SMA dissection after excluding more common causes. The optimal management pathway has not been firmly established. Conservative management with anticoagulation appears to be a safe first-line therapy in selected patients. PMID:28203123

  9. Scintigraphic demonstration of gastrointestinal bleeding due to mesenteric varices

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, M.E.; Coleman, R.E. )

    1990-07-01

    Mesenteric varices can appear as massive, acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The small bowel or colon may be involved, varices usually developing at sites of previous surgery or inflammation in patients with portal hypertension. Two patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and protal hypertension presented with rectal bleeding. Tc-99m RBC studies demonstrated varices and extravasation into the adjacent bowel. The varices were documented by mesenteric angiography. Characteristic features of Tc-99m labeled RBC studies can identify mesenteric varices as the cause of intestinal bleeding and localize the abnormal vessels.

  10. Superior mesenteric aneurysm and arteriovenous fistula: angiographic and CT features

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, M.; Chuang, V.P.; Stewart, M.T.

    1985-08-01

    Of all splanchnic artery aneurysms, the superior mesenteric aneurysm is the least common type, and most of the reported cases are in the surgical literature. Reports of radiographic findings of superior mesenteric aneurysms and their complications are scarce. The authors present the first case of spontaneous rupture of an atherosclerotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) with resultant arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Not only are the angiographic features diagnostic, but the CT scan also shows an interesting and suggestive finding that will be useful for the future diagnosis of similar cases.

  11. Ruptured mesenteric cyst: a rare presentation after trauma.

    PubMed

    Ekçi, Baki; Ayan, Fadil; Gürses, Bengi

    2007-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intraabdominal benign cystic lesions. These lesions are most commonly located in the ileal mesentery, without any sex predilection. Mesenteric cysts may be totally asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during routine radiologic examinations. Chronic abdominal pain or acute abdomen may be accompanying to these lesions. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are valuable in the diagnosis. Rarely, these lesions may be presented with rupture after trauma. We present a patient with a ruptured ileal mesenteric cyst due to a blunt abdominal trauma and diagnosed by emergency laparotomy.

  12. Laparoscopic Excision of a Mesenteric Cyst During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic management of mesenteric cysts during pregnancy has not been reported before. Case Report: A young woman with a mesenteric cyst associated with a crossed ectopic kidney, underwent laparoscopic excision of the cyst in the second trimester of pregnancy. The procedure was completed without complications, and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. Thereafter, the pregnancy progressed uneventfully, and she delivered a healthy baby at term. Conclusions: Laparoscopic management of mesenteric cysts during pregnancy is feasible, safe, and less invasive than laparotomy when performed in select patients by experienced surgeons. PMID:12723004

  13. Dual effect of initial [K] on vascular tone in rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Brochet, Didier X P; Langton, Philip D

    2006-10-01

    A slight increase in extracellular concentration of potassium ([K(+)](o)) can act as a vasodilator in rat mesenteric vascular bed. However, in recent years, several groups have failed to consistently observe relaxation of rat mesenteric arteries in these conditions. The aim of the present study was to provide a mechanistic understanding of this discrepancy. In rat small mesenteric arteries, 37 of 40 arteries mounted for measurement of isometric force and pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE) did not relax when ([K(+)](o) was raised from 5.9 mM (control ([K(+)](o) to 11.2 or 21.2 mM. However, when ([K(+)](o) was briefly lowered to 1.2 mM, increasing ([K(+)](o) to between 5.9 and 41.2 mM evoked relaxation. This relaxation was not reduced by barium or by removal of the endothelium, but was abolished by 0.1 mM ouabain. Raising ([K(+)](o) from concentrations between 0 and 5.9 mM to 13.8 mM elicited a relaxation of PE-induced tone that was inversely proportional to initial ([K(+)](o). Relaxation was associated with a ouabain-sensitive hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells. In arteries exposed to dihydroouabain (DHO), raising ([K(+)](o) from 5.9 to 13.8 mM and simultaneously washing out DHO resulted in relaxation of PE-induced force. These results suggest that only when the initial ([K(+)](o) is less than approximately 5 mM do small elevations in ([K(+)](o) evoke smooth muscle hyperpolarization and relaxation via activation of Na,K-ATPase, and not inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Therefore, small differences in the initial ([K(+)](o) (4.6 vs 5.9 mM) can strongly influence the variations of vascular tone to increases in ([K(+)](o).

  14. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... preventing infestations, increased resistance of bed bugs to pesticides, and ineffective pest control practices. The good news ... Bed Bugs — Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control — Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse ...

  15. Sclerosing Mesenteritis: A Rare Cause of Small Bowel Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Harvin, Glenn; Graham, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing mesenteritis falls within a spectrum of primary idiopathic inflammatory and fibrotic processes that affect the mesentery. The exact etiology has not been determined, although the following associations have been noted: abdominal surgery, trauma, autoimmunity, paraneoplastic syndrome, ischemia and infection. Progression of sclerosing mesentritis can lead to bowel obstruction, a rare complication of this uncommon condition. We report a case of a 66-year-old female with abdominal pain who was noted to have a small bowel obstruction requiring laparotomy and a partial small bowel resection. The pathology of the resected tissue was consistent with sclerosing mesenteritis, a rare cause of a small bowel obstruction. Sclerosing mesenteritis has variable rates of progression, and there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment. Physicians should consider sclerosing mesenteritis in the differential diagnosis of a small bowel obstruction.

  16. Undiagnosed Sjögren's Syndrome Presenting as Mesenteric Panniculitis

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Rebecca L.; Bhavnagri, Sharukh J.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is a rare inflammatory and fibrotic process that affects the small intestine mesentery. It may occur following abdominal surgery or in association with a variety of conditions, including malignancy, infection, and certain autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Herein, an unusual case of mesenteric panniculitis in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome will be presented. The patient presented with abdominal pain, weight loss, sicca symptoms, fatigue, and arthralgia. An abdominal CT revealed mesenteric fat stranding and prominent lymph nodes of the small intestine mesentery. She was found on laboratory workup to have positive antinuclear and anti-SSa antibodies. Minor salivary gland lip biopsy revealed focal lymphocytic sialadenitis. The patient's symptoms and CT findings improved with corticosteroids. This case suggests that Sjögren's syndrome should be considered as an underlying disease process in the evaluation of patients with mesenteric panniculitis. PMID:27366340

  17. Computed tomography of mesenteric involvement in fulminant pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffery, R.B.; Federle, M.P.; Laing, F.C.

    1983-04-01

    Although extension into the mesentery has been recognized as a frequent pathway of extrapancreatic spread in acute pancreatitis, it has received relatively little attention in the computed tomography (CT) literature. The medical records and CT scans of 55 patients with severe pancreatitis were reviewed in this study; of these patients, 19 (35%) had mesenteric abnormalities, which in 11 patients (20%) represented the most extensive extrapancreatic site of the most extensive extrapancreatic site of involvement. In fulminant pancreatitis, dissection along the mesentery is an important pathway for spread of pancreatic abscesses or phlegmons. Clinical correlation suggests that a combination of mesenteric with lesser sac and anterior pararenal space involvement is frequently associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Of the 19 patients with mesenteric involvement, two died and 14 (74%) required surgery for abscesses, pseudocysts, or, in one case, a colonic fistula. The CT features of the normal mesentery and CT criteria for diagnosing mesenteric inflammatory lesions are reviewed.

  18. Mesenteric Meckel's diverticulum: an unusual cause of small bowel intussusception.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Syed Hussain; Akbari, Khalid; Mason, John; Booth, Michael

    2016-04-08

    Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is the commonest congenital anomaly of the small intestine, affecting 1-4% of the population. Cardinal features emphasise an antimesenteric location two feet proximal to the ileocaecal valve, with a separate mesenteric blood supply and involvement of all layers of the small intestine. However, reports of MD arising from the mesenteric border of the small intestine are rare in the surgical literature. This report examines the case of a 45-year-old woman presenting with a 6-month history of episodic central abdominal pain and microcytic anaemia who underwent an elective diagnostic laparoscopy as initial CT findings were inconclusive. Intraoperatively, she was found to have small bowel intussusception approximately 40 cm proximal to the ileocaecal valve. Macroscopic examination of the resected small bowel segment revealed a mesenteric outpouching that was confirmed as mesenteric MD on histopathological analysis. Postoperatively, the patient recovered with no surgical complications and full symptom resolution. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Sclerosing Mesenteritis: A Rare Cause of Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Harvin, Glenn; Graham, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing mesenteritis falls within a spectrum of primary idiopathic inflammatory and fibrotic processes that affect the mesentery. The exact etiology has not been determined, although the following associations have been noted: abdominal surgery, trauma, autoimmunity, paraneoplastic syndrome, ischemia and infection. Progression of sclerosing mesentritis can lead to bowel obstruction, a rare complication of this uncommon condition. We report a case of a 66-year-old female with abdominal pain who was noted to have a small bowel obstruction requiring laparotomy and a partial small bowel resection. The pathology of the resected tissue was consistent with sclerosing mesenteritis, a rare cause of a small bowel obstruction. Sclerosing mesenteritis has variable rates of progression, and there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment. Physicians should consider sclerosing mesenteritis in the differential diagnosis of a small bowel obstruction. PMID:27403104

  20. Mesenteric chylous cysts simulating a pelvic disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Covarelli, Piero; Arena, Saverio; Badolato, Marco; Canonico, Silvia; Rondelli, Fabio; Luzi, Giuseppe; Cristofani, Roberto; Affronti, Giuseppe; Noya, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Mesenteric chylous cysts, also known as retroperitoneal chylomatous cysts, mesenteric lymphangiomas or chyloma of the mesentery, are extremely rare and their aspecific clinical presentation can mimic other diseases. In addition, imaging techniques, which are rarely helpful in the correct diagnosis, can demonstrate aspecific features. The Authors report the case of a 62-year-old woman admitted to the hospital for two incidental abdominal masses diagnosed during a yearly monitoring examination and considered to be large adnexal masses. The abdominal masses were removed at laparotomy. Both frozen section and final histopathological examination showed mesenteric chylous cysts. Mesenteric chylous cysts are usually a benign abdominal pathology. As illustrated by this case, even if they are extremely rare, they should be not underrated. The Authors review the literature, confirming the rarity of the disease and defining its characteristics.

  1. Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism Treated with Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Peter Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Bunc, Matjaz

    2011-02-15

    A case of acute superior mesenteric artery embolism treated with percutaneous thrombus aspiration is described. A 63-year-old man with chronic atrial fibrillation was admitted to the hospital with progressive abdominal pain. Computed tomography angiography revealed an occlusion of the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was effectively treated using transaxillary percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy using a 6F Aspirex thrombectomy catheter.

  2. Mesenteric plasmacytoma: an unusual cause of an abdominal mass.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Todor; Ross, Douglas; Nethathe, Gladness Dakalo

    2014-06-06

    Plasmacytoma is a rare plasma cell tumour that arises from plasma cells. The tumour accounts for about 3 - 5% of all plasma cell malignancies and most often affects the head and neck, but may also occur in the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, mesenteric plasmacytoma has not been described previously. We describe the presentation and management of a case of mesenteric plasmacytoma presenting as an abdominal mass in a 69-year-old HIV-positive man.

  3. Mesenteric ischemia: the importance of differential diagnosis for the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Reginelli, Alfonso; Iacobellis, Francesca; Berritto, Daniela; Gagliardi, Giuliano; Di Grezia, Graziella; Rossi, Michele; Fonio, Paolo; Grassi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is an abdominal emergency that accounts for approximately 2% of gastrointestinal illnesses. It represents a complex of diseases caused by impaired blood perfusion to the small and/or large bowel including acute arterial mesenteric ischemia (AAMI), acute venous mesenteric ischemia (AVMI), non occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI), ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R), ischemic colitis (IC). In this study different study methods (US, CT) will be correlated in the detection of mesenteric ischemia imaging findings due to various etiologies. Basing on our institutions experience, 163 cases of mesenteric ischemia/infarction from various cases, investigated with CT and undergone surgical treatment were retrospectively evaluated, in particular trought the following findings: presence/absence of arterial/venous obstruction, bowel wall thickness and enhancement, presence/absence of spastic reflex ileus, hypotonic reflex ileus or paralitic ileus, mural and/or portal/mesenteric pneumatosis, abdominal free fluid, parenchymal ischemia/infarction (liver, kidney, spleen). To make an early diagnosis useful to ensure a correct therapeutic approach, it is very important to differentiate between occlusive (arterial, venous) and non occlusive causes (NOMI). The typical findings of each forms of mesenteric ischemia are explained in the text. The radiological findings of mesenteric ischemia have different course in case of different etiology. In venous etiology the progression of damage results faster than arterial even if the symptomatology is less acute; bowel wall thickening is an early finding and easy to detect, simplifying the diagnosis. In arterial etiology the damage progression is slower than in venous ischemia, bowel wall thinning is typical but difficult to recognize so diagnosis may be hard. In the NOMI before/without reperfusion the ischemic damage is similar to AAMI with additional involvement of large bowel parenchymatous organs. In reperfusion after NOMI

  4. MR of superior mesenteric artery--renal vein fistula.

    PubMed

    Conces, D J; Kreipke, D L; Tarver, R D

    1986-01-01

    Traumatic arteriovenous fistulas involving the superior mesenteric artery are rare. Diagnosis is most commonly made shortly after the injury. Symptoms, when present, are usually related to intestinal ischemia. Angiography has been the conventional modality used in diagnosing arteriovenous fistulas. We report a patient with a superior mesenteric artery to left renal vein fistula who presented in overt heart failure five years after a gun shot wound. The fistula was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging.

  5. Mucinous mesenteric cyst of the sigmoid mesocolon: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Challa, Sreenivas Rao; Senapati, Debadutta; Nulukurthi, Taraka Krishna; Chinamilli, Jaahnavi

    2016-02-23

    Mesenteric cysts are rare and occur in patients of any age. They are asymptomatic and found incidentally or during the management of their complications. They commonly originate from the small bowel mesentery, although a proportion has been found to originate from the mesocolon (24%) and retroperitoneum (14.5%). A mesenteric cyst originating in the sigmoid mesocolon is a very rare finding. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia: Report of Five Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, Ulf; Ivancev, Krasnodar; Lindh, Mats; Uher, Petr

    1998-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the midterm results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement in stenotic and occluded mesenteric arteries in five consecutive patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia. Methods: Five patients with 70%-100% obliterations of all mesenteric vessels resulting in chronic mesenteric ischemia (n= 4) and as a prophylactic measure prior to abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (n= 1) underwent PTA of celiac and/or superior mesenteric artery (SMA) stenoses (n= 2), primary stenting of ostial celiac occlusions (n= 2), and secondary stenting of a SMA occlusion (n= 1; recoil after initial PTA). All patients underwent duplex ultrasonography (US) (n= 3) and/or angiography (n= 5) during a median follow-up of 21 months (range 8-42 months). Results: Clinical success was obtained in all five patients. Asymptomatic significant late restenoses (n3) were successfully treated with repeat PTA (n= 2) and stenting of an SMA occlusion (n= 1; celiac stent restenosis). Recurrent pain in one patient was interpreted as secondary to postsurgical abdominal adhesions. Two puncture-site complications occurred requiring local surgical treatment. Conclusions: Endovascular techniques may be attempted prior to surgery in cases of stenotic or short occlusive lesions in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia. Surgery may still be preferred in patients with long occlusions and a low operative risk.

  7. Multidetector CT of Surgically Proven Blunt Bowel and Mesenteric Injury.

    PubMed

    Bates, David D B; Wasserman, Michael; Malek, Anita; Gorantla, Varun; Anderson, Stephan W; Soto, Jorge A; LeBedis, Christina A

    2017-01-01

    Blunt traumatic injury is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Unintentional injury represents the leading cause of death in the United States for all persons between the ages of 1 and 44 years. In the setting of blunt abdominal trauma, the reported rate of occurrence of bowel and mesenteric injuries ranges from 1% to 5%. Despite the relatively low rate of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury in patients with abdominal and pelvic trauma, delays in diagnosis are associated with increased rates of sepsis, a prolonged course in the intensive care unit, and increased mortality. During the past 2 decades, as multidetector computed tomography (CT) has emerged as an essential tool in emergency radiology, several direct and indirect imaging features have been identified that are associated with blunt bowel and mesenteric injury. The imaging findings in cases of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury can be subtle and may be seen in the setting of multiple complex injuries, such as multiple solid-organ injuries and spinal fractures. Familiarity with the various imaging features of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury, as well as an understanding of their clinical importance with regard to the care of the patient, is essential to making a timely diagnosis. Once radiologists are familiar with the spectrum of findings of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury, they will be able to make timely diagnoses that will lead to improved patient outcomes. (©)RSNA, 2017.

  8. Limited systemic sclerosis initially presenting with mesenteric panniculitis

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Vilá, Luis M

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis pertains to a group of uncommon disorders named sclerosing mesenteritis that present with different levels of inflammation and fibrosis of the small bowel mesentery. It is associated with abdominal surgeries, trauma, malignancies, infections and connective tissue diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of sclerosing mesenteritis have been reported in patients with systemic sclerosis. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman who had incidental CT findings of mesenteric panniculitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy that showed fat necrosis. On further review she had a 1-year history of Raynaud's phenomenon. Physical examination showed sclerodactyly. She had elevated anticentromere antibodies and skin biopsy was consistent with scleroderma. She was diagnosed with limited systemic sclerosis and was treated with D-penicillamine. After 6 years of follow-up, the mesenteric panniculitis and systemic sclerosis both remained stable. This case highlights the importance of considering rheumatic diseases in the differential diagnosis of sclerosing mesenteritis. PMID:25326572

  9. Identification of Mouse Mesenteric and Subcutaneous in vitro Adipogenic Cells.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Yugo; Otsuki, Michio; Kita, Shunbun; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2016-02-17

    Fat accumulation and the dysfunction of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT), but not subcutaneous WAT, cause abnormalities in whole body metabolic homeostasis. However, no current drugs specifically target visceral WAT. The primary reason for this is that a practical in vitro culture system for mesenteric adipocytes has not been established. To resolve this issue, we sought to identify in vitro adipogenic cells in mesenteric and subcutaneous WATs. First, we examined the expression pattern of surface antigens in stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) cells from mouse mesenteric and subcutaneous WATs, and found the expression of 30 stem cell-related surface antigens. Then, to evaluate the adipogenic ability of each fraction, we performed in vitro screening, and identified five candidate markers for mesenteric adipogenic cells and one candidate marker for subcutaneous adipogenic cells. To investigate whether in vitro adipogenic ability accurately reflects the conditions in vivo, we performed transplantation experiments, and identified CD9(-) CD201(+) Sca-1(-) cells and CD90(+) cells as mesenteric and subcutaneous in vitro adipogenic cells, respectively. Furthermore, mature adipocytes derived from mesenteric and subcutaneous adipogenic cells maintained each characteristic phenotype in vitro. Thus, our study should contribute to the development of a useful culture system for visceral adipocytes.

  10. Identification of Mouse Mesenteric and Subcutaneous in vitro Adipogenic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Yugo; Otsuki, Michio; Kita, Shunbun; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2016-01-01

    Fat accumulation and the dysfunction of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT), but not subcutaneous WAT, cause abnormalities in whole body metabolic homeostasis. However, no current drugs specifically target visceral WAT. The primary reason for this is that a practical in vitro culture system for mesenteric adipocytes has not been established. To resolve this issue, we sought to identify in vitro adipogenic cells in mesenteric and subcutaneous WATs. First, we examined the expression pattern of surface antigens in stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) cells from mouse mesenteric and subcutaneous WATs, and found the expression of 30 stem cell-related surface antigens. Then, to evaluate the adipogenic ability of each fraction, we performed in vitro screening, and identified five candidate markers for mesenteric adipogenic cells and one candidate marker for subcutaneous adipogenic cells. To investigate whether in vitro adipogenic ability accurately reflects the conditions in vivo, we performed transplantation experiments, and identified CD9− CD201+ Sca-1− cells and CD90+ cells as mesenteric and subcutaneous in vitro adipogenic cells, respectively. Furthermore, mature adipocytes derived from mesenteric and subcutaneous adipogenic cells maintained each characteristic phenotype in vitro. Thus, our study should contribute to the development of a useful culture system for visceral adipocytes. PMID:26884347

  11. Relationships between Rodent White Adipose Fat Pads and Human White Adipose Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Chusyd, Daniella E.; Wang, Donghai; Huffman, Derek M.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue (WAT) development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of WAT. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent WAT as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat. PMID:27148535

  12. Relief of Mesenteric Ischemia by Z-Stent Placement into the Superior Mesenteric Artery Compressed by the False Lumen of an Aortic Dissection

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakado, Koichiro; Takeda, Kan; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Noriyuki; Hirano, Tadanori; Matsumura, Kaname; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Yada, Isao

    1998-01-15

    In a 58-year-old man acute aortic dissection compromised the origin of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), resulting in mesenteric ischemia. After failed balloon angioplasty a Gianturco Z-stent was placed. The stenosis improved immediately, followed by resolution of the clinical signs of mesenteric ischemia. SMA flow was well preserved 1 year after stenting.

  13. Effects of niflumic acid on alpha1-adrenoceptor-induced vasoconstriction in mesenteric artery in vitro and in vivo in two-kidney one-clip hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    He, Y; Tabrizchi, R

    1997-06-11

    The influence of niflumic acid (3 and 10 microM), a Cl- channel antagonist, on cirazoline-induced vasoconstriction in isolated perfused mesenteric artery (5 ml/min) from two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive and sham normotensive rats was examined. In addition, the effect of a single i.v. bolus injection of niflumic acid (3 mg/kg) on cirazoline-mediated reduction in vascular conductance in superior mesenteric artery was determined in pentobarbital-anaesthetized hypertensive and normotensive rats. Bolus injections of cirazoline induced a dose-dependent transient increase in the perfusion pressure in vitro. In the presence of niflumic acid, cirazoline-mediated vasoconstriction was significantly inhibited. Cirazoline-induced vasoconstriction in isolated mesenteric beds was also significantly inhibited following perfusion with Cl(-)-free buffer. Pre-perfusion of mesenteric blood vessels with Cl(-)-free buffer resulted in a significantly greater inhibition of cirazoline-mediated vasoconstriction in sham normotensive rats than in hypertensive rats. We found that in Cl(-)-free buffer, cirazoline-mediated vasoconstriction could be further inhibited by niflumic acid. Intravenous infusion of cumulative doses of cirazoline in vivo caused a dose-dependent decrease in superior mesenteric vascular conductance. Pretreatment with niflumic acid significantly impaired cirazoline-mediated decreases in vascular conductance. Our results indicate that chloride ions play an important role in alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in mesenteric blood vessels. In addition, the contribution of chloride ions in alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in blood vessels from hypertensive rats appears to be reduced.

  14. Percutaneous Retrograde Recanalization of the Celiac Artery by Way of the Superior Mesenteric Artery for Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, George Chacko, Sujith Thomas

    2013-02-15

    A 52-year-old man presented with recurrent postprandial abdominal pain, sitophobia, and progressive weight loss. Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) due to subtotal occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and flush occlusion of the celiac artery (CA) was diagnosed. Retrograde recanalization of the CA by way of a collateral channel from the SMA was performed using contemporary recanalization equipment. The CA and SMA were then stented, resulting in sustained resolution of CMI-related symptoms.

  15. Microdialysis in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.

    2010-01-01

    Microdialysis is an in vivo sampling technique that permits the quantification of various substances (e.g., neurotransmitters, peptides, electrolytes) in blood and tissue. It is also used to infuse substances into the brain and spinal cord. This unit describes methods for the construction and stereotaxic implantation of microdialysis probes into discrete brain regions of the rat and mouse. Procedures for the conduct of conventional and quantitative microdialysis experiments in the awake and anesthetized rodent are also provided. PMID:19340813

  16. Multivisceral Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An Unusual Case of Renal and Superior Mesenteric Involvement

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), a disease process which leads to arterial stenosis and aneurysm formation, has been reported to occur in almost every arterial bed in the body. However, multivisceral FMD is rare, and we report a 43-year-old woman with hypertension who had incidental finding of FMD of both renal arteries and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The left renal aneurysms and right renal stenosis were successfully treated by aneurysm resection and aortorenal bypass and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, respectively. The asymptomatic FMD of the SMA was treated conservatively. The indications for intervention in patients with asymptomatic FMD have not been clarified till date, and we therefore advise a close surveillance program. PMID:23555404

  17. Human Lymphatic Mesenteric Vessels: Morphology and Possible Function of Aminergic and NPY-ergic Nerve Fibers.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Vito; Panarese, Alessandra; Taurone, Samanta; Coppola, Luigi; Cavallotti, Carlo; Artico, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The lymphatic vessels have been studied in different organs from a morphological to a clinical point of view. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the catecholaminergic control of the lymphatic circulation is still incomplete. The aim of this work is to study the presence and distribution of the catecholaminergic and NPY-ergic nerve fibers in the whole wall of the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels in order to obtain knowledge about their morphology and functional significance. The following experimental procedures were performed: 1) drawing of tissue containing lymphatic vessels; 2) cutting of tissue; 3) staining of tissue; 4) staining of nerve fibers; 5) histofluorescence microscopy for the staining of catecholaminergic nerve fibers; 6) staining of neuropeptide Y like-immune reactivity; 7) biochemical assay of proteins; 8) measurement of noradrenaline; 9) quantitative analysis of images; 10) statistical analysis of data. Numerous nerve fibers run in the wall of lymphatic vessels. Many of them are catecholaminergic in nature. Some nerve fibers are NPY-positive. The biochemical results on noradrenaline amounts are in agreement with morphological results on catecholaminergic nerve fibers. Moreover, the morphometric results, obtained by the quantitative analysis of images and the subsequent statistical analysis of data, confirm all our morphological and biochemical data. The knowledge of the physiological or pathological mechanism regulating the functions of the lymphatic system is incomplete. Nevertheless the catecholaminergic nerve fibers of the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels come from the adrenergic periarterial plexuses of the mesenterial arterial bed. NPY-ergic nerve fibers may modulate the microcirculatory mesenterial bed in different pathological conditions.

  18. Pulmonary Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles Exposure Differentially Impairs Coronary and Mesenteric Arteriolar Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Minarchick, Valerie C; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Porter, Dale W; Wolfarth, Michael G; Çiftyürek, Engin; Barger, Mark; Sabolsky, Edward M.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are an engineered nanomaterial that possesses unique catalytic, oxidative and reductive properties. Currently, CeO2 NPs are being used as a fuel catalyst but these properties are also utilized in the development of potential drug treatments for radiation and stroke protection. These uses of CeO2 NPs present a risk for human exposure; however, to date no studies have investigated the effects of CeO2 NPs on the microcirculation following pulmonary exposure. Previous studies in our laboratory with other nanomaterials have shown impairments in normal microvascular function after pulmonary exposures. Therefore, we predicted that CeO2 NP exposure would cause microvascular dysfunction that is dependent on the tissue bed and dose. Twenty-four hour post exposure to CeO2 NPs (0–400 μg), mesenteric and coronary arterioles were isolated and microvascular function was assessed. Our results provided evidence that pulmonary CeO2 NP exposure impairs endothelium-dependent and -independent arteriolar dilation in a dose-dependent manner. The CeO2 NP exposure dose which causes a 50% impairment in arteriolar function (EC50) was calculated and ranged from 15 – 100 μg depending on the chemical agonist and microvascular bed. Microvascular assessments with acetylcholine revealed a 33–75% reduction in function following exposure. Additionally, there was a greater sensitivity to CeO2 NP exposure in the mesenteric microvasculature due to the 40% decrease in the calculated EC50 compared to the coronary microvasculature EC50. CeO2 NP exposure increased mean arterial pressure in some groups. Taken together these observed microvascular changes may likely have detrimental effects on local blood flow regulation and contribute to cardiovascular dysfunction associated with particle exposure. PMID:23645470

  19. Inferior Mesenteric Artery Aneurysm Complicated With Occluded Celiac and Superior Mesenteric Artery After Replacement of Thoracoabdominal Aorta for Chronic Dissected Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Fujimiya, Tsuyoshi; Takase, Shinya; Satokawa, Hirono; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    We report a case of inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm (IMAA) after the replacement of the thoracoabdominal aorta for a chronic dissected thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm in which the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery were occluded. We performed the resection of the IMAA and the revascularization of the superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, and meandering artery. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, without bowel ischemia. From the findings of intraoperative flow measurement of the visceral arteries, revascularization of the superior mesenteric artery was judged to be appropriate in this situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A renewed look at laboratory rodent housing and management.

    PubMed

    Gonder, Janet C; Laber, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Since its publication in 1996, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Research Council, Washington DC, National Academy Press) has become a primary source of information for institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and research facility managers. In the ensuing years, recommendations relating to laboratory animal care have evolved in response to new scientific information and use of new technology such as ventilated caging. In this article, recent publications are examined to determine the potential impact of new scientific evidence on current practices for the housing and care of laboratory rodents. The discussion points out recent advances in technology and new knowledge of the conditions for the housing of various laboratory rodents, including cage space, single versus group housing, ventilated caging systems, thermoregulation, bedding materials, and enrichment. This new information is provided to aid IACUCs and facility managers in making decisions regarding the housing and care of laboratory rodents.

  1. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 and M3 subtypes mediate acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Tangsucharit, Panot; Takatori, Shingo; Zamami, Yoshito; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Takayama, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated pharmacological characterizations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes involving ACh-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries. Changes in perfusion pressure to periarterial nerve stimulation and ACh were measured before and after the perfusion of Krebs solution containing muscarinic receptor antagonists. Distributions of muscarinic AChR subtypes in mesenteric arteries with an intact endothelium were studied using Western blotting. The expression level of M1 and M3 was significantly greater than that of M2. Endothelium removal significantly decreased expression levels of M2 and M3, but not M1. In perfused mesenteric vascular beds with intact endothelium and active tone, exogenous ACh (1, 10, and 100 nmol) produced concentration-dependent and long-lasting vasodilatations. In endothelium-denuded preparations, relaxation to ACh (1 nmol) disappeared, but ACh at 10 and 100 nmol caused long-lasting vasodilatations, which were markedly blocked by the treatment of pirenzepine (M1 antagonist) or 4-DAMP (M1 and M3 antagonist) plus hexamethonium (nicotinic AChR antagonist), but not methoctramine (M2 and M4 antagonist). These results suggest that muscarinic AChR subtypes, mainly M1, distribute throughout the rat mesenteric arteries, and that activation of M1 and/or M3 which may be located on CGRPergic nerves releases CGRP, causing an endothelium-independent vasodilatation. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rodent models of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Davis, Eric M; O'Donnell, Christopher P

    2013-09-15

    Rodent models of sleep apnea have long been used to provide novel insight into the generation and predisposition to apneas as well as to characterize the impact of sleep apnea on cardiovascular, metabolic, and psychological health in humans. Given the significant body of work utilizing rodent models in the field of sleep apnea, the aims of this review are three-fold: first, to review the use of rodents as natural models of sleep apnea; second, to provide an overview of the experimental interventions employed in rodents to simulate sleep apnea; third, to discuss the refinement of rodent models to further our understanding of breathing abnormalities that occur during sleep. Given mounting evidence that sleep apnea impairs cognitive function, reduces quality of life, and exacerbates the course of multiple chronic diseases, rodent models will remain a high priority as a tool to interrogate both the pathophysiology and sequelae of breathing related abnormalities during sleep and to improve approaches to diagnosis and therapy.

  3. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy of superior mesenteric artery embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Kavcic, Pavel; Popovic, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The present series present three consecutive cases of successful percutaneous mechanical embolectomy in acute superior mesenteric artery ischemia. Superior mesenteric artery embolism is a rare abdominal emergency that commonly leads to bowel infarction and has a very high mortality rate. Prompt recognition and treatment are crucial for successful outcome. Endovascular therapeutic approach in patients with acute SMA embolism in median portion of its stem is proposed. Case reports. Three male patients had experienced a sudden abdominal pain and acute superior mesenteric artery embolism in median portion of its stem was revealed on computed tomography angiography. No signs of intestinal infarction were present. The decision for endovascular treatment was made in concordance with the surgeons. In one patient 6 French gauge Rotarex® device was used while in others 6 French gauge Aspirex® device were used. All patients experienced sudden relief of pain after the procedure with no signs of intestinal infarction. Minor procedural complication – rupture of a smaller branch of SMA during Aspirex® treatment was successfully managed by coiling while transient paralytic ileus presented in one patient resolved spontaneously. All three patients remained symptom-free with patent superior mesenteric artery during the follow-up period. Conclusions Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy seems to be a rapid and effective treatment of acute superior mesenteric artery embolism in median portion of its stem in absence of bowel necrosis. Follow-up of our patients showed excellent short- and long-term results. PMID:24133388

  4. Volvulus of small intestine: rare complication of mesenteric pseudocyst.

    PubMed

    Fan, H-L; Chen, T-W; Hong, Z-J; Hsieh, C-B; Chan, D-C; Chen, C-J; Liu, Y-C; Yu, J-C

    2009-12-01

    Mesenteric cyst is a rare intra-abdominal lesion. Most patients with mesenteric cysts are asymptomatic. Symptomatic mesenteric cysts are associated with cyst size, cyst location, and complications, including infection, rupture, hemorrhage, and intestinal obstruction. Volvulus is a rare complication of mesenteric cyst. We report a 50-year-old woman with colicky epigastric pain for three days. The symptoms exacerbated in the supine position and were relieved in the sitting position. Computed tomography of her abdomen revealed a huge cystic lesion with a whirl sign of mesentery vessels. She had the history of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Segmental resection of the small intestine with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histology indicated a hemorrhagic pseudocyst. The patient recovered well after surgery. Mesenteric pseudocyst rarely results in volvulus of small intestine. Our case is the eleventh case reported in the English literature. Atypical presentation of epigastric pain while lying down may lead to mis-diagnosis. This case reminds the clinicians this rare complication.

  5. Geomagnetic field detection in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Olcese, J.; Reuss, S.; Semm, P.

    1988-01-01

    In addition to behavioral evidence for the detection of earth-strength magnetic fields (MF) by rodents, recent investigations have revealed that electrophysiological and biochemical responses to MF occur in the pineal organ and retina of rodents. In addition, ferrimagnetic deposits have been identified in the ethmoidal regions of the rodent skull. These findings point to a new sensory phenomenon, which interfaces with many fields of biology, including neuroscience, psychophysics, behavioral ecology, chronobiology and sensory physiology.

  6. Perforation of the mesenteric small bowel: etiologies and CT findings.

    PubMed

    Hines, John; Rosenblat, Juliana; Duncan, Dameon R; Friedman, Barak; Katz, Douglas S

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate and discuss the various etiologies of perforation of the mesenteric small bowel and associated findings on abdominal CT. Perforation of the mesenteric small bowel is an uncommon cause of an acute abdomen and can be due to various etiologies. In underdeveloped countries, infection is probably the most common cause, while in industrialized nations, perforation may be due to Crohn disease, diverticulitis, foreign body, trauma, tumor, mechanical obstruction, primary ischemic event, or iatrogenic causes. CT is usually the initial imaging examination in patients with an acute abdomen and is sensitive in diagnosing small bowel perforation. CT findings in the setting of small bowel perforation are often subtle, but when present, may help the radiologist determine a specific cause of perforation. The aims of this pictorial essay are to review the various causes of mesenteric small bowel perforation and to discuss and illustrate the CT findings that can help arrive at the diagnosis.

  7. Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Following Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Matthew J.; Garafalo, Thomas; Ko, Tak-ming; Place, Ronald J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the second case of a superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis following an uneventful laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. The patient presented on postoperative day 10 with acute onset of abdominal pain and inability to tolerate oral food. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed superior mesenteric and portal venous thrombosis with questionable viability of the proximal small bowel. He was heparinized and taken for emergent exploratory laparotomy. At surgery and at a planned re-exploration the following day, the bowel was viable and no resection was needed. Despite continuation on anticoagulation therapy, he developed a pulmonary embolism. A hypercoagulable workup was normal. After continued anticoagulation therapy and supportive care, a duplex ultrasound 2 months after the event showed normal flow in both the superior mesenteric and portal veins. Possible mechanisms are discussed along with a review of the pertinent literature. PMID:12856849

  8. Retractile mesenteritis presenting as protein-losing gastroenteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Bahe; Duerksen, Donald R

    2006-01-01

    Retractile mesenteritis is a rare, idiopathic condition characterized by nonspecific inflammation of the mesenteric adipose tissue. The majority of patients present with abdominal pain and/or a palpable mass. In the present report, a 68-year-old man with peripheral edema and mild hypoalbuminemia is presented. Protein-losing gastroenteropathy was confirmed with an abnormal stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance test and retractile mesenteritis was diagnosed at laparoscopy. This rare condition may respond to therapy with corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, colchicine, progesterone, tamoxifen or thalidomide. Gastroenterologists should consider the diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy in patients who present with unexplained peripheral edema or hypoalbuminemia. The test of choice to confirm this diagnosis is the stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance test. PMID:17171198

  9. [Mesenteric cyst: case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Casarotto, A; Cerofolini, A; Denitto, F; Invernizzi, L; Chiappetta, A; Di Prima, F; Landoni, L; Rebonato, M

    2010-05-01

    Mesenteric and retroperitoneal cysts are rare intra-abdominal tumours with an incidence of 1/140.000 in surgery departments and 1/20.000 in paediatric departments. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptoms for the cysts. In the differential diagnosis lymphangiomas, sarcomas, adenocarcinomas and intestinal duplications should be considered. Diagnostic includes abdominal computed tomography, ultrasound and MRI. Barium enema examination or intravenous pyelogram may be used in special cases. Surgical treatment is indicated also in asymptomatic patients; laparoscopic approach is the "gold standard". Laparotomic approach should be used in the cases of impossibility of total enucleation or in the cases of malignant degeneration. Complete enucleation is the treatment of choice for retroperitoneal and mesenteric cysts. If this cannot be accomplished, the alternative should be the excision of the cyst or the marsupialization. In this paper we present a case of young man with a mesenteric cyst mimicking acute appendicitis.

  10. [Mesenteric cyst in the descending colon: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ghidirim, Gh; Mişin, I; Ignatenco, S; Sor, E

    2010-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal findings. The majority are asymptomatic and if found are discovered incidentally during ultrasonography and/or CT scanning. The optimal surgical treatment requires complete excision of the cyst. We report a case of 36-year-old woman with mesenteric cyst in the descending colon. Laboratory tests indicated no abnormality. Abdominal CT revealed a cystic mass in the retropreritneal space measuring 14.0 x 8.3 x 9.4 cm, density 26-29 HU. We found a cystic mass at the mesentery of the descending colon that was removed in toto. The authors discuss the symptoms and complications, classification, and treatment of mesenteric cysts with review of literature.

  11. Rodent carcinogens: Setting priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, L.S.; Slone, T.H.; Stern, B.R.; Manley, N.B.; Ames, B.N. )

    1992-10-09

    The human diet contains an enormous background of natural chemicals, such as plant pesticides and the products of cooking, that have not been a focus of carcinogenicity testing. A broadened perspective that includes these natural chemicals is necessary. A comparison of possible hazards for 80 daily exposures to rodent carcinogens from a variety of sources is presented, using an index (HERP) that relates human exposure to carcinogenic potency in rodents. A similar ordering would be expected with the use of standard risk assessment methodology for the same human exposure values. Results indicate that, when viewed against the large background of naturally occurring carcinogens in typical portions of common foods, the residues of synthetic pesticides or environmental pollutants rank low. A similar result is obtained in a separate comparison of 32 average daily exposures to natural pesticides and synthetic pesticides residues in the diet. Although the findings do not indicate that these natural dietary carcinogens are important in human cancer, they cast doubt on the relative importance for human cancer of low-dose exposures to synthetic chemicals.

  12. Mesenteric autotransplantation: an alternative technique for reoperation and bypass of the superior mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Carson, John G; Loor, Gabriel; Millis, Micheal J; Testa, Giuliano; Piano, Giancarlo

    2009-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysms represent a minority of visceral aneurysms but may result in lethal complications if left untreated. Options for treatment include aneurysmorraphy, bypass, ligation, or embolization. Here we present a case of a man with a history of celiac graft thrombosis who presents with a recurrent symptomatic SMA aneurysm. Given his compromised celiac axis, ligation was not an option. His SMA aneurysm was repaired with a PTFE patch. However, to secure longstanding blood flow to the small bowel in the event of graft thrombosis, the distal SMA pedicle was dissected free of the ileocolic vessels and anastomosed to the aorta. Follow-up studies demonstrated an occluded PTFE patch with a patent SMA autotransplant. This case depicts a novel approach to the surgical management of complex recurrent SMA aneurysms.

