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Sample records for roe deer population

  1. Large Impact of Eurasian Lynx Predation on Roe Deer Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system. PMID:25806949

  2. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Andrén, Henrik; Liberg, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear) and Type II (non-linear) functional responses) and of season (winter, summer) on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E.), while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.). Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E.) after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E.), suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  3. Unexpected population genetic structure of European roe deer in Poland: an invasion of the mtDNA genome from Siberian roe deer.

    PubMed

    Matosiuk, Maciej; Borkowska, Anetta; Świsłocka, Magdalena; Mirski, Paweł; Borowski, Zbigniew; Krysiuk, Kamil; Danilkin, Aleksey A; Zvychaynaya, Elena Y; Saveljev, Alexander P; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-05-01

    Introgressive hybridization is a widespread evolutionary phenomenon which may lead to increased allelic variation at selective neutral loci and to transfer of fitness-related traits to introgressed lineages. We inferred the population genetic structure of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Poland from mitochondrial (CR and cyt b) and sex-linked markers (ZFX, SRY, DBY4 and DBY8). Analyses of CR mtDNA sequences from 452 individuals indicated widespread introgression of Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) mtDNA in the European roe deer genome, 2000 km from the current distribution range of C. pygargus. Introgressed individuals constituted 16.6% of the deer studied. Nearly 75% of them possessed haplotypes belonging to the group which arose 23 kyr ago and have not been detected within the natural range of Siberian roe deer, indicating that majority of present introgression has ancient origin. Unlike the mtDNA results, sex-specific markers did not show signs of introgression. Species distribution modelling analyses suggested that C. pygargus could have extended its range as far west as Central Europe after last glacial maximum. The main hybridization event was probably associated with range expansion of the most abundant European roe deer lineage from western refugia and took place in Central Europe after the Younger Dryas (10.8-10.0 ka BP). Initially, introgressed mtDNA variants could have spread out on the wave of expansion through the mechanism of gene surfing, reaching high frequencies in European roe deer populations and leading to observed asymmetrical gene flow. Human-mediated introductions of C. pygargus had minimal effect on the extent of mtDNA introgression.

  4. Parturition date for a given female is highly repeatable within five roe deer populations.

    PubMed

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Bonenfant, Christophe; Hewison, A J Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Cargnelutti, Bruno; Kjellander, Petter; Nilsen, Erlend B; Coulson, Tim

    2013-02-23

    Births are highly synchronized among females in many mammal populations in temperate areas. Although laying date for a given female is also repeatable within populations of birds, limited evidence suggests low repeatability of parturition date for individual females in mammals, and between-population variability in repeatability has never, to our knowledge, been assessed. We quantified the repeatability of parturition date for individual females in five populations of roe deer, which we found to vary between 0.54 and 0.93. Each year, some females gave birth consistently earlier in the year, whereas others gave birth consistently later. In addition, all females followed the same lifetime trajectory for parturition date, giving birth progressively earlier as they aged. Giving birth early should allow mothers to increase offspring survival, although few females managed to do so. The marked repeatability of parturition date in roe deer females is the highest ever reported for a mammal, suggesting low phenotypic plasticity in this trait.

  5. Weak Population Structure in European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Evidence of Introgressive Hybridization with Siberian Roe Deer (C. pygargus) in Northeastern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Olano-Marin, Juanita; Plis, Kamila; Sönnichsen, Leif; Borowik, Tomasz; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus). No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past. PMID:25271423

  6. Weak population structure in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and evidence of introgressive hybridization with Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) in northeastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Olano-Marin, Juanita; Plis, Kamila; Sönnichsen, Leif; Borowik, Tomasz; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus). No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past.

  7. Population density and sex do not influence fine-scale natal dispersal in roe deer.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, J-M; Hewison, A J M; Kjellander, P; Pettorelli, N; Bonenfant, C; Van Moorter, B; Liberg, O; Andren, H; Van Laere, G; Klein, F; Angibault, J-M; Coulon, A; Vanpé, C

    2008-09-07

    It is commonly assumed that the propensity to disperse and the dispersal distance of mammals should increase with increasing density and be greater among males than among females. However, most empirical evidence, especially on large mammals, has focused on highly polygynous and dimorphic species displaying female-defence mating tactics. We tested these predictions on roe deer, a weakly polygynous species of large herbivore exhibiting a resource-defence mating tactic at a fine spatial scale. Using three long-term studies of populations that were subject to the experimental manipulation of size, we did not find any support for either prediction, whether in terms of dispersal probability or dispersal distance. Our findings of similar dispersal patterns in both sexes of roe deer suggest that the underlying cause of natal dispersal is not related to inbreeding avoidance in this species. The absence of positive density dependence in fine-scale dispersal behaviour suggests that roe deer natal dispersal is a pre-saturation process that is shaped by heterogeneities in habitat quality rather than by density per se.

  8. Population density and sex do not influence fine-scale natal dispersal in roe deer

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, J.-M; Hewison, A.J.M; Kjellander, P; Pettorelli, N; Bonenfant, C; Van Moorter, B; Liberg, O; Andren, H; Van Laere, G; Klein, F; Angibault, J.-M; Coulon, A; Vanpé, C

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the propensity to disperse and the dispersal distance of mammals should increase with increasing density and be greater among males than among females. However, most empirical evidence, especially on large mammals, has focused on highly polygynous and dimorphic species displaying female-defence mating tactics. We tested these predictions on roe deer, a weakly polygynous species of large herbivore exhibiting a resource-defence mating tactic at a fine spatial scale. Using three long-term studies of populations that were subject to the experimental manipulation of size, we did not find any support for either prediction, whether in terms of dispersal probability or dispersal distance. Our findings of similar dispersal patterns in both sexes of roe deer suggest that the underlying cause of natal dispersal is not related to inbreeding avoidance in this species. The absence of positive density dependence in fine-scale dispersal behaviour suggests that roe deer natal dispersal is a pre-saturation process that is shaped by heterogeneities in habitat quality rather than by density per se. PMID:18505718

  9. Density-dependent responses of fawn cohort body mass in two contrasting roe deer populations.

    PubMed

    Kjellander, Petter; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Hewison, A J Mark

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the influence of population density on juvenile body mass in two contrasting roe deer populations, in Sweden (Bogesund) and France (Chizé), in which density was monitored for >or=15 years. We investigated the effect of population density and climatic conditions on cohort performance. We predicted that: (1) body mass of growing fawns should be sensitive to environmental changes, showing marked between-year variation (i.e., cohort effects), (2) fawns in the less productive (weakly seasonal, weakly predictable summer weather) habitat of Chizé should show stronger density-dependent responses due to more severe food competition during summer than fawns in the more productive (markedly seasonal, moderately predictable summer weather) habitat of Bogesund, and (3) fawns at Bogesund should be heavier both in absolute terms and relative to their size than their conspecifics in Chizé due to a higher degree of fat accumulation in northern environments. In both study sites we found marked cohort variation and clear effects of density, with body mass varying by as much as 29% over years. While neither summer nor winter climate influenced fawn body mass at Bogesund, fawns tended to be lighter after summers with high temperatures at Chizé. In addition, fawns were heavier after acorn mast years experienced in utero at Bogesund. As expected, the strength of the density-dependent response of fawn body mass was greater at Chizé than at Bogesund. For a given density, male fawns were consistently heavier than females in both sites. Lastly, both sexes at Bogesund had higher absolute body mass and were larger for a given body size than in Chizé. Our results clearly demonstrate that absolute density is a poor predictor of roe deer performance and supports the view that habitat quality has an overwhelming importance for determining fawn body mass in roe deer populations.

  10. Population density and phenotypic attributes influence the level of nematode parasitism in roe deer.

    PubMed

    Body, Guillaume; Ferté, Hubert; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2011-11-01

    The impact of parasites on population dynamics is well documented, but less is known on how host population density affects parasite spread. This relationship is difficult to assess because of confounding effects of social structure, population density, and environmental conditions that lead to biased among-population comparisons. Here, we analyzed the infestation by two groups of nematodes (gastro-intestinal (GI) strongyles and Trichuris) in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population of Trois Fontaines (France) between 1997 and 2007. During this period, we experimentally manipulated population density through changes in removals. Using measures collected on 297 individuals, we quantified the impact of density on parasite spread after taking into account possible influences of date, age, sex, body mass, and weather conditions. The prevalence and abundance of eggs of both parasites in females were positively related to roe deer density, except Trichuris in adult females. We also found a negative relationship between parasitism and body mass, and strong age and sex-dependent patterns of parasitism. Prime-age adults were less often parasitized and had lower fecal egg counts than fawns or old individuals, and males were more heavily and more often infected than females. Trichuris parasites were not affected by weather, whereas GI strongyles were less present after dry and hot summers. In the range of observed densities, the observed effect of density likely involves a variation of the exposure rate, as opposed to variation in host susceptibility.

  11. Ranging behaviour of roe deer in an experimental high-density population: are females territorial?

    PubMed

    Maublanc, Marie-Line; Bideau, Eric; Willemet, Romain; Bardonnet, Clara; Gonzalez, Georges; Desneux, Lionel; Cèbe, Nicolas; Gerard, Jean-François

    2012-12-01

    We studied the ranging behaviour and spatial relationships between seven roe deer during more than 4 years in a partly wooded 14.2-ha enclosure. The animals (three young males, four adult females) were monitored with GPS telemetry collars. As expected, the surface area and overlap of the males' bimonthly ranges decreased, and the distance between their arithmetic centres increased, as they became adult and, for two of them, territorial. Unexpectedly, females also tended to space out, the surface area and overlap of their bimonthly ranges being minimal in May to June, i.e. during the birth period. The distance between their arithmetic centres reached its maximum at the same time. Overlap between females' ranges was consistently lower than those between males and females' ranges, or between 1-year old males' ranges. Our results raise the questions of female seasonal territoriality and of independence of the spacing systems of the two sexes in roe deer.

  12. Variations in adult body mass in roe deer: the effects of population density at birth and of habitat quality.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Van Laere, Guy; Duncan, Patrick; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Delorme, Daniel; Maillard, Daniel

    2002-04-07

    Body mass is a key determinant of fitness components in many organisms, and adult mass varies considerably among individuals within populations. These variations have several causes, involve temporal and spatial factors, and are not yet well understood. We use long-term data from 20 roe deer cohorts (1977-96) in a 2600 ha study area (Chizé, western France) with two habitats contrasting in quality (rich oak forest in the North versus poor beech forest in the South) to analyse the effects of both cohort and habitat quality on adult mass (i.e. median body mass between 4 and 10 years of age) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Cohort strongly influenced the adult body mass of roe deer in both sexes: males born in 1994 were 5.2 kg heavier when aged between 4 and 10 years old than males born in 1986, while females born in 1995 were 4.7 kg heavier between 4 and 10 years old than females born in 1982. For a given cohort, adult males were, on average, 0.9 kg heavier in the rich oak forest than in the poor beech forest. A similar trend occurred for adult females (0.5 kg heavier in the oak forest). The effects of cohort and habitat were additive and accounted for ca. 40% of the variation observed in the adult mass of roe deer at Chizé (males: 41.2%; females: 40.2%). Population density during the spring of the birth accounted for about 35% of cohort variation, whereas rainfall in May-June had no effect. Such delayed effects of density at birth on adult body mass probably affect population dynamics, and might constitute a mechanism by which delayed density-dependence occurs in ungulate populations.

  13. Reduced microsatellite heterozygosity does not affect natal dispersal in three contrasting roe deer populations.

    PubMed

    Vanpé, Cécile; Debeffe, Lucie; Hewison, A J Mark; Quéméré, Erwan; Lemaître, Jean-François; Galan, Maxime; Amblard, Britany; Klein, François; Cargnelutti, Bruno; Capron, Gilles; Merlet, Joël; Warnant, Claude; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    Although theoretical studies have predicted a link between individual multilocus heterozygosity and dispersal, few empirical studies have investigated the effect of individual heterozygosity on dispersal propensity or distance. We investigated this link using measures of heterozygosity at 12 putatively neutral microsatellite markers and natal dispersal behaviour in three contrasting populations of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), a species displaying pre-saturation condition-dependent natal dispersal. We found no effect of individual heterozygosity on either dispersal propensity or dispersal distance. Average heterozygosity was similar across the three studied populations, but dispersal propensity and distance differed markedly among them. In Aurignac, dispersal propensity and distance were positively related to individual body mass, whereas there was no detectable effect of body mass on dispersal behaviour in Chizé and Trois Fontaines. We suggest that we should expect both dispersal propensity and distance to be greater when heterozygosity is lower only in those species where dispersal behaviour is driven by density-dependent competition for resources.

  14. High red deer density depresses body mass of roe deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Richard, Emmanuelle; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Saïd, Sonia; Hamann, Jean-Luc; Klein, François

    2010-05-01

    Many previous studies have pointed out that, when resources are limited, the potential for competition should be high among sympatric species that display overlaps in habitat and nutritional niches. However, reliable evidence of competition between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has not been yet reported for life history traits directly measuring performance such as body mass, reproduction, or survival. From long-term monitoring of deer populations in the reserve of La Petite Pierre (France), we measured the sex-specific responses of roe deer fawn body mass to changes in red deer density after accounting for possible confounding effects of date of shooting, climatic conditions, and roe deer density. As expected under the hypothesis of competition, red deer density in a given year had a marked negative influence on body mass of roe deer fawns born the same year and the following year. Fawn mass of roe deer males and females responded in similar ways to changes in red deer density. Our study provides the first evidence of a negative response of roe deer performance to high red deer density.

  15. The impact of habitat fragmentation and social structure on the population genetics of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Schreiber, A

    2001-06-01

    Nine out of 57 bovine and caprine microsatellites investigated have proved polymorphic in roe deer populations from Central Europe. The polymorphism of four to nine microsatellites (with two to 16 alleles each) has been screened in 492 roe deer from 27 sample locations in Germany, the Netherlands and France, and 10 allozyme loci have been investigated in 118 roe deer from Germany. These studies have revealed a genetically homogeneous population, but with a local scatter of allele frequencies. The mean genetic distance among sample pairs, and the overall fixation index for the 27 population samples were D=0.1638 and GST=0.0972 for four microsatellite loci, and D=0.0598 and GST=0.1459 for 10 allozyme loci. No isolation-by-distance was observed. Roe deer from isolated habitats could be distinguished by various measures of genetic variability. The expected heterozygosity and the allelic diversity were higher in male than in female roe deer, but mean genetic distances and fixation indices were higher in females. The fixation indices of pairs of adjacent samples, and the genetic distance among these samples correlated highly significantly with the density of human settlement, measured by the percentage of land surface covered by roads and villages. The utility of allozymes and microsatellites for population genetic studies in cervids are compared.

  16. Tick infestation (Acari: Ixodidae) in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain: population dynamics and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Luís; Panadero, Rosario; Dacal, Vicente; Pato, Francisco Javier; López, Ceferino; Díaz, Pablo; Arias, María Sol; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2011-04-01

    During the 2007 and 2008 hunting seasons (April-October) the skin of 367 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), hunted in different preserves from Galicia (Northwestern Spain), were examined for ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The overall prevalence of infestation by ticks was 83.1%. The predominant species was Ixodes ricinus (83.1%), whereas a single Dermacentor marginatus specimen appeared in one roe deer. All developmental stages of I. ricinus were found parasitizing roe deer, the adults being the most frequent (82.2%), followed by nymphs (45.6%) and larvae (27.2%). The mean intensity of infestation by I. ricinus was 43.2 ± 49.85; most of them were adults (30.7 ± 31.64) and in a lesser extend nymphs (16.9 ± 24.74) and larvae (10.7 ± 29.90). Ixodes ricinus was present all over the study with percentages that oscillated between 100% in spring and 57.4% in autumn. CHAID algorithm showed the sex of roe deer as the most influential factor in tick prevalence, followed by the climatic area. The different developmental stages of I. ricinus were more frequent in males than in females, and the prevalence of adults and larvae were higher in roe deer from coastal areas than in those from mountainous and central areas, whereas nymphs were more frequent in mountainous areas. Host age and density were not determinants for tick infestation. Our results confirm that roe deer are important hosts for I. ricinus in northwestern Spain, serving as a vehicle for the geographic distribution of these ticks.

  17. Pathogens of zoonotic and biological importance in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): Seroprevalence in an agro-system population in France.

    PubMed

    Candela, Mónica G; Serrano, Emmanuel; Sevila, Julie; León, Luis; Caro, María Rosa; Verheyden, Hélène

    2014-04-01

    Antibody prevalence for several infectious and parasitic diseases in a population of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) inhabiting a mixed agricultural landscape (south of France) has been analyzed. Serological analyses with ELISA in 245 animals captured from 2008 to 2012 has been performed. We found a high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (46.4%), Chlamydophila abortus (17.27%) and Coxiella burnetii (11.26%) compared to other studies in Europe. Seroprevalence varied strongly among years for T. gondii (27-91%), C. abortus (0-42%) and C. burnetii (0-27%). T. gondii prevalence was lower in juvenile females, compared to juvenile males and adults of both sexes. Other pathogens had low prevalences: Neospora caninum (1.56%), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (1.17%, 2008/09; 1.1%, 2010/11), Mycoplasma agalactiae (1.45%, 2009/10), Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (0.9%) and Slow viruses (CAEV-MVV) (0.15%, 2008/10; 0%, 2011/12). Antibodies to bluetongue virus and pestiviruses were not found in any individual.

  18. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    PubMed Central

    Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that accounts for different detectability in March 2008 and 2009, respectively. We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11.4% males, with significant seasonal deviation. Total tick infestation was high, with considerable individual variation (from 0 to 270 ticks/deer). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with roe deer body indices (body mass, age, hind foot length). Significantly more nymphs were found on deer from forest departments with high roe deer density indices, indicating a positive correlation with deer abundance. Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer. PMID:20099011

  19. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-08-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that accounts for different detectability in March 2008 and 2009, respectively. We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11.4% males, with significant seasonal deviation. Total tick infestation was high, with considerable individual variation (from 0 to 270 ticks/deer). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with roe deer body indices (body mass, age, hind foot length). Significantly more nymphs were found on deer from forest departments with high roe deer density indices, indicating a positive correlation with deer abundance. Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer.

  20. How does climate change influence demographic processes of widespread species? Lessons from the comparative analysis of contrasted populations of roe deer.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Hewison, A J Mark; Klein, François; Plard, Floriane; Douhard, Mathieu; Davison, Raziel; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    How populations respond to climate change depends on the interplay between life history, resource availability, and the intensity of the change. Roe deer are income breeders, with high levels of allocation to reproduction, and are hence strongly constrained by the availability of high quality resources during spring. We investigated how recent climate change has influenced demographic processes in two populations of this widespread species. Spring began increasingly earlier over the study, allowing us to identify 2 periods with contrasting onset of spring. Both populations grew more slowly when spring was early. As expected for a long-lived and iteroparous species, adult survival had the greatest potential impact on population growth. Using perturbation analyses, we measured the relative contribution of the demographic parameters to observed variation in population growth, both within and between periods and populations. Within periods, the identity of the critical parameter depended on the variance in growth rate, but variation in recruitment was the main driver of observed demographic change between periods of contrasting spring earliness. Our results indicate that roe deer in forest habitats cannot currently cope with increasingly early springs. We hypothesise that they should shift their distribution to richer, more heterogeneous landscapes to offset energetic requirements during the critical rearing stage.

  1. Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus.

    PubMed

    Kiffner, C; Lödige, C; Alings, M; Vor, T; Rühe, F

    2011-01-01

    The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages showed rather consistent attachment site patterns and relative narrow feeding site niches. Larvae were mostly found on the head and on the front legs of roe deer, nymphs reached highest densities on the head and highest adult densities were found on the neck of roe deer. The tick stages feeding (larvae, nymphs, females) on roe deer showed high degrees of intrastadial spatial aggregation, whereas males did not. Male ticks showed large feeding site overlap with female ticks. Feeding site overlap between larval-female and larval-nymphal ticks did occur especially during the months May-August on the head and front legs of roe deer and might allow pathogen transmission via co-feeding. Tick density, niche width and niche overlap on roe deer are mainly affected by seasonality, reflecting seasonal activity and abundance patterns of ticks. Since different tick development stages occur spatially and temporally clustered on roe deer, transmission experiments of tick-borne pathogens are urgently needed.

  2. Living on the Edge: Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) Density in the Margins of Its Geographical Range

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Ana M.; Fonseca, Carlos; Marques, Tiago A.; Santos, João P.; Rodrigues, Rogério; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations have increased in number and distribution throughout Europe. Such increases have profound impacts on ecosystems, both positive and negative. Therefore monitoring roe deer populations is essential for the appropriate management of this species, in order to achieve a balance between conservation and mitigation of the negative impacts. Despite being required for an effective management plan, the study of roe deer ecology in Portugal is at an early stage, and hence there is still a complete lack of knowledge of roe deer density within its known range. Distance sampling of pellet groups coupled with production and decay rates for pellet groups provided density estimates for roe deer in northeastern Portugal (Lombada National Hunting Area - LNHA, Serra de Montesinho – SM and Serra da Nogueira – SN; LNHA and SM located in Montesinho Natural Park). The estimated roe deer density using a stratified detection function was 1.23/100 ha for LNHA, 4.87/100 ha for SM and 4.25/100 ha in SN, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.68 to 2.21, 3.08 to 7.71 and 2.25 to 8.03, respectively. For the entire area, the estimated density was about 3.51/100 ha (95% CI - 2.26–5.45). This method can provide estimates of roe deer density, which will ultimately support management decisions. However, effective monitoring should be based on long-term studies that are able to detect population fluctuations. This study represents the initial phase of roe deer monitoring at the edge of its European range and intends to fill the gap in this species ecology, as the gathering of similar data over a number of years will provide the basis for stronger inferences. Monitoring should be continued, although the study area should be increased to evaluate the accuracy of estimates and assess the impact of management actions. PMID:24533091

  3. Living on the edge: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) density in the margins of its geographical range.

    PubMed

    Valente, Ana M; Fonseca, Carlos; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, João P; Rodrigues, Rogério; Torres, Rita Tinoco

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations have increased in number and distribution throughout Europe. Such increases have profound impacts on ecosystems, both positive and negative. Therefore monitoring roe deer populations is essential for the appropriate management of this species, in order to achieve a balance between conservation and mitigation of the negative impacts. Despite being required for an effective management plan, the study of roe deer ecology in Portugal is at an early stage, and hence there is still a complete lack of knowledge of roe deer density within its known range. Distance sampling of pellet groups coupled with production and decay rates for pellet groups provided density estimates for roe deer in northeastern Portugal (Lombada National Hunting Area--LNHA, Serra de Montesinho--SM and Serra da Nogueira--SN; LNHA and SM located in Montesinho Natural Park). The estimated roe deer density using a stratified detection function was 1.23/100 ha for LNHA, 4.87/100 ha for SM and 4.25/100 ha in SN, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.68 to 2.21, 3.08 to 7.71 and 2.25 to 8.03, respectively. For the entire area, the estimated density was about 3.51/100 ha (95% CI - 2.26-5.45). This method can provide estimates of roe deer density, which will ultimately support management decisions. However, effective monitoring should be based on long-term studies that are able to detect population fluctuations. This study represents the initial phase of roe deer monitoring at the edge of its European range and intends to fill the gap in this species ecology, as the gathering of similar data over a number of years will provide the basis for stronger inferences. Monitoring should be continued, although the study area should be increased to evaluate the accuracy of estimates and assess the impact of management actions.

  4. Immunogenetic heterogeneity in a widespread ungulate: the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Quéméré, Erwan; Galan, Maxime; Cosson, Jean-François; Klein, François; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Merlet, Joël; Bonhomme, Maxime; Hewison, A J Mark; Charbonnel, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how immune genetic variation is shaped by selective and neutral processes in wild populations is of prime importance in both evolutionary biology and epidemiology. The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has considerably expanded its distribution range these last decades, notably by colonizing agricultural landscapes. This range shift is likely to have led to bottlenecks and increased roe deer exposure to a new range of pathogens that until recently predominantly infected humans and domestic fauna. We therefore investigated the historical and contemporary forces that have shaped variability in a panel of genes involved in innate and acquired immunity in roe deer, including Mhc-Drb and genes encoding cytokines or toll-like receptors (TLRs). Together, our results suggest that genetic drift is the main contemporary evolutionary force shaping immunogenetic variation within populations. However, in contrast to the classical view, we found that some innate immune genes involved in micropathogen recognition (e.g. Tlrs) continue to evolve dynamically in roe deer in response to pathogen-mediated positive selection. Most studied Tlrs (Tlr2, Tlr4 and Tlr5) had similarly high levels of amino acid diversity in the three studied populations including one recently established in southwestern France that showed a clear signature of genetic bottleneck. Tlr2 implicated in the recognition of Gram-positive bacteria in domestic ungulates, showed strong evidence of balancing selection. The high immunogenetic variation revealed here implies that roe deer are able to cope with a wide spectrum of pathogens and to respond rapidly to emerging infectious diseases.

  5. Seasonal variation of activity patterns in roe deer in a temperate forested area.

    PubMed

    Pagon, Nives; Grignolio, Stefano; Pipia, Anna; Bongi, Paolo; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Apollonio, Marco

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the activity patterns of a European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population living in a forested Apennine area in central Italy, in order to shed light on the environmental and biological factors that were expected to account for the observed activity patterns on daily and yearly bases. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of 31 radio-collared roe deer were assessed through sessions of radio tracking for a total period of 18 consecutive months. Roe deer showed bimodal activity patterns throughout the year, with the two highest peaks of activity recorded at dawn and dusk. Activity patterns of males and females differed during the territorial period (from early spring to late summer), whereas they did not during the nonterritorial period. Most likely, behavioral thermoregulation can be held responsible for variation of daily activity patterns in different seasons. In winter, for instance, activity during the dawn period was significantly higher than in other seasons and daylight activity was significantly higher than at night. Nocturnal activity was highest in summer and lowest in winter. During the hunting season, moreover, roe deer showed lower activity levels than during the rest of the year. The prediction that roe deer would show lower activity levels during full moon nights, when the predation risk was assumed to be higher, was not confirmed by our data. Activity rhythms in roe deer were thus subjected to both endogenous and environmental factors, the latter working as exogenous synchronization cues. Accordingly, in changing environmental and ecological conditions, a circadian cycle of activity could be seen as the result of complex interactions among daily behavioral rhythm, digestive physiology, and external modifying factors.

  6. Roe deer sera used for TBE surveillance in Austria.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Wetscher, Monika; Baumgartner, Raphaela; Walder, Gernot

    2015-06-01

    A large majority of Austrian citizens are aware of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), consequently reflected by a high vaccination rate of 85%. In return, risk assessment and disease mapping on human cases might be hampered due to high and inhomogeneous vaccination rates and travel habitats of humans. The roe deer was used to obtain a starting point for the integral view on the actual risk of TBE in Austria. The roe deer exhibits several attributes which makes it suitable as an indicator species: the roe deer has a restricted home range and it is known to be a heavy tick carrier. Furthermore it sero-converts after infection with TBE, but no outbreak occurs. Sera from 945 roe deer were obtained from all over Austria and screened with IFAT for the antibodies against TBE. Twenty-two positive samples, 2.4%, and 17 samples at the borderline titre of 1:16 were identified. The majority of the positive samples, 70.6%, were located in known TBE areas based on human cases. Further research is needed to confirm or reject new endemic foci of TBE transmission.

  7. Detection of atypical Chlamydiaceae in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Verheyden, Hélène; Picot, Denis; Bertin, Claire; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-12-31

    Investigations on fecal samples, vaginal swabs and sera from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in south-western France led to the detection of a non-classified Chlamydiaceae strain. A total of 85 vaginal swabs were sampled from roe deer that had been captured in 2012 (n=42) and 2013 (n=43). Using a Chlamydiaceae family-specific real-time PCR, only one vaginal swab out of the 42 samples done in 2012 tested positive and was subsequently identified as Chlamydia (C.) psittaci. In contrast, 6/43 vaginal swab samples were positive in 2013. Four of these positive samples came from a single group of roe deer, captured in the Fabas plain. Fecal samples from this group of 9 females were subsequently analyzed, with 6 of them testing positive with the Chlamydiaceae-specific PCR. All positive samples collected in 2013 were negative when re-tested with C. abortus-, C. pecorum- and C. suis-specific real-time PCR assays. Sera from this group of 9 females were analyzed with two immunoassays (recomLine and ELISA). Whereas intense positive reactions with C. pneumoniae antigens were observed for all sera when tested with the recomLine test, none was positive with the C. abortus specific ELISA test. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S, 23S rRNA and ompA gene sequences from 3 animals, as well as the MLST analysis from 2 animals, showed that this roe deer group likely harbored the same bacterium related to members of the family Chlamydiaceae. Notably, the roe deer strain formed a separate entity different from the currently recognized chlamydial species, with C. trachomatis, C. suis and C. muridarum appearing as its closest relatives.

  8. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Malmsten, Jonas; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; Björkman, Camilla

    2011-05-11

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are two coccidian parasites with a worldwide distribution. T. gondii is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses in the world and in young children and immunocompromised persons, infection can lead to severe disease and death. N. caninum is an important cause of abortions in cattle. Wildlife have been identified as reservoirs and transmitters for both parasites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences of T. gondii, and N. caninum in moose (Alces alces), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden. Blood samples were collected from 417 moose during 2000-2005 and from 199 roe deer during 1990-2007. The samples were investigated for presence of antibodies by a T. gondii direct agglutination test and a N. caninum iscom ELISA. Because the iscom ELISA has not been validated for moose or roe deer, sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by immunoblot analysis to verify presence of antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 85 (20%) and 68 (34%) moose and roe deer sera, respectively. In moose the seroprevalence was higher in south and central Sweden than in the north, whereas there was no difference between the regions for roe deer. Adult moose and roe deer had higher odds of being seropositive than young animals but there were no difference in seroprevalence between males and females. One roe deer was positive by immunoblotting and was regarded as N. caninum positive, whereas all moose sera were negative. The results show that T. gondii infection is widely spread in the Swedish moose and roe deer populations. Precautions should therefore be taken when handling internal organs and carcasses of harvested cervids. Proper handling and cooking of game meat also is important to prevent toxoplasmosis in humans.

  9. Mismatch between birth date and vegetation phenology slows the demography of roe deer.

    PubMed

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Coulson, Tim; Hewison, A J Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Warnant, Claude; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition.

  10. Influence of Holocene environmental change and anthropogenic impact on the diversity and distribution of roe deer.

    PubMed

    Baker, K H; Hoelzel, A R

    2014-06-01

    Extant patterns of population structure and levels of diversity are a consequence of factors that vary in both space and time. Our objective in this study is to investigate a species that has responded to both natural and anthropogenic changes in ways that have shaped modern populations and provide insight into the key processes. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is one of the two species of deer native to Britain. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the British habitat was largely under ice and there was a land bridge to mainland Europe. As the Earth warmed during the early Holocene, the land bridge was lost. Subsequent hunting on the British mainland left the southern region extirpated of roe deer, whereas a refugial population remained in the north. Later reintroductions from Europe led to population expansion, especially in southern United Kingdom. Here, we combine data from ancient and modern DNA to track population dynamics and patterns of connectivity, and test hypotheses about the influence of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. We find that past expansion and divergence events coincided with a warming environment and the subsequent closure of the land bridge between Europe and the United Kingdom. We also find turnover in British roe deer haplotypes between the late-Holocene and modern day that have likely resulted from recent human disturbance activities such as habitat perturbation, overhunting and restocking.

  11. Influence of Holocene environmental change and anthropogenic impact on the diversity and distribution of roe deer

    PubMed Central

    Baker, K H; Hoelzel, A R

    2014-01-01

    Extant patterns of population structure and levels of diversity are a consequence of factors that vary in both space and time. Our objective in this study is to investigate a species that has responded to both natural and anthropogenic changes in ways that have shaped modern populations and provide insight into the key processes. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is one of the two species of deer native to Britain. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the British habitat was largely under ice and there was a land bridge to mainland Europe. As the Earth warmed during the early Holocene, the land bridge was lost. Subsequent hunting on the British mainland left the southern region extirpated of roe deer, whereas a refugial population remained in the north. Later reintroductions from Europe led to population expansion, especially in southern United Kingdom. Here, we combine data from ancient and modern DNA to track population dynamics and patterns of connectivity, and test hypotheses about the influence of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. We find that past expansion and divergence events coincided with a warming environment and the subsequent closure of the land bridge between Europe and the United Kingdom. We also find turnover in British roe deer haplotypes between the late-Holocene and modern day that have likely resulted from recent human disturbance activities such as habitat perturbation, overhunting and restocking. PMID:24448563

  12. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in roe deer from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is an important game animal in Spain. Sera from 278 roe deer sera from eight areas in mainland Spain were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Titers of 1:25 or higher were found in 109 (39.2%) of 278 deer. No significant difference...

  13. Spatial variation in springtime food resources influences the winter body mass of roe deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Dray, Stephane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Chessel, Daniel; Duncan, Patrick; Illius, Andrew; Guillon, Nadine; Klein, Francois; Van Laere, Guy

    2003-11-01

    It is well established that the dynamics of mammalian populations vary in time, in relation to density and weather, and often in interaction with phenotypic differences (sex, age and social status). Habitat quality has recently been identified as another significant source of individual variability in vital rates of deer, including roe deer where spatial variations in fawn body mass were found to be only about a tenth of temporal variations. The approach used was to classify the habitat into blocks a priori, and to analyse variation in animal performance among the predefined areas. In a fine-grained approach, here we use data collected over 24 years on 1,235 roe deer fawns captured at known locations and the plant species composition sampled in 2001 at 578 sites in the Chizé forest to determine the spatial structure at a fine scale of both vegetation and winter body mass of fawns, and then to determine links between the two. Space and time played a nearly equal role in determining fawn body masses of both sexes, each accounting for about 20% of variance and without any interaction between them. The spatial distribution of fawn body mass was perennial over the 24 years considered and predicted values showed a 2 kg range according to location in the reserve, which is much greater than suggested in previous work and is enough to have strong effects on fawn survival. The spatial distribution and the range of predicted body masses were closely similar in males and females. The result of this study is therefore consistent with the view that the life history traits of roe deer are only weakly influenced by sexual selection. The occurrence of three plant species that are known to be important food items in spring/summer roe deer diets, hornbeam ( Carpinus betulus), bluebell ( Hyacinthoides sp.) and Star of Bethlehem ( Ornithogalum sp.) was positively related to winter fawn body mass. The occurrence of species known to be avoided in spring/summer roe deer diets [e

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Michał; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Mirosław; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  15. Evolution of population genetic structure of the British roe deer by natural and anthropogenic processes (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Baker, Karis H; Rus Hoelzel, A

    2012-01-01

    Human influence typically impacts on natural populations of conservation interest. These interactions are varied and sometimes complex, and may be negative and unintended or associated with conservation and management strategy. Understanding the details of how these interactions influence and are influenced by natural evolutionary processes is essential to the development of effective conservation strategies. In this study, we investigate a species in Britain that has experienced both negative impact through overhunting in historical times and management efforts through culls and translocations. At the same time, there are regional populations that have been less affected by human influence. We use mtDNA and nuclear microsatellite DNA markers to investigate patterns of connectivity and diversity and find multiple insular populations in Britain that probably evolved within the Holocene (when the habitat was free of ice). We identify three concurrent processes. First, surviving indigenous populations show highly provincial patterns of philopatry, maintaining and generating population structure on a small geographic scale. Second, founder populations into habitat extirpated of native populations have expanded, but remained largely insular. Third, introductions into established populations generate some admixture. We discuss the implications for the evolution of diversity of the integration of natural processes with anthropogenic influences on population size and distribution.

  16. Correlation of TBE incidence with red deer and roe deer abundance in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Knap, Nataša; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a virus infection which sometimes causes human disease. The TBE virus is found in ticks and certain vertebrate tick hosts in restricted endemic localities termed TBE foci. The formation of natural foci is a combination of several factors: the vectors, a suitable and numerous enough number of hosts and in a habitat with suitable vegetation and climate. The present study investigated the influence of deer on the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. We were able to obtain data from deer culls. Using this data, the abundance of deer was estimated and temporal and spatial analysis was performed. The abundance of deer has increased in the past decades, as well as the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. Temporal analysis confirmed a correlation between red deer abundance and tick-borne encephalitis occurrence. Additionally, spatial analysis established, that in areas with high incidence of tick-borne encephalitis red deer density is higher, compared to areas with no or few human cases of tick-borne encephalitis. However, such correlation could not be confirmed between roe deer density and the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis. This is presumably due to roe deer density being above a certain threshold so that availability of tick reproduction hosts has no apparent effect on ticks' host finding and consequently may not be possible to correlate with incidence of human TBE.

  17. Abundance estimation of Ixodes ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Kiffner, Christian; Lödige, Christina; Alings, Matthias; Vor, Torsten; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-09-01

    Despite the importance of roe deer as a host for Ixodes ticks in central Europe, estimates of total tick burden on roe deer are not available to date. We aimed at providing (1) estimates of life stage and sex specific (larvae, nymphs, males and females, hereafter referred to as tick life stages) total Ixodes burden and (2) equations which can be used to predict the total life stage burden by counting the life stage on a selected body area. Within a period of 1(1/2) years, we conducted whole body counts of ticks from 80 hunter-killed roe deer originating from a beech dominated forest area in central Germany. Averaged over the entire study period (winter 2007-summer 2009), the mean tick burden per roe deer was 64.5 (SE +/- 10.6). Nymphs were the most numerous tick life stage per roe deer (23.9 +/- 3.2), followed by females (21.4 +/- 3.5), larvae (10.8 +/- 4.2) and males (8.4 +/- 1.5). The individual tick burden was highly aggregated (k = 0.46); levels of aggregation were highest in larvae (k = 0.08), followed by males (k = 0.40), females (k = 0.49) and nymphs (k = 0.71). To predict total life stage specific burdens based on counts on selected body parts, we provide linear equations. For estimating larvae abundance on the entire roe deer, counts can be restricted to the front legs. Tick counts restricted to the head are sufficient to estimate total nymph burden and counts on the neck are appropriate for estimating adult ticks (females and males). In order to estimate the combined tick burden, tick counts on the head can be used for extrapolation. The presented linear models are highly significant and explain 84.1, 77.3, 90.5, 91.3, and 65.3% (adjusted R (2)) of the observed variance, respectively. Thus, these models offer a robust basis for rapid tick abundance assessment. This can be useful for studies aiming at estimating effects of abiotic and biotic factors on tick abundance, modelling tick population dynamics, modelling tick-borne pathogen transmission dynamics

  18. Polysialylation of NCAM correlates with onset and termination of seasonal spermatogenesis in roe deer.

    PubMed

    Hänsch, Manka; Simon, Peter; Schön, Jennifer; Kaese, Miriam; Braun, Beate C; Jewgenow, Katarina; Göritz, Franz; Küpper, Julia; Ahmadvand, Negah; Geyer, Rudolf; Middendorff, Ralf; Müller, Karin; Galuska, Sebastian P

    2014-06-01

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are seasonal breeders and cyclic structural changes of roe bucks' testis come along with a totally arrested (winter) and a highly activated spermatogenesis (summer). For this reason, roe buck represents an interesting model to study general mechanisms of initiation and termination of spermatogenesis. We investigated if polysialic acid (polySia)-a linear homopolymer of α2,8-linked sialic acids, which could act as a negative regulator of cell-cell adhesion-might be involved in the activation and/or inactivation of spermatogenesis. To address this point, testis samples of adult male roe deer were collected at different time point of the year. Intriguingly, we observed that polySia attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule was enhanced during the onset of spermatogenesis in April. In addition, polySia was highly expressed in December. Predominantly, polySia was detectable between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia in the basal regions of testicular tubules and in the adluminal part of Sertoli cells. Interestingly, similar polySia distributions were observed during early testis development of other mammalians when gonocytes (pre-spermatogonia) and Sertoli cells represent the only cell populations in tubuli seminiferi. Thus, polySia is expressed during key steps of the "on/off mechanisms" of spermatogenesis and might represent one mediator of the interaction and communication between Sertoli cells and germ cell precursors.

  19. Acute Q fever infection in Thuringia, Germany, after burial of roe deer fawn cadavers (Capreolus capreolus): a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schleenvoigt, B.T.; Sprague, L.D.; Mertens, K.; Moog, U.; Schmoock, G.; Wolf, G.; Neumann, M.; Pletz, M.W.; Neubauer, H.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a case of a 48-year-old man who presented with acute Q fever infection after burying two fawn cadavers (Capreolus capreolus). Recent outbreaks of Q fever in Europe have been traced back to intensive goat breeding units, sheep flocks in the proximity of highly populated urban areas or to farmed deer. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing Q fever infection in a human linked to roe deer as a source of infection. PMID:26566445

  20. Country, cover or protection: what shapes the distribution of red deer and roe deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

    PubMed

    Heurich, Marco; Brand, Tom T G; Kaandorp, Manon Y; Šustr, Pavel; Müller, Jörg; Reineking, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic) form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas.

  1. A comparative study of hepatic trace element levels in wild moose, roe deer, and reindeer from Norway.

    PubMed

    Vikoren, Turid; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Lierhagen, Syverin; Handeland, Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Liver samples from 422 wild moose (Alces alces), 280 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and 73 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) collected by hunters in various localities in Norway, 2002-2003, were analyzed for the essential trace elements cobalt, copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum, selenium (Se), and zinc. Significant differences in hepatic concentrations among species were found for all elements except for Mn, and considerable individual and geographic variations were seen. Roe deer had statistically significant lower Se levels (median: 0.51 μg Se/g dry weight) than did moose (0.77 μg Se/g) and reindeer (0.85 μg Se/g). Moose from two coastal municipalities with high precipitation had considerably higher Se concentrations than those from the other localities studied. Seventy-nine roe deer (28%) and 36 moose (9%) had Se concentrations below that regarded as deficient in domestic ruminants. The Se status in roe deer was lower than previously reported in Europe. Moose had a significantly higher Cu (222 μg Cu/g dw) than did roe deer (112 μg Cu/g) and reindeer (105 μg Cu/g). The Cu status of moose and roe deer in Norway are among the highest reported in Europe. However, a suboptimal Se and Cu status was found in moose from Tvedestrand, a population which has suffered from a reduced condition and productivity. The variability in trace element status among hunted cervids, with no apparent signs of deficiency or toxicity, probably reflects adaptations in these wild ruminant species to cope with this. However, subtle clinical signs and lesions are difficult to detect and further research is needed.

  2. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolates from red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from Poland.

    PubMed

    Solarczyk, Piotr; Majewska, Anna C; Moskwa, Bozena; Cabaj, Władysław; Dabert, Miroslawa; Nowosad, Piotr

    2012-09-01

    A total of 181 faecal samples were collected from wild cervids in two regions of Poland. Giardia cysts were detected in one faecal specimen from red deer and in two samples from roe deer. Fragments of the beta-giardin (bg) triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes were successfully amplified from the Giardia isolate obtained from red deer, whereas only amplicons of bg and gdh were obtained from Giardia isolates derived from two roe deer. The result of genotyping and phylogenetic analysis showed that the G. duodenalis isolate from red deer belonged to sub-assemblage AIII, which has never been identified in humans, whereas isolates from roe deer clustered within zoonotic sub-assemblage AI. Further studies are necessary to explain which Giardia assemblages and/or sub-assemblages occur in wild cervids in various regions of the world. Moreover, the impact of Giardia infection on the health of wild cervids should also be elucidated.

  3. Season effect on genitalia and epididymal sperm from Iberian red deer, roe deer and Cantabrian chamois.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Guerra, Camino; Kaabi, Mohammed; Garcia-Macias, Vanesa; de Paz, Paulino; Alvarez, M; Herraez, Paz; Anel, Luis

    2005-04-15

    Seasonality deeply affects the physiology and behavior of many species, and must be taken into account when biological resource banks (BRBs) are established. We have studied the effect of seasonality on many reproductive parameters of free-ranging Iberian red deer, roe deer and Cantabrian chamois, living in Spain. Testicles from hunted animals were collected and sent to our laboratory at different times during the year. We recorded the weight and volume of testis, the weight of the epididymis and its separate parts (caput, corpus, and cauda), the weight of the sperm sample collected from the cauda epididymis, and several sperm parameters (sperm concentration, spermatozoa recovered, motility, HOS test reactivity, acrosomal status, and viability). We studied the data according to several periods, defined accordingly to each species. For red deer, we defined rut (mid-September to mid-October), post-rut (mid-October to mid-December), and non-breeding season (February). For roe deer, they were pre-rut (June), rut (July), post-rut (first fortnight of August), and non-breeding season (September). For chamois: non-breeding season (June to mid-September) and breeding season (October-November). The rut/breeding season yielded significantly higher numbers for almost all parameters. However, in the case of red deer, sperm quality was higher in the post-rut. For roe deer, testicular weight was similar in the pre-rut and in the rut, and sperm quality did not differ significantly between these two periods, although we noticed higher values in the rut. In the case of chamois, sperm quality did not differ significantly from the breeding season, but data distribution suggested that in the non-breeding season there are less males with sperm of good quality. On the whole, we find these results of interest for BRB planning. The best season to collect sperm in this species would be the breeding season. However, post-rut in red deer, pre-rut in roe deer, and non-breeding season in

  4. Delayed acute capture myopathy in three roe deer.

    PubMed

    Montané, J; Marco, I; Manteca, X; López, J; Lavín, S

    2002-03-01

    Delayed acute capture myopathy is the term used to describe the clinical syndrome observed in three roe deer captured by drive-nets and transported to an enclosure for scientific purposes. The animals died 48 h, 60 h and 8 days after being captured. The simultaneous deaths coincided with a previous episode of deliberate human disturbance. The histopathological findings were indicative of acute myopathy and myoglobinaemic nephrosis. These could be related to an ataxic myoglobinuric syndrome brought on by capture and transport operations. The lack of clinical signs and negative prognosis indicators in the period between capture and just before death. the absence of gross muscular lesions in the animal that died after 8 days post-capture, the simultaneous deaths of animals captured at different times and the evidence of deliberate human disturbance in the enclosure are suggestive of death triggered by a second stress episode.

  5. a Uav-Based ROE Deer Fawn Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  6. Excursion behaviour of female roe deer may depend on density.

    PubMed

    Bocci, A; Aiello, V; Lovari, S

    2013-07-01

    The excursion behaviour of roe does was studied for two years in a low density population (ca. 6.5 ind./100 ha), in an Apennine-continental forest of Southern Italy, through satellite radiotracking. During the rutting period, our radiotagged does (N=6) moved well outside their summer ranges, with an average exploration area eight times greater than summer ranges. The median duration of excursions was 51 h (range: 10-99 h). One female stayed away for a total of 11 days. In order further to understand this behaviour, we reviewed all studies (N=6) dealing with excursion behaviour of roe does and carried out in areas where population density was assessed through the same method (i.e. drive counts). Out of five ecological parameters included in the analysis, excursion behaviour of roe does was found significantly and negatively associated only to population density: when density was low, the proportion of roaming does increased, probably because of the lower availability of "free" bucks during the short time of female oestrous.

  7. Modeling reproductive trajectories of roe deer females: fixed or dynamic heterogeneity?

    PubMed

    Plard, F; Bonenfant, C; Delormeb, D; Gaillard, J M

    2012-12-01

    The relative role of dynamic and fixed heterogeneity in shaping the individual heterogeneity observed in most life-history traits remains difficult to quantify. In a recent work, Tuljapurkar et al. (2009) suggested modeling individual heterogeneity in lifetime reproductive success by a null model building reproductive trajectories from a first-order Markov chain. According to this model, among-individual differences in reproductive trajectories would be generated by the stochastic transitions among reproductive states (such as breeder and non-breeder) due to dynamic heterogeneity. In this work, we analyze the individual variation in three reproductive metrics (reproductive status, fecundity, and reproductive success) in two populations of roe deer intensively monitored using Tuljapurkar et al. (2009)’s dynamic model. Moreover, we challenge the Tuljapurkar model previously used as a biological null model to test whether the observed distribution of reproductive success over the lifetime was generated by a stochastic process by modifying two steps of the previous model to build a full stochastic model. We show that a distribution generated by the full dynamic model proposed by Tuljapurkar et al. (2009) can be consistently interpreted as only generated from a stochastic biological process provided that the probabilities of transition among reproductive states used are independent of the current reproductive state and that the positive covariation that usually occurs between survival and reproduction among individuals is removed. Only the reproductive status of roe deer females could be restricted to a stochastic process described by the full stochastic model, probably because most females (>90%) were breeders in a given year. The fecundity of roe deer females could not be adequately described by the full dynamic and full stochastic model, and the observed distribution of female reproductive success differed from the one generated by a full dynamic model in which

  8. Cephenemyiosis, an emergent myiasis in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from northwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Sol, Arias María; Gerardo, Pajares; Natividad, Díez-Baños; Ana, Pérez-Creo; Alberto, Prieto; Pablo, Díez-Baños; Patrocinio, Morrondo

    2016-12-01

    Cephenemyia stimulator larvae cause a specific myiasis in roe deer, which is widely distributed in Europe. In Spain, this parasite was detected by the first time in 2005, coinciding with a high mortality of this ruminant especially in northwest of the country. The aim of this study was to analyse the results obtained by necropsy and ELISA to elucidate when the first infestation by C. stimulator in roe deer from northwestern Spain occurred, as well as to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors on the prevalence and intensity of infestation. During 1994-2000, none seropositive roe deer was observed by ELISA. However, from 2007 to 2014, 38 % of animals were seropositive. The results of the necropsy pointed that prevalence and intensity of infestation had increased over the years. There was a positive and significant correlation between the number of animals harbouring C. stimulator larvae and seroprevalence values. This significant correlation was also observed between the seroprevalence and mean intensity of infestation. Adult roe deer showed higher prevalence and intensity of infestation than younger reaching statistical significance. It is also detected that the prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in males than in females although the mean number of larvae found in females were higher than in males. The combined use of direct and indirect techniques demonstrated a high prevalence of C. stimulator infestation in roe deer in the northwest of Spain, which certainly highlights the importance of this myiasis during the last years.

  9. Simulation of potential habitat overlap between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Understanding species distribution, especially areas of overlapping habitat between sympatric species, is essential for informing conservation through natural habitat protection. New protection strategies should simultaneously consider conservation efforts for multiple species that exist within the same landscape, which requires studies that include habitat overlap analysis. Methods. We estimated the potential habitat of cervids, which are typical ungulates in northern China, using the present locations of red deer (Cervus elaphus; N = 90) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; N = 106) in a Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model. Our study area was a human-dominated landscape in the Tieli Forestry Bureau located at the southern slope of the Lesser Xing’an Mountains. We grouped 17 environmental predictor variables into five predictor classes (terrain, habitat accessibility, land cover, vegetation feature, and interference), which were used to build habitat suitability models. Results. Habitat accessibility and human interferences were found to have the strongest influence on habitat suitability among the five variable classes. Among the environmental factors, distance to farmland (26.8%), distance to bush-grass land (14.6%), elevation (13.5%), and distance to water source (12.2%) were most important for red deer, distance to farmland (22.9%), distance to settlement (21.4%), elevation (11.6%), and coverage of shrub-grass (8%) were most important for roe deer. Model accuracy was high for both species (mean area under the curve (AUC) = 0.936 for red deer and 0.924 for roe deer). The overlapping habitat comprised 89.93 km2 within the study area, which occupied 94% of potentially suitable habitat for red deer and 27% for roe deer. Conclusions. In terms of habitat suitability, roe deer showed greater selectivity than red deer. The overlapping habitat was mostly located in the eastern mountains. The southwestern plain was not a suitable habitat for deer because it was

  10. Serosurvey of roe deer, chamois and domestic sheep in the central Italian Alps.

    PubMed

    Gaffuri, Alessandra; Giacometti, Marco; Tranquillo, Vito Massimo; Magnino, Simone; Cordioli, Paolo; Lanfranchi, Paolo

    2006-07-01

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), chamois (Rupicapra rupricapra rupicapra), and domestic sheep in the Orobie Alps, Italy, were serologically tested for antibodies to selected pathogens that may be transmitted across species. Antibodies against Brucella spp. and bovine herpesvirus 1 (roe deer and chamois only) were not detected in any species. In roe deer, antibodies were detected against Toxoplasma gondii (13%) and Neospora caninum (3%). Chamois tested positive for antibodies to T. gondii (5%), N. caninum (21%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) (41%), bovine parainfluenza type-3 virus (17%), pestiviruses (18%), and Mycoplasma conjunctivae (17%). In the sheep, particularly high antibody prevalence rates were found for T. gondii (78%), Chlamydophila spp. (20%), pestiviruses (90%), BRSV (82%), and M. conjunctivae (81%).

  11. Seasonality, weather and climate affect home range size in roe deer across a wide latitudinal gradient within Europe.

    PubMed

    Morellet, Nicolas; Bonenfant, Christophe; Börger, Luca; Ossi, Federico; Cagnacci, Francesca; Heurich, Marco; Kjellander, Petter; Linnell, John D C; Nicoloso, Sandro; Sustr, Pavel; Urbano, Ferdinando; Mysterud, Atle

    2013-11-01

    1. Because many large mammal species have wide geographical ranges, spatially distant populations may be confronted with different sets of environmental conditions. Investigating how home range (HR) size varies across environmental gradients should yield a better understanding of the factors affecting large mammal ecology. 2. We evaluated how HR size of a large herbivore, the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), varies in relation to seasonality, latitude (climate), weather, plant productivity and landscape features across its geographical range in Western Europe. As roe deer are income breeders, expected to adjust HR size continuously to temporal variation in food resources and energetic requirements, our baseline prediction was for HR size to decrease with proxies of resource availability. 3. We used GPS locations of roe deer collected from seven study sites (EURODEER collaborative project) to estimate fixed-kernel HR size at weekly and monthly temporal scales. We performed an unusually comprehensive analysis of variation in HR size among and within populations over time across the geographical range of a single species using generalized additive mixed models and linear mixed models, respectively. 4. Among populations, HR size decreased with increasing values for proxies of forage abundance, but increased with increases in seasonality, stochastic variation of temperature, latitude and snow cover. Within populations, roe deer HR size varied over time in relation to seasonality and proxies of forage abundance in a consistent way across the seven populations. Thus, our findings were broadly consistent across the distributional range of this species, demonstrating a strong and ubiquitous link between the amplitude and timing of environmental seasonality and HR size at the continental scale. 5. Overall, the variability in average HR size of roe deer across Europe reflects the interaction among local weather, climate and seasonality, providing valuable insight into the

  12. Multiple bilateral fractures of the lumbar transverse processes in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Montané, J; Marco, I; López, J; Manteca, X; Lavín, S

    2001-09-01

    Multiple bilateral fractures of the lumbar transverse processes were radiographically identified postmortem in a recently captured roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). These fractures were probably caused by an avulsion of the psoas major occurring during introduction into the transport box. The deer probably died from shock caused by the fractures, muscle damage, and subsequent hemorrhage. Although easily overlooked, fractured lumbar transverse processes may indicate inadequate postcapture management practices.

  13. Habitat and roe deer fawn vulnerability to red fox predation.

    PubMed

    Panzacchi, M; Linnell, J D C; Odden, M; Odden, J; Andersen, R

    2009-11-01

    1. Notwithstanding the growing amount of literature emphasizing the link between habitat, life-history traits and behaviour, few empirical studies investigated the combined effect of these parameters on individual predation risk. We investigated direct and indirect consequences of habitat composition at multiple spatial scales on predation risk by red foxes on 151 radio-monitored roe deer fawns. We hypothesized that the higher resource availability in fragmented agricultural areas increased predation risk because of: (i) shorter prey movements, which may increase predictability; (ii) larger litter size and faster growth rates, which may increase detectability in species adopting a hiding neonatal anti-predator strategy. The sharing of risky habitat among littermates was expected to promote whole-litter losses as a result of predation. 2. The landscape-scale availability of agricultural areas negatively affected pre-weaning movements, but did not influence growth rates or litter size. Predation risk was best described by the interplay between movements and fine-scale habitat fragmentation: a higher mobility increased the encounter rate and predation risk in highly fragmented home ranges, while it reduced predation risk in forest-dominated areas with clumped resources because of decreased predictability. This is one of the first demonstrations that movement patterns can be an efficient anti-predator strategy when adjusted to local conditions. 3. In accordance with previous studies documenting the existence of family effects (i.e. non-independence among siblings) in survival, littermates survived or died together more often than expected by chance. In addition, our study specifically demonstrated the occurrence of behaviourally mediated family effects in predation risk: after a fox killed one fawn the probability of a sibling being killed within a few days rose from 20% to 47%, likely because of the win-stay strategy (i.e. return to a previously rewarding site

  14. Histological and lectin histochemical studies on the olfactory mucosae of the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    PubMed

    Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Kim, Jeongtae; Kim, Seungjoon; Moon, Changjong; Shin, Taekyun

    2015-04-01

    The morphological features of the olfactory mucosae of Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus, were histologically studied using the ethmoid turbinates containing the olfactory mucosae from six roe deer (male, 2-3 years old). The ethmoid turbinates were embedded in paraffin, and histochemically evaluated in terms of the mucosal characteristics. Lectin histochemistry was performed to investigate the carbohydrate-binding specificity on the olfactory mucosa. Lectins, including Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA) were used for the N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and N-acetylgalactosamine carbohydrate groups, respectively. Histologically, the olfactory mucosa, positioned mainly in the caudal roof of the nasal cavity, consisted of the olfactory epithelium and the lamina propria. The olfactory epithelium consisted of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive olfactory receptor cells, galectin-3-positive supporting cells and basal cells. Bowman's glands in the lamina propria were stained by both the periodic acid Schiff reagent and alcian blue (pH 2.5). Two types of lectin, WGA and SBA, were labeled in free border, receptor cells, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, with the exception of basal cells, while UEA-I was labeled in free border, supporting cells and Bowman's glands, but not in receptor cells and basal cells, suggesting that carbohydrate terminals on the olfactory mucosae of roe deer vary depending on cell type. This is the first morphological study of the olfactory mucosa of the Korean roe deer to evaluate carbohydrate terminals in the olfactory mucosae.

  15. Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) in a roe deer and ticks from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mallia, Egidio; Passantino, Giuseppe; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-12-01

    Cercopithifilaria rugosicauda (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is a subcutaneous filarial nematode of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae). At the necropsy of a roe deer from the Parco Regionale di Gallipoli Cognato (Basilicata region, southern Italy), two female nematodes of C. rugosicauda were found. Following the necropsy, seven skin snips were sampled from different body regions and 96 I. ricinus ticks were collected. In addition, 240 ticks were collected by dragging in the enclosure where the roe deer lived. Samples were examined for the presence of C. rugosicauda larvae and assayed by PCR targeting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1, ∼300 bp) and 12S rDNA (∼330 bp) gene fragments. Female nematodes, microfilariae from skin samples and eight third stage larvae (L3) from ticks were morphologically and molecularly identified as C. rugosicauda. Phylogenetic analyses clustered this species with other sequences of Cercopithifilaria spp. This study represents the first report of C. rugosicauda in a roe deer and ticks from Italy and provides new morphological and molecular data on this little known nematode.

  16. Bioserotypes and virulence markers of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Socha, P; Szweda, W

    2014-01-01

    Free-living animals are an important environmental reservoir of pathogens dangerous for other animal species and humans. One of those is Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica, the causative agent of yersiniosis--foodborne, enzootic disease, significant for public health. The purpose of the study was to identify bioserotypes and virulence markers of Y enterocolitica strains isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) obtained during the 2010/2011 hunting season in north-eastern Poland. From among 48 rectal swabs obtained from 24 roe deer, two strains of Y enterocolitica from one animal were isolated. Although both belonged to biotype 1A they were identified as different serotypes. The strain obtained from cold culture (PSB) belonged to serotype 0:5, while the strain isolated from warm culture (ITC) was regarded as nonidentified (NI), what may suggest mixed infection in that animal. The presence of ystB gene, coding for YstB enterotoxin, directly related to Y enterocolitica pathogenicity was detected in both strains using triplex PCR. The effect of the examination of 32 swabs obtained from 16 red deer was the isolation of two Y enterocolitica strains from two different animals. Both belonged to biotype 1A with NI serotype, but were originated from different types of culture. They gave positive results in case of products of a size corresponding to the ystB gene. No amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were found. Roe deer and red deer may carry and shed Y. enterocolitica, what seems to be important in aspect of an environmental reservoir of this pathogen. The Y enterocolitica strains isolated from wild ruminants had the amplicons of the ystB gene, what suggest they can be potential source of Y enterocolitica infection for humans.

  17. The role of game (wild boar and roe deer) in the spread of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Bohumir; Daniel, Milan; Benes, Cestmir; Maly, Marek

    2014-11-01

    In the Czech Republic, the incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been increasing over the last two decades. At the same time, populations of game have also shown an upward trend. In this country, the ungulate game is the main host group of hosts for Ixodes ricinus female ticks. This study examined the potential contribution of two most widespread game species (roe deer [Capreolus capreolus] and wild boar [Sus scrofa]) to the high incidence of TBE in the Czech Republic, using the annual numbers of culls as a proxy for the game population. This was an ecological study, with annual figures for geographical areas-municipalities with extended competence (MEC)-used as units of analysis. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 6213 TBE cases were reported, and 1062,308 roe deer and 989,222 wild boars were culled; the culls of roe deer did not demonstrate a clear temporal trend, but wild boar culls almost doubled (from 77,269 to 143,378 per year). Statistical analyses revealed a positive association between TBE incidence rate and the relative number of culled wild boars. In multivariate analyses, a change in the numbers of culled wild boars between the 25th and 75th percentile was associated with TBE incidence rate ratio of 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.41, p=0.003). By contrast, the association of TBE with culled roe deer was not statistically significant (p=0.481). The results suggest that the size of the wild boar population may have contributed to the current high levels and the rising trend in incidence of TBE, whereas the regulated population of roe deer does not seem to be implicated in recent geographical or temporal variations in TBE in the Czech Republic.

  18. Experimental evidence for density-dependence of home-range size in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.): a comparison of two long-term studies.

    PubMed

    Kjellander, P; Hewison, A J M; Liberg, O; Angibault, J-M; Bideau, E; Cargnelutti, B

    2004-05-01

    The effect of experimental manipulation of population density on home-range size was investigated in two free-ranging roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations under contrasting environmental conditions. In these two long-term monitoring studies, one in Bogesund, Sweden (12 years) and one in Dourdan, France (10 years), deer density varied fourfold through varying culling pressure. Home-range data were collected by radio-tracking across the periods of contrasting density of the studies. We predicted that home-range size for females should vary in relation to the level of feeding competition, while for males, competition for mating opportunities should also influence range size, at least in summer when roe bucks are territorial. We found a highly consistent pattern over the two populations, with strong effects of deer density on home-range size, as well as significant differences between winter and summer ranges and between the sexes. Home ranges were consistently smaller at high density compared to low density. Males had larger ranges than females and this was particularly so during summer. Lastly, winter ranges were generally larger than summer ranges, particularly among females, although males at Dourdan had larger summer ranges compared to winter ranges. We suggest that the reduction of range size at high deer density during winter, as well as summer, is linked to the solitary behaviour and territorial social system of roe deer, with possible effects of dominance rank, even outside the mating season.

  19. Field evidence that roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are a natural host for Ehrlichia phagocytophila.

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, M. P.; Walker, A. R.; Urquhart, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of blood, spleen and legs from 112 culled roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were collected from nine sites widespread in the United Kingdom. The prevalence of infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction. Means of 58% of 102 plasma or serum samples were seroreactive by IFA, 38% of 84 blood samples and 29% of 82 spleen samples were positive by PCR. Ticks on legs of 71 roe deer were Ixodes ricinus larvae, nymphs and adults and 83% of legs were infested. Numbers of ticks corresponded positively to the percentage of samples positive for E. phagocytophila by serology and PCR for different sampling sites. Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from the vegetation at one site with infected deer were analysed for infection with E. phagocytophila by examination of Feulgen stained salivary glands. Of 135 nymphs 5% were infected. These results confirm that roe deer are commonly parasitized by both E. phagocytophila and its vector tick in such a way that it is likely to be an important natural mammalian reservoir of E. phagocytophila. PMID:10813158

  20. Toxic heavy metals in the muscle of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)--food toxicological significance.

    PubMed

    Lehel, József; Laczay, Péter; Gyurcsó, Adrienn; Jánoska, Ferenc; Majoros, Szilvia; Lányi, Katalin; Marosán, Miklós

    2016-03-01

    The study was performed on 20 (10 males, 10 females) roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) to investigate the concentration of cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic in the muscle tissue. They reside in forest and meadow, about 50 km distance from industrial activities and traffic. Samples were taken from the musculus biceps femoris of each deer without external contamination after shooting during the regular hunting season on a hunting area close to Eger in Hungary. The determination of heavy metal contents was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The statistical analysis was performed by statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 11.0. The measured residue concentration of cadmium was below the limit of detection in the roe deer meat indicating no health risk for the consumers. The average lead concentration (0.48 ± 0.21 mg/kg wet weight) exceeded the regulated maximum limit, but its calculated weekly intake was below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The residue level of mercury is not regulated and the average mercury content of roe deer meat (0.87 ± 0.40 mg/kg wet weight) was about half of PTWI, but the consumption of meat with the highest detected concentrations results in higher PTWI than recommended. The measured concentration of arsenic (0.27 ± 0.20 mg/kg wet weight) in the roe deer meat may not pose any health risk for the human consumers according to the PTWI set by the World Health Organization.

  1. High spread of Schmallenberg virus among roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Díaz, José M; Prieto, Alberto; López, Ceferino; Díaz, Pablo; Pérez, Ana; Panadero, Rosario; Pajares, Gerardo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Fernández, Gonzalo

    2015-10-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emergent virus in northwestern Europe since 2011. We conducted this study to evaluate the spread of this virus in a wild ruminant community. During 2013 and 2014, 75 serum samples of roe deer were collected from different locations of the Spanish geography and analysed for the presence of antibodies. The results revealed a widespread exposure to SBV, as well as a high seroprevalence (53.3%, CI95% 42.16–64.18). These findings demand more research with regard to the impact of SBV on roe deer health and the interactions with livestock. Results also show this species as potentially suitable for monitoring the spread of the virus through sylvatic areas.

  2. [Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus microsporus in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)].

    PubMed

    Peters, Martin; Eikelberg, Deborah; Jongmans, Vincent; Pranada, Arthur Boniface; Wohlsein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An one-year-old male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with abnormal behaviour was shot in order to exclude rabies virus infection. The 12.8 kg weighing animal was emaciated and revealed an asymmetric head with protruding left eye and expositional keratitis. There was a grey whitish soft mass within the caudal nasal cavity, which had infiltrated the frontal cerebrum through the cribriform plate and the retrobulbar tissue through the orbita. Histologically, the mass consisted of a chronic granulomatous inflammation with plentiful fungal hyphae. Fungal culture revealed mold fungi of the zygomycotic genus Rhizomucor, which were differentiated as Rhizopus microsporus by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA-sequencing. Rhinoorbitocerebral zygomycosis has to be considered as a differential diagnosis for nasal and orbital tumour-like lesions and as a cause of abnormal behaviour of roe deer.

  3. Presumptive gangrenous ergotism in free-living moose and a roe deer.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Kjell; Vikøren, Turid

    2005-07-01

    Presumptive gangrenous ergotism in 10 moose (Alces alces) and one roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is reported. Three of the moose came from a municipality in southeastern Norway where the disease occurred as a cluster in 1996. The other moose represented solitary or sporadic cases diagnosed in four municipalities in northwestern Norway between 1996 and 2004. Affected moose (seven calves, three yearlings) were found between October and June, showing distal limb lesions on one to three limbs. The lesions in the moose found during October and November presented as dry gangrene, whereas moose found between December and June presented with loss of the distal part of the limbs or open lesions close to sloughing. Four of the moose also had bilateral ear lesions affecting the outer third of the pinnae. A retrospective diagnosis of ergotism (June 1981) was made in a 1-yr-old roe deer from northwestern Norway showing loss of the distal part of all four limbs.

  4. Evolutionary neutrality of mtDNA introgression: evidence from complete mitogenome analysis in roe deer.

    PubMed

    Matosiuk, M; Sheremetyeva, I N; Sheremetyev, I S; Saveljev, A P; Borkowska, A

    2014-11-01

    Introgressive hybridization offers a unique platform for studying the molecular basis of natural selection acting on mitogenomes. Most of the mtDNA protein-coding genes are extremely conserved; however, some of the observed variations have potentially adaptive significance. Here, we evaluated whether the evolution of mtDNA in closely related roe deer species affected by widespread mtDNA introgression is neutral or adaptive. We characterized and compared 16 complete mitogenomes of European (Capreolus capreolus) and Siberian (C. pygargus) roe deer, including four of Siberian origin introgressed into European species. The average sequence divergence of species-specific lineages was estimated at 2.8% and varied across gene classes. Only 21 of 315 fixed differences identified in protein-coding genes represented nonsynonymous changes. Only three of them were determined to have arisen in the C. pygargus lineage since the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of both Capreolus species, reflecting a decelerated evolutionary ratio. The almost four-fold higher dN /dS ratio described for the European roe deer lineage is constrained by overall purifying selection, especially pronounced in the ND4 and ND5 genes. We suggest that the highly divergent C. capreolus lineage could have maintained a capability for genomic incorporation of the well-preserved and almost ancestral type of mtDNA present in C. pygargus. Our analyses did not indicate any signs of positive selection for Siberian roe deer mtDNA, suggesting that the present widespread introgression is evolutionarily neutral.

  5. Diversity of formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase genes in the rumens of roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Henderson, Gemma; Yang, Yahan; Li, Guangyu

    2017-01-01

    Reductive acetogenesis by homoacetogens represents an alternative pathway to methanogenesis to remove metabolic hydrogen during rumen fermentation. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of homoacetogen in the rumens of pasture-fed roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed either oak-leaf-based (tannin-rich, 100 mg/kg dried matter), corn-stover-based, or corn-silage-based diets, by using formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) gene sequences as a marker. The diversity and richness of FTHFS sequences was lowest in animals fed oak leaf, indicating that tannin-containing plants may affect rumen homoacetogen diversity. FTHFS amino acid sequences in the rumen of roe deer significantly differed from those of sika deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that 44.8% of sequences in pasture-fed roe deer, and 72.1%, 81.1%, and 37.5% of sequences in sika deer fed oak-leaf-, corn-stover-, and corn-silage-based diets, respectively, may represent novel bacteria that have not yet been cultured. These results demonstrate that the rumens of roe deer and sika deer harbor potentially novel homoacetogens and that diet may influence homoacetogen community structure.

  6. Bacteria and methanogens differ along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Wright, André-Denis G; Li, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    The current study provides the insight into the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and methanogens presented in the rumen and cecum of the Chinese roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). The ruminal, ileal, cecal, and colonic contents, as well as feces, were obtained from each of the three, free-range, roe deer ingesting natural pasture after euthanasia. For the bacterial community, a total of 697,031 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated using high-throughput sequencing, and assigned to 2,223 core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (12 bacterial phyla and 87 genera). The phyla Firmicutes (51.2%) and Bacteroidetes (39.4%) were the dominant bacteria in the GIT of roe deer. However, the bacterial community in the rumen was significantly (P<0.01) different from the other sampled regions along the GIT. Secondly, Prevotella spp., Anaerovibrio spp., and unidentified bacteria within the families Veillonellaceae and Paraprevotellaceae were more abundant in the rumen than in the other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae, Succinivibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. were more predominant in the colon than in other regions. Unidentified bacteria within the family Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroides spp. were more prevalent in the ileum, cecum and fecal pellets. For methanogens in the rumen and cecum, a total of 375,647 high quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and assigned to 113 core OTUs. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the dominant species accounting for 77.3±7.4 (S.E) % and 68.9±4.4 (S.E) % of total sequences in the rumen and cecum of roe deer, respectively. However, the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii was higher in the rumen than in the cecum (P = 0.004). These results revealed that there was intra variation in the bacterial community composition across the GIT of roe deer, and also showed that the methanogen community in the rumen differed from that in the cecum.

  7. West Nile virus serosurveillance in pigs, wild boars, and roe deer in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Lupulović, Diana; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Lazić, Gospava; Lazić, Sava; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Petrović, Tamaš

    2015-04-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes, but it also infects many other vertebrates, including humans and horses, in which it can induce severe neurological diseases; however, data about virus circulation in other mammals is scarce. WNV has a history of recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia, where it was identified for the first time in 2010 in mosquitoes and in 2012 in birds and humans, being responsible for over 300 confirmed human cases and 35 deaths there along 2013. To assess WNV circulation among mammals in the country, 688 samples obtained from 279 farm pigs, 318 wild boars, and 91 roe deer were investigated for the presence of antibodies to WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and viral neutralization test (VNT), and the specificity of their reactivity was assayed against Usutu virus (USUV). ELISA-reactive sera were identified in 43 (15.4%) pigs, 56 (17.6%) wild boars, and 17 (18.7%) roe deer. Of these, 6 (14%), 33 (59%), and 4 (23.5%) respectively, neutralized WNV. One out of the 45 ELISA negative sera tested, from a roe deer, neutralized WNV. Cross-reactivity neutralization test indicated that all deer and pigs neutralizing sera were WNV specific, while in 5 (15.2%) of the wild boar samples the specificity could not be established. Four wild boar sera showed USUV specificity. All these data confirm the circulation of both flaviviruses in Serbia, and highlight the need for the implementation of global coordinated surveillance programs in the region.

  8. PCR Detection and Serological Evidence of Granulocytic Ehrlichial Infection in Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra)

    PubMed Central

    Liz, Jorge S.; Sumner, John W.; Pfister, Kurt; Brossard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The role of wild mammals, such as roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), in the epidemiology of granulocytic ehrlichiae in Switzerland was investigated. We tested blood samples for Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup 16S rRNA gene sequences by PCR and for immunoglobulin G antibodies against granulocytic ehrlichiae by indirect fluorescent-antibody assay (IFA). Overall means of 60.9% of 133 roe deer serum samples and 28.2% of 39 chamois serum samples were seroreactive by IFA. PCR results were positive for 18.4% of 103 roe deer serum samples as well. None of the 24 chamois blood samples tested were positive by PCR. Partial 16S rRNA gene and groESL heat shock operon sequences of three roe deer samples tested showed strong degrees of homology (≥99.7 and ≥98.6%, respectively) with the sequences of granulocytic ehrlichiae isolated from humans. These results confirm that chamois, and particularly roe deer, are commonly infected with granulocytic ehrlichiae and provide evidence that these wild mammals are potential reservoirs for granulocytic ehrlichiae in Switzerland. PMID:11880411

  9. Serologic screening for 13 infectious agents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Flanders

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Paul; Sys, Stanislas U.; De Clercq, Kris; De Leeuw, Ilse; Caij, Anne Brigitte; De Baere, Miet; De Regge, Nick; Fretin, David; Roupie, Virginie; Govaerts, Marc; Heyman, Paul; Vanrompay, Daisy; Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle; Suin, Vanessa; Brochier, Bernard; Dobly, Alexandre; De Craeye, Stéphane; Roelandt, Sophie; Goossens, Els; Roels, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in Flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas. Materials and methods Roe deer sera collected between 2008 and 2013 (n=190) were examined for antibodies against 13 infectious agents, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralisation, immunofluorescence, or microagglutination test, depending on the agent. Results and discussion High numbers of seropositives were found for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (45.8%), Toxoplasma gondii (43.2%) and Schmallenberg virus (27.9%), the latter with a distinct temporal distribution pattern following the outbreak in domestic ruminants. Lower antibody prevalence was found for Chlamydia abortus (6.7%), tick-borne encephalitis virus (5.1%), Neospora caninum (4.8%), and Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (4.1%). The lowest prevalences were found for Leptospira (1.7%), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (1.3%), and Coxiella burnetii (1.2%). No antibodies were found against Brucella sp., bovine herpesvirus 1, and bluetongue virus. A significant difference in seroprevalence between ages (higher in adults >1 year) was found for N. caninum. Four doubtful reacting sera accounted for a significant difference in seroprevalence between sexes for C. abortus (higher in females). Conclusions Despite the more intensive landscape use in Flanders, the results are consistent with other European studies. Apart from maintaining C. abortus and MAP, roe deer do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the examined zoonotic and domestic animal pathogens. Nevertheless, their meaning as sentinels should not be neglected in the absence of other wild cervid species. PMID:26609692

  10. Habitat Selection and Risk of Predation: Re-colonization by Lynx had Limited Impact on Habitat Selection by Roe Deer

    PubMed Central

    Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx – the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1) before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2) in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection). Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations. PMID:24069419

  11. Habitat selection and risk of predation: re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer.

    PubMed

    Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1) before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2) in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection). Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations.