  13. ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) Radiologic Management of Mesenteric Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fidelman, Nicholas; AbuRahma, Ali F; Cash, Brooks D; Kapoor, Baljendra S; Knuttinen, M-Grace; Minocha, Jeet; Rochon, Paul J; Shaw, Colette M; Ray, Charles E; Lorenz, Jonathan M

    2017-05-01

    Mesenteric vascular insufficiency is a serious medical condition that may lead to bowel infarction, morbidity, and mortality that may approach 50%. Recommended therapy for acute mesenteric ischemia includes aspiration embolectomy, transcatheter thrombolysis, and angioplasty with or without stenting for the treatment of underlying arterial stenosis. Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia may respond to transarterial infusion of vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, papaverine, glucagon, and prostaglandin E1. Recommended therapy for chronic mesenteric ischemia includes angioplasty with or without stent placement and, if an endovascular approach is not possible, surgical bypass or endarterectomy. The diagnosis of median arcuate ligament syndrome is controversial, but surgical release may be appropriate depending on the clinical situation. Venous mesenteric ischemia may respond to systemic anticoagulation alone. Transhepatic or transjugular superior mesenteric vein catheterization and thrombolytic infusion can be offered depending on the severity of symptoms, condition of the patient, and response to systemic anticoagulation. Adjunct transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation can be considered for outflow improvement. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College

  14. Mesenteric venous thrombosis precipitated by foodborne gastrointestinal illness.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Amy L; Bajwa, Rajinder Ps; Thatigotla, Bala

    2017-03-01

    Foodborne illnesses are common and are usually considered as part of the differential diagnosis when a patient presents with gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. The majority of foodborne illness is transient and self-limited, while life threatening complications are rare. Here, we describe a case of a patient presenting with inflammatory diarrhea after consumption of undercooked seafood. She developed mesenteric and portal venous thrombosis and small bowel infarction requiring surgical intervention and resection of gangrenous small bowel. This is a rare presentation and outcome of common food poisoning. The case report is followed by a brief discussion of common foodborne illnesses and mesenteric venous thrombosis.

  15. [Giant mesenteric lipoma in children: A case-report].

    PubMed

    Hida, M; Azahouani, A; Elazzouzi, D

    2017-03-27

    Mesenteric lipoma is an extremely rare disease in children. Fewer than 50 cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT). However, only the histological study of the specimen during laparotomy or laparoscopy can confirm the diagnosis. Thus, surgery, be it by laparotomy or laparoscopic, is both a means of exploration and treatment in mesenteric lipoma. We report on a case of giant lipoma of the mesentery in a 7-year-old girl presenting paroxysmal abdominal pain with a subocclusive syndrome lasting 1 week.

  16. Mesenteric ischemia: the importance of differential diagnosis for the surgeon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intestinal ischemia is an abdominal emergency that accounts for approximately 2% of gastrointestinal illnesses. It represents a complex of diseases caused by impaired blood perfusion to the small and/or large bowel including acute arterial mesenteric ischemia (AAMI), acute venous mesenteric ischemia (AVMI), non occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI), ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R), ischemic colitis (IC). In this study different study methods (US, CT) will be correlated in the detection of mesenteric ischemia imaging findings due to various etiologies. Methods Basing on our institutions experience, 163 cases of mesenteric ischemia/infarction from various cases, investigated with CT and undergone surgical treatment were retrospectively evaluated, in particular trought the following findings: presence/absence of arterial/venous obstruction, bowel wall thickness and enhancement, presence/absence of spastic reflex ileus, hypotonic reflex ileus or paralitic ileus, mural and/or portal/mesenteric pneumatosis, abdominal free fluid, parenchymal ischemia/infarction (liver, kidney, spleen). Results To make an early diagnosis useful to ensure a correct therapeutic approach, it is very important to differentiate between occlusive (arterial, venous) and non occlusive causes (NOMI). The typical findings of each forms of mesenteric ischemia are explained in the text. Conclusion The radiological findings of mesenteric ischemia have different course in case of different etiology. In venous etiology the progression of damage results faster than arterial even if the symptomatology is less acute; bowel wall thickening is an early finding and easy to detect, simplifying the diagnosis. In arterial etiology the damage progression is slower than in venous ischemia, bowel wall thinning is typical but difficult to recognize so diagnosis may be hard. In the NOMI before/without reperfusion the ischemic damage is similar to AAMI with additional involvement of large bowel

  17. Laparoscopic treatment of a huge mesenteric chylous cyst.

    PubMed

    Tebala, Giovanni Domenico; Camperchioli, Ida; Tognoni, Valeria; Noia, Michele; Gaspari, Achille Lucio

    2010-01-01

    Mesenteric chylous cysts are rare pathologic entities that often present with unspecific symptoms. The preoperative diagnosis requires all the common abdominal imaging techniques, but usually the correct diagnosis may be made only at the operation stage or during the histological examination. The treatment of choice is the complete surgical excision that may be safely performed by laparoscopy. A 58-year-old man underwent laparoscopic excision of a huge mesenteric chylous cyst. The technique entails the perfect control of the major abdominal vessels running near the tumor and the complete sealing of the chylous and blood vessels to and from the cyst.

  18. Laparoscopic Treatment of a Huge Mesenteric Chylous Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Camperchioli, Ida; Tognoni, Valeria; Noia, Michele; Gaspari, Achille Lucio

    2010-01-01

    Mesenteric chylous cysts are rare pathologic entities that often present with unspecific symptoms. The preoperative diagnosis requires all the common abdominal imaging techniques, but usually the correct diagnosis may be made only at the operation stage or during the histological examination. The treatment of choice is the complete surgical excision that may be safely performed by laparoscopy. A 58-year-old man underwent laparoscopic excision of a huge mesenteric chylous cyst. The technique entails the perfect control of the major abdominal vessels running near the tumor and the complete sealing of the chylous and blood vessels to and from the cyst. PMID:21333204

  19. Aquaporins in desert rodent physiology.

    PubMed

    Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2015-08-01

    Desert rodents face a sizeable challenge in maintaining salt and water homeostasis due to their life in an arid environment. A number of their organ systems exhibit functional characteristics that limit water loss above that which occurs in non-desert species under similar conditions. These systems include renal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, nasal, and skin epithelia. The desert rodent kidney preserves body water by producing a highly concentrated urine that reaches a maximum osmolality nearly three times that of the common laboratory rat. The precise mechanism by which urine is concentrated in any mammal is unknown. Insights into the process may be more apparent in species that produce highly concentrated urine. Aquaporin water channels play a fundamental role in water transport in several desert rodent organ systems. The role of aquaporins in facilitating highly effective water preservation in desert rodents is only beginning to be explored. The organ systems of desert rodents and their associated AQPs are described.

  20. Adrenergic stimulation-released 5-HT stored in adrenergic nerves inhibits CGRPergic nerve-mediated vasodilatation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hirohito; Takatori, Shingo; Zamami, Yoshito; Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Miyake, Natsuki; Tangsucharit, Panot; Mio, Mitsunobu; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 5-HT is taken up by and stored in adrenergic nerves and periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) releases 5-HT to cause vasoconstriction in rat mesenteric arteries. The present study investigated whether PNS-released 5-HT stored in adrenergic nerves affects the function of perivascular calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing (CGRPergic) nerves. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rat mesenteric vascular beds without endothelium and with active tone were perfused with Krebs solution. Changes in perfusion pressure in response to PNS and CGRP injection were measured before (control) and after perfusion of Krebs solution containing 5-HT (10 µM) for 20 min. Distributions of 5-HT- and TH-immunopositive fibres in mesenteric arteries were studied using immunohistochemical methods. KEY RESULTS PNS (1–4 Hz) frequency dependently caused adrenergic nerve-mediated vasoconstriction followed by CGRPergic nerve-mediated vasodilatation. 5-HT treatment inhibited PNS-induced vasodilatation without affecting exogenous CGRP-induced vasodilatation, while it augmented PNS-induced vasoconstriction. Guanethidine (adrenergic neuron blocker), methysergide (non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist) and BRL15572 (selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist) abolished inhibition of PNS-induced vasodilatation in 5-HT-treated preparations. Combined treatment with 5-HT and desipramine (catecholamine transporter inhibitor), but not fluoxetine (selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor), did not inhibit PNS-induced vasodilatation. Exogenous 5-HT inhibited PNS-induced vasodilatation, which was antagonized by methysergide. In immunohistochemical experiments, 5-HT-immunopositive nerves, colocalized with adrenergic TH-immunopositive nerves, were observed only in 5-HT-treated mesenteric arteries, but not in control preparations or arteries co-treated with desipramine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that 5-HT can be taken up by and released from adrenergic nerves in vitro by PNS to inhibit

  1. Adrenergic stimulation-released histamine taken-up in adrenergic nerves induces endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Yuto; Takatori, Shingo; Hattori, Sayo; Zamami, Yoshito; Koyama, Toshihiro; Tangsucharit, Panot; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether histamine was taken up by perivascular adrenergic nerves and released by periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) to induce vascular responses. In rat mesenteric vascular beds treated with capsaicin to eliminate calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)ergic vasodilation and with active tone, PNS (1 - 4 Hz) induced only adrenergic nerve-mediated vasoconstriction. Histamine treatment for 20 min induced PNS-induced vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation without affecting CGRP-induced vasodilation. Chlorpheniramine, guanethidine, combination of histamine and desipramine, and endothelium-removal abolished PNS-induced vasodilation in histamine-treated preparations. These results suggest that histamine taken up by and released from adrenergic nerves by PNS causes endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rat mesenteric arteries.

  2. Endovascular treatment of chronic arterial mesenteric ischemia: a changing perspective?

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C P; Roberts, D E

    2010-03-01

    Endovascular treatment for chronic mesenteric ischemia is growing in popularity because of its lower periprocedural morbidity and mortality than open surgery. It is especially suitable for the high-risk surgical candidate and for those who have a poor nutritional state, although endovascular surgery may not be possible in patients with ostial occlusions or heavily calcified vessels. A positive response to angioplasty is helpful to secure a diagnosis in patients with slightly atypical symptoms. There are little data at present to suggest that primary stenting is better than angioplasty alone, but insertion of a stent may be valuable as a rescue procedure following dissection, vascular recoil, or thrombosis during angioplasty. The superior mesenteric artery is probably the most important vessel to treat but, where this is impossible, celiac or inferior mesenteric artery dilatation may have therapeutic benefit. However, there is some evidence at present favoring multiple, as opposed to single-vessel, angioplasty or stenting. Long-term patency is better after mesenteric bypass, which may be preferred in the younger and fitter patient. Treatment of the celiac artery compression syndrome is primarily surgical, but stent insertion may have a role as a secondary procedure where there is a residual stenosis after median arcuate ligament division.

  3. [Extensive mesenteric venous thrombosis treatment by regional thrombolysis].

    PubMed

    Espeel, B; Gérard, C; Mansvelt, B; Bertrand, C; Vermonden, J

    2005-03-01

    Two cases of mesenteric venous thrombosis with portal extension are reported. The first patient was treated right away by local intra-arterial thrombolysis, the second one benefited from local venous thrombolysis immediately after intestinal resection. No significant complication was observed.

  4. Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia: Results in 14 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chahid, Tamam; Alfidja, Agaicha T.; Biard, Marie; Ravel, Anne; Garcier, Jean Marc; Boyer, L.

    2004-11-15

    We evaluated immediate and long-term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement to treat stenotic and occluded arteries in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia. Fourteen patients were treated by 3 exclusive celiac artery (CA) PTAs (2 stentings), 3 cases with both Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) and CA angioplasties, and 8 exclusive SMA angioplasties (3 stentings). Eleven patients had atheromatous stenoses with one case of an early onset atheroma in an HIV patient with antiphospholipid syndrome. The other etiologies of mesenteric arterial lesions were Takayashu arteritis (2 cases) and a postradiation stenoses (1 case). Technical success was achieved in all cases. Two major complications were observed: one hematoma and one false aneurysm occurring at the brachial puncture site (14.3%). An immediate clinical success was obtained in all patients. During a follow-up of 1-83 months (mean: 29 months), 11 patients were symptom free; 3 patients had recurrent pain; in one patient with inflammatory syndrome, pain relief was obtained with medical treatment; in 2 patients abdominal pain was due to restenosis 36 and 6 months after PTA, respectively. Restenosis was treated by PTA (postirradiation stenosis), and by surgical bypass (atheromatous stenosis). Percutaneous endovascular techniques are safe and accurate. They are an alternative to surgery in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia due to short and proximal occlusive lesions of SMA and CA.

  5. Noninvasive diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia using a SQUID magnetometer.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, W O; Garrard, C L; Allos, S H; Bradshaw, L A; Staton, D J; Wikswo, J P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the ability of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer to noninvasively detect mesenteric ischemia in a rabbit model. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Superconducting Quantum Interference Device magnetometers have been used to detect magnetic fields created by the basic electrical rhythm (BER) and to detect changes in BER of exteriorized bowel of anesthetized rabbits during mesenteric ischemia. METHODS: The BER of rabbit ileum was noninvasively measured transabdominally using a SQUID magnetometer and compared with the electrical activity recorded with surgically implanted serosal electrodes before, during, and after snare occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. RESULTS: Transabdominal SQUID recording of BER frequency was highly correlated to the measurements obtained with electrodes (R = 0.91). Basic electrical rhythm frequency decreased from 16.4 +/- 0.8 to 8.3 +/- 0.3 cpm (p < 0.001) after 25 minutes of ischemia. Reperfusion of ischemic bowel resulted in recovery of BER frequency to 14.3 +/- 0.4 cpm 10 minutes after blood flow was restored. CONCLUSIONS: A SQUID magnetometer is capable of noninvasively detecting mesenteric ischemia reliably and at an early stage by detecting a significant drop in BER frequency. These positive findings have encouraged the authors to continue development of clinically useful, noninvasive, detection of intestinal magnetic fields using SQUID magnetometers. Images Figure 5. PMID:7794074

  6. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described.

  7. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Julia L.; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A.

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described. PMID:24975870

  8. Mesenteric Teratoma in Elderly Female: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Neeralagi, Chandrasekhar Sharanappa; Surag, K R; Kumar, Yogesh; Lakkanna, S; Raj, Preetham

    2017-01-01

    Dermoid cysts rarely present as mesenteric cysts. Mesenteric cysts are rare pathologic entities, with a reported incidence of approximately 1 of 27 000 to 1 of 100 000 admissions. Mesenteric cyst was first described by Florentine anatomist Benevieni in 1507, while performing an autopsy on an eight-year-old boy. Most commonly, teratoma occurs in the early age group. Mature mesenteric teratoma in adulthood is extremely rare. Teratoma are germ cell tumours commonly composed of multiple cell types derived from one or more of the 3 germ layers. We present the case of a 69-year-old elderly female who presented with abdomen pain for nine months with right lumbar and right iliac fossa mass. Computed Tomography (CT) abdomen revealed bilocular cystic lesion with possibility of mucinous cystadenoma with no definitive organ of origin. She underwent explorative laparotomy and total excision of the cystic mass. Histopathologic examination confirmed diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma of mesentery. This case report highlights the need to maintain high index of suspicion while evaluating abdominal mass.

  9. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  10. Laparoscopic treatment of mesenteric cysts. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, Antonio; Tomasello, Giovanni; Castronovo, Gioacchino; Genova, Gaspare; Maiorana, Alfonso Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intraabdominal tumors. Since the first report by Benevial in 1507, approximately 800 cases of mesenteric cysts have been described in the literature. Clinical presentation is variable and depends on the size and location of the cyst. This lesion are often asymptomatic or can present as an abdominal palpable mass or with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. Laboratory tests are usually helpless. Ultrasonography and CT scan are the best diagnostic tools. In the past the treatment of choice was totally resection performed by open surgery. With the advent of laparoscopic surgery same authors report mesenteric cysts excised laparoscopically. The Authors report two cases of mesenteric cysts that were excised by laparoscopic surgery using. The cysts of both patients were located in the mesenterium of colon. There were no intraoperative of postoperative complications and the postoperative course was uneventful and both patients returned to full activity within a short time. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 36 months and there were no recurrences. The laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive techniques and represent an alternative safe and less invasive operation for these abdominal cysts.

  11. Mesenteric Teratoma in Elderly Female: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Surag, KR; Kumar, Yogesh; Lakkanna, S; Raj, Preetham

    2017-01-01

    Dermoid cysts rarely present as mesenteric cysts. Mesenteric cysts are rare pathologic entities, with a reported incidence of approximately 1 of 27 000 to 1 of 100 000 admissions. Mesenteric cyst was first described by Florentine anatomist Benevieni in 1507, while performing an autopsy on an eight-year-old boy. Most commonly, teratoma occurs in the early age group. Mature mesenteric teratoma in adulthood is extremely rare. Teratoma are germ cell tumours commonly composed of multiple cell types derived from one or more of the 3 germ layers. We present the case of a 69-year-old elderly female who presented with abdomen pain for nine months with right lumbar and right iliac fossa mass. Computed Tomography (CT) abdomen revealed bilocular cystic lesion with possibility of mucinous cystadenoma with no definitive organ of origin. She underwent explorative laparotomy and total excision of the cystic mass. Histopathologic examination confirmed diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma of mesentery. This case report highlights the need to maintain high index of suspicion while evaluating abdominal mass. PMID:28274002

  12. Endovascular Treatment of Totally Occluded Superior Mesenteric Artery by Retrograde Crossing via the Villemin Arcade

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G. Seitun, Sara; Bovio, Giulio; Fornaro, Rosario

    2013-06-15

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a rare disorder that is commonly caused by progressive atherosclerotic stenosis or occlusion of one or more mesenteric arteries. Endovascular treatment for symptomatic CMI represents a viable option, especially in high-operative risk patients. We report a case of acute symptomatic CMI with chronic totally occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with significant stenosis of celiac trunk (CT) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) that underwent endovascular treatment of all the three mesenteric arteries: stenting of CT and IMA stenosis, and recanalization of the SMA occlusion by retrograde crossing via the Villemin arcade.

  13. A case of atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm secondary to high flow state.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Nicola; Esposito, Giovanni; Cefalì, Pietro; Setti, Marco

    2011-07-01

    Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms are very rare and they are among the rarest of visceral artery aneurysms. Sometimes, the distribution of the blood flow due to chronic atherosclerotic occlusion of some arteries can establish an increased flow into a particular supplying district (high flow state). A high flow state in a stenotic inferior mesenteric artery in compensation for a mesenteric occlusive disease can produce a rare form of aneurysm. We report the case of an atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric aneurysm secondary to high flow state (association with occlusion of the celiac trunk and severe stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery), treated by open surgical approach.

  14. Mesenteric artery contraction and relaxation studies using automated wire myography.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Lakeesha E; Williams, Cicely L; Pointer, Mildred A; Awumey, Emmanuel M

    2011-09-22

    Proximal resistance vessels, such as the mesenteric arteries, contribute substantially to the peripheral resistance. These small vessels of between 100-400 μm in diameter function primarily in directing blood flow to various organs according to the overall requirements of the body. The rat mesenteric artery has a diameter greater than 100 μm. The myography technique, first described by Mulvay and Halpern(1), was based on the method proposed by Bevan and Osher(2). The technique provides information about small vessels under isometric conditions, where substantial shortening of the muscle preparation is prevented. Since force production and sensitivity of vessels to different agonists is dependent on the extent of stretch, according to active tension-length relation, it is essential to conduct contraction studies under isometric conditions to prevent compliance of the mounting wires. Stainless steel wires are preferred to tungsten wires because of oxidation of the latter, which affects recorded responses(3).The technique allows for the comparison of agonist-induced contractions of mounted vessels to obtain evidence for normal function of vascular smooth muscle cell receptors. We have shown in several studies that isolated mesenteric arteries that are contracted with phenylyephrine relax upon addition of cumulative concentrations of extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)(e;)). The findings led us to conclude that perivascular sensory nerves, which express the G protein-coupled Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR), mediate this vasorelaxation response. Using an automated wire myography method, we show here that mesenteric arteries from Wistar, Dahl salt-sensitive(DS) and Dahl salt-resistant (DR) rats respond differently to Ca(2+)(e;). Tissues from Wistar rats showed higher Ca(2+)-sensitivity compared to those from DR and DS. Reduced CaR expression in mesenteric arteries from DS rats correlates with reduced Ca(2+)(e;)-induced relaxation of isolated, pre-contracted arteries. The data

  15. Protons modulate perivascular axo-axonal neurotransmission in the rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Takatori, Shingo; Hirai, Kazuhiro; Ozaki, Shuichiro; Tangsucharit, Panot; Fukushima-Miyashita, Satoko; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Ono, Nobufumi; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotine releases protons from adrenergic nerves via stimulation of nicotinic ACh receptors and activates transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors located on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing (CGRPergic) vasodilator nerves, resulting in vasodilatation. The present study investigated whether perivascular nerves release protons, which modulate axon-axonal neurotransmission. Perfusion pressure and pH levels of perfusate in rat-perfused mesenteric vascular beds without endothelium were measured with a pressure transducer and a pH meter respectively. Periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) initially induced vasoconstriction, which was followed by long-lasting vasodilatation and decreased pH levels in the perfusate. Cold-storage denervation of the preparation abolished the decreased pH and vascular responses to PNS. The adrenergic neuron blocker guanethidine inhibited PNS-induced vasoconstriction and effects on pH, but not PNS-induced vasodilatation. Capsaicin (CGRP depletor), capsazepine and ruthenium red (TRPV1 inhibitors) attenuated the PNS-induced decrease in pH and vasodilatation. In denuded preparations, ACh caused long-lasting vasodilatation and lowered pH; these effects were inhibited by capsaicin pretreatment and atropine, but not by guanethidine or mecamylamine. Capsaicin injection induced vasodilatation and a reduction in pH, which were abolished by ruthenium red. The use of a fluorescent pH indicator demonstrated that application of nicotine, ACh and capsaicin outside small mesenteric arteries reduced perivascular pH levels and these effects were abolished in a Ca(2+) -free medium. These results suggest that protons are released from perivascular adrenergic and CGRPergic nerves upon PNS and these protons modulate transmission in CGRPergic nerves. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Protons modulate perivascular axo-axonal neurotransmission in the rat mesenteric artery

    PubMed Central

    Takatori, Shingo; Hirai, Kazuhiro; Ozaki, Shuichiro; Tangsucharit, Panot; Fukushima-Miyashita, Satoko; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Ono, Nobufumi; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotine releases protons from adrenergic nerves via stimulation of nicotinic ACh receptors and activates transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors located on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing (CGRPergic) vasodilator nerves, resulting in vasodilatation. The present study investigated whether perivascular nerves release protons, which modulate axon-axonal neurotransmission. Experiment Approach Perfusion pressure and pH levels of perfusate in rat-perfused mesenteric vascular beds without endothelium were measured with a pressure transducer and a pH meter respectively. Key Results Periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS) initially induced vasoconstriction, which was followed by long-lasting vasodilatation and decreased pH levels in the perfusate. Cold-storage denervation of the preparation abolished the decreased pH and vascular responses to PNS. The adrenergic neuron blocker guanethidine inhibited PNS-induced vasoconstriction and effects on pH, but not PNS-induced vasodilatation. Capsaicin (CGRP depletor), capsazepine and ruthenium red (TRPV1 inhibitors) attenuated the PNS-induced decrease in pH and vasodilatation. In denuded preparations, ACh caused long-lasting vasodilatation and lowered pH; these effects were inhibited by capsaicin pretreatment and atropine, but not by guanethidine or mecamylamine. Capsaicin injection induced vasodilatation and a reduction in pH, which were abolished by ruthenium red. The use of a fluorescent pH indicator demonstrated that application of nicotine, ACh and capsaicin outside small mesenteric arteries reduced perivascular pH levels and these effects were abolished in a Ca2+-free medium. Conclusion and Implication These results suggest that protons are released from perivascular adrenergic and CGRPergic nerves upon PNS and these protons modulate transmission in CGRPergic nerves. PMID:25117291

  17. Prostanoids counterbalance the synergism between endothelin-1 and angiotensin II in mesenteric veins of trained rats.

    PubMed

    Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; de Oliveira, Priscilla Bianca; Rossignoli, Patrícia de Souza; Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira; de Lábio, Roger William; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques

    2017-02-01

    Exercise-induced adaptations of the modulating mechanisms that influence the angiotensin (Ang II) responses assume different features depending on the venous bed. In femoral veins, exercise mobilizes vasodilator prostanoids to cooperate with NO in order to maintain reduced Ang II responses. On the other hand, exercise's influence on the Ang II responses in veins that drain blood from the mesenteric region has been poorly described. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the effects of a single bout of exercise, as well as exercise training, on the Ang II responses in mesenteric veins. The present study also aimed to investigate the involvement of prostanoids, NO and ET-1 in eventual exercise-induced modifications in these veins. To this end, mesenteric veins taken from resting-sedentary, exercised-sedentary, resting-trained and exercised-trained animals were studied in organ baths. In addition, the mRNA expression of prepro-endothelin-1 (ppET-1), as well as that of the ETA and ETB receptors, were quantified by real-time PCR in these veins. The results show that, either in absence or in presence of L-NAME, the Ang II responses were not different between groups. In the presence of indomethacin, higher Ang II responses were observed in the resting-trained animals than in the resting-sedentary animals. This difference, however, disappeared when L-NAME, BQ-123 or BQ-788 were added during incubation. In addition, no differences in ppET-1, ETA or ETB mRNA expression were observed between groups. Furthermore, in the presence of PD123,319, the Ang II responses in the exercised-sedentary animals were higher than those in the resting-sedentary animals. In conclusion, exercise training mobilizes endothelin-1 (ET-1) to reinforce the Ang II-induced responses mainly through ETA activation. On the other hand, vasodilator prostanoids are mobilized to act in parallel with NO in order to counterbalance the Ang II responses that have been potentiated by ET-1 in these trained

  18. The allometry of rodent intestines.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Barry G

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the allometry of the small intestine, caecum, colon and large intestine of rodents (n = 51) using a phylogenetically informed approach. Strong phylogenetic signal was detected in the data for the caecum, colon and large intestine, but not for the small intestine. Most of the phylogenetic signal could be attributed to clade effects associated with herbivorous versus omnivorous rodents. The herbivorous rodents have longer caecums, colons and large intestines, but their small intestines, with the exception of the desert otomyine rodents, are no different to those of omnivorous rodents. Desert otomyine rodents have significantly shorter small intestines than all other rodents, reflecting a possible habitat effect and providing a partial explanation for the low basal metabolic rates of small desert mammals. However, the desert otomyines do not have shorter colons or large intestines, challenging claims for adaptation to water retention in arid environments. Data for the Arvicolidae revealed significantly larger caecums and colons, and hence longer large intestines, with no compensatory reduction in the length of the small intestine, which may explain how the smallest mammalian herbivores manage to meet the demands of a very high mass-specific metabolic rate. This study provides phylogenetically corrected allometries suitable for future prediction testing.

  19. [A case of spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery treated by percutaneous stent placement].

    PubMed

    Ko, Geun Jun; Han, Ki Jun; Han, Seo Goo; Hwang, Sang Yon; Choi, Chang Hwan; Gham, Chang Woo; Cho, Hyeon Geun; Song, Soon-Young; Jung, Jin Ho

    2006-02-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia can result from emboli, arterial and venous thrombi or vasoconstriction secondary to low-flow states. Isolated spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare cause of acute mesenteric ischemia. The mortality rates of acute mesenteric ischemia averages 71% with a range of 59-93%. Diagnosis before the occurrence of intestinal infarction is the most important factor in improving survival rate for patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. A 68-year-old female presented with postprandial epigastric pain, and a dissection of the superior mesenteric artery and a gallbladder polyp were shown in abdominal computed tomographic scan. After the percutaneous metalic stent placement and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, her symptoms improved. We report a case of spontaneous dissection of main trunk of the superior mesenteric artery which was successfully treated by percutaneous stent placement with a review of literature.

  20. Mesenteric cyst: report of a case-resulting in pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    PubMed

    Zappa, Luis; Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2010-01-01

    A mesenteric cyst may have an embryonic, traumatic, neoplastic or infectious origin. In rare cases mesenteric cysts may contain neoplastic epithelium. A mesenteric cyst has not previously been recorded as the cause of pseudomyxoma peritonei. A patient who developed widespread mucinous intraperitoneal tumor as a result of a ruptured mesenteric cyst is reported. A literature review of the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of the mesenteric cyst is presented. This patient was treated with cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Her recovery was uneventful and she remains well two years after treatment. Mesenteric cyst is a rare cause of pseudomyxoma peritonei. The definite treatment of a ruptured neoplastic mesenteric cyst can, by analogy, be compared to the treatment for pseudomyxoma peritonei of appendiceal origin. The results of cytoreductive surgery with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy are expected to be good.

  1. Oculoscopy in Rabbits and Rodents.

    PubMed

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2015-09-01

    Ophthalmic diseases are common in rabbits and rodents. Fast and definitive diagnosis is imperative for successful treatment of ocular diseases. Ophthalmic examination in rabbits and rodents can be challenging. Oculoscopy offers great magnification for the examination of the ocular structures in such animals, including the evaluation of cornea, anterior eye chamber, limbus, iris, lens, and retina. To date, oculoscopy has been described only sporadically and/or under experimental conditions. This article describes the oculoscopy technique, normal and abnormal ocular findings, and the most common eye disorders diagnosed with the aid of endoscopy in rabbits and rodents.

  2. Trauma to the Superior Mesenteric Artery and Superior Mesenteric Vein: A Narrative Review of Rare but Lethal Injuries.

    PubMed

    Phillips, B; Reiter, S; Murray, E P; McDonald, D; Turco, L; Cornell, D L; Asensio, J A

    2017-09-05

    Mesenteric vessels, including the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and vein (SMV), provide and drain the rich blood supply of the midgut and hindgut. SMA and SMV injuries are rare and often lethal. Clinical management of these injuries is not well established, but treatment options include operative, non-operative, and endovascular strategies. A narrative review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE Complete-EBSCO. Relevant studies, specifically those focusing on diagnosis and management of SMA and SMV injuries, were selected. Only original reports and collected series were selected to prevent duplication of cases. A search of the literature for mesenteric arterial injuries yielded 87 studies. Vessel-specific breakdown of the studies yielded 40 with SMA injuries and 41 with SMV injuries. These searches were winnowed to 26 individual studies, which were included in this collective review. Limitations of this study are similar to all narrative literature reviews: the dependence on previously published research and availability of references as outlined in our methodology. Although historically rare, mesenteric vessel injuries are seen with increasing incidence and continue to present a challenge to trauma surgeons due to their daunting mortality rates. Currently, universal treatment guidelines do not exist, but the various options for their management have been extensively reviewed in the literature.

  3. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  4. Rodent Empathy and Affective Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jules B.; Lahvis, Garet P.

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. This indicates that rodent behavioral models can be developed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that in the future they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp’s theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences. PMID:21672550

  5. Rodent empathy and affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P

    2011-10-01

    In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. Thus, rodent behavioral models can now be developed to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp's theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences.

  6. The ethics of rodent control.

    PubMed

    Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Brom, Frans W A; Kijlstra, Aize

    2008-12-01

    Because western societies generally see animals as objects of moral concern, demands have been made on the way they are treated, e.g. during animal experimentation. In the case of rodent pests, however, inhumane control methods are often applied. This inconsistency in the human-animal relationship requires clarification. This paper analyses the criteria that must be met when judging the use of animals during experiments, and investigates whether these can be applied in rodent control. This is important, because, until now, animal welfare has been less of an issue in pest control: effectiveness, hygiene and cost efficiency have been leading principles. Two options are available to solve the inconsistency: the first is to abandon the criteria used in animal experimentation; the second is to apply these criteria to both animal experimentation and rodent control. This latter option implies that rodent control methods should not lead to intense pain or discomfort, and any discomfort should have a short duration and should allow escaped rodents to lead a natural life. Adherence to this option will, however, require a shift in the design of rodent control methods: effectiveness will no longer be the leading principle. It will have to share its position with animal welfare and humaneness.

  7. Lawsonia intracellularis in the feces of wild rodents and stray cats captured around equine farms.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong-Min; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2017-08-11

    Proliferative enteropathy is a global enteric disease of particular importance in pigs. The causative bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis, has a wide range of susceptible host species. Recently, L. intracellularis has been recognized as an etiologic agent of an emerging enteric disease in foals called equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). The presence of L. intracellularis in nonruminant wildlife has raised questions regarding the role of these species in EPE transmission. This study investigated exposure to L. intracellularis in wild rodents and feral cats from eight farms with confirmed EPE. Serum (42) and fecal (40) samples from resident foals and fecal samples (131), intestinal mucosa tissues (14), and mesenteric lymph nodes (14) from wild and feral animals were collected for the evaluation of the farm status and the molecular detection of L. intracellularis following the diagnosis of EPE in index cases. Fresh feces from wild rodents and feral cats were collected from the ground while walking the premises or after trapping the animals using live traps. A total of 3 brown rats, 7 house mice, 1 striped field mouse, 2 grey red-backed voles, and 3 feral cats showed evidence of prior exposure to L. intracellularis. Our data add to increasing evidence demonstrating the potential for L. intracellularis transmission and infection in wild rodents and feral cats and provide possible evidence of interspecies transmission. The exposure of wild rodents and feral cats provides potential evidence for the spillover of L. intracellularis to wildlife species and raises the question of spillback to horses. Additionally, these animals may represent an indicator of environmental exposure or may be actively involved in the transmission of L. intracellularis to foals by acting as potential reservoir/amplifier hosts. This study is the first to demonstrate the magnitude of L. intracellularis shedding in the feces of wild rodents and feral cats and to indicate the significant

  8. Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostanoids reduce inward arterial remodeling induced by blood flow reduction in old obese Zucker rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Vessières, Emilie; Belin de Chantemèle, Eric J; Guihot, Anne-Laure; Jardel, Alain; Toutain, Bertrand; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with altered arterial structure and function leading to arterial narrowing in most vascular beds, especially when associated with aging. Nevertheless, mesenteric blood flow remains elevated in obese rats, although the effect of aging remains unknown. We investigated mesenteric artery narrowing following blood flow reduction in vivo in 3- and 12-month-old obese Zucker rats. After 21 days, inward remodeling occurred in low flow (LF) arteries in young and old lean rats and in young obese rats (30% diameter reduction). Diameter did not significantly decrease in old obese rats. Phenylephrine-mediated contraction was reduced by approximately 20% in LF arteries in all groups but in old obese rat arteries in which the decrease reached 80%. LF arteries expressed cyclooxygenase-2 and blood 6-keto-PGF1alpha (prostacyclin metabolite) was elevated in old obese rats. In old obese rats, acute cyclooxygenase-2 blockade restored phenylephrine-mediated contraction in LF arteries and chronic cyclooxygenase-2 blockade restored inward remodeling and contractility to control level. Thus, in old obese rats, cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostacyclin prevented the diameter reduction induced by a chronic decrease in blood flow. This adaptation is in favor of a preserved perfusion of the mesentery by contrast with other vascular territories, possibly amplifying the vascular disorders occurring in obesity.

  9. Bowel and mesenteric injuries from blunt abdominal trauma: a review.

    PubMed

    Iaselli, Francesco; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Firetto, Cristina; D'Elia, Domenico; Squitieri, Nevada Cioffi; Biondetti, Pietro Raimondo; Danza, Francesco Maria; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The bowel and the mesentery represent the third most frequently involved structures in blunt abdominal trauma after the liver and the spleen. Clinical assessment alone in patients with suspected intestinal and/or mesenteric injury from blunt abdominal trauma is associated with unacceptable diagnostic delays. Multi-detector computed tomography, thanks to its high spatial, time and contrast resolutions, allows a prompt identification and proper classification of such conditions. The radiologist, in fact, is asked not only to identify the signs of trauma but also to provide an indication of their clinical significance, suggesting the chance of conservative treatment in the cases of mild and moderate, non-complicated or self-limiting injuries and focusing on life-threatening conditions which may benefit from immediate surgical or interventional procedures. Specific and non-specific CT signs of bowel and mesenteric injuries from blunt abdominal trauma are reviewed in this paper.

  10. [Superior mesenteric artery aneurysm treated with endovascular stentgraft implantation].

    PubMed

    Juszkat, Robert; Zarzecka, Anna; Winckiewicz, Marek; Majewski, Wacław

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysms of the superior mesenteric are very rare and comprises 5.5% of all visceral artery aneurysms. A 60-year-old male was admitted to the General and Vascular Surgery Department due to the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysm, diagnosed in angio CT. Due to wide neck of the aneurysm and its localization in the mid-die segment of the SMA, a decision to implant a stentgraft was made. After surgical exposure of the right common femoral artery, a stentgraft Viabahn was implanted into the SMA. Control angiography revealed total aneurysm exclusion and patent SMA. Periprocedural course was uneventful. Follow-up CT scan 2 year after the procedure revealed no contrast filling of the aneurysm and patent SMA. A stentgraft implantation is a effective method of treatment of the wide-necked SMA aneurysms.

  11. A rare cause of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding: mesenteric hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Kazimi, Mircelal; Ulas, Murat; Ibis, Cem; Unver, Mutlu; Ozsan, Nazan; Yilmaz, Funda; Ersoz, Galip; Zeytunlu, Murat; Kilic, Murat; Coker, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage accounts for approximately 20% of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The most common causes of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in adults are diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, benign anorectal diseases, intestinal neoplasias, coagulopathies and arterio-venous malformations. Hemangiomas of gastrointestinal tract are rare. Mesenteric hemangiomas are also extremely rare. We present a 25-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room with recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. An intraluminal bleeding mass inside the small intestinal segment was detected during explorative laparotomy as the cause of the recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. After partial resection of small bowel segment, the histopathologic examination revealed a cavernous hemagioma of mesenteric origin. Although rare, gastrointestinal hemangioma should be thought in differential diagnosis as a cause of recurrent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:19178725

  12. Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis treated by direct aspiration thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Murashima, Naoya; Isobe, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    A 69-year-old man, with hepatits C virus-related liver cirrhosis and hemophilia B, developed massive ascites and watery diarrhea after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices. A multi detector row computed tomography revealed a superior mesenteric venous thrombus without bowel infarction. It was assumed that the thrombus was caused by transient congestion of the portal system after retrograde propagation of the sclerosant agent, in a condition where anticoagulation proteins, such as proteins C and S, had decreased. Because long systemic thrombolytic therapy was hazardous for the patient with hemorrhagic diathesis due to impaired coagulation, a direct thrombolysis was performed with urokinase followed by aspiration thrombectomy, with cannulation of the portal venous system using a transjugular intrahepatic approach. The patient had no complications in this procedure and subsequently diarrhea and refractory ascites were resolved. Direct thrombectomy via the transjugular intrahepatic route may be a useful therapy for mesenteric venous thrombus in the cirrhotic patient.

  13. Mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as intracranial space occupying lesion

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Tarun; Gunabushanam, Gowthaman; Malik, Monica; Goyal, Shikha; Das, Anup K; Julka, Pramod K; Rath, Goura K

    2006-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) usually present with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal mass, pain, anorexia and bowel obstruction. Methods We report a case of a 42 year old male who presented with a solitary intracranial space occupying lesion which was established as a metastasis from a mesenteric tumour. Results The patient was initially treated as a metastatic sarcoma, but a lack of response to chemotherapy prompted testing for CD117 which returned positive. A diagnosis of mesenteric GIST presenting as solitary brain metastasis was made, and the patient was treated with imatinib. Conclusion We recommend that all sarcomas with either an intraabdominal or unknown origin be routinely tested for CD117 to rule out GIST. PMID:17105654

  14. Feasibility of laparoscopic resection of mesenteric cysts: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Memmo, L; Belhaj, A; Mehdi, A

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts (MC) are rare intra-abdominal tumors. The incidence has been estimated to be 1/100000 in the adult population and 1/20000 in children, with a male: female ratio of 1:1. The first successful laparoscopic resection of a MC was reported by MACKENZIE et al. in 1993. The malignant transformation appears in 3% of cases. In our study, we presented the feasibility and results of laparoscopic resection. We report two cases of mesenteric cysts removed by a laparoscopic procedure. Laparoscopic approach in the two cases was successful. No conversion was observed. No complication occurred. The histopathological studies revealed no malignancy. After 18 months of follow-up the 2 patients remained free of disease. In selected cases, safe and complete resection of MC could be achieved by laparoscopic approach. Complete surgical resection of MC is the treatment of choice when the cyst becomes symptomatic or when complications occur.