  12. The first detection and whole genome characterization of the G6P[15] group A rotavirus strain from roe deer.

    PubMed

    Jamnikar-Ciglenecki, Urska; Kuhar, Urska; Sturm, Sabina; Kirbis, Andrej; Racki, Nejc; Steyer, Andrej

    2016-08-15

    Although rotaviruses have been detected in a variety of host species, there are only limited records of their occurrence in deer, where their role is unknown. In this study, group A rotavirus was identified in roe deer during a study of enteric viruses in game animals. 102 samples of intestinal content were collected from roe deer (56), wild boars (29), chamois (10), red deer (6) and mouflon (1), but only one sample from roe deer was positive. Following whole genome sequence analysis, the rotavirus strain D38/14 was characterized by next generation sequencing. The genotype constellation, comprising 11 genome segments, was G6-P[15]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 genome segment showed that the D38/14 rotavirus strain is closely related to the various G6 zoonotic rotavirus strains of bovine-like origin frequently detected in humans. In the VP4 segment, this strain showed high variation compared to that in the P[15] strain found in sheep and in a goat. This finding suggests that rotaviruses from deer are similar to those in other DS-1 rotavirus groups and could constitute a source of zoonotically transmitted rotaviruses. The epidemiological status of group A rotaviruses in deer should be further investigated.

  13. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis species from Polish roe deer based on ssu rRNA and cox1 sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kolenda, Rafał; Ugorski, Maciej; Bednarski, Michał

    2014-08-01

    Sarcocysts from four Polish roe deer were collected and examined by light microscopy, small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA), and the subunit I of cytochrome oxidase (cox1) sequence analysis. This resulted in identification of Sarcocystis gracilis, Sarcocystis oviformis, and Sarcocystis silva. However, we were unable to detect Sarcocystis capreolicanis, the fourth Sarcocystis species found previously in Norwegian roe deer. Polish sarcocysts isolated from various tissues differed in terms of their shape and size and were larger than the respective Norwegian isolates. Analysis of ssu rRNA gene revealed the lack of differences between Sarcocystis isolates belonging to one species and a very low degree of genetic diversity between Polish and Norwegian sarcocysts, ranging from 0.1% for Sarcocystis gracilis and Sarcocystis oviformis to 0.44% for Sarcocystis silva. Contrary to the results of the ssu rRNA analysis, small intraspecies differences in cox1 sequences were found among Polish Sarcocystis gracilis and Sarcocystis silva isolates. The comparison of Polish and Norwegian cox1 sequences representing the same Sarcocystis species revealed similar degree of sequence identity, namely 99.72% for Sarcocystis gracilis, 98.76% for Sarcocystis silva, and 99.85% for Sarcocystis oviformis. Phylogenetic reconstruction and genetic population analyses showed an unexpected high degree of identity between Polish and Norwegian isolates. Moreover, cox1 gene sequences turned out to be more accurate than ssu rRNA when used to reveal phylogenetic relationships among closely related species. The results of our study revealed that the same Sarcocystis species isolated from the same hosts living in different geographic regions show a very high level of genetic similarity.

  14. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-09-01

    The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to esthetic reasons.

  15. Assessing Fifty Years of General Health Surveillance of Roe Deer in Switzerland: A Retrospective Analysis of Necropsy Reports

    PubMed Central

    Pewsner, Mirjam; Origgi, Francesco Carlo; Frey, Joachim; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    General wildlife health surveillance is a valuable source of information on the causes of mortality, disease susceptibility and pathology of the investigated hosts and it is considered to be an essential component of early warning systems. However, the representativeness of data from such surveillance programs is known to be limited by numerous biases. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus capreolus) is the most abundant ungulate and a major game species all over Europe. Yet, internationally available literature on roe deer pathology is scarce. The aims of this study were (1) to provide an overview of the causes of mortality or morbidity observed in roe deer in Switzerland and to assess potential changes in the disease pattern over time; and (2) to evaluate the value and limitations of a long term dataset originating from general wildlife health surveillance. We compiled 1571 necropsy reports of free ranging roe deer examined at the Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health in Switzerland from 1958 to 2014. Descriptive data analysis was performed considering animal metadata, submitter, pathologist in charge, laboratory methods, morphological diagnoses and etiologies. Recurrent causes of mortality and disease pictures included pneumonia, diarrhea, meningoencephalitis, actinomycosis, blunt trauma, predation, neoplasms and anomalies. By contrast, other diagnoses such as fatal parasitic gastritis, suspected alimentary intoxication and reproductive disorders appeared only in earlier time periods. Diseases potentially relevant for other animals or humans such as caseous lymphadenitis (or pseudotuberculosis), salmonellosis, paratuberculosis and listeriosis were sporadically observed. The disease pattern in roe deer from Switzerland was largely in accordance with previous reports. The observed fluctuations were consistent with methodical and/or personnel changes and varying disease awareness. Nevertheless, despite such limitations, the compiled data provide a valuable baseline. To

  16. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment.

  17. Detection and molecular characterization of the mosquito-borne filarial nematode Setaria tundra in Danish roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Enemark, Heidi Larsen; Oksanen, Antti; Chriél, Mariann; le Fèvre Harslund, Jakob; Woolsey, Ian David; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2017-04-01

    Setaria tundra is a mosquito-borne filarial nematode of cervids in Europe. It has recently been associated with an emerging epidemic disease causing severe morbidity and mortality in reindeer and moose in Finland. Here, we present the first report of S. tundra in six roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) collected between October 2010 and March 2014 in Denmark. The deer originated from various localities across the country: the eastern part of the Jutland peninsular and four locations on the island Zealand. With the exception of one deer, with parasites residing in a transparent cyst just under the liver capsule, worms (ranging from 2 to >20/deer) were found free in the peritoneal cavity. The worms were identified as S. tundra by morphological examination and/or molecular typing of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cox1 genes, which showed 99.1-99.8% identity to previously published S. tundra isolates from Europe. Roe deer are generally considered as asymptomatic carriers and their numbers in Denmark have increased significantly in recent decades. In light of climatic changes which result in warmer, more humid weather in Scandinavia greater numbers of mosquitoes and, especially, improved conditions for development of parasite larvae in the mosquito vectors are expected, which may lead to increasing prevalence of S. tundra. Monitoring of this vector-borne parasite may thus be needed in order to enhance the knowledge of factors promoting its expansion and prevalence as well as predicting disease outbreaks.

  18. Cephenemyia stimulator and Hypoderma diana infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Salaba, Ondrej; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Valek, Petr; Kudrnacova, Marie; Jankovska, Ivana; Bartak, Miroslav; Sulakova, Hana; Langrova, Iva

    2013-04-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal and subcutaneous myiasis affecting roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was conducted in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period (1999-2006). A total of 503 bucks and 264 does from six hunting localities were examined. The sampling area comprised predominantly agricultural lowlands and a mountain range primarily covered by forest. Since 1997, the deer have been treated each winter across the board with ivermectin (150 mg/kg, CERMIX® pulvis, Biopharm, CZ). Parasites found were the larvae of Hypoderma diana and Cephenemyia stimulator. There were no significant differences in warble fly infection among captured animals in the individual hunting localities. Overall, 146 (28.8%) of 503 animals (bucks) were infected with Cephenemyia stimulator larvae; body size of the second instar larva reached 13-18 mm. The prevalence ranged from 16.1 to 42.9% per year, and the mean intensity from 6 to 11 larvae per animal. Additionally, a total of 264 roe deer (does) were examined for H. diana larvae, and 77 (29.1%) were found to be positive; body size of the second instar larva reached 17 mm. The prevalence ranged from 18.8 to 50.0% per year, and the mean intensity from 13 to 22 larvae per animal. The results showed that the bot flies, Cephenemyia stimulator as well as H. diana, are common parasites in roe deer in the Czech Republic, and that through the help of treatment (ivermectin), it is possible to keep parasite levels low. The body weights of infected and non-infected H. diana deer did not differ significantly.

  19. Fast and efficient DNA-based method for winter diet analysis from stools of three cervids: moose, red deer, and roe deer.

    PubMed

    Czernik, Marta; Taberlet, Pierre; Swisłocka, Magdalena; Czajkowska, Magdalena; Duda, Norbert; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    Effects of cervid browsing on timber production, especially during winter, lead to economic losses in forest management. The aim of this study was to present an efficient DNA-based method which allows qualitative assessment of the winter diet from stools of moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). The preliminary results of the diet composition of the three cervids from Poland were also presented with a special emphasis on moose. The electropherograms of the chloroplast intron trnL (UAA) P6 loop amplification products using g (fluorescence-labeled) and h primers revealed differences in the length of PCR products among various plant species eaten by these herbivores. In addition, the usage of species-specific primers allowed unambiguous identification of different gymnosperms and angiosperms. The preliminary moose diet analysis, based on winter fecal samples from the entire range of moose occurrence in Poland, revealed the presence of 15 to 24 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species. This fast, cost-efficient, and simple method proved also to be reliable for the diet analysis of red deer and roe deer. It may be a valuable tool in forest and conservation management, as well as a way of enhancing ecological studies focusing on the impact of herbivores on the ecosystems and their possible food niche overlap.

  20. Polymorphisms and variants in the prion protein sequence of European moose (Alces alces), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Wik, Lotta; Mikko, Sofia; Klingeborn, Mikael; Stéen, Margareta; Simonsson, Magnus; Linné, Tommy

    2012-07-01

    The prion protein (PrP) sequence of European moose, reindeer, roe deer and fallow deer in Scandinavia has high homology to the PrP sequence of North American cervids. Variants in the European moose PrP sequence were found at amino acid position 109 as K or Q. The 109Q variant is unique in the PrP sequence of vertebrates. During the 1980s a wasting syndrome in Swedish moose, Moose Wasting Syndrome (MWS), was described. SNP analysis demonstrated a difference in the observed genotype proportions of the heterozygous Q/K and homozygous Q/Q variants in the MWS animals compared with the healthy animals. In MWS moose the allele frequencies for 109K and 109Q were 0.73 and 0.27, respectively, and for healthy animals 0.69 and 0.31. Both alleles were seen as heterozygotes and homozygotes. In reindeer, PrP sequence variation was demonstrated at codon 176 as D or N and codon 225 as S or Y. The PrP sequences in roe deer and fallow deer were identical with published GenBank sequences.

  1. Characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Cisek, Agata A; Stefańska, Ilona; Chrobak, Dorota; Stefaniuk, Elżbieta; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji

    2014-08-06

    Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. The presence of R. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. In this study we characterized R. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). This is the first description of R. equi strains isolated from tissues of the Cervidae. All isolates were initially recognized as R. equi based on the phenotypic properties. Their identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, detection of the choE gene and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The presence of three plasmidic genes (traA, vapA and vapB) associated with R. equi virulence was investigated by PCR. In 16 wild boar isolates the traA and vapB genes were detected and they were located on virulence plasmids type 5, 7 or 11. The isolates from cervids and the remaining wild boar isolates were classified as avirulent based on a genotype traA(-)/vapA(-)B(-). In summary, these results confirm that wild boars can be a source of intermediately virulent R. equi strains, and indicate that red deer and roe deer can be a reservoir of avirulent R. equi strains.

  2. The bioaccumulation of lead in the organs of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), red deer (Cervus elaphus L.), and wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Poland.

    PubMed

    Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Udała, Jan; Pilarczyk, Renata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of lead (Pb) in the livers and kidneys of free-living animals from Poland, with regard to the differences in tissue Pb content between the species. The research material consisted of liver and kidney samples collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) that had been hunted in 16 voivodeships of Poland. The concentration of lead had been measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The results show that differences in lead concentration in the organs depended on the geographic location. In roe deer and red deer, the highest mean lead concentrations in the livers and kidneys, observed in the central region of Poland, were twice as high as the lowest concentration of Pb in these animals from the northeastern region of the country. In wild boar, the highest mean concentration of Pb was noted in the livers of animals from the central region of Poland and in the kidneys of animals from the northwestern region, while the lowest lead concentrations in both organs were typical for wild boar from the southeast part of the country. Our results show that areas located in the center and in the north of Poland carry most of the burden of lead bioaccumulation.

  3. Relationship between exposure to Fasciola hepatica in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and cattle extensively reared in an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Arias, M S; Piñeiro, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Suárez, J L; Hillyer, G V; Díez-Baños, P; Paz-Silva, A; Morrondo, P

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to know the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in 301 roe deer and in 676 beef cattle kept in an endemic area. Detection of antibodies was determined in roe deer using a homemade ELISA with excretory/secretory antigens (FhES) and a recombinant protein (FhrAPS). None of the deer passed eggs by faeces and none flukes in their livers were found. The seroprevalence of F. hepatica was 29% using FhES, with significantly higher values in the oldest ones (36%). Twenty-eight percent of the samples were positive to FhrAPS. Twenty-three percent of the cows eliminated eggs of F. hepatica and the seroprevalence was 67% using FhrAPS. No relationship between the seropositivity values of deer and cattle was demonstrated. The role of wild ruminants as reservoirs of F. hepatica is discussed. We encourage the use of ELISA to know the possibility of exposure to trematodes in wild ruminants.

  4. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Kjelland, Vivian; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Stuen, Snorre; Skarpaas, Tone; Slettan, Audun

    2011-06-01

    As part of a larger survey, ears from 18 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 52 moose (Alces alces) shot in the 2 southernmost counties in Norway were collected and examined for Ixodes ricinus ticks. Seventy-two adult ticks, 595 nymphs, and 267 larvae from the roe deer, and 182 adult ticks, 433 nymphs, and 70 larvae from the moose were investigated for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). The results showed the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in 2.9% of the nymphs collected from roe deer and in 4.4% of the nymphs and 6.0% of the adults collected from moose. The spirochetes were not detected in adult ticks from roe deer, or in larvae feeding on roe deer or moose. In comparison, the mean infection prevalences in questing I. ricinus collected from the same geographical area were 0.5% infection in larvae, 24.5% in nymphs, and 26.9% in adults. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified in ticks collected from roe deer was B. afzelii (76.5%), followed by B. garinii (17.6%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (5.9%). Only B. afzelii (76.7%) and B. garinii (23.3%) were detected in ticks collected from moose. The present study indicates a lower prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in I. ricinus ticks feeding on roe deer and moose compared to questing ticks. This is the first study to report B. burgdorferi s.l. prevalence in ticks removed from cervids in Norway.

  5. Development and validation of a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for the identification and quantification of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in food to detect food adulteration.

    PubMed

    Druml, Barbara; Mayer, Walter; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2015-07-01

    In order to protect the consumer from meat adulteration it is necessary to identify and quantify the meat content in foodstuffs. Game meat is particularly susceptible for fraudulent labeling since it is more valuable than meat from domestic animals. The paper presents a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for the quantitative determination of roe deer in meat products. The assay developed does not show cross-reactivity with 23 animal and 43 plant species tested and is therefore specific for roe deer. The amplification efficiency determined by analyzing serially diluted roe deer DNA extracts was found to be 93.9%. For quantifying the roe deer content in % (w/w), a reference system based on the myostatin gene was used. The quantification strategy was validated by determining the roe deer content in model meat mixtures and a model sausage. In addition, the real-time PCR assay was applied to the analysis of commercially available meat products.

  6. Genetic diversity and population genetics of large lungworms (Dictyocaulus, Nematoda) in wild deer in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Ács, Zoltán; Hayward, Alexander; Sugár, László

    2016-09-01

    Dictyocaulus nematode worms live as parasites in the lower airways of ungulates and can cause significant disease in both wild and farmed hosts. This study represents the first population genetic analysis of large lungworms in wildlife. Specifically, we quantify genetic variation in Dictyocaulus lungworms from wild deer (red deer, fallow deer and roe deer) in Hungary, based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequence data, using population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. The studied Dictyocaulus taxa display considerable genetic diversity. At least one cryptic species and a new parasite-host relationship are revealed by our molecular study. Population genetic analyses for Dictyocaulus eckerti revealed high gene flow amongst weakly structured spatial populations that utilise the three host deer species considered here. Our results suggest that D. eckerti is a widespread generalist parasite in ungulates, with a diverse genetic backround and high evolutionary potential. In contrast, evidence of cryptic genetic structure at regional geographic scales was observed for Dictyocaulus capreolus, which infects just one host species, suggesting it is a specialist within the studied area. D. capreolus displayed lower genetic diversity overall, with only moderate gene flow compared to the closely related D. eckerti. We suggest that the differing vagility and dispersal behaviour of hosts are important contributing factors to the population structure of lungworms, and possibly other nematode parasites with single-host life cycles. Our findings are of relevance for the management of lungworms in deer farms and wild deer populations.

  7. A morphological study of the vomeronasal organ and the accessory olfactory bulb in the Korean roe deer, Capreolus pygargus.

    PubMed

    Park, Changnam; Ahn, Meejung; Lee, Jae-Yuk; Lee, Sang; Yun, Youngmin; Lim, Yoon-Kyu; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the Korean roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) were studied histologically to evaluate their morphological characteristics. Grossly, the VNO, encased by cartilage, has a paired tubular structure with a caudal blind end and a rostral connection through incisive ducts on the hard palate. In the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium (VSE) consists of galectin-3-positive supporting cells, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive receptor cells, and basal cells. The vomeronasal respiratory epithelium (VRE) consists of a pseudostratified epithelium. The AOB strata included a vomeronasal nerve layer (VNL), a glomerular layer (GL), a mitral/tufted cell layer, and a granular cell layer. All lectins used in this study, including Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), labeled the VSE with varying intensity. In the AOB, both the VNL and the GL reacted with BSI-B4, SBA, and WGA with varying intensity, but not with UEA-I. This is the first morphological study of the VNO and AOB of the Korean roe deer, which are similar to those of goats.

  8. Body-mass or sex-biased tick parasitism in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)? A GAMLSS approach.

    PubMed

    Kiffner, C; Lödige, C; Alings, M; Vor, T; Rühe, F

    2011-03-01

    Macroparasites feeding on wildlife hosts follow skewed distributions for which basic statistical approaches are of limited use. To predict Ixodes spp. tick burden on roe deer, we applied Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) which allow incorporating a variable dispersion. We analysed tick burden of 78 roe deer, sampled in a forest region of Germany over a period of 20 months. Assuming a negative binomial error distribution and controlling for ambient temperature, we analysed whether host sex and body mass affected individual tick burdens. Models for larval and nymphal tick burden included host sex, with male hosts being more heavily infested than female ones. However, the influence of host sex on immature tick burden was associated with wide standard errors (nymphs) or the factor was marginally significant (larvae). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with host body mass. Thus, controlled for host body mass and ambient temperature, there is weak support for sex-biased parasitism in this system. Compared with models which assume linear relationships, GAMLSS provided a better fit. Adding a variable dispersion term improved only one of the four models. Yet, the potential of modelling dispersion as a function of variables appears promising for larger datasets.

  9. Lynx body size in Norway is related to its main prey (Roe deer) density, climate, and latitude.

    PubMed

    Yom-Tov, Yoram; Kvam, Tor; Wiig, Øystein

    2011-02-01

    We studied the effect of various factors on body size variation of the Eurasian lynx in Norway, using data from 374 lynx collected between 1960 and 1976 and whose locality of capture, year of birth, sex, and age were known. Body size of lynx in Norway was mainly affected by sex and age. Female skull size (and by implication body size) was also positively affected by the availability of its main prey (roe deer) and by latitude, and negatively by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Male size was not affected by any of the environmental factors examined. We interpret the effects of NAO and latitude on body size through their effect on the local climate and particularly snow conditions. We suggest that females are more sensitive to environmental factors than males.

  10. Testing Cort-Fitness and Cort-Adaptation hypotheses in a habitat suitability gradient for roe deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Virgós, Emilio; Lara-Romero, Carlos; Lozano, Jorge; Barja, Isabel; Cuadra, Felipe S.; Puerta, Marisa

    2013-11-01

    According to the Cort-Fitness Hypothesis, higher stress levels (glucocorticoids) in vertebrates are correlated to lower fitness. However, recent studies have failed to validate this hypothesis. A proposed wider framework suggests that reproduction can be perceived as an overload adds up to other environmental challenges that individuals must adjust to. In this case, elevated glucocorticoids could help individuals to allocate resources to reproduction without comprising other functions, leading to the expectation of a positive cort-fitness relationship. This has been proposed as the Cort-Adaptation Hypothesis. Stress levels result from a complex interaction between the environment and the neuroendocrine system of animals. Accounting for physiological functions involved in how animals cope with their environment would help to clarify the relationship between glucocorticoids and animal performance. We used roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) inhabiting diverse habitats in the Iberian Peninsula to: i) test the Cort-Fitness and Cort-Adaptation hypotheses by indexing fitness using a comprehensive physiological approach which takes into account fundamental physiological functions and their trade-offs; and ii) evaluate the link between primary productivity and individuals' condition in a seasonal environment. We evaluated spatial and temporal variation in stress levels, reproductive hormone levels, nutritional status and immune function from fecal samples collected in 2010. Lower stress levels were related to better condition in non-reproductive seasons but not to higher primary productivity. In contrast, stress levels were always positively related to reproductive condition, which was better in most productive habitats. Summer and winter were the less productive seasons and the more challenging for the species in the habitat gradient studied. In winter, reproductive condition traded off against immune function being biased toward immune function in less productive habitats. In

  11. Genotyping of Capreolus pygargus Fossil DNA from Denisova Cave Reveals Phylogenetic Relationships between Ancient and Modern Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Sherbakov, Dmitry Y.; Druzhkova, Anna S.; Stanyon, Roscoe; Tsybankov, Alexander A.; Vasil'ev, Sergey K.; Shunkov, Mikhail V.; Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The extant roe deer (Capreolus Gray, 1821) includes two species: the European roe deer (C. capreolus) and the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) that are distinguished by morphological and karyotypical differences. The Siberian roe deer occupies a vast area of Asia and is considerably less studied than the European roe deer. Modern systematics of the Siberian roe deer remain controversial with 4 morphological subspecies. Roe deer fossilized bones are quite abundant in Denisova cave (Altai Mountains, South Siberia), where dozens of both extant and extinct mammalian species from modern Holocene to Middle Pleistocene have been retrieved. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed a 629 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region from ancient bones of 10 Holocene and four Pleistocene Siberian roe deer from Denisova cave as well as 37 modern specimen belonging to populations from Altai, Tian Shan (Kyrgyzstan), Yakutia, Novosibirsk region and the Russian Far East. Genealogical reconstructions indicated that most Holocene haplotypes were probably ancestral for modern roe deer populations of Western Siberia and Tian Shan. One of the Pleistocene haplotypes was possibly ancestral for modern Yakutian populations, and two extinct Pleistocene haplotypes were close to modern roe deer from Tian Shan and Yakutia. Most modern geographical populations (except for West Siberian Plains) are heterogeneous and there is some tentative evidence for structure. However, we did not find any distinct phylogenetic signal characterizing particular subspecies in either modern or ancient samples. Conclusion/Significance Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from both ancient and modern samples of Siberian roe deer shed new light on understanding the evolutionary history of roe deer. Our data indicate that during the last 50,000 years multiple replacements of populations of the Siberian roe deer took place in the Altai Mountains correlating with climatic changes. The Siberian roe deer

  12. Serologic and Molecular Survey of Hepatitis E Virus in German Deer Populations.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Stephan; Hackl, Sybille S; Piepenschneider, Meike; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Dremsek, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen that is primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route and causes a usually self-limiting acute viral hepatitis. The virus is endemic in developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America and is responsible for sporadic cases in industrialized countries. In western Europe, an increasing number of autochthonous cases have been associated with zoonotic transmissions of HEV from domestic and wild animals. In Germany, animal reservoirs for HEV have been mainly assigned to domestic pigs and wild boars. To investigate the potential role of deer as a reservoir of HEV, we surveyed HEV-specific antibodies and RNA in deer samples from geographic regions in Germany. We sampled red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during active surveillance in three forest districts in northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony during 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. Additionally, archived samples of red, roe, and fallow deer (Dama dama), collected in 2000-01 in German national parks, were included in the study. Antibody prevalence ranged from 2-3.3% in red deer to 5.4-6.8% in roe deer. Viral RNA was detected in red deer and fallow deer at prevalences of 2.0-6.6% and 4.3%, respectively. The investigation confirmed the presence of HEV infections in three deer species in Germany. Red, roe, and fallow deer should be further monitored to assess their role as hosts and potential reservoirs of HEV in Germany.

  13. The structure of pedicle and hard antler bone in the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): a light microscope and backscattered electron imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Flohr, Stefan; Gomez, Santiago; Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Kierdorf, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Deer antlers are deciduous bony structures that develop from permanent frontal outgrowths, the pedicles. While growth and bone architecture of antlers have been studied in greater detail, information on pedicle formation and structure is scarce. The present study provides information on the structure of pedicle and hard antler bone in the European roe deer. A pronounced seasonal variation in pedicle architecture was observed, with high porosity around antler casting and a very compact bone structure during the hard antler stage. These observations suggest a corresponding marked variation also in the biomechanical properties of the pedicles. The seasonally alternating extensive resorption and formation processes make the pedicles of older deer heavily remodeled structures. Pedicles increase in thickness by apposition of primary bone that subsequently becomes replaced by secondary osteons. The antler cortex of roe deer is largely composed of a tubular framework of woven bone trabeculae with some remnants of mineralized cartilage, and primary osteons that have filled in the intertrabecular spaces. Secondary osteons are scarce, denoting little remodeling in antlers, which can be related to their short lifespan. The occurrence of cement lines around primary osteons indicates resorption on the trabecular scaffold prior to infilling of the intertrabecular spaces. The outer cortex showed a higher autofluorescence and a more immature structure than the main cortex, suggesting that it was secondarily formed by periosteal activity. Pedicles and antlers constitute a functional entity, and future histological and/or biomechanical studies should therefore consider both components of the cranial appendages. PMID:23961846

  14. High juvenile mortality is associated with sex-specific adult survival and lifespan in wild roe deer.

    PubMed

    Garratt, Michael; Lemaître, Jean-François; Douhard, Mathieu; Bonenfant, Christophe; Capron, Gilles; Warnant, Claude; Klein, François; Brooks, Robert C; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-16

    Male mammals typically have shorter lifespans than females [1]. Sex differences in survival may result, in part, from sex-specific optima in investment in reproduction, with higher male mortality rates from sexual competition selecting for a "live-fast die-young" strategy in this sex [2]. In the wild, lifespan is also influenced by environmental conditions experienced early in life. Poor conditions elevate juvenile mortality, which may selectively remove individuals with a particular phenotype or genotype from a cohort [3], and can alter the subsequent phenotypic condition and fate of those that survive to adulthood [4]. Males and females can respond differently to the same early-life environmental experiences [5, 6], but whether such environmental pressures generate sex differences in lifespan has rarely been considered. We show that sex differences in adult survival and lifespan in cohorts of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) range from virtually absent in some years to females living 30% longer than males in others. The extent of this sex difference in adult longevity is strongly linked to the level of mortality each cohort experiences as juveniles, with high juvenile mortality generating a strong sex difference in both adult survival and lifespan. In females, high juvenile mortality leads to increased adult survival for those remaining individuals, whereas in males survival is actually reduced. Early environmental conditions and the selective pressures they impose may help to explain variability in sex-specific aging across animal taxa.

  15. Barium concentration in cast roe deer antlers related to air pollution caused by burning of barium-enriched coals in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Jabłońska, M; Kramarczyk, M; Smieja-Król, B; Janeczek, J

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of Ba, Zn, Pb, Fe, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in freshly cast antlers from male roe deer of different ages (2 to 4 years old and older than 4 years) collected in Balin near Chrzanów and in the vicinity of Żywiec, S Poland. Barium content ranged from 124 to 196 ppm (mean 165 ppm) in the Balin 12 samples and from 207 to 351 ppm (mean 287 ppm) in 3 antlers from Żywiec. The concentration of Ba was comparable to that of Zn (134-275 ppm, mean 169 ppm). Elevated concentrations of Ba in antlers most probably originated from direct uptake of airborne barite nanocrystals through the respiratory system and/or by digestion of barite-rich dust particles deposited on plants. Burning of Ba-enriched coals is regarded as the principal source of Ba in the investigated areas inhabited by roe deer. Increased concentrations of Ba in antlers from the Żywiec area compared to Balin reflect particularly high air pollution caused by coal-burning mostly for domestic purposes combined with an unfavorable topography that impedes efficient air circulation.

  16. Historical biomonitoring of fluoride pollution by determining fluoride contents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) antlers and mandibles in the vicinity of the largest Slovene thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Jelenko, Ida; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2010-12-15

    Roe deer antlers/mandibles are a useful tool for determination of ambient fluoride pollution. Antlers have a well-defined annual cycle of growth, therefore they represent a natural standardisation of samples during winter months. On the contrary, mandibles accumulate fluorides during the whole life of an organism, thus they reflect aggregated effect of fluoride pollution trough the life-span of an organism. Both tissues are easily available; mandibles are often systematically collected with the purpose of cognitive management and control, and antlers could be gathered from private well-dated hunters' collections. Considering these benefits, fluoride contents were measured in 141 antlers (period 1960-2007) and 220 mandibles (period 1997-2009) of roe deer, shot in the vicinity of the largest Slovene Thermal Power Plant of Šoštanj (ŠTPP) as one of the major sources of fluorides in Slovenia. Fluoride contents in antlers significantly differed among age categories, and ranged from 110 to 1210 mg/kg in yearlings, 130 to 2340 mg/kg in young adults, and 250 to 2590 mg/kg in older adults, respectively. Fluoride levels in mandibles were also significantly different among age categories, and ranged from 30.0 to 227 mg/kg in fawns, 33.8 to 383 mg/kg in yearlings, and 61.5 to 1020 mg/kg in adults, respectively. Comparison of these results with previously reported fluoride contents in antlers and mandibles of roe deer from different areas of Europe revealed that the study area has never been extensively contaminated with fluorides. Moreover, trends of fluoride contents in both tissues confirmed a significant decrease of fluoride pollution in the area after the years 1995 and 2000, when flue-gas cleaning devices were constructed on the ŠTPP. Indeed, highly positive correlations between annual emissions from the ŠTPP and mean annual fluoride contents in antlers/mandibles confirmed that both tissues may be a useful tool for assessing temporal trends in ambient fluoride

  17. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer.

  18. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  19. The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Mateja; Žolnir-Dovč, Manca; Kušar, Darja; Krt, Brane; Špičić, Silvio; Cvetnić, Željko; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis). In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease. PMID:21647336

  20. Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boars and Spillover Infection in Red and Roe Deer, Germany, 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Anheyer-Behmenburg, Helena E.; Szabo, Kathrin; Schotte, Ulrich; Binder, Alfred; Klein, Günter

    2017-01-01

    To determine animal hepatitis E virus (HEV) reservoirs, we analyzed serologic and molecular markers of HEV infection among wild animals in Germany. We detected HEV genotype 3 strains in inner organs and muscle tissues of a high percentage of wild boars and a lower percentage of deer, indicating a risk for foodborne infection of humans. PMID:27983488

  1. The first determination of Trichuris sp. from roe deer by amplification and sequenation of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment of ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Salaba, O; Rylková, K; Vadlejch, J; Petrtýl, M; Scháňková, S; Brožová, A; Jankovská, I; Jebavý, L; Langrová, I

    2013-03-01

    Trichuris nematodes were isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). At first, nematodes were determined using morphological and biometrical methods. Subsequently genomic DNA was isolated and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment from ribosomal DNA (RNA) was amplified and sequenced using PCR techniques. With u sing morphological and biometrical methods, female nematodes were identified as Trichuris globulosa, and the only male was identified as Trichuris ovis. The females were classified into four morphotypes. However, analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of specimens did not confirm this classification. Moreover, the female individuals morphologically determined as T. globulosa were molecularly identified as Trichuris discolor. In the case of the only male molecular analysis match the result of the molecular identification. Furthermore, a comparative phylogenetic study was carried out with the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of the Trichuris species from various hosts. A comparison of biometric information from T. discolor individuals from this study was also conducted.

  2. Population density influences dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, Clayton L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal behavior in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predominantly occurs in 1-year-old males; however, females of the same age also disperse. The timing of female dispersal during fawning season and low dispersal rates suggest that competition for mates and reduced inbreeding are not ultimate causes of female dispersal, as suggested for males. We proposed that female dispersal is the result of competition for space when pregnant females seek to isolate themselves before and after parturition. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a meta-analysis of female dispersal rates from 12 populations of white-tailed deer and predicted dispersal rate and distance were positively related to deer density. We found a positive relationship between dispersal rate and deer per forested km2 and between dispersal distance and deer per forested km2. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that female dispersal is density-dependent and caused by the exclusion of subordinate 1-year-olds as adult females seek isolation before and after parturition.

  3. Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.

    1986-03-15

    The hypothesis of compensatory mortality is critical to understanding population dynamics of wildlife species. This is vital regardless of whether populations are managed for recreational hunting or habitats are altered via energy development projects. The purpose of research summarized herein is to test for compensatory mortality during winter in the juvenile (fawn) portion of a mule deer population. In the fall of 1985, sixty fawns were radio collared on both the control and treatment sites of the Little Hills study area. Thirty-three adult females also were telemetered, bringing the total instrumented population to 167 at the onset of winter. 10 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  4. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2006-04-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers.

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of Scottish Highland red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations: a mitochondrial survey.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Espona, S; Pérez-Barbería, F J; Goodall-Copestake, W P; Jiggins, C D; Gordon, I J; Pemberton, J M

    2009-02-01

    The largest population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe is found in Scotland. However, human impacts through hunting and introduction of foreign deer stock have disturbed the population's genetics to an unknown extent. In this study, we analysed mitochondrial control region sequences of 625 individuals to assess signatures of human and natural historical influence on the genetic diversity and population structure of red deer in the Scottish Highlands. Genetic diversity was high with 74 haplotypes found in our study area (115 x 87 km). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that none of the individuals had introgressed mtDNA from foreign species or subspecies of deer and only suggested a very few localized red deer translocations among British localities. A haplotype network and population analyses indicated significant genetic structure (Phi(ST)=0.3452, F(ST)=0.2478), largely concordant with the geographical location of the populations. Mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests indicated a significant population expansion for one of the main haplogroups found in the study area, approximately dated c. 8200 or 16 400 years ago when applying a fast or slow mutation rate, respectively. Contrary to general belief, our results strongly suggest that native Scottish red deer mtDNA haplotypes have persisted in the Scottish Highlands and that the population retains a largely natural haplotype diversity and structure in our study area.

  6. First seropositive cases of Coxiella burnetii in red deer populations in the southwest Iberian peninsula.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Leticia; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Carranza Almansa, Juan; Bermejo, Félix; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in different red deer populations and to investigate role of red deer densities, livestock, and habitat on seroprevalence. The serosurvey revealed 5 positive cases out of 137 sera (3.64%) that occurred in two of the three study areas. This study documents the first cases of Coxiella burnetii in red deer in the southwest Iberian peninsula. A relationship between deer density and Coxiella seroprevalence was not found. Results revealed that indirect transmission through ticks between livestock and red deer might be associated with higher prevalence. The timing of shelter area usage may influence the contact between ticks and red deer by favoring transmission. Coxiella burnetii in red deer may be associated with infertility or early abortions with reabsorption. Further research is needed to evaluate its epidemiology and effect on the disease dynamics of red deer in the southwest Iberian peninsula.

  7. [The supply of wild ruminants with major and trace elements. 1. The cadmium content of winter grazing and the cadmium status of red deer, fallow deer, roes and moulons].

    PubMed

    Anke, M; Grün, M; Briedermann, L; Missbach, K; Hennig, A; Kronemann, H

    1979-12-01

    The Cd-determination of 10 different winter grazings for wild ruminants in seven different biotopes showed significant differences of the habitats resulting from the previous Cd-emission of metallurgy smelting non-ferrous metals. The winter grazing of the Tharandt Forest and the Harz mountains contained significantly more Cd than that of the Lower Flaming hills, the western Erzgebirge and the northern agrarian areas. The bark and the tips of conifer twigs, twigs of oak and mountain ash, bilberry and heather plants, i. e. perennial plants resp. parts of plants proved to be particularly rich in Cd. On an average, wild ruminants consume more Cd than domesticated ruminants, which do not consume parts of perennial plants. The rumen contents of all wild ruminants contained, with 0.20 to 0.25 mg/kg dry matter more Cd than could be expected from the content of the grazing. In the Cd-contaminated areas the amount of Cd in the rumen contents too showed the Cd-load. The kidneys, livers and the covering hair of a total of 172 head red deer, roes and mouflons reflected the Cd-load and the dependence of the Cd-level on the age. The Cd-concentration ascertained in the organs of the wild ruminants was compared with that of sheep and cattle. The, on an average, higher Cd-load of the wild ruminants was confirmed. The kidneys of wild ruminants older than five years should, as a general principle, not be eaten and neither should the livers of animals from Cd-contaminated biotopes. The limb defects of mouflons from Cd-contaminated areas are discussed in connection with Cd-induced secondary Cu-deficiency resp. Mn- and Zn-deficiency. A reference is made to further works.

  8. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  9. Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.

    1985-08-31

    In the fall of 1984 sixty fawns were radio collared on both the C-b Tract and Little Hills study areas, bringing the total instrumented population in Piceance Basin to 160 at the onset of winter. Deer show strong fidelity to both their individual summer and winter ranges and appear to use the same migratory route to travel between the two. Adult doe winter survival was 85% for the instrumented C-b Tract population and 100% for Little Hills animals. Fawn survival was 9% for the C-b Tract animals and 31% for Little Hills animals. The high fawn mortality for C-b Tract animals is attributed to an increase in predation rates from an average of 44% of the instrumented population during winters 1980 to 1981 through 1983 to 1984 to 77% this past winter. Both coyotes and bobcats were responsible for the increased predation. For the third consecutive year at least 40 to 50% of the instrumented fawns in the Little Hills area succumbed to starvation. These relatively high losses even during ''normal'' winters (1982 to 1983 and 1984 to 1985) suggest that adequate forage may not be available for the number of deer wintering on the Little Hills range. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Interactive effects of harvest and deer herbivory on the population dynamics of American ginseng.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Susan J; Muzika, Rose-Marie; Drees, Dan; Knight, Tiffany M

    2009-06-01

    Few demographic models for any species consider the role of multiple, interacting ecological threats. Many forest herbs are heavily browsed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a number of these are also harvested for the medicinal, floral, or horticultural trades. Previous studies of the viability of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) have separately examined the effects of harvesting and deer herbivory. We followed individually marked ginseng plants in 6 populations for 8 years and documented deer browse levels, conducted helicopter surveys to estimate the deer herd size, and documented 2 ginseng harvests. We used this long-term data set to develop a stochastic demographic model that quantified the separate and interactive role of these threats to ginseng viability. Although harvesting and deer herbivory negatively affected ginseng population growth, their effects were not additive. Deer herbivory negatively affected population growth in the absence but not in the presence of harvesting. Life table response experiments revealed that in the presence of harvesting, deer herbivory had some positive effects on vital rates because browsed plants were less apparent to harvesters. Ginseng populations that were harvested responsibly (i.e., planting seeds from harvested individuals) had higher growth rates than those that were harvested irresponsibly. We concluded that both deer populations and harvesting must be managed to ensure sustainable populations of American ginseng. Our findings underscore the importance of long-term monitoring to assess threats to viability and the need for a broad ecological understanding of the complexity of ecosystem management.