  15. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome in a Young Military Basic Trainee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    computed tomography angiogram of the abdomen was an abnormally narrow takeoff angle of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) from the aorta near the...loss of retroperitoneal fat , resulting in obstruction at the level of the third portion of duodenum as it is distended by food.3 It most commonly occurs...discomfort out of proportion to exam was concerning for intestinal angina. We obtained a computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the abdomen and surgical

  16. Diagnostic Value of Procalcitonin Levels in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Yunus; Gündüz, Abdulkadir; Türkmen, Süha; Menteşe, Ahmet; Türedi, Süleyman; Eryiğit, Umut; Karahan, Süleyman Caner

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a potentially fatal disease. Difficulties in diagnosis make it essential to find early biomarkers. Aims: This study investigated the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in AMI. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In the experimental group, an experimental ischemia model was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery from the aortic outflow tract. Blood and tissue specimens were collected from rats in the experimental mesenteric ischemia model at 30 min and 2 and 6 h, and these were compared with specimens from the respective control groups. PCT levels were compared at 30 min and 2 and 6 h. Results: PCT levels were 185.3 pg/mL in the control group and 219.3 pg/mL in the study group, 199.6 pg/mL in the control group and 243.9 pg/mL in the study group, and 201.9 pg/mL in the control group and 286.9 pg/mL in the study group, respectively, at 30 minute, 2 and 6 hours. Significant differences were determined between 6-h control group and ischemia group PCT levels (p=0.005). Conclusion: The absence of a significant increase in PCT levels in the early period, while a significant difference was detected in the later period (6 h), shows that PCT levels rise late in mesenteric ischemia and can be a marker in the late period. PMID:26185718

  17. Clinical features of mesenteric lymphatic malformation in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Young; Lee, Cheol; Min, Hye Sook; Jung, Sung-Eun

    2016-04-01

    Mesenteric lymphatic malformations (MLs) are a heterogeneous group of benign diseases of the lymphatic system that present with cystic dilated lymphatics of the mesentery. MLs are rare and represent less than 5% of all lymphatic malformations. The aims of this study were to analyze the characteristics of MLs in children and to suggest a modified classification. We investigated 25 patients who underwent ML surgery. The clinical data and pathological findings were reviewed retrospectively. We divided the patients into 4 groups according to the operative findings. Group 1 included patients with MLs involving the intestinal walls. Group 2 included patients with pedicle-type MLs with no relationship to the mesenteric vessels. Group 3 patients presented with MLs located in the mesenteric boundaries near the mesenteric vessels. Group 4 patients had multicentric and diffusely infiltrated MLs. The male-to-female ratio was 11:14, and the median age at diagnosis was 5years of age. The most common symptom was abdominal pain. The jejunal mesentery was the most frequently involved site in this study. Five patients showed the macrocystic type and 20 patients showed the mixed cystic type. With the exception of one patient with a large mixed cystic-type ML who underwent incomplete mass excision, 24 patients underwent complete mass excision. The group 1 patients (n=14) underwent mass excision performed with segmental resection of the bowel. The group 2 patients (n=3) only underwent mass excision surgery. The patients in group 3 (n=7) underwent mass excision with segmental resection of the intestine because ML excision altered the blood supply of the adjacent intestines. The group 4 patients (n=1) presented with MLs involving the entire mesentery and underwent incomplete excision. The relationships between MLs and the neighboring organs determine the surgical strategy, and the size and location of MLs affect the operative methods. The modified classification based on these findings

  18. Postsurgical segmental mesenteric ischemic thrombosis in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cuervo, María; Gracia, Luis A.; Vieitez, Verónica; Jiménez, Joquin; Durán, Esther; Ezquerra, Luis J.

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old, Lusitanian stallion was admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a 12-hour history of signs of abdominal pain. Exploratory celiotomy was performed due to an inguinal hernia, and a second celiotomy was performed in response to the abdominal pain. The horse was euthanized and mesenteric venous thrombosis was diagnosed and considered likely due to peritonitis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). PMID:23814308

  19. Postsurgical segmental mesenteric ischemic thrombosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cuervo, María; Gracia, Luis A; Vieitez, Verónica; Jiménez, Joquin; Durán, Esther; Ezquerra, Luis J

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old, Lusitanian stallion was admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a 12-hour history of signs of abdominal pain. Exploratory celiotomy was performed due to an inguinal hernia, and a second celiotomy was performed in response to the abdominal pain. The horse was euthanized and mesenteric venous thrombosis was diagnosed and considered likely due to peritonitis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).

  20. [Large mesenteric cyst in a patient suspected of ovarian cyst].

    PubMed

    Czubalski, Andrzej; Barwijuk, Andrzej; Radiukiewicz, Grzegorz

    2004-07-01

    Mesenteric cystic tumors are very rare. They may simulate the ovarian cysts. We report a case of a 38 year-old woman with large cystic tumor suggesting ovarian cyst. The patient was operated on and we found that genital organs were normal. Besides there was a large cyst of small intestine mesentery with 10 liters of clear fluid. The cyst was removed. Histological material showed mucinous cystadenoma.

  1. Benign mesothelial mesenteric cyst: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Prudnick, Colton; Turnbull, Jacob; Jarosz, Susan; Hofeldt, Matthew; Richmond, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    A rare case of a benign mesothelial cyst arising from the mesentery of the descending colon is presented. A 73 year old female presented with an asymptomatic mesenteric cyst on CT scan. Colonoscopy revealed extrinsic compression of the descending colon. Surgical resection of the cyst necessitated partial colon resection due to the adherent nature of the cyst to the colon and its mesentery. The details of the case are presented as well as a brief review of the relevant literature.

  2. An uncommon cause of abdominal pain: Mesenteric cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Ünlüer, Seran; Şahı̇n, Yusuf; Kamer, Kemal Erdı̇nç; Karagöz, Arı̇f; Tan, Gözde Canan

    2016-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are benign cystic lesions. Here, we present the case of a patient with abdominal pain, which was diagnosed as mesenteric cyst. A 28-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain and distention. Abdominal palpation revealed a smooth-surfaced mass palpable in the left upper quadrant. Ultrasonography depicted a hypoechoic heterogeneous mass-like structure with a size of 15 × 12 cm. Computerized tomography (CT) showed a well-defined cystic structure with a size of 12 × 12.5 cm near to the duodenum and pancreas. The patient was admitted, and the cystic structure was drained with a percutaneous drainage catheter; then, sclerotherapy was performed using ethyl alcohol with the aid of ultrasonography. The material was sent to the pathology lab and revealed negative results for malignant cell and mucin. The patient underwent a control CT with contrast, which revealed the catheter at the site of the operation and no cystic lesion after procedure. He was discharged 1 week after the procedure. Mesenteric cysts are extremely rare benign lesions of the abdomen, and emergency physicians must consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. The percutaneous drainage technique performed on our patient is a safe technique for the treatment of selected patients. PMID:28250978

  3. An uncommon cause of abdominal pain: Mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Ünlüer, Seran; Şahı N, Yusuf; Kamer, Kemal Erdı Nç; Karagöz, Arı F; Tan, Gözde Canan

    2016-03-01

    Mesenteric cysts are benign cystic lesions. Here, we present the case of a patient with abdominal pain, which was diagnosed as mesenteric cyst. A 28-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain and distention. Abdominal palpation revealed a smooth-surfaced mass palpable in the left upper quadrant. Ultrasonography depicted a hypoechoic heterogeneous mass-like structure with a size of 15 × 12 cm. Computerized tomography (CT) showed a well-defined cystic structure with a size of 12 × 12.5 cm near to the duodenum and pancreas. The patient was admitted, and the cystic structure was drained with a percutaneous drainage catheter; then, sclerotherapy was performed using ethyl alcohol with the aid of ultrasonography. The material was sent to the pathology lab and revealed negative results for malignant cell and mucin. The patient underwent a control CT with contrast, which revealed the catheter at the site of the operation and no cystic lesion after procedure. He was discharged 1 week after the procedure. Mesenteric cysts are extremely rare benign lesions of the abdomen, and emergency physicians must consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. The percutaneous drainage technique performed on our patient is a safe technique for the treatment of selected patients.

  4. [Chronic arterial mesenteric ischemia: Doppler color ultrasonography demonstration of collateral flow].

    PubMed

    Danse, E M; Hammer, F; Matondo, H; Dardenne, A N; Geubel, A; Goffette, P

    2001-11-01

    Two cases of atypical mesenteric ischemia where color Doppler US demonstration of the underlying arterial abnormality and collateral supply was possible are presented. Significant stenosis of the celiac axis and thrombosis of the SMA were clearly depicted, along with the presence of collateral arterial supply. Endovascular treatment was successful in both cases. These cases confirm the possibility of detecting collateral flow at Doppler imaging in patients with mesenteric ischemia, both for diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia and endovascular treatment planning.

  5. Successful Treatment of Isolated Spontaneous Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection with Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Young-Won; Choi, Donghoon; Cho, Seung-Yun; Lee, Do Yun

    2003-09-15

    Isolated dissection of superior mesenteric artery is a rare condition and is usually treated surgically. We treated a patient with severe abdominal pain who was angiographically confirmed to have superior mesenteric artery thrombosis associated with isolated spontaneous dissection. He was treated initially by thrombolysis and oral anticoagulation, but recurrent symptoms developed with radiologic evidence of disease progression. We performed superior mesenteric artery stenting and recovery was uneventful.

  6. Case Report of Percutaneous Retrograde Transcollateral Recanalization of the Superior Mesenteric Artery via the Celiac Artery for Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Prateek K.; Smith, Brigitte K.; Yamanouchi, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Revascularization for acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) can be achieved through a bypass from the aorta or iliac arteries, embolectomy, open exposure of SMA and retrograde recanalization and stent, or percutaneous antegrade stenting. Flush occlusion of the SMA can make antegrade recanalization very challenging and is usually unsuccessful. We present a novel approach for recanalization of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) via the celiac artery for acute mesenteric ischemia. A 69-year-old lady with previous endarterectomy of SMA and extensive small bowel resection presented with severe abdominal pain, emesis, leukocytosis, and imaging finding of new SMA flush occlusion. She refused to consent for a laparotomy. Percutaneous retrograde transcollateral recanalization of SMA was performed via the celiac artery through the pancreaticoduodenal arcade, and the SMA then stented. This resulted in subsequent resolution of patient's symptoms and discharge. SMA revascularization with retrograde transcollateral wiring technique is an important tool in the armamentarium of the vascular care specialist when antegrade percutaneous approach and open exposure via laparotomy are not an option. PMID:26683911

  7. Effects of diabetes and evening primrose oil treatment on responses of aorta, corpus cavernosum and mesenteric vasculature in rats.

    PubMed

    Jack, Alison M; Keegan, Alan; Cotter, Mary A; Cameron, Norman E

    2002-09-06

    Diabetes causes endothelial dysfunction, with deleterious effects on nitric oxide (NO) mediated vasodilatation. However, in many vessels other local vasodilators such as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), prostacyclin, epoxides or endocannabinoids are also important. Several of these factors may be derived from omega-6 essential fatty acids via arachidonate metabolism. Diabetes inhibits this pathway, a defect that may be bypassed by diets enriched with omega-6 gamma-linolenic acid-containing oils such as evening primrose oil (EPO). The aim was to examine the effects of preventive EPO treatment on endothelium-dependent and neurally mediated vasorelaxation. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats; duration was 8 weeks. Vascular responses were examined in vitro on thoracic aorta, corpus cavernosum and perfused mesenteric bed preparations. Diabetes caused 25% and 35% deficits, respectively, in aorta and corpus cavernosum NO-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine that were largely unaffected by EPO treatment. Moreover, a 44% reduction in maximum corpus cavernosum vasorelaxation to nitrergic nerve stimulation was not prevented by EPO. However, for the mesenteric vascular bed, a 29% diminution of responses to acetylcholine, mediated by both NO and EDHF, was 84% attenuated by EPO treatment. When the EDHF component was isolated during NO synthase inhibition, a 76% diabetic deficit was noted. This was completely prevented by EPO treatment, which also caused supernormal EDHF responses in nondiabetic rats. EPO treatment prevented the development of deficits in endothelium-dependent relaxation in diabetic rats. Effects were particularly marked on the resistance vessel EDHF system, which may have potential therapeutic relevance for diabetic microvascular complications.

  8. Impaired function of alpha-2 adrenoceptors in smooth muscle of mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Feres, T; Borges, A C; Silva, E G; Paiva, A C; Paiva, T B

    1998-11-01

    The alpha2-adrenoceptor function in mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was investigated by comparing membrane potential changes in response to adrenergic agonists in preparations from female SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and normotensive Wistar rats (NWR). Resting membrane potential was found to be less negative in mesenteric arteries from SHR than in those from NWR and WKY. Apamin induced a decrease in the membrane potential of mesenteric artery rings without endothelium from NWR and WKY, but had no effects in those from SHR. Both UK 14,304 and adrenaline, in the presence of prazosin, induced a hyperpolarization that was significantly lower in de-endothelialized mesenteric rings from SHR than in those from NWR and WKY. In mesenteric rings with endothelium, however, similar hyperpolarization was observed in the three strains. In NWR mesenteric rings with endothelium the hyperpolarization induced by activation of alpha2-adrenoceptors was abolished by apamin, whereas in intact SHR mesenteric rings this hyperpolarization was slightly reduced by apamin and more efficiently reduced by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine. It is concluded that the activity of potassium channels coupled to alpha2-adrenoceptors is altered in the smooth muscle cells of SHR mesenteric arteries, contributing to their less negative membrane potential. On the other hand, the endothelial alpha2-receptors are functioning in mesenteric vessels from SHR and their stimulation induces a hyperpolarization mainly through the release of nitric oxide.

  9. Extensive Sclerosing Mesenteritis of the Rectosigmoid Colon Associated with Erosive Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Nobili, C.; Degrate, L.; Caprotti, R.; Franciosi, C.; Leone, B. E.; Romano, F.; Dinelli, M.; Uggeri, Fr.

    2009-01-01

    Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare, idiopatic, usually benign, inflammatory process of the mesenteric adipose tissue. The most common site of involvement is the small bowel mesentery. We present a case of sclerosing mesenteritis of the rectosigmoid colon as a cause of severe abdominal pain, abdominal obstruction, and ischemic colic mucosal lesions. Contrast enema, colonoscopy, angiography, and CT were the imaging modalities used. A 20 cm diameter, fibrotic mass causing extensive compression of rectosigmoid colon was found at laparotomy. Histological examination showed extended fibrosis, inflammatory cells infiltration, lipophages, and granulomas within the mesenteric adipose tissue associated with erosive colitis. Clinical presentation and treatment are discussed. PMID:19365585

  10. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 2902.15 Section 2902... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  11. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  12. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  13. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 2902.15 Section 2902... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  14. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  15. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  16. Guide to Commensal Rodent Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    slaughterhouses. Pigs have been shown to contract trichinosis from infected rat feces in their food. i. Tapeworms - Hymenolepis nana and H. dimanuta...are two of the intestinal parasites transmitted to man by food that has been contaminated with tapeworm - bearing rodent feces. j. Tetanus - The wound

  17. Allometric disparity in rodent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Laura A B

    2013-01-01

    In this study, allometric trajectories for 51 rodent species, comprising equal representatives from each of the major clades (Ctenohystrica, Muroidea, Sciuridae), are compared in a multivariate morphospace (=allometric space) to quantify magnitudes of disparity in cranial growth. Variability in allometric trajectory patterns was compared to measures of adult disparity in each clade, and dietary habit among the examined species, which together encapsulated an ecomorphological breadth. Results indicate that the evolution of allometric trajectories in rodents is characterized by different features in sciurids compared with muroids and Ctenohystrica. Sciuridae was found to have a reduced magnitude of inter-trajectory change and growth patterns with less variation in allometric coefficient values among members. In contrast, a greater magnitude of difference between trajectories and an increased variation in allometric coefficient values was evident for both Ctenohystrica and muroids. Ctenohystrica and muroids achieved considerably higher adult disparities than sciurids, suggesting that conservatism in allometric trajectory modification may constrain morphological diversity in rodents. The results provide support for a role of ecology (dietary habit) in the evolution of allometric trajectories in rodents. PMID:23610638

  18. Involvement of perivascular nerves and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in vascular responses to histamine in rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Jin, Honghua; Sun, Pengyuan; Takatori, Shingo; Koyama, Toshihiro; Zamami, Yoshito; Tangsucharit, Panot; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2012-04-05

    A previous report showed that histamine in denuded mesenteric vascular beds produced a triphasic response; an initial small histamine H(2) receptor-mediated vasodilation, a transient histamine H(1) receptor-mediated vasoconstriction, and finally a long-lasting vasodilation. We further investigated the vascular effect of histamine in mesenteric preparations without an endothelium to clarify the possible involvement of perivascular nerves. Male Wistar rat mesenteric vascular beds without an endothelium were perfused with Krebs solution containing methoxamine to produce active tone and lafutidine to block histamine H(2) receptor-mediated vasodilation. Histamine (1-100μM) was perfused for 1min and perfusion pressure was measured with a pressure transducer. Histamine caused a biphasic vascular response; initial vasoconstriction followed vasodilation. Tetrodotoxin (a neurotoxin, 1μM) and procaine (a local anesthetic, 100μM) significantly inhibited the vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Ruthenium red (a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, 1μM) also significantly inhibited both phases of the response. Pretreatment with capsaicin (a depletor of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerves, 5μM) significantly inhibited the vasodilation without affecting the initial vasoconstriction. Both indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 0.5μM) and seratrodast (a thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonist, 0.1μM) abolished the histamine-induced vasoconstriction and subsequent vasodilation. These results suggest that histamine-induced vasoconstriction and long-lasting vasodilation are mediated by activation of TRPV1 on capsaicin-sensitive and capsaicin-insensitive nerves. They also suggest that perivascular nerves and prostanoids, probably thromboxane A(2), are responsible for the vascular response to histamine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  20. 21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control....

  1. 21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control. ...

  2. 21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control. ...

  3. 21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control. ...

  4. 21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control. ...

  5. Rodent Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hocker, Samuel E; Eshar, David; Wouda, Raelene M

    2017-01-01

    Cancer incidence in rodent species varies dramatically from a common occurrence in mice and rats to just a limited number of documented cases in chinchillas and degus. This article summarizes common tumors, both benign and malignant, that have been reported to occur in rodents. Outlined are clinical signs, diagnostics, and treatments that have been described for rodents presenting with specific neoplasms.

  6. Preferential renal and mesenteric vasodilation induced by barnidipine and amlodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Janssen, B J; Kam, K L; Smits, J F

    2001-11-01

    and 30 times lower than amlodipine. In contrast to short-acting CaAs such as nifedipine and isradipine, which reduce mainly HQVR and do not reduce RVR (Nievelstein et al.; Eur J Pharmacol 113:187-198, 1985), the three long-term acting CaAs preferentially dilated the mesenteric and renal vascular bed. In view of the elevation of RVR in essential hypertension, the reduction of RVR may contribute to the long-term antihypertensive effects of barnidipine and amlodipine.

  7. Mast cells drive mesenteric afferent signalling during acute intestinal ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Kirkup, Anthony J; Grundy, David

    2011-08-01

    Acute intestinal ischaemia stimulates visceral afferent nerves but the mechanisms responsible for this excitation are not fully understood. Mast cells may participate in this process as they are known to signal to mesenteric afferents during intestinal anaphylaxis and contribute to early inflammation and neuronal damage in response to cerebral ischaemia. We therefore hypothesised that mast cells are early responders to acute intestinal ischaemia and their activation initiates rapid signalling to the CNS via the excitation of mesenteric afferents. Primary afferent firing was recorded from a mesenteric nerve bundle supplying a segment of jejunum in anaesthetized adult rats. Acute focal ischaemia was produced by clamping theme senteric vessels for 8 min, and reperfusion followed removal of the vessel clip. Two episodes of ischaemia–reperfusion (I–R) separated by a 30 min interval were performed. Drugs or their vehicles were administered 10 min before the 2nd I–R episode. Ischaemia caused a reproducible, intense and biphasic afferent firing that was temporally dissociated from the concomitantly triggered complex pattern of intestinal motor activity. The L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, significantly attenuated this afferent firing by a mechanism independent of its action on intestinal tone. Ischaemia-induced afferent firing was also abrogated by the mast cell stabilizer, doxantrazole, and the H1 histamine receptor antagonist, pyrilamine. In contrast, the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium, and the N-type calcium channel toxin, ω-conotoxin GVIA, each reduced the ischaemia-evoked motor inhibition but not the concurrent afferent discharge. Similarly, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, naproxen, had no effect on the ischaemic afferent response but reduced the intestinal tone shortly from the onset of ischaemia to the early period of reperfusion. These data support a critical role for mast cell-derived histamine in the direct chemoexcitation of

  8. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome with Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Kevin; Day, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) syndrome is a condition in which the duodenum becomes compressed between the SMA and the aorta, resulting in bowel obstruction which subsequently compresses surrounding structures. Pressure on the inferior vena cava (IVC) and aorta decreases cardiac output which compromises distal blood flow, resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome with ischemia and renal failure. A 15-year-old male with SMA syndrome presented with 12 hours of pain, a distended, rigid abdomen, mottled skin below the waist, and decreased motor and sensory function in the lower extremities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed ischemic small bowel and stomach with abdominal compartment syndrome. Despite decompression, the patient arrested from hyperkalemia following reperfusion. PMID:28003918

  9. Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection after Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Bakoyiannis, Christos; Anastasiou, Ioannis; Koutsoumpelis, Andreas; Fragiadis, Evangelos; Felesaki, Eleni; Kafeza, Marina; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Tsigris, Christos

    2012-01-01

    The use of shockwave lithotripsy is currently the mainstay of treatment in renal calculosis. Several complications including vessel injuries have been implied to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. We report an isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery in a 60-year-old male presenting with abdominal pain which occurred three days after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. The patient was treated conservatively and the abdominal pain subsided 24 hours later. The patient's history, the course of his disease, and the timing may suggest a correlation between the dissection and the ESWL. PMID:23304627

  10. Current Understandings of Spontaneous Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (SISMAD) has been known as a rare vascular disease. However it is increasingly reported in these days with the development of advanced imaging technology. Underlying etiology, natural course or an optimal management strategy of SISMAD is not exactly known at the moment. During the past 10 years, we have had an interest in this rare vascular disease and collected clinical and image data in 100 or more patients with SISMAD. In this review article, I would like to describe my current understanding of SISMAD on the base of our recent publications in the major vascular surgery journals. PMID:27386450

  11. Use of bovine mesenteric vein in rescue vascular access surgery.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Filippo; Carella, Giuseppe; Lentini, Salvatore; Barillà, David; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Spinelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We describe a technique for rescue surgery of autologous arterovenous fistula (AVF), using bovine mesenteric vein (BMV), which may be used in patients with autologous AVF malfunction caused by steno-occlusion on the arterial side or by fibrosis of the first portion of the vein. To preserve the autologous AVF, we replaced the diseased portion of the artery, or the first centimeters of the vein, by a segment of BMV, with the aim of saving the patency and functionality of the access. We used this technique in 16 cases. All patients underwent hemodialysis treatment immediately after the procedure. Infection or aneurismal dilatation of the graft in implanted BMV was never observed.

  12. Successful nutritional therapy for superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Dedrick Kok Hong; Mak, Kenneth Seck Wai; Cheah, Yee Lee

    2012-11-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon cause of duodenal outlet obstruction. Symptoms and signs suggestive of this condition are nonspecific, and a high index of suspicion coupled with appropriate imaging studies are necessary for diagnosis. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed SMA syndrome following prolonged hospitalisation for a surgically treated bleeding duodenal ulcer. His SMA syndrome resolved after successful nonoperative management based on accepted guidelines for nutritional therapy, thus avoiding the need for reoperation and its attendant risks in a malnourished patient.

  13. Chronic mesenteric ischemia: Time to remember open revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Keese, Michael; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Schmandra, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia is caused by stenosis or occlusion of one or more visceral arteries. It represents a therapeutic challenge and diagnosis and treatment require close interdisciplinary cooperation between gastroenterologist, vascular surgeon and radiologist. Although endovascular treatment modalities have been developed, the number of restenoses ultimately resulting in treatment failure is high. In patients fit for open surgery, the visceral arteries should be revascularized conventionally. These patients will then experience long term relief from the symptoms, a better quality of life and a better overall survival. PMID:23539677

  14. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome Treated with Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong Woo; Lee, Ju Young; Cho, Hyeon Geun

    2016-06-25

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare condition that must be differentiated from other gastrointestinal diseases manifesting as upper abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting. The description of SMA syndrome is compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the SMA and the abdominal aorta. SMA syndrome is managed with nasoenteral nutrition or surgical strategies such as laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy. However, SMA syndrome treated using enteral nutrition by percuta-neous radiologic gastrojejunostomy has not been reported. Here, we report our experience of successfully managing a case of SMA syndrome with percutaneous radiologic gastrojejunostomy.

  15. Bed Bugs and Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  16. Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery following covered stent occlusion in the superior mesenteric artery: endovascular therapy using mechanical rotational thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Jan P; Petritsch, Bernhard; Spor, Leo; Hahn, Dietbert; Kickuth, Ralph

    2012-09-01

    Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare and often fatal condition in which surgery represents the golden standard in therapy. We present a case in which a patient was treated with covered stent implantation for acute bleeding from the superior mesenteric artery following pancreatic resection, radiation, and embolization of a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm. Some weeks later clinical signs were suggestive of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the previously implanted covered stents. The patient was successfully treated transfemorally with percutaneous mechanical instent thrombectomy using a 6F Rotarex® catheter. We conclude that in selected cases percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy may represent a minimally-invasive alternative to open surgical thrombectomy for treatment of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery.

  17. TRPM8 Channel Activation Induced by Monoterpenoid Rotundifolone Underlies Mesenteric Artery Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Darizy Flavia; de Almeida, Monica Moura; Chaves, Cinthia Guedes; Braz, Ana Letícia; Gomes, Maria Aparecida; Pinho-da-Silva, Leidiane; Pesquero, Jorge Luiz; Andrade, Viviane Aguiar; Leite, Maria de Fátima; de Albuquerque, José George Ferreira; Araujo, Islania Giselia Albuquerque; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Correia, Nadja de Azevedo; de Medeiros, Isac Almeida

    2015-01-01

    In this study, our aims were to investigate transient receptor potential melastatin-8 channels (TRPM8) involvement in rotundifolone induced relaxation in the mesenteric artery and to increase the understanding of the role of these thermosensitive TRP channels in vascular tissue. Thus, message and protein levels of TRPM8 were measured by semi-quantitative PCR and western blotting in superior mesenteric arteries from 12 week-old Spague-Dawley (SD) rats. Isometric tension recordings evaluated the relaxant response in mesenteric rings were also performed. Additionally, the intracellular Ca2+ changes in mesenteric artery myocytes were measured using confocal microscopy. Using PCR and western blotting, both TRPM8 channel mRNA and protein expression was measured in SD rat mesenteric artery. Rotundifolone and menthol induced relaxation in the isolated superior mesenteric artery from SD rats and improved the relaxant response induced by cool temperatures. Also, this monoterpene induced an increase in transient intracellular Ca2+. These responses were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with capsazepine or BCTC, both TRPM8 channels blockers. The response induced by rotundifolone was not significantly attenuated by ruthenium red, a non-selective TRP channels blocker, or following capsaicin-mediated desensitization of TRPV1. Our findings suggest that rotundifolone induces relaxation by activating TRPM8 channels in rat superior mesenteric artery, more selectively than menthol, the classic TRPM8 agonist, and TRPM8 channels participates in vasodilatory pathways in isolated rat mesenteric arteries. PMID:26599698

  18. TRPM8 Channel Activation Induced by Monoterpenoid Rotundifolone Underlies Mesenteric Artery Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Darizy Flavia; de Almeida, Monica Moura; Chaves, Cinthia Guedes; Braz, Ana Letícia; Gomes, Maria Aparecida; Pinho-da-Silva, Leidiane; Pesquero, Jorge Luiz; Andrade, Viviane Aguiar; Leite, Maria de Fátima; de Albuquerque, José George Ferreira; Araujo, Islania Giselia Albuquerque; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Correia, Nadja de Azevedo; de Medeiros, Isac Almeida

    2015-01-01

    In this study, our aims were to investigate transient receptor potential melastatin-8 channels (TRPM8) involvement in rotundifolone induced relaxation in the mesenteric artery and to increase the understanding of the role of these thermosensitive TRP channels in vascular tissue. Thus, message and protein levels of TRPM8 were measured by semi-quantitative PCR and western blotting in superior mesenteric arteries from 12 week-old Spague-Dawley (SD) rats. Isometric tension recordings evaluated the relaxant response in mesenteric rings were also performed. Additionally, the intracellular Ca2+ changes in mesenteric artery myocytes were measured using confocal microscopy. Using PCR and western blotting, both TRPM8 channel mRNA and protein expression was measured in SD rat mesenteric artery. Rotundifolone and menthol induced relaxation in the isolated superior mesenteric artery from SD rats and improved the relaxant response induced by cool temperatures. Also, this monoterpene induced an increase in transient intracellular Ca2+. These responses were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with capsazepine or BCTC, both TRPM8 channels blockers. The response induced by rotundifolone was not significantly attenuated by ruthenium red, a non-selective TRP channels blocker, or following capsaicin-mediated desensitization of TRPV1. Our findings suggest that rotundifolone induces relaxation by activating TRPM8 channels in rat superior mesenteric artery, more selectively than menthol, the classic TRPM8 agonist, and TRPM8 channels participates in vasodilatory pathways in isolated rat mesenteric arteries.

  19. Amelioration of salt-induced vascular dysfunction in mesenteric arteries of Dahl salt-sensitive rats by missense mutation of extracellular superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Andreas M.; Raffai, Gabor; Weinberg, Brian D.; Fredrich, Katherine; Rodgers, Matthew S.; Geurts, Aron M.; Jacob, Howard J.; Dwinell, Melinda R.

    2013-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, including extracellular SOD (ecSOD), are important for scavenging superoxide radicals (O2·−) in the vasculature. This study investigated vascular control in rats [SS-Sod3m1Mcwi (ecSODE124D)] with a missense mutation that alters a single amino acid (E124D) of ecSOD that produces a malfunctioning protein in the salt-sensitive (Dahl SS) genetic background. We hypothesized that this mutation would exacerbate endothelial dysfunction due to elevated vascular O2·− levels in SS, even under normal salt (NS; 0.4% NaCl) conditions. Aortas of ecSODE124D rats fed standard rodent chow showed enhanced sensitivity to phenylephrine and reduced relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) vs. SS rats. Endothelium-dependent dilation to ACh was unaffected by the mutation in small mesenteric arteries of ecSODE124D rats fed NS diet, and mesenteric arteries of ecSODE124D rats were protected from endothelial dysfunction during short-term (3–5 days) high-salt (HS; 4% NaCl) diet. ACh-induced dilation of mesenteric arteries of ecSODE124D rats and SS rats fed NS diet was inhibited by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and/or by H2O2 scavenging with polyethylene glycol-catalase at higher concentrations of ACh. Total SOD activity was significantly higher in ecSODE124D rats vs. SS controls fed HS diet, most likely reflecting a compensatory response to loss of a functional ecSOD isoform. These findings indicate that, contrary to its effect in the aorta, this missense mutation of ecSOD in the SS rat genome has no negative effect on vascular function in small resistance arteries, but instead protects against salt-induced endothelial dysfunction, most likely via compensatory mechanisms involving an increase in total SOD activity. PMID:24322611

  20. Use of soft hydrothermal processing to improve and recycle bedding for laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, T; Li, Z; Kibushi, T; Yamasaki, N; Kasai, N

    2008-10-01

    Cage bedding for laboratory rodents can influence animal wellbeing and thus the experimental data. In addition, a large amount of used bedding containing excrement is discharged as medical waste from life science institutes and breeding companies. We developed a ground-breaking system to improve fresh bedding and recycle used bedding by applying a soft hydrothermal process with high-temperature and high-pressure dry steam. The system removes both harmful organic components and aromatic hydrocarbons that can affect animals' metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the improved fresh bedding and the recycled used bedding treated by the system. The results showed that 68-99% of the predominant aromatic hydrocarbons were removed from fresh bedding treated at 0.35 MPa and 140 degrees C for 120 min ('improved bedding'). In addition, 59.4-99.0% of predominant harmful organic compounds derived from excrement were removed from used bedding treated at 0.45 MPa and 150 degrees C for 60 min ('recycled bedding'). The soft hydrothermal treatment increased the number of acidic functional groups on the bedding surface and gave it the high adsorptive efficiency of ammonia gas. Harmful substances such as microorganisms, heavy metals and pesticides decreased below the detection limit. The results clearly showed that the improved and recycled bedding is safer for laboratory rodents and has the potential to ameliorate conditions in primary and secondary enclosures (e.g. cages and animal rooms) used for maintaining laboratory animals. This process may be one of the most advanced techniques in providing an alternative to softwood and other bedding, economizing through the recycling of used bedding and reducing bedding waste from animal facilities.

  1. Successful Treatment of Mesenteric Varices After Living Donor Liver Transplantation with Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration Via an Abdominal Wall Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Okajima, Hideaki; Asonuma, Katsuhiro; Inomata, Yukihiro

    2010-06-15

    Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an established treatment for gastric varices; it has been used more rarely to treat mesenteric varices. We report a 12-year-old girl who had received a living donor liver transplant and suffered melena due to ruptured mesenteric varices. We addressed treatment of the mesenteric varices by retrograde transvenous obliteration of an abdominal wall collateral vein detected by superior mesenteric arteriography.

  2. Making a Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Anthony; Stein, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    The origins of this paper lay in making beds by putting pieces of plywood on a frame: If beds need to be 4 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, and plywood comes in 4-foot by 8-foot sheets, how should one cut the plywood to minimize waste (and have stable beds)? The problem is of course generalized.

  3. Making a Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Anthony; Stein, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    The origins of this paper lay in making beds by putting pieces of plywood on a frame: If beds need to be 4 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, and plywood comes in 4-foot by 8-foot sheets, how should one cut the plywood to minimize waste (and have stable beds)? The problem is of course generalized.

  4. Rodent nutrition: digestive comparisons of 4 common rodent species.

    PubMed

    Grant, Kerrin

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes the literature regarding digestive strategies and captive diets of common rodent pocket pets. A comparison is made between the 2 suborders in which chinchillas, guinea pigs, hamsters, and gerbils occur, highlighting digestive anatomy and dietary adaptations. Recommended captive diets are provided, as well as common nutritionally related health issues that may be presented to veterinary clinics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mesenteric cysts and mesenteric venous thrombosis leading to intestinal necrosis in pregnancy managed with laparotomy: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Giannos, Aris; Stavrou, Sofoklis; Goumalatsos, Nikolaos; Fragkoulidis, George; Chra, Eleni; Argiropoulos, Dimitrios; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Drakakis, Peter

    2017-07-07

    Mesenteric cyst is a rare clinical entity especially in pregnancy; therefore, few cases have been reported in the literature. The standard method of their treatment is surgical excision either with laparotomy or laparoscopy. In addition, mesenteric vein thrombosis is a rare and life-threatening condition in pregnancy and needs immediate treatment because it can lead to intestinal necrotic ischemia. This is the first report of the coexistence of mesenteric cysts and mesenteric vein thrombosis during gestation. A 27-year-old Greek woman, gravida 2 para 1, presented at 10 weeks' gestation to the Emergency Unit of our hospital complaining of diffuse abdominal pain which deteriorated the last 3 days, which was localized in her right iliac fossa, along with vomiting. She had undergone open laparotomy and right salpingo-oophorectomy at the age of 23 due to an ovarian cyst. Besides this, her personal and family medical history was unremarkable. She had never received oral contraceptives or any hormone therapy. On arrival, a clinical examination revealed tenderness on palpation of her right iliac fossa, without rebound tenderness or muscle guarding. Within 10 hours of hospitalization, her symptoms deteriorated further with rebound tenderness during the examination, tachycardia, and a drop of 12 units in her hematocrit value. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Two mesenteric cysts and a 60 cm necrotic part of her intestine were revealed intraoperatively. In the postoperative period, she complained of acute abdominal pain, tachycardia, and dyspnea. Computed tomography imaging revealed mesenteric vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. She was treated with low molecular weight heparin and she was discharged on the 11th postoperative day. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of a simultaneous mesenteric cyst and mesenteric vein thrombosis in pregnancy. It is known that pregnancy is a state of hypercoagulation and clinicians

  6. Sclerosing Mesenteritis: Multidisciplinary Collaboration Is Essential for Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Zhi, Min; Zhang, Min; Su, Mingli; Chen, Huangwei; Kang, Liang; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Zhiyang; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Jianping; Hu, Pinjin

    2017-02-01

    Sclerosing mesenteritis (SM) is an extremely rare disease characterized by chronic non-specific inflammation, fat necrosis and fibrosis of the mesentery. We presented a 77-year-old man with progressive dyschezia, abdominal pain and mass in left lower quadrant. Computed tomography (CT) exhibited a thickened mesentery, enlarged lymph nodes and strand-like densities around the mesenteric vessels. However, laboratory investigation, colonoscopy and positron emission tomography did not provide any specific results for diagnosis. Because of the exacerbating abdominal pain, partial colectomy was performed and SM was diagnosed based on the pathological changes of mesentery including fat necrosis, multifocal lipid-filled macrophages, lymphocytes and multifocal fibrosis. Although SM is difficult to diagnose and often found by incident, progressive deterioration of abdominal symptoms and general status alteration are indicators of SM. Some typical imaging and pathologic manifestations are also helpful to SM diagnosis. There is no standard treatment for SM. Operation is preferred in those at the stage of fibrosis and particularly combined with intestinal obstruction. Therefore, a multidisciplinary collaboration is essential to diagnose and manage this rare disease, with combined approaches in gastroenterology, colorectal surgery, pathology and radiology.

  7. Intestinal Injury Currents Associated with Mesenteric Ischemia and Reperfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova, T.; Bradshaw, L. A.; O'Mahony, G. P.; Gallucci, M. R.; Berch, B.; Richards, W. O.

    2006-09-01

    A non-invasive method of detecting mesenteric ischemia is presented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of arterial reperfusion on these injury currents. The small bowel of New Zealand white rabbits was exteriorized and the mesenteric blood flow interrupted. Experiments were conducted in three groups, control (n = 3), ischemia (n = 6) and reperfusion following ischemia (n = 5). The subject's position was modulated in and out of the biological field detection range of a SQUID magnetometer. The changes in magnetic field amplitude for the experimental groups were 9.3% and 31.0% for the control and the ischemia groups respectively. The reperfusion group first exhibited a decrease of 17.4% from pre-ischemic to the ischemic period followed by an increase of 13.9% of the ischemic value after re-establishing perfusion. It is concluded that injury currents in GI smooth muscle that appear during ischemia are reduced to pre-ischemic levels during reperfusion.

  8. Crohn's disease mistaken for long-standing idiopathic mesenteric panniculitis

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzo, Alexandre; Zappa, Magaly; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mesenteric panniculitis (MP) is mostly an associated sign of an intra-abdominal or systemic inflammatory primary disease. Nevertheless, etiological and differential diagnosis of idiopathic MP can be challenging when an associate primary cause is not in the foreground. Methods: We report here the case of an isolated small bowel Crohn's disease, long time considered as idiopathic MP. Results: This patient presented to our department with a 10-year history of acute abdominal symptoms evolving with flare-up and remission. A diagnosis of idiopathic MP was made based on compatible CT-scan features along with normal laboratory tests and upper and lower bowel endoscopies. As symptoms recurred, a steroid course was proposed which dramatically improved his condition for years. Finally, an explorative laparoscopy was performed because of concern of malignancy when he returned to our unit with a steroid refractory flare-up and weight loss, along with MP nodes growing up to 10 mm. Crohn's disease was eventually diagnosed, based on histopathological middle-gut bowel resection and numerous granulomas in mesenteric nodes without necrosis. Conclusion: This case emphasizes the importance of excluding inflammatory intestinal lesions before making the diagnosis of idiopathic MP (fecal calprotectin, magnetic resonance enterography, wireless capsule endoscopy). PMID:27684882

  9. Lindnera (Pichia) fabianii blood infection after mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Frederic; Noel, Thierry; Accoceberry, Isabelle

    2012-04-01

    Lindnera (Pichia) fabianii (teleomorph of Candida fabianii) is a yeast species rarely involved in human infections. This report describes the first known human case of a Lindnera fabianii blood infection after mesenteric ischemia. The 53-year-old patient was hospitalized in the intensive care unit after a suicide attempt and was suffering from a mesenteric ischemia and acute renal failure. Lindnera fabianii was recovered from an oropharyngeal swab, then isolated from stool and urine samples before the diagnosis of the blood infection. Caspofungin intravenous treatment was associated with a successful outcome. Final unequivocal identification of the strain was done by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and regions of 18S rDNA gene and of the translation elongation factor-1α gene. Until our work, the genomic databases did not contain the complete ITS region of L. fabianii as a single nucleotide sequence (encompassing ITS1, the 5.8S rDNA and ITS2), and misidentification with other yeast species, e.g., Lindnera (Pichia) mississippiensis, could have occurred. Our work demonstrates that the usual DNA barcoding method based on sequencing of the ITS region may fail to provide the correct identification of some taxa, and that partial sequencing of the EF1α gene may be much more effective for the accurate delineation and molecular identification of new emerging opportunistic yeast pathogens.

  10. Successful Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Stenting in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Gartenschlaeger, Soeren Bender, Siegfried; Maeurer, Juergen; Schroeder, Ralf J.

    2008-03-15

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a life-threatening emergency. The complications are high by the time of diagnosis in most cases and therefore only few data on primary percutaneous intervention with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting in AMI are available. We present the case of an 84-year-old woman who presented to our emergency department complaining of an acute worsening of pre-existing abdominal periumbilical pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. She had previously undergone percutaneous transluminal embolectomy for an acute occlusion of the left common femoral artery. Due to suspicion of intestinal infarction, conventional angiography of the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was performed and confirmed a proximal occlusion of the SMA. Percutaneous SMA recanalization with balloon dilation and subsequent stent implantation was carried out successfully. The abdominal symptoms subsided after this procedure. In AMI that is diagnosed early, endovascular stenting should be considered as an alternative treatment to the surgical approach that avoids the need for surgical bowel resection.

  11. Phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kosuke; Iizuka, Toshiro; Yamashita, Satoshi; Kuribayashi, Yasutaka; Toba, Takahito; Yamada, Akihiro; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Matsui, Akira; Mitani, Toshifumi; Ogawa, Osamu; Hoteya, Shu; Inoshita, Naoko; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    We herein report a case of phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome. An 80-year-old woman visited the hospital emergency department with the chief complaints of epigastric pain and vomiting. She was hospitalized urgently following the diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome based on abdominal computed tomography findings. Conservative therapy was not effective, and phlegmonous gastritis was diagnosed based on the findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy performed on the 12th day of the disease. Undernutrition and reduced physical activity were observed on hospital admission, and proactive nutritional therapy with enteral nutrition was started. An upper gastrointestinal series, performed approximately 1 month later, confirmed the persistence of strictures and impaired gastric emptying. Because conservative therapy was unlikely to improve oral food intake, open total gastrectomy was performed on the 94th day of the disease. Examination of surgically resected specimens revealed marked inflammation and fibrosis, especially in the body of the stomach. Following a good postoperative recovery, the patient was able to commence oral intake and left our hospital on foot approximately 1 month after surgery.

  12. Sclerosing Mesenteritis: Multidisciplinary Collaboration Is Essential for Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    He, Huan; Zhi, Min; Zhang, Min; Su, Mingli; Chen, Huangwei; Kang, Liang; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Zhiyang; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Jianping; Hu, Pinjin

    2017-01-01

    Sclerosing mesenteritis (SM) is an extremely rare disease characterized by chronic non-specific inflammation, fat necrosis and fibrosis of the mesentery. We presented a 77-year-old man with progressive dyschezia, abdominal pain and mass in left lower quadrant. Computed tomography (CT) exhibited a thickened mesentery, enlarged lymph nodes and strand-like densities around the mesenteric vessels. However, laboratory investigation, colonoscopy and positron emission tomography did not provide any specific results for diagnosis. Because of the exacerbating abdominal pain, partial colectomy was performed and SM was diagnosed based on the pathological changes of mesentery including fat necrosis, multifocal lipid-filled macrophages, lymphocytes and multifocal fibrosis. Although SM is difficult to diagnose and often found by incident, progressive deterioration of abdominal symptoms and general status alteration are indicators of SM. Some typical imaging and pathologic manifestations are also helpful to SM diagnosis. There is no standard treatment for SM. Operation is preferred in those at the stage of fibrosis and particularly combined with intestinal obstruction. Therefore, a multidisciplinary collaboration is essential to diagnose and manage this rare disease, with combined approaches in gastroenterology, colorectal surgery, pathology and radiology. PMID:28270878

  13. Mesenteric Neovascularization with Distraction-Induced Intestinal Growth: Enterogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ralls, Matthew W.; Sueyoshi, Ryo; Herman, Richard S.; Utter, Brent; Czarnocki, Isabel; Si, Nancy; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Distraction-induced enterogenesis, whereby the intestine lengthens with application of linear forces, is an emerging area which may provide a unique treatment for short bowel syndrome (SBS). With an increase in overall tissue mass, there is an increase in oxygen and nutrient demand. We hypothesized that a neovascularization within the mesentery is necessary to support the growing small bowel. Methods A curvilinear hydraulic device was used to induce growth within the small bowel of Yorkshire pigs, and the intestine was harvested after 14 days. High-resolution, gross pictures were recorded of the mesentery at implantation and at harvest, and CT imaging of the bowel and mesentery was performed at harvest after dye injection. Results After 2 weeks of distraction, an average of 72.5% (8.7cm) bowel lengthening was achieved. Gross images of the mesentery between major vessels showed a blossoming of the microvasculature and this was confirmed by CT imaging with 3D reconstruction. Mesenteric sample taken from the distracted segment had a 4-fold increase in the volume of microvasculature versus controls. Conclusion Enterogenesis results not only in increased bowel length, but significant increase in the mesenteric microvascularity. Presumably, this sustains the lengthened segment after application of longitudinal forces. PMID:23229341

  14. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  15. Rodent models of cerebral ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.D.; Busto, R. )

    1989-12-01

    The use of physiologically regulated, reproducible animal models is crucial to the study of ischemic brain injury--both the mechanisms governing its occurrence and potential therapeutic strategies. Several laboratory rodent species (notably rats and gerbils), which are readily available at relatively low cost, are highly suitable for the investigation of cerebral ischemia and have been widely employed for this purpose. We critically examine and summarize several rodent models of transient global ischemia, resulting in selective neuronal injury within vulnerable brain regions, and focal ischemia, typically giving rise to localized brain infarction. We explore the utility of individual models and emphasize the necessity for meticulous experimental control of those variables that modulate the severity of ischemic brain injury.169 references.

  16. Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bisordi, Ivani; Levis, Silvana; Garcia, Jorge; Pereira, Luiz E.; Souza, Renato P.; Sugahara, Teresa K.N.; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Souza, Luiza T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the genetic analysis of samples from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients from southern and southeastern states of Brazil and rodents captured at the presumed site of infection of these patients. A total of 65 samples that were antibody-positive for Sin Nombre or Laguna Negra virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were processed by nested reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by using several primer combinations in the M and S genome segments. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from samples from 11 HPS patient and 7 rodent samples. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence differences showed the cocirculation of Araraquara and Juquitiba-like viruses, previously characterized from humans. Our genetic data indicate that Araraquara virus is associated with Bolomys lasiurus (hairy-tailed Bolo mouse) and the Juquitiba-like virus is associated with Oligoryzomys nigripes (black-footed pigmy rice rat). PMID:15663849

  17. Preclinical imaging anesthesia in rodents.

    PubMed

    Vesce, Giancarlo; Micieli, Fabiana; Chiavaccini, Ludovica

    2017-03-01

    Despite the outstanding progress achieved by preclinical imaging science, laboratory animal anesthesia remains quite stationary. Ninety percent of preclinical imaging studies are carried on small rodents (mice and rats) anesthetized by outdated injectable and/or inhalation agents. A need for imaging awake (conscious) animals is questionably registered mainly for brain research, for phMRI and for accomplishing pain and analgesia studies. A need for improving current rodent anesthesia protocols and for enforcing the 3Rs paradigm is sought. Patient monitoring throughout the procedure and recovery phases, as well as vital parameter's data must be recorded in basic consciousness states and during imaging sessions. A multidrug approach is suggested to overcome the limits of monoanesthesia and well-timed physiological data are required to ground findings and to interpret imaging data.

  18. Mesenteric artery responsiveness to acetylcholine and phenylephrine in cirrhotic rats challenged with endotoxin: the role of TLR4.

    PubMed

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Rezayat, Seyed-Mahdi; Ejtemaei-Mehr, Shahram; Tavangar, Seyed-Mohammad; Nikoui, Vahid; Jazaeri, Farahnaz; Eftekhari, Golnar; Abdollahi, Alireza; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2015-06-01

    Cirrhosis is associated with vascular dysfunction and endotoxemia. These experiments were designed to investigate the hypothesis that the administration of a low-dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) worsens vascular dysfunction in rats subjected to bile-duct ligation (BDL), and to determine whether LPS initiates changes in vascular Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression. Four weeks after BDL, the animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of either saline or LPS (1.0 mg/kg body mass). Three hours later, the superior mesenteric artery was isolated, perfused, and then subjected to the vasoconstriction and vasodilatation effects of phenylephrine and acetylcholine, respectively. Our results show that phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction decreased in the cirrhotic vascular bed (BDL rats) compared with the vascular bed of the sham-operated animals, and that the LPS injections in the cirrhotic (BDL) rats worsened this response. LPS injection administered to the sham-operated animals had no such effect. On the other hand, both the BDL procedure and the LPS injection increased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation, but LPS administration to the BDL rats had no effect on this response. The mRNA levels of TLR4 did not change, but immunohistochemical studies showed that TLR4 localization switched from the endothelium to vascular smooth muscle cells following chronic BDL. In conclusion, acute endotoxemia in cirrhotic rats is associated with hyporesponsiveness to phenylephrine and tolerance to the effects of acetylcholine. Altered localization of TLR4 may be responsible for these effects.

  19. Rats Housed on Corncob Bedding Show Less Slow-Wave Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Leys, Laura J; McGaraughty, Steve; Radek, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Despite the reported advantages of corncob bedding, questions have emerged about how comfortable animals find this type of bedding as a resting surface. In this study, encephalography (EEG) was used to compare the effects of corncob and aspen-chip bedding on rat slow-wave sleep (SWS). According to a facility-wide initiative, rats that were weaned on aspen-chip bedding were switched to corncob bedding in home cages and EEG recording chambers. Spontaneous EEG recordings obtained for 5 wk after the switch to corncob bedding demonstrated that rats spent significantly less time in SWS as compared with levels measured on aspen chips just prior to the bedding switch. SWS remained low even after a 5-wk acclimation period to the corncob bedding. We then acutely switched back to aspen-chip bedding in EEG recording chambers. Acute reinstatement of aspen-chip bedding during EEG recording was associated with an average 22% increase in time spent in SWS, with overall levels of SWS comparable to the levels measured on aspen chips prior to the change to corncob bedding. Aspen-chip bedding subsequently was reinstated in both home cages and EEG recording chambers, and SWS baseline levels were restored. These data raise important concerns about the effects of corncob bedding on rodents used in research. PMID:23294881

  20. Rodent consumption in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S

    2014-09-01

    Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne infections worldwide, including Southeast Asia and Northeast Thailand (Isaan), where rodent consumption may be a source of rodent-borne diseases. The behavior of consuming rodents is related to a population's traditions, knowledge, cultural, and household contexts, among other factors. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand during November-December 2011. It aimed to elicit information about rodent consumption among residents of this province, and to identify factors associated with rodent consumption there. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender, large family size, and use of rainwater as the main source of drinking water were positively associated with reported rodent consumption in this province, while having proper knowledge/attitudes towards animal-borne disease was negatively associated. These results provide evidence-base information for further studies, such as participatory ac- tion research, to further explore how people interact with rodents in different contexts. Further research is also needed to characterize risk of zoonotic diseases in relation to rodent consumption.

  1. A model of blood flow in the mesenteric arterial system.

    PubMed

    Mabotuwana, Thusitha D S; Cheng, Leo K; Pullan, Andrew J

    2007-05-08

    There are some early clinical indicators of cardiac ischemia, most notably a change in a person's electrocardiogram. Less well understood, but potentially just as dangerous, is ischemia that develops in the gastrointestinal system. Such ischemia is difficult to diagnose without angiography (an invasive and time-consuming procedure) mainly due to the highly unspecific nature of the disease. Understanding how perfusion is affected during ischemic conditions can be a useful clinical tool which can help clinicians during the diagnosis process. As a first step towards this final goal, a computational model of the gastrointestinal system has been developed and used to simulate realistic blood flow during normal conditions. An anatomically and biophysically based model of the major mesenteric arteries has been developed to be used to simulate normal blood flows. The computational mesh used for the simulations has been generated using data from the Visible Human project. The 3D Navier-Stokes equations that govern flow within this mesh have been simplified to an efficient 1D scheme. This scheme, together with a constitutive pressure-radius relationship, has been solved numerically for pressure, vessel radius and velocity for the entire mesenteric arterial network. The computational model developed shows close agreement with physiologically realistic geometries other researchers have recorded in vivo. Using this model as a framework, results were analyzed for the four distinct phases of the cardiac cycle--diastole, isovolumic contraction, ejection and isovolumic relaxation. Profiles showing the temporally varying pressure and velocity for a periodic input varying between 10.2 kPa (77 mmHg) and 14.6 kPa (110 mmHg) at the abdominal aorta are presented. An analytical solution has been developed to model blood flow in tapering vessels and when compared with the numerical solution, showed excellent agreement. An anatomically and physiologically realistic computational model of

  2. Heart function in magnetic resonance imaging and the mesenteric artery reactivity in rats receiving lead-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Skoczynska, A; Skórka, T; Wojakowska, A; Nowacki, D; Turczyn, B; Poręba, R; Tyrankiewicz, U; Byk, K; Szuba, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lead (Pb)-contaminated drinking water on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-estimated cardiac function, vascular reactivity, and serum lipids in rats. For 3 months, male Wistar rats, aged 4-6 weeks, were given drinking water with the addition of lead acetate at a concentration of 100 ppm Pb (10 rats) or water free from Pb (8 control rats). The cardiac MRI was performed at rest and under β-adrenergic stimulation on a 4.7 T scanner using electrocardiogram-triggered gradient echo (FLASH) cine sequence. After 1-2 weeks of the MRI test, experiments were performed ex vivo. After stabilization of perfusion pressure (PP), norepinephrine at doses from 0.01 to 5.0 μg was dissolved in Krebs solution, injected in a volume of 100 μl, and next infused at a concentration of 0.5 μg/ml into the isolated mesenteric artery. In this manner, preconstricted mesenteric bed was used to determine PP changes induced by acetylcholine, given at doses from 0.05 to 5.0 μg, before and during the infusion of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (1.0 μg/ml). At the end, dobutamine (5 mg), followed by potassium chloride (10.5 mg), was injected. Lipid levels were determined enzymatically, blood Pb level was measured by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This study showed that Pb impairs the left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Pb-induced changes in response to resistance of vessels to vasoactive agents may be secondary to the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. The high-density lipoprotein subfraction 2 (HDL2) is involved in the cardiovascular effect of Pb.

  3. Mesenteric Vasculature-guided Small Bowel Segmentation on 3D CT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Jiamin; Yao, Jianhua; Louie, Adeline; Nguyen, Tan B.; Wank, Stephen; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to its importance and possible applications in visualization, tumor detection and pre-operative planning, automatic small bowel segmentation is essential for computer-aided diagnosis of small bowel pathology. However, segmenting the small bowel directly on CT scans is very difficult because of the low image contrast on CT scans and high tortuosity of the small bowel and its close proximity to other abdominal organs. Motivated by the intensity characteristics of abdominal CT images, the anatomic relationship between the mesenteric vasculature and the small bowel, and potential usefulness of the mesenteric vasculature for establishing the path of the small bowel, we propose a novel mesenteric vasculature map-guided method for small bowel segmentation on high-resolution CT angiography scans. The major mesenteric arteries are first segmented using a vessel tracing method based on multi-linear subspace vessel model and Bayesian inference. Second, multi-view, multi-scale vesselness enhancement filters are used to segment small vessels, and vessels directly or indirectly connecting to the superior mesenteric artery are classified as mesenteric vessels. Third, a mesenteric vasculature map is built by linking vessel bifurcation points, and the small bowel is segmented by employing the mesenteric vessel map and fuzzy connectness. The method was evaluated on 11 abdominal CT scans of patients suspected of having carcinoid tumors with manually labeled reference standard. The result, 82.5% volume overlap accuracy compared with the reference standard, shows it is feasible to segment the small bowel on CT scans using the mesenteric vasculature as a roadmap. PMID:23807437

  4. Effect of perturbations and a meal on superior mesenteric artery flow in patients with orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimura, J.; Camilleri, M.; Low, P. A.; Novak, V.; Novak, P.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    Our aims were to evaluate to role of superior mesenteric blood flow in the pathophysiology of orthostatic hypotension in patients with generalized autonomic failure. METHODS: Twelve patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and 12 healthy controls underwent superior mesenteric artery flow measurements using Doppler ultrasonography during head-up tilt and tilt plus meal ingestion. Autonomic failure was assessed using standard tests of the function of the sympathetic adrenergic, cardiovagal and postganglionic sympathetic sudomotor function. RESULTS: Superior mesenteric flow volume and time-averaged velocity were similar in patients and controls at supine rest; however, responses to cold pressor test and upright tilt were attenuated (p < 0.05) in patients compared to controls. Head-up tilt after the meal evoked a profound fall of blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow in the patients; the reduction of mesenteric blood flow correlated (r = 0.89) with the fall of blood pressure in these patients, providing another manifestation of failed baroreflexes. We make the novel finding that the severity of postprandial orthostatic hypotension regressed negatively with the postprandial increase in mesenteric flow in patients with orthostatic hypotension. CONCLUSION: Mesenteric flow is under baroreflex control, which when defective, results in, or worsens orthostatic hypotension. Its large size and baroreflexivity renders it quantitatively important in the maintenance of postural normotension. The effects of orthostatic stress can be significantly attenuated by reducing the splanchnic-mesenteric volume increase in response to food. Evaluation of mesenteric flow in response to eating and head-up tilt provide important information on intra-abdominal sympathetic adrenergic function, and the ability of the patient to cope with orthostatic stress.

  5. Fluidized bed combustor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, M.; Rengarajan, P.; Krishnan, R.; Wen, C. Y.

    1977-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the prediction of performance of a fluidized bed coal combustor (FBC) is developed. The basic elements of the model consist of: (1) hydrodynamics of gas and solids in the combustor; (2) description of gas and solids contacting pattern; (3) kinetics of combustion; and (4) absorption of SO2 by limestone in the bed. The model is capable of calculating the combustion efficiency, axial bed temperature profile, carbon hold-up in the bed, oxygen and SO2 concentrations in the bubble and emulsion phases, sulfur retention efficiency and particulate carry over by elutriation. The effects of bed geometry, excess air, location of heat transfer coils in the bed, calcium to sulfur ratio in the feeds, etc. are examined. The calculated results are compared with experimental data. Agreement between the calculated results and the observed data are satisfactory in most cases. Recommendations to enhance the accuracy of prediction of the model are suggested.

  6. Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Associated with Hormonal Contraceptive Use

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Nobuatsu

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman was admitted with a 7-day history of lower abdominal pain and nausea. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness in the lower abdomen without signs of peritonitis. There were no specific findings in the laboratory evaluation. She had a history of dysmenorrhea for 15 years and was taking a combined hormonal contraceptive containing 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg drospirenone for 19 months. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT). Systemic anticoagulant infusion was immediately administered and the symptoms disappeared within 2 days. The thrombus disappeared after 3 months. This case report suggests that early diagnosis of SMVT and immediate systemic anticoagulant therapy may reduce the rate of intestinal infarction. PMID:27462195

  7. Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance arterial function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Ground studies indicate that spaceflight may diminish vascular contraction. To examine that possibility, vascular function was measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats immediately after an 18-day shuttle flight. Isolated mesenteric resistance arterial responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside were measured using wire myography within 17 h of landing. After flight, maximal contraction to norepinephrine was attenuated (P < 0.001) as was relaxation to acetylcholine (P < 0.001) and sodium nitroprusside (P < 0.05). At high concentrations, acetylcholine caused vascular contraction in vessels from flight animals but not in vessels from vivarium control animals (P < 0.05). The results are consistent with data from ground studies and indicate that spaceflight causes both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent alterations in vascular function. The resulting decrement in vascular function may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight.

  8. Endovascular Management of Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm and Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Govindarajan; Barbery, Katuska; Lamus, Daniel; Nanavati, Kunal

    2008-11-15

    The uncommon presentation of an arterioportal fistula (APF) involving the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with a pseudoaneurysm represents a therapeutic challenge. We present the case of a 24-year-old female admitted to the hospital after multiple gunshot wounds to the abdomen; the patient underwent multiple surgeries and, in the process, developed a SMA pseudoaneurysm and fistula. The vascular interventional radiology team was consulted for treatment of the pseudoaneurysm and fistula. A covered stent was inserted percutaneously to exclude the APF and the pseudoaneurysm in a single procedure. The patient returned to our service after 21 months for a follow-up CT scan, which demonstrated the stent and the distal vasculature to be patent.

  9. Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance arterial function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Ground studies indicate that spaceflight may diminish vascular contraction. To examine that possibility, vascular function was measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats immediately after an 18-day shuttle flight. Isolated mesenteric resistance arterial responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside were measured using wire myography within 17 h of landing. After flight, maximal contraction to norepinephrine was attenuated (P < 0.001) as was relaxation to acetylcholine (P < 0.001) and sodium nitroprusside (P < 0.05). At high concentrations, acetylcholine caused vascular contraction in vessels from flight animals but not in vessels from vivarium control animals (P < 0.05). The results are consistent with data from ground studies and indicate that spaceflight causes both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent alterations in vascular function. The resulting decrement in vascular function may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight.

  10. Wilkie's Syndrome or Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: Fact or Fantasy?

    PubMed Central

    Zaraket, Vera; Deeb, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome (known as Wilkie's syndrome) is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction. It is an acquired disorder in which acute angulation of the SMA causes compression of the third part of the duodenum between the SMA and the aorta. This is commonly due to loss of fatty tissue as a result of a variety of debilitating conditions. We report a 17-year-old female who presented with intermittent abdominal pain and intractable vomiting following significant weight loss after hospitalization for pneumonia. Symptoms persisted for 2 years and the patient underwent extensive invasive and non-invasive tests, but to no avail. Thereafter she developed acute high intestinal obstruction, which unraveled her diagnosis. This case emphasizes the challenges in the diagnosis of SMA syndrome and the need for increased awareness of this entity. This will improve early recognition in order to reduce irrelevant tests and unnecessary treatments. PMID:26120301

  11. Mesenteric lymphangioma mimicking a cystic ovarian mass on imaging.

    PubMed

    Hitzerd, Emilie; van Hamont, Dennis; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic cystic masses are frequently observed in women. Most lesions are benign and of ovarian origin. However, non-ovarian lesions can be easily confused with cystic ovarian masses on imaging, which hampers diagnostic and therapeutic management. In this report, a rare case of mesenteric lymphangioma mimicking an ovarian cystic mass, discovered as an incidental finding on orthopaedic MRI in an adult female, is presented. The report highlights the sometimes difficult diagnostic process of pelvic cystic masses, due to an extensive differential diagnosis and the fact that imaging is often inconclusive. Even though most cystic masses are of ovarian origin, non-ovarian causes can mimic ovarian masses and should be considered as differential diagnoses. Surgical exploration may be necessary to exclude malignant causes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Laparoscopic enucleation of a jejunal mesenteric cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vadala', S; Caldarera, G; Li Volti, G; Biondi, A; Giannone, G

    2010-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts (MC) are a rare surgical condition occurring approximately in 1/200.000-350.000. The aetiology is unknown and the rarity of the tumor has led to confusion about their nature and classifi cation. They can be uni- or multi-locular, and are mostly benign. Approximately 830 cases have been reported in the literature and only four of them were found to be malignant. Cysts are usually diagnosed during routine abdominal examinations, they can present with various signs, such as acute abdominal pain, chronic abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, or change in bowel habit. Although rare, shock due to rupture or bleeding of the cyst, intestinal obstruction secondary to external compression and volvulus or torsion of the cyst have been reported. Defi nitive treatment requires complete surgical resection of the cyst and is indicated when the lesion causes symptoms. We report a case of calcifi ed MC which was completely excised using the laparoscopic approach.

  13. Prospects for biological control of rodent populations*

    PubMed Central

    Wodzicki, Kazimierz

    1973-01-01

    Pathogens and predatory animals are the main agents used for the biological control of rodents. The pathogens that have been used are of the genus Salmonella; none is rodent-specific and all can cause severe infection in man and domestic animals. Furthermore, rodents frequently develop immunity to, and become carriers of, these organisms, and there is little to commend their use, except in lightly populated areas where control is infrequently applied. The relationships of five predator species with their rodent prey have been examined. The monitor lizard, mongoose, and ferret were for different reasons found to be unsatisfactory, and there is not yet sufficient evidence to warrant further releases of the Japanese weasel. Domestic and feral cats control rodents well in some situations but only after some other agent has removed a large part of the rodent population. PMID:4587482

  14. Duplex ultrasound of the superior mesenteric artery in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hornum, M; Larsen, S; Olsen, O; Pedersen, J F

    2006-10-01

    Blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) increases after a meal due to a vasoactive effect of the decomposed food. In exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, the digestion of food is compromised. We used duplex ultrasound to test the hypothesis that blood flow in the SMA after a meal increases less in patients with pancreatic insufficiency than in control persons. We studied 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis, eight of them with exocrine insufficiency, and eight healthy volunteers. The resistive index (RI) in the SMA was determined before and after a liquid meal. The RI reflects the downstream circulatory resistance, giving a precise description of mesenteric hyperaemia. Both groups of patients with chronic pancreatitis unexpectedly had lower fasting RI than controls, 0.818 and 0.815 vs 0.851, p = 0.028 and p = 0.0030, respectively. Postprandialy there was significantly less decrease in RI (less increase in flow) in patients with exocrine insufficiency than in controls, 0.055 vs 0.099, p = 0.0047. There was a significant trend for a less pronounced postprandial decrease in RI with more impaired pancreatic function (p = 0.0036). Our study thus demonstrates a reduced postprandial increase in SMA flow in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and suggests an increased fasting SMA flow in chronic pancreatitis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the possible role of the test-meal-induced shift in RI in the SMA and of a lower-than-normal fasting RI in the diagnosis and monitoring of chronic pancreatitis.

  15. Blunt abdominal trauma and mesenteric avulsion: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kordzadeh, A; Melchionda, V; Rhodes, K M; Fletcher, E O; Panayiotopolous, Y P

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the biomechanics, presentation and diagnosis of mesenteric avulsions following blunt abdominal trauma and reach a consensus on their overall management. A systematic review of literature in MedLine, Embase, Scopus and CINHAL in English language from 1951 to November 2014 was performed. A total of 20 reported cases were identified. Variables including patient's demographics, signs and symptoms, mechanism of injury, investigative modality, management, length of stay, follow-up and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. The median age of the cohort was 28.5 years (range 10-58 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 3:1. The commonest mechanism of injury was road traffic accident due to seat belt restraint (n = 12, 60 %). The commonest presentation was diffuse abdominal tenderness (n = 10, 45 %) followed by ecchymosis/bruising (n = 9, 40 %). Computed tomography (CT) remained the investigative modality of choice (n = 9, 45 %). All cases had an emergency exploratory laparotomy (n = 18, 90 %) within the initial 24 h and the median length of stay was 19 days (range 4-90 days). The overall mortality was 15 % (n = 3). Mesenteric avulsion is rare and has a complex and vague presentation. Due to its potential mortality and morbidity, emergency physicians should keep a high index of suspicion in individuals with blunt abdominal trauma from any mechanism of injury.

  16. Acute Thrombotic Mesenteric Ischemia: Primary Endovascular Treatment in Eight Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Gagniere, Johan; Favrolt, Gregory; Alfidja, Agaiecha; Kastler, Adrian; Chabrot, Pascal; Cassagnes, Lucie; Buc, Emmanuel; Pezet, Denis; Boyer, Louis

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate our experience with initial percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) {+-} stenting as valuable options in the acute setting. Methods: Between 2003 and 2008, eight patients with abdominal angio-MDCT-scan proven thrombotic AMI benefited from initial PTA {+-} stenting. We retrospectively assessed clinical and radiological findings and their management. Seven patients presented thrombosis of the superior mesenteric artery, and in one patient both mesenteric arteries were occluded. All patients underwent initial PTA and stenting, except one who had balloon PTA alone. One patient was treated by additional in situ thrombolysis. Results: Technical success was obtained in all patients. Three patients required subsequent surgery (37.5%), two of whom had severe radiological findings (pneumatosis intestinalis and/or portal venous gas). Two patients (25%) died: both had NIDD, an ASA score {>=}4, and severe radiologic findings. Satisfactory arterial patency was observed after a follow-up of 15 (range, 11-17) months in five patients who did not require subsequent surgery, four of whom had abdominal guarding but no severe CT scan findings. One patient had an ileocecal stenosis 60 days after the procedure. Conclusions: Initial PTA {+-} stenting is a valuable alternative to surgery for patients with thrombotic AMI even for those with clinical peritoneal irritation signs and/or severe radiologic findings. Early surgery is indicated if clinical condition does not improve after PTA. The decision of a subsequent surgery must be lead by early clinical status reevaluation. In case of underlying atherosclerotic lesion, stenting should be performed after initial balloon dilatation.

  17. Relaxant effects of antidepressants on human isolated mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Vila, José Ma; Medina, Pascual; Segarra, Gloria; Lluch, Paloma; Pallardó, Federico; Flor, Blas; Lluch, Salvador

    1999-01-01

    Aims The therapeutic action of tricyclic agents may be accompanied by unwanted effects on the cardiovascular system. The evidence for the effects on vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle comes from animal studies. Whether these studies can be extrapolated to human vessels remains to be determined. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the influence of amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline on the contractile responses of human isolated mesenteric arteries to electrical field stimulation, noradrenaline and potassium chloride. Methods Arterial segments (lumen diameter 0.8–1.2 mm) were obtained from portions of the human omentum during the course of 41 abdominal operations (22 men and 19 women), and rings 3 mm long were mounted in organ baths for isometric recording of tension. In some artery rings the endothelium was removed mechanically. Results In precontracted artery rings amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline (3×10−7–10−4 m) produced concentration-dependent relaxation that was independent of the presence or absence of vascular endothelium. Incubation with indomethacin (3×10−6 m) reduced the pD2 values thus indicating the participation of dilating prostanoid substances in this response. Amitriptyline and nortriptyline inhibited both the neurogenic-and noradrenaline-induced contractions. In contrast, only the highest concentration of sertraline reduced the adrenergic responses. Amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline inhibited contractions elicited by KCl and produced rightward shifts of the concentration-response curve to CaCl2 following incubation in calcium-free solution. Conclusions These results indicate that amitriptyline and nortriptyline could act as adrenoceptor antagonists and direct inhibitors of smooth muscle contraction of human mesenteric arteries, whereas sertraline might principally exert its action only as direct inhibitor of smooth muscle contraction. This relaxant mechanism involves an interference

  18. Idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins and pneumatosis intestinalis: a previously unreported association.

    PubMed

    García-Castellanos, Raquel; López, Raquel; de Vega, Vicente Moreno; Ojanguren, Isabel; Piñol, Marta; Boix, Jaume; Domènech, Eugeni; Cabré, Eduard

    2011-06-01

    Idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins is a very rare disease occurring in young male patients, with no more than eight cases reported in the world literature. It causes venous ischemia in the sigmoid colon and rectum that clinically resembles inflammatory bowel disease. Pneumatosis intestinalis is also a rare condition usually associated to a wide range of diseases including bowel ischemia. We herein report on a case of pneumatosis intestinalis associated to idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such an association, and the first one of idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins occurring in a female patient as well.

  19. [Extensive mesenteric ischemia related to naratriptan overuse associated with grapefruit juice absorption].

    PubMed

    Gergaud, S; Lermite, E; Butel, F; Soltner, C; Lasocki, S

    2012-05-01

    We reported the case of a 61-year-old woman, who has been hospitalized in ICU because of an extensive mesenteric ischaemia, involving the small bowel, secondary to a naratriptan overuse. This mesenteric ischaemia was complicated by multiple organ failure and was responsible for extensive small bowel resection and left colectomy. A concomitant abundant absorption of grapefruit juice, a well-known P450 inhibitor, may have enhanced this naratriptan toxicity. This case underscore that an abdominal pain occurring in the context of headache treatment may be related to a mesenteric ischaemia.

  20. Prediction of rodent carcinogenicity for 30 chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.

    1996-10-01

    Predictions of carcinogenic activity are made for 30 chemicals currently being assessed for rodent carcinogenicity by the U.S. National Toxicology Program. The predictions are based upon the chemical structure, the anticipated or reported mutagenicity, and the reported sub-chronic toxicity of each chemical. It is predicted that 13 chemicals will be noncarcinogenic to rodents, that 7 will be genotoxic carcinogens, and that 10 may show some evidence of presumed nongenotoxic rodent carcinogenesis. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Tactile learning in rodents: Neurobiology and neuropharmacology.

    PubMed

    Roohbakhsh, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Ayoobi, Fateme; Fatemi, Iman; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad

    2016-02-15

    Animal models of learning and memory have been the subject of considerable research. Rodents such as mice and rats are nocturnal animals with poor vision, and their survival depends on their sense of touch. Recent reports have shown that whisker somatosensation is the main channel through which rodents collect and process environmental information. This review describes tactile learning in rodents from a neurobiological and neuropharmacological perspective, and how this is involved in memory-related processes.

  2. Auditing laboratory rodent biosecurity programs.

    PubMed

    Porter, William P; Horn, Mandy J; Cooper, Dale M; Klein, Hilton J

    2013-10-22

    A rodent biosecurity program that includes periodic evaluation of procedures used in an institution's vivarium can be used to ensure that best practices are in place to prevent a microbial pathogen outbreak. As a result of an ongoing comprehensive biosecurity review within their North American and European production facilities, the authors developed a novel biosecurity auditing process and worksheet that could be useful in other animal care and use operations. The authors encourage other institutions to consider initiating similar audits of their biosecurity programs to protect the health of their laboratory animals.

  3. River bed transport measurements show bed dilation and contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    A new study of bed load transport—the movement of the gravel or other grains on a stream bed—has turned up a previously undetected effect. Marquis and Roy used several different methods to monitor bed load activity in a gravel bed river, Beard Creek in Quebec, Canada. They examined streamfow, bed load, and bed morphology before, during, and after 20 food events. The researchers found that two of the methods—measuring changes in bed topography between successive foods and surveying bed activity—gave inconsistent results. Changes in elevation of the bed did not always correspond to movement of bed load.

  4. Evidence-Based Advances in Rodent Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2017-09-01

    The number of exotic companion pet rodents seen in veterinary practices is growing very rapidly. According to the American Veterinary Medical Association's surveys, more than 2,093,000 pet rodents were kept in US households in 2007 and in 2012 it was more than 2,349,000 animals. This article summarizes the most important evidence-based knowledge in exotic pet rodents (diagnostics of the hyperadrenocorticism in guinea pigs, pituitary tumors in rats, urolithiasis in guinea pigs, use of itopride as prokinetics, use of deslorelin acetate in rodents, cause of dental disease, and prevention of mammary gland tumors in rats). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mycobacteriosis in the rabbit and rodent.

    PubMed

    McClure, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous mycobacteriosis is rare in rabbits and rodents with the exception of the pygmy rabbit, and there are only a handful of reported cases involving other rodents. Mycobacterium avium complex was the most commonly identified organism in reports of spontaneous mycobacteriosis involving rabbits and rodents. The resistance of rabbits and rodents to mycobacterial disease has been useful in understanding the disease in humans and other animals. Preventing or controlling Mycobacterium sp transmission from wildlife to domestic animals will require collaboration between agriculture, wildlife, environmental, and political entities. Understanding the ecology and epidemiology of mycobacteria is needed for better worldwide management of tuberculosis.

  6. Vanilloid receptors mediate adrenergic nerve- and CGRP-containing nerve-dependent vasodilation induced by nicotine in rat mesenteric resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Shinji; Tezuka, Satoko; Hobara, Narumi; Akiyama, Shinji; Kurosaki, Yuji; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies showed that nicotine induces adrenergic nerve-dependent vasodilation that is mediated by endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from CGRP-containing (CGRPergic) nerves. The mechanisms underlying the nicotine-induced vasodilation were further studied. Rat mesenteric vascular beds without endothelium were contracted by perfusion with Krebs solution containing methoxamine, and the perfusion pressure was measured with a pressure transducer. Perfusion of nicotine (1–100 μM) for 1 min caused concentration-dependent vasodilation. Capsazepine (vanilloid receptor-1 antagonist; 1–10 μM) and ruthenium red (inhibitor of vanilloid response; 1–30 μM) concentration-dependently inhibited the nicotine-induced vasodilation without affecting the vasodilator response to exogenous CGRP. Nicotine-induced vasodilation was not inhibited by treatment with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) receptor antagonist (L-DOPA cyclohexyl ester; 0.001–10 μM), dopamine D1 receptor-selective antagonist (SCH23390; 1–10 μM), dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (haloperidol; 0.1–0.5 μM), ATP P2x receptor-desensitizing agonist (α,β-methylene ATP; 1–10 μM), adenosine A2 receptor antagonist (8(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline; 10–50 μM) or neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Y1 receptor antagonist (BIBP3226; 0.1–0.5 μM). Immunohistochemical staining of the mesenteric artery showed dense innervation of CGRP- and vanilloid receptor-1-positive nerves, with both immunostainings appearing in the same neuron. The mesenteric artery was also densely innervated by NPY-positive nerves. Double immunostainings showed that both NPY and CGRP immunoreactivities appeared in the same neuron of the artery. These results suggest that nicotine acts on presynaptic nicotinic receptors to release adrenergic neurotransmitter(s) or related substance(s), which then stimulate vanilloid receptor-1 on CGRPergic nerves, resulting in CGRP release and vasodilation. PMID:15249421

  7. Endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) mediates adrenergic-dependent vasodilation induced by nicotine in mesenteric resistance arteries of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Shiraki, Hinako; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Tezuka, Satoko; Nakatsuma, Akira; Kurosaki, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying vasodilator effect of nicotine on mesenteric resistance blood vessels and the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing (CGRPergic) vasodilator nerves were studied in the rat. Mesenteric vascular beds isolated from Wistar rats were perfused with Krebs solution, and perfusion pressure was measured with a pressure transducer. In preparations with intact endothelium and contracted by perfusion with Krebs solution containing methoxamine, perfusion of nicotine (1–100 μM) for 1 min caused a concentration-dependent vasodilator response without vasoconstriction. The nicotine-induced vasodilation was markedly inhibited by hexamethonium (nicotinic cholinoceptor antagonist, 10 μM) and blocked by guanethidine (adrenergic neuron blocker, 5 μM). Either denervation by cold storage (4°C for 72 h) or adrenergic denervation by 6-hydroxydopamine (toxin for adrenergic neurons, 2 mM for 20 min incubation, twice) blocked the nicotine-induced vasodilation. Neither endothelium removal with perfusion of sodium deoxycholate (1.80 mg ml−1, for 30 s) nor treatment with Nω-nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 100 μM), atropine (muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonist, 10 nM) or propranolol (β-adrenoceptor antagonist, 100 nM) affected the nicotine-induced vasodilation. In preparations without endothelium, treatment with capsaicin (depleting CGRP-containing sensory nerves, 1 μM) or human CGRP[8–37] (CGRP receptor antagonist, 0.5 μM) markedly inhibited the nicotine-induced vasodilation. These results suggest that, in the mesenteric resistance artery of the rat, nicotine induces vasodilation, which is independent of the function of the endothelium and is involved in activation of CGRPergic nerves. It is also suggested that nicotine stimulates presynaptic nicotinic cholinoceptors on adrenergic nerves to release adrenergic neurotransmitters, which then act on CGRPergic nerves to release endogenous CGRP

  8. α3β4-Nicotinic receptors mediate adrenergic nerve- and peptidergic (CGRP) nerve-dependent vasodilation induced by nicotine in rat mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, S; Miyashita, S; Kitamura, Y; Kawasaki, H

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Previous studies demonstrated that nicotine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilation is mediated by perivascular adrenergic nerves and nerves releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRPergic nerves). We characterized the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtype underlying the vasodilation in response to nicotine in rat mesenteric arteries. Experimental approach: Rat mesenteric vascular beds without endothelium were contracted by perfusion with Krebs solution containing methoxamine and the perfusion pressure was measured with a pressure transducer. Key results: Perfusion of nicotine (1–100 μM) for 1 min caused a concentration-dependent decrease in perfusion pressure due to vasodilation. Perfusion of (±)-epibatidine (1–100 nM) (non-selective agonist) or (−)-cytisine (1–100 μM) (partial agonist for nicotinic β2 subtype and full agonist for nicotinic β4 subtype) induced vasodilation in a concentration-dependent manner. Vasodilation induced by nicotine, (−)-cytisine- and (±)-epibatidine was markedly attenuated by guanethidine (5 μM) and pretreatment with capsaicin (1 μM). Mecamylamine (relatively selective antagonist for α3β4 subtype), but not dihydro-β-erythroidine (selective antagonist for α4β2 subtype) or α-bungarotoxin (selective antagonist for α7 subtype), markedly inhibited nicotine-induced vasodilation. Nicotine-induced vasodilation was inhibited by methyllycaconitine at high concentrations (>1 μM), which non-selectively antagonize nicotinic receptors, while a low concentration of 10 nM, which selectively antagonizes α7 subtype, had no effect. (−)-Cytisine and (±)-epibatidine-induced vasodilation were abolished by mecamylamine Conclusion and implications: These results suggest that the nicotinic α3β4 receptor subtype, but not the α7 and α4β2 subtypes, is responsible for the vasodilation in rat mesenteric arteries induced by nicotine- and nicotinic ACh receptor agonists

  9. Urban resident attitudes toward rodents, rodent control products, and environmental effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent control in urban areas can result in the inadvertent mortality of non-target species (e.g., bobcats). However, there is little detailed information about rodent control practices of urban residents. Our objective was to evaluate urban rodent control behaviors in two area...