  11. Chronic Wasting Disease Drives Population Decline of White-Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Matthew J.; Schumaker, Brant A.; Lindzey, Frederick G.; Cook, Walter E.; Kreeger, Terry J.; Grogan, Ronald G.; Cornish, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an invariably fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, and moose. Despite a 100% fatality rate, areas of high prevalence, and increasingly expanding geographic endemic areas, little is known about the population-level effects of CWD in deer. To investigate these effects, we tested the null hypothesis that high prevalence CWD did not negatively impact white-tailed deer population sustainability. The specific objectives of the study were to monitor CWD-positive and CWD-negative white-tailed deer in a high-prevalence CWD area longitudinally via radio-telemetry and global positioning system (GPS) collars. For the two populations, we determined the following: a) demographic and disease indices, b) annual survival, and c) finite rate of population growth (λ). The CWD prevalence was higher in females (42%) than males (28.8%) and hunter harvest and clinical CWD were the most frequent causes of mortality, with CWD-positive deer over-represented in harvest and total mortalities. Survival was significantly lower for CWD-positive deer and separately by sex; CWD-positive deer were 4.5 times more likely to die annually than CWD-negative deer while bucks were 1.7 times more likely to die than does. Population λ was 0.896 (0.859–0.980), which indicated a 10.4% annual decline. We show that a chronic disease that becomes endemic in wildlife populations has the potential to be population-limiting and the strong population-level effects of CWD suggest affected populations are not sustainable at high disease prevalence under current harvest levels. PMID:27575545

  12. Chronic wasting disease drives population decline of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edmunds, David; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Schumaker, Brant; Lindzey, Frederick G.; Cook, Walter; Kreeger, Terry J.; Grogan, Ronald; Cornish, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an invariably fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, and moose. Despite a 100% fatality rate, areas of high prevalence, and increasingly expanding geographic endemic areas, little is known about the population-level effects of CWD in deer. To investigate these effects, we tested the null hypothesis that high prevalence CWD did not negatively impact white-tailed deer population sustainability. The specific objectives of the study were to monitor CWD-positive and CWD-negative white-tailed deer in a high-prevalence CWD area longitudinally via radio-telemetry and global positioning system (GPS) collars. For the two populations, we determined the following: a) demographic and disease indices, b) annual survival, and c) finite rate of population growth (λ). The CWD prevalence was higher in females (42%) than males (28.8%) and hunter harvest and clinical CWD were the most frequent causes of mortality, with CWD-positive deer over-represented in harvest and total mortalities. Survival was significantly lower for CWD-positive deer and separately by sex; CWD-positive deer were 4.5 times more likely to die annually than CWD-negative deer while bucks were 1.7 times more likely to die than does. Population λ was 0.896 (0.859–0.980), which indicated a 10.4% annual decline. We show that a chronic disease that becomes endemic in wildlife populations has the potential to be population-limiting and the strong population-level effects of CWD suggest affected populations are not sustainable at high disease prevalence under current harvest levels.

  13. Chronic Wasting Disease Drives Population Decline of White-Tailed Deer.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, David R; Kauffman, Matthew J; Schumaker, Brant A; Lindzey, Frederick G; Cook, Walter E; Kreeger, Terry J; Grogan, Ronald G; Cornish, Todd E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an invariably fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, and moose. Despite a 100% fatality rate, areas of high prevalence, and increasingly expanding geographic endemic areas, little is known about the population-level effects of CWD in deer. To investigate these effects, we tested the null hypothesis that high prevalence CWD did not negatively impact white-tailed deer population sustainability. The specific objectives of the study were to monitor CWD-positive and CWD-negative white-tailed deer in a high-prevalence CWD area longitudinally via radio-telemetry and global positioning system (GPS) collars. For the two populations, we determined the following: a) demographic and disease indices, b) annual survival, and c) finite rate of population growth (λ). The CWD prevalence was higher in females (42%) than males (28.8%) and hunter harvest and clinical CWD were the most frequent causes of mortality, with CWD-positive deer over-represented in harvest and total mortalities. Survival was significantly lower for CWD-positive deer and separately by sex; CWD-positive deer were 4.5 times more likely to die annually than CWD-negative deer while bucks were 1.7 times more likely to die than does. Population λ was 0.896 (0.859-0.980), which indicated a 10.4% annual decline. We show that a chronic disease that becomes endemic in wildlife populations has the potential to be population-limiting and the strong population-level effects of CWD suggest affected populations are not sustainable at high disease prevalence under current harvest levels.

  14. Natural coinfection of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population with three Ehrlichia spp.

    PubMed

    Little, S E; Stallknecht, D E; Lockhart, J M; Dawson, J E; Davidson, W R

    1998-10-01

    The ticks Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis, strongly implicated vectors of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent, respectively, commonly are found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). As deer can be infected with E. chaffeensis, the HGE agent, and another Ehrlichia-like organism, a deer population parasitized by both tick species in coastal Georgia was tested for evidence of Ehrlichia spp. infection using serologic, molecular, and culture techniques. Antibodies to both E. chaffeensis (geometric mean titer = 111) and Ehrlichia equi, surrogate antigen for the HGE agent, (geometric mean titer = 1,024) were detected by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Nested polymerase chain reaction employing species-specific primers demonstrated sequence-confirmed 16S rDNA fragments of 3 distinct Ehrlichia spp. in this population: E. chaffeensis (1/5), the HGE agent (3/5), and an Ehrlichia-like organism previously described from white-tailed deer (5/5). Ehrlichia chaffeensis was isolated in culture from the inguinal lymph node of a single deer. An Ehrlichia-type morula was identified in a neutrophil of 1 deer on examination of blood smears. This work provides the first evidence of the HGE agent in a nonhuman host in the southeastern United States and documents infection with both E. chaffeensis and the HGE agent in a single deer population, thereby supporting the importance of white-tailed deer in the natural history of the human ehrlichioses agents.

  15. Genetic consequences of human management in an introduced island population of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Nussey, D H; Pemberton, J; Donald, A; Kruuk, L E B

    2006-07-01

    We investigated phylogeography and spatial genetic structure in an introduced island population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the Isle of Rum, Scotland, experiencing spatial variation in management regime. Five different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes were present among female red deer on Rum. These comprised two phylogenetically divergent groups, one of which clustered with red deer from Sardinia and North Africa, while the other four grouped with other Western European red deer. Recent and historical red deer management practices explain this result. The Rum population is descended from recent introductions from at least four different UK mainland populations, and translocation of red deer within the UK and across Europe is well documented. We found significant spatial genetic structure across Rum in both mtDNA haplotypes and microsatellite markers. Mitochondrial spatial structure was over an order of magnitude greater than structure in nuclear markers. This extreme difference is explained by the fact that the Rum population was introduced from different source populations, the highly male-biased dispersal patterns of red deer and the much smaller effective population size of mitochondrial compared to nuclear markers. Spatial structure in mtDNA conformed to a pattern of isolation by distance, while nuclear DNA did not. Apparent structure in the nuclear markers was driven by differences between the North Block and the rest of the island. We suggest that recent differences in the management regimes in different parts of the island have led to differences in effective male migration that would account for this observation.

  16. Population density affects sex ratio variation in red deer.

    PubMed

    Kruuk, L E; Clutton-Brock, T H; Albon, S D; Pemberton, J M; Guinness, F E

    1999-06-03

    Many mammal populations show significant deviations from an equal sex ratio at birth, but these effects are notoriously inconsistent. This may be because more than one mechanism affects the sex ratio and the action of these mechanisms depends on environmental conditions. Here we show that the adaptive relationship between maternal dominance and offspring sex ratio previously demonstrated in red deer (Cervus elaphus), where dominant females produced more males, disappeared at high population density. The proportion of males born each year declined with increasing population density and with winter rainfall, both of which are environmental variables associated with nutritional stress during pregnancy. These changes in the sex ratio corresponded to reductions in fecundity, suggesting that they were caused by differential fetal loss. In contrast, the earlier association with maternal dominance is presumed to have been generated pre-implantation. The effects of one source of variation superseded the other within about two generations. Comparison with other ungulate studies indicates that positive associations between maternal quality and the proportion of male offspring born have only been documented in populations below carrying capacity.

  17. Pronounced reduction of fluoride exposure in free-ranging deer in North Bohemia (Czech Republic) as indicated by the biomarkers skeletal fluoride content and dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Bahelková, Petra; Sedláček, František; Kierdorf, Horst

    2012-01-01

    Wild deer have been recommended as bioindicators of fluoride pollution. We compared bone fluoride concentrations and prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in free-ranging European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from five counties in the northwestern part of the Czech Republic that had been collected by hunters and whose mandibles were presented at trophy exhibitions in the years 1996/1997 ("early period") and 2009 ("late period"). Data on atmospheric fluoride deposition suggested that the deer from the early period had been exposed to markedly higher fluoride levels than those from the late period. We therefore predicted a decline in skeletal fluoride levels and prevalence of dental fluorosis for both species from the early to the late period. Fluoride concentrations were determined in the coronoid process of the mandible, and assessment of dental fluorosis was performed on the permanent cheek teeth. A pronounced drop in fluoride concentrations from the early period (roe deer (n = 157), median: 3147 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 127), median: 1263 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) to the late period (roe deer (n = 117), median: 350 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 72), median: 288 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) was recorded. Prevalence of dental fluorosis also markedly declined from the early to the late period (roe deer: from 93% to 12%, red deer: from 87% to 28%). The reduction of fluoride deposition in the study area and, in consequence, fluoride exposure of the resident deer populations, is attributed largely to the implementation of emission control devices in the brown coal-fired power plants located in North Bohemia from the mid 1990s onwards. The findings of the present study demonstrate that wild deer are well suited for monitoring temporal changes in fluoride pollution of their habitats.

  18. DNA typing in populations of mule deer for forensic use in the Province of Alberta.

    PubMed

    Jobin, Richard M; Patterson, Denise; Zhang, Youfang

    2008-06-01

    The present study involves the development of forensic DNA typing tests and databases for mule deer in the Province of Alberta. Two multiplex PCR reactions interrogating 10 loci were used to analyze samples from three populations of mule deer. Additionally, an amelogenin based sex-typing marker was used to determine the gender of samples. Results show that the tests and databases are appropriate for use in forensic applications. Additionally, the results indicate that there is little population structure in mule deer in Alberta and that no changes to management of this game species are suggested.

  19. Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations: Final technical report, January 1, 1985--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.

    1989-03-01

    The hypothesis of compensatory mortality is critical to understanding population dynamics of wildlife species. This knowledge is vital regardless of whether populations are managed for recreational hunting or habitats are altered via energy development projects. This research tested for compensatory mortality in the juvenile (fawn) portion of a mule deer population. Two experimental manipulations were used employing radio-collared deer. In this study, /approximately/20% of the population was moved from a treatment area and fawn survival rates compared to those on the control area. In the pasture study, deer were stocked in pastures at 3 densities of 44, 89, and 139 deer/km/sup 2/. Lowering of density in the field portion of the study did not appear to affect fawn survival. This is attributed to not removing enough animals for existing range conditions that have been imparted by high deer densities during the last 3 decades. Also, the effect of removal was tempered by an increase in yearling males brought about by antler-point restrictions during the harvest. Deer removed from the treatment area were used to stock 3 large pastures at low, medium, and high densities of 44, 89, and 139 deer/km/sup 2/, respectively. Fawn survival was significantly different between densities (P < 0.001), with the low density pasture showing the highest survival and the high density pasture showing the lowest survival. The main cause of death was starvation suggesting that food supplies were limiting. A strong compensatory mortality process is operating in this mule deer population as evidenced by the pasture data. We did not detect this process in the field portion of the study because the removal of /approximately/20% of the population was insufficient to allow an immediate improvement in fawn nutrition. The density-dependent survival response in the controlled pasture study demonstrated that compensatory mortality is operating in this population. 57 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. The application of reproductive technologies to natural populations of red deer.

    PubMed

    Garde, J J; Martínez-Pastor, F; Gomendio, M; Malo, A F; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Esteso, M C; García, A J; Anel, L; Roldán, E R S

    2006-10-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the application of reproductive technology to the conservation and management of natural populations of deer. The application of assisted reproduction technologies within natural population of deer is in its infancy. However, its future potential is enormous, particularly in relation to genetic management or conservation. This paper reviews the present state of such technologies for a wild subspecies of red deer, the Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus), by discussing the major components of oestrous synchronization, semen collection/cryopreservation and insemination techniques. In addition, findings made during the course of studies on natural populations have enormous potential for the understanding of novel reproductive mechanism that may not be uncovered by livestock or human studies. A summary of these results are also reviewed here.

  1. Climate, female traits and population features as drivers of breeding timing in Mediterranean red deer populations.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Marta; Miguel, Alfonso San; Rodríguez-Vigal, Carlos; Perea, Ramón

    2017-01-05

    Understanding the factors that lead to variation in the timing of breeding in widespread species such as red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) is crucial to predict possible responses of wild populations to different climate scenarios. Here, we sought to further understand the causes of inter-annual variation in the reproduction timing of female deer in Mediterranean environments. An integrative approach was used to identify the relative importance of individual, population and climate traits in the date of conception of free ranging deer, based on a dataset of 829 hinds culled during 12 years. We found that a population trait, density, was the most important factor explaining the variation in conception dates, with greater densities causing later conception dates. Body mass was the second in importance, with heavier females conceiving earlier than lighter ones. Almost equally important was the Spring Real Bioclimatic index, a measure of plant productivity, causing later conception dates in the least productive springs (drier and hotter). Another climatic component, the end of summer drought, showed that the sooner the autumn arrives (greater rainfalls and cooler temperatures) the earlier the conception dates. Interestingly, age class was found a minor factor in determining conception date. Only older females (≥ 10 years-old) conceived significantly later, suggesting reproductive senescence. This study highlights not only the importance of population and individual traits but also the influence of climatic parameters on deer reproductive cycle in Mediterranean environments, giving a valuable insight into how reproductive phenology may respond to seasonality and global climate changes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensitivity of condition indices to changing density in a white-tailed deer population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sams, M.G.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Qualls, C.W.; Leslie, David M.

    1998-01-01

    The ways in which comprehensive condition profiles, incorporating morphometric, histologic, physiologic, and diet quality indices, responded to changes in density of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population were examined. Changes in these condition indices were monitored in a northeastern Oklahoma deer herd as density declined from peaks of 80 and 72 deer/km2 in 1989 and 1990 (high-density) to lows of 39 and 41 deer/km2 in 1991 and 1992 (reduced-density), respectively. Compared to a reference population (6 deer/km2), deer sampled during high-density exhibited classic signs of nutritional stress such as low body and visceral organ masses (except elevated adrenal gland mass), low fecal nitrogen levels, reduced concentrations of serum albumin, elevated serum creatinine concentrations, and a high prevalence of parasitic infections. Although density declined by one half over the 4-yr study, gross indices of condition (in particular body mass and size) remained largely unchanged. However, selected organ masses, serum albumin and non-protein nitrogen constituents, and fecal nitrogen indices reflected improvements in nutritional status with reductions in density. Many commonly used indices of deer condition (fat reserves, hematocrit, total serum protein, and blood urea nitrogen) were not responsive to fluctuations in density. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 1998.

  3. Metabolic indicators of habitat differences in four Minnesota deer populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, U.S.; Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Blood samples were collected from 40 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 winter yards in northeastern Minnesota from 17 March 1974 through 23 April 1975. The results of 26 blood assays were examined for the effects of age, sex, capture date, capture method, disease and location. Age-related effects were found for serum chloride, calcium, gamma globulin, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase. The only sex difference was lower CPK in males. Date of collection effects were found for erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEF A). Capture method affected serum glucose, acid base balance, and serum enzymes. Effects related primarily to capture location or habitat differences were found for erythrocyte count, MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum urea, cholesterol, LDH, thyroxine, and NEF A. Animals whose assays indicated the poorest nutritional status inhabited wintering areas with the oldest vegetation. Habitat differences can be detected by measuring the physiological status of the local animal populations.

  4. Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations: Technical progress report. [Odocoileus hemionus

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.

    1987-07-15

    The hypothesis of compensatory mortality is critical to understanding population dynamics of wildlife species. This research tested for compensatory mortality in the juvenile (fawn) portion of a mule deer population. In the fall of 1986, 60 fawns were telemetered on both the control and treatment sites of the Little Hills study area. Thirteen adult females also were telemetered which, together with 31 telemetered adults already present, brought the total instrumented population to 164 at the onset of winter. Experimental manipulation to test for compensation in the population was successful, with 18% of the population on the treatment area (328 animals) removed. Line transect estimates of deer groups/ha were 0.12 +- 0.030 (D +- SE) for the control area and 0.14 +- 0.028 for the treatment area, giving 1727 individuals on the control area and 1490 on the treatment area. Thus the number of deer was measurably decreased on the treatment area by the removal operation.

  5. Presence of Hepatitis E Virus in a RED Deer (Cervus elaphus) Population in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolo, I; Ponterio, E; Angeloni, G; Morandi, F; Ostanello, F; Nicoloso, S; Ruggeri, F M

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). In addition to humans, HEV has been detected in several animal species and is recognized as a zoonotic pathogen. Pigs, wild boar and deer can be reservoir. In this study, we evaluated HEV prevalence in a free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus) population in central Italy by detecting virus-specific antibodies and RNA in sera. A total of 35 of 251 red deer sera were positive for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was detected in 10 of 91 sera examined. Two genomic fragments targeted by diagnostic PCRs in the capsid region were sequenced, both matching with genotype 3 HEV. Overall results confirmed the occurrence of HEV infection in deer also in Italy.

  6. Mandibular osteomyelitis in red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and fallow deer (Dama dama): occurrence and associated factors in free-living populations in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Azorit, Concepción; Oya, Antonia; Tellado, Sierra; Carrasco, Rafael; Moro, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of mandibular osteomyelitis, which results in a condition called lumpy jaw, and factors associated with its occurrence were investigated in syntopic free-living populations of red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in Spain. The study material consisted of 3,586 mandibles from 2,548 red deer and 1,038 fallow deer shot during sport hunting, herd management culls, and programs for population control between 1988 and 1997 (period 1) and 2002 and 2009 (period 2) in eastern Sierra Morena, southern Spain. Disease prevalence ranged from 0.36% to 10.91% among age groups. Older animals were significantly more likely to be affected than younger ones. Red deer stags had higher prevalence than other groups. There was a significantly higher prevalence in period 1, probably associated with differences in climatic and population conditions. High population densities of female red deer contributed significantly to occurrence of disease. Intensive herd management and poor environmental conditions were considered risk factors that increased susceptibility to disease. The study of this affliction could be useful for monitoring general herd welfare and ecologic changes in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  7. Population health of Fallow deer (Dama dama) on Little St. Simons Island, Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Morse, Brian W; Miller, Debra L; Miller, Karl V; Baldwin, Charles A

    2009-04-01

    Fallow deer (Dama dama) were introduced to Little St. Simons Island, Georgia, USA in the 1920s and thrive at high population densities, to the exclusion of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginina). The presence of introduced pathogens and parasites as a result of their introduction is currently unknown, as is the impact of native disease on the exotic fallow deer. Hunter-killed fallow deer from 2003-2005 were necropsied and surveyed for evidence of infectious disease, parasitic agents, and toxicologic parameters. Fallow deer were positive for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhea virus I and II, bluetongue virus, and bovine adenovirus. Twenty species of bacteria were isolated from the internal organs, and 14 species of parasites were recovered including one abomasal nematode, Spiculopteragia asymmetrica, which is not known to occur in native North American ungulates. Concentrations of liver and copper were low, while lead, zinc, and iron were considered within normal levels. No clinical signs of disease were noted, and the overall health of the insular fallow deer was considered good.

  8. Gastrointestinal parasites in an isolated Norwegian population of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen red deer, culled from the isolated population at the Mongstad Oil Refinery, were investigated for gastrointestinal helminths. These animals, enclosed by the refinery fence, do not have contact with other ruminants and have a high population density considering the available browsing area (1...

  9. A paleozoological perspective on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texana) population density and body size in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H; Cornelius, John D

    2007-04-01

    Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

  10. A Paleozoological Perspective on White-Tailed Deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) Population Density and Body Size in Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, Steve; Kennedy, James H.; Cornelius, John D.

    2007-04-01

    Archaeological and paleontological datasets are used in conservation to add time-depth to ecology. In central Texas, several top carnivores including prehistoric Native American hunters have been extirpated or have had their historic ranges restricted, which has resulted in pest-level white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus texana) populations in some areas. Differences in body size of deer between prehistory and modernity are expected, given that a lack of predation likely has increased intraspecific competition for forage among deer, resulting in smaller body size today. In fact, modern deer from settings without harvest pressure are significantly smaller than those from harvested areas and from prehistoric deer. From a natural history perspective, this research highlights potential evolutionary causes and effects of top-predator removal on deer populations and related components of biological communities in central Texas.

  11. Serologic evidence of Jamestown Canyon virus infection in white-tailed deer populations from Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Zamparo, J M; Andreadis, T G; Shope, R E; Tirrell, S J

    1997-07-01

    We determined the prevalence and distribution of Jamestown Canyon (JC) virus antibody in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in Connecticut, USA. Sera were collected from hunter-killed deer during 1993. Antibody to JC virus was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 92 (21%) of 446 deer sera, and was uniformly distributed among geographic sites. Twenty-one ELISA-positive sera were tested and confirmed positive by plaque reduction neutralization testing. This represents the first serologic evidence of JC virus in a reservoir host population from the northeastern United States. No cross-reactivity was seen with California encephalitis, Keystone, or snowshoe hare viruses, but a varying degree of cross-reactivity was obtained with Guaroa, Jerry Slough, La-Crosse, San Angelo, and trivittatus viruses. We conclude from this investigation and previous isolations of JC virus from mosquitoes in the state that JC virus occurs enzootically in Connecticut.

  12. Life history pattern and fitness of an endangered Hainan Eld's deer population.

    PubMed

    Nie, Haiyan; Song, Yanling; Zeng, Zhigao; Zhang, Qiong

    2011-03-01

    Understanding life history patterns, individual fitness and population fitness can assist with conservation of endangered species. Field data on life history traits (i.e. age specific fecundity, age specific mortality, age at first reproduction, litter size and adult life expectancy) were collected from 121 Hainan Eld's deer (Cervus eldi hainanus Thomas, 1918), an in situ herd of an endemic, rare and endangered cervid inhabiting Bangxi Natural Reserve of Hainan Island, from 1990 to 2002. First, we constructed a dynamic life table to analyze the life history pattern of the population, which showed that the difference between the average lifespan of males and females was not significant (P > 0.05), and that the difference between the average lifespan of the whole Hainan Eld's deer population and that of other Eld's deer populations living in South Asia (P > 0.05), North America (P > 0.05) and Europe (P > 0.05) was not significant. Second, we used individual reproductive success or number of offspring of a male over its lifetime to estimate male individual fitness. Statistic analysis showed that male individual fitness was not significantly correlated with total antler velvet mass. Third, we used the population intrinsic rate of increase to measure population fitness, and population fitness of Hainan Eld's deer was compared with similar indexes of 5 other cervid species. Hainan Eld's deer population fitness index was 0.012, the second lowest value relative to other cervids. Results indicated that this rare species is still endangered and is in need of additional protection.

  13. Use of pellet-group plots to measure trends in deer and elk populations

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, M.M.; White, G.C.; Karlen, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    Distribution and abundance of mule deer and elk were studied from 1976 to 1981 near Los Alamos, New Mexico, using pellet-group counts. Pellet-group data were shown to fit the negative binomial distribution. Counts for mule deer varied among years in all vegetation types; the population trend was generally downward. Pellet-group counts for elk (winter only) increased in ponderosa pine, but remained unchanged in other areas. Deer pellet groups were distributed similarly from year to year and were nonrandom (i.e., clumped). Elk pellet groups also were clumped, but were clumped less in mixed conifer during the latter part of the study. In ponderosa pine, where deer were most abundant, pellet groups were clumped less than in other habitats. Similarly, in mixed conifer, where elk numbers were highest, pellet groups were clumped least. Neither weather nor fire appeared to affect greatly counts of deer or elk pellet groups, although fire may have influenced distribution of elk. 37 references, 5 tables.

  14. Estimating chronic wasting disease effects on mule deer recruitment and population growth.

    PubMed

    Dulberger, Jessie; Hobbs, N Thompson; Swanson, Heather M; Bishop, Chad J; Miller, Michael W

    2010-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), accelerates mortality and in so doing has the potential to influence population dynamics. Although effects on mule deer survival are clear, how CWD affects recruitment is less certain. We studied how prion infection influenced the number of offspring raised to weaning per adult (≥2 yr old) female mule deer and subsequently the estimated growth rate (λ) of an infected deer herd. Infected and presumably uninfected radio-collared female deer were observed with their fawns in late summer (August-September) during three consecutive years (2006-2008) in the Table Mesa area of Boulder, Colorado, USA. We counted the number of fawns accompanying each female, then used a fully Bayesian model to estimate recruitment by infected and uninfected females and the effect of the disease on λ. On average, infected females weaned 0.95 fawns (95% credible interval=0.56-1.43) whereas uninfected females weaned 1.34 fawns (95% credible interval=1.09-1.61); the probability that uninfected females weaned more fawns than infected females was 0.93). We used estimates of prevalence to weight recruitment and survival parameters in the transition matrix of a three-age, single-sex matrix model and then used the matrix to calculate effects of CWD on λ. When effects of CWD on both survival and recruitment were included, the modeled λ was 0.97 (95% credible interval = 0.82-1.09). Effects of disease on λ were mediated almost entirely by elevated mortality of infected animals. We conclude that although CWD may affect mule deer recruitment, these effects seem to be sufficiently small that they can be omitted in estimating the influences of CWD on population growth rate.

  15. The role of weather and density dependence on population dynamics of Alpine-dwelling red deer.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Anna; Corlatti, Luca; Bragalanti, Natalia; Pedrotti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of red deer Cervus elaphus populations has been investigated across different environmental conditions, with the notable exception of the European Alps. Although the population dynamics of mountain-dwelling ungulates is typically influenced by the interaction between winter severity and density, the increase of temperatures and the reduction of snowpack occurring on the Alps since the 1980s may be expected to alter this pattern, especially in populations dwelling at medium - low elevations. Taking advantage of a 29-year time series of spring count data, we explored the role of weather stochasticity and density dependence on growth rate and vital rates (mortality and weaning success), and the density-dependent variation in body mass in a red deer population of the Italian Alps. The interaction between increasing values of density and snow depth exerted negative and positive effects on growth and mortality rates, respectively, while weaning success was negatively affected by increasing values of density, female-biased sex ratio and snow depth. Body mass of males and females of different age classes declined as population size increased. Our data support the role of winter severity and density dependence as key components of red deer population dynamics, and provide insight into the species' ecology on the European Alps. Despite the recent decline of snowpack on the Alpine Region, the negative impacts of winter severity and population abundance on growth rrate (possibly mediated by the density-dependent decline in body mass) confirms the importance of overwinter mortality in affecting the population dynamics of Alpine-dwelling red deer.

  16. Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer.

  17. Greece: a Balkan subrefuge for a remnant red deer (cervus elaphus) population.

    PubMed

    Karaiskou, Nikoleta; Tsakogiannis, Alexander; Gkagkavouzis, Konstantinos; Papika, Sylvia; Latsoudis, Panagiotis; Kavakiotis, Ioannis; Pantis, John; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; Triantafyllidis, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A number of phylogeographic studies have revealed the existence of multiple ice age refugia within the Balkan Peninsula, marking it as a biodiversity hotspot. Greece has been reported to harbor genetically differentiated lineages from the rest of Balkans for a number of mammal species. We therefore searched for distinct red deer lineages in Greece, by analyzing 78 samples originating from its last population in Parnitha Mountain (Central Greece). Additionally, we tested the impact of human-induced practices on this population. The presence of 2 discrete mtDNA lineages was inferred: 1) an abundant one not previously sampled in the Balkans and 2) a more restricted one shared with other Balkan populations, possibly the result of successful translocations of Eastern European individuals. Microsatellite-based analyses of 14 loci strongly support the existence of 2 subpopulations with relative frequencies similar to mitochondrial analyses. This study stresses the biogeographic importance of Central Greece as a separate Last Glacial Maximum period refugium within the Balkans. It also delineates the possible effects that recent translocations of red deer populations had on the genetic structuring within Parnitha. We suggest that the Greek red deer population of Parnitha is genetically distinct, and restocking programs should take this genetic evidence into consideration.

  18. Comparison of Drive Counts and Mark-Resight As Methods of Population Size Estimation of Highly Dense Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Populations.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Igota, Hiromasa; Matsuura, Yukiko; Kaji, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Assessing temporal changes in abundance indices is an important issue in the management of large herbivore populations. The drive counts method has been frequently used as a deer abundance index in mountainous regions. However, despite an inherent risk for observation errors in drive counts, which increase with deer density, evaluations of the utility of drive counts at a high deer density remain scarce. We compared the drive counts and mark-resight (MR) methods in the evaluation of a highly dense sika deer population (MR estimates ranged between 11 and 53 individuals/km2) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1999 and 2006. This deer population experienced two large reductions in density; approximately 200 animals in total were taken from the population through a large-scale population removal and a separate winter mass mortality event. Although the drive counts tracked temporal changes in deer abundance on the island, they overestimated the counts for all years in comparison to the MR method. Increased overestimation in drive count estimates after the winter mass mortality event may be due to a double count derived from increased deer movement and recovery of body condition secondary to the mitigation of density-dependent food limitations. Drive counts are unreliable because they are affected by unfavorable factors such as bad weather, and they are cost-prohibitive to repeat, which precludes the calculation of confidence intervals. Therefore, the use of drive counts to infer the deer abundance needs to be reconsidered.

  19. Comparison of Drive Counts and Mark-Resight As Methods of Population Size Estimation of Highly Dense Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Kazutaka; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Igota, Hiromasa; Matsuura, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    Assessing temporal changes in abundance indices is an important issue in the management of large herbivore populations. The drive counts method has been frequently used as a deer abundance index in mountainous regions. However, despite an inherent risk for observation errors in drive counts, which increase with deer density, evaluations of the utility of drive counts at a high deer density remain scarce. We compared the drive counts and mark-resight (MR) methods in the evaluation of a highly dense sika deer population (MR estimates ranged between 11 and 53 individuals/km2) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1999 and 2006. This deer population experienced two large reductions in density; approximately 200 animals in total were taken from the population through a large-scale population removal and a separate winter mass mortality event. Although the drive counts tracked temporal changes in deer abundance on the island, they overestimated the counts for all years in comparison to the MR method. Increased overestimation in drive count estimates after the winter mass mortality event may be due to a double count derived from increased deer movement and recovery of body condition secondary to the mitigation of density-dependent food limitations. Drive counts are unreliable because they are affected by unfavorable factors such as bad weather, and they are cost-prohibitive to repeat, which precludes the calculation of confidence intervals. Therefore, the use of drive counts to infer the deer abundance needs to be reconsidered. PMID:27711181

  20. The population history of endogenous retroviruses in mule deer (Odocoileus heminous)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Elleder, Daniel; Bao, Le; Cross, Paul C.; Powell, John H.; Poss, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Mobile elements are powerful agents of genomic evolution and can be exceptionally informative markers for investigating species and population-level evolutionary history. While several studies have utilized retrotransposon-based insertional polymorphisms to resolve phylogenies, few population studies exist outside of humans. Endogenous retroviruses are LTR-retrotransposons derived from retroviruses that have become stably integrated in the host genome during past infections and transmitted vertically to subsequent generations. They offer valuable insight into host-virus co-evolution and a unique perspective on host evolutionary history because they integrate into the genome at a discrete point in time. We examined the evolutionary history of a cervid endogenous gammaretrovirus (CrERVγ) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We sequenced 14 CrERV proviruses (CrERV-in1 to -in14), and examined the prevalence and distribution of 13 proviruses in 262 deer among 15 populations from Montana, Wyoming, and Utah. CrERV absence in white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), identical 5′ and 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences, insertional polymorphism, and CrERV divergence time estimates indicated that most endogenization events occurred within the last 200000 years. Population structure inferred from CrERVs (F ST = 0.008) and microsatellites (θ = 0.01) was low, but significant, with Utah, northwestern Montana, and a Helena herd being particularly differentiated. Clustering analyses indicated regional structuring, and non-contiguous clustering could often be explained by known translocations. Cluster ensemble results indicated spatial localization of viruses, specifically in deer from northeastern and western Montana. This study demonstrates the utility of endogenous retroviruses to elucidate and provide novel insight into both ERV evolutionary history and the history of contemporary host populations.

  1. The population history of endogenous retroviruses in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Kamath, Pauline L; Elleder, Daniel; Bao, Le; Cross, Paul C; Powell, John H; Poss, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Mobile elements are powerful agents of genomic evolution and can be exceptionally informative markers for investigating species and population-level evolutionary history. While several studies have utilized retrotransposon-based insertional polymorphisms to resolve phylogenies, few population studies exist outside of humans. Endogenous retroviruses are LTR-retrotransposons derived from retroviruses that have become stably integrated in the host genome during past infections and transmitted vertically to subsequent generations. They offer valuable insight into host-virus co-evolution and a unique perspective on host evolutionary history because they integrate into the genome at a discrete point in time. We examined the evolutionary history of a cervid endogenous gammaretrovirus (CrERVγ) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We sequenced 14 CrERV proviruses (CrERV-in1 to -in14), and examined the prevalence and distribution of 13 proviruses in 262 deer among 15 populations from Montana, Wyoming, and Utah. CrERV absence in white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), identical 5' and 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences, insertional polymorphism, and CrERV divergence time estimates indicated that most endogenization events occurred within the last 200000 years. Population structure inferred from CrERVs (F ST = 0.008) and microsatellites (θ = 0.01) was low, but significant, with Utah, northwestern Montana, and a Helena herd being particularly differentiated. Clustering analyses indicated regional structuring, and non-contiguous clustering could often be explained by known translocations. Cluster ensemble results indicated spatial localization of viruses, specifically in deer from northeastern and western Montana. This study demonstrates the utility of endogenous retroviruses to elucidate and provide novel insight into both ERV evolutionary history and the history of contemporary host populations.

  2. Seroconversion rates to Jamestown Canyon virus among six populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Boromisa, R D; Grimstad, P R

    1987-01-01

    The annual seroconversion of fawns, yearlings, and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Jamestown Canyon virus (California group) was followed at six Indiana sites from 1981 through 1984. In all, sera from 1,642 deer (515 fawns, 618 yearlings, and 509 adults) were tested for neutralizing antibody to three California serogroup viruses: Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, and trivittatus. Virtually all deer with specific neutralizing antibody showed evidence of a prior infection with Jamestown Canyon virus; only three deer showed evidence of a prior infection with only La Crosse virus and none showed evidence of an infection with only trivittatus virus. While there were no significant differences in antibody prevalence to Jamestown Canyon virus between yearling and adult deer at any site, fawns had significantly lower antibody prevalences than either of the two older age groups. Significant differences in antibody prevalence were found between northern versus southern populations of white-tailed deer in Indiana, however, no significant differences were found among the four northern populations or between the two southern populations. The mean antibody prevalences in the two southern fawn, yearling, and adult populations were 15%, 38%, and 41% respectively, while the prevalences in the four northern fawn, yearling, and adult populations were 5%, 67%, and 67% respectively. These different prevalences (northern vs. southern) correlate with the higher Jamestown Canyon virus antibody prevalence in human residents of northern Indiana (2-15%) compared to residents of southern Indiana (less than 2%) found in other studies. The significantly lower prevalence of antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus in fawns is attributed to maternal antibody protecting them from a primary infection their first summer. Yearling deer showed high rates of seroconversion following their second summer of life. These results suggest that infection of white-tailed deer in Indiana with Jamestown

  3. Winter fawn survival in black-tailed deer populations affected by hair loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bender, Louis C; Hall, P Briggs

    2004-07-01

    Overwinter fawn mortality associated with hair loss syndrome (HLS) is anecdotally thought to be important in declines of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) populations in Washington and Oregon (USA). We determined prevalence of HLS in black-tailed deer, September and April fawn:doe ratios, and minimum overwinter survival rates of fawns for selected game management units (GMUs) in western Washington from 1999 to 2001. Prevalence of HLS ranged from 6% to 74% in fawns and 4% to 33% in does. Minimum fawn survival ranged from 0.56 to 0.83 and was unrelated to prevalence of HLS in either does (r=0.005, P=0.991) or fawns (r=-0.215, P=0.608). The prevalence of HLS in either does or fawns was also unrelated to either fall fawn:doe ratios (HLS does: r=-0.132, P=0.779; HLS fawns: r=0.130, P=0.760) or spring fawn:doe ratios (HLS does: r=-0.173, P=0.711; HLS fawns: r=-0.020, P=0.963). However, the prevalence of HLS in does and fawns was strongly related (r=0.942, P=0.002), and GMUs with high prevalence of HLS had lower deer population densities (fawns: r=-0.752, P=0.031; does: r=-0.813, P=0.026). Increased overwinter mortality of fawns because of HLS was not supported by our data. Decreased production of fawns, increased summer mortality of fawns, or both were seen in six of eight study GMU-year combinations. Observed rates of productivity and minimum fawn survival were inadequate to maintain population size in five of eight study GMU-year combinations, assuming an annual doe survival rate of 0.75. The influence of deer condition and population health on adult survival, fawn production, preweaning fawn survival, parasitism, and prevalence of HLS in both fawns and adults need to be clarified to identify what factors are limiting black-tailed deer productivity.