  10. Urban resident attitudes toward rodents, rodent control products, and environmental effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent control in urban areas can result in the inadvertent mortality of non-target species (e.g., bobcats). However, there is little detailed information about rodent control practices of urban residents. Our objective was to evaluate urban rodent control behaviors in two area...

  11. The Miocene rodents of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Z.

    2009-04-01

    During the Miocene period a group of shallow lakes was created in depressions at the territory of present-day Serbia. This caused the present wide distribution of lacustrine sediments, which occasionally alternate with the alluvial and marsh sediments. The remains of large mammals are relatively common, while the remains of small mammals used to be known only from two localities - Mala Miliva and Sibnica. The method of sediment sieving, used during the last decade, led to discovery of 6 new localities with remains of fossil vertebrates - Sibnica 1, Vračevići, village Lazarevac, Bele Vode, Brajkovac and Tavnik. Most of the fossil material is represented by osteological and odontological remains of small mammals. The best represented group of small mammals at each of the localities was the rodents. According to the odontological material presence was proven for 35 rodent species from 6 families. MN zonation was determined according to structure of associations. The geological age of fossil-bearing sediments was determined by using the method of correlation with the sites in Europe and Turkey.

  12. Rodent models for human diseases.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Thierry F

    2015-07-15

    One of the factors limiting the translation of knowledge from preclinical studies to the clinic has been the limitations of in vivo diseases models. Except in the case of highly controlled and regulated clinical trials, geneticists and scientists do not use humans for their experimental investigations because of the obvious risk to life. Instead, they use various animal, fungal, bacterial, and plant species as model organisms for their studies. Amongst these model organisms, rodent models are the most used due to the easiness for the experiments and the possibility to modify genetically these model animals. Nevertheless, due to the fact that animal models typically do not contract the same genetic diseases as people, so scientists must alter their genomes to induce human disease states and to know what kind of mutation causes the disease. In this brief review, we will discuss the interests of rodent models that have been developed to simulate human pathologies, focusing in models that employ xenografts and genetic modification. Within the framework of genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models, we will review some of the current genetic strategies for modeling diseases.

  13. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  14. Fluidized-bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.; Schwieger, B.

    1982-08-01

    This report reviews the current state of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. The fundamentals of fluidized-bed combustion and design considerations are first discussed. Tables provide details of manufacturers, worldwide, and of the boilers now installed. Eight plants in various countries and burning a variety of fuels, are described more fully.

  15. Bed Bugs FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... allow them to fit into the smallest of spaces and stay there for long periods of time, even without a blood meal. Bed bugs are usually transported from place to place as people travel. The bed bugs travel in the seams and ...

  16. A case of mesenteric ischemia secondary to Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) with a positive outcome after intervention.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neal C; Palmer, William C; Gill, Kanwar R S; Wallace, Michael B

    2012-10-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-inflammatory, non-atherosclerotic angiopathy, which commonly affects the renal and internal carotid arteries. Although rare, FMD has the potential of involving the mesenteric vasculature. Due its low incidence and relatively little knowledge concerning its risk factors and etiology, actual diagnosis of FMD involving the mesenteric vessels requires a very high degree of suspicion. Upon review of the few reported cases of FMD causing mesenteric ischemia, it is clear that therapeutic interventions are rarely discussed and that positive outcomes are even more uncommon. Herein, we present the case of a 47 year-old female with mesenteric ischemia secondary to FMD, which was diagnosed and treated originally with angioplasty, then repeat angioplasty with stent placement, and finally with a bypass graft. Ultimately, the patient had a positive outcome, including eight month follow-up.

  17. Acute Nonspecific Mesenteric Lymphadenitis: More Than “No Need for Surgery”

    PubMed Central

    Helbling, Rossana; Conficconi, Elisa; Wyttenbach, Marina; Benetti, Cecilia; Simonetti, Giacomo D.; Bianchetti, Mario G.; Hamitaga, Flurim; Fossali, Emilio F.

    2017-01-01

    Acute nonspecific, or primary, mesenteric lymphadenitis is a self-limiting inflammatory condition affecting the mesenteric lymph nodes, whose presentation mimics appendicitis or intussusception. It typically occurs in children, adolescents, and young adults. White blood count and C-reactive protein are of limited usefulness in distinguishing between patients with and without mesenteric lymphadenitis. Ultrasonography, the mainstay of diagnosis, discloses 3 or more mesenteric lymph nodes with a short-axis diameter of 8 mm or more without any identifiable underlying inflammatory process. Once the diagnosis is established, supportive care including hydration and pain medication is advised. Furthermore, it is crucial to reassure patients and families by explaining the condition and stating that affected patients recover completely without residuals within 2–4 weeks. PMID:28261620

  18. Omental vein catheter thrombolysis for acute porto-mesenteric vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Annabelle L; Cleary, Muriel A; Cholewczynski, Walter; Sumpio, Bauer E; Atweh, Nabil A

    2013-05-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is an uncommon clinical condition with potential high morbidity. We report here a patient who presented with acute-onset MVT and bowel infarction, which was successfully ameliorated with intramesenteric vein thrombolytic therapy.

  19. A Case of Traumatic Mesenteric Bleeding Controlled by only Transcatheter Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Asayama, Yoshiki E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Shunichi; Isoda, Takuro; Kunitake, Naonobu; Nakashima, Hideaki

    2005-04-15

    We report a case of mesenteric hematoma following blunt abdominal trauma that was successfully treated with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and did not require surgical repair. A 43-year-old man with blunt abdominal trauma caused in a factory accident was admitted with a stable general condition and laboratory data. On CT examination, a large mesenteric hematoma with extravasation of contrast media was observed. TAE was first attempted to control the bleeding. A superior mesenteric angiogram showed extravasation of contrast medium from a branch of the ileocolic artery and obstruction of the cecal branch. After successful TAE using microcoils, the distal portion of the cecal branch was still preserved via collateral circulation. No abdominal symptoms have occurred during the 7 months following TAE. In mesenteric injury cases with limited intestinal damage, TAE may therefore be a reasonable alternative to emergent laparotomy.

  20. Embolization of Inferior Mesenteric Artery for Intractable Intrapelvic and Vaginal Bleeding After Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cho Hee; Lee, Shin Jae; Jeon, Gyeong Sik; Kang, Suk Ho; Kim, Hyeon Chul

    Branches of the internal iliac artery or ovarian artery are the typical sources of pelvic hemorrhage. The inferior mesenteric artery has been rarely reported as the origin of pelvic bleeding. We present 2 cases of intractable intrapelvic and vaginal bleeding after hysterectomy. One patient underwent a hysterectomy because of uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage and another underwent a vaginal hysterectomy to treat vaginal prolapse. Both patients were subjected to angiography to control continuous vaginal bleeding after hysterectomy. The angiography revealed that the bleeding originated from the inferior mesenteric artery. Selective embolization of the inferior mesenteric artery successfully controlled the intractable intrapelvic and vaginal bleeding without complications. The inferior mesenteric artery is a potential source of intractable intrapelvic and vaginal bleeding for patients with a lower genital tract injury. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation of Salmonella from mesenteric lymph nodes of healthy cattle at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Samuel, J L; O'Boyle, D A; Mathers, W J; Frost, A J

    1980-03-01

    Salmonella was sought in 100 normal, slaughtered cattle, most of which had been held for at least four days before slaughter. The organism was isolated from 76 cattle: from the rumen contents of 62, the ruminal lymph nodes of two and the mesenteric lymph nodes of 54. The mesenteric nodes of 35 of the cattle yielded salmonellae by direct plating; plate counts indicated that some nodes contained over 2500 organisms per gram. S typhimurium was the most prevalent serotype in the mesenteric nodes but not in the rumen; up to seven serotypes were isolated from one animal. In animals which have travelled or been held for several days before slaughter, the mesenteric lymph nodes may be a source of contamination for meat and edible offal in the abattoir.

  2. Single-incision laparoscopic excision of a chylous mesenteric cyst: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshimitsu, Masanori; Emi, Manabu; Miguchi, Masashi; Ota, Hiroshi; Hakoda, Keishi; Omori, Ichiro; Kohashi, Toshihiko; Hirabayashi, Naoki; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Chylous mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal lesions located in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract and may extend from the base of the mesentery into the retroperitoneum. The treatment is the complete removal of the cyst PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 49-year-old female presented with abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 5.0-cm-diameter intraabdominal, homogenous cystic lesion located on the mesentery of the small intestine. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery was performed for complete resection. Only a handful of cases of laparoscopic surgery for a mesenteric cyst have been reported, and no reports have been published regarding single-incision laparoscopic surgery for a mesenteric cyst. We report the first known case of a chylous mesenteric cyst that was successfully treated by single-incision laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Complicated duplication cysts on the ileum presenting with a mesenteric inflammatory mass.

    PubMed

    Lim, Gye-Yeon; Im, Soo-Ah; Chung, Jae Hee

    2008-04-01

    Mesenteric inflammation caused by complicated duplication cysts rarely occurs. We present and discuss the imaging findings of a mesenteric inflammatory mass caused by complicated duplication cysts in an infant. Sonography showed a complex, echogenic cystic mass occupying the right subhepatic region containing two thick-walled cystic lesions inseparable from the normal bowel loop. On CT images a large, heterogeneously enhancing, hypodense peritoneal mass was observed to infiltrate the mesentery, which contained small cystic masses with enhancing thick walls. At surgery a mesenteric inflammatory mass caused by two complicated duplication cysts was found to be firmly fixed by surface contact with the ileum. A review of the literature relating to the etiologic relationship between a mesenteric inflammatory mass and complicated duplication cysts is presented.

  4. [Pathologic fluid collection of mesentery, differential diagnosis of mesenteric cysts - case report].

    PubMed

    Chovanec, Z; Hnízdil, L; Capov, I

    2014-03-01

    Mesenteric cyst is a pathologic fluid collection that very rarely occurs anywhere in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract from the duodenum to the rectum. The etiology of mesenteric cysts has not yet been completely understood. It ranges from tumorous, infectious, lymphatic and embryological to post-traumatic or post-operative origin. Symptoms of the illness are usually non-specific, caused mainly by intestinal obstruction. Diagnosis is often accidental. Therapy is exclusively surgical. In the following text, the authors present a case report of a 50-year-old patient operated on due to a mesenteric cyst. The patient had undergone bilateral nephrectomy for polycystic kidney disease and was followed up for polycystic liver disease. CT accidentally revealed a mesenteric cyst around 14 cm in size in the right meso-hypogastrium. It was necessary to perform its histological verification before the planned renal transplantation.

  5. Mesenteric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: MRI and CT imaging correlated to anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Kirchgesner, Th; Danse, E; Sempoux, Ch; Annet, L; Dragean, Ch Anca; Trefois, P; Abbes Orabi, N; Kartheuser, A

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare tumor, classified by WHO of intermediate biological potential with tendency for local recurrence and small risk for distant metastasis. Histologically IMT is a mixture of inflamma- tory cells and myofibroblastic spindle cells proliferation. To our knowledge there is no MRI description of mesenteric IMT in the literature. We would like to emphasize the correlation between medical imaging and anatomical pathology based on our experience of a mesenteric IMT in a 28-year-old patient.

  6. Percutaneous Ablation of a Mesenteric Cyst Using Ethanol: Is It Feasible?

    SciTech Connect

    Irie, Toshiyuki Kuramochi, Masashi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kamoshida, Toshirou

    2010-06-15

    A huge mesenteric cyst in a 61-year-old female was treated by percutaneous ablation using ethanol. Marked shrinkage was achieved and regrowth was not seen 16 months after ablation. Resection is the standard therapy for mesenteric cysts, but it may be valuable to discuss the feasibility of percutaneous ablation before resection if the lesion wall is smooth and thin, and if solid nodules are not depicted on imaging.

  7. Acute Abdominal Pain Caused by an Infected Mesenteric Cyst in a 24-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Ponten, Joep B.; Zijta, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    A mesenteric cyst is a rare cause for abdominal pain. This umbrella term includes cystic entities which reside in the mesentery. We present a case of an infected false mesenteric cyst in a 24-year-old female patient without prior surgery or known trauma. Mainstay of treatment involves surgical resection, although less invasive treatments have been described. Prognosis depends on the origin of the cyst. PMID:27190668

  8. Mesenteric cysts associated with recurrent small-bowel volvulus: cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Shailesh M; Anand, Rama; Narula, Mahender K; Shetty, Gurucharan S; Udiya, Alok K; Chauhan, Udit; Shukla, Shailaja; Grover, Jitendra Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Recurrent small-bowel volvulus is a state of recurrent intermittent or long-standing persistent twisting of small-bowel loops around its mesentery. The association of mesenteric cysts with recurrent small-bowel volvulus as the cause or effect is a much debated issue in the literature. We report two cases of mesenteric lymphangioma and one case of enteric duplication cyst seen in association with recurrent small-bowel volvulus of long duration in absence of malrotation.

  9. [Mesenteric cyst is a rare origin for abdominal pain in children].

    PubMed

    Dawar, Mirwais; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk

    2015-02-16

    A ten-year-old boy with known episodes of moderate abdominal pain during 18 months suddenly developed severe abdominal pain, and a CT scan showed a 25 × 15 cm cystic process. The patient was operated and a mesenteric cyst was removed along with 15 cm of small bowel. Post-operative course was uneventful. Mesenteric cysts are rare, but should be considered as an origin for abdominal pain in children, particularly after exclusion of more common diagnoses.

  10. Percutaneous ablation of a mesenteric cyst using ethanol: is it feasible?

    PubMed

    Irie, Toshiyuki; Kuramochi, Masashi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kamoshida, Toshirou

    2010-06-01

    A huge mesenteric cyst in a 61-year-old female was treated by percutaneous ablation using ethanol. Marked shrinkage was achieved and regrowth was not seen 16 months after ablation. Resection is the standard therapy for mesenteric cysts, but it may be valuable to discuss the feasibility of percutaneous ablation before resection if the lesion wall is smooth and thin, and if solid nodules are not depicted on imaging.

  11. Simultaneous Occurrence of a Rare Pancreatic Lymphoepithelial Cyst and Duodenal Mesenteric Castleman's Disease: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yong; Peng, Ci-Jun; Shu, De-Jun; Zhu, Hong-Jiang; Li, Xiong-Xiong; Li, Wei-Nan

    2015-04-01

    Pancreatic lymphoepithelial cyst is a rare pancreatic lesion of undetermined pathogenesis, which is a true pancreatic cyst. Castleman's disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder, and a mesenteric location is unusual. The simultaneous occurrence of the two diseases are rarer than metachronous ones and has not been reported to date. We present a case report of a patient with simultaneous occurrence of pancreatic lymphoepithelial cyst and duodenal mesenteric Castleman's disease.

  12. Acute Abdominal Pain Caused by an Infected Mesenteric Cyst in a 24-Year-Old Female.

    PubMed

    Sudiono, Davy R; Ponten, Joep B; Zijta, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    A mesenteric cyst is a rare cause for abdominal pain. This umbrella term includes cystic entities which reside in the mesentery. We present a case of an infected false mesenteric cyst in a 24-year-old female patient without prior surgery or known trauma. Mainstay of treatment involves surgical resection, although less invasive treatments have been described. Prognosis depends on the origin of the cyst.

  13. Mesenteric fat as a source of C reactive protein and as a target for bacterial translocation in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Gonzalez, Florent; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Rousseaux, Christel; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Decourcelle, Cécilia; Saudemont, Alain; Tachon, Mickael; Béclin, Elodie; Odou, Marie-Françoise; Neut, Christel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Objective Mesenteric fat hyperplasia is a hallmark of Crohn's disease (CD), and C reactive protein (CRP) is correlated with disease activity. The authors investigated whether mesenteric adipocytes may be a source of CRP in CD and whether inflammatory and bacterial triggers may stimulate its production by adipocytes. Design CRP expression in the mesenteric and subcutaneous fats of patients with CD and the correlation between CRP plasma concentrations and mesenteric messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were assessed. The impact of inflammatory and bacterial challenges on CRP synthesis was tested using an adipocyte cell line. Bacterial translocation to mesenteric fat was studied in experimental models of colitis and ileitis and in patients with CD. Results CRP expression was increased in the mesenteric fat of patients with CD, with mRNA levels being 80±40 (p<0.05) and 140±65 (p=0.04) times higher than in the mesenteric fat of patients with ulcerative colitis and in the subcutaneous fat of the same CD subjects, respectively, and correlated with plasma levels. Escherichia coli (1230±175-fold, p<0.01), lipopolysaccharide (26±0.5-fold, p<0.01), tumour necrosis factor α (15±0.3-fold, p<0.01) and interleukin-6 (10±0.7-fold, p<0.05) increased CRP mRNA levels in adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. Bacterial translocation to mesenteric fat occurred in 13% and 27% of healthy and CD subjects, respectively, and was increased in experimental colitis and ileitis. Human mesenteric adipocytes constitutively expressed mRNA for TLR2, TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2. Conclusion Mesenteric fat is an important source of CRP in CD. CRP production by mesenteric adipocytes may be triggered by local inflammation and bacterial translocation to mesenteric fat, providing a mechanism whereby mesenteric fat hyperplasia may contribute to inflammatory response in CD. PMID:21940721

  14. Infrarenal aorta as the donor site for bypasses to the superior mesenteric artery for chronic mesenteric ischemia: A prospective clinical series of 24 patients.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calio', Francesco G; Pasqua, Rocco; Masci, Federica; Vietri, Francesco

    2017-08-11

    Treatment of symptomatic, chronic mesenteric ischemia is indicated to relieve symptoms and prevent acute ischemia and death. Current therapeutic options include endovascular and open surgery. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the results of bypasses to the superior mesenteric artery arising from the infrarenal aorta or infrarenal aortic grafts. From January 1999 to December 2016, 24 consecutive patients with a mean age of 61 years underwent a prosthetic bypass to the superior mesenteric artery. Nine patients (37%) presented with an associated clinically important stenosis of the celiac artery and 10 (42%) of the inferior mesenteric artery. Five patients (21%) received preoperative parenteral nutrition. Four patients (17%) underwent dual antiplatelet treatment. The donor site was the infrarenal aorta in 19 patients (79%) and an infrarenal, Dacron graft was used in 5 (21%). The origin of the bypass was from the distal infrarenal aorta or Dacron graft in 19 patients (79%) and from the proximal infrarenal aorta in 5 patients (21%). The graft material consisted of 7 mm polytetrafluoroethylene in 19 cases (79%) and 7 mm Dacron in 5 cases (21%). A concomitant bypass to the inferior mesenteric artery was performed in 4 patients (17%). The primary end points were postoperative mortality, morbidity, graft infection, late survival, primary patency, and symptom-free rate. The secondary end point was postoperative hemorrhagic complications. No postoperative mortality occurred. Postoperative morbidity included a prolonged postoperative ileus in 4 patients (17%), transitory postoperative increases in serum creatinine concentrations in 3 patients (12%), and myocardial ischemia in 2 patients (8%). No postoperative hemorrhagic complications or graft infection were observed. Overall, the cumulative survival rate was 77% at 60 months. The overall late-patency rate and freedom from recurrence of symptoms were both 87% at 60 months. Infrarenal aorta and

  15. The effects of insulin on mesenteric blood flow in anaesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Grossini, E; Battaglia, A; Bona, G; Mary, D A S G; Molinari, C; Vacca, G

    2004-07-01

    Infusion of insulin in anaesthetized pigs has been shown to cause an increase in renal blood flow and a decrease in coronary blood flow, which were the net result of a vasoconstriction involving sympathetic alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated mechanisms and of a local vasodilatation involving the endothelial release of nitric oxide. In the present study, the effect of insulin on superior mesenteric blood flow was examined in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized pigs at constant heart rate, aortic blood pressure, left ventricular contractility and blood levels of glucose and potassium. In 10 pigs, infusion of 0.004 IU kg(-1) min(-1) of insulin increased mesenteric flow. In five of these pigs, intravenous phentolamine enhanced the increase in mesenteric flow elicited by insulin, a response which was abolished by the subsequent injection of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) into the mesenteric artery. In the remaining five pigs, infusion of insulin after intramesenteric injection of L-NAME caused a decrease in mesenteric flow. This response was abolished by the subsequent intravenous administration of phentolamine. The present study showed that infusion of insulin in anaesthetized pigs primarily caused a mesenteric vasodilatation, which was the net result of two opposite effects, namely a predominant vasodilatation mediated by the endothelial release of nitric oxide and a sympathetic vasoconstrictor mechanism mediated by alpha-adrenoceptors.

  16. Review article: diagnosis and management of mesenteric ischaemia with an emphasis on pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kozuch, P L; Brandt, L J

    2005-02-01

    Mesenteric ischaemia results from decreased blood flow to the bowel, causing cellular injury from lack of oxygen and nutrients. Acute mesenteric ischaemia (AMI) is an uncommon disorder with high morbidity and mortality, but outcomes are improved with prompt recognition and aggressive treatment. Five subgroups of AMI have been identified, with superior mesenteric artery embolism (SMAE) the most common. Older age and cardiovascular disease are common risk factors for AMI, excepting acute mesenteric venous thrombosis (AMVT), which affects younger patients with hypercoaguable states. AMI is characterized by sudden onset of abdominal pain; a benign abdominal exam may be observed prior to bowel infarction. Conventional angiography and more recently, computed tomography angiography, are the cornerstones of diagnosis. Correction of predisposing conditions, volume resuscitation and antibiotic treatment are standard treatments for AMI, and surgery is mandated in the setting of peritoneal signs. Intra-arterial vasodilators are used routinely in the treatment of non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia (NOMI) and also are advocated in the treatment of occlusive AMI to decrease associated vasospasm. Thrombolytics have been used on a limited basis to treat occlusive AMI. A variety of agents have been studied in animal models to treat reperfusion injury, which sometimes can be more harmful than ischaemic injury. Chronic mesenteric ischaemia (CMI) usually is caused by severe obstructive atherosclerotic disease of two or more splanchnic vessels, presents with post-prandial pain and weight loss, and is treated by either surgical revascularization or percutaneous angioplasty and stenting.

  17. Binding protein for vitamin D and its metabolites in rat mesenteric lymph

    SciTech Connect

    Dueland, S.; Bouillon, R.; Van Baelen, H.; Pedersen, J.I.; Helgerud, P.; Drevon, C.A.

    1985-07-01

    A protein with high affinity for vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in rat mesenteric lymph has been studied. Mesenteric lymph was collected after duodenal instillation of radiolabeled vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. As previously described, approximately 10% of vitamin D3 and 95% of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 recovered in mesenteric lymph were associated with the alpha-globulin fractions. The radioactive vitamin D3 recovered in the lymph fraction with d greater than 1.006 (free of chylomicrons) coeluted with purified rat serum binding protein for vitamin D and its metabolites (DBP) from an antirat DBP column. The results obtained by immunoblotting after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that this protein in mesenteric lymph had molecular weight and immunological properties identical with purified serum DBP. Purified serum DBP labeled with /sup 125/I was injected intravenously and mesenteric lymph was collected. results suggesting that DBP may be transferred from blood to mesenteric lymph and that plasma and lymph DBP may have a similar origin.

  18. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue. PMID:26618193

  19. Early management of mesenteric cyst prevents catastrophes: a single centre analysis of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Advait; Agrawal, Amit; Gupta, Rahul K; Sanghvi, Beejal; Parelkar, Sandesh

    2010-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal masses in the paediatric age group with varied presentation, ranging from an asymptomatic mass to acute abdomen. This study reviews our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of 17 mesenteric cysts in our centre, with especial reference to acute abdominal symptoms. Seventeen patients (age less than 10 years) with mesenteric cysts were managed in our hospital. The age ranged from 15 days to 10 years. Patients were admitted with acute or chronic symptoms. They were evaluated with complete history, clinical examination, blood investigations and radiological investigations (x-ray abdomen erect, ultrasound abdomen (USG) and computed tomography (CT) scan in selected cases) to reach a provisional diagnosis. The diagnosis was proven on laparotomy and histologically confirmed. The main presenting symptoms were abdominal pain or lump. The most common mode of presentation was acute small intestinal obstruction. USG was not conclusive in all. Abdominal CT scan with intravenous contrast was diagnostic in nine patients. Five patients had volvulus on exploration. Cysts were located in small intestinal mesentery in 14 cases and three were in the sigmoid mesentery. Seven patients had complete excision, intestinal resection was required in four and marsupialisation with cauterisation of margins was done in six patients. Histologically, all were lymphangiomatous mesenteric cysts. The diagnosis of mesenteric cysts should be kept in mind in any patient presenting with acute abdominal symptoms. Small bowel volvulus with mesenteric cyst constituted a significant number in children with acute abdominal symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment yields excellent outcome.

  20. Acute Abdomen Caused by an Infected Mesenteric Cyst in the Ascending Colon: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Ji; Ahn, Byung-Kwon; Baek, Sung-Uhn

    2011-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal tumors. Mesenteric cysts are usually asymptomatic and are incidentally detected during physical or radiological examination. Although uncommon, complications such as infection, bleeding, torsion, rupture and intestinal obstruction cause an acute abdomen. Spontaneous infection is a very rare complication. We present a case of infected mesenteric cysts in the ascending colon, which caused an acute abdomen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with acute abdominal pain. She had a painful mass in the right abdomen on physical examination. Abdominal computed tomography showed a hypodense cystic mass with septation at the mesenteric region of the ascending colon. A laparotomy revealed two cystic tumors at the mesenteric region of the ascending colon. She underwent a right hemicolectomy. The two cysts were filled with a yellowish turbid fluid. The walls of both two cysts were lined with a thin fibrotic membrane without any epithelial cell. They were diagnosed as psuedocysts with E. coli infection. Mesenferic cysts may cause life-threatening complications. Mesenteric cyst, even if it is asymptomatic and was diagnosed incidentally, should be removed completely. PMID:21829771

  1. Acute abdomen caused by an infected mesenteric cyst in the ascending colon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Ji; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Ahn, Byung-Kwon; Baek, Sung-Uhn

    2011-06-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal tumors. Mesenteric cysts are usually asymptomatic and are incidentally detected during physical or radiological examination. Although uncommon, complications such as infection, bleeding, torsion, rupture and intestinal obstruction cause an acute abdomen. Spontaneous infection is a very rare complication. We present a case of infected mesenteric cysts in the ascending colon, which caused an acute abdomen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with acute abdominal pain. She had a painful mass in the right abdomen on physical examination. Abdominal computed tomography showed a hypodense cystic mass with septation at the mesenteric region of the ascending colon. A laparotomy revealed two cystic tumors at the mesenteric region of the ascending colon. She underwent a right hemicolectomy. The two cysts were filled with a yellowish turbid fluid. The walls of both two cysts were lined with a thin fibrotic membrane without any epithelial cell. They were diagnosed as psuedocysts with E. coli infection. Mesenferic cysts may cause life-threatening complications. Mesenteric cyst, even if it is asymptomatic and was diagnosed incidentally, should be removed completely.

  2. Hantavirus Prevention: Cleanup of Rodent Contamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Hantaviruses in the Americas may cause human disease involving the lungs, hence the name " hantavirus pulmonary syndrome" (HPS). Since May 1993, a...humans are also found in other rodents, but the number of cases stemming from these hantaviruses is small when compared to SNV. Hantavirus is shed in... HANTAVIRUS PREVENTION: CLEANUP OF RODENT CONTAMINATION Technical Information Paper 18-001-0306

  3. Rodent-vegetation relationships in southeastern Montana

    Treesearch

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk; Hansen; Richard M.

    1985-01-01

    Plant communities of southeastern Montana were surveyed for rodents over a two year period. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were the most abundant rodent species found on the study area. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), meadow voles (M. pennsylvanicus), sagebrush voles (Lagurus curtatus...

  4. Particle size variations between bed load and bed material in natural gravel bed channels

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle

    1995-01-01

    Abstract - Particle sizes of bed load and bed material that represent materials transported and stored over a period of years are used to investigate selective transport in 13 previously sampled, natural gravel bed channels. The ratio (D*) of median particle size of bed material to the transport- and frequency-weighted mean of median bed load size decreases to unity...

  5. Effects of placental protein 13 on the cardiovascular system in gravid and non-gravid rodents.

    PubMed

    Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Huppertz, Berthold; Osol, George; Skarphedinsson, Jon Olafur; Mandala, Maurizio; Meiri, Hamutal

    2013-01-01

    Here, we performed a pathophysiological examination of the vascular function of rodent in the presence of placental protein 13 (PP13) and its implication to regulate the development of preeclampsia. Single i.v. injection and prolonged in vivo exposure to PP13 via osmotic pumps were performed in gravid and non-gravid rats to examine the influence of PP13 on blood pressure and heart rate in animals. The effect of PP13 was also examined in isolated uterine and mesenteric arteries, along with the examination of placental blood supply. Human PP13 has a major impact on the maternal cardiovascular system of rodents by reducing blood pressure, either at single or prolonged exposure, and causing significant vasodilatation in isolated arteries. Prolonged exposure was followed by increased elaboration and angiogenesis of the uteroplacental arteries supplying the placenta. This is the first study describing effects of PP13 on vasodilatation and uterine artery remodeling. The results imply that PP13 may have a physiological role in improving uteroplacental blood flow. The findings of this study make it tempting to speculate that keeping PP13 levels within a certain 'therapeutic window' during pregnancy may facilitate proper adaptation of the maternal vasculature to pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. How to Find Bed Bugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... or mattresses caused by bed bugs being crushed. Dark spots (about this size: •), which are bed bug ... to ensure sustained heat reaches the bugs no matter where they are hiding. Common bed bugs are ...

  7. Rho Kinase Enhances Contractions of Rat Mesenteric Collecting Lymphatics

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Kristine H.; Souza-Smith, Flavia M.; Moor, Andrea N.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms that control phasic and tonic contractions of lymphatic vessels are poorly understood. We hypothesized that rho kinase ROCK, previously shown to increase calcium (Ca2+) sensitivity in vascular smooth muscle, enhances lymphatic contractile activity in a similar fashion. Contractions of isolated rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels were observed at a luminal pressure of 2 cm H2O in a 37°C bath. The expression of ROCK in isolated rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels was assessed by Western blotting and confocal microscopy. The role of ROCK in contractile function was tested using two specific yet structurally distinct inhibitors: H1152 (0.1–10 μM) and Y-27632 (0.5–50 μM). In addition, lymphatics were transfected with constitutively active (ca)-ROCK protein (2 μg/ml) to assess gain of contractile function. Vessel diameter and the concentration of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) were simultaneously measured in a subset of isolated lymphatics loaded with the Ca2+-sensing dye fura-2. The results show expression of both the ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms in lymphatic vessels. Inhibition of ROCK increased lymphatic end diastolic diameter and end systolic diameter in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant reductions in lymphatic tone and contraction amplitude were observed after treatment 1–10 μM H1152 or 25–50 μM Y-27632. H1152 (10 μM) also significantly reduced contraction frequency. Transient increases in [Ca2+]i preceded each phasic contraction, however this pattern was disrupted by either 10 μM H1152 or 50 μM Y-27632 in the majority of lymphatics studied. The significant decrease in tone caused by H1152 or Y-27632 was not associated with a significant change in the basal [Ca2+]i between transients. Transfection with ca-ROCK protein enhanced lymphatic tone, but was not associated with a significant change in basal [Ca2+]i. Our data suggest that ROCK mediates normal tonic constriction and influences phasic contractions in lymphatics. We propose

  8. [Clinical research progress of mesenteric internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhengrong; Guo, Wenjun

    2017-03-25

    Postoperative internal hernia is a rare clinical complication which often occurs after digestive tract reconstruction. Roux-en-Y anastomosis is a common type of digestive tract reconstruction. Internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction, which occurs mainly in the mesenteric defect caused by incomplete closure of mesenteric gaps in the process of digestive tract reconstruction, is systematically called, in our research, as mesenteric internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Such internal hernia can be divided, according to the different structures of mesentric defect, into 3 types: the type of mesenteric defect at the jejunojejunostomy (J type), the type of Petersen's defect (P type), and the type of mesenteric defect in the transverse mesocolon (M type). Because of huge differences in the number of cases and follow-up time among existing research reports, the morbidity of internal hernia after LRYGB fluctuates wildly between 0.2% and 9.0%. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric internal hernia after Roux- en-Y reconstruction may result in disastrous consequences such as intestinal necrosis. Clinical manifestations of internal hernia vary from person to person: some, in mild cases, may have no symptoms at all while others in severe cases may experience acute intestinal obstruction. Despite the difference, one common manifestation of internal hernia is abdominal pain. Surgical treatment should be recommended for those diagnosed as internal hernia. A safer and more feasible way to conduct the manual reduction of the incarcerated hernia is to start from the distal normal empty bowel and trace back to the hernia ring mouth, enabling a faster identification of hernia ring and its track. The prevention of mesenteric internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction is related to the initial surgical approach and the technique of mesenteric closure. Significant controversy remains on whether or not the mesenteric defect should be closed in laparoscopic Roux

  9. Plasma citrulline measurement in the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Kulu, Rıdvan; Akyildiz, Hizir; Akcan, Alper; Oztürk, Ahmet; Sozuer, Erdogan

    2017-09-01

    The differential diagnosis in acute mesenteric ischaemia (AMI) is essential and sometimes life-saving. A marker for early diagnosis is lacking. Citrulline is an amino acid mainly synthesized by small bowel enterocytes from glutamine. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values of citrulline with those of the D-dimer in patients with AMI. The patients were divided into two groups; group 1: patients with acute abdominal findings which were attributed preoperatively to AMI, and group 2: patients with acute abdominal findings which were attributed preoperatively to causes other than AMI. All patients underwent surgical exploration. Blood samples were taken before surgery. The demographic features, laboratory examinations, citrulline concentration, D-dimer level and surgical findings were evaluated. Overall, 48 patients were enrolled in the study. AMI was diagnosed in 23 of the 48 patients. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to gender, leucocyte count and creatinine levels but group 1 was significantly older than group 2. Citrulline, D-dimer and lactate levels were also significantly higher in group 1. Age, lactate, D-dimer and citrulline levels were statistically significant for mortality. The most significant factor was increased lactate level at admission. Plasma citrulline level may be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with AMI. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. Non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia of a free jejunal flap.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Satoshi; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Koshimune, Seijiro; Onoda, Tomoo; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-05-01

    Free jejunal transfer using microsurgery after oesophageal or pharyngeal cancer resection is a useful operative approach. However, the disadvantage of free tissue transfer is the risk of necrosis of the transferred tissue due to impaired blood supply. In addition, jejunal flaps are more prone to blood-flow disorders such as ischaemia and congestion compared with other types of flaps. The causes of local blood supply disorders after microsurgery are divided broadly into two classes: one is thrombosis of an artery and/or vein in the anastomotic region and the other consists of local physical factors such as compressive pressure derived from haematoma formation and the effect of infection of the vascular pedicle. In this report, two rare cases of blood-flow disorder of the transferred free jejunum are described. In both cases, no signs of significant infection or occlusion of the vascular pedicles were present and late necrosis progressed gradually. The patients showed remarkable weight loss and a poor nutritional state due to inadequate preoperative nutritional intake. The necrosis was considered to be a result of non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia of a free jejunal flap, and the factors contributing to free jejunal necrosis were reviewed.

  11. Characteristics of plasmalemma alkaline phosphatase of rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Kwan, C Y

    1983-01-01

    General characteristics of alkaline phosphatase activity of the plasma membrane-enriched fraction isolated from rat mesenteric arteries were investigated. The vascular smooth muscle plasmalemma alkaline phosphatase is a metalloenzyme which is strongly inhibited by chelating agents and this inhibition can be completely overcome by addition of Mg2+ or Ca2+. Zn2+ only partially reactivates the enzyme in the presence of low concentrations of EDTA. The enzymatic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, beta-glycerophosphate, alpha-glycerophosphate, or 3'-adenosine monophosphate showed an optimal activity in the alkaline region between pH 9 and 11. The alkaline phosphatase activity is distinctly different from the plasmalemma ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities with respect to their pH dependence, influence by added divalent metal ions and stability against heat inactivation. Vanadate ion, being structurally similar to the transition state analog of the phosphoryl group, potently inhibits alkaline phosphatase with an apparent Ki of 1.5 microM. The altered alkaline phosphatase activity of vascular smooth muscle in relation to its possible physiological function and pathophysiological manifestation associated with hypertensive disease are discussed.

  12. Morbidity and mortality after bowel resection for acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prateek K; Natarajan, Bala; Gupta, Himani; Fang, Xiang; Fitzgibbons, Robert J

    2011-10-01

    Patients presenting with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) sufficiently advanced to require bowel resection have a high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to analyze these patients to determine if certain pre- or intraoperative variables are predictive of death or complications which could then be used to develop a predictive model to aid in surgical decision-making. Patients undergoing bowel resection for AMI were identified from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2007-2008). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The 861 patients identified had a median age of 69 years. Thirty-day postoperative morbidity and mortality were 56.6% and 27.9%, respectively. Pre- and intraoperative variables significantly associated with postoperative mortality (C statistic, 0.84) included preoperative do not resuscitate order, open wound, low albumin, dirty vs clean-contaminated case, and poor functional status. Pre- and intraoperative variables significantly associated with postoperative morbidity (C statistic, 0.79) included admission from chronic care facility, recent myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, requiring ventilator support, preoperative renal failure, previous cardiac surgery, and prolonged operative time. A predictive risk calculator was developed using these variables. Mortality and morbidity rates after bowel resection for AMI are high. A risk calculator for prediction of postoperative mortality and morbidity has been developed and awaits validation in subsequent studies. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The superior mesenteric artery syndrome in patients with spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Altiok, Haluk; Lubicky, John P; DeWald, Christopher J; Herman, Jean E

    2005-10-01

    A retrospective review. To determine the incidence of the superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) after surgical correction for scoliosis and if it is influenced by newer derotation/translation surgical systems. The SMAS is a known complication after surgery. Of 2939 charts reviewed, 17 patients between 1960 and 2002 matched inclusion criteria. Our incidence of the SMAS was 0.5%. Onset of symptoms was 7.2 days. Several scoliosis diagnoses were included in the study group. Instrumentation that was used included: nondistraction systems (n = 14), Harrington rod with body cast (n = 1), Luque rod with sublaminar wires (n = 1), and casted in situ posterior spinal fusion (n = 1). Before surgery, 10 of 17 patients weighed less than the 50th percentile. Mean preoperative BMI was 18.6 kg/cm/cm. Postoperative height gain averaged 3.175 cm, and weight loss at onset of symptoms averaged 4.5 kg. There were 14 patients who required nasogastric suction for an average duration of 10.2 days, 11 required hyperalimentation, and 5 concurrently received hyperalimentation with enteric feeding. The SMAS recurred in 2 patients. Postoperative weight loss appears to be more important for the development of the SMAS than asthenic body type. Newer derotation/translation corrective techniques have not eliminated the SMAS. Gastrointestinal imaging is indicated when nausea and vomiting occur 6-12 days after surgery, associated with early satiety and normal bowel sounds. Decompression and nutritional support remain the mainstays of treatment.

  14. Hypothalamic germinoma masquerading as superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vethakkan, Shireene R; Venugopal, Yogeswari; Tan, Alexander T B; Paramasivam, Sharmila S; Ratnasingam, Jeyakantha; Razak, Rohaya A; Alias, Azmi; Kassim, Fauziah; Choong, Karen

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome secondary to hypothalamic germinoma. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, management, and clinical course of a patient admitted with SMA syndrome who was subsequently found to have a hypothalamic germinoma. An adolescent boy was admitted to the surgical ward with progressive weight loss over a 2 year period and postprandial vomiting. He was diagnosed with SMA syndrome based on evidence of proximal duodenal dilatation, extrinsic compression of the distal duodenum, and a narrowed aortomesenteric angle (16°). Investigations performed to exclude thyrotoxicosis unexpectedly revealed secondary hypothyroidism and further evaluation demonstrated evidence of pan-hypopituitarism. Psychiatric evaluation excluded anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a heterogeneously enhancing hypothalamic lesion, but a normal pituitary gland. Hormone replacement with hydrocortisone, desmopressin, testosterone, and thyroxine resulted in weight gain and resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms. A transventricular endoscopic biopsy subsequently confirmed a hypothalamic germinoma and he was referred to an oncologist. SMA syndrome secondary to severe weight loss is an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction. While there have been reports of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and thyrotoxicosis manifesting as SMA syndrome, there are no published reports to date of SMA syndrome secondary to hypothalamic/pituitary disease. Management of SMA syndrome is conservative, as symptoms of intestinal obstruction resolve with weight gain following treatment of the underlying cause. Awareness of this uncommon presentation of endocrine cachexia/hypothalamic disease will prevent unnecessary laparotomies and a misdiagnosis of an eating disorder.

  15. Prevalence of swine viral and bacterial pathogens in rodents and stray cats captured around pig farms in Korea.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quang Lam; Seo, Tae Won; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Han, Jeong Hee; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2013-12-30

    In 2008, 102 rodents and 24 stray cats from the areas around 9 pig farms in northeast South Korea were used to determine the prevalence of the following selected swine pathogens: ten viral pathogens [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), rotavirus, classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)] and four bacterial pathogens (Brucella, Leptospira, Salmonella and Lawsonia intracellularis). In total, 1,260 tissue samples from 102 rodents and 24 stray cats were examined by specific PCR and RT-PCR assays, including tissue samples of the brain, tonsils, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, small intestine, large intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes. The percentages of PCR-positive rodents for the porcine pathogens were as follows: 63.7% for Leptospira, 39.2% for Brucella, 6.8% for Salmonella, 15.7% for L. intracellularis, 14.7% for PCV2 and 3.9% for EMCV. The percentages of PCR-positive stray cats for the swine pathogens were as follows: 62.5% for Leptospira, 25% for Brucella, 12.5% for Salmonella, 12.5% for L. intracellularis and 4.2% for PEDV. These results may be helpful for developing control measures to prevent the spread of infectious diseases of pigs.

  16. Effect of des-aspartate-angiotensin I on the actions of angiotensin II in the isolated renal and mesenteric vasculature of hypertensive and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dharmani, M; Mustafa, M R; Achike, F I; Sim, M K

    2005-07-15

    The present study investigated the action of des-aspartate-angiotensin I (DAA-I) on the pressor action of angiotensin II in the renal and mesenteric vasculature of WKY, SHR and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Angiotensin II-induced a dose-dependent pressor response in the renal vasculature. Compared to the WKY, the pressor response was enhanced in the SHR and reduced in the STZ-induced diabetic rat. DAA-I attenuated the angiotensin II pressor action in renal vasculature of WKY and SHR. The attenuation was observed for DAA-I concentration as low as 10(-18) M and was more prominent in SHR. However, the ability of DAA-I to reduce angiotensin II response was lost in the STZ-induced diabetic kidney. Instead, enhancement of angiotensin II pressor response was seen at the lower doses of the octapeptide. The effect of DAA-I was not inhibited by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist, and indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor in both WKY and SHR, indicating that its action was not mediated by angiotensin AT2 receptor and prostaglandins. The pressor responses to angiotensin II in mesenteric vascular bed were also dose-dependent but smaller in magnitude compared to the renal vasculature. The responses were significantly smaller in SHR but no significant difference was observed between STZ-induced diabetic and WKY rat. Similarly, PD123319 and indomethacin had no effect on the action of DAA-I. The findings reiterate a regulatory role for DAA-I in vascular bed of the kidney and mesentery. By being active at circulating level, DAA-I subserves a physiological role. This function appears to be present in animals with diseased state of hypertension and diabetes. It is likely that DAA-I functions are modified to accommodate the ongoing vascular remodeling.

  17. Bed Bug Tips

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to deal with bed bugs in one printable page. Ten tips include ensuring correct insect identification, reducing clutter, understand integrated pest management, using mattress and box spring encasements, and heat treatment.

  18. Bed rest during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy problems, including: High blood pressure Premature or preterm changes in the cervix Problems with the placenta ... shown that being on bed rest can prevent preterm birth or other pregnancy problems. And some complications ...

  19. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  20. Particle fuel bed tests

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H/sub 2/ for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss.

  1. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  2. Moving-bed sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.; Gupta, R.P.; Chuck, T.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop mixed-metal oxide sorbent formulations that are suitable for moving-bed, high-temperature, desulfurization of coal gas. Work continues on zinc titanates formulations and Z-sorb III sorbent.

  3. Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bed Bugs URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bedbugs.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  4. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1, 1985 and January 1, 2013, FDA received reports of 901 incidents of patients caught, trapped, entangled, or strangled in ... Use Todd says there have been very few reports of safety incidents with hospital beds used in private residences. "This ...

  5. Rodents: food or pests in Neolithic Orkney

    PubMed Central

    Romaniuk, Andrzej A.; Shepherd, Alexandra N.; Clarke, David V.; Sheridan, Alison J.; Fraser, Sheena; Bartosiewicz, László

    2016-01-01

    Rodents have important effects on contemporary human societies, sometimes providing a source of food but more often as agricultural pests, or as vectors and reservoirs of disease. Skeletal remains of rodents are commonly found in archaeological assemblages from around the world, highlighting their potential importance to ancient human populations. However, there are few studies of the interactions between people and rodents at such sites and most of these are confined to locations where rodents have formed a part of the recent diet. Here we compare the accumulation pattern of rodent remains from four locations within and adjacent to the renowned Neolithic site of Skara Brae, Orkney, showing that those within the settlement itself were the result of deliberate human activity. The accumulation and nature of burnt bones, incorporated over an extended period within deposits of household waste, indicate that rodents were used as a nutritional resource and may have been the subject of early pest control. We, therefore, provide the first evidence for the exploitation or control of rodents by the Neolithic inhabitants of Europe. PMID:27853568

  6. Rodents: food or pests in Neolithic Orkney.

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, Andrzej A; Shepherd, Alexandra N; Clarke, David V; Sheridan, Alison J; Fraser, Sheena; Bartosiewicz, László; Herman, Jeremy S

    2016-10-01

    Rodents have important effects on contemporary human societies, sometimes providing a source of food but more often as agricultural pests, or as vectors and reservoirs of disease. Skeletal remains of rodents are commonly found in archaeological assemblages from around the world, highlighting their potential importance to ancient human populations. However, there are few studies of the interactions between people and rodents at such sites and most of these are confined to locations where rodents have formed a part of the recent diet. Here we compare the accumulation pattern of rodent remains from four locations within and adjacent to the renowned Neolithic site of Skara Brae, Orkney, showing that those within the settlement itself were the result of deliberate human activity. The accumulation and nature of burnt bones, incorporated over an extended period within deposits of household waste, indicate that rodents were used as a nutritional resource and may have been the subject of early pest control. We, therefore, provide the first evidence for the exploitation or control of rodents by the Neolithic inhabitants of Europe.

  7. Test Bed For Telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1990-01-01

    Assembly of electromechanical and electronic equipment (including computers) constitutes test bed for development of advanced robotic systems for remote manipulation. Combines features not found in commercial systems. Its architecture allows easy growth in complexity and level of automation. System national resource for validation of new telerobotic technology. Intended primarily for robots used in outer space, test bed adapted to development of advanced terrestrial telerobotic systems for handling radioactive materials, dangerous chemicals, and explosives.

  8. Bed exit alarms.

    PubMed

    2004-09-01

    Bed-exit alarms alert caregivers that a patient who should not get out of bed unassisted is doing so. These alarms can help reduce the likelihood of falls and can promote speedy assistance to patients who have already fallen. But as we described in our May 2004 Guidance Article on bed-exit alarms, they don't themselves prevent falls. They are only effective if used as part of an overall fall-prevention program and with a clear understanding of their limitations. This Evaluation examines the effectiveness of 16 bed-exit alarms from seven suppliers. Our ratings focus primarily on each product's reliability in detecting bed-exit events and alerting caregivers, its ability to minimize nuisance alarms (alarms that sound even though the patient isn't leaving the bed or that sound while a caregiver is helping the patient to leave the bed), and its resistance to deliberate or inadvertent tampering. Twelve of the products use pressure-sensor-activated alarms (mainly sensor pads placed on or under the mattress); three use a cord that can attach to the patient's garment, alarming if the cord is pulled loose from the control unit; and one is a position-sensitive alarm attached to a leg cuff. All the products reliably detect attempted or successful bed exits. But they vary greatly in how effectively they alert staff, minimize nuisance alarms, and resist tampering. Ease of use and battery performance also vary for many units. Of the pressure-sensor units, three are rated Preferred. Those units meet most of our criteria and have no significant disadvantages. Five of the other pressure-sensor products are Acceptable, and the remaining four are Not Recommended. All three cord-activated alarms are rated Acceptable, as is the patient-worn alarm.

  9. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages

    PubMed Central

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; III, Richard Kelly; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague–Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system. PMID:26817976

  10. Effect of 2 Bedding Materials on Ammonia Levels in Individually Ventilated Cages.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Jason M; Kumsher, David M; Kelly, Richard; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to identify an optimal rodent bedding and cage-change interval to establish standard procedures for the IVC in our rodent vivarium. Disposable cages were prefilled with either corncob or α-cellulose bedding and were used to house 2 adult Sprague-Dawley rats (experimental condition) or contained no animals (control). Rats were observed and intracage ammonia levels measured daily for 21 d. Intracage ammonia accumulation became significant by day 8 in experimental cages containing α-cellulose bedding, whereas experimental cages containing corncob bedding did not reach detectable levels of ammonia until day 14. In all 3 experimental cages containing α-cellulose, ammonia exceeded 100 ppm (our maximum acceptable limit) by day 11. Two experimental corncob cages required changing at days 16 and 17, whereas the remaining cage containing corncob bedding lasted the entire 21 d without reaching the 100-ppm ammonia threshold. These data suggests that corncob bedding provides nearly twice the service life of α-cellulose bedding in the IVC system.

  11. Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.

    PubMed

    Aak, A; Rukke, B A

    2014-03-01

    A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6 °C for ≥ 14 days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Mesenteric findings of CT enterography are well correlated with the endoscopic severity of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takehiro; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Saito, Keiko; Yoshihama, Sayuri; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Koseki, Hirotaka; Taida, Takashi; Ishigami, Hideaki; Okimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    Maintenance of mucosal healing is a primary goal when treating Crohn's disease (CD). Endoscopy is the most precise method for the assessment of mucosal healing, but is considered overly invasive for patients with CD. In contrast, CT enterography (CTE) is less invasive, but little is known about the correlation between mucosal status and CTE parameters. We recruited CD patients who underwent CTE and double balloon endoscopy (DBE) on the same day at our hospital between 2012 and 2014. CTE parameters evaluated included bowel-wall thickening, mural hyperenhancement, mural stratification (target sign), submucosal fat deposition, mesenteric hypervascularity (comb sign), increased fat density, mesenteric fibrofatty proliferation, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, and stenosis/sacculation. Endoscopic findings were evaluated using the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD). CTE parameters that were predictive of higher values in the SES-CD were extracted statistically. Forty-one patients were recruited, from which 191 intestinal segments were evaluated. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients showed that the majority of CTE values exhibited mild to moderate correlations with SES-CD values. Notably, multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis demonstrated that CTE findings obtained from the mesenteric area, such as mesenteric hypervascularity (comb sign) and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, were more critical predictors of endoscopic mucosal ulceration than those obtained from the bowel wall. This study was the first of its kind to assess correlations between CTE values and SES-CD values. Mesenteric findings of CTE, rather than mural findings, were highly correlated with the endoscopically evaluated severity of ulceration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vasodilator activity of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in human mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Materazzi, Serena; Zagli, Giovanni; Nassini, Romina; Bartolini, Ilenia; Romagnoli, Stefano; Chelazzi, Cosimo; Benemei, Silvia; Coratti, Andrea; De Gaudio, Angelo Raffaele; Patacchini, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The role of endogenous H2S has been highlighted as a gaseous transmitter. The vascular smooth muscle inhibitory effects of H2S have been characterized in isolated aorta and mesenteric arteries in rats and mice. Our study was aimed at investigating the vascular effects of H2S on human isolated mesenteric arteries and examining the underlying mechanisms involved. All experiments were performed on rings (4-8mm long) of human mesenteric arteries obtained from patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of the University of Florence (app. N. 2015/0024947). The effect of NaHS, an H2S donor, was determined using noradrenaline pre-contracted human isolated mesenteric rings. NaHS evoked a concentration-dependent relaxation (EC50 57μM). In contrast, homocysteine, an endogenous precursor of H2S, failed to affect human isolated mesenteric rings. Vasorelaxant response to NaHS was reduced by endothelium removal, application of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME and ODQ inhibitor of cyclic GMP. SQ 22536, an adenylate-cyclase inhibitor, failed to block NaHS-induced vasorelaxation. Inhibition of endogenous prostanoid production by indomethacin significantly reduced NaHS induced vasorelaxation. The role of potassium channels was also examined: blockers of the Ca(2+)-dependent potassium channel, charybdotoxin and apamin, failed to have any influence on the relaxant response to NaHS on this vascular tissue. In summary, H2S induced relaxation of isolated rings of human mesenteric arteries. Endothelium-dependent related mechanisms with the stimulation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels represents important cellular mechanisms for H2S effect on human mesenteric arteries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bed rest and immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  15. Endothelin-1 and endothelin-2 initiate and maintain contractile responses by different mechanisms in rat mesenteric and cerebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Compeer, M G; Janssen, G M J; De Mey, J G R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endothelin (ET)-1 and ET-2 cause potent long-lasting vasoconstrictions by tight binding to smooth muscle ETA receptors. We tested the hypotheses that different mechanisms mediate initiation and maintenance of arterial contractile responses to ET-1 and ET-2 and that this differs among vascular beds. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Segments of rat mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) and basilar artery (BA) were studied in wire myographs with and without functional antagonists. KEY RESULTS Sensitivity and maximum of MRA contractile responses to ET-1 were not, or only moderately, reduced by stimulation of soluble GC, AC or K+-channels and by an inhibitor of receptor-operated ion channels. However, each of these reduced maintenance of ET-1 effects and relaxed ET-1-induced contractions in MRA. A calcium channel antagonist did not alter sensitivity, maximum and maintenance of ET-1 effects, but relaxed ET-1-induced contractions in MRA. A PLC inhibitor prevented contractile responses to ET-1 and ET-2 in MRA and BA, and relaxed ET-1- and ET-2-induced responses in MRA and ET-1 effects in BA. A Rho-kinase inhibitor did not modify sensitivity, maximum and maintenance of responses to both peptides in both arteries but relaxed ET-2, but not ET-1, effects in MRA and ET-1 effects in BA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS PLC played a key role in arterial contractile responses to ETs, but ET-1 and ET-2 initiated and maintained vasoconstriction through different mechanisms, and these differed between MRA and BA. Selective functional antagonism may be considered for agonist- and vascular bed selective pharmacotherapy of ET-related diseases. PMID:23941276

  16. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  17. Can rodents conceive hyperbolic spaces?

    PubMed Central

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio; Troiani, Francesca; Stella, Federico; Treves, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The grid cells discovered in the rodent medial entorhinal cortex have been proposed to provide a metric for Euclidean space, possibly even hardwired in the embryo. Yet, one class of models describing the formation of grid unit selectivity is entirely based on developmental self-organization, and as such it predicts that the metric it expresses should reflect the environment to which the animal has adapted. We show that, according to self-organizing models, if raised in a non-Euclidean hyperbolic cage rats should be able to form hyperbolic grids. For a given range of grid spacing relative to the radius of negative curvature of the hyperbolic surface, such grids are predicted to appear as multi-peaked firing maps, in which each peak has seven neighbours instead of the Euclidean six, a prediction that can be tested in experiments. We thus demonstrate that a useful universal neuronal metric, in the sense of a multi-scale ruler and compass that remain unaltered when changing environments, can be extended to other than the standard Euclidean plane. PMID:25948611

  18. Can rodents conceive hyperbolic spaces?

    PubMed

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio; Troiani, Francesca; Stella, Federico; Treves, Alessandro

    2015-06-06

    The grid cells discovered in the rodent medial entorhinal cortex have been proposed to provide a metric for Euclidean space, possibly even hardwired in the embryo. Yet, one class of models describing the formation of grid unit selectivity is entirely based on developmental self-organization, and as such it predicts that the metric it expresses should reflect the environment to which the animal has adapted. We show that, according to self-organizing models, if raised in a non-Euclidean hyperbolic cage rats should be able to form hyperbolic grids. For a given range of grid spacing relative to the radius of negative curvature of the hyperbolic surface, such grids are predicted to appear as multi-peaked firing maps, in which each peak has seven neighbours instead of the Euclidean six, a prediction that can be tested in experiments. We thus demonstrate that a useful universal neuronal metric, in the sense of a multi-scale ruler and compass that remain unaltered when changing environments, can be extended to other than the standard Euclidean plane.

  19. Modeling panic disorder in rodents.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabrício A; Gobira, Pedro H; Viana, Thércia G; Vicente, Maria A; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G

    2013-10-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is a subtype of anxiety disorder in which the core phenomenon is the spontaneous occurrence of panic attacks. Although studies with laboratory animals have been instrumental for the understanding of its neurobiology and treatment, few review articles have focused on the validity of the currently used animal models for studying this psychopathology. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to discuss the strengths and limits of these models in terms of face, construct and predictive validity. Based on the hypothesis that panic attacks are related to defensive responses elicited by proximal threat, most animal models measure the escape responses induced by specific stimuli. Some apply electrical or chemical stimulation to brain regions proposed to modulate fear and panic responses, such as the dorsal periaqueductal grey or the medial hypothalamus. Other models focus on the behavioural consequences caused by the exposure of rodents to ultrasound or natural predators. Finally, the elevated T-maze associates a one-way escape response from an open arm with panic attacks. Despite some limitations, animal models are essential for a better understanding of the neurobiology and pharmacology of PD and for discovering more effective treatments.

  20. 5-HT is a potent relaxant in rat superior mesenteric veins.

    PubMed

    Watts, Stephanie W; Darios, Emma S; Seitz, Bridget M; Thompson, Janice M

    2015-02-01

    Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) reduces blood pressure of the conscious rat when administered chronically (1 week). 5-HT does not directly relax isolated arteries, and microsphere experiments in 5-HT-infused rats suggested that 5-HT increased flow to the splanchnic bed. We hypothesized that 5-HT increased splanchnic flow because of direct venous relaxation; our focus was thus on the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) as an important vein in splanchnic circulation. Real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western analyses supported the predominant expression of the 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor in the SMV. The SMV was mounted in tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction. 5-HT caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-contracted vein. The threshold of 5-HT-induced venous relaxation was significantly lower than for 5-HT-induced venous contraction (∼2 vs. 700 nmol/L, respectively). A series of serotonergic agonists established in their use of receptor characterization was tested, and the following rank order of potency found for agonist-induced relaxation (receptor selectivity): 5-CT (5-HT1/5-HT7)>5-HT = LP-44 (5-HT7)>PNU109291 (5-HT1D) = BW723C86 (5-HT2B). 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A/7), CP93129 (5-HT1B), mCPBG (5-HT3/4), AS19 (5-HT7) and TCB-2 (5-HT2A) did not relax the isolated vein. Consistent with these findings, two different 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB 269970 and LY215840 but not the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist LY272015 nor the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor LNNA abolished 5-CT-induced relaxation of the isolated SMV. 5-CT (1 μg kg(-1) min(-1), sc) also reduced blood pressure over 7 days. These findings suggest that 5-HT directly relaxes the SMV primarily through activation of the 5-HT7 receptor.

  1. 5-HT is a potent relaxant in rat superior mesenteric veins

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Stephanie W; Darios, Emma S; Seitz, Bridget M; Thompson, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) reduces blood pressure of the conscious rat when administered chronically (1 week). 5-HT does not directly relax isolated arteries, and microsphere experiments in 5-HT-infused rats suggested that 5-HT increased flow to the splanchnic bed. We hypothesized that 5-HT increased splanchnic flow because of direct venous relaxation; our focus was thus on the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) as an important vein in splanchnic circulation. Real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western analyses supported the predominant expression of the 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor in the SMV. The SMV was mounted in tissue baths for measurement of isometric contraction. 5-HT caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-contracted vein. The threshold of 5-HT-induced venous relaxation was significantly lower than for 5-HT-induced venous contraction (∼2 vs. 700 nmol/L, respectively). A series of serotonergic agonists established in their use of receptor characterization was tested, and the following rank order of potency found for agonist-induced relaxation (receptor selectivity): 5-CT (5-HT1/5-HT7)>5-HT = LP-44 (5-HT7)>PNU109291 (5-HT1D) = BW723C86 (5-HT2B). 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A/7), CP93129 (5-HT1B), mCPBG (5-HT3/4), AS19 (5-HT7) and TCB-2 (5-HT2A) did not relax the isolated vein. Consistent with these findings, two different 5-HT7 receptor antagonists SB 269970 and LY215840 but not the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist LY272015 nor the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor LNNA abolished 5-CT-induced relaxation of the isolated SMV. 5-CT (1 μg kg−1 min−1, sc) also reduced blood pressure over 7 days. These findings suggest that 5-HT directly relaxes the SMV primarily through activation of the 5-HT7 receptor. PMID:25692021

  2. Mechanism of lactate-induced relaxation of isolated rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, W; Aaronson, P I; Knock, G; Graves, J; Poston, L

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of the sodium salt of the weak acid lactate on tension and intracellular pH (pH1) were studied in rat mesenteric small arteries mounted on a wire myograph. Sodium lactate was substituted iso-osmotically for sodium chloride. 2. At a concentration of 50 mM, both L- and D-stereoisomers of lactate markedly relaxed arteries preconstricted with noradrenaline (NA) within 10 min. The concentration-response relationship for L-lactate showed that the NA contracture was relaxed by 50% at approximately 26 mM. L-Lactate did not, however, relax arteries preconstricted with high-K+(45 mM) solution. 3. L-Lactate did not alter extracellular pH (pHo) but caused a small but significant decrease in pH1, measured using the pH-sensitive fluorochrome, 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5-(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Relaxation to L-lactate was unaffected when this change in pHi was offset by the simultaneous addition of NH4Cl to the solution. 4. Sodium pyruvate (50 mM) caused a significant intracellular acidosis but did not relax arteries preconstricted with NA. 5. L-Lactate-induced relaxations were unaffected by removal of the endothelium or when the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) was inhibited by 10(-4) M N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). 6. The potassium channel blockers glibenclamide (10 microM), 4-aminopyridine (3 mM) and tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM) did not affect L-lactate-induced relaxation in arteries preconstricted with NA. Inhibition of guanylate cyclase with Methylene Blue, or cyclooxgenase with indomethacin, also did not affect relaxation to L-lactate. 7. The Rp stereoisomer of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate (Rp-cAMPS), an analogue of cAMP which inhibits competitively stimulation of protein kinase A, reduced significantly L-lactate-induced relaxation at a concentration of 25 microM. Rp-cAMPS also significantly reduced forskolin-induced relaxation of the NA contracture. 8. It is concluded that L-lactate-induced relaxation in this

  3. Nonocclusive Mesenteric Ischemia in a Patient on Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Youb; Kwon, Young Joo; Shin, Jin Ho; Pyo, Heui Jung; Kim, Ae Ree

    2000-01-01

    Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is known to occupy about 25% to 60% of intestinal infarction. NOMI has been reported to be responsible for 9% of the deaths in the dialysis population and the postulated causes of NOMI include intradialytic hypotension, atherosclerosis and medications, such as diuretics, digitalis and vasopressors. Clinical manifestations, such as fever, diarrhea and leukocytosis, are nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis of NOMI very difficult. Case: A 66-year-old woman on maintenance hemodialysis for 5 years was admitted with syncope, abdominal pain and chilly sensation. Since 7 days prior to admission, blood pressure on the supine position during hemodialysis had frequently fallen to 80/50 mmHg. Four days later, she complained of progressive abdominal pain. Rebound tenderness and leukocytosis (WBC 13900/mm3) with left shift were noted. Stool examination was positive for occult blood. Abdominal CT scan showed a distended gall bladder with sludge. Under the impression of acalculous cholecystitis, she was operated on. Surgical and pathologic findings of colon colon were compatible with NOMI. Because of recurrent intradialytic hypotension, we started midodrine 2.5 mg just before hemodialysis and increased the dose up to 7.5 mg. After midodrine therapy, blood pressure during dialysis became stable and the symptoms associated with hypotension did not recur. Conclusion: As NOMI may occur within several hours or days after an intradialytic hypotensive episode, abdominal pain should be carefully observed and NOMI should be considered as a differential diagnosis. In addition, we suggest that midodrine be considered to prevent intradialytic hypotensive episodes. PMID:10714097

  4. Endovascular Therapeutic Approaches for Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, S. Sonesson, B.; Resch, T.

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the outcome of attempted endovascular intervention in patients with acute embolic or thrombotic superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion. The records of 21 patients during a 3-year period between 2005 and 2008 were retrieved from the in-hospital registry. The first group included 10 patients (6 women and 4 men; median age 78 years) with acute embolic occlusion of the SMA. The median duration of symptoms from symptom onset to angiography was 30 hours (range 6 to 120). Synchronous emboli (n = 12) occurred in 6 patients. Embolus aspiration was performed in 9 patients, and 7 of these had satisfactory results. Complementary local thrombolysis was successful in 2 of 3 patients. Residual emboli were present at completion angiography in all 7 patients who underwent successful aspiration embolectomy, and bowel resection was necessary in only 1 of these patients. One serious complication occurred because of a long SMA dissection. The in-hospital survival rate was 90% (9 of 10 patients). The second group included 11 patients (10 women and 1 man; median age 68 years) with atherosclerotic acute SMA occlusions. The median time of symptom duration before intervention was 97 hours (range 17 to 384). The brachial, femoral, and SMA routes were used in 6, 7, and 5 patients, respectively. SMA stenting was performed through an antegrade (n = 7) or retrograde (n = 3) approach. Bowel resection was necessary in 4 patients. No major complications occurred. The in-hospital survival rate was 82% (9 of 11 patients). Endovascular therapy of acute SMA occlusion provides a good alternative to open surgery.

  5. Impaired myogenic tone in mesenteric arteries from overweight rats.

    PubMed

    Sweazea, Karen L; Walker, Benjimen R

    2012-03-16

    Rats fed high fat (HFD) or high sucrose (HSD) diets develop increased adiposity as well as impaired vasodilatory responsiveness stemming from oxidative stress. Moreover, HFD rats become hypertensive compared to either control (Chow) or HSD fed rats, suggesting elevated vascular tone. We hypothesized that rats with increased adiposity and oxidative stress demonstrate augmented pressure-induced vasoconstriction (i.e. myogenic tone) that could account for the hypertensive state. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Chow, HFD or HSD for 6 weeks. The effects of oxidative stress and endogenous nitric oxide on myogenic responses were examined in small mesenteric arteries by exposing the arteries to incremental intraluminal pressure steps in the presence of antioxidants or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, LNNA (100 μM). Contrary to the hypothesis, rats fed either HSD or HFD had significantly impaired myogenic responses despite similar vascular morphology and passive diameter responses to increasing pressures. Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) calcium levels were normal in HFD arteries suggesting that diminished calcium sensitivity was responsible for the impaired myogenic response. In contrast, VSM calcium levels were reduced in HSD arteries but were increased with pre-exposure of arteries to the antioxidants tiron (10 mM) and catalase (1200 U/mL), also resulting in enhanced myogenic tone. These findings show that oxidative stress impairs myogenic tone in arteries from HSD rats by decreasing VSM calcium. Similarly, VSM calcium responses were increased in arteries from HFD rats following treatment with tiron and catalase, but this did not result in improved myogenic tone. Nitric oxide is involved in the impaired myogenic response in HFD, but not HSD, rats since inhibition with LNNA resulted in maximal myogenic responses at lower intraluminal pressures and VSM calcium levels, further implicating reduced calcium sensitivity in the impaired response. The impaired myogenic

  6. Novel hematologic inflammatory parameters to predict acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Toptas, Mehmet; Akkoc, İbrahim; Savas, Yildiray; Uzman, Sinan; Toptas, Yasar; Can, Mehmet Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    Acute mesenteric ischaemia (AMI) is an emergency condition that requires urgent diagnosis. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been studied as inflammatory biomarkers in atherosclerosis, but data regarding AMI are lacking. The study population included patients with AMI (n = 46) versus age and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 46). Computed multidetector tomographic angiography was performed to diagnose AMI. NLR and PLR were calculated using complete blood count. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also analyzed. Neutrophil levels and lymphocytes were significantly higher in patients with AMI than in the control individuals (P < 0.001 and P = 0.43, respectively). NLR levels were significantly higher in patients with AMI compared with that in the control individuals (P < 0.001). Platelet levels did not reach statistical significance between the groups (P = 0.709). However, patients with AMI had significantly higher PLR levels than the control group (P = 0.039). CRP levels on admission were higher in patients with AMI in comparison with control individuals. There was also a positive correlation between NLR and CRP (r = 0.548, P < 0.001), and between PLR and CRP (r = 0.528, P < 0.001). NLR level greater than 4.5, measured on admission, yielded an area under the curve value of 0.790 (95% confidence interval 0.681-0.799, sensitivity 77%, specificity 72%), and PLR level of greater than 157 yielded an area under the curve value of 0.604 (95% confidence interval 0.486-0.722, sensitivity 59%, specificity 65%). Patients with AMI had increased NLR, PLR, and CRP levels compared with controls. Increased NLR and PLR was an independent predictor of AMI.

  7. Superior mesenteric artery outcomes after fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Lala, Salim; Knowles, Martyn; Timaran, David; Baig, Mirza Shadman; Valentine, James; Timaran, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    The Zenith (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind) fenestrated endovascular graft may be designed with single-wide scallops or large fenestrations to address the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Misalignment of the SMA with an unstented scallop or a large fenestration is possible. This study assessed SMA outcomes after fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (FEVAR). During an 18-month period, 47 FEVARs were performed at a single institution. For analysis, patients were grouped according to unstented (n = 23) vs stented (n = 24) SMA scallops/fenestrations. The Institutional Review Board approved this single-institution observational study. Because this was a retrospective review of the data, patient consent was unnecessary for the study. Technical success for FEVAR was 100%. The median follow-up period was 7.7 months (range, 1-16 months). Nine of 21 patients (43%) in the unstented group had some degree of misalignment of the SMA (range, 9%-71%). Among these, four patients (44%) developed complications: three SMA stenoses and one occlusion. The mean peak systolic velocity in patients with and without SMA misalignment was 317.8 cm/s vs 188.4 cm/s (P < .08), respectively. No misalignment occurred in the stented group, and only one of 19 patients (5%) developed an SMA stenosis that required angioplasty. Overall, patients with unstented SMAs had significantly more adverse events directly attributable to SMA misalignment than the stented group (44% vs 5%, respectively; P < .05). Misalignment of the SMA with the use of unstented unreinforced scallops or fenestrations occurs frequently. Routine stenting of single-wide and large fenestrations, when feasible, may be a safer option for patients undergoing FEVAR. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock without resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Gang; Zhu, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Li-Min; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Niu, Chun-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mesenteric lymph drainage on the acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock without resuscitation. Eighteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, shock, and drainage groups. The hemorrhagic shock model (40 mmHg, 3 h) was established in shock and drainage groups; mesenteric lymph drainage was performed from 1 h to 3 h of hypotension in the drainage group. The results showed that renal tissue damage occurred; the levels of urea, creatinine, and trypsin in the plasma as well as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), lactic acid (LA), and 2,3-DPG in the renal tissue were increased in the shock group after 3 h of hypotension. Mesenteric lymph drainage lessened the following: renal tissue damage; urea and trypsin concentrations in the plasma; ICAM-1, RAGE, TNF-α, MDA, and LA levels in the renal tissue. By contrast, mesenteric lymph drainage increased the 2,3-DPG level in the renal tissue. These findings indicated that mesenteric lymph drainage could relieve kidney injury caused by sustained hypotension, and its mechanisms involve the decrease in trypsin activity, suppression of inflammation, alleviation of free radical injury, and improvement of energy metabolism.

  9. The role of radiology in the diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Upponi, Sara; Harvey, John Julian; Uberoi, Raman; Ganeshan, Arul

    2013-03-01

    Clinicians working in any acute medical/surgical unit need an understanding of mesenteric ischaemia. Acute mesenteric ischaemia is a life-threatening vascular emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, prompt diagnosis with the use of contrast-enhanced CT, more specifically CT angiography, has replaced catheter angiography as the new standard and is readily available in many emergency departments. Similarly, new hybrid open surgery endovascular treatment can minimise the surgical insult to these often critically ill elderly patients. Together, these changes can change the previously grim prognosis associated with this condition. By contrast, chronic mesenteric ischaemia (CMI) is an insidious disease and often a diagnosis of exclusion. However, it can cause a significant reduction in a patient's quality of life, due to 'mesenteric angina' and food avoidance, yet can potentially be treated simply and effectively. Recognition of the typical clinical history and imaging findings is key to making the diagnosis in a timely fashion. Radiology plays a significant role in the diagnosis and increasingly in the treatment of mesenteric ischaemia. Other clinicians should have a basic understanding of what radiology can and cannot offer. The advantages and limitations of commonly used imaging modalities-plain films, CT, MRI and ultrasound, are examined. The significance of findings, such as pneumatosis coli and portal gas are explained. Finally, the different endovascular management of both acute and CMI is discussed, which have emerged as minimally invasive options to complement open revascularisation surgery.

  10. Mesenteric Resistance Arteries in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice Undergo Outward Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Smith, Flavia M.; Katz, Paige S.; Trask, Aaron J.; Stewart, James A.; Lord, Kevin C.; Varner, Kurt J.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Lucchesi, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Resistance vessel remodeling is controlled by myriad of hemodynamic and neurohormonal factors. This study characterized structural and molecular remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs) in diabetic (db/db) and control (Db/db) mice. Methods Structural properties were assessed in isolated MRAs from 12 and 16 wk-old db/db and Db/db mice by pressure myography. Matrix regulatory proteins were measured by Western blot analysis. Mean arterial pressure and superior mesenteric blood flow were measured in 12 wk-old mice by telemetry and a Doppler flow nanoprobe, respectively. Results Blood pressure was similar between groups. Lumen diameter and medial cross-sectional area were significantly increased in 16 wk-old db/db MRA compared to control, indicating outward hypertrophic remodeling. Moreover, wall stress and cross-sectional compliance were significantly larger in diabetic arteries. These remodeling indices were associated with increased expression of matrix regulatory proteins matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-12, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, TIMP-2, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in db/db arteries. Finally, superior mesenteric artery blood flow was increased by 46% in 12 wk-old db/db mice, a finding that preceded mesenteric resistance artery remodeling. Conclusions These data suggest that flow-induced hemodynamic changes may supersede the local neurohormonal and metabolic milieu to culminate in hypertrophic outward remodeling of type 2 DM mesenteric resistance arteries. PMID:21829729

  11. Mesenteric ischemia following the correction of adult spinal deformity: case report.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Krishn; Berven, Sigurd H

    2017-04-01

    Vascular complications are an important adverse event that can be associated with spinal reconstructive surgery. Direct injury of vessels, or indirect traction or compression of vessels, can cause both arterial and venous injury. Indirect compression of the mesenteric vessels is a well-recognized complication of bracing and surgical care of children with spinal deformity (superior mesenteric artery syndrome), but the complication is not common or well recognized in the adult population with spinal deformity. The purpose of this case report is to detail the case of postoperative mesenteric ischemia in a 63-year-old man in whom a posterior approach was used to perform spinal deformity correction. Preoperatively, the patient had had significant lumbar hypolordosis. The reconstructive surgery with the use of posterior-based osteotomies resulted in a shortening of the posterior column of the spine but a relative lengthening of structures anterior to the spine. The significant lordosis achieved by the surgery led to an acute worsening of the mesenteric stenosis suffered by the patient. He required a vascular surgery intervention to restore perfusion to the bowel. Recognition of severe vasculopathy is important in anticipating potential postoperative vascular insufficiency. This case report will inform surgeons and clinicians to have a higher index of suspicion for the exacerbation of vascular insufficiency, including mesenteric pathology, in patients undergoing surgery that involves significant realignment of the spine. Preoperative recognition of vascular insufficiency and treatment of symptomatic disease may limit the occurrence of postoperative vascular complications in spinal reconstructive surgery.

  12. Partial abdominal evisceration and intestinal autotransplantation to resect a mesenteric carcinoid tumor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Midgut carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors that commonly metastasize to the intestinal mesentery, where they predispose to intestinal obstruction, ischemia and/or congestion. Because of their location, many mesenteric carcinoid tumors are deemed unresectable due to the risk of uncontrollable bleeding and prolonged intestinal ischemia. Case Presentation We report the case of a 60-year-old male with a mesenteric carcinoid tumor obstructing his superior mesenteric vein, resulting in intestinal varices and severe recurrent GI bleeds. While his tumor was thought to be unresectable by conventional techniques, it was successfully resected using intestinal autotransplantation to safely gain access to the tumor. This case is the first described application of this technique to carcinoid tumors. Conclusions Intestinal autotransplantation can be utilized to safely resect mesenteric carcinoid tumors from patients who were not previously thought to be surgical candidates. We review the literature concerning both carcinoid metastases to the intestinal mesentery and the use of intestinal autotransplantation to treat lesions involving the mesenteric root. PMID:21281518

  13. Guanylyl cyclase C and guanylin reduce fat droplet accumulation in cattle mesenteric adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masahiro; Kawabata, Jyunya; Akieda-Asai, Sayaka; Nasu, Tetsuo; Date, Yukari

    2017-09-30

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) is a member of a family of enzymes that metabolize GTP to cGMP and was first identified as a receptor for heat-stable enterotoxin. Guanylin (GNY) has since been identified as an endogenous ligand for GC-C in the intestine of several mammalian species. The GNY/GC-C system regulates ion transportation and pH in the mucosa. Recently, it was reported that GC-C and GNY are involved in lipid metabolism in rat mesenteric adipose tissue macrophages. To examine the role of GC-C and GNY in lipid metabolism in cattle, we used a bovine mesenteric adipocyte primary culture system and a coculture system for bovine adipocytes and GNY-/GC-C-expressing macrophages. Fat droplets were observed to accumulate in bovine mesenteric adipocytes cultured alone, whereas few fat droplets accumulated in adipocytes indirectly cocultured with macrophages. We also observed that GC-C was present in bovine mesenteric adipose tissue, and that fat droplet accumulation decreased after in vitro GNY administration. Expressions of mRNAs encoding lipogenic factors decreased significantly in adipocytes after either coculture or GNY administration. These results suggest that the GNY/GC-C system is part of the control system for lipid accumulation in bovine mesenteric adipose tissue.

  14. Arterial Embolization in the Management of Mesenteric Bleeding Secondary to Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Ghelfi, Julien; Frandon, Julien; Barbois, Sandrine; Vendrell, Anne; Rodiere, Mathieu; Sengel, Christian; Bricault, Ivan; Arvieux, Catherine; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Mesenteric bleeding is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma. It can induce active hemorrhage and a compressive hematoma leading to bowel ischemia. Emergency laparotomy remains the gold standard treatment. We aimed to study the effectiveness and complications of embolization in patients with post-traumatic mesenteric bleeding. The medical records of 7 consecutive patients with active mesenteric bleeding treated by embolization in a level-one trauma center from 2007 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients presented with active mesenteric bleeding on CT scans without major signs of intestinal ischemia. We focused on technical success, clinical success, and the complications of embolization. Six endovascular procedures were successful in controlling hemorrhage but 1 patient had surgery to stop associated arterial and venous bleeding. One patient suffered from bowel ischemia, a major complication of embolization, which was confirmed by surgery. No acute renal failure was noted after angiography. For 1 patient we performed combined management as the endovascular approach allowed an easier surgical exploration. In mesenteric trauma with active bleeding, embolization is a valuable alternative to surgery and should be considered, taking into account the risk of bowel ischemia.