  4. Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rutberg, Allen T; Naugle, Ricky E; Verret, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated gradual reductions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations through immunocontraception, with stabilization occurring after 2-4 yr of treatment, and subsequent reductions of 6-10% annually. These studies employed porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccines that required two initial treatments and annual retreatments. From 2005 to 2010, 258 adult and yearling female deer on Fripp Island, South Carolina, were treated with one of several PZP preparations designed to produce 2+ yr of effective contraception with a single treatment. These included several preparations of SpayVac and of native PZP-adjuvant emulsion plus PZP and QA-21 in timed-release pellets. Deer were chemically immobilized, ear-tagged, and administered initial treatments by hand in February-March. Some treated deer were boosted remotely with PZP-adjuvant emulsion 1.5 - 4.5 yr after initial treatments. Ground-based distance sampling was used to estimate deer population density at Fripp Island, a resort community, and at a relatively undeveloped neighboring control site, Hunting Island. Most vaccine preparations tested reduced fawning rates by 75% to 95% for at least 1 yr. From 2005 to 2011, deer density on Fripp Island declined by 50%, from 72 deer/km(2) to 36 deer/km(2), an average annual reduction of 11%. In contrast, population density on the Hunting Island control site fluctuated between 2005 and 2011, averaging 23 deer/km(2) (range, 19-28 deer/km(2)). Population declines on Fripp Island were associated with an increase in the proportion of treated females and with a progressive decrease in winter fawn:doe ratios, from 1.21 fawns/doe in 2005 to 0.19 fawns/doe in 2010. Winter fawn:doe ratios averaged 1.36 fawns/doe (range, 0.84 - 1.62 fawns/doe) at the Hunting Island control site. Annual survivorship averaged approximately 79% among ear-tagged females. The rate at which deer populations diminished in association with PZP treatments on Fripp Island was

  5. Status and origin of Haemonchinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) in deer: a survey conducted in France from 1985 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Ferté, H; Cléva, D; Depaquit, J; Gobert, S; Léger, N

    2000-07-01

    During our investigations on helminthofauna in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in France (1985-1998) we isolated nematodes not only of the genus Haemonchus Cobb, 1898 but also of the genus Ashworthius Le Roux 1930, both of which belong to the same subfamily of Haemonchinae. The prevalence of Ashworthius was 22% (65/294) in roe deer and 40% (10/25) in red deer. H. contortus was not found in red deer, whereas its prevalence was only 3% (9/294) in roe deer. These data contrast with those observed in other European countries. The presence of A. sidemi in red and roe deers in France suggests a case of parasitism imported via sika deer. A hypothesis of their spread is proposed.

  6. Potential Role of Masting by Introduced Bamboos in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) Population Irruptions Holds Public Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Melissa C.; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Mack, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic (“running”) bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata), wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food. PMID:25898267

  7. Yangtze River, an insignificant genetic boundary in tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus): the evidence from a first population genetics study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonglou; Pan, Tao; Wang, Hui; Pang, Mujia; Zhang, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    Great rivers were generally looked at as the geographical barrier to gene flow for many taxonomic groups. The Yangtze River is the third largest river in the world, and flows across South China and into the East China Sea. Up until now, few studies have been carried out to evaluate its effect as a geographical barrier. In this study, we attempted to determine the barrier effect of the Yangtze River on the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) using the molecular ecology approach. Using mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) sequences and 13 nuclear microsatellite loci, we explored the genetic structure and gene flow in two adjacent tufted deer populations (Dabashan and Wulingshan populations), which are separated by the Yangtze River. Results indicated that there are high genetic diversity levels in the two populations, but no distinguishable haplotype group or potential genetic cluster was detected which corresponded to specific geographical population. At the same time, high gene flow was observed between Wulingshan and Dabashan populations. The tufted deer populations experienced population decrease from 0.3 to 0.09 Ma BP, then followed by a distinct population increase. A strong signal of recent population decline (T = 4,396 years) was detected in the Wulingshan population by a Markov-Switching Vector Autoregressions(MSVAR) process population demography analysis. The results indicated that the Yangtze River may not act as an effective barrier to gene flow in the tufted deer. Finally, we surmised that the population demography of the tufted deer was likely affected by Pleistocene climate fluctuations and ancient human activities.

  8. Yangtze River, an insignificant genetic boundary in tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus): the evidence from a first population genetics study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Pang, Mujia

    2016-01-01

    Great rivers were generally looked at as the geographical barrier to gene flow for many taxonomic groups. The Yangtze River is the third largest river in the world, and flows across South China and into the East China Sea. Up until now, few studies have been carried out to evaluate its effect as a geographical barrier. In this study, we attempted to determine the barrier effect of the Yangtze River on the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) using the molecular ecology approach. Using mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) sequences and 13 nuclear microsatellite loci, we explored the genetic structure and gene flow in two adjacent tufted deer populations (Dabashan and Wulingshan populations), which are separated by the Yangtze River. Results indicated that there are high genetic diversity levels in the two populations, but no distinguishable haplotype group or potential genetic cluster was detected which corresponded to specific geographical population. At the same time, high gene flow was observed between Wulingshan and Dabashan populations. The tufted deer populations experienced population decrease from 0.3 to 0.09 Ma BP, then followed by a distinct population increase. A strong signal of recent population decline (T = 4,396 years) was detected in the Wulingshan population by a Markov-Switching Vector Autoregressions(MSVAR) process population demography analysis. The results indicated that the Yangtze River may not act as an effective barrier to gene flow in the tufted deer. Finally, we surmised that the population demography of the tufted deer was likely affected by Pleistocene climate fluctuations and ancient human activities. PMID:27843712

  9. Bayesian Modeling of Prion Disease Dynamics in Mule Deer Using Population Monitoring and Capture-Recapture Data.

    PubMed

    Geremia, Chris; Miller, Michael W; Hoeting, Jennifer A; Antolin, Michael F; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of North American Cervidae have potential to harm ecosystems and economies. We studied a migratory population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) affected by CWD for at least three decades using a Bayesian framework to integrate matrix population and disease models with long-term monitoring data and detailed process-level studies. We hypothesized CWD prevalence would be stable or increase between two observation periods during the late 1990s and after 2010, with higher CWD prevalence making deer population decline more likely. The weight of evidence suggested a reduction in the CWD outbreak over time, perhaps in response to intervening harvest-mediated population reductions. Disease effects on deer population growth under current conditions were subtle with a 72% chance that CWD depressed population growth. With CWD, we forecasted a growth rate near one and largely stable deer population. Disease effects appear to be moderated by timing of infection, prolonged disease course, and locally variable infection. Long-term outcomes will depend heavily on whether current conditions hold and high prevalence remains a localized phenomenon.

  10. Polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from Cervus unicolor (Cervidae) show inbreeding in a domesticated population of Taiwan Sambar deer.

    PubMed

    Lin, D Y; Chiang, T Y; Huang, C C; Lin, H D; Tzeng, S J; Kang, S R; Sung, H M; Wu, M C

    2014-05-23

    Primers for eight microsatellites were developed; they successfully amplified DNA from 20 domesticated Formosan Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei). All loci were polymorphic, with 10-19 alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity across loci and samples was 0.310, ranging from 0 to 0.750 at each locus. All loci but one, CU18, deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium due to excessive homozygosity in these domesticated broodstocks, reflecting inbreeding. These microsatellite loci will be useful, not only for assessment of population structure and genetic variability, but also for conservation of wild deer populations in Taiwan.

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of a Sichuan sika deer (Cervus sichuanicus) population in Tiebu Nature Reserve based on microsatellite variation

    PubMed Central

    HE, Ya; WANG, Zheng-Huan; WANG, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Cervus sichuanicus is a species of sika deer (Cervus nippon Group). To date, research has mainly focused on quantity surveying and behavior studies, with genetic information on this species currently deficient. To provide scientific evidence to assist in the protection of this species, we collected Sichuan sika deer fecal samples from the Sichuan Tiebu Nature Reserve (TNR) and extracted DNA from those samples. Microsatellite loci of bovine were used for PCR amplification. After GeneScan, the genotype data were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the Sichuan sika deer in TNR. Results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the Sichuan sika deer population in TNR was 0.562, equivalent to the average expected heterozygosity of endangered animals, such as Procapra przewalskii. Furthermore, 8 of 9 microsatellite loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two groups existed within the Sichuan sika deer TNR population. This genetic structure may be caused by a group of Manchurian sika deer (Cervus hortulorum) released in TNR. PMID:25465089

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of a Sichuan sika deer (Cervus sichuanicus) population in Tiebu Nature Reserve based on microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    He, Ya; Wang, Zheng-Huan; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-18

    Cervus sichuanicus is a species of sika deer (Cervus nippon Group). To date, research has mainly focused on quantity surveying and behavior studies, with genetic information on this species currently deficient. To provide scientific evidence to assist in the protection of this species, we collected Sichuan sika deer fecal samples from the Sichuan Tiebu Nature Reserve (TNR) and extracted DNA from those samples. Microsatellite loci of bovine were used for PCR amplification. After GeneScan, the genotype data were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of the Sichuan sika deer in TNR. Results showed that the average expected heterozygosity of the Sichuan sika deer population in TNR was 0.562, equivalent to the average expected heterozygosity of endangered animals, such as Procapra przewalskii. Furthermore, 8 of 9 microsatellite loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two groups existed within the Sichuan sika deer TNR population. This genetic structure may be caused by a group of Manchurian sika deer (Cervus hortulorum) released in TNR.

  13. Deer Velvet

    MedlinePlus

    Deer velvet covers the growing bone and cartilage that develops into deer antlers. People use deer velvet as medicine for a wide range of health problems. Deer velvet is used to boost strength and endurance, ...

  14. Prediction of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) population dynamics in Montana, USA, using satellite-driven vegetation productivity and weather data.

    PubMed

    Loehman, Rachel A; Elias, Joran; Douglass, Richard J; Kuenzi, Amy J; Mills, James N; Wagoner, Kent

    2012-04-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the main reservoir host for Sin Nombre virus, the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Sequential changes in weather and plant productivity (trophic cascades) have been noted as likely catalysts of deer mouse population irruptions, and monitoring and modeling of these phenomena may allow for development of early-warning systems for disease risk. Relationships among weather variables, satellite-derived vegetation productivity, and deer mouse populations were examined for a grassland site east of the Continental Divide and a sage-steppe site west of the Continental Divide in Montana, USA. We acquired monthly deer mouse population data for mid-1994 through 2007 from long-term study sites maintained for monitoring changes in hantavirus reservoir populations, and we compared these with monthly bioclimatology data from the same period and gross primary productivity data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor for 2000-06. We used the Random Forests statistical learning technique to fit a series of predictive models based on temperature, precipitation, and vegetation productivity variables. Although we attempted several iterations of models, including incorporating lag effects and classifying rodent density by seasonal thresholds, our results showed no ability to predict rodent populations using vegetation productivity or weather data. We concluded that trophic cascade connections to rodent population levels may be weaker than originally supposed, may be specific to only certain climatic regions, or may not be detectable using remotely sensed vegetation productivity measures, although weather patterns and vegetation dynamics were positively correlated.

  15. ORR Deer Hunt Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, P.A.; Teasley, N.A.

    1999-09-01

    The primary purpose for the initiation of deer hunts on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was deer population control to reduce collisions with vehicles and maintain a healthy herd and habitat. As of 1997, thirteen annual deer hunts have been conducted on the ORR. The deer hunt monitoring program (DHMP) has two components -- a field screening monitoring program and a confirmatory laboratory analysis program of both retained and randomly selected released deer samples.

  16. Bovine virus diarrhea virus in free-living deer from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S S; Roensholt, L; Bitsch, V

    2000-07-01

    Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available. In 1998-99, 269 animals were tested including 212 roe deer and 57 red deer. The animals were selected from areas with a relatively high prevalence of cattle herds with a BVD persistent infection status in 1997 and 1998. All 207 samples from 1995-96 were found antibody-negative except two samples from red deer. Only 158 of the 207 samples were tested for virus and were all found negative. Of the 269 samples from 1998-99 all but one were antibody negative. The positive sample was from a red deer. All samples were virus-negative. It appears that BVD infection does not occur in roe deer in Denmark. The presence of antibody in a few red deer from various districts in Jutland probably results from cattle to deer transmission, rather than spread among deer. Hence, the possibility of free-living deer as a source of infection for cattle in Denmark seems to be remote.

  17. Negative density-dependent emigration of males in an increasing red deer population.

    PubMed

    Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle; Veiberg, Vebjørn; Langvatn, Rolf

    2009-07-22

    In species with polygynous mating systems, females are regarded as food-limited, while males are limited by access to mates. When local density increases, forage availability declines, while mate access for males may increase due to an increasingly female-biased sex ratio. Density dependence in emigration rates may consequently differ between sexes. Here, we investigate emigration using mark-recovery data from 468 young red deer Cervus elaphus marked in Snillfjord, Norway over a 20-year period when the population size has increased sixfold. We demonstrate a strong negative density-dependent emigration rate in males, while female emigration rates were lower and independent of density. Emigrating males leaving the natal range settled in areas with lower density than expected by chance. Dispersing males moved 42 per cent longer at high density in 1997 (37 km) than at low density in 1977 (26 km), possibly caused by increasing saturation of deer in areas surrounding the marking sites. Our study highlights that pattern of density dependence in dispersal rates may differ markedly between sexes in highly polygynous species. Contrasting patterns reported in small-scale studies are suggestive that spatial scale of density variation may affect the pattern of temporal density dependence in emigration rates and distances.

  18. Effects of an increase in population of sika deer on beetle communities in deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Iida, Taichi; Soga, Masashi; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    The overabundance of large herbivores is now recognized as a serious ecological problem. However, the resulting ecological consequences remain poorly understood. The ecological effects of an increase in sika deer, Cervus nippon Temminck (Cervidae), on three insect groups of beetles was investigated: ground beetles (Carabidae), carrion beetles (Silphidae), and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, northern Japan. We collected beetles on Nakanoshima Island (experimental site) and lakeshore areas (control site) and compared the species richness, abundance, diversity index, and community composition of beetles between the sites. Results showed that although both species diversity and abundance of carabid beetles were significantly higher at the lakeshore site, those of dung and carrion beetles were higher at the island site. It was additionally observed that abundance of larger carabid beetles was higher at the lakeshore site, whereas that of small-sized carabid beetles did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. For dung beetles, abundance of smaller species was higher at the island site, whereas that of large species did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. Abundance of two body sizes (small and large) of carrion beetles were both higher at the island site. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrated that an increase in deer population altered the insect assemblages at an island scale, suggesting further changes in ecosystem functions and services in this region.

  19. Effects of an increase in population of sika deer on beetle communities in deciduous forests

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Taichi; Soga, Masashi; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The overabundance of large herbivores is now recognized as a serious ecological problem. However, the resulting ecological consequences remain poorly understood. The ecological effects of an increase in sika deer, Cervus nippon Temminck (Cervidae), on three insect groups of beetles was investigated: ground beetles (Carabidae), carrion beetles (Silphidae), and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, northern Japan. We collected beetles on Nakanoshima Island (experimental site) and lakeshore areas (control site) and compared the species richness, abundance, diversity index, and community composition of beetles between the sites. Results showed that although both species diversity and abundance of carabid beetles were significantly higher at the lakeshore site, those of dung and carrion beetles were higher at the island site. It was additionally observed that abundance of larger carabid beetles was higher at the lakeshore site, whereas that of small-sized carabid beetles did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. For dung beetles, abundance of smaller species was higher at the island site, whereas that of large species did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. Abundance of two body sizes (small and large) of carrion beetles were both higher at the island site. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrated that an increase in deer population altered the insect assemblages at an island scale, suggesting further changes in ecosystem functions and services in this region. PMID:27833427

  20. Modeling routes of chronic wasting disease transmission: Environmental prion persistence promotes deer population decline and extinction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Richards, Bryan J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of deer, elk, and moose transmitted through direct, animal-to-animal contact, and indirectly, via environmental contamination. Considerable attention has been paid to modeling direct transmission, but despite the fact that CWD prions can remain infectious in the environment for years, relatively little information exists about the potential effects of indirect transmission on CWD dynamics. In the present study, we use simulation models to demonstrate how indirect transmission and the duration of environmental prion persistence may affect epidemics of CWD and populations of North American deer. Existing data from Colorado, Wyoming, and Wisconsin's CWD epidemics were used to define plausible short-term outcomes and associated parameter spaces. Resulting long-term outcomes range from relatively low disease prevalence and limited host-population decline to host-population collapse and extinction. Our models suggest that disease prevalence and the severity of population decline is driven by the duration that prions remain infectious in the environment. Despite relatively low epidemic growth rates, the basic reproductive number, R0, may be much larger than expected under the direct-transmission paradigm because the infectious period can vastly exceed the host's life span. High prion persistence is expected to lead to an increasing environmental pool of prions during the early phases (i.e. approximately during the first 50 years) of the epidemic. As a consequence, over this period of time, disease dynamics will become more heavily influenced by indirect transmission, which may explain some of the observed regional differences in age and sex-specific disease patterns. This suggests management interventions, such as culling or vaccination, will become increasingly less effective as CWD epidemics progress.

  1. Getting the timing right: antler growth phenology and sexual selection in a wild red deer population.

    PubMed

    Clements, Michelle N; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Albon, Steve D; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B

    2010-10-01

    There has been growing interest in the determinants of the annual timing of biological phenomena, or phenology, in wild populations, but research on vertebrate taxa has primarily focused on the phenology of reproduction. We present here analyses of the phenology of the annual growth of a secondary sexual characteristic, antlers in red deer (Cervus elaphus) males. The long-term individual-based data from a wild population of red deer on the Isle of Rum, Scotland allow us to consider ecological factors influencing variation in the phenology of growth of antlers, and the implications of variation in antler growth phenology with respect to the phenotype of antler grown (antler mass) and annual breeding success. The phenology of antler growth was influenced by local environmental conditions: higher population density delayed both the start date (during spring) and the relative end date (in late summer) of antler growth, and warmer temperatures in the September and April prior to growth advanced start and end dates, respectively. Furthermore, there was variation between individuals in this phenotypic plasticity of start date, although not in that of end date of growth. The phenology of antler growth impacted on the morphology of antlers grown, with individuals who started and ended growth earliest having the heaviest antlers. The timing of antler growth phenology was associated with breeding success in the following mating season, independently of the mass of antlers grown: an earlier start of antler growth was associated with siring a higher number of the calves born the following spring. Our results suggest that the phenology of traits that are not directly correlated with offspring survival may also regularly show correlations with fitness.

  2. The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Daniel H; Christos, Paul J; LaBonte, Andrew M

    2013-04-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors' study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted.

  3. The Use of Deer Vehicle Accidents as a Proxy for Measuring the Degree of Interaction Between Human and Deer Populations and Its Correlation With the Incidence Rate of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wiznia, Daniel H.; Christos, Paul J.; LaBonte, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut’s Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors’ study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

  4. Individual differences, density dependence and offspring birth traits in a population of red deer

    PubMed Central

    Stopher, Katie V; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Coulson, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Variation between individuals is an essential component of natural selection and evolutionary change, but it is only recently that the consequences of persistent differences between individuals on population dynamics have been considered. In particular, few authors have addressed whether interactions exist between individual quality and environmental variation. In part, this is due to the difficulties of collecting sufficient data, but also the challenge of defining individual quality. Using a long-established study population of red deer, Cervus elaphus, inhabiting the North Block of the Isle of Rum, and three quality measures, this paper investigates how differences in maternal quality affect variation in birth body mass and date, as population density varies, and how this differs depending on the sex of the offspring and the maternal quality measure used. Significant interactions between maternal quality, measured as a hind's total contribution to population growth, and population density are reported for birth mass, but only for male calves. Analyses using dominance or age at primiparity to define maternal quality showed no significant interactions with population density, highlighting the difficulties of defining a consistent measure of individual quality. PMID:18522909

  5. Individual differences, density dependence and offspring birth traits in a population of red deer.

    PubMed

    Stopher, Katie V; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Coulson, Tim

    2008-09-22

    Variation between individuals is an essential component of natural selection and evolutionary change, but it is only recently that the consequences of persistent differences between individuals on population dynamics have been considered. In particular, few authors have addressed whether interactions exist between individual quality and environmental variation. In part, this is due to the difficulties of collecting sufficient data, but also the challenge of defining individual quality. Using a long-established study population of red deer, Cervus elaphus, inhabiting the North Block of the Isle of Rum, and three quality measures, this paper investigates how differences in maternal quality affect variation in birth body mass and date, as population density varies, and how this differs depending on the sex of the offspring and the maternal quality measure used. Significant interactions between maternal quality, measured as a hind's total contribution to population growth, and population density are reported for birth mass, but only for male calves. Analyses using dominance or age at primiparity to define maternal quality showed no significant interactions with population density, highlighting the difficulties of defining a consistent measure of individual quality.

  6. Deer-vehicle collisions, deer density, and land use in Iowa's urban deer herd management zones.

    PubMed

    Gkritza, Konstantina; Baird, Michael; Hans, Zachary N

    2010-11-01

    Many states are striving to keep their deer population to a sustainable and controllable level, while maximizing public safety. In Iowa, measures to control the deer population include annual deer hunts and special deer herd management plans in urban areas. While these plans may in effect reduce the deer population, traffic safety in these areas has not been fully assessed. Using deer population data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and data on deer-vehicle crashes and deer carcass removals from the Iowa Department of Transportation, we examine the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions, deer density, and land use in select urban deer management zones in Iowa. Further, we estimate models to investigate the factors that influence the frequency and severity of deer-vehicle crashes in these zones. The estimation results showed that multiple factors affect deer-vehicle crashes and corresponding injury outcomes in urban management zones. The identified roadway and non-roadway factors could be useful for identifying locations on the transportation system that significantly impact deer species and safety, and determining appropriate countermeasures for mitigation.

  7. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer

  8. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the Intermountain Province of the Columbia Basin, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielgus, Robert B.; Shipley, Lisa

    2002-07-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the subbasins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are not ranked as target species and are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated ''press'' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM subbasins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates

  9. Liver enzymes and blood metabolites in a population of free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) naturally infected with Fascioloides magna.

    PubMed

    Severin, K; Mašek, T; Janicki, Z; Konjević, D; Slavica, A; Marinculić, A; Martinković, F; Vengušt, G; Džaja, P

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the effects of Fascioloides magna infection on the serum biochemistry values of the naturally infected red deer population in eastern Croatia. The investigation was performed on 47 red deer with F. magna infection confirmed patho-anatomically in 27 animals (57.4%). Fibrous capsules and migratory lesions were found in 14 deer while only fibrous capsules without migratory lesions were found in 13 deer. In 13 deer both immature and mature flukes were found, in 5 deer only immature flukes were found and in 9 deer only mature flukes were found. Fascioloides magna infected deer with fibrous capsules and migratory lesions had significantly higher values for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and globulin, and lower values for albumin/globulin ratio and glucose compared to uninfected deer. Fascioloides magna infected deer with fibrous capsules without the presence of migratory lesions had higher values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and globulin, and lower values for albumin/globulin ratio and glucose, than the uninfected deer. The number of immature flukes was positively correlated with values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), LDH, GLDH, urea and triglycerides. The number of migratory lesions was positively correlated with GGT, GLDH, globulin and urea values. The creatinine value was positively correlated with the number of mature flukes. The trial showed that F. magna infection causes significant changes in serum biochemistry. Moreover, these changes do not completely resemble changes following F. hepatica infection. Further investigation of changes in liver enzymes and other serum metabolites in controlled, experimentally induced fascioloidosis in red deer is needed to better understand the pathogenesis of F. magna.

  10. Estimating the risk of cattle exposure to tuberculosis posed by wild deer relative to badgers in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alastair I; Smith, Graham C; Etherington, Thomas R; Delahay, Richard J

    2009-10-01

    Wild deer populations in Great Britain are expanding in range and probably in numbers, and relatively high prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis) in deer occurs locally in parts of southwest England. To evaluate the M. bovis exposure risk posed to cattle by wild deer relative to badgers in England and Wales, we constructed and parameterized a quantitative risk model with the use of information from the literature (on deer densities, activity patterns, bTB epidemiology, and pathology) and contemporary data on deer, cattle, and badger (Meles meles) distribution and abundance. The median relative risk score for each of the four deer species studied--red (Cervus elaphus), fallow (Dama dama), and roe (Capreolus capreolus) deer, and muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi)--was lower than unity (the relative risk set for badgers, the putative main wildlife reservoir of M. bovis in England and Wales). However, the 95th percentiles associated with risk estimates were large, and the upper limits for all four deer species exceeded unity. Although M. bovis exposure risks to cattle from deer at pasture are likely to be lower than those from badgers across most areas of England and Wales where cattle are affected by bTB because these areas coincide with high-density badger populations but not high-density deer populations, we predict the presence of localized areas where relative risks posed by deer may be considerable. Moreover, wherever deer are infected, risks to cattle may be additive to those posed by badgers. There are considerable knowledge gaps associated with bTB in deer, badgers, and cattle, and data available for model parameterization were generally of low quality and high variability, and consequently model output were subject to some uncertainty. Improved estimates of the proportion of time that deer of each species spend at pasture, the likelihood and magnitude of M. bovis excretion, and local badger and deer densities appear

  11. The effects of population density on juvenile growth rate in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.

  12. The Effects of Population Density on Juvenile Growth Rate in White-Tailed Deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.

  13. Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, C; Leighton, P A; Beauchamp, G; Nguon, S; Trudel, L; Milord, F; Lindsay, L R; Bélanger, D; Ogden, N H

    2013-03-01

    Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer could act as sentinels for early establishing tick populations and for tick-borne pathogens. Accounting for environmental characteristics of culling sites, and age and sex of deer, we investigated whether their tick infestation levels could identify locations of known tick populations detected in active surveillance, presumed tick populations detected by passive surveillance, or both. We also used spatial cluster analyses to identify spatial patterns of tick infestation and occurrence of tick-borne zoonoses infection in ticks collected from the deer. Adult ticks were found on 15% of the 583 deer examined. Adult male deer had the greatest number (approximately 90%) of adult ticks. Overall, 3, 15, and 0% of the ticks collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. Our statistical analyses suggest that sex and age of deer, temperature, precipitation, and an index of tick dispersion by migratory birds were significantly associated with tick infestation levels. Cluster analysis identified significant clusters of deer carrying ticks PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum, and for deer carrying two or more I. scapularis. Our study suggests that hunter-killed deer may be effective as sentinels for emerging areas of tick-borne anaplasmosis. They may have limited use as sentinels for early emerging I. scapularis tick populations and emerging Lyme disease risk.

  14. Relationship between deer mouse population parameters and dieldrin contamination in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, D.L.; Otis, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    A small-mammal capture-recapture study was conducted in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge to quantify the effects of soil contamination with dieldrin on demographic parameters of deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) populations. Increased dieldrin concentrations were significantly associated with larger deer mouse populations, although the size of populations on contaminated sites decreased during the study. The most parsimonious model for estimating survival rates was one in which survival was a decreasing function of dieldrin concentration. A significantly higher proportion of female deer mice in the populations residing on the more highly contaminated sites exhibited signs of reproductive activity. Development of genetic resistance in P. maniculatus to chronic chemical exposure is suggested as a possible mechanism responsible for the species' observed dominance and relatively high densities on contaminated sites. Under the additional stress of unfavorable environmental conditions, however, these populations may suffer disproportionately greater mortality. The design and analytical methods presented offer a rigorous statistical approach to assessing the effects of environmental contamination on small mammals at the population level.

  15. The cumulative effect of consecutive winters' snow depth on moose and deer populations: a defence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McRoberts, R.E.; Mech, L.D.; Peterson, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    1. L. D. Mech et al. presented evidence that moose Alces alces and deer Odocoileus virginianus population parameters re influenced by a cumulative effect of three winters' snow depth. They postulated that snow depth affects adult ungulates cumulatively from winter to winter and results in measurable offspring effects after the third winter. 2. F. Messier challenged those findings and claimed that the population parameters studied were instead affected by ungulate density and wolf indexes. 3. This paper refutes Messier's claims by demonstrating that his results were an artifact of two methodological errors. The first was that, in his main analyses, Messier used only the first previous winter's snow depth rather than the sum of the previous three winters' snow depth, which was the primary point of Mech et al. Secondly, Messier smoothed the ungulate population data, which removed 22-51% of the variability from the raw data. 4. When we repeated Messier's analyses on the raw data and using the sum of the previous three winter's snow depth, his findings did not hold up.

  16. Genetic differentiation among 6 populations of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Poland based on microsatellite DNA polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Radko, Anna; Zalewski, D; Rubiś, Dominika; Szumiec, Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in genetic differentiation in the Cervidae family. A common tool used to determine genetic variation in different species, breeds and populations is DNA analysis, which allows for direct determination of the differences and changes within a group of animals. Because the analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in different Cervidae populations revealed considerable genetic variability in individual populations, it was important to test a set of markers in animals from these populations.The study was performed with muscle tissue and blood samples collected from a total of 793 red deer. Six groups (subpopulations) of red deer were defined according to region: Masurian (330 animals), Bieszczady (194 animals), Małopolska (80 animals), Sudety (76 animals), Lower Silesian (62 animals) and Lubusz (51 animals). The analysis involved 12 STR markers (BM1818, OarAE129, OarFCB5, OarFCB304, RM188, RT 1, RT 13, T26, T156, T193, T501, TGLA53), for which conditions for simultaneous amplification were established.Based on this study, it is concluded that the chosen set of 12 microsatellite markers could be used to evaluate the genetic structure and to monitor changes in Poland's red deer population.

  17. Genetic Structure and Effective Population Sizes in European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) at a Continental Scale: Insights from Microsatellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Zachos, Frank E; Frantz, Alain C; Kuehn, Ralph; Bertouille, Sabine; Colyn, Marc; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pérez-González, Javier; Skog, Anna; Sprĕm, Nikica; Flamand, Marie-Christine

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed more than 600 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from large parts of its European distribution range at 13 microsatellite loci, presenting the first continent-wide study of this species using nuclear markers. Populations were clearly differentiated (overall F ST = 0.166, Jost's D est = 0.385), and the BAPS clustering algorithm yielded mainly geographically limited and adjacent genetic units. When forced into only 3 genetic clusters our data set produced a very similar geographic pattern as previously found in mtDNA phylogeographic studies: a western group from Iberia to central and parts of Eastern Europe, an eastern group from the Balkans to Eastern Europe, and a third group including the threatened relict populations from Sardinia and Mesola in Italy. This result was also confirmed by a multivariate approach to analyzing our data set, a discriminant analysis of principal components. Calculations of genetic diversity and effective population sizes (linkage disequilibrium approach) yielded the lowest results for Italian (Sardinia, Mesola; N e between 2 and 8) and Scandinavian red deer, in line with known bottlenecks in these populations. Our study is the first to present comparative nuclear genetic data in red deer across Europe and may serve as a baseline for future analyses of genetic diversity and structuring in this widespread ungulate.

  18. Deer population in the Central Superior National Forest, 1967-1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Deer were aerially censused each winter from 1976 through 1985 in a 400-sq km2 area near Isabella, Minnesota, in the Central Superior National Forest; a correction factor based on aerial observability of radio-tagged deer in the same region was then applied to the census figures. Deer numbers, which had reached an estimated 3.5/sq km, declined drastically in the early 1970's, fluctuated between about 0.43 and 0.97/sq km from 1976 through 1985, and began increasing in 1983.

  19. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Benson, John F.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Riley, Seth P. D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance. PMID:27411098

  20. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Sikich, Jeff A; Riley, Seth P D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance.

  1. Management of deer for experimental studies with foor-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, E P; McDiarmid, A; Rowe, J J

    1975-06-07

    Red, sika, fallow, roe and muntjac deer adapted to captivity in experimental units designed for working with foot-and-mouth disease. The red, sika and fallow deer readily accepted rolled oats and hay as their staple diet. This diet was replaced for the roe and muntjac deer with flaked maize, calf starter pellets and green browse. Etorphine/acepromazine ans xylazine were found to be suitable sedatives for detailed examination of the tongue and oral cavity of the various species of deer and gave adequate analgesia for the inoculation and collection of virus samples.

  2. Genetic characterization of wild swamp deer populations: ex situ conservation and forensics implications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ved Prakash; Shrivastwa, Anupam; Nigam, Parag; Kumar, Dhyanendra; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2016-10-26

    Swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii) is an endemic, Scheduled I species under the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, India. According to variations in antler size, it has been classified into three subspecies, namely Western (R. duvaucelii duvaucelii), Central (R. duvaucelii branderi), and Eastern (R. duvaucelii ranjitsinhii). For planning effective ex situ and in situ conservation of a wide-ranging species in different bioclimatic regions and in wildlife forensic, the use of genetic characterization in defining morpho/ecotypes has been suggested because of the geographic clines and reproductive isolation. In spite of these morphotypes, very little is known about the genetic characteristics of the three subspecies, hence no strict subspecies-based breeding plan for retaining the evolutionary characteristics in captive populations for subsequent re-introduction is available except for a few studies. We describe the genetic characteristics of these three subspecies using cytochrome b of the mtDNA genome (400 bp). The DNA sequence data indicated 11 variable sites within the three subspecies. Two paraphyletic clades, namely the Central India and Western-Eastern populations were found, whereas the Western and Eastern populations are monophyletic with a bootstrap value of 69% within the clade. We suggest the need of sorting these three subspecies using different molecular mtDNA markers in zoos for captive breeding purposes so as to retain the genetic diversity of the separate geographic clines and to use a subspecies-specific fixed-state nucleotide to assess the extent of poaching to avoid any population demography stochastically in India.

  3. The effect of seasonality, density and climate on the population dynamics of Montana deer mice, important reservoir hosts for Sin Nombre hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Luis, Angela D; Douglass, Richard J; Mills, James N; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2010-03-01

    1. Since Sin Nombre virus was discovered in the U.S. in 1993, longitudinal studies of the rodent reservoir host, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) have demonstrated a qualitative correlation among mouse population dynamics and risk of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans, indicating the importance of understanding deer mouse population dynamics for evaluating risk of HPS. 2. Using capture-mark-recapture statistical methods on a 15-year data set from Montana, we estimated deer mouse survival, maturation and recruitment rates and tested the relative importance of seasonality, population density and local climate in explaining temporal variation in deer mouse demography. 3. From these estimates, we designed a population model to simulate deer mouse population dynamics given climatic variables and compared the model to observed patterns. 4. Month, precipitation 5 months previously, temperature 5 months previously and to a lesser extent precipitation and temperature in the current month, were important in determining deer mouse survival. Month, the sum of precipitation over the last 4 months, and the sum of the temperature over the last 4 months were important in determining recruitment rates. Survival was more important in determining the growth rate of the population than recruitment. 5. While climatic drivers appear to have a complex influence on dynamics, our forecasts were good. Our quantitative model may allow public health officials to better predict increased human risk from basic climatic data.

  4. Physiological assessment of deer populations by analysis of urine in snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1989-01-01

    We compared the nutritional status of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 natural yards and 1 yard where deer were supplementally fed from 1 January to 31 March 1985 in northeastern Minnesota. We monitored deer nutritonal status by sequential collection and chemical analysis of urine in snow (snow-urine) for urea nitrogen (U), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P). Dilution of urine by snow was corrected by comparing these data as ratios to creatinine (C). All deer remained in an early phase of undernutrition; however, declining trends of U:C, Na:C, and K:C in 2 natural yards indicated increasingly inadequate nutrition as winter progressed. Unaltered values of these ratios and P.C in snow-urine collected from the third natural yard reflected stable levels of nutrient availability. Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of Na:C, K:C, and P:C in 2 natural yards with similar snow regimes suggested initiation of nutritional recovery in deer during late March. In contrast, deep snow in the third natural yard restricted feeding activity and was associated with ratios that remained diminished. Elevated U:C, Na:C, and K:C provided physiological evidence of the higher nutritional status of supplementally fed deer throughout winter and their ability to increase nutrient intake during late March despite prolonged deep snow cover. Frequent and quantitative assessments of the physiological status of deer by snow-urine analysis provided an improved understanding of the relationship between snow cover and the nutritional well-being of these deer.

  5. Effects of fluoride emissions from a modern primary aluminum smelter on a local population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    SciTech Connect

    Suttie, J.S.; Dickie, R.; Clay, A.B.; Nielsen, P.; Mahan, W.E.; Baumann, D.P.; Hamilton, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of fluoride emissions from a modern aluminum smelter on concentrations of skeletal fluoride and dental fluorosis in a resident population of white-tailed deer was studied. The smelter was located on Mount Holly Plantation in South Carolina, and concentrations of skeletal fluoride in the deer collected at Mount Holly increased approximately five-fold 3 yr after the operation began. Increases in skeletal fluoride of less than two-fold were observed in deer obtained from Medway Plantation which has its nearest boundary 1.6 km from the smelter site. No dental fluorosis was observed in deer collected at Medway Plantation, but mild dental fluorosis was observed in a significant number of deer collected at Mount Holly Plantation. The dental fluorosis that was observed was not associated with incisor wear or with fluoride-induced molar wear. Osteofluorosis of mandibles or metacarpals was not observed in any of the deer obtained from either plantation. The data obtained from this study indicated that the presence of a modern aluminum smelter caused a detectable increase in concentration of skeletal fluoride in the resident population of white-tailed deer, but that no adverse health effects were seen.

  6. Monoterpene effect on feeding choice by deer.

    PubMed

    Vourc'h, Gwenaël; De Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Labbé, Alice; Rosolowski, Dimitri; Martin, Jean-Louis; Fritz, Hervé

    2002-12-01

    A previous study showed that Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) consumption was negatively correlated with monoterpene content in western redcedar (Thuja plicata). To test whether these monoterpenes were deterrent to Sitka black-tailed deer, we performed feeding choice experiments with four hydrocarbon (sabinene, myrcene, alpha-pinene, and d + l-limonene) and one oxygenated (alpha,beta-thujone) monoterpene solution at their highest natural concentration in western redcedar foliage. To test whether deer response was species specific, we ran similar experiments on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa). In all experiments, monoterpenes were repellent. Solutions with alpha,beta-thujone, the major monoterpene in redcedar leaves, were the most repellent of the solutions tested. We then analyzed how black-tailed and roe deer responded to (1) an increase in concentration of the monoterpenes with the weakest repellent effects (hydrocarbon monoterpenes) and (2) a decrease in concentration of the monoterpene with strongest effect (alpha,beta-thujone). Repellency tended to increase with concentration for hydrocarbon monoterpenes, but remained strong for alpha,beta-thujone. As wild deer regularly feed on plants containing monoterpenes, this raises the question as to how the animals deal with these molecules.

  7. The Ethics of ROE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    unethical behavior in the fog of individual conflict? Aristotle seems to have lit the way to an answer - - the development of individual virtue ...the foremost respected thinkers with regard to philosophies surrounding the concept of killing and the morality of war. One of his papers identifies...ROE impact the moral decision making responsibilities of soldiers as well as the strategic impact of those decisions. Additionally, over the

  8. Sperm characterization and identification of sperm sub-populations in ejaculates from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus).