  15. Case Report of Four Different Primary Mesenteric Neoplasms and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yagmur, Yusuf; Akbulut, Sami; Gumus, Serdar; Babur, Mehmet; Can, Mehmet Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is rare for primary tumors to arise from the mesentery. Lymphangiomas appear as congenital malformations of the lymphatic system or benign neoplasms as a large, thin-walled, often multilocular cyst. Mesenteric infiltration is common and during surgical treatment, adjustment of structures such as the bowel and resection of the spleen may be required. Cystic mesotheliomas are rare, benign tumors that originate from the peritoneal mesothelium and are more common in women. Mesenteric cysts are mostly benign and rare intra-abdominal tumors, and can be seen as occupying a large cyst. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a rare pleomorphic sarcoma that is more commonly encountered in men. After the extremities, the second most common areas to be affected are the retroperitoneum and peritoneal cavity. Case Presentation We encountered four cases of different primary mesenteric neoplasms that were operated at the Gazi Yasargil teaching and research hospital, department of general surgery, Diyarbakir, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014. We reviewed these primary mesenteric neoplasms and compared them with previous literature. Conclusions Primary mesenteric tumors are rare and mostly benign tumors. Complete surgical excision is necessary for all tumors and follow-up is necessary after surgery for malignant fibrous histiocytoma due to recurrence. PMID:28180018

  16. Case Report of Four Different Primary Mesenteric Neoplasms and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Yagmur, Yusuf; Akbulut, Sami; Gumus, Serdar; Babur, Mehmet; Can, Mehmet Ali

    2016-10-01

    It is rare for primary tumors to arise from the mesentery. Lymphangiomas appear as congenital malformations of the lymphatic system or benign neoplasms as a large, thin-walled, often multilocular cyst. Mesenteric infiltration is common and during surgical treatment, adjustment of structures such as the bowel and resection of the spleen may be required. Cystic mesotheliomas are rare, benign tumors that originate from the peritoneal mesothelium and are more common in women. Mesenteric cysts are mostly benign and rare intra-abdominal tumors, and can be seen as occupying a large cyst. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a rare pleomorphic sarcoma that is more commonly encountered in men. After the extremities, the second most common areas to be affected are the retroperitoneum and peritoneal cavity. We encountered four cases of different primary mesenteric neoplasms that were operated at the Gazi Yasargil teaching and research hospital, department of general surgery, Diyarbakir, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014. We reviewed these primary mesenteric neoplasms and compared them with previous literature. Primary mesenteric tumors are rare and mostly benign tumors. Complete surgical excision is necessary for all tumors and follow-up is necessary after surgery for malignant fibrous histiocytoma due to recurrence.

  17. Emergency and critical care of rodents.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Graham, Jennifer E

    2007-05-01

    Rodents may be presented on an emergency basis with various conditions causing debilitation and disease. Common causes of emergent presentations include trauma, respiratory disease, dental disease, gastrointestinal disease, reproductive disorders, and urinary tract obstruction. Emergency treatment should always include immediate stabilization of the patient until the patient is able to tolerate diagnostic testing and additional therapeutics. Rodent patients benefit from supportive care, including thermal, fluid, and nutritional support. Administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, antibiotics, and analgesics through various routes is also appropriate. This article presents an overview of emergency medicine in rodents, including emergency procedures, handling and restraint, triage and patient assessment, sample collection, and supportive care procedures. The most common emergency presentations for rodents are also discussed.

  18. Cross hospital bed management system.

    PubMed

    Abedian, S; Kazemi, H; Riazi, H; Bitaraf, E

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate numbers of hospital beds to accommodate the injured is a main problem in public hospitals. For control of occupancy of bed, we design a dynamic system that announces status of bed when it change with admission or discharge of a patient. This system provide a wide network in country for bed management, especially for ICU and CCU beds that help us to distribute injured patient in the hospitals.

  19. Rodents as potential couriers for bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J

    2013-09-01

    Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control.

  20. Neural and humoral control of regional vascular beds via A1 adenosine receptors located in the nucleus tractus solitarii

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Joseph M.; O'Leary, Donal S.

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) exerts counteracting effects on the iliac vascular bed: activation of the adrenal medulla and β-adrenergic vasodilation vs. sympathetic and vasopressinergic vasoconstriction. Because NTS A1 adenosine receptors inhibit baroreflex transmission in the NTS and contribute to the pressor component of the HDR, we hypothesized that these receptors also contribute to the redistribution of blood from the visceral to the muscle vasculature via prevailing sympathetic and vasopressinergic vasoconstriction in the visceral (renal and mesenteric) vascular beds and prevailing β-adrenergic vasodilation in the somatic (iliac) vasculature. To test this hypothesis, we compared the A1 adenosine-receptor-mediated effects of each vasoactive factor triggered by NTS A1 adenosine receptor stimulation [N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), 330 pmol in 50 nl] on the regional vascular responses in urethane/chloralose-anesthetized rats. The single-factor effects were separated using adrenalectomy, β-adrenergic blockade, V1 vasopressin receptor blockade, and sinoaortic denervation. In intact animals, initial vasodilation was followed by large, sustained vasoconstriction with smaller responses observed in renal vs. mesenteric and iliac vascular beds. The initial β-adrenergic vasodilation prevailed in the iliac vs. mesenteric and renal vasculature. The large and sustained vasopressinergic vasoconstriction was similar in all vascular beds. Small sympathetic vasoconstriction was observed only in the iliac vasculature in this setting. We conclude that, although A1 adenosine-receptor-mediated β-adrenergic vasodilation may contribute to the redistribution of blood from the visceral to the muscle vasculature, this effect is overridden by sympathetic and vasopressinergic vasoconstriction. PMID:21148476

  1. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  2. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  3. Wandering spleen as a cause of mesenteric and portal varices: a new etiology?

    PubMed

    Zarroug, Abdalla E; Hashim, Yassar; El-Youssef, Mounif; Zeidan, Moiz M; Moir, Christopher R

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity characterized by spleen hypermobility due to lack or weakness of one or more splenic ligaments. We report two patients with the diagnosis of wandering spleen with portal and mesenteric varices. A 16 year-old girl presented with abdominal pain, an abdominal mass and pancytopenia. A 12 year-old girl presented with an abdominal mass only. Imaging studies revealed both patients had a viable but torsed wandering spleen in association with portal, splenic and mesenteric varices. Both were treated with splenectomy and had resolution of their symptoms. Imaging confirmed complete resolution of all varices at 30 month and 11 year follow up respectively. These cases represent the first report of a wandering spleen causing portal and mesenteric venous partial obstruction leading to varices; splenectomy resolved these findings post-operatively.

  4. Celiac Artery Thrombosis and Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenoses with Essential Thrombocythemia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Hasan Attila; Yetisir, Fahri; Bayram, Huseyin; Bayraktaroglu, Mehmet Selahattin; Simsek, Erdal; Kilic, Mehmet; Katircioglu, Salih Fehmi

    2012-01-01

    Thrombosis of the celiac artery trunk is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain. Thrombosis of the celiac artery carries a high mortality and morbidity when the diagnoses and treatment are delayed. It is frequently associated with other cardiovascular events. The most common etiology is atherosclerosis. 20–30% of cases may have symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischemia. Main goal of the treatment is to reestablish the diminished or stopped mesenteric blood flow and to avoid end-organ ischemia. Essential thrombocythemia is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by marked increase in thrombocyte number and clinical presentation may be with thrombotic episodes, hemorrhage, or both. To our knowledge this is the first report of celiac artery thrombosis and superior mesenteric artery stenoses in a patient with essential thrombocythemia. The patient was managed successfully with surgical treatment. PMID:23304160

  5. A Rare Cause of Childhood Ileus: Giant Mesenteric Lipoma and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Erdal; Edirne, Yesim; Karaca, Fahri; Memetoglu, Mehmet Erdal; Unal, Emel; Ermumcu, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric lipomas are benign tumors of mature fat cells. They are usually asymptomatic and create a clinical picture that depends on the localization and size of the lipoma. Although rare, unusually large mesenteric giant lipomas can cause partial or complete bowel obstruction. Lipomas resulting in partial bowel obstruction can present with symptoms such as intermittent abdominal pain and abdominal distention. With complete obstruction, a child can present with an acute abdomen. Treatment is the excision of the mass along with the affected portion of bowel. In this case study, a 2-year-old female presented with a bowel obstruction due to the presence of a giant mesenteric lipoma. Clinical features of 16 cases published in the English literature to date are presented. PMID:25610284

  6. Mesenteric vein thrombosis caused by secondary polycythaemia from AndroGel.

    PubMed

    Katz, Heather; Popov, Eugene; Bray, Natasha; Berman, Barry

    2014-10-21

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis is a rare but potentially lethal cause of abdominal pain. It is usually caused by prothrombotic states that can either be hereditary or acquired. Testosterone supplementation causes an acquired prothrombotic state by promoting erythropoeisis thus causing a secondary polycythaemia. We report a case of a 59-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) stage III, who presented with abdominal pain. Evaluation revealed an elevated haemoglobin and haematocrit, a superior mesenteric vein thrombosis on CT and a negative Janus kinase 2 mutation. The patient is currently being treated with 6 months of anticoagulation with rivaroxiban. Although a well-known side effect of testosterone is thrombosis, the present case is used to document in the literature the first case of mesenteric vein thrombosis due to secondary polycythaemia from Androgel in the setting of COPD.

  7. Effects of exercise and excitement on mesenteric and renal dynamics in conscious, unrestrained baboons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatner, S. F.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to measure arterial pressure and mesenteric and renal blood flows from nine unrestrained, conscious baboons during periods of rest, moderate exercise, and extreme excitement. A description of the experiments hardware is presented, including artificial depressants phenylcyclidine hydrochloride, 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, and pentobarbital sodium, 15 mg/kg, and an ultrasonic telemetry flow meter. Results showed rising heart rate and arterial pressure coupled with a reduction of mesenteric and renal flows as the level of exercise was increased. These findings are compared with mesenteric and renal flows somewhat above control level, but relatively stable heart rate and arterial pressure, postprandially. Attention is given to a quantitative analysis of the experimental results.

  8. Laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication with duodenojejunostomy for the management of superior mesenteric artery syndrome with reflux symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chao; Hu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ji-Min; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Liang; Wang, Zhong-Gao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: The patient had symptoms of GERD and the reflux even caused the symptom of cough. Gaining weight is a risk factor for the treatment of reflux as it could exacerbated symptoms of reflux and the drug treatment is not effective. Surgical intervention becomes necessary when there is failure following conservative medical therapy or the patient. Patient concerns: The patient was not satisfied with the drug treatment. Diagnoses: Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease. Interventions: Laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication with duodenojejunostomy. Outcomes: The patient discharged from hospital 10 days after surgery without any postoperative complication. The patient achieved complete relief of symptoms and discontinuation of drug. Lessons subsections: Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome may manifest the symptoms of GERD such as heartburn, acid reflux and cough. It is necessary to complete examination to exclude superior mesenteric artery syndrome for these patients. Laparoscopic fundoplication with duodenojejunostomy provided an effective treatment for patients who failed drug treatment. PMID:28099334

  9. Proteomic profiling of the mesenteric lymph after hemorrhagic shock: Differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Experiments show that upon traumatic injury the composition of mesenteric lymph changes such that it initiates an immune response that can ultimately result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). To identify candidate protein mediators of this process we carried out a quantitative proteomic study on mesenteric lymph from a well characterized rat shock model. We analyzed three animals using analytical 2D differential gel electrophoresis. Intra-animal variation for the majority of protein spots was minor. Functional clustering of proteins revealed changes arising from several global classes that give novel insight into fundamental mechanisms of MODS. Mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis of proteins in mesenteric lymph can effectively be used to identify candidate mediators and loss of protective agents in shock models. PMID:21906351

  10. [A rare case of suppurative mesenteric adenitis associated with intussusception in a child: a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Mujinga, Didier Tshibangu; Katombe, François Tshilombo

    2016-01-01

    Some cases of suppurative mesenteric adenitis have already been described in the literature but not associated with intussusception. We describe the case of a 3-year-old boy presenting to the department of surgery at the University Hospital of Lubumbashi with bowel obstruction. He was visited elsewhere, in the previous 12 days, for diarrhea, vomiting, fever, coma and treated for cerebral malaria and blackwater fever. Surgery revealed an ileal intussusception and a suppurative mesenteric adenitis whose pyoculture revealed the presence of Enterobacter cloacae, sensitive to norfloxacin. We performed desinvagination, sucked the pus out into a syringe and excized completely the site of suppurative adenitis. The evolution of patient was good. The clinician must know that the association between suppurative mesenteric adenitis and intussusceptions exists. The diagnosis is not easy and there is the risk of developing acute peritonitis due to its fistulation in the abdominal cavity.

  11. Effects of exercise and excitement on mesenteric and renal dynamics in conscious, unrestrained baboons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatner, S. F.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to measure arterial pressure and mesenteric and renal blood flows from nine unrestrained, conscious baboons during periods of rest, moderate exercise, and extreme excitement. A description of the experiments hardware is presented, including artificial depressants phenylcyclidine hydrochloride, 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, and pentobarbital sodium, 15 mg/kg, and an ultrasonic telemetry flow meter. Results showed rising heart rate and arterial pressure coupled with a reduction of mesenteric and renal flows as the level of exercise was increased. These findings are compared with mesenteric and renal flows somewhat above control level, but relatively stable heart rate and arterial pressure, postprandially. Attention is given to a quantitative analysis of the experimental results.

  12. Superior Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis after Laparoscopic Exploration for Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kunizaki, Shozo; Shimaguchi, Mayu; Yoshinaga, Yasuo; Kanda, Yukihiro; Lefor, Alan T.; Mizokami, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare cause of intestinal ischemia which is potentially life-threatening because it can lead to intestinal infarction. Mesenteric venous thrombosis rarely develops after abdominal surgery and is usually associated with coagulation disorders. Associated symptoms are generally subtle or nonspecific, often resulting in delayed diagnosis. A 68-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic exploration for small bowel obstruction, secondary to adhesions. During the procedure, an intestinal perforation was identified and repaired. Postoperatively, the abdominal pain persisted and repeat exploration was undertaken. At repeat exploration, a perforation was identified in the small bowel with a surrounding abscess. After the second operation, the abdominal pain improved but anorexia persisted. Contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography was performed which revealed superior mesenteric venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy with heparin was started immediately and the thrombus resolved over the next 6 days. Although rare, this complication must be considered in patients after abdominal surgery with unexplained abdominal symptoms. PMID:24455391

  13. In vivo identification of parasinus macrophages in the mesenteric lymph node.

    PubMed

    Nagata, H; Hokari, R; Suzuki, H; Miura, S; Sekizuka, E; Ishii, H

    2000-01-01

    Macrophages beneath the marginal sinus in the lymph nodes may play a role in defense against microorganism. The purpose of this study was to directly visualize the parasinus macrophages in the mesenteric lymph node. Fluorescent latex particles were injected into the appendix submucosa of rats. The mesenteric lymph node was epi-illuminated and observed with a fluorescent microscope. Fluorescent particles entered the marginal sinus of the mesenteric lymph node through the afferent lymphatic vessels, and distributed diffusely all over the marginal sinus. The particles became aggregated and interspersed 3 hr after injection, suggesting that particles were incorporated by phagocytes. The number of these particle-laden phagocytes increased up to 12 hr after injection, and then declined. Some phagocytes migrated rapidly within the marginal sinus. Morphology of these phagocytes in cell suspension was consistent with macrophages. In conclusion, we successfully visualized parasinus macrophages in vivo, which incorporated foreign bodies and migrated within the marginal sinus.

  14. Mesothelial mesenteric cyst in patient with ascending colon cancer. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, O; Cheva, A; Kakoutis, E; Chatzichristou, A; Chatzopoulos, S; Konstantara, A; Papadimitriou, N; Paraskevas, G; Makrantonakis, A

    2011-03-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare cystic malformations of the mesentery. They are usually located at the iliac mesentery. Clinically most mesenteric cysts are asymptomatic, but sometimes they present with non-specific abdominal symptoms. Diagnosis can be aided using US, CT and MRI but careful interpretation of the images and high index of suspicion of this rare condition is essential for the correct diagnosis, which cannot always be preoperatively established. The therapeutic method of choice is complete surgical excision of the cyst which minimizes the possibility of recurrence. Histopathologically they are classified in six group. We present a case of a mesothelial mesenteric cyst in patient with colon cancer. The cyst was misdiagnosed as urinary bladder diverticulum in the preoperative CT scan.

  15. Ultrasound-guided mesenteric lymph node iohexol injection for thoracic duct computed tomographic lymphography in cats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mieun; Lee, Hyeyeon; Lee, Namsoon; Choi, Mihyeon; Kim, Junyoung; Chang, Dongwoo; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) lymphography was performed in cats using percutaneous ultrasound-guided injection of contrast medium into a mesenteric lymph node. The thoracic duct and its branches were clearly delineated in CT images of seven cats studied. The thoracic duct was characterized by anatomic variation and appeared as single or multiple branches. The thoracic duct and the cisterna chyli were identified along the ventral or left ventral aspect of the vertebrae from the level of the cranial lumbar to the caudal cervical vertebrae. The thoracic duct was identified in the central caudal mediastinum, deviated to the left in the cranial mediastinum, and finally moved toward the venous system. Small volumes of extranodal contrast medium leakage were identified in all cats. After injection, the mesenteric lymph nodes were cytologically normal. Ultrasound-guided CT lymphography via percutaneous mesenteric lymph node injection appears safe and effective in cats.

  16. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  17. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  18. Contribution of Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and GALT to the Intestinal Foxp3+ Regulatory T-Cell Compartment.

    PubMed

    Geem, Duke; Ngo, Vu; Harusato, Akihito; Chassaing, Benoit; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Newberry, Rodney D; Denning, Timothy L

    2016-05-01

    This study showed that the absence of CCR7 or mesenteric lymph nodes/gut-associated lymphoid tissue did not appreciably impact total intestinal Foxp3+ regulatory T cell representation in the steady-state. However, mesenteric lymph nodes/GALT are required for normal peripherally induced Foxp3+ regulatory T cell differentiation in the small intestine, but not in the large intestine.

  19. A Case of Acute Ischemic Duodenal Ulcer Associated with Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection After Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Hyub; Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon

    2009-03-15

    We report a case of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)-related acute ischemic duodenal ulcer that developed in association with dissection of the superior mesenteric artery. We conclude that the acute duodenal ulcer was developed by ischemia related to superior mesenteric artery dissection during TACE. TACE should be conducted carefully with continuous observation of abdominal arteries.

  20. Relationships between the genes expressed in the mesenteric adipose tissue of beef cattle and feed intake and gain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mesenteric fat, a depot within the visceral fat, accumulates in cattle during maturation and finishing and may be a potential source of production inefficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genes expressed in the mesenteric fat of steers were associated with body weight gain an...

  1. A Case of a 4-Year-Old Boy with a Mesenteric Chylous Cyst Infected with Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Kweyamba, Vianney; Apiyo, Mirraim; Olika, Biratu; Kituuka, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are uncommon entities and chyle- (lymph-) containing cysts are the rarest of this group. This is a case report of a 4-year-old boy with a mesenteric chylous cyst who was later found to have Histoplasma capsulatum infection.

  2. The Mesenteric Lymph Duct Cannulated Rat Model: Application to the Assessment of Intestinal Lymphatic Drug Transport

    PubMed Central

    Trevaskis, Natalie L.; Hu, Luojuan; Caliph, Suzanne M.; Han, Sifei; Porter, Christopher J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal lymphatic system plays key roles in fluid transport, lipid absorption and immune function. Lymph flows directly from the small intestine via a series of lymphatic vessels and nodes that converge at the superior mesenteric lymph duct. Cannulation of the mesenteric lymph duct thus enables the collection of mesenteric lymph flowing from the intestine. Mesenteric lymph consists of a cellular fraction of immune cells (99% lymphocytes), aqueous fraction (fluid, peptides and proteins such as cytokines and gut hormones) and lipoprotein fraction (lipids, lipophilic molecules and apo-proteins). The mesenteric lymph duct cannulation model can therefore be used to measure the concentration and rate of transport of a range of factors from the intestine via the lymphatic system. Changes to these factors in response to different challenges (e.g., diets, antigens, drugs) and in disease (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, HIV, diabetes) can also be determined. An area of expanding interest is the role of lymphatic transport in the absorption of orally administered lipophilic drugs and prodrugs that associate with intestinal lipid absorption pathways. Here we describe, in detail, a mesenteric lymph duct cannulated rat model which enables evaluation of the rate and extent of lipid and drug transport via the lymphatic system for several hours following intestinal delivery. The method is easily adaptable to the measurement of other parameters in lymph. We provide detailed descriptions of the difficulties that may be encountered when establishing this complex surgical method, as well as representative data from failed and successful experiments to provide instruction on how to confirm experimental success and interpret the data obtained. PMID:25866901

  3. Traumatic lumbar hernias: do patient or hernia characteristics predict bowel or mesenteric injury?

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Raptis, Constantine; Lonsford, Chad; Lin, Michael; Schuerer, Douglas

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic lumbar hernias are rare but important injuries to diagnose in blunt abdominal trauma, both because of delayed complications of the hernia itself and because of well-documented association with bowel and mesenteric injuries. No study to our knowledge has determined whether specific features of the hernia-size of the wall defect, inferior or superior location, or the side of the hernia-bear any predictive value on the presence of underlying bowel and mesenteric injury. A retrospective query of the radiology information system yielded 21 patients with lumbar hernias which were diagnosed on CT. These were reviewed by three radiologists to confirm the presence of an acute lumbar hernia and to determine the size and location of the hernia. The patients' medical records were reviewed to determine the presence of operatively confirmed bowel and/or mesenteric injuries, which occurred in 52 % of patients. A significant (p < 0.001) difference was found in the frequency of bowel and/or mesenteric injury with hernia defects greater than 4.0 cm (100 %) and those less than 4.0 cm (17 %). Larger hernias also resulted in more procedures (p = 0.042) and a trend towards longer ICU stay, but no difference in injury severity score (ISS) or overall hospital stay. No significant difference was seen in the frequency of bowel and/or mesenteric injuries based on side or location of the hernia, though distal colonic injuries were more commonly seen with left-sided hernias (50 %) compared to right-sided hernias (18 %). Although based on a small patient population, these results suggest that larger traumatic lumbar hernias warrant particularly close evaluation for an underlying bowel and/or mesenteric injury.

  4. Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Mesenteric Adipose Tissue during Acute Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Mustain, W. Conan; Starr, Marlene E.; Valentino, Joseph D.; Cohen, Donald A.; Okamura, Daiki; Wang, Chi; Evers, B. Mark; Saito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Production of inflammatory cytokines by mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Animal models of colitis have demonstrated inflammatory changes within MAT, but it is unclear if these changes occur in isolation or as part of a systemic adipose tissue response. It is also unknown what cell types are responsible for cytokine production within MAT. The present study was designed to determine whether cytokine production by MAT during experimental colitis is depot-specific, and also to identify the source of cytokine production within MAT. Methods Experimental colitis was induced in 6-month-old C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (2% in drinking water) for up to 5 days. The induction of cytokine mRNA within various adipose tissues, including mesenteric, epididymal, and subcutaneous, was analyzed by qRT-PCR. These adipose tissues were also examined for histological evidence of inflammation. The level of cytokine mRNA during acute colitis was compared between mature mesenteric adipocytes, mesenteric stromal vascular fraction (SVF), and mesenteric lymph nodes. Results During acute colitis, MAT exhibited an increased presence of infiltrating mononuclear cells and fibrotic structures, as well as decreased adipocyte size. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were significantly increased in MAT but not other adipose tissue depots. Within the MAT, induction of these cytokines was observed mainly in the SVF. Conclusions Acute experimental colitis causes a strong site-specific inflammatory response within MAT, which is mediated by cells of the SVF, rather than mature adipocytes or mesenteric lymph nodes. PMID:24386254

  5. No benefit of extended mesenteric resection with central vascular ligation in right-sided colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, F; Buchwald, P; Elmståhl, S; Syk, I

    2016-08-01

    The optimal extent of mesenteric resection in colon cancer surgery is not known. We have previously shown an increased mortality associated with wider mesenteric resection in right hemicolectomy. This study compares the short- and long-term outcome in three variations of right hemicolectomy based on the position of the vascular ligature in the mesentery. In all, 2084 cases of cancer in the caecum or ascending colon were identified in the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and categorized according to the position of the vascular ligature: central ligation of ileocolic vessels (ICVs) ± right colic vessels (n = 390), central ligation of ICVs + right branch of middle colic vessels (MCVs) (n = 1360) and central ligation of ICVs + central ligation of MCVs (n = 334). Neither 3-year overall survival, 3-year disease-free survival nor local recurrence rate differed between the groups (P = 0.604; P = 0.247; P = 0.237). There was still no difference after multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, TNM stage and adjuvant therapy. An increased peri-operative mortality, however, was observed in extended mesenteric resections, increasing from 0.8% in non-extended to 3.6% in more extended resection, P = 0.025. The study showed no survival benefit by more extended mesenteric resection, indicating that there is no need to extend the mesenteric resection to involve the MCVs in cancer of the caecum or ascending colon. On the contrary, increased peri-operative mortality by more extensive mesenteric resection was noted suggesting that a more conservative approach may be favourable. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    PubMed Central

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  7. Giant primary synchronously bilateral mesenteric dedifferentiated liposarcoma with hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, type-2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Korukluoglu, Birol; Ergul, Emre; Sisman, Ibrahim Cagatay; Yalcin, Samet; Kusdemir, Ahmet

    2009-08-01

    Liposarcomas represent the single most common type of soft tissue sarcoma, occurring most commonly in the extremities and retroperitoneum. There is no relation between liposarcomas and multiple endocrine syndromes. We presented a 61-year old woman with giant primary synchronously bilateral mesenteric dedifferentiated liposarcoma with hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension. The mesenteric liposarcoma was reported neither synchronously bilateral nor with endocrine disorders. We must note if the patients' presentation was a co-incidence or an undescribed syndrome, waiting to be discovered.

  8. Bare Stent Implantation in Iatrogenic Dissecting Pseudoaneurysm of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kutlu, Ramazan Ara, Cengiz; Sarac, Kaya

    2007-02-15

    Iatrogenic arterial dissection leading to the development of dissecting pseudoaneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare complication of angiography. Surgical and endovascular treatment options exist for this important condition. We report a case of bare stent implantation in dissecting pseudoaneurysm of the SMA that developed after angiography in a patient with acute mesenteric ischemia. Although it is rarely published, iatrogenic arterial dissection causing pseudoaneurysm can occur after diagnostic and interventional angiography. Bare stent implantation in dissecting pseudoaneurysm of the SMA could be an advantageous endovascular treatment option in selected cases due its to potential preservation of important side branches of the SMA.

  9. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: A Case Report of Two Surgical Options, Duodenal Derotation and Duodenojejunostomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare cause of duodenal obstruction and its management is usually conservative with nasojejunal feeding. The pathophysiology entails the loss of the fat pad between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta. This reduces the angle between the two vessels to less than 20 degrees with the resultant compression of the third part of the duodenum. The surgical management is usually a laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy. The two cases in our series had two different surgical procedures with good outcomes in both patients. The surgical management of each patient should be determined on its own merits irrespective of the standard of care. PMID:28101395

  10. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: A Case Report of Two Surgical Options, Duodenal Derotation and Duodenojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Yagan

    2016-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare cause of duodenal obstruction and its management is usually conservative with nasojejunal feeding. The pathophysiology entails the loss of the fat pad between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta. This reduces the angle between the two vessels to less than 20 degrees with the resultant compression of the third part of the duodenum. The surgical management is usually a laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy. The two cases in our series had two different surgical procedures with good outcomes in both patients. The surgical management of each patient should be determined on its own merits irrespective of the standard of care.

  11. Giant mesenteric fibromatosis: Report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gari, Mohammed Khalid Mirza; Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Hussein, Amir Mounir; Hego, Moustafa Mahmoud Nafady

    2012-03-27

    Mesenteric fibromatosis poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. This paper presents a 35-year-old female complaining of vague abdominal pain of 2 mo duration. Her computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a pelvi-abdominal heterogenous mass with significant displacement of the small bowel and urinary bladder. She underwent surgical excision of the mass with resection and anastomosis of the involved loop of the small intestine. Histological examination confirmed mesenteric fibromatosis without infiltration of the bowel. The patient remained well during the 6 mo follow-up.

  12. Giant mesenteric fibromatosis: Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Mohammed Khalid Mirza; Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Hussein, Amir Mounir; Hego, Moustafa Mahmoud Nafady

    2012-01-01

    Mesenteric fibromatosis poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. This paper presents a 35-year-old female complaining of vague abdominal pain of 2 mo duration. Her computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a pelvi-abdominal heterogenous mass with significant displacement of the small bowel and urinary bladder. She underwent surgical excision of the mass with resection and anastomosis of the involved loop of the small intestine. Histological examination confirmed mesenteric fibromatosis without infiltration of the bowel. The patient remained well during the 6 mo follow-up. PMID:22530082

  13. Mesenteric cystic masses: a series of 21 pediatric cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tiffany S; Ricketts, Richard; Abramowsky, Carlos R; Abramowksy, Carlos R; Cotter, Breandan D; Steelman, Charlotte K; Husain, Aliya; Shehata, Bahig M

    2011-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts, seen in all age groups, represent a rare cause of benign abdominal masses in children. We reviewed 21 patients with mesenteric/omental cysts. Gross and radiologic images, along with histologic sections, were reviewed to categorize the structures and determine the relationship to the mesentery and intestines. The cysts were composed of multi-loculated dilated channels at the serosal surface consistent with lymphangioma. Most treatment was simple excision, infrequently with intestinal resection. Nineteen patients did well after surgery. One patient developed short-gut syndrome after massive bowel resection, and one patient died immediately after birth due to massive fetal hydrops and heart failure.

  14. Thrombosis of a Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurysm: Transarterial Thrombolysis and Transhepatic Aspiration Thrombectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hechelhammer, L.; Crook, D.W.; Widmer, U.; Wildermuth, S.; Pfammatter, T.

    2004-09-15

    We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain due to acute thrombosis of a superior and inferior mesenteric vein aneurysm, which was treated by a combination of arterial thrombolysis and transhepatic thrombus aspiration. At the last follow-up CT, 21 months following this procedure, there was no evidence of rethrombosis, and the patient continues to do well under oral anticoagulation. The literature regarding these uncommon mesenteric vein aneurysms without portal vein involvement, as well as their treatment options, is reviewed.

  15. Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm Associated with Celiac Axis Occlusion Treated Using Endovascular Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Biswajit; Kuhan, Ganesh; Johnson, Brian; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Ettles, Duncan F.

    2006-10-15

    The case of a 30-year-old woman with a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery and associated celiac axis occlusion is presented. The patient was successfully treated with celiac artery recanalization and placement of a covered stent within the superior mesenteric artery. Follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months and 3 years demonstrated patency of the covered stent and continued exclusion of the aneurysm. Although the long-term success of this procedure is unknown this management option should be considered where facilities are available, to reduce the increased morbidity associated with open surgical procedure.

  16. Management of a ruptured mucinous mesenteric cyst with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, John; Deneve, Jeremiah; Dickson, Paxton; Sylvestre, Pamela; Munene, Gitonga

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal cysts that are generally regarded as benign, and the incidence of malignancy is often cited to be 3%. The typical recommendation for treatment is complete excision to minimize recurrence. Excision can be performed laparoscopically, but this can lead to intra-abdominal dissemination of the cyst contents. There has been one case report describing the development of pseudomyxoma peritonei following rupture of a mesenteric cyst. We describe the treatment and outcome of a patient who underwent cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of an incompletely resected mucinous cystadenocarcinoma originating from the colonic mesentery.

  17. Case report: elective removal of a large mesenteric cyst-our approach.

    PubMed

    Razi, Kasra; Al-Asaad, Obaida; Milind, Rao

    2017-03-01

    A mesenteric cyst is rare intra-abdominal pathology, with little literature to guide us on how to diagnose and manage it. We report the incident of a 57-year-old female who had an incidental finding of a sigmoid mesenteric cyst whilst undergoing an operation under the care of the Gynaecologists. A computed tomography scan and a flexible sigmoidoscopy followed to help diagnose the lesion as a cyst. A month later the 10 × 15 cm(2) cyst was excised laparoscopically with no complications.

  18. A ruptured infected mesenteric cyst diagnosed on laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Stephen T.; Singh, Baljinder; Jones, Terence J.; Robertson, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Lower abdominal pain of acute onset in young women with a negative pregnancy test is a frequent reason for referral to the general surgical team and the differential diagnoses include acute appendicitis, complicated ovarian cysts and pelvic inflammatory disease. Intestinal and mesenteric cystic disease is a rare entity and less than half of cases present acutely. We present a case of a 25-year-old woman who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for acute lower abdominal pain and was diagnosed with a ruptured, infected mesenteric cyst. PMID:24713757

  19. Giant mesenteric cyst of mesothelial origin in a haemodialysis patient with previous peritoneal dialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Matthias; Santarelli, Stefano; Cangiotti, Angela Maria; Agostinelli, Rosa Maria; Monteburini, Tania; Marinelli, Rita; Ceraudo, Emilio; Cutini, Giorgio

    2010-03-01

    A 55-year-old female haemodialysis patient presented progressive abdominal liquid formation after having been excluded from peritoneal dialysis therapy because of recurrent peritonitis. Ultrasound was suspicious for ascites secondary to sclerosing peritonitis. Computed tomography revealed a thin-walled mesenteric cyst extending from the epigastric to the pelvic region. The cyst was excised incompletely as extensive adhesions were present. Histology was consistent with a mesothelial cyst of inflammatory origin. Three months after surgery, ultrasound detected a local recurrence at the descending colon. This case emphasizes the relation between mesenteric cyst, persistent inflammatory status and preceding peritoneal dialysis complicated by peritonitis.

  20. [Mesenteric cyst as a cause of acute abdomen. Report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Valdivia Gómez, Gilberto; Alonso-Avilés, Verónica

    2003-01-01

    Mesenteric cyst is a tumor of multiple origins that surely are found more frequently than the literature report, at any rate, this tumor is uncommon. Because of absence of characteristic clinical findings, diagnosis cumbersome, until these cysts are of such a size that palpation becomes possible or when they cause compression to nearby viscera. Occasionally, diagnosis is made during surgery, even when it was emergency surgery. The present paper reports on three patients with mesenteric cyst found during surgery as emergency treatment. Histopathologic reports showed lymphangioma in two cases and leiomyosarcoma in one case, quite uncommon in this kind of lesion.

  1. Evaluation of cage micro-environment of mice housed on various types of bedding materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, E.; Stockwell, J.D.; Schweitzer, I.; Langley, S.H.; Smith, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of environmental factors can affect the outcomes of studies using laboratory rodents. One such factor is bedding. Several new bedding materials and processing methods have been introduced to the market in recent years, but there are few reports of their performance. In the studies reported here, we have assessed the cage micro-environment (in-cage ammonia levels, temperature, and humidity) of mice housed on various kinds of bedding and their combinations. We also compared results for bedding supplied as Nestpaks versus loose bedding. We studied C57BL/6J mice (commonly used) and NOD/LtJ mice (heavy soilers) that were maintained, except in one study, in static duplex cages. In general, we observed little effect of bedding type on in-cage temperature or humidity; however, there was considerable variation in ammonia concentrations. The lowest ammonia concentrations occurred in cages housing mice on hardwood bedding or a mixture of corncob and alpha cellulose. In one experiment comparing the micro-environments of NOD/LtJ male mice housed on woodpulp fiber bedding in static versus ventilated caging, we showed a statistically significant decrease in ammonia concentrations in ventilated cages. Therefore, our data show that bedding type affects the micro-environment in static cages and that effects may differ for ventilated cages, which are being used in vivaria with increasing frequency.

  2. Rodent Bone Marrow Micronucleus Assay. Test Substance: Solvent Yellow 33 2-(2-Quinolyl)-1,3-indandione

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-18

    Solubility: Insoluble in water pH: 7 Storage Conditions: Room Temperature Safety Precautions: Standard Toxikon Laboratory Safety Precautions, Bovine...spectrum fluorescent lights Housing: group housing (5 per cage of same sex) Cages: polycarbonate Bedding: hardwood chips, P.W.I. Industries, St- Hyacinthe ...Quebec, Canada (contact) Animal Rations: TEK 7012 Rodent Diet, Harlan Laboratories, Teklad, Madison, WI, ad libitum Water : tap water , ad libitum

  3. Relaxation of human isolated mesenteric arteries by vasopressin and desmopressin.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, M C; Vila, J M; Aldasoro, M; Medina, P; Flor, B; Lluch, S

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of vasopressin and deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP, desmopressin) were studied in artery rings (0.8-1 mm in external diameter) obtained from portions of human omentum during the course of abdominal operations (27 patients). 2. In arterial rings under resting tension, vasopressin produced concentration-dependent, endothelium-independent contractions with an EC50 of 0.59 +/- 0.12 nM. The V1 antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP (1 microM) and the mixed V1-V2 antagonist desGly-d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)ValAVP (0.01 microM) displaced the control curve to vasopressin to the right in a parallel manner without differences in the maximal responses. In the presence of indomethacin (1 microM) the contractile response to vasopressin was significantly increased (P < 0.01). 3. In precontracted arterial rings, previously treated with the V1 antagonist, d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP (1 microM), vasopressin produced endothelium-dependent relaxation. This relaxation was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by indomethacin (1 microM) and unaffected by the V1-V2 receptor antagonist desGly-d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)ValAVP (1 microM) or by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 mM). 4. The selective V2 receptor agonist, DDAVP, caused endothelium-independent, concentration-dependent relaxations in precontracted arterial rings that were inhibited by the mixed V1-V2 receptor antagonist, but not by the V1 receptor antagonist or by pretreatment with indomethacin or L-NAME. 5. Results from this study suggest that vasopressin is primarily a constrictor of human mesenteric arteries by V1 receptor stimulation; vasopressin causes dilatation only during V1 receptor blockade. The relaxation appears to be mediated by the release of vasodilator prostaglandins from the endothelial cell layer and is independent of V2 receptor stimulation or release of nitric oxide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834191

  4. Laparoscopic excision of mesenteric duplication enteric cyst embedded in sigmoid mesocolon mimicking retroperitoneal neurogenic tumor in adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jui-Ho; Lin, Jen-Tai; Hsu, Chao-Wen

    2012-10-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumors with an incidence of 1/105,000 to 250,000 hospitalized adult surgical patients. These cysts may occur in every part of the mesentery, from duodenum to rectum. Most frequently, cysts are localized in small bowel mesentery. They usually present during the first decade of life, mostly occurring in pediatric patients. These lesions characteristically arise from the mesenteric border of the bowel. The majority are asymptomatic and, if found, are discovered incidentally during abdominal exploration or radiologic examination. Traditionally, the treatment of mesenteric cyst is surgical excision by laparotomy. However, in 1993, Mackenzie described the first laparoscopic excision of a mesenteric cyst. Since then, several cases have been reported but mainly in small intestine. Here, we reported an adult patient of a mesenteric duplication enteric cyst embedded in sigmoid mesocolon mimicking retroperitoneal neurogenic tumor, which was completely excised using the laparoscopic approach (Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/SLE/A73).

  5. Acoustic bed velocity and bed load dynamics in a large sand bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Jacobson, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Development of a practical technology for rapid quantification of bed load transport in large rivers would represent a revolutionary advance for sediment monitoring and the investigation of fluvial dynamics. Measurement of bed load motion with acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCPs) has emerged as a promising approach for evaluating bed load transport. However, a better understanding of how ADCP data relate to conditions near the stream bed is necessary to make the method practical for quantitative applications. In this paper, we discuss the response of ADCP bed velocity measurements, defined as the near-bed sediment velocity detected by the instrument's bottom-tracking feature, to changing sediment-transporting conditions in the lower Missouri River. Bed velocity represents a weighted average of backscatter from moving bed load particles and spectral reflections from the immobile bed. The ratio of bed velocity to mean bed load particle velocity depends on the concentration of the particles moving in the bed load layer, the bed load layer thickness, and the backscatter strength from a unit area of moving particles relative to the echo strength from a unit area of unobstructed bed. A model based on existing bed load transport theory predicted measured bed velocities from hydraulic and grain size measurements with reasonable success. Bed velocities become more variable and increase more rapidly with shear stress when the transport stage, defined as the ratio of skin friction to the critical shear stress for particle entrainment, exceeds a threshold of about 17. This transition in bed velocity response appears to be associated with the appearance of longer, flatter bed forms at high transport stages.

  6. Orthopox virus infections in Eurasian wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Paula M; Henttonen, Heikki; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kallio, Eva R; Korthase, Christian; Laakkonen, Juha; Niemimaa, Jukka; Palva, Airi; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Suominen, Paula; Ulrich, Rainer G; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-08-01

    The genus Orthopoxvirus includes variola (smallpox) virus and zoonotic cowpox virus (CPXV). All orthopoxviruses (OPV) are serologically cross-reactive and cross-protective, and after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, CPXV and other OPV infections represent an emerging threat to human health. In this respect CPXV, with its reservoir in asymptomatically infected wild rodents, is of special importance. In Europe, clinical cowpox has been diagnosed in both humans and animals. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of OPV infections in wild rodents in different parts of Eurasia and to compare the performance of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in detecting OPV DNA in wildlife samples. We investigated 962 wild rodents from Northern Europe (Finland), Central Europe (Germany), and Northern Asia (Siberia, Russia) for the presence of OPV antibodies. According to a CPXV antigen-based immunofluorescence assay, animals from 13 of the 17 locations (76%) showed antibodies. Mean seroprevalence was 33% in Finland (variation between locations 0%-69%), 32% in Germany (0%-43%), and 3.2% (0%-15%) in Siberia. We further screened tissue samples from 513 of the rodents for OPV DNA using up to three real-time PCRs. Three rodents from two German and one Finnish location were OPV DNA positive. The amplicons were 96% to 100% identical to available CPXV sequences. Further, we demonstrated OPV infections as far east as the Baikal region and occurring in hamster and two other rodent species, ones previously unnoticed as possible reservoir hosts. Based on serological and PCR findings, Eurasian wild rodents are frequently but nonpersistently infected with OPVs. Results from three real-time PCR methods were highly concordant. This study extends the geographic range and wildlife species diversity in which OPV (or CPXV) viruses are naturally circulating.