    PubMed

    Beracochea, F; Gil, J; Sestelo, A; Garde, J J; Santiago-Moreno, J; Fumagalli, F; Ungerfeld, R

    2014-10-01

    Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a native endangered species. Knowledge of the basic spermiogram characteristics and the morphometric descriptors is necessary to effectively develop sperm cryopreservation. In other species, sperm sub-population is related to sperm cryo-resistance. The objective was to provide a general description of the sperm, including sperm head morphometric descriptors, its repeatability, and the existence of sperm sub-populations. Sperm were obtained from adult males by electroejaculation during the breeding season. The motility score was 3.4 ± 0.2 (mean ± SEM) and progressive motility was 59.4 ± 3.7%. Ejaculated volume was 413.9 ± 51.0 μl, the total number of sperm ejaculated was 321.2 ± 55.4 × 10(6). Also, 63.3 ± 3.1% of the sperm were morphologically abnormal and 23.7 ± 2.3% had acrosome damage. The sperm head length was 7.6 ± 0.01 μm, width 4.4 ± 0.01 μm, area 28.1 ± 0.07 μm(2) and the perimeter was 21.9 ± 0.04 μm. There was a positive relationship among morphometric descriptors and the motility score, overall motility and progressive motility. Also length (P=0.011), width (P=0.003), area (P=0.006) and perimeter (P=0.009) of sperm head obtained in two different collections were positively related. Overall, the low concentration, volume, overall quality and abnormal morphology, and wide variation of these variables may be a limitation for the development of sperm cryopreserved banks. There were three sperm sub-populations with different morphometric characteristics. The morphometric descriptors are maintained similarly among different collections.

  9. Exotic pediculosis and hair-loss syndrome in deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in California.

    PubMed

    Roug, Annette; Swift, Pamela; Puschner, Birgit; Gerstenberg, Greg; Mertins, James W; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Torres, Steve; Mortensen, Jack; Woods, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    Infestation with nonnative, "exotic" lice was first noted in Washington black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in 1994 and has since then spread throughout the western United States. In California, infestation with the exotic louse Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. was first detected in black-tailed deer from northern California in 2004, and, in 2009, the exotic louse species Bovicola tibialis and Linognathus africanus were identified on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus californicus) in central Sierra Nevada in association with a mortality event. Exotic lice have since been detected in various locations throughout the state. We describe the geographic distribution of these exotic lice within California, using data from 520 live-captured and 9 postmortem-sampled, free-ranging mule deer examined between 2009 and 2014. Data from live-captured deer were used to assess possible associations between louse infestation and host age, host sex, migratory behavior, season, and blood selenium and serum copper concentrations. Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. and B. tibialis lice were distinctively distributed geographically, with D. (Cervicola) sp. infesting herds in northern and central coastal California, B. tibialis occurring in the central coastal mountains and the Sierra Nevada, and L. africanus occurring only sporadically. Younger age classes and low selenium concentrations were significantly associated with exotic louse infestation, whereas no significant relationship was detected with serum copper levels. Our results show that exotic lice are widespread in California, and younger age classes with low blood selenium concentrations are more likely to be infested with lice than older deer.

  10. Challenges in Identifying and Determining the Impacts of Infection with Pestiviruses on the Herd Health of Free Ranging Cervid Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ridpath, Julia F.; Neill, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Although most commonly associated with the infection of domestic livestock, the replication of pestiviruses, in particular the two species of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), occurs in a wide range of free ranging cervids including white-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk, red deer, roe deer, eland and mousedeer. While virus isolation and serologic analyses indicate that pestiviruses are circulating in these populations, little is known regarding their impact. The lack of regular surveillance programs, challenges in sampling wild populations, and scarcity of tests and vaccines compound the difficulties in detecting and controlling pestivirus infections in wild cervids. Improved detection rests upon the development and validation of tests specific for use with cervid samples and development and validation of tests that reliably detect emerging pestiviruses. Estimation of impact of pestivirus infections on herd health will require the integration of several disciplines including epidemiology, cervid natural history, veterinary medicine, pathology and microbiology. PMID:27379051

  11. Bovine virus diarrhea and mucosal disease in free-ranging and captive deer (Cervidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Frölich, K

    1995-04-01

    From 1990 until 1992, 355 blood samples of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (n = 123), red deer (Cervus elaphus) (n = 60), fallow deer (Dama dama) (n = 87) and other cervid species (n = 85) from three different habitats (n = 180) and 11 wildlife parks or zoos (n = 175) in Germany were tested for prevalence of pestivirus antibodies. Seventeen samples were seropositive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV); only one animal had antibodies for Border disease virus. Microneutralization test titers ranged from 1:5 to 1:125. We found no significant difference in antibody prevalence among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. There were significantly more seropositive individuals in roe deer compared to fallow deer. Significantly more seropositive individuals were found among juvenile animals than among adults. Antibody prevalence in free-ranging cervids was significantly higher compared with that of deer in enclosures. Antibody prevalence in summer was significantly higher than in winter.

  12. Degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration on Mt. Misen in Ohmine Mountains: effects of sika deer population.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Riyou; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kohdai; Koda, Ryosuke; Yumoto, Takakazu; Takada, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    How has the degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration occurred under the sika deer (Cervus nippon) pressure? We conducted tree census and ground vegetation survey in a 1 ha plot in Mt. Misen (Nara prefecture, Japan). We found 15 tree species (over 50 cm in height). Abies accounted for 60.0 % of all living trees, and 46.9 % of Abies were damaged (herbivory, bark stripping and/or fraying) by deer. Spatial distribution of Abies trees showed Abies-wave, although there were few saplings in the dieback zone. Estimated deer population density in 2009 was 57.3 head/km(2). Number of living Abies and standing dead conifer trees, and ground vegetation cover for each quadrat (5 × 5 m) were used to assign the quadrats into 6 clusters. The hierarchical clustering-approach revealed that living Abies distributed mainly on the moss and/or Carex fernaldiana dominated quadrats, but did not on the Dennstaedtia scabra, or Brachypodium sylvaticum dominated quadrats. While standing dead conifer trees distributed mainly on the Carex dominated quadrats, they hardly occur on the moss, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium dominated quadrats. Regeneration of Abies tree and thus the wave-regeneration is hindered for now owing to deer herbivory and bark-stripping. The ground vegetation under the dieback zone has changed from the moss and/or the Carex dominated one to the Carex, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium covered vegetation with the canopy remained open and without Abies regeneration.

  13. Benefits to rare plants and highway safety from annual population reductions of a "native invader," white-tailed deer, in a Chicago-area woodland.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard M; Guerrant, Travis; Dunn, Glen; Beckerman, Scott F; Anchor, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer are one of the most serious threats to woodland plant communities in the Chicago area. Moreover, the abundant deer in a highly populated area causes economic harm and poses hazards to human safety through collisions with vehicles. The artificial conditions causing the overabundance and resulting consequences qualify the white-tailed deer in the Chicago area to be considered as "native invaders". We examined the benefits of culling deer at a Chicago-area woodland preserve by comparing browse rates on four endangered plant species from years before culling began with years with culling. We also examined deer-vehicle collision and traffic flow rates on area roads from years before culling began and years with culling to assess whether population reductions may have benefited road safety in the area. All four endangered plant species (three orchid species and sweet fern) had lower browse rates in years with culls, although the decreased browsing rates were statistically distinguishable for only two of the species (grass pink orchid and sweet fern). After first verifying that traffic flow rates did not decrease from pre-cull years to years with culls, we analyzed the Illinois Department of Transportation data from area roads based on deer-vehicle collisions causing >US$500 in damage and showed a one-third reduction in deer-vehicle collisions. An economic analysis showed a cost savings during the cull years of US$0.6 million for reducing browsing to just these four monitored plant species and the reduction in deer-vehicle collisions.

  14. Challenges in identifying and determining the impacts of infection with pestiviruses on the herd health of free ranging cervid populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although most commonly associated with the infection of domestic livestock, the replication of pestiviruses, in particular bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), occurs in a wide range of free ranging cervids including white-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk, red deer, roe deer, eland and moused...

  15. Sex-biased differences in the effects of host individual, host population and environmental traits driving tick parasitism in red deer.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Acevedo, Pelayo; Sobrino, Raquel; Vicente, Joaquín; Fierro, Yolanda; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between host individual, host population, and environmental factors modulate parasite abundance in a given host population. Since adult exophilic ticks are highly aggregated in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and this ungulate exhibits significant sexual size dimorphism, life history traits and segregation, we hypothesized that tick parasitism on males and hinds would be differentially influenced by each of these factors. To test the hypothesis, ticks from 306 red deer-182 males and 124 females-were collected during 7 years in a red deer population in south-central Spain. By using generalized linear models, with a negative binomial error distribution and a logarithmic link function, we modeled tick abundance on deer with 20 potential predictors. Three models were developed: one for red deer males, another for hinds, and one combining data for males and females and including "sex" as factor. Our rationale was that if tick burdens on males and hinds relate to the explanatory factors in a differential way, it is not possible to precisely and accurately predict the tick burden on one sex using the model fitted on the other sex, or with the model that combines data from both sexes. Our results showed that deer males were the primary target for ticks, the weight of each factor differed between sexes, and each sex specific model was not able to accurately predict burdens on the animals of the other sex. That is, results support for sex-biased differences. The higher weight of host individual and population factors in the model for males show that intrinsic deer factors more strongly explain tick burden than environmental host-seeking tick abundance. In contrast, environmental variables predominated in the models explaining tick burdens in hinds.

  16. The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Lopez, Davin L; Shelton, Paul

    2012-09-01

    One of the pervasive challenges in landscape genetics is detecting gene flow patterns within continuous populations of highly mobile wildlife. Understanding population genetic structure within a continuous population can give insights into social structure, movement across the landscape and contact between populations, which influence ecological interactions, reproductive dynamics or pathogen transmission. We investigated the genetic structure of a large population of deer spanning the area of Wisconsin and Illinois, USA, affected by chronic wasting disease. We combined multiscale investigation, landscape genetic techniques and spatial statistical modelling to address the complex questions of landscape factors influencing population structure. We sampled over 2000 deer and used spatial autocorrelation and a spatial principal components analysis to describe the population genetic structure. We evaluated landscape effects on this pattern using a spatial autoregressive model within a model selection framework to test alternative hypotheses about gene flow. We found high levels of genetic connectivity, with gradients of variation across the large continuous population of white-tailed deer. At the fine scale, spatial clustering of related animals was correlated with the amount and arrangement of forested habitat. At the broader scale, impediments to dispersal were important to shaping genetic connectivity within the population. We found significant barrier effects of individual state and interstate highways and rivers. Our results offer an important understanding of deer biology and movement that will help inform the management of this species in an area where overabundance and disease spread are primary concerns.

  17. The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Stacie J.; Samuel, Michael D.; Lopez, Davin L.; Shelton, Paul

    2012-01-01

    One of the pervasive challenges in landscape genetics is detecting gene flow patterns within continuous populations of highly mobile wildlife. Understanding population genetic structure within a continuous population can give insights into social structure, movement across the landscape and contact between populations, which influence ecological interactions, reproductive dynamics or pathogen transmission. We investigated the genetic structure of a large population of deer spanning the area of Wisconsin and Illinois, USA, affected by chronic wasting disease. We combined multiscale investigation, landscape genetic techniques and spatial statistical modelling to address the complex questions of landscape factors influencing population structure. We sampled over 2000 deer and used spatial autocorrelation and a spatial principal components analysis to describe the population genetic structure. We evaluated landscape effects on this pattern using a spatial autoregressive model within a model selection framework to test alternative hypotheses about gene flow. We found high levels of genetic connectivity, with gradients of variation across the large continuous population of white-tailed deer. At the fine scale, spatial clustering of related animals was correlated with the amount and arrangement of forested habitat. At the broader scale, impediments to dispersal were important to shaping genetic connectivity within the population. We found significant barrier effects of individual state and interstate highways and rivers. Our results offer an important understanding of deer biology and movement that will help inform the management of this species in an area where overabundance and disease spread are primary concerns.

  18. Male fertility in natural populations of red deer is determined by sperm velocity and the proportion of normal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Malo, Aurelio F; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana J; García, Andrés J; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2005-04-01

    Male reproductive success is determined by the ability of males to gain sexual access to females and by their ability to fertilize ova. Among polygynous mammals, males differ markedly in their reproductive success, and a great deal of effort has been made to understand how selective forces have shaped traits that enhance male competitiveness both before and after copulation (i.e., sperm competition). However, the possibility that males also may differ in their fertility has been ignored under the assumption that male infertility is rare in natural populations because selection against it is likely to be strong. In the present study, we examined which semen traits correlate with male fertility in natural populations of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). We found no trade-offs between semen traits. Our analyses revealed strong associations between sperm production and sperm swimming velocity, sperm motility and proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa, and sperm viability and acrosome integrity. These last two variables had the lowest coefficients of variation, suggesting that these traits have stabilized at high values and are unlikely to be related to fitness. In a fertility trial, our results show a large degree of variation in male fertility, and differences in fertility were determined mainly by sperm swimming velocity and by the proportion of morphologically normal sperm. We conclude that male fertility varies substantially in natural populations of Iberian red deer and that, when sperm numbers are equal, it is determined mainly by sperm swimming velocity and sperm morphology.

  19. Genetic population structure and relatedness of Colorado mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and incidence of chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of farmed and free ranging mule deer, white tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk, and moose in some areas of the United States. The disease is enzootic in herds of free ranging mule deer in the Rocky Mountain National ...

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease in British deer: transmission of virus to cattle, sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, E P; Herniman, K A; Lawman, M J; Sellers, R F

    1975-06-28

    After exposure for two hours to cattle with foot-and-mouth disease, each of the five species of deer found in the British countryside became infected. Clinical disease was typical and severe in the roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in the sika deer and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer. Each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle and sheep. The amounts of virus present in the blood, and in oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as an aerosol during the course of the infection in the deer were similar to those recorded for the sheep and cattle in the same experiment. The fallow and sika deer commonly carried virus in the pharynx beyond 28 days after exposure; some red deer also became carriers. In epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK, it is likely that deer would have such intimate contact with farm animals as occurred in this study. The natural behavior of free-living deer in the UK suggests that, although the five species are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease, they are unlikely to be an important factor in the maintenance and transmission of the virus during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in domestic livestock.

  1. Comparison of helicopter and ground surveys for North American elk Cervus elaphus and mule deer Odocoileus hemionus population composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Myers, W.L.; Gould, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    Both ground and helicopter surveys are commonly used to collect sex and age composition data for ungulates. Little attention has been paid, however, to whether data collected by each technique are similar. We compared helicopter and ground composition data for both elk Cervus elaphus and mule deer Odocoileus hemionus across a variety of habitats in the state of Washington, USA. We found that ground and helicopter counts differed (P's < 0.002) consistently in male age structure estimates for elk, and that the two survey methods differed in estimates of adult sex ratios for mule deer (P = 0.023). Counts from helicopters provided larger sample sizes, tended to be more consistent annually in their results, and were corroborated by other demographic studies of the test populations. We conclude that helicopter and ground surveys differ for male age structure and perhaps male:female ratios, but are similar for young:female ratios. Managers should maintain a standardized technique using the same survey vehicle for trend analysis of composition data.

  2. The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations.

    PubMed

    Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Green, Michelle L; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Novakofski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. Culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, politically unpalatable, and erodes public support for agencies responsible for wildlife management. We addressed the functional differences between hunting and government culling programs for managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer by comparing prevalence over a 10-year period in Illinois and Wisconsin. When both Illinois and Wisconsin were actively culling from 2003 - 2007, there were no statistical differences between state CWD prevalence estimates. Wisconsin government culling concluded in 2007 and average prevalence over the next five years was 3.09 ± 1.13% with an average annual increase of 0.63%. During that same time period, Illinois continued government culling and there was no change in prevalence throughout Illinois. Despite its unpopularity among hunters, localized culling is a disease management strategy that can maintain low disease prevalence while minimizing impacts on recreational deer harvest.

  3. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    PubMed

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-07

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  4. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    PubMed Central

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E. R.; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml−1 ± 0.13 µg ml−1) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms. PMID:24552838

  5. Pragmatic Perspective on Conservation Genetics and Demographic History of the Last Surviving Population of Kashmir Red Deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in India

    PubMed Central

    Mukesh; Kumar, Ved P.; Sharma, Lalit K.; Shukla, Malay; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies. PMID:25671567

  6. Pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in India.

    PubMed

    Mukesh; Kumar, Ved P; Sharma, Lalit K; Shukla, Malay; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies.

  7. Roe v. Wade. Ardently prochoice.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, M

    1998-01-01

    In this commentary, a community activist who is also a retired educator describes how she became ardently in favor of women having the legal right to make abortion decisions. She had converted to Catholicism as an adult in the late 1940s and became a zealot. When the Supreme Court issued its decision in Roe vs. Wade, she tried to determine how she felt about abortion and read some of the publications of Catholics for a Free Choice. In 1980, she ran for office in Vermont and had to declare her views about abortion. She asserted that abortion was a matter to be decided between a woman and her doctor and lost the election to a man in a close race. In 1989, she became a co-founder of Vermont Catholics for Free Choice and served as the president of the organization for 7 years. The Vermont group considered many issues affecting Roman Catholics, including divorce, celibacy, the ordination of women, world population, the rights of homosexuals, contraception, due process, and the local election of bishops as well as abortion. In 1996, the group changed its name to Vermont Catholics for Free Conscience in order to provide an umbrella for all of the dissenting Catholic voices in Vermont.

  8. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over a seven year period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study...

  9. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over a seven year period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around the neck of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). St...

  10. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Populations of Wild Animals in Comparison with Animals Bred in Game Enclosures.

    PubMed

    Kubankova, Monika; Kralik, Petr; Lamka, Jiri; Zakovcik, Vladimir; Dolanský, Marek; Vasickova, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is now accepted as a zoonotic virus, and domestic pigs, wild boars and deer are recognised as natural reservoirs of the pathogen. In this study, 762 animals (wild boars, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, roe deer and mouflons) originating from the wild and from game enclosures were tested for the presence of HEV RNA by qRT-PCR. HEV RNA was detected in wild boars (96/450), red deer (2/169), roe deer (1/30) and mouflons (5/39). The sequence relationship between HEV isolates from wild boars and domestic pigs or humans indicate a circulation of HEV in the Czech Republic.

  11. Overabundance of sika deer and immunocontraception

    PubMed Central

    NOGUCHI, Junko

    2016-01-01

    The impact of deer overabundance is a worldwide problem. Along with habitat expansion and population increase, damage by sika deer to the forest ecosystem and agriculture has become a serious issue in Japan. Deer also transmit a number of diseases and parasites to humans and livestock. The overabundance of deer is a result of their strong fecundity, and therefore the present situation should, in theory, be tackled by experts in reproductive biology. PMID:27890873

  12. Characterization of Mhc-DRB allelic diversity in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) provides insight into Mhc-DRB allelic evolution within Cervidae.

    PubMed

    Van Den Bussche, R A; Hoofer, S R; Lochmiller, R L

    1999-05-01

    Although white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are one of North America's best studied mammals, no information is available concerning allelic diversity at any locus of the major histocompatibility complex in this taxon. Using the polymerase chain reaction, single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis, and DNA sequencing techniques, 15 DRB exon 2 alleles were identified among 150 white-tailed deer from a single population in southeastern Oklahoma. These alleles represent a single locus and exhibit a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid polymorphism, with most amino acid variation occurring at positions forming the peptide binding sites. Furthermore, twenty-seven amino acid residues unique to white-tailed deer DRB alleles were detected, with 19 of these occurring at residues forming contact points of the peptide binding region. Significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous than synonymous substitutions were detected among these DRB alleles. In contrast to other studies of Artiodactyla DRB sequences, interallelic recombination does not appear to be playing a significant role in the generation of allelic diversity at this locus in white-tailed deer. To examine evolution of white-tailed deer (Odvi-DRB) alleles within Cervidae, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of all published red deer (Ceel-DRB), roe deer (Caca-DRB), and moose (Alal-DRB) DRB alleles. The phylogenetic tree clearly shows a trans-species persistence of DRB lineages among these taxa. Moreover, this phylogenetic tree provides insight into evolution of DRB allelic lineages within Cervidae and may aid in assignment of red deer DRB alleles to specific loci.

  13. Differences in the methanogen population exist in sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed different diets in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi Peng; Liu, Han Lu; Jin, Chun Ai; Cui, Xue Zhe; Jing, Yi; Yang, Fu He; Li, Guang Yu; Wright, André-Denis G

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the methanogen structure from sika deer (Cervus nippon) in China may be beneficial to methane mitigation. In the present preliminary study, we investigated the methanogen community in the rumen of domesticated sika deer fed either tannin-rich plants (oak leaf, OL group) or corn stalk (CS group) using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Overall, we obtained 197 clone sequences, revealing 146 unique phylotypes, which were assigned to 36 operational taxonomic units at the species level (98 % identity). Methanogens related to the genus Methanobrevibacter were the predominant phylotypes representing 83.9 % (OL library) and 85.9 % (CS library) of the clones. Methanobrevibacter millerae was the most abundant species in both libraries, but the proportion of M. millerae-related clones in the CS library was higher than in the OL library (69.5 and 51.4 %, respectively). Moreover, Methanobrevibacter wolinii-related clones (32.5 %) were predominant in the OL library. Methanobrevibacter smithii-related clones and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium-related clones accounted for 6.5 and 6.6 % in the CS library, respectively. However, these clones were absent from the OL library. The concentrations of butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were significantly higher in the OL group, but the concentrations of acetate, propionate, and valerate and the acetate to propionate ratio in the OL group were not significantly different between the two groups. Tannin-rich plants may have affected the distribution of genus Methanobrevibacter phylotypes at the species level and the concentration and composition of SCFAs.

  14. Genetic structure and assignment tests demonstrate illegal translocation of red deer (Cervus elaphus) into a continuous population.

    PubMed

    Frantz, A C; Pourtois, J Tigel; Heuertz, M; Schley, L; Flamand, M C; Krier, A; Bertouille, S; Chaumont, F; Burke, T

    2006-10-01

    Molecular forensic methods are being increasingly used to help enforce wildlife conservation laws. Using multilocus genotyping, illegal translocation of an animal can be demonstrated by excluding all potential source populations as an individual's population of origin. Here, we illustrate how this approach can be applied to a large continuous population by defining the population genetic structure and excluding suspect animals from each identified cluster. We aimed to test the hypothesis that recreational hunters had illegally introduced a group of red deer into a hunting area in Luxembourg. Reference samples were collected over a large area in order to test the possibility that the suspect individuals might be recent immigrants. Due to isolation-by-distance relationships in the data set, inferring the number of genetic clusters using Bayesian methods was not straightforward. Biologically meaningful clusters were only obtained by simultaneously analysing spatial and genetic information using the program baps 4.1. We inferred the presence of three genetic clusters in the study region. Using partial Mantel tests, we detected barriers to gene flow other than distance, probably created by a combination of urban areas, motorways and a river valley used for viticulture. The four focal animals could be excluded with a high certainty from the three genetic subpopulations and it was therefore likely that they had been released illegally.

  15. A multivariate analysis of genetic constraints to life history evolution in a wild population of red deer.

    PubMed

    Walling, Craig A; Morrissey, Michael B; Foerster, Katharina; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B

    2014-12-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that genetic constraints should be widespread, but empirical support for their existence is surprisingly rare. Commonly applied univariate and bivariate approaches to detecting genetic constraints can underestimate their prevalence, with important aspects potentially tractable only within a multivariate framework. However, multivariate genetic analyses of data from natural populations are challenging because of modest sample sizes, incomplete pedigrees, and missing data. Here we present results from a study of a comprehensive set of life history traits (juvenile survival, age at first breeding, annual fecundity, and longevity) for both males and females in a wild, pedigreed, population of red deer (Cervus elaphus). We use factor analytic modeling of the genetic variance-covariance matrix ( G: ) to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and take a multivariate approach to estimating genetic constraints. We consider a range of metrics designed to assess the effect of G: on the deflection of a predicted response to selection away from the direction of fastest adaptation and on the evolvability of the traits. We found limited support for genetic constraint through genetic covariances between traits, both within sex and between sexes. We discuss these results with respect to other recent findings and to the problems of estimating these parameters for natural populations.

  16. A Multivariate Analysis of Genetic Constraints to Life History Evolution in a Wild Population of Red Deer

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Craig A.; Morrissey, Michael B.; Foerster, Katharina; Clutton-Brock, Tim H.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Kruuk, Loeske E. B.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that genetic constraints should be widespread, but empirical support for their existence is surprisingly rare. Commonly applied univariate and bivariate approaches to detecting genetic constraints can underestimate their prevalence, with important aspects potentially tractable only within a multivariate framework. However, multivariate genetic analyses of data from natural populations are challenging because of modest sample sizes, incomplete pedigrees, and missing data. Here we present results from a study of a comprehensive set of life history traits (juvenile survival, age at first breeding, annual fecundity, and longevity) for both males and females in a wild, pedigreed, population of red deer (Cervus elaphus). We use factor analytic modeling of the genetic variance–covariance matrix (G) to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and take a multivariate approach to estimating genetic constraints. We consider a range of metrics designed to assess the effect of G on the deflection of a predicted response to selection away from the direction of fastest adaptation and on the evolvability of the traits. We found limited support for genetic constraint through genetic covariances between traits, both within sex and between sexes. We discuss these results with respect to other recent findings and to the problems of estimating these parameters for natural populations. PMID:25278555

  17. Genetic variation and population structure of the Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the Tohoku District based on mitochondrial D-loop sequences.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Harutaka; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Ono, Kana; Hoshi, Asuka; Minami, Masato; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Takatsuki, Seiki

    2012-07-01

    The sika deer (Cervus nippon) once inhabited the entire Tohoku District, the northeastern part of the main island of Japan. Currently, they are isolated as three discontinuous populations on Mt. Goyo, the Oshika Peninsula, and Kinkazan Island. To assess the genetic diversity and relationships among the sika deer populations in the Tohoku District, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences from 177 individuals. We detected a total of five haplotypes. Three haplotypes were present in the population from Mt. Goyo at a haplotype diversity of 0.235 ± 0.061, two haplotypes in the population from the Oshika Peninsula at 0.171 ± 0.064, and only one haplotype was detected in the population from the Kinkazan Island. A significant genetic differentiation was observed among all population pairs. Collectively, our data supports the observed population bottlenecks in the past. Four of the five haplotypes were specific to one of the three populations, whereas only one haplotype was shared between the Mt. Goyo and the Oshika Peninsula populations. This common haplotype may indicate a common ancestral population in the Tohoku District. Conversely, the D-loop haplotypes were completely different among the Kinkazan Island and Oshika Peninsula populations. The lack of a shared haplotype indicates that female gene flow between the two populations is very limited and that the 0.6 km strait acts as a strong barrier.

  18. Prevalence of Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Coproantigen ELISA Is a Practicable Alternative to Faecal Egg Counting for Surveillance in Remote Populations

    PubMed Central

    French, Andrew S.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Skuce, Philip J.; Mitchell, Gillian; Gordon-Gibbs, Danielle K.; Craine, Alexandra; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W.; Taggart, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. Testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (FE) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) for F. hepatica surveillance. We also present cELISA surveillance data for red deer from the Highlands of Scotland. Diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a cELISA and by FE. For each storage method (frozen or fresh), agreement between the two diagnostics was estimated at individual and population levels, where population prevalence was stratified into cohorts (e.g., by sampling location). To approximate sensitivity and specificity, 65 post-slaughter whole liver examinations were used as a reference. At the individual level, FE and cELISA diagnoses agreed moderately (κfrozen = 0.46; κfresh = 0.51), a likely reflection of their underlying principles. At the population level, FE and cELISA cohort prevalence correlated strongly (Pearson’s R = 0.89, p < 0.0001), reflecting good agreement on relative differences between cohort prevalence. In frozen samples, prevalence by cELISA exceeded FE overall (42.8% vs. 25.8%) and in 9/12 cohorts, alluding to differences in sensitivity; though, in fresh samples, no significant difference was found. In 959 deer tested by cELISA across the Scottish Highlands, infection prevalence ranged from 9.6% to 53% by sampling location. We highlight two key advantages of cELISA over FE: i) the ability to store samples long term (frozen) without apparent loss in diagnostic power; and ii) reduced labour and the ability to process large batches. Further evaluation of cELISA sensitivity in red deer, where a range of fluke burdens can be obtained, is desirable. In the interim, the cELISA is a practicable diagnostic for F. hepatica surveillance in red deer, and its application here has revealed considerable

  19. Effect of deer density on tick infestation of rodents and the hazard of tick-borne encephalitis. II: population and infection models.

    PubMed

    Bolzoni, L; Rosà, R; Cagnacci, F; Rizzoli, A

    2012-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis is an emerging vector-borne zoonotic disease reported in several European and Asiatic countries with complex transmission routes that involve various vertebrate host species other than a tick vector. Understanding and quantifying the contribution of the different hosts involved in the TBE virus cycle is crucial in estimating the threshold conditions for virus emergence and spread. Some hosts, such as rodents, act both as feeding hosts for ticks and reservoirs of the infection. Other species, such as deer, provide important sources of blood for feeding ticks but they do not support TBE virus transmission, acting instead as dead-end (i.e., incompetent) hosts. Here, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model to explore the dynamics of tick populations and TBE virus infection in relation to the density of two key hosts. In particular, our aim is to validate and interpret in a robust theoretical framework the empirical findings regarding the effect of deer density on tick infestation on rodents and thus TBE virus occurrence from selected European foci. Model results show hump-shaped relationships between deer density and both feeding ticks on rodents and the basic reproduction number for TBE virus. This suggests that deer may act as tick amplifiers, but may also divert tick bites from competent hosts, thus diluting pathogen transmission. However, our model shows that the mechanism responsible for the dilution effect is more complex than the simple reduction of tick burden on competent hosts. Indeed, while the number of feeding ticks on rodents may increase with deer density, the proportion of blood meals on competent compared with incompetent hosts may decrease, triggering a decline in infection. As a consequence, using simply the number of ticks per rodent as a predictor of TBE transmission potential could be misleading if competent hosts share habitats with incompetent hosts.

  20. Variation in stability of elk and red deer populations with abiotic and biotic factors at the species-distribution scale.

    PubMed

    Ahrestani, Farshid S; Smith, William K; Hebblewhite, Mark; Running, Steven; Post, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Stability in population dynamics is an emergent property of the interaction between direct and delayed density dependence, the strengths of which vary with environmental covariates. Analysis of variation across populations in the strength of direct and delayed density dependence can reveal variation in stability properties of populations at the species level. We examined the stability properties of 22 elk/red deer populations in a two-stage analysis. First, we estimated direct and delayed density dependence applying an AR(2) model in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. Second, we plotted the coefficients of direct and delayed density dependence in the Royama parameter plane. We then used a hierarchical approach to test the significance of environmental covariates of direct and delayed density dependence. Three populations exhibited highly stable and convergent dynamics with strong direct, and weak delayed, density dependence. The remaining 19 populations exhibited more complex dynamics characterized by multi-annual fluctuations. Most (15 of 19) of these exhibited a combination of weak to moderate direct and delayed density dependence. Best-fit models included environmental covariates in 17 populations (77% of the total). Of these, interannual variation in growing-season primary productivity and interannual variation in winter temperature were the most common, performing as the best-fit covariate in six and five populations, respectively. Interannual variation in growing-season primary productivity was associated with the weakest combination of direct and delayed density dependence, while interannual variation in winter temperature was associated with the strongest combination of direct and delayed density dependence. These results accord with a classic theoretical prediction that environmental variability should weaken population stability. They furthermore suggest that two forms of environmental variability, one related to forage resources and the other related to

  1. Acaricide and ivermectin resistance in a field population of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Mexican tropics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Miller, R J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Trinidad-Martínez, I C; Pérez de León, A A

    2014-02-24

    In the Neotropics the control of tick infestations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) is achieved primarily through the use of acaricides and macrocyclic lactones. In Mexico, resistance to one or multiple classes of acaricides has been reported in Rhipicephalus microplus infesting cattle, but information on acaricide susceptibility in R. microplus infesting red deer is lacking. In this study we report the level of resistance to different classes of acaricides and ivermectin in R. microplus collected from red deer in the Mexican tropics. Engorged R. microplus females were collected from a red deer farm in Yucatan, Mexico. The larval packet test was used to detect resistance to the organophosphates (OPs) chlorpyrifos and coumaphos, synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) cypermethrin and permethrin, and the phenylpyrazol, fipronil. Resistance to the formamidine amitraz (Am), and ivermectin was ascertained using the larval immersion test. Data were subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentrations and resistance ratios to kill 50% (RR50) and 99% (RR99) of the tick population under evaluation in relation to susceptible reference strains. Additionally, allele specific polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus. The R. microplus population from red deer in Yucatan showed very high resistance to the two SPs evaluated (RRs>72.2 for cypermethrin; RR for permethrin resistance was so high a dose-response curve was not possible). All individual larvae tested to detect the sodium channel F1550I mutation associated with SP resistance in R. microplus were homozygous. The same tick population showed different levels of resistance to OPs (chlorpyrifos: RR50=1.55, RR99=0.63; coumaphos: RR50=6.8, RR99=5.9), fipronil (RR50=1.8, RR99=0.9), and amitraz (RR50=2.3, RR99=4.4). Resistance to ivermectin was regarded as moderate (RR50=7.1, RR99=5.0). This is the first report of R. microplus ticks collected from red

  2. Habitat, wildlife and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Melissa M.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Conner, Mark C.; Eyler, T. Brian; Lancia, Richard A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Stoskopf, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study indicates A. pyogenes may be carried widely among white-tailed deer regardless of sex or age class, but we found no evidence the pathogen is acquired in utero. The distribution of A. pyogenes across regions and concentration in a region with low livestock levels suggests the potential for localized endemicity of the organism and the possibility that deer may serve as a maintenance reservoir for an emerging one health concern.

  3. Temporal patterns of deer-vehicle collisions consistent with deer activity pattern and density increase but not general accident risk.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Torsten; Müller, Jörg; Held, Leonhard; Möst, Lisa; Mysterud, Atle

    2015-08-01

    The increasing number of deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) across Europe during recent decades poses a serious threat to human health and animal welfare and increasing costs for society. DVCs are triggered by both a human-related and a deer-related component. Mitigation requires an understanding of the processes driving temporal and spatial collision patterns. Separating human-related from deer-related processes is important for identifying potentially effective countermeasures, but this has rarely been done. We analysed two time series of 341,655 DVCs involving roe deer and 854,659 non-deer-related accidents (non-DVCs) documented between 2002 and 2011. Nonparametric smoothing and temporal parametric modelling were used to estimate annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal patterns in DVCs, non-DVCs and adjusted DVCs. As we had access to data on both DVCs and non-DVCs, we were able to disentangle the relative role of human-related and deer-related processes contributing to the overall temporal DVC pattern. We found clear evidence that variation in DVCs was mostly driven by deer-related and not human-related activity on annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal scales. A very clear crepuscular activity pattern with high activity after sunset and around sunrise throughout the year was identified. Early spring and the mating season between mid-July and mid-August are typically periods of high roe deer activity, and as expected we found a high number of DVC during these periods, although these patterns differed tremendously during different phases of a day. The role of human activity was mainly reflected in fewer DVCs on weekends than on weekdays. Over the ten-year study period, we estimated that DVCs increased by 25%, whereas the number of non-DVCs decreased by 10%. Increasing deer densities are the most likely driver behind this rise in DVCs. Precise estimates of DVC patterns and their relationship to deer and human activity patterns allow implementation of specific mitigation

  4. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Pound, J M; Lohmeyer, K H; Davey, R B; Miller, J A; George, J E

    2012-12-01

    Over a 7 yr period, we monitored the effect of a commercially available, amitraz impregnated anti-tick collar in controlling free-living populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.) when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study animals in treatment and control groups were confined in 38.8 ha game-fenced and densely vegetated treatment plots in South Texas. Tick densities during years 1 and 7 served as untreated pre- and posttreatment comparisons and treatments occurred during years 2 through 5. Reductions in tick densities in the treatment plot were compared against tick densities in a control plot having similar vegetation and numbers of untreated deer. During years of treatment, indices of control pressure ranged from 18.2 to 82.6 for nymphs and 16.9-78.7 for adults, and efficacy, expressed as percentage control during the final year of treatment, was 77.2 and 85.0%, respectively, for nymphal and adult ticks. These data show that acaricidal collar treatments provide efficacies very similar to those achieved with the existing ivermectin-medicated bait and '4-Poster' topical treatment technologies to control ticks feeding on wild white-tailed deer.

  5. The Inter-Relationship between Dietary and Environmental Properties and Tooth Wear: Comparisons of Mesowear, Molar Wear Rate, and Hypsodonty Index of Extant Sika Deer Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Mugino Ozaki; Yamada, Eisuke

    2014-01-01

    In reference to the evolutionary trend of increasing cheek tooth height in herbivorous ungulates, the causes of dental abrasion have long been debated. Interspecific comparisons of extant ungulates have revealed that both phytoliths in grass and external abrasive matter may play important roles. Using analysis of extant sika deer living in various environments and showing continuous latitudinal variation in food habits from northern grazing to southern browsing, we quantitatively evaluated the influence of dietary and environmental properties on three dental variables: mesowear score (MS), molar wear rate, and M3 hypsodonty index. We used 547 skulls and 740 mandibles from 16 populations of sika deer to obtain the dental measurements. We found that only graminoid proportion in diet correlated with MS and the molar wear rate, implying that phytoliths in grass abrade dental tissues. In contrast, annual precipitation in habitat was not correlated with any of the dental variables. We also found a significant correlation between the molar wear rate (selective pressure for high-crowned molars) and the M3 hypsodonty index of extant sika deer, implying an evolutionary increment in molar height corresponding to the molar wear rate. Our intraspecific comparative analyses provide further support for use of mesowear analysis as a paleodiet estimation method; it not only reveals staple food types (graminoids or dicots) but also implies regional or seasonal variation in the diet of the species. PMID:24603896

  6. Large-Scale Model-Based Assessment of Deer-Vehicle Collision Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Müller, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer–vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on 74,000 deer–vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer–vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer–vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer–vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment–deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new “deer–vehicle collision index” for deer management. We show that the risk of deer–vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer–vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer–vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and

  7. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Felix; Manzanell, Ralph; Mathis, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25), roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6) and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7), all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland) were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany.