  7. Distributor for multistage fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Wormser, A.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a multibed fluidized bed system. It comprises a fluidized bed vessel having a casing surrounding a first distributor and a second distributor downstream from the first distributor; a first bed material placed on the first distributor and a second bed material placed on the second distributor; each of the bed materials having an angle of repose; and wherein the angle formed by the substantially straight elongated tubular passages and the upper surface is less than the angle of repose of the second bed material.

  8. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  9. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  10. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  11. Bed Bug Myths

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  12. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  13. Deep Space Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, Martha E.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Deep Space Test Bed (DSTB), a balloon-borne device which can expose multiple payloads to the interplanetary Galactic Cosmic Ray environment on high altitude polar balloon flights. The DSTB is carried by National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF) Long Duration Balloons on polar flights so that its balloon-borne experiments can avoid geomagnetic cut-offs.

  14. Population cycles in small rodents.

    PubMed

    Krebs, C J; Gaines, M S; Keller, B L; Myers, J H; Tamarin, R H

    1973-01-05

    We conclude that population fluctuations in Microtus in southern Indiana are produced by a syndrome of changes in birth and death rates similar to that found in other species of voles and lemmings. The mechanisms which cause the changes in birth and death rates are demolished by fencing the population so that no dispersal can occur. Dispersal thus seems critical for population regulation in Microtus. Because most dispersal occurs during the increase phase of the population cycle and there is little dispersal during the decline phase, dispersal is not directly related to population density. Hence the quality of dispersing animals must be important, and we have found one case of increased dispersal tendency by one genotype. The failure of population regulation of Microtus in enclosed areas requires an explanation by any hypothesis attempting to explain population cycles in small rodents. It might be suggested that the fence changed the predation pressure on the enclosed populations. However, the fence was only 2 feet (0.6 meter) high and did not stop the entrance of foxes, weasels, shrews, or avian predators. A striking feature was that the habitat in the enclosures quickly recovered from complete devastation by the start of the spring growing season. Obviously the habitat and food quality were sufficient to support Microtus populations of abnormally high densities, and recovery of the habitat was sufficiently quick that the introduction of new animals to these enclosed areas resulted in another population explosion. Finally, hypotheses of population regulation by social stress must account for the finding that Microtus can exist at densities several times greater than normal without "stress" taking an obvious toll. We hypothesize that the prevention of dispersal changes the quality of the populations in the enclosures in comparison to those outside the fence. Voles forced to remain in an overcrowded fenced population do not suffer high mortality rates and continue

  15. Distribution of oxytocin in the brain of a eusocial rodent.

    PubMed

    Rosen, G J; de Vries, G J; Goldman, S L; Goldman, B D; Forger, N G

    2008-08-26

    Naked mole-rats are highly social rodents that live in large colonies characterized by a rigid social and reproductive hierarchy. Only one female, the queen, breeds. Most colony members are non-reproductive subordinates that work cooperatively to rear the young and maintain an underground burrow system. Little is known about the neurobiological basis of the complex sociality exhibited by this species. The neuropeptide oxytocin (Oxt) modulates social bonding and other social behaviors in many vertebrates. Here we examined the distribution of Oxt immunoreactivity in the brains of male and female naked mole-rats. As in other species, the majority of Oxt-immunoreactive (Oxt-ir) cells were found in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, with additional labeled cells scattered throughout the preoptic and anterior hypothalamic areas. Oxt-ir fibers were found traveling toward and through the median eminence, as well as in the tenia tecta, septum, and nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca. A moderate network of fibers covered the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area, and a particularly dense fiber innervation of the nucleus accumbens and substantia innominata was observed. In the brainstem, Oxt-ir fibers were found in the periaqueductal gray, locus coeruleus, parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and nucleus ambiguus. The high levels of Oxt immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens and preoptic area are intriguing, given the link in other rodents between Oxt signaling in these regions and maternal behavior. Although only the queen gives birth or nurses pups in a naked mole-rat colony, most individuals actively participate in pup care.

  16. Ascending Aorta to Hepatic and Mesenteric Artery Bypassing, in Patients with Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia and Extensive Aortic Disease-A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Barr, James; Kokotsakis, John; Tsipas, Pantelis; Papapavlou, Prodromos; Velissarios, Konstantinos; Kratimenos, Theodoros; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2017-02-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a rare disorder caused by severe stenosis of the mesenteric arterial supply that results in postprandial pain and weight loss. Treatment options are surgical or endovascular. Surgical bypass can be performed in an antegrade fashion from the supraceliac abdominal aorta (AA) or the distal descending thoracic aorta or in a retrograde fashion from the infrarenal aorta or the common iliac artery. However, in some patients with disease of the descending thoracic aorta or the AA, another site for the proximal anastomosis needs to be found. In this article, we report the case of a 69-year-old man with a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm and CMI in whom we performed bypass grafts to the hepatic and superior mesenteric arteries using the ascending aorta as the site for the proximal anastomoses via a median sternolaparotomy. In addition, we performed a literature review of all similar cases and provide an analysis of this technique and an assessment of the success rates.

  17. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. Conclusion The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival. PMID:25568802

  18. Fine bed material in pools of natural gravel bed channels

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle; Sue Hilton

    1999-01-01

    Abstract - Natural gravel bed channels commonly contain a fine mode of sand and fine gravel that fills voids of the bed framework of coarser gravel. If the supply of fine bed material exceeds the storage capacity of framework voids, excess fine material forms surficial patches, which can be voluminous in pools during low flow. Data collected in 34 natural channels in...

  19. Bed load transport in gravel-bed rivers

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey J. Barry

    2007-01-01

    Bed load transport is a fundamental physical process in alluvial rivers, building and maintaining a channel geometry that reflects both the quantity and timing of water and the volume and caliber of sediment delivered from the watershed. A variety of formulae have been developed to predict bed load transport in gravel-bed rivers, but testing of the equations in natural...

  20. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. Topics include bed bug biology and behavior, detection and monitoring, non-chemical techniques such as heat treatment, and pesticides.

  1. Behavioral and mechanistic insight into rodent empathy.

    PubMed

    Sivaselvachandran, Sivaani; Acland, Erinn L; Abdallah, Salsabil; Martin, Loren J

    2016-06-14

    Empathy is a psychological construct that allows individuals to understand and share the emotions of others. The ability to share emotional states relies on basic social mechanisms, such as mimicry and emotional contagion, which are considered building blocks for empathy. Mimicking another's emotional or physical state is essential for successful social interactions and is found in a number of animal species. For the current review we focus on emotional state sharing in rodents, a core feature of empathy that is often measured using pain and fear as proxies; we also discuss prosociality in rodents. The evidence for empathy in rodents shows that rats and mice consistently imitate arousal states and behaviors of conspecifics and will even sacrifice personal gain to relieve the distress of a conspecific. These behaviors support basic processes that are crucial for the survival of individual animals and give us insight into the neural mechanisms that govern empathy-related behaviors.

  2. Endoparasites of Wild Rodents in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nateghpour, Mehdi; Motevalli-Haghi, Afsaneh; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Mobedi, Iraj; Farivar, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to collect wild rodents for endoparasites determination in some parts of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran nearby Pakistan and Afghanistan countries. Methods: A total of 100 wild rodents were captured alive with cage traps. Various samples were collected from blood and feces, also impression smear prepared from different organs. The samples were prepared by formalin-ether or stained with Giemsa, after that were examined under microscope. Results: All the caught rodents (47 Tatera indica, 44 Meriones hurriana, 5 Gerbilus nanus and 4 Meriones libycus) were studied for endoparasites emphasizing to their zoonotic aspects. Endoparasites including Spirurida, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana feraterna, Trichuris trichiura, Skerjabino taenia, Trichostrongylus spp, Entamoeba muris, Chilomastix mesnili and Leishmania spp were parasitologically identified. Conclusion: Among 9 genera or species of the identified parasites at least 5 of them have zoonotic and public health importance. PMID:26114139

  3. The MAM rodent model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent models of human disease are essential to obtain a better understanding of disease pathology, the mechanism of action underlying conventional treatments, as well as for the generation of novel therapeutic approaches. There are a number of rodent models of schizophrenia based on either genetic manipulations, acute or sub-chronic drug administration, or developmental disturbances. The prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent model is a developmental disruption model gaining increased attention because it displays a number of histological, neurophysiological and behavioral deficits analogous to those observed in schizophrenia patients. This unit describes the procedures required to safely induce the MAM phenotype in rats. In addition, we describe a simple behavioral procedure, amphetamine-induced hyper-locomotion, which can be utilized to verify the MAM phenotype. PMID:23559309

  4. [Application of genetic diversity in the researches on rodents].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhu; Yang, Chun-Wen; Xu, Yan-Chun; Jin, Zhi-Min; Ma, Jian-Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Genetic diversity is the base of the species diversity and ecosystem diversity, and also the foundation for biological evolution and species differentiation. Furthermore, genetic diversity is important evidence for evaluation of biological resources of nature. The genetic diversity data from a wide variety of rodents have many complex applications. We summarized the application of rodent prevention, the origin and differentiation including evolutionary history of rodents, the potential adaptation of rodents, the dynamics of population and regulatory mechanisms, and the conservation biology of rodents. Researches in the future should focus on the systematic study on the relationships between population dynamics and genetic diversity, and long-term monitoring of genetic diversity of rodents.

  5. [Various cases of direct connections between the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric].

    PubMed

    Bertelli, E; Di Gregorio, F; Civeli, L

    1991-01-01

    The authors produce three cases in which an anastomotic arterial trunk between the coeliac artery and the superior mesenteric artery was present. Although this finding is rather rare (0.4% in vivo) it is important for the surgeons who operate upon the pancreas.

  6. Internal abdominal hernia: Intestinal obstruction due to trans-mesenteric hernia containing transverse colon

    PubMed Central

    Crispín-Trebejo, Brenda; Robles-Cuadros, María Cristina; Orendo-Velásquez, Edwin; Andrade, Felipe P.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Internal abdominal hernias are infrequent but an increasing cause of bowel obstruction still often underdiagnosed. Among adults its usual causes are congenital anomalies of intestinal rotation, postsurgical iatrogenic, trauma or infection diseases. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with history of chronic constipation. The patient was hospitalized for two days with acute abdominal pain, abdominal distension and inability to eliminate flatus. The X-ray and abdominal computerized tomography scan (CT scan) showed signs of intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy performed revealed a trans-mesenteric hernia containing part of the transverse colon. The intestine was viable and resection was not necessary. Only the hernia was repaired. DISCUSSION Internal trans-mesenteric hernia constitutes a rare type of internal abdominal hernia, corresponding from 0.2 to 0.9% of bowel obstructions. This type carries a high risk of strangulation and even small hernias can be fatal. This complication is specially related to trans-mesenteric hernias as it tends to volvulize. Unfortunately, the clinical diagnosis is rather difficult. CONCLUSION Trans-mesenteric internal abdominal hernia may be asymptomatic for many years because of its nonspecific symptoms. The role of imaging test is relevant but still does not avoid the necessity of exploratory surgery when clinical features are uncertain. PMID:24880799

  7. Relaxation effect of a novel Danshensu/tetramethylpyrazine derivative on rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Rachel Wai-Sum; Yang, C; Shan, Luchen; Zhang, Zaijun; Wang, Yuqiang; Kwan, Y W; Lee, Simon M Y; Hoi, Maggie P M; Chan, S W; Cheung, Alex Chun; Cheung, K H; Leung, George P H

    2015-08-15

    Danshen (Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae) and ChuanXiong (Ligusticum wallichii) are two traditional herbal medicines commonly used in China for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The active components in Danshen and ChuanXiong are Danshensu (DSS, (R)-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid) and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), respectively. In the present study, a new compound named ADTM, which is a conjugation of DSS and TMP, was synthesized and its effect on the contractility of rat mesenteric arteries was examined. The relaxation effect of ADTM on rat mesenteric arteries was studied using myography. The effects of ADTM on Ca(2+) channels were measured by Ca(2+) imaging and patch-clamp techniques. The results showed that ADTM caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of rat mesenteric arteries. This relaxation effect was not affected by the removal of endothelium or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, guanylyl cyclase and adenylyl cyclase. Potassium channel blockers including tetraethylammonium, iberiotoxin, apamin, 4-aminopyridine, BaCl2 and glibenclamide also failed to inhibit the relaxation response to ADTM. ADTM inhibited CaCl2-induced contractions and reduced the Ca(2+) influx in isolated mesenteric arterial muscle cells. Our results suggest that ADTM may be a novel relaxing agent. Its mechanism of action involves the direct blockade of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in a decrease in Ca(2+) influx into the cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stenting of a Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: A New Therapeutic Approach?

    SciTech Connect

    Froment, P. Alerci, M.; Vandoni, R.E.; Bogen, M.; Gertsch, P.; Galeazzi, G.

    2004-09-15

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is rare and has been reported only sporadically. Therapeutic options are either a surgical approach, which is the more frequently adopted, or a simple observation. We report a case of spontaneous dissection of the SMA with a review of the literature and present a new therapeutic approach.

  9. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Melissa A.; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries [Methods] Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. [Results] Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli. PMID:27508155

  10. Nutrient stimulation of mesenteric blood flow - implications for older critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu AN; Abdelhamid, Yasmine Ali; Phillips, Liza K; Chapple, Leeanne S; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L; Deane, Adam M

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient ingestion induces a substantial increase in mesenteric blood flow. In older persons (aged ≥ 65 years), particularly those with chronic medical conditions, the cardiovascular compensatory response may be inadequate to maintain systemic blood pressure during mesenteric blood pooling, leading to postprandial hypotension. In older ambulatory persons, postprandial hypotension is an important pathophysiological condition associated with an increased propensity for syncope, falls, coronary vascular events, stroke and death. In older critically ill patients, the administration of enteral nutrition acutely increases mesenteric blood flow, but whether this pathophysiological response is protective, or precipitates mesenteric ischaemia, is unknown. There are an increasing number of older patients surviving admission to intensive care units, who are likely to be at increased risk of postprandial hypotension, both during, and after, their stay in hospital. In this review, we describe the prevalence, impact and mechanisms of postprandial hypotension in older people and provide an overview of the impact of postprandial hypotension on feeding prescriptions in older critically ill patients. Finally, we provide evidence that postprandial hypotension is likely to be an unrecognised problem in older survivors of critical illness and discuss potential options for management. PMID:28224105

  11. Interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng-Yong; Wang, Mao-Qiang; Fan, Qing-Sheng; Duan, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Song, Peng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To summarize our methods and experience with interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (PV-SMV) thrombosis. METHODS: Forty-six patients (30 males, 16 females, aged 17-68 years) with symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis were accurately diagnosed with Doppler ultrasound scans, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. They were treated with interventional therapy, including direct thrombolysis (26 cases through a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; 6 through percutaneous transhepatic portal vein cannulation) and indirect thrombolysis (10 through the femoral artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization; 4 through the radial artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization). RESULTS: The blood reperfusion of PV-SMV was achieved completely or partially in 34 patients 3-13 d after thrombolysis. In 11 patients there was no PV-SMV blood reperfusion but the number of collateral vessels increased significantly. Symptoms in these 45 patients were improved dramatically without severe operational complications. In 1 patient, the thrombi did not respond to the interventional treatment and resulted in intestinal necrosis, which required surgical treatment. In 3 patients with interventional treatment, thrombi re-formed 1, 3 and 4 mo after treatment. In these 3 patients, indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis was performed again and was successful. CONCLUSION: Interventional treatment, including direct or indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis, is a safe and effective method for patients with symptomatic acute-subacute PV-SMV thrombosis. PMID:19859995

  12. Schistosomiasis Presenting as a Case of Acute Appendicitis with Chronic Mesenteric Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Mohammed H; Chan, Wilson W; Morava-Protzner, Izabella; Kuhn, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The manifestations of schistosomiasis typically result from the host inflammatory response to parasitic eggs that are deposited in the mucosa of either the gastrointestinal tract or bladder. We present here a case of a 50-year-old gentleman with a rare gastrointestinal presentation of both schistosomal appendicitis and mesenteric thrombosis.

  13. Superior Mesenteric Vein Occlusion Causing Severe Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage in Two Paediatric Cases

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Anna L.; Jones, Matthew; Healey, Andrew; Auth, Marcus K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Reports about superior mesenteric vein thrombosis in childhood are very rare and have not been associated with gastrointestinal bleeding. We describe two cases of severe bleeding from the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract in children who had undergone complex abdominal surgery at considerable time before. The first child had a tracheoesophageal fistula, corrected by division, gastrostomy insertion, and repair of duodenal rupture. The child presented with severe bleeding from the gastrostomy site and was diagnosed with a thrombosis of the proximal superior mesenteric vein. The second child had a gastroschisis and duodenal atresia, and required duodenoplasty, gastrostomy insertion, hemicolectomy, and adhesiolysis. The child presented with intermittent severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, resulting from collateral vessels at location of the surgical connections. He was diagnosed with a thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein. In both children, the extensive previous surgery and anastomosis were considered the cause of the mesenteric thrombosis. CT angiography confirmed the diagnosis in both cases, in addition to characteristic findings on endoscopy. Paediatricians should suspect this condition in children with severe gastrointestinal bleeding, particularly in children with previous, complex abdominal surgery. PMID:23198238

  14. Cavitating mesenteric lymph node syndrome: a rare complication of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Martín-Dávila, Francisco; López-Viedma, Bartolomé; Galván-Fernández, M D; Alonso-Lablanca, María; Olmedo-Camacho, José; García-Rojo, Marcial; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Among the many complications of celiac disease, mesenteric lymph node syndrome cavitated is considered one of the rarest, there is few case series published in the literature. The etiology and pathophysiology are unknown but because of its high mortality rate, estimated to be around 50%, it should recognize at an early stage in order to institute appropriate therapy as soon as possible.

  15. Arteriovenous Fistula of a Colic Branch of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: Endovascular Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Richard D. Ananthakrishnan, Ganapathy; Bhat, Rajesh

    2010-08-15

    Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) of the superior mesenteric artery and its branches are exceedingly rare. We report an unusual case of a patient who was found to be symptomatic from such an AVF, with diarrhea and terminal ileal thickening. We describe the findings from magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and catheter angiography and discuss the endovascular management.

  16. Infarction of a polyp within a mesenteric cyst: An unusual presentation as an acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Gon, Sonia; Majumdar, Bipasa; Bhattacharyya, Aditi; Das, Tushar K; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2010-04-01

    A case of mesenteric cyst in a five-year-old male child who presented with acute abdomen due to an infarcted polyp present within the cyst is reported. To the best of our knowledge, such an event has never been reported in the literature previously.

  17. Infarction of a polyp within a mesenteric cyst: An unusual presentation as an acute abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Gon, Sonia; Majumdar, Bipasa; Bhattacharyya, Aditi; Das, Tushar K.; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2010-01-01

    A case of mesenteric cyst in a five-year-old male child who presented with acute abdomen due to an infarcted polyp present within the cyst is reported. To the best of our knowledge, such an event has never been reported in the literature previously. PMID:20975788

  18. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Whidden, Melissa A; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries. Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli.

  19. An unusual cause of paediatric abdominal pain: Mesenteric masses accompanied with volvulus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Jun; Kong, Xiang Ru; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Li, Chang Chun

    2016-07-01

    Volvulus caused by mesenteric masses is rare and may result in serious consequences. This study aimed to better characterize volvulus caused by mesenteric masses in children. A retrospective study was conducted in 24 patients who underwent surgical treatment between January 1994 and January 2014 in one single institution. There were 10 boys and 14 girls. The most frequent findings were abdominal pain (100%), emesis (91.7%) and nausea (83.3%). Physical examination showed positive ileus signs in majority cases, and palpable mass was found in half of the patients. Ultrasound and CT scans revealed mesenteric masses in 21 and 24 patients, and 'whirlpool sign' was observed in 19 and 22 patients, respectively. Emergency laparotomy was performed in all patients. Histological examination revealed that 18 cystic masses were lymphangioma, 5 solid cases were lipoma and the remaining one was lipoblastoma. The postoperative course was uneventful in 22 patients, and postoperative obstruction and incision infection occurred in 2 patients. There was no evidence of recurrence at follow-up. Volvulus caused by mesenteric masses is a rare but potentially life-threatening cause of abdominal pain, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of paediatric acute abdominal pain.

  20. Pediatric chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst - a separate entity from cystic lymphangioma: a case series.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Kamal Nayan; Nair, Vimoj J; Pathak, Manish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2009-11-09

    Chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts are rare entities with variable presentations and this has surgical implications in the pediatric age group. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the clinical and histopathological records of pediatric patients diagnosed and treated for chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts at our institute from 1998 to 2008. Eight patients met the histopathological criteria of chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst. These patients were in the age range 18 months to 10 years with a mean age of 4.5 years. Of these eight patients, four presented with an abdominal lump, and two each with abdominal pain and acute intestinal obstruction. On clinical examination, five out of the eight patients had a palpable abdominal mass. Laparotomy and complete excision of the cyst along with the involved gut was performed in all patients. There were no postoperative complications or any recurrence during the follow-up period which ranged from 4 months to 8 years. Although very rare, chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst should be kept in mind as one of the differential diagnoses of cystic masses of the abdomen including cystic lymphangioma. Ultrasonography and computed tomography suggest the diagnosis but histopathological examination is required for confirmation. Complete excision of the cyst yields excellent results.

  1. Giant mesenteric cyst of gastric origin: a case report with imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Umit Yaşar; Dilli, Alper; Api, Arman

    2011-01-01

    We present a very rare case of a giant gastric mesenteric cyst with ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings. An eight-year-old boy was referred for treatment of an intraabdominal cyst, known to exist for six years. On abdominal US, a giant, thin-walled, unilocular intraabdominal cyst was demonstrated, extending from the epigastric region to the pelvis and measuring 18 x 15 x 6 cm. In contrast-enhanced abdominal CT, the cyst was demonstrated as a giant, unilocular, hypodense, non-enhancing structure, located dominantly on the right side of the abdomen. During open surgery, the cyst was found to originate from the mesentery-serosa of the gastric antrum and was filled with serous fluid. The cyst was excised totally. Both surgery and pathology confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric cyst, originating from the stomach. The patient was discharged in good health. US and CT were effective in defining the features of the giant gastric mesenteric cyst and in narrowing the differential diagnosis in favor of mesenteric cyst.

  2. Pediatric chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst - a separate entity from cystic lymphangioma: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts are rare entities with variable presentations and this has surgical implications in the pediatric age group. Case presentation We carried out a retrospective analysis of the clinical and histopathological records of pediatric patients diagnosed and treated for chylolymphatic mesenteric cysts at our institute from 1998 to 2008. Eight patients met the histopathological criteria of chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst. These patients were in the age range 18 months to 10 years with a mean age of 4.5 years. Of these eight patients, four presented with an abdominal lump, and two each with abdominal pain and acute intestinal obstruction. On clinical examination, five out of the eight patients had a palpable abdominal mass. Laparotomy and complete excision of the cyst along with the involved gut was performed in all patients. There were no postoperative complications or any recurrence during the follow-up period which ranged from 4 months to 8 years. Conclusion Although very rare, chylolymphatic mesenteric cyst should be kept in mind as one of the differential diagnoses of cystic masses of the abdomen including cystic lymphangioma. Ultrasonography and computed tomography suggest the diagnosis but histopathological examination is required for confirmation. Complete excision of the cyst yields excellent results. PMID:19946589

  3. Dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids decreases contractility of bovine mesenteric vasculature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids are hypothesized to cause vasoconstriction in the midgut, and prior exposure may affect the vasoactivity of these compounds. The objectives of this study were to profile vasoactivity of ergot alkaloids in bovine mesenteric artery (MA) and vein (MV) and determine if previous exposure ...

  4. Dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids decreases contractility of bovine mesenteric vasculature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids are hypothesized to cause vasoconstriction in the midgut, and prior exposure may affect vasoactivity of these compounds. Objectives were to profile vasoactivity of ergot alkaloids in mesenteric artery and vein and determine if previous exposure to endophyte-infected tall fescue affec...

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric volvulus in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rosenblatt, Alana J; Morrisey, James K; Flanders, James A; Thompson, Margret S; Knapp-Hoch, Heather M

    2014-04-01

    An 8-year-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) was evaluated with a 2-week history of vomiting and anorexia. Four days prior, the patient became refractory to medical management. The kangaroo was admitted for diagnostic testing and treatment including whole body CT, blood work, and emergency laparotomy. CT findings of a severely enlarged stomach, splenic displacement, and a whirl sign were indicative of mesenteric volvulus with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Contrast enhancement of abdominal viscera suggested intact arterial blood supply; however, compression of the caudal vena cava and portal vein indicated venous obstruction. Results of preoperative blood work suggested biliary stasis without evidence of inflammation. Additionally, a tooth root abscess was diagnosed on the basis of results of CT. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric volvulus and GDV. The volvuli were corrected by clockwise derotation, and a gastropexy was performed. Tissue samples were obtained from the spleen and liver for evaluation. The kangaroo recovered from surgery, and the abscessed tooth was extracted 6 days later. Eight days after initial evaluation, the kangaroo was discharged. In the present report, the CT whirl sign was used to diagnose volvulus of the abdominal viscera, which suggests that this diagnostic indicator has utility in veterinary patients. Mesenteric volvulus with GDV was successfully treated in a nondomestic species. The tooth root abscess, a common condition in macropods, may explain the historic episodes of anorexia reported by the owner and may have contributed to the development of mesenteric volvulus and GDV in this kangaroo.

  6. Influence of acute pancreatitis on the in vitro responsiveness of rat mesenteric and pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Enilton A; Delbin, Maria Andréia; Ferreira, Tatiane; Landucci, Elen CT; Antunes, Edson; Zanesco, Angelina

    2008-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by local tissue injury and systemic inflammatory response leading to massive nitric oxide (NO) production and haemodynamic disturbances. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the vascular reactivity of pulmonary and mesenteric artery rings from rats submitted to experimental pancreatitis. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: saline (SAL); tauracholate (TAU) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Pancreatitis was induced by administration of TAU or PLA2 from Naja mocambique mocambique into the common bile duct of rats, and after 4 h of duct injection the animals were sacrificed. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine (PHE) in isolated mesenteric and pulmonary arteries were obtained. Potency (pEC50) and maximal responses (EMAX) were determined. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Results In mesenteric rings, the potency for ACh was significantly decreased from animals treated with TAU (about 4.2-fold) or PLA2 (about 6.9-fold) compared to saline group without changes in the maximal responses. Neither pEC50 nor EMAX values for Ach were altered in pulmonary rings in any group. Similarly, the pEC50 and the EMAX values for SNP were not changed in both preparations in any group. The potency for PHE was significantly decreased in rat mesenteric and pulmonary rings from TAU group compared to SAL group (about 2.2- and 2.69-fold, for mesenteric and pulmonary rings, respectively). No changes were seen in the EMAX for PHE. The nitrite/nitrate (NOx-) levels were markedly increased in animals submitted to acute pancreatitis as compared to SAL group, approximately 76 and 68% in TAU and PLA2 protocol, respectively. Conclusion Acute pancreatitis provoked deleterious effects in endothelium-dependent relaxing response for ACh in mesenteric rings that were strongly associated with high plasma NOx- levels as consequence of

  7. Understanding arid environments using fossil rodent middens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, S.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    American rodent middens have made a more dramatic contribution to understanding past environments and the development of ecological theory than Australian rodent middens. This relates to differences in the natural environment, the landscape histories, the scale and scientific approaches of the researchers. The comparison demonstrates: the power of synoptic perspectives; the value of thorough macrofossil identification in midden analysis and its potential advance in Australia where pollen has dominated analyses, the value of herbaria and reference collections; the potential of environmental databases; the importance of scientific history and 'critical research mass' and; finally, the opportunistic nature of palaeoecological research. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.

    2005-06-01

    Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n < 2) is likely because stresses in ice are small and flow is transient. Numerical calculations of the bed-normal drag force on a sphere in contact with a flat bed using n = 1 show that this force can reach values several hundred times that on a sphere isolated from the bed, thus drastically increasing frictional resistance. Various estimates of basal friction are obtained from this model. For example, the shear traction at the bed of a glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible.

  9. Debris-Bed Friction of Hard-Bedded Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.

    2004-12-01

    Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500~kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which non-rotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if ice is Newtonian. Numerical calculations of the bed-normal drag force on a sphere in contact with a flat bed show that this force can reach values several hundred times that on a sphere isolated from the bed, thus drastically increasing frictional resistance. Various estimates of basal friction are obtained from this model. For example, the shear traction at the bed of a 200~m thick glacier sliding at 20~m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006~m a-1 can exceed 100~kPa. Debris-bed friction can, therefore, be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible.

  10. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Test bed concentrator mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The test bed concentrator (TBC) was des point focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. The reflective surface of the concentrator was fabricated using mirror facet designs and techniques. The facets are made by bonding mirrored glass to spherically-conducted substrates. Several aspects of earlier work were reevaluated for application to the TBC: optimum glass block size, material selection, environmental test, optical characteristics, and reliability. A detailed explanation of tooling, substrate preparation, testing techniques, and mirror assembly is presented.

  12. Test bed concentrator mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoud, M. J.

    1980-05-01

    The test bed concentrator (TBC) was des point focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. The reflective surface of the concentrator was fabricated using mirror facet designs and techniques. The facets are made by bonding mirrored glass to spherically-conducted substrates. Several aspects of earlier work were reevaluated for application to the TBC: optimum glass block size, material selection, environmental test, optical characteristics, and reliability. A detailed explanation of tooling, substrate preparation, testing techniques, and mirror assembly is presented.

  13. Fluidized-bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.; Schwieger, B.

    1982-08-01

    Discusses atmospheric fluidized-bed (AFB) boilers with regard to designs available, manufacturers involved, and operating experience. Proven fuel flexibility and satisfactory SO/sub 2/ control without scrubbers make AFB boilers a viable option for industrial steam generation worldwide. Technical concepts on which AFB application is based are a departure from the more familiar methods of burning solid fuels. Behind US thrust for AFB development is the need to burn coal within pollution regulations.

  14. Test Bed Concentrator (TBC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    A point focussing concentrator design adapted from an existing communications antenna for use in a solar test bed application is described. The structure design, configured for use with JPL's spherical radius mirror panels, made no attempt toward optimization. The key objectives of stiffness, pointing accuracy, and timely delivery were exceeded. The system weight is approximately 16,000 Kg (36,000 lbs) and has a calculated 1 sigma system error of 0.03 degrees.

  15. Ventrolateral medullary neurones: effects on magnitude and rhythm of discharge of mesenteric and renal nerves in cats.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, R D; Weaver, L C; Yardley, C P

    1989-01-01

    1. Discharge of whole mesenteric and renal nerves was recorded in eighteen chloralose-anaesthetized, artificially respired cats. 2. Inhibition of tonic activity of neurones within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM blockade) by bilateral application of glycine caused significant reductions in discharge of renal and mesenteric nerves, arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The decrease in discharge of renal nerves was significantly greater than that of mesenteric nerves. 3. During the response to glycine application, the spinal cord was transected at the first cervical segment. The magnitude of renal nerve discharge after transection was not different from that during blockade of the RVLM. On the other hand, mesenteric nerve activity increased following spinal cord transection, returning to control levels. 4. Power spectral analysis revealed that mesenteric and renal nerves discharged with periodicities ranging from 1 to 6 Hz. Application of glycine to the RVLM reduced the slow rhythm in firing of mesenteric and renal nerves similarly. Transection of the spinal cord resulted in further reduction in the rhythmicity in discharge of both nerves. 5. The results indicate that excitatory drive from the RVLM is crucial for the maintenance of on-going discharge of renal, but not of mesenteric nerves. However, such inputs are apparently essential to maintain the slow rhythm in firing of both nerves. PMID:2778740

  16. Effects of spaceflight and ground recovery on mesenteric artery and vein constrictor properties in mice

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Bradley J.; Stabley, John N.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Davis, Robert T.; Dominguez, James M.; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Delp, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Following exposure to microgravity, there is a reduced ability of astronauts to augment peripheral vascular resistance, often resulting in orthostatic hypotension. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mesenteric arteries and veins will exhibit diminished vasoconstrictor responses after spaceflight. Mesenteric arteries and veins from female mice flown on the Space Transportation System (STS)-131 (n=11), STS-133 (n=6), and STS-135 (n=3) shuttle missions and respective ground-based control mice (n=30) were isolated for in vitro experimentation. Vasoconstrictor responses were evoked in arteries via norepinephrine (NE), potassium chloride (KCl), and caffeine, and in veins through NE across a range of intraluminal pressures (2–12 cmH2O). Vasoconstriction to NE was also determined in mesenteric arteries at 1, 5, and 7 d postlanding. In arteries, maximal constriction to NE, KCl, and caffeine were reduced immediately following spaceflight and 1 d postflight. Spaceflight also reduced arterial ryanodine receptor-3 mRNA levels. In mesenteric veins, there was diminished constriction to NE after flight. The results indicate that the impaired vasoconstriction following spaceflight occurs through the ryanodine receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ release mechanism. Such vascular changes in astronauts could compromise the maintenance of arterial pressure during orthostatic stress.—Behnke, B. J., Stabley, J. N., McCullough, D. J., Davis, R. T., III, Dominguez, J. M., II, Muller-Delp, J. M., Delp, M. D. Effects of spaceflight and ground recovery on mesenteric artery and vein constrictor properties in mice. PMID:23099650

  17. Perivascular Adipose Tissue's Impact on Norepinephrine-Induced Contraction of Mesenteric Resistance Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Lopez, Nadia; Thompson, Janice M.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) can decrease vascular contraction to NE. We tested the hypothesis that metabolism and/or uptake of vasoactive amines by mesenteric PVAT (MPVAT) could affect NE-induced contraction of the mesenteric resistance arteries. Methods: Mesenteric resistance vessels (MRV) and MPVAT from male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. RT-PCR and Western blots were performed to detect amine metabolizing enzymes. The Amplex® Red Assay was used to quantify oxidase activity by detecting the oxidase reaction product H2O2 and the contribution of PVAT on the mesenteric arteries' contraction to NE was measured by myography. Results: Semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) were detected in MRV and MPVAT by Western blot. Addition of the amine oxidase substrates tyramine or benzylamine (1 mM) resulted in higher amine oxidase activity in the MRV, MPVAT, MPVAT's adipocyte fraction (AF), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). Inhibiting SSAO with semicarbazide (1 mM) decreased amine oxidase activity in the MPVAT and AF. Benzylamine-driven, but not tyramine-driven, oxidase activity in the MRV was reduced by semicarbazide. By contrast, no reduction in oxidase activity in all sample types was observed with use of the monoamine oxidase inhibitors clorgyline (1 μM) or pargyline (1 μM). Inhibition of MAO-A/B or SSAO individually did not alter contraction to NE. However, inhibition of both MAO and SSAO increased the potency of NE at mesenteric arteries with PVAT. Addition of MAO and SSAO inhibitors along with the H2O2 scavenger catalase reduced PVAT's anti-contractile effect to NE. Inhibition of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) with nisoxetine also reduced PVAT's anti-contractile effect to NE. Conclusions: PVAT's uptake and metabolism of NE may contribute to the anti-contractile effect of PVAT. MPVAT and adipocytes within MPVAT are a source of SSAO. PMID:28228728

  18. Mesenteric lymph duct drainage attenuates acute lung injury in rats with severe intraperitoneal infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Shukun; Tsui, Naiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the hypothesis that the mesenteric lymphatic system plays an important role in acute lung injury in a rat model induced by severe intraperitoneal infection. Male Wistar rats weighing 250∼300 g were randomly divided into 3 groups and subjected to sham operation, intraperitoneal infection, or mesenteric lymphatic drainage. The activity of diamine oxidase (DAO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured by enzymatic assay. The endotoxin levels in plasma, lymph, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated using the limulus amoebocyte lysate reagent. The cytokines, adhesion factors, chemokines, and inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA. TLR-4, NF-kB, and IRAK-4 were analyzed by Western blotting. Compared with sham-operated rats, rats with intraperitoneal infection had increased MPO and decreased DAO activity in intestinal tissues. Mesenteric lymph drainage reduced the alterations in MPO and DAO activity induced by intraperitoneal infection. The MPO activity in pulmonary tissue and the permeability of pulmonary blood vessels were also increased, which were partially reversed by mesenteric lymph drainage. The endotoxin levels in lymphatic fluid and alveolar perfusion fluid were elevated after intraperitoneal infection but decreased to control levels after lymph drainage. No alterations in the levels of plasma endotoxin were observed. The number of neutrophils was increased in BALF and lymph in the infected rats, and was also reduced after drainage. Lymph drainage also decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion factors in the plasma, lymph, and BALF, as well as the levels of TLR-4, NF-kB, and IRAK-4 in pulmonary and intestinal tissues. The mesenteric lymphatic system is the main pathway involved in early lung injury caused by severe intraperitoneal infection, in which activation of the TLR-4 signal pathway may play a role.

  19. Binding and functional pharmacological characteristics of gepant-type antagonists in rat brain and mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Sheykhzade, Majid; Amandi, Nilofar; Pla, Monica Vidal; Abdolalizadeh, Bahareh; Sams, Anette; Warfvinge, Karin; Edvinsson, Lars; Pickering, Darryl S

    2017-03-01

    The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is found in afferent sensory nerve fibers innervating the resistance arteries and plays a pivotal role in a number of neurovascular diseases such as migraine and subarachnoid bleedings. The present study investigates the binding and antagonistic characteristics of small non-peptide CGRP receptor antagonists (i.e. gepants) in isolated rat brain and mesenteric resistance arteries. The antagonistic behavior of gepants was investigated in isolated rat mesenteric arteries using a wire myograph setup while binding of gepants to CGRP receptors was investigated in rat brain membranes using a radioligand competitive binding assay. Furthermore, the histological location of the key components of CGRP receptor (RAMP1 and CLR) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Our functional studies clearly show that all gepants are reversible competitive antagonists producing Schild plot slopes not significantly different from unity and thus suggesting presence of a uniform CGRP receptor population in the arteries. A uniform receptor population was also confirmed by radioligand competitive binding studies showing similar affinities for the gepants in rat brain and mesenteric arteries, the exception being rimegepant which had 50-fold lower affinity in brain than mesenteric arteries. CLR and RAMP1 were shown to be located in both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells of rat mesenteric arteries by immunohistochemistry. The present results indicate that, despite species differences in the CGRP receptor affinity, the antagonistic nature of these gepants, the distribution pattern of CGRP receptor components and the mechanism behind CGRP-induced vasodilation seem to be similar in resistance-sized arteries of human and rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of CT in predicting the need for surgery in patients diagnosed with mesenteric phlebosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos; Liao, Chun-Han; Chen, Cheng-Hong; Chen, Chun-Ming; Lin, Chien-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine if imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) can predict the need of surgery in patients with idiopathic mesenteric phlebosclerosis (IMP). This retrospective study included 28 patients with IMP. Abdominal CT images were reviewed to determine the extent and severity of mesenteric calcifications and the presence of findings related to colitides. We compared the number of colonic segments with mesenteric venous calcification, a total calcification score, and the rate of colonic wall thickening, pericolic fat stranding, and bowel loop dilatation between patients undergoing surgery (surgery group) and patients without surgery (nonsurgery group). Comparisons were made using the Mann–Whitney U test and Fisher exact test. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was also performed. Inter-reader agreement for the calcification scores was analyzed using kappa statistics. The number of colonic segments with mesenteric venous calcification and the total calcification scores were both significantly higher in the surgery group than the nonsurgery group (4.33 vs 2.96, P = 0.003; and 15.00 vs 8.96, P <0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristics to identify patients who need surgery were 0.96 and 0.92, respectively. The prevalence of bowel loop dilatation in the surgery group was also significantly higher than that in the nonsurgery group (16% vs 100%, P = 0.011). Evaluation of the severity and extent of IMP based on the total mesenteric venous calcification score, number of involved colonic segments, and the presence bowel loop dilatation on CT may be useful to indicate the outcomes of conservative treatment and need for surgery. PMID:27741142