  8. Catholicism and abortion since Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Hisel, L M

    1998-01-01

    This document summarizes a sample of significant activities and events undertaken by Roman Catholics in response to the US Supreme Court's Roe vs. Wade decision legalizing induced abortion. The summaries begin with the 1966 creation of the National Right to Life Committee and cover opposition of Catholic bishops to the Roe decision, the organization of the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA), the mock investiture of a female pope by Catholics for a Free Choice, dismissal of a pro-life priest from the Jesuits, excommunication of various women because of their work with pro-choice agencies or ones that provided abortion services, meetings of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) with presidential candidates, NCHLA lobbying for the Hyde Amendment, open letters and advertisements published by CFC, the effort of Abortion Rights Mobilization to strip the Catholic church of its tax-exempt status, the Vatican order for all priests to leave political office, actions taken by nuns to support the pro-choice position, the proposal of the "seamless garment" argument under the principle of the "consistent ethic of life," initiation of the post-abortion reconciliation project, the actions of Catholic politicians, the filing of amicus curiae briefs, support of bishops for Operation Rescue, forums on abortion conducted by an Archbishop, the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, targeting by bishops of pro-choice candidates for sanctions and excommunication, testimony and lobbying in opposition of the Freedom of Choice Act, false accusations about the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leveled by bishops, lobbying by bishops in support of a ban on late-term abortions, lobbying to increase the access of low-income women to abortion, and consideration by the bishops of reinstituting "meatless Fridays" to express Catholic opposition to "attacks on human life and dignity."

  9. Roe v. Wade. Earth's inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Gudorf, C E

    1998-01-01

    The Roe vs. Wade decision has increased women's ability to take responsibility for their lives and for the lives of their living children. The removal of legal sanctions governing abortion also has forced Roman Catholics to confront the issue. By giving parents a choice, Roe vs. Wade also gave parents a chance to change their feelings of dismay over an accidental pregnancy into ones of joy and anticipation over a birth that they may actively decide is wanted although unplanned. Contraception will likely never be completely effective and must play an increasingly important role on our overcrowded planet. Rather than fearing that contraception and abortion will reduce the birth rate, we should urgently desire smaller family sizes. However, we must look for replacements to the experience of parenthood in order to inculcate in people a concern for the future. Efforts to develop safer and more effective means of contraception must continue, and coerced abortion must be resisted. It is possible, however, that coerced contraception or sterilization may become necessary. If that proves to be the case, women must be involved in the development and implementation of such policy in every locale.

  10. Roe v. Wade. Reality check.

    PubMed

    Segers, M C

    1998-01-01

    For US Catholics, abortion, as predicted in 1968 by Robert Drinan, has become a public policy question that places the church in the position of "sinning by the use of its prestige and power against the sincerely held convictions of non-Catholics and non-believers, or as a group which failed by silence to speak up when misguided men and women changed the law to permit the extermination of undesirable and unwanted human beings." During the 25 years since the Roe vs. Wade decision, Catholics for a Free Choice has made a sustained effort to respond to this dilemma by providing an alternative view within the church and larger society. Abortion should remain legal to protect the desperate women who would otherwise resort to unsafe abortion. Also, the tradition of Catholic legal realism dating from Thomas Aquinas notes that good lawmaking requires the possibility of compliance and enforceability. If antiabortion laws are not enforced, are not obeyed, and are subject to widespread noncompliance, they are not sound law. Because the morality of abortion remains questionable, society should use noncoercive measures to reduce its incidence. Catholic moral teaching and Catholic views on social justice could make a positive contribution in this regard. Abortion has been a central issue for Roman Catholic political participation in the past 25 years as the National Conference of Catholic Bishops has attempted to reverse the Roe decision. During this time, Catholics for a Free Choice has provided an important alternative forum.

  11. Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Jiménez, W L; Fernández-Llario, P; Benítez-Medina, J M; Cerrato, R; Cuesta, J; García-Sánchez, A; Gonçalves, P; Martínez, R; Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Serrano, E; Gómez, L; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2013-07-01

    Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population. The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population.

  12. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic relationships of deer (Odocoileus spp.) in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, Matthew A.

    1991-01-01

    Odocoileus hemionus (mule deer and black-tailed deer) and Odocoileus virginanus (white-tailed deer) are sympatric in western North America and are characterized by distinct morphology, behavior, and allozyme allele frequencies. However, there is discordance among nuclear and mitochondrial genetic relationships, as mule deer (O. h. hemionus) and white-tailed deer have similar mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which is very different from that of black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus, O. h. sitkensis). I expanded previous studies to clarify the genetic relationships of these groups by determining mtDNA haplotype and allozyme genotypes for 667 deer from several locations in northwestern North America. Different mtDNA haplotypes in mule deer, black-tailed deer, and white-tailed deer indicate that mitochondrial gene flow is restricted. Allozyme allele frequencies indicate that there is also restriction of nuclear gene flow between O. virginianus and O. hemionus, and to a lesser extent between mule deer and black-tailed deer. There is a low level of introgressive hybridization of mtDNA from mule deer and black-tailed deer into white-tailed deer populations and considerable interbreeding of mule deer and black-tailed deer in a contact zone. The discordance of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes is apparent only if mtDNA sequence divergences, and not haplotype frequencies, are considered.

  13. Roe v. Wade. Catholic wisdom.

    PubMed

    Maguire, D

    1998-01-01

    In this commentary, a Roman Catholic professor of moral theory recounts how, during his doctoral work in Rome, he was taught that abortion was intrinsically evil and could never be justified. He was also taught, however, about Probabilism, a Roman Catholic teaching that held that "where there is doubt, there is freedom." In other words, serious doubts based on a person's own insights allow a person moral freedom to choose a course of action in cases of debated moral issues. This moral teaching, a triumph for the rights of personal conscience, which was formulated in the 16th and 17th centuries, has been well-hidden from the laity and neglected by the clergy during the past 100 years. He also learned about Thomas Aquinas who taught that practical moral principals are valid most of the time but can have exceptions depending on circumstances. In addition, early 17th-century church leaders justified abortions performed to save the life of the women. Thus, the Supreme Court's decision in Roe seems to reflect Catholic thinking more accurately than the Vatican's new-found absolutism against abortion.

  14. Microbiological quality of grey-mullet roe.

    PubMed

    Voidarou, C; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Noussias, H; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I; Bezirtzoglou, E; Demertzi-Akrida, K

    2011-12-01

    The Greek grey-mullet roe is produced from the fully developed gonads of the female mullet (Mugil cephalus) couth in lagoons during their reproductive migration. The traditional processing method of the roe includes, air drying, salting, shape formation and covering with multiple layers of natural beeswax for preservation and distribution. Fish Roe brands have been a staple in local diet and is increasingly becoming popular in the international market. As a ready-to-eat food it's microbial quality should be of concern for the protection of consumers health. In this study, 48 samples of fish roe, just before waxing, were collected from various local processors for microbiological examination by using selective media and incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The identification of the bacteria was carried out according to the Bergey's manual. Microscopic examination of Gram stained cells, catalase, oxidase and biochemical tests were performed when necessary to further identify. V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., and Aeromonas hydrophila were detected in one sample (2%). Shigella spp., and Flavobacterium spp. in two samples (4%), Clotriduim perfringens (vegetative forms), E. coli, and spores of Bacillus spp., were detected in three samples (6%), Staphylococcus aureus in four samples (8%). Various Micrococcus spp., and spores of C. perfringens in 16% and 35% of the samples respectively. From the Listeria genus, only the species Listeria innocua, Listeria welshimeri, Listeria seeligeri Listeria ivanovii and Listeria grayi were recovered from 2 to 10% of the samples. Microbiological analyses revealed the presence of a small number of pathogens in grey-mullet roe samples which are in accordance with the findings of similar studies. Traditional processing of the fish roe, seems inadequate to ensure the food safety and even waxing isn't expected to fully protect them against facultative anaerobes with salt tolerance. Therefore, additional measures

  15. Fur bearing traffic hazards, or, will you catch a deer in your headlights this year

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, B.

    1980-01-01

    The protected habitat of the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee has resulted in an alarming proliferation of deer populations. Along with such population increases are increases in deer mortality from vehicles. Deers are tagged and monitored to determine the effectiveness of natural and artificial population control mechanisms. It is hoped that herd management policies and public information programs will minimize these hazards.

  16. Life after Roe v. Wade.

    PubMed

    Bauerlein, M

    1992-01-01

    With the possibility that the US Supreme Court will overturn or "substantially erode" Roe v. Wade, interest has focused on two alternative abortion techniques: RU-486, the French "abortion pill," and "menstrual extraction," a self-taught procedure performed up to the 8th week of pregnancy. RU-486 is legally available in only a few countries. In France, a woman signs a lengthy consent form and waits a week under French abortion law before receiving 3 200-milligram tablets of RU-486. RU-486 causes an extended, heavy, and somewhat painful menstruation by blocking receptors for progesterone, which prevents the uterine lining from growing; the lining sloughs off, carrying the embryo with it. 2 days later she returns to the clinic and receives an injection or vaginal suppository of prostaglandin to stimulate uterine contractions and increase the effectiveness of RU-486 from 85% to 95%. A week later, she returns for a checkup. RU-486 is a popular choice; complications compare favorable with standard vacuum-aspiration abortions. Proponents argue for RU-486 in the US for research in areas from AIDS to breast cancer. However, the US Food and Drug Administration has an import alert on the drug, prohibiting its entry into the US. Despite the simplicity of this drug, it still fails to guarantee access for private, easily accessible, inexpensive alternatives to traditional abortion services. Although home-performed abortions are illegal in most places, menstrual extraction allows a woman complete control of her body at home via a sterilized cannula attached to as plastic tube that feeds through a hole in a rubber stopper into a jar; 2nd hole holds a tube with a syringe. The cannula is inserted into the uterus, as helper creates suction with the syringes, and observes the uterine contents flush through the clear tubing and into the jar.

  17. Roe Matrices for Ideal MHD and Systematic Construction of Roe Matrices for Systems of Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargo, Patricia; Gallice, Gérard

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, the construction of a Roe's scheme for the conservative system of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is presented. As this method relies on the computation of a Roe matrix, the problem is to find a matrixA(Ul,Ur) which satisfies the following properties. It is required to be consistent with the jacobian of the fluxF, to have real eigenvalues, a complete set of eigenvectors and to satisfy the relation: ΔF=A(Ul,Ur) ΔU, whereUlandUrare two admissible states and ΔUtheir difference. For the ideal MHD system, using eulerian coordinates, a Roe matrix is obtained without any hypothesis on the specific heat ratio. Especially, its construction relies on an original expression of the magnetic pressure jump. Moreover, a Roe matrix is computed for lagrangian ideal MHD, by extending the results of Munz who obtained such a matrix for the system of lagrangian gas dynamics. So this second matrix involves arithmetic averages unlike the eulerian one, which contains classical Roe averages like in eulerian gas dynamics. In this paper, a systematic construction of lagrangian Roe matrices in terms of eulerian Roe matrices for a general system of conservation laws is also presented. This result, applied to the above eulerian and lagrangian matrices for ideal MHD, gives two new matrices for this system. In the same way, by applying this construction to the gas dynamics equations new Roe matrices are also obtained. All these matrices allow the construction of Roe type schemes. Some numerical examples on the shock tube problem show the applicability of this method.

  18. Investigating temporal changes in hybridization and introgression in a predominantly bimodal hybridizing population of invasive sika (Cervus nippon) and native red deer (C. elaphus) on the Kintyre Peninsula, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Senn, H V; Barton, N H; Goodman, S J; Swanson, G M; Abernethy, K A; Pemberton, J M

    2010-03-01

    We investigated temporal changes in hybridization and introgression between native red deer (Cervus elaphus) and invasive Japanese sika (Cervus nippon) on the Kintyre Peninsula, Scotland, over 15 years, through analysis of 1513 samples of deer at 20 microsatellite loci and a mtDNA marker. We found no evidence that either the proportion of recent hybrids, or the levels of introgression had changed over the study period. Nevertheless, in one population where the two species have been in contact since approximately 1970, 44% of individuals sampled during the study were hybrids. This suggests that hybridization between these species can proceed fairly rapidly. By analysing the number of alleles that have introgressed from polymorphic red deer into the genetically homogenous sika population, we reconstructed the haplotypes of red deer alleles introduced by backcrossing. Five separate hybridization events could account for all the recently hybridized sika-like individuals found across a large section of the Peninsula. Although we demonstrate that low rates of F1 hybridization can lead to substantial introgression, the progress of hybridization and introgression appears to be unpredictable over the short timescales.

  19. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer

    PubMed Central

    Begall, Sabine; Červený, Jaroslav; Neef, Julia; Vojtěch, Oldřich; Burda, Hynek

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate by means of simple, noninvasive methods (analysis of satellite images, field observations, and measuring “deer beds” in snow) that domestic cattle (n = 8,510 in 308 pastures) across the globe, and grazing and resting red and roe deer (n = 2,974 at 241 localities), align their body axes in roughly a north–south direction. Direct observations of roe deer revealed that animals orient their heads northward when grazing or resting. Amazingly, this ubiquitous phenomenon does not seem to have been noticed by herdsmen, ranchers, or hunters. Because wind and light conditions could be excluded as a common denominator determining the body axis orientation, magnetic alignment is the most parsimonious explanation. To test the hypothesis that cattle orient their body axes along the field lines of the Earth's magnetic field, we analyzed the body orientation of cattle from localities with high magnetic declination. Here, magnetic north was a better predictor than geographic north. This study reveals the magnetic alignment in large mammals based on statistically sufficient sample sizes. Our findings open horizons for the study of magnetoreception in general and are of potential significance for applied ethology (husbandry, animal welfare). They challenge neuroscientists and biophysics to explain the proximate mechanisms. PMID:18725629

  20. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer.

    PubMed

    Begall, Sabine; Cerveny, Jaroslav; Neef, Julia; Vojtech, Oldrich; Burda, Hynek

    2008-09-09

    We demonstrate by means of simple, noninvasive methods (analysis of satellite images, field observations, and measuring "deer beds" in snow) that domestic cattle (n = 8,510 in 308 pastures) across the globe, and grazing and resting red and roe deer (n = 2,974 at 241 localities), align their body axes in roughly a north-south direction. Direct observations of roe deer revealed that animals orient their heads northward when grazing or resting. Amazingly, this ubiquitous phenomenon does not seem to have been noticed by herdsmen, ranchers, or hunters. Because wind and light conditions could be excluded as a common denominator determining the body axis orientation, magnetic alignment is the most parsimonious explanation. To test the hypothesis that cattle orient their body axes along the field lines of the Earth's magnetic field, we analyzed the body orientation of cattle from localities with high magnetic declination. Here, magnetic north was a better predictor than geographic north. This study reveals the magnetic alignment in large mammals based on statistically sufficient sample sizes. Our findings open horizons for the study of magnetoreception in general and are of potential significance for applied ethology (husbandry, animal welfare). They challenge neuroscientists and biophysics to explain the proximate mechanisms.

  1. Acaricide and Ivermectin resistance in a field population of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Mexican Tropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebuine (Bos indicus) breeds of cattle and their crosses, and the southern cattle fever tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) are non-native species that were introduced to Mexico through the livestock trade. Red deer raised in the Neotropics can die from...

  2. Accumulation of polonium 210Po in tissues and organs of deer carvidae from Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Skwarzec, Bogdan; Prucnal, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on accumulation of polonium in tissues and organs of deer carvidae in order to assess the potential transport of this element via food-chain to game meat consumers. Livers, kidneys and muscles of large herbivorous animals belonging to three species: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama), collected in Northern Poland, were the subject of the present investigation. Activities of (210)Po were determined by means of alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. The concentration of (210)Po in analyzed animals decreased in the order kidney > liver > muscle tissue. The average activity concentrations of (210)Po ranged between 0.02 +/- 0.01 Bq. kg(- 1) w.w. in muscles and 7.15 +/- 0.12 Bq. kg(- 1) w.w. in kidneys. Levels of polonium were not influenced by sampling location, sex, age and species of animals.

  3. [Research progress on molecular genetics of forest musk deer].

    PubMed

    Jie, Hang; Zheng, Cheng-li; Wang, Jian-ming; Feng, Xiao-lan; Zeng, De-jun; Zhao, Gui-jun

    2015-11-01

    Forest musk deer is one of the large-scale farming musk deer animals with the largest population at the same time. The male musk deer can secrete valuable medicines, which has high medicinal and economic value. Due to the loss of habitat and indiscriminate hunting, the numbers of wild population specie and the distribution have been drastically reduced. Therefore, in-depth understanding of the molecular genetics progress of forest musk deer will pave a way for musk deer protection and breeding. In this review, the progress associated with the molecular marker, genetic classification, artificial breeding, musk secretion and disease in past decades were reviewed, in order to provide a theoretical basis for subsequent molecular genetic researches in forest musk deer.

  4. Development of 12 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers using a next generation sequencing approach for Spiculopteragia spiculoptera, a nematode parasite of deer.

    PubMed

    Patrelle, Cécile; Jouet, Damien; Lehrter, Véronique; Ferté, Hubert

    2014-09-01

    Twelve novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were produced and characterized for Spiculopteragia spiculoptera (Nematoda, Trichostrongyloidae) a common parasite of abomasum of Roe and Red deer, using next generation sequencing approach, and two multiplexes PCR were developed with these markers. Polymorphism of each locus was tested in 40 individuals of this species from diverse wild populations of cervids, and was tested for crossed-amplification on four other species of nematodes, close to S. spiculoptera among the Trichostrongyloidea: 20 Spiculopteragia houdemeri, 34 Ostertagia leptospicularis, 16 Ashworthius sidemi, and 25 Trichostrongylus spp. Our new microsatellite markers seem to be specific to Spiculopteragia spiculoptera since no amplifications were obtained for the four other species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 12, the average observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.025 to 0.641 and from 0.049 to 0.664, respectively. Four of the 12 microsatellite loci showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (which two slightly significant). One locus pair showed significant linkage disequilibrium (Sspi4 vs. Sspi8). Neither evidence of scoring error due to stuttering nor evidence of large allele dropout was found at all of the 12 loci, but evidence of null alleles was indicated at three loci because of general excess of homozygotes for most allele size classes. These polymorphic loci will be useful markers to study population genetics structure of Spiculopteragia spiculoptera in order to understand transfer and to explain the relationships between deer populations.

  5. Social organization in deer: Implications for localized management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, William F.; Mathews, Nancy E.; Underwood, H. Brian; Sage, Richard W.; Behrend, Donald F.

    1991-11-01

    Populations of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) inhabiting many state and national parks and suburban areas have grown to the point that they conflict with human activities. Conflicts range from destruction of vegetation through browsing to public perception that diseases carried by deer pose threats to human health. Traditional modes of hunting to control populations are inappropriate in many of these areas because of intense human development and activity. This article explores an alternative approach for population reduction based on deer social organization. Female white-tailed deer are highly philopatric and female offspring remain near their dams for life. This suggests that a population expands slowly as a series of overlapping home ranges in a form analogous to the petals on a rose. Incorporating the rose petal concept into a model of population growth shows that removal of deer by family unit can potentially alleviate conflicts in localized areas for as many as 10 15 yr.

  6. White-tailed deer ecology and management on Fire Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Deer populations have grown dramatically on Fire Island National Seashore (FIlS) since 1983. Trend data reveal a dichotomy in deer dynamics. In the eastern half of the island, deer density appears to have stabilized between 25-35 deer/km2. In the western half of the island, deer densities are 3-4 times as high in residential communities. Concomitant with that increase has been a general decline in physical stature of some animals, visible impacts on island vegetation, especially in the Sunken Forest, and a perceived increase in the frequency of human and deer interactions. Intensive research on FIlS has shown that deer occupy relatively predictable home ranges throughout the year, but can and do move up and down the island. Impacts of deer on vegetation are most dramatic in the Sunken Forest. Most obvious are the effects of browsing on the herb layer of the Sunken Forest. The least obvious, but perhaps more significant impact is the stark lack of regeneration of canopy tree species since about 1970, which coincides with the initiation of the deer population irruption. A number of herbs and shrubs have been greatly reduced in the understory, and their propagules from the soil. Deer do not readily transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease to other organisms, but deer are important hosts for adult ticks which underscores their importance in the transmission pathway of the disease to humans. Deer on FIlS, while occasionally docile, are still wild animals and should be treated as such. Some animals are relatively unafraid of humans due to the absence of predation and a lack of harassment. This in turn has contributed to a longstanding tradition of feeding deer by many residents and visitors, particularly in western portions of the island. Feeding affects both the behavior and population dynamics of deer inhabiting Fire Island. Recent efforts to reduce deer feeding by visitors and residents have been very effective. Ongoing experiments with Porcine Zona Pellucida

  7. Effect of processing conditions on trace elements in fish roe from six commercial new zealand fish species.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Morton, James D; Dawson, Chris O

    2008-06-25

    The concentrations of trace elements in fish roes and the effect of processing conditions (karasumi-like or karashi mentaiko) were investigated in six commercial fish species from New Zealand. The studied elements were As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn, and the roes were from the following species: chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), hoki ( Macruronus novaezelandiae), southern blue whiting ( Micromesistius australis), hake ( Merluccius australis), blue warehou ( Seriolella brama), and barracouta ( Thyrsites atun). The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in the roes were lower than literature values for fish muscles. Only Zn in barracouta roe and Cu in salmon roe and their products were relatively higher than the generally accepted levels in fish muscles and could be of safety concern. Hence, the consumption of barracouta and salmon roes among certain parts of the population needs to be monitored and assessed. Dry salting (karasumi-like) processing increased ( P < 0.001) the concentrations of the studied trace elements while salting fermentation (karashi mentaiko) processing tended to decrease the levels of trace elements. Fermentation may be a useful process to decrease the level of toxic trace elements.

  8. DNA barcoding revises a misidentification on musk deer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengzhong; Xiao, Zhen; Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yang, Bo; Hao, Yinghong; Moermond, Timothy; Yue, Bisong

    2015-08-01

    As an endangered animal group in China, musk deer (genus Moschus) have attracted the attention of deer biologists and wildlife conservationists. Clarifying the taxonomic status and distribution of musk deer species is important to determine the conservation status for each species and establish appropriate conservation strategies. There remains some uncertainty about the species determination of the musk deer in the Guandi Forest District of Shanxi Province, China. The musk deer in Shanxi would appear to represent an extension of the geographical distribution of either the Forest Musk Deer from the southwest or the Siberian Musk Deer from the northeast, or possibly both. The musk deer population in Shanxi Province provides an interesting and significant case to test the value of applying molecular methods to make a genetic species identification. In order to clarify the species status of the Shanxi musk deer, we sequenced 627 bp of the COI gene and ≈723 bp of the D-loop gene in 12 musk deer samples collected from the Guandi Forest District, and the two reference samples collected from Sichuan. Genetic analyses from the data suggest that all of the samples from the Guandi Forest District are M. berezovskii rather than M. moschiferus. It is most likely that the most previous studies had wrong species identification. And it is the first time we use DNA barcoding to prove that Shanxi is a new distribution of M. berezovskii.

  9. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Richards, Bryan J.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Shelton, Paul; Nicholas S. Keuler,; Timothy R. Van Deelen,

    2013-01-01

    Host-parasite dynamics and strategies for managing infectious diseases of wildlife depend on the functional relationship between disease transmission rates and host density. However, the disease transmission function is rarely known for free-living wildlife, leading to uncertainty regarding the impacts of diseases on host populations and effective control actions. We evaluated the influence of deer density, landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (<2-year-old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin, USA. We evaluated how frequency-dependent, density-dependent, and intermediate transmission models predicted CWD incidence rates in harvested yearling deer. An intermediate transmission model, incorporating both disease prevalence and density of infected deer, performed better than simple density- and frequency-dependent models. Our results indicate a combination of social structure, non-linear relationships between infectious contact and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection in young deer. The landscape covariates % deciduous forest cover and forest edge density also were positively associated with infection rates, but soil clay content had no measurable influences on CWD transmission. Lack of strong density-dependent transmission rates indicates that controlling CWD by reducing deer density will be difficult. The consequences of non-linear disease transmission and aggregation of disease on cervid populations deserves further consideration.

  10. Deer Me!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickbert, Cindy

    1993-01-01

    Describes a class activity of conducting a mock trial of a pretend situation of a white-tailed deep population creating problems for a town. Procedures, fact sheets, names, and descriptors of characters are provided. (PR)

  11. Evaluating immunocontraception for managing suburban white-tailed deer in Irondequoit, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudolph, B.A.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    2000-01-01

    Immunocontraception is frequently proposed as an alternative to lethal removal of females for deer management. However, little information is available for evaluating the potential of applying immunocontraceptives to free-ranging populations. Our objectives were to estimate effort required to apply porcine zona pellucida (PZP) to individual deer and assess the utility of using immunocontraception to control growth of deer populations. The study was conducted in a 43-km2 suburban community with about 400 deer. Effort per deer was measured as time required to capture and mark deer, and then to apply booster immunocontraceptive treatments by remote injection. Estimates of numbers of females to treat to control population growth were based on the generalized sustained-yield (SY) model adapted for contraception of females. The SY curve was calibrated using data on deer abundance acquired from aerial population surveys and nutritional condition of females removed by a concurrent culling program. Effort was influenced by 4 factors: deer population density, approachability of individual deer, access to private and public land, and efficacy of the contraceptive treatment. Effort and deer density were inversely related. Cumulative effort for treatment increased exponentially because some deer were more difficult to approach than others. Potential of using immunocontraception at low deer population densities (<25% ecological carrying capacity) is limited by the interaction of the proportion of breeding-age females in the population and treatment efficacy, as well as encounter rates. Immunocontraception has the best potential for holding suburban deer populations between 30 and 70% of ecological carrying capacity, but is likely to be useful only in localized populations when the number of females to be treated is small (e.g., <200 deer).

  12. Distribution of antibodies reactive to Borrelia lonestari and Borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Jessica H; Yabsley, Michael J; Little, Susan E; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; O'Connor, Thomas P; Caudell, Joe N; Huffman, Jane E; Langenberg, Julia A; Hollamby, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Southern tick-associated rash illness is a Lyme-like syndrome that occurs in the southern states. Borrelia lonestari, which has been suggested as a possible causative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness, naturally infects white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and is transmitted by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). To better understand the prevalence and distribution of Borrelia exposure among WTD, we tested WTD from 21 eastern states for antibodies reactive to B. lonestari using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay and Borrelia burgdorferi using the IDEXX SNAP 4Dx test. A total of 107/714 (15%) had antibodies reactive to B. lonestari, and prevalence of antibodies was higher in deer from southern states (17.5%) than in deer from northern states (9.2%). Using the SNAP 4DX test, we found that 73/723 (10%) were positive for B. burgdorferi, and significantly more northern deer (23.9%) were positive compared with southern deer (3.8%). Our data demonstrate that WTD are exposed to both Borrelia species, but antibody prevalence for exposure to the two species differs regionally and distributions correlate with the presence of Ixodes scapularis and A. americanum ticks.

  13. High prevalence of Theileria sp. in wild Chinese Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Ik; Jang, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sook-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2009-10-14

    Wild Chinese Water Deer exist in large numbers in Northeast Asia, including South Korea. The deer population is so widespread that they are common even in urban areas, resulting in increased contact with humans and domestic animals. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Theileria sp. infection in wild Chinese Water Deer in South Korea. Using biomolecular techniques, blood samples taken from 18 wild Chinese Water Deer were examined. Thirteen of the 18 samples (72%) tested positive for infection. In 11 of the deer, a Theileria sp. was detected that is nearly identical to the highly pathogenic Theileria sp. reported in China. Theileria ovis and Theileria capreoli were also detected individually in two deer. These results indicate that there may be a high prevalence of Theileria sp. infection in wild Chinese Water Deer, and that the deer may act as a reservoir for the Theileria sp. infection of domestic animals.

  14. A sour note on Roe vs. Wade.

    PubMed

    Roth, J A

    1991-01-01

    While many have praised Roe v. Wade, and pro-choice groups have tried to protect it, the decision may be overpraised since it places the abortion decision in the hands of the medical profession, rather than the woman's making abortion availability dependent upon a physician's willingness to perform and abortion. This has meant that in many parts of the country a pregnant woman seeking an abortion must travel some distance and deal with strangers in her quest for an abortion. To become independent of the law and of the medical profession, feminist organizations should regenerate the pre-Roe network for nonphysician abortions. The abortifacient medication, RU-486, is manufactured by pharmaceutical companies and prescribed by physicians. It will suffer the same limitations as Roe: controls by the laws, antifeminist institutions, and by the medical profession. Feminist organizations should begin examining how they can gain control over the medication. Beyond the short-term goals of battling restrictions on the Supreme Court decision, on Medicaid cutbacks, and on parental consent laws, organizers should focus more on placing complete control over fertility directly in the hands of pregnant women. This does not necessarily mean an "ongoing war between women's organizations which try to maintain control of their fertility and police agencies engaged in crack downs including raids, confiscation of equipment and written materials, arrest, harsh punishments[.]" Examples exist of successful underground organizations providing information and referrals for abortions, and even for the successful production and distribution of illegal drugs as a model for RU-486. The AIDS organizations, Poland's Solidarity movement, and the US's Sanctuary movement offer other models. It remains to be seen whether feminists and women's rights organizations can generate enough solidarity, fervor, and willingness to take risks to allow them to carry on an open conspiracy against authoritative

  15. ROE National Land Cover Data (NLCD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This raster dataset comes from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), 2011 version. It represents land cover across the contiguous 48 states, circa 2011. Each 30-meter-square pixel has been classified using a standard land cover classification scheme, and some of these categories have been aggregated further according to procedures outlined in EPA's Report on the Environment (www.epa.gov/roe). Data were originally processed and compiled by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MRLC), a U.S. federal inter-agency group, based on Landsat satellite imagery.

  16. The Calculation of ROE: Pedagogical Issues and Integrative Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinfeldt, Jeff; Rindler, Denise

    2010-01-01

    One of the most widely used measures of firm profitability and stockholder return is return-on-equity (ROE). However, depending upon an individual firm's financial decisions (for example, dividend policy) and an analyst's assumptions used for the ROE calculation, the results can vary significantly. This variation can create confusion for students…

  17. Managing white-tailed deer: eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hurst, Jeremy E.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that coyotes (Canis latrans) are the greatest source of natural mortality for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates (<3 months old). With the range expansion of coyotes eastward in North America, many stakeholders are concerned that coyote predation may be affecting deer populations adversely. We hypothesized that declines in neonate survival, perhaps caused by increasing coyote predation, could be offset by adjusting or eliminating antlerless harvest allocations. We used a stochastic, age-based population simulation model to evaluate combinations of low neonate survival rates, severe winters, and low adult deer survival rates to determine the effectiveness of reduced antlerless harvest at stabilizing deer populations. We found that even in regions with high winter mortality, reduced antlerless harvest rates could stabilize deer populations with recruitment and survival rates reported in the literature. When neonate survival rates were low (25%) and yearling and adult female survival rates were reduced by 10%, elimination of antlerless harvests failed to stabilize populations. Our results suggest increased deer mortality from coyotes can be addressed through reduced hunting harvest of adult female deer in most circumstances throughout eastern North America. However, specific knowledge of adult female survival rates is important for making management decisions in areas where both neonate and adult survival may be affected by predation and other mortality factors.

  18. Mule deer and pronghorn migration in western Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, H.; Lindzey, F.; McWhirter, D.

    2005-01-01

    Migratory mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) populations rely on seasonal ranges to meet their annual nutritional and energetic requirements. Because seasonal ranges often occur great distances apart and across a mix of vegetation types and land ownership, maintaining migration corridors to and from these ranges can be difficult, especially if managers do not have detailed information on mule deer and pronghorn seasonal movements. We captured, radiomarked, and monitored mule deer (n = 171) and pronghorn (n = 34) in western Wyoming to document seasonal distribution patterns and migration routes. Mule deer and pronghorn migrated 20-158 km and 116-258 km, respectively, between seasonal ranges. These distances represented the longest recorded migrations for either species. We identified a number of bottlenecks along the migration routes of mule deer and pronghorn, but the most critical appeared to be the 1.6-km-wide Trapper's Point bottleneck, which was used by both mule deer and pronghorn during their spring and autumn migrations. Housing developments and roadways apparently have reduced the effective width of this bottleneck to <0.8 km. We estimate 2,500-3,500 mule deer and 1,500-2,000 pronghorn move through the bottleneck twice a year during spring and autumn migrations. Identification and protection of migration corridors and bottlenecks will be necessary to maintain mule deer and pronghorn populations throughout their range.

  19. The effect of terrain and female density on survival of neonatal white-tailed deer and mule deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Maegwin; Manseau, Micheline; Geisheimer, Justin; Bannatyne, Travis; Lingle, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Juvenile survival is a highly variable life-history trait that is critical to population growth. Antipredator tactics, including an animal's use of its physical and social environment, are critical to juvenile survival. Here, we tested the hypothesis that habitat and social characteristics influence coyote (Canis latrans) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) fawns in similar ways during the neonatal period. This would contrast to winter when the habitat and social characteristics that provide the most safety for each species differ. We monitored seven cohorts of white-tailed deer and mule deer fawns at a grassland study site in Alberta, Canada. We used logistic regression and a model selection procedure to determine how habitat characteristics, climatic conditions, and female density influenced fawn survival during the first 8 weeks of life. Fawn survival improved after springs with productive vegetation (high integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values). Fawns that used steeper terrain were more likely to survive. Fawns of both species had improved survival in years with higher densities of mule deer females, but not with higher densities of white-tailed deer females, as predicted if they benefit from protection by mule deer. Our results suggest that topographical variation is a critical resource for neonates of many ungulate species, even species like white-tailed deer that use more gentle terrain when older. Further, our results raise the possibility that neonatal white-tailed fawns may benefit from associating with mule deer females, which may contribute to the expansion of white-tailed deer into areas occupied by mule deer.

  20. Genetic selection in farmed deer.

    PubMed

    McManus, C

    1991-02-02

    Selection is the major tool used by breeders to improve the genetic quality of their livestock. Traditional methods of selection are well proven and useful in improving the economic merit of livestock. The performance of an animal is affected by its genetic quality and by the environment in which it is reared. While environmental improvement is expensive and requires continuous inputs, genetic improvement is cumulative and permanent, provided that selection is maintained. To select an animal on its genetic merit account must be taken of the environmental effects on its performance. Comparisons between the performance of animals on different farms or in different years are not valid unless they have genetic material in common. The speed at which genetic improvement is passed on to the rest of a population is affected by the variation and heritability of the traits being selected, the selection intensity and the generation interval. The deer population in the United Kingdom has a high degree of variation for important traits but the selection intensity is low and the generation intervals are larger than in other farmed species. Central performance testing, group breeding schemes and the use of artificial insemination are tools which will be important in the genetic improvement of farmed deer.

  1. Genetic differentiation between red deer from different sample sites on the Tianshan Mountains (Cervus elaphus), China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Can-Lin; Turdy, Risalat; Halik, Mahmut

    2015-02-01

    About 273 individuals were identified from 471 fecal samples from six different red deer populations in China. The genetic structure showed that the red deer from the western and eastern Tianshan Mountains was different. A total number of 12 haplotypes were defined by 97 variable sites by the control region (CR), and 10 haplotypes were defined by 34 variable sites by cytochrome b. There was no haplotype sharing between red deer populations from western and eastern Tianshan Mountains by the CR and the cytochrome b. The red deer populations from west were clade with wapiti from North American and red deer from Siberia, while red deer populations from east were clade with red deer from Crimea in Pleistocene rather than west at present. The result of NETWORK also showed that red deer populations from western and eastern Tianshan Mountains were different. The haplotype and the Fst value between western and eastern Tianshan red deer were significantly different. The AMOVA analysis showed that 97.34% and 1.14% of the total genetic variability were found within populations and among populations within groups, respectively, by microsatellite. AMOVA for mitochondria showed that most of the variance was explained among-group. The Fst, pairwise distance, and phylogenetic relationship result showed that red deer between western and eastern Tianshan were more different than some of the red deer from North-Asia, South-Asia, East-Asia, and wapiti. All data from this study do support that the genetic characteristics of red deer between western and eastern Tianshan Mountains by microsatellite, control region, and cytochrome b were different.

  2. Parasite load and seasonal migration in red deer.

    PubMed

    Mysterud, Atle; Qviller, Lars; Meisingset, Erling L; Viljugrein, Hildegunn

    2016-02-01

    Northern deer populations are typically partially migratory, but the relationship between migratory movements and parasites has received little attention. Migration often involves movement from a low-elevation winter range towards a summer range at higher elevation. In Europe these movements may also involve a gradient in abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks, but whether tick loads on deer differ depending on migration tactic has not been quantified. Based on the examination of ears from 49 red deer (Cervus elaphus) marked with global positioning system collars, we provide the first evidence that the tick loads of deer covering longer distances between their winter and summer range, resulting in higher difference in elevation, are lower. Our study highlights that only the resident part of the red deer population will be available as year-round hosts to ticks, while a large part of the red deer population is unavailable to ticks for most of the tick questing season due to seasonal migration to higher elevation. Predicted changes in the migratory behaviour of ungulates could hence affect the proportion of the host population available to ticks in the future.

  3. Age and sex selectivity in trapping mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) trapping experiment is described using modified Clover traps in which changes in the placement of bait and height of the trap door modified the ratio of adult does to male and female fawns captured. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in age-sex capture ratios are discussed and indicate that modified Clover traps selectivity capture mule deer, thus introducing bias into population sampling. (JMT)

  4. Ipnatchiami (Stories About Deering).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmun, Mamie

    Intended for use in a bilingual education program, this document is printed in both Inupiat and English. It is a collection of 32 very short tales about life in Deering, Alaska, and was developed and prepared by Marie Karmun, an Inupiat language teacher. It is printed in large type, written in simple words, and illustrated. Most of the stories are…

  5. DEER-LEMA Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Roy

    1996-01-01

    Students role-play one method the government uses to make decisions: a town council meeting. Groups express opinions for or against proposed resolutions and town council announces its decisions to the groups. Students learn how government resolves issues and develop criteria for making decisions. The example used is whether a limited deer hunt…

  6. A comparison of 2 techniques for estimating deer density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storm, G.L.; Cottam, D.F.; Yahner, R.H.; Nichols, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    We applied mark-resight and area-conversion methods to estimate deer abundance at a 2,862-ha area in and surrounding the Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site during 1987-1991. One observer in each of 11 compartments counted marked and unmarked deer during 65-75 minutes at dusk during 3 counts in each of April and November. Use of radio-collars and vinyl collars provided a complete inventory of marked deer in the population prior to the counts. We sighted 54% of the marked deer during April 1987 and 1988, and 43% of the marked deer during November 1987 and 1988. Mean number of deer counted increased from 427 in April 1987 to 582 in April 1991, and increased from 467 in November 1987 to 662 in November 1990. Herd size during April, based on the mark-resight method, increased from approximately 700-1,400 from 1987-1991, whereas the estimates for November indicated an increase from 983 for 1987 to 1,592 for 1990. Given the large proportion of open area and the extensive road system throughout the study area, we concluded that the sighting probability for marked and unmarked deer was fairly similar. We believe that the mark-resight method was better suited to our study than the area-conversion method because deer were not evenly distributed between areas suitable and unsuitable for sighting within open and forested areas. The assumption of equal distribution is required by the area-conversion method. Deer marked for the mark-resight method also helped reduce double counting during the dusk surveys.

  7. Eld's deer translocated to human-inhabited areas become nocturnal.

    PubMed

    Pan, Duo; Teng, Liwei; Cui, Fangjie; Zeng, Zhigao; Bravery, Benjamin D; Zhang, Qiong; Song, Yanling

    2011-02-01

    As human populations expand and nonhuman animals decline, understanding the interactions between people and wildlife is essential. For endangered species, appreciating the effect of human disturbance can be important for their conservation. However, a human disturbance angle is often absent from ecological research, despite growing evidence of the negative impact of nonfatal human interference. Here, we monitored Hainan Eld's deer living within a reserve and translocated animals living amongst villagers. We show that translocated deer deviated from a crepuscular activity pattern and became increas-. ingly nocturnal, and most active when villagers were not. It appears that translocated deer adapted over time to human disturbance and this pattern is similar to that of other species during periods of hunting. People do not pose an actual threat to Eld's deer, but their presence triggered a response akin to predator avoidance and may be interfering with broader aspects of their biology and conservation.

  8. Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Jack A; Abrams, Arthur; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dunams, Detiger; Hoberg, Eric P; Bildfell, Robert J; Green, Richard L

    2006-07-01

    Documenting the occurrence of Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei has historically relied on the morphological examination of adult worms collected from the skeletal muscle of definitive hosts, including deer. Recent advances in the knowledge of protostrongylid genetic sequences now permit larvae to be identified. Dorsal-spined larvae (DSLs) collected in 2003-2004 from the lung and feces of six Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from Oregon were characterized genetically. The sequences from unknown DSLs were compared to those from morphologically validated adults and larvae of P. odocoilei at both the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene. We provide the first unequivocal identification of P. odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon. The broader geographic distribution, prevalence, and pathology of P. odocoilei are not known in populations of Oregon deer.

  9. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M.

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  10. Will Culling White-Tailed Deer Prevent Lyme Disease?

    PubMed

    Kugeler, K J; Jordan, R A; Schulze, T L; Griffith, K S; Mead, P S

    2016-08-01

    White-tailed deer play an important role in the ecology of Lyme disease. In the United States, where the incidence and geographic range of Lyme disease continue to increase, reduction of white-tailed deer populations has been proposed as a means of preventing human illness. The effectiveness of this politically sensitive prevention method is poorly understood. We summarize and evaluate available evidence regarding the effect of deer reduction on vector tick abundance and human disease incidence. Elimination of deer from islands and other isolated settings can have a substantial impact on the reproduction of blacklegged ticks, while reduction short of complete elimination has yielded mixed results. To date, most studies have been conducted in ecologic situations that are not representative to the vast majority of areas with high human Lyme disease risk. Robust evidence linking deer control to reduced human Lyme disease risk is lacking. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to recommend deer population reduction as a Lyme disease prevention measure, except in specific ecologic circumstances.

  11. Deer Tracks in the City?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    "Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

  12. Evaluating a strategy to deliver vaccine to white-tailed deer at a landscape level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Justin W.; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, William D.; Anderson, Charles W.; Lavelle, Michael J.; Hall, Wayne H.; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Effective delivery of vaccines and other pharmaceuticals to wildlife populations is needed when zoonotic diseases pose a risk to public health and natural resources or have considerable economic consequences. The objective of our study was to develop a bait-distribution strategy for potential delivery of oral bovine tuberculosis (bTB) vaccine to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) where deer are reservoirs for the disease. During 17 February and 2 March 2011, we created a grid of experimental bait stations (n = 64) on Sandhill Wildlife Management Area, Wisconsin, USA, to assess station densities needed to attract and deliver placebo baits to free-ranging white-tailed deer and look for associations among deer density, number of bait stations per deer, and bait consumption. We placed 1 L of commercially available alfalfa cubes at bait stations 652 m apart, and monitored stations with motion-activated cameras for 5 days to document visitation and consumption by deer and nontarget species. Deer discovered 38% of all bait stations within 37 hr, on average (SE = 3.91 hr), and consumed variable amounts of bait at each station. Deer were documented in 94% of all photographs of wildlife at bait stations. We found no correlation between bait consumption and deer density or the number of bait stations per deer. We provide the first information on use of baits by free-ranging deer and nontarget wildlife to eventually vaccinate deer against bTB at a landscape level. The results of this study can further the development of strategies in delivery of pharmaceuticals to free-ranging white-tailed deer.

  13. Dinitrotoluene in deer tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.

    1991-09-30

    Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), Baraboo, Wisconsin, has within a security-fenced area, a herd of whitetail deer. The US Army and the State of Wisconsin, Department of Health and Social Services have determined that approximately 20 of the deer be harvested and tissue samples thus collected be analyzed for 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4- and 2,6-DNT) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to a sensitivity of 0.1 part per million (ppm). The HPLC analyses will be done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) following protocol used previously for similar work for other government sites. ORNL shall instruct Olin relative to the quantity and type of tissue required, storage and shipment requirements, and other information to ensure that all protocol and chain of custody requirements are clear. A final report will be made to Olin Corporation upon completion of the HPLC analyses.

  14. Hunter perceptions and acceptance of alternative deer management regulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornicelli, L.; Fulton, D.C.; Grund, M.D.; Fieberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers are often confronted with a policy paradox where a majority of the public supports an outcome, but there is no agreement on specific management strategies to achieve this outcome. Previous research has also reported a link between regulatory acceptance, hunter satisfaction, and hunter participation rates. Thus, human dimensions research aimed at understanding hunter motivations and behavior is needed for effective management. In 2005, we surveyed Minnesota (USA) deer hunters (n = 6,000; 59% response) to evaluate attitudes regarding alternative deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvest regulations. We also conducted a series of forced choice experiments in which respondents were asked to select an option from a list of representative regulations that might be adopted to achieve a particular deer management goal. Specifically, we modeled 5 deer population scenarios ranging from low populations with high buck-harvest rates to populations 50% over goal density. Our results indicate that hunters preferred different regulations depending on the population scenario, but generally preferred antler-point restrictions and disliked limiting buck licenses through a lottery. We also found consistency among scenarios, in that a small percentage of respondents indicated they would not hunt if regulations were changed. The results from this study should help wildlife managers design deer harvest regulations that are both acceptable to hunters and achieve management objectives. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Deer hunting on Pennsylvania's public and private lands: A two-tiered system of hunters?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stedman, R.C.; Bhandari, P.; Luloff, A.E.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Finley, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recreational hunting is crucial for controlling white-tailed deer populations. Public land is increasingly important as access to private lands declines. However, differences between public and private land hunters remain unknown. Our study of Pennsylvania hunters revealed differences between private and public land hunters that may pose problems for management. Hunters who only hunted public land had lower harvest rates, especially of antlerless deer, spent less time hunting, were less committed to hunting, were more likely to hunt alone, less likely to belong to a hunting camp, and more likely to live in urban areas. They were less likely to believe that high deer populations could damage forest ecosystems, and less willing to harvest antlerless deer. The implications of these findings, in the context of already-declining hunter capacity to keep deer populations in check, and concomitant declining access to private land, are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  16. Radiological surveys of deer harvests on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, J.S. )

    1990-06-01

    A rapidly increasing number of deer/vehicle collisions on the Oak Ridge Reservation and contiguous lands resulted in the need for an aggressive method of reducing the deer population. Managed hunts on the reservation was the method chosen for this reduction, and the Oak Ridge Wildlife Management Area was established in November 1984. Because of possible radiological contamination of the deer herd from the three major nuclear installations on the reservation, a rigorous radiological survey of all harvested deer was deemed necessary to ensure that successful hunters or their families would not be exposed to excess radiation dose from the consumption of venison from the managed hunts. Data collected from previous vehicle-killed deer showed the possibility of contamination from {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 75}Se. Methodology for {sup 90}Sr screening at a 0.25-mSv commitment required special considerations for field analysis since {sup 90}Sr decays by beta emission. A versatile data-base program was established with a personal computer system to handle the copious data related to both radiological and biological parameters collected during the harvest. The field screen values were verified by subsequent laboratory analyses utilizing Cerenkov counting. These verification analyses proved the utility of the field methodology for {sup 90}Sr detection in deer bones at the 1 Bq/g screening level.

  17. A Vocational Interest Inventory Based on Roe's Interest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sandra K.; And Others

    The construction and early validation of an ipsative, forced-choice vocational interest inventory (VII) to measure Roe's eight foci of occupational activity is detailed. Designed for counseling the broad range of high school students, the VII produced consistently interpretable mean profiles for groups of high school juniors having only tentative…

  18. EPA's Report on the Environment (Roe) (2008 Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final report, EPA's 2008 Report on the Environment (EPA 2008 ROE), a science-based report that answers questions about recent trends in human health and the environment. This report aids the American people with an important resource from which they can b...

  19. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe - a kinetic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in unsalted and salted (3%) salmon roe. Growth curves, developed using inoculated samples incubated at constant temperatures between 5 and 30 degrees C, were analyzed by curve-fitting to the Huang and Baran...

  20. Individual quality, early-life conditions, and reproductive success in contrasted populations of large herbivores.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Côté, Steeve D

    2009-07-01

    Variations among individuals in phenotypic quality and fitness often confound analyses of life-history strategies assessed at the population level. We used detailed long-term data from three populations of large herbivores with generation times ranging from four to nine years to quantify heterogeneity in individual quality among females, and to assess its influence on mean annual reproductive success over the lifetime (MRS). We also determined how environmental conditions in early life shaped individual quality and tested A. Lomnicki's hypothesis that variance in individual quality should increase when environmental conditions deteriorate. Using multivariate analyses (PCA), we identified one (in sheep and deer) or two (in goats) covariations among life-history traits (longevity, success in the last breeding opportunity, adult mass, and social rank) as indexes of individual quality that positively influenced MRS of females. Individual quality was reduced by unfavorable weather, low resource availability, and high population density in the year of birth. Early-life conditions accounted for 35-55% of variation in individual quality. In roe deer, we found greater variance in individual quality for cohorts born under unfavorable conditions as opposed to favorable ones, but the opposite was found in bighorn sheep and mountain goats. Our results demonstrate that heterogeneity in female quality can originate from environmental conditions in early life and can markedly influence the fitness of females in species located at different positions along the slow-fast continuum of life-history strategies.

  1. The role of deer as vehicles to move ticks, Ixodes ricinus, between contrasting habitats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gilbert, Lucy

    2010-08-01

    In Europe the most important hosts maintaining Ixodes ricinus tick populations are deer. Therefore, excluding deer by fencing or culling are potential tick management tools. Here we test the hypothesis that deer act as vehicles for moving ticks between two distinct habitats: forest and open heather moorland. We utilised an ideal "natural experiment" whereby forests were either fenced or unfenced to prevent or allow deer to move between habitats. We aimed to test the hypothesis that deer cause a net movement of ticks from high tick density areas, i.e. forests, to low tick density areas, i.e. open moorland. We recorded I. ricinus and host abundance in 10 unfenced and seven fenced forests and their respective surrounding heather moorland. We found that fenced forests had fewer deer and fewer I. ricinus nymphs than unfenced forests. However, we found no evidence that fencing forests reduced I. ricinus abundance on adjacent heather moorland. Thus there was insufficient evidence for our hypothesis that deer cause a net movement of ticks from forest onto adjacent moorland. However, we found that deer abundance generally correlates with I. ricinus abundance. We conclude that fencing can be used as a tool to reduce ticks and disease risk in forests, but that fencing forests is unlikely to reduce ticks or disease risk on adjacent moorland. Instead, reducing deer numbers could be a potential tool to reduce tick abundance with implications for disease mitigation.

  2. Stable fighting strategies to maintain social ranks in captive male Alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiuxiang; Cody, Nicholas; Gong, Baocao; Xiang, Leilei

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted at the XINGLONGSHAN Musk Deer Farm of China from July to September 2008. Results showed that captive male musk deer exhibit aggressive dominance behavior, by which a stable social ranking is established. Generally, there were three types of aggression in agonistic interactions among males: attacking, displacing and threatening. Threatening was more frequently observed than displacing and attacking. When in conflict with other deer, high-rank males exhibited significantly more attacking than displacing and threatening. Moreover, no attacking occurred in low-rank and middle-rank males, but these individuals initiated significantly more threatening displays than high-rank individuals. Among musk deer groups with different social ranks, there were no significant differences between threats received by middle-rank and low-rank groups, but attacks directed to high-rank males was significantly lower than displacing and threatening behaviors. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that when a captive male musk deer population is assembled, individuals should be diversified in fighting ability and level of aggression. In particular, deer with higher aggression should not be enclosed with deer with similar tendencies, but should be enclosed with individuals with lower fighting levels. This should maintain stable social structures within captive musk deer groups and improve the overall welfare of captive musk deer.

  3. Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Eugenia V; Ives, A R; Pidgeon, A M; Kuemmerle, T; Baskin, L M; Gubar, Y P; Piquer-Rodríguez, M; Keuler, N S; Petrosyan, V G; Radeloff, V C

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse. The long-term Database of the Russian Federal Agency of Game Mammal Monitoring, consisting of up to 50,000 transects that are monitored annually, provided an exceptional data set for investigating these population trends. Three species showed strong declines in population growth rates in the decade following the collapse, while grey wolf (Canis lupus) increased by more than 150%. After 2000 some trends reversed. For example, roe deer (Capreolus spp.) abundance in 2010 was the highest of any period in our study. Likely reasons for the population declines in the 1990s include poaching and the erosion of wildlife protection enforcement. The rapid increase of the grey wolf populations is likely due to the cessation of governmental population control. In general, the widespread declines in wildlife populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union highlight the magnitude of the effects that socioeconomic shocks can have on wildlife populations and the possible need for special conservation efforts during such times.

  4. Deer mouse movements in peridomestic and sylvan settings in relation to Sin Nombre virus antibody prevalence.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Richard J; Semmens, William J; Matlock-Cooley, Stephanie Jo; Kuenzi, Amy J

    2006-10-01

    Prevalence of antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) has been found to be nearly twice as high in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in peridomestic settings as in sylvan settings in two studies in Montana and one in New Mexico. We investigated whether this difference may be related to a difference in deer mouse movements in the two settings. We used radiotelemetry to determine home range size and length of movement for 22 sylvan (1991-1992) and 40 peridomestic deer mice (1995-1999). We also determined the percentage of locations inside versus outside of buildings for peridomestic mice. Though variable, average home range size for female deer mice was significantly smaller for peridomestic deer mice than for sylvan deer mice. The smaller home range in peridomestic settings may concentrate shed SNV, and protection from solar ultraviolet radiation inside buildings may increase environmental persistence of SNV. Both these factors could lead to increased SNV exposure of deer mice within peridomestic populations and result in higher antibody prevalence. Peridomestic deer mice moved between buildings and outside areas, which is evidence that SNV can be transmitted between peridomestic and sylvan populations.

  5. Spatiotemporal variation in deer browse and tolerance in a woodland herb.

    PubMed

    Prendeville, Holly R; Steven, Janet C; Galloway, Laura F

    2015-02-01

    Herbivory can shape the dynamics of plant populations, including effects on survival and reproduction, and is in turn affected by environmental factors that vary in space and time. White-tailed deer are significant herbivores in North America that have been broadly documented to affect plant reproductive success. If variation in the frequency and impact of herbivory by deer correlates with a broad-scale latitudinal gradient, climactic effects may be important for shaping plant-herbivore interactions, Alternatively, a lack of broad-scale gradients would suggest local factors such as plant community composition and deer densities are affecting herbivory. To investigate broad-scale patterns of deer herbivory, we examined the frequency and reproductive consequences of deer browse over three years in 17 populations of Campanulastrum americanum spanning the latitudinal extent of its range. Even though deer are overabundant throughout the range of C. americanum, we found spatiotemporal variation in deer browse frequency (0-0.96, mean 0.46) and its effects on plant reproductive success. The four southernmost populations experienced high levels of herbivory, and were responsible for generating a negative relationship between latitude and herbivory. In general, patterns of variation in the frequency and impact of herbivory across the entire latitudinal gradient pointed to the importance of local rather than broad-scale factors. Within a population, deer consumed larger plants. Across many populations and years, average fitnesses of browsed and uneaten plants were similar, suggesting that plants are tolerant to browse. However, since large plants have greater reproductive success and are more likely to be browsed, tolerance may be influenced by plant size. When plant size was accounted for, most populations did not fully compensate for browsing. There was no relationship between browsing intensity and tolerance, suggesting that browsing may be too variable to consistently

  6. No evidence of deer mouse involvement in plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootics in prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. One suggested mechanism behind sporadic prairie dog die-offs involves an alternative mammal host, such as the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), which often inhabits prairie dog colonies. We examined the flea populations of deer mice to investigate the potential of flea-borne transmission of plague between deer mice and prairie dogs in northern Colorado, where plague is active in prairie dog colonies. Deer mice were predominantly infested with the flea Aetheca wagneri, and were rarely infested with prairie dog fleas, Oropsylla hirsuta. Likelihood of flea infestation increased with average monthly temperature, and flea loads were higher in reproductive animals. These results suggest that the deer mouse is an unlikely maintenance host of plague in this region.

  7. Movement and habitat use of Sika and White-tailed Deer on Assateague Island national seashore, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Christensen, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    = 0.16–0.82) for male white-tailed deer, 0.74 (95% CI = 0.44–0.91) for female white-tailed deer, 0.56 (95% CI = 0.35–0.75) for male sika deer, and 0.86 (95% CI = 0.70–0.94) for female sika deer. The harvest rate was 0.12 (95% CI = 0.04–0.27) for female sika deer, 0.44 (95% CI = 0.25–0.65) for male sika deer, 0.18 (95% CI = 0.05–0.51) for female white-tailed deer, and 0.38 (95% CI = 0.10–0.78) for male white-tailed deer. Annual survival rates for both species were similar to what has been observed in other populations. Unfortunately, small sample sizes for male white-tailed deer limited inferences about harvest and survival rates, but harvest rates of females for both species were similar to other published studies. Hunting was the primary cause of mortality, and outside the hunting season survival was 0.98–1.00 for all species and sexes. We found that the home range area of sika deer was much greater than the home range area of white-tailed deer, but failed to detect any difference between sexes or among seasons. Sika deer also made long-distance movements and left the Maryland portion of Assateague Island. No sika deer left Assateague island during our study, but we did document the dispersal of a male whitetailed deer to the mainland. In their native range, sika deer have been able to readily expand populations and occupy vacant habitat (Kaji et al. 2000; Kaji et al. 2004). The long distance movements we observed on Assateague Island, especially relative to white-tailed deer, may reflect the ability of this species to exploit food resources that may be limited in quality or quantity, or both. However, we did not collect data to assess use of food resources by sika deer and whether this may have influenced long distance movements. We found both species of deer were less likely to use a habitat the further it was located from cover, which was defined as tall shrub or forest vegetation. For every 10 m (32 ft) from cover each species of deer was 1

  8. 78 FR 44148 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Antietam, Monocacy, Manassas White-tailed Deer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... capture and euthanasia to reduce deer populations to the target density and maintain that level. Donation... through the use of sharpshooting with firearms, possible capture, and euthanasia to reduce...

  9. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. The present study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in ...

  10. Predicting Population Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunton, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Uses graphs to involve students in inquiry-based population investigations on the Wisconsin gray wolf. Requires students to predict future changes in the wolf population, carrying capacity, and deer population. (YDS)

  11. Farmed deer: new domestic animals defined by controlled breeding.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, T J

    2001-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals is recognized as pivotal in mankind's social evolution. Yet, surprisingly few species have actually been farmed, prompting speculation as to which attributes are needed for successful domestication. Although red deer were the staple source of meat throughout Europe in the mesolithic, they have not been widely domesticated, leading many ethologists to argue that they are behaviourally unsuitable. Recently, the most widely accepted criterion of domestication, the ability of farmers to control the breeding of a species, has been fulfilled in red and other species of deer with the widespread adoption of even the most technologically advanced methods of artificial breeding. Simultaneously and conversely, the population growth of wild deer in many temperate parts of the world has stimulated a search for contraceptive techniques.

  12. Distribution and abundance of fallow deer leks at Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, Gary M.; Osbourn, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Only two species of ungulates (hoofed mammals) are native to Marin County, tule elk (Cervis elaphus nannodes) and Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). In the 1940s, European fallow deer (Dama dama) obtained from the San Francisco Zoo were released at Point Reyes. When Point Reyes National Seashore was established in 1962, fallow deer were well established within the boundaries of the National Seashore. The fallow deer population was estimated to be 500 in 1973 (Wehausen, 1973) and that number increased to 860 by 2005 (National Park Service, unpubl. data). Fallow deer have an unusual mating system. During the fall mating season (or rut), male fallow deer establish areas known as leks where they display to potential mates (Hirth, 1997). This behavior is unique among deer and elk, but it is similar to breeding systems used by grouse and a few other birds and mammals. Formation of leks in ungulates decreases the number of aggressive encounters in which dominant males are involved when the local male density becomes too high, because the spatial stability of territories in leks reduces the number of aggressive encounters between males (Hovi et al., 1996; Pelabon et al., 1999). A fallow deer lek is typically an area of about 100-150 m2 and typically includes two to five males. Using their hooves and antlers, each male clears away most or all of the vegetation and digs a rutting pit that he defends throughout the breeding season.

  13. "Atypical" chronic wasting disease in PRNP genotype 225FF mule deer.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Fox, Karen A; Miller, Michael W

    2014-07-01

    We compared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) of two different PRNP genotypes (225SS, 225FF) for susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in the face of environmental exposure to infectivity. All three 225SS deer had immunohistochemistry (IHC)-positive tonsil biopsies by 710 days postexposure (dpe), developed classic clinical signs by 723-1,200 dpe, and showed gross and microscopic pathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results, and IHC staining typical of prion disease in mule deer. In contrast, although all three 225FF deer also became infected, the two individuals surviving >720 dpe had consistently negative biopsies, developed more-subtle clinical signs of CWD, and died 924 or 1,783 dpe. The 225FF deer were "suspect" by ELISA postmortem but showed negative or equivocal IHC staining of lymphoid tissues; both clinically affected 225FF deer had spongiform encephalopathy in the absence of IHC staining in the brain tissue. The experimental cases resembled three cases encountered among five additional captive 225FF deer that were not part of our experiment but also died from CWD. Aside from differences in clinical disease presentation and detection, 225FF mule deer also showed other, more-subtle, atypical traits that may help to explain the rarity of this genotype in natural populations, even in the presence of enzootic CWD.

  14. Quality of life in functional rhinoplasty: rhinoplasty outcomes evaluation German version (ROE-D).

    PubMed

    Bulut, Olcay Cem; Plinkert, Peter K; Wallner, Frank; Baumann, Ingo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a German version of the rhinoplasty outcomes evaluation (ROE) questionnaire. A prospective study was conducted and a German translated ROE (ROE-D) questionnaire administered to 100 patients preoperatively, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The translation was performed according to internationally accepted guidelines. To validate this instrument, we evaluated its reliability, validity and sensitivity. ROE-D was completed by 54 patients after 6 months and by 69 patients 1 year after functional rhinoplasty. Cronbach's α indicated good internal consistency. Reliability was tested with a split-half-reliability, showing significant correlation. Discrimination validity was demonstrated by a comparison with healthy controls. Sensitivity to change showed medium to large effects. ROE-D is a reliable, validated and sensitive German instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in patients after rhinoplasty. The ROE-D focuses mainly on the aesthetic aspects of the rhinoplasty surgery.

  15. BTV infection in wild ruminants, with emphasis on red deer: a review.

    PubMed

    Falconi, Caterina; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-08-05

    The distribution of bluetongue virus has changed, possibly related to climate change. Vaccination of domestic ruminants is taking place throughout Europe to control BT expansion. The high density of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in some European regions has raised concerns about the potential role that unvaccinated European wild ungulates might play in maintaining or spreading the virus. Most species of wild ruminants are susceptible to BTV infection, although frequently asymptomatically. The red deer population density in Europe is similar to that of domestic livestock in some areas, and red deer could account for a significant percentage of the BTV-infection susceptible ruminant population in certain regions. High serum antibody prevalence has been found in red deer, and BTV RNA (BTV-1, BTV-4 and BTV-8) has been repeatedly detected in naturally infected European red deer by means of RT-PCR. Moreover, red deer may carry the virus asymptomatically for long periods. Epidemiological studies suggest that there are more BT cases in domestic ungulates in those areas where red deer are present. Vector and host density and environmental factors are implicated in the spatial distribution of BT. As in domestic ruminants, BTV transmission among wild ruminants depends almost exclusively on Culicoides vectors, mainly C. imicola but also members of the C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris complex. However, BTV transmission from red deer to the vector remains to be demonstrated. Transplacental, oral, and mechanical transmissions are also suspected. Thus, wild red deer contribute to the still unclear epidemiology of BTV in Europe, and could complicate BTV control in domestic ruminants. However, further research at the wildlife host-vector-pathogen interface and regarding the epidemiology of BT and BT vectors in wildlife habitats is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Moreover, red deer could be used as BT sentinels. Serum and spleen tissue of calves sampled from late autumn onwards

  16. Using Pop-II models to predict effects of wolf predation and hunter harvests on elk, mule deer, and moose on the northern range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, John A.; Singer, Francis J.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of establishing a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in Yellowstone National Park were predicted for three ungulate species—elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and moose (Alces alces)—using previously developed POP-II population models. We developed models for 78 and 100 wolves. For each wolf population, we ran scenarios using wolf predation rates of 9, 12, and 15 ungulates/wolf/year. With 78 wolves and the antlerless elk harvest reduced 27%, our modeled elk population estimated were 5-18% smaller than the model estimate without wolves. With 100 wolves and the antlerless elk harvest reduced 27%, our elk population estimated were 11-30% smaller than the population estimates without wolves. Wolf predation effects were greater on the modeled mule deer population than on elk. With 78 wolves and no antlerless deer harvest, we predicted the mule deer population could be 13-44% larger than without wolves. With 100 wolves and no antlerless deer harvest, the mule deer population was 0-36% larger than without wolves. After wolf recovery, our POP-II models suggested moose harvests would have to be reduced at least 50% to maintain moose numbers at the levels predicted when wolves were not present. Mule deer and moose population data are limited, and these wolf predation effects may be overestimated if population sizes or male-female ratios were underestimated in our population models. We recommend additional mule deer and moose population data be obtained.

  17. Effect of inclusion of salmon roe on characteristics of salmon baby food products.

    PubMed

    DeSantos, F A; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

    2010-05-01

    Baby food was formulated from sockeye salmon (puree alone, puree + chunks, puree + pink row, puree + pink row + chunks, puree + red row, puree + red roe + chunks). In the 1st study, physical (pH, instrumental color, water activity) and descriptive sensory (odor, flavor, texture, visual color) characteristics were determined. Samples containing roe were lighter and less red (by approximately 3 to 4 a* units) than formulations without roe regardless of the type of roe added. Visual pink color followed the same trend. Formulations with roe, both pink and sockeye, were almost twice as fibrous as formulations without roe. Salmon flavor was stronger in samples containing roe from sockeye salmon. In the 2nd study, retort processed samples were stored at room temperature for 6 mo. Sweaty odor decreased over storage time. Visual cream-brown color correlated with L*, a*, b*, and chroma values (r =-0.80, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively). TBARS values of all samples were < 0.35 mg MDA/kg and declined after month 0 indicating that these products were oxidatively stable. Overall, adding roe to these products lightened them and increased fibrous texture. Samples containing sockeye salmon roe had stronger salmon flavor. Once retort processed, these products were quite stable in terms of color, odor, and TBARS. Potential nutrient contributions of this type of product to the infant diet warrant additional research.

  18. Delayed density-dependent prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibody in Montana deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and implications for human disease risk.

    PubMed

    Madhav, Nita K; Wagoner, Kent D; Douglass, Richard J; Mills, James N

    2007-01-01

    American hantaviruses cause a severe respiratory disease known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). In the United States, Sin Nombre virus (SNV), carried by the deer mouse ( Peromyscus maniculatus), is the etiologic agent in the majority of HPS cases. The relationship between deer mouse population density and SNV infection prevalence in deer mice is poorly understood. Our purpose was to clarify this relationship by demonstrating the existence of delayed-density-dependent prevalence of SNV infection in populations of wild deer mice. We also explored the relationship between SNV infection in deer mouse populations and the incidence of human HPS. The study population was 3,616 deer mice captured on 10 mark-recapture grids in Montana during May and September, 1994-2004. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found a strong association between deer mouse population density in fall (September) and SNV antibody prevalence in deer mice the following spring (May). Other characteristics associated with SNV infection in deer mice in spring were: (1) presence of at least one infected deer mouse in the population the previous fall, (2) male gender, (3) adult age class, (4) presence of scars, (5) grassland and logged habitats, and (6) elevations below 1,300 m. There was a strong association between concurrently measured SNV antibody prevalence in deer mice and probable exposure of human HPS cases during the same time period. Human cases were more likely to occur during seasons when SNV antibody prevalence was at least 10% in deer mouse populations. These findings suggest that fall rodent population parameters could be used to help guide prevention efforts the following spring.

  19. The impact of past introductions on an iconic and economically important species, the red deer of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Espona, Sílvia; Hall, Richard J; Pérez-Barbería, F Javier; Glass, Belinda C; Ward, Jamie F; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2013-01-01

    The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is an iconic species in Scotland and, due to its value as a game species, an important element of the Scottish rural economy. The native status of this species is sometimes questioned because of many recorded introductions of nonnative deer in the past that were an attempt to improve trophy size. In this study, we assessed the impact of past introductions on the genetic makeup of Scottish red deer by genotyping at 15 microsatellite loci a large number of samples (n = 1152), including mainland and island Scottish red deer and individuals from several putative external source populations used in introductions to improve trophy size. Population structure and introgression assessment analyses revealed that the impact of introductions was weak in Highland red deer populations but more prominent on the islands, especially on those where current red deer populations are mostly or entirely derived from introductions (Harris & Lewis, Arran, and Rum). Frequent imports of Central-Eastern European red deer into English deer parks were reflected in the higher genetic introgression values found in some of the individuals collected in parks.

  20. Beliefs and attitudes toward lethal management of deer in Cuyahoga Valley National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, D.C.; Skerl, K.; Shank, E.M.; Lime, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used the theory of reasoned action to help understand attitudes and beliefs about lethal management of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CVNP), Ohio. We used a mail-back survey to collect data from Ohio residents in the surrounding 9-county area. Two strata were defined: residents <10 km from CVNP (near n = 369) and residents =10 km from CVNP (far n = 312). Respondents indicated that lethal control of deer was acceptable (near 71%??4.7%, far 62%??5.5%) and taking no action to reduce deer populations was unacceptable (near 75%??4.5%, far 72%??5.1%). Beliefs about outcomes of lethal control and evaluation of those outcomes proved to be strong predictors of the acceptability of lethal control of deer in CVNP. Lethal control was more acceptable if it was done to prevent severe consequences for humans (e.g., spread of disease, car collisions) or the natural environment (e.g., maintain a healthy deer herd) than to prevent negative aesthetic impacts or personal property damage. Results from the study can be used to assist managers at CVNP as they make decisions regarding alternatives for deer management in the park and to inform others managing abundant deer populations of socially relevant impacts of management actions.

  1. Characteristics and migration patterns of mule deer on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.R.; Cooper, J.

    1985-04-01

    When NTS deer migrate, the majority of the animals stay within the confines of the NTS or the Nellis Bombing Range, and present little potential for radiation transport off the NTS. Also, the few deer that leave the NTS area do so during the winter when they cannot legally be hunted in Nevada. The one exception from the apparent migration pattern was a buck that was followed by telemetry until the end of April, when the animal could no longer be located, and was harvested the following fall in the Kawich Peak area about 120.9 km (75 mi.) northwest of the study area. The makeup of the deer herds on the NTS is quite different from that of deer in offsite areas. The large buck population indicates that an aged pristine herd exists on the NTS. In general, it should be noted that the deer populations are tied to the available water sources, although a vast area of excellent deer range is present but unavailable to the deer because of the lack of available water sources. This range condition has been maintained because of the periodic changes of available water due to construction activity, therefore resulting in a browsing rest rotation system. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  2. The impact of Sika deer on vegetation in Japan: setting management priorities on a national scale.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Haruka; Yoshikawa, Masato; Oono, Keiichi; Tanaka, Norihisa; Hatase, Yoriko; Murakami, Yuhide

    2014-09-01

    Irreversible shifts in ecosystems caused by large herbivores are becoming widespread around the world. We analyzed data derived from the 2009-2010 Sika Deer Impact Survey, which assessed the geographical distribution of deer impacts on vegetation through a questionnaire, on a scale of 5-km grid-cells. Our aim was to identify areas facing irreversible ecosystem shifts caused by deer overpopulation and in need of management prioritization. Our results demonstrated that the areas with heavy impacts on vegetation were widely distributed across Japan from north to south and from the coastal to the alpine areas. Grid-cells with heavy impacts are especially expanding in the southwestern part of the Pacific side of Japan. The intensity of deer impacts was explained by four factors: (1) the number of 5-km grid-cells with sika deer in neighboring 5 km-grid-cells in 1978 and 2003, (2) the year sika deer were first recorded in a grid-cell, (3) the number of months in which maximum snow depth exceeded 50 cm, and (4) the proportion of urban areas in a particular grid-cell. Based on our model, areas with long-persistent deer populations, short snow periods, and fewer urban areas were predicted to be the most vulnerable to deer impact. Although many areas matching these criteria already have heavy deer impact, there are some areas that remain only slightly impacted. These areas may need to be designated as having high management priority because of the possibility of a rapid intensification of deer impact.

  3. The Impact of Sika Deer on Vegetation in Japan: Setting Management Priorities on a National Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Haruka; Yoshikawa, Masato; Oono, Keiichi; Tanaka, Norihisa; Hatase, Yoriko; Murakami, Yuhide

    2014-09-01

    Irreversible shifts in ecosystems caused by large herbivores are becoming widespread around the world. We analyzed data derived from the 2009-2010 Sika Deer Impact Survey, which assessed the geographical distribution of deer impacts on vegetation through a questionnaire, on a scale of 5-km grid-cells. Our aim was to identify areas facing irreversible ecosystem shifts caused by deer overpopulation and in need of management prioritization. Our results demonstrated that the areas with heavy impacts on vegetation were widely distributed across Japan from north to south and from the coastal to the alpine areas. Grid-cells with heavy impacts are especially expanding in the southwestern part of the Pacific side of Japan. The intensity of deer impacts was explained by four factors: (1) the number of 5-km grid-cells with sika deer in neighboring 5 km-grid-cells in 1978 and 2003, (2) the year sika deer were first recorded in a grid-cell, (3) the number of months in which maximum snow depth exceeded 50 cm, and (4) the proportion of urban areas in a particular grid-cell. Based on our model, areas with long-persistent deer populations, short snow periods, and fewer urban areas were predicted to be the most vulnerable to deer impact. Although many areas matching these criteria already have heavy deer impact, there are some areas that remain only slightly impacted. These areas may need to be designated as having high management priority because of the possibility of a rapid intensification of deer impact.

  4. Survival and harvest-related mortality of white-tailed deer in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mcdonald, John E.; Destefano, Stephen; Gaughan, Christopher; Mayer, Michael; Woytek, William A.; Christensen, Sonja; Fuller, Todd K.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored 142 radiocollared adult (≥1.0 yr old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 study areas of Massachusetts, USA, to estimate annual survival and mortality due to legal hunting. We then applied these rates to deer harvest information to estimate deer population trends over time, and compared these to trends derived solely from harvest data estimates. Estimated adult female survival rates were similar (0.82–0.86), and uniformly high, across 3 management zones in Massachusetts that differed in landscape composition, human density, and harvest regulations. Legal hunting accounted for 16–29% of all adult female mortality. Estimated adult male survival rates varied from 0.55 to 0.79, and legal hunting accounted for 40–75% of all mortality. Use of composite hunting mortality rates produced realistic estimates for adult deer populations in 2 zones, but not for the third, where estimation was hindered by regulatory restrictions on antlerless deer harvest. In addition, the population estimates we calculated were generally higher than those derived from population reconstruction, likely due to relatively low harvest pressure. Legal harvest may not be the dominant form of deer mortality in developed landscapes; thus, estimates of populations or trends that rely solely on harvest data will likely be underestimates.

  5. Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Grund, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  6. Of elephants and blind men: Deer management in the U.S. National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    Overabundant populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are becoming common in the eastern United States. Faced with burgeoning deer populations in eastern parks, the National Park Service (NPS) formulated policy based on its long experience with ungulate management in western parks. That the NPS failed to find a management solution acceptable to its many constituencies was inevitable. Like blind men touching different parts of an elephant and disagreeing about its form, those engaged in the debate about deer management in parks are viewing different parts of the ecological system. None has seen the entire system, and consequently, there is neither common agreement on the nature of the problem nor on the solutions. We explore the quandary of deer management in eastern parks by addressing three questions: (1) Can the National Park Service reconcile its management goals with those of its neighbors? (2) Can thresholds be identified for determining when to intervene in natural processes? (3) Is there a scientific foundation for proceeding with effective management of deer? We argue that reconciling the NPS management with that of state conservation agencies is not possible because management policy guides these agencies in opposite directions: the NPS is charged with limiting human impact on ecological processes, and state agencies are charged with exerting human control over population abundance. Questions about thresholds and a scientific basis for management arise from concern that irrupting deer populations are a manifestation of disrupted natural processes. Several population growth paradigms are at the heart of this ecological question. The science provides no consensus about which of these paradigms are appropriate to deer in eastern ecosystems. Thus, it is premature to expect science to identify if or when natural processes have been disrupted. While the NPS cannot effectively achieve its goals without better science, neither can it wait for

  7. Habitat Selection by Eld’s Deer following Relocation to a Patchy Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Duo; Song, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Zhi-Gao; Bravery, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging issue in wildlife conservation is the re-establishment of viable populations of endangered species in suitable habitats. Here, we studied habitat selection by a population of Hainan Eld’s deer (Cervus eldi) relocated to a patchy landscape of farmland and forest. Hainan Eld’s deer were pushed to the brink of extinction in the 1970s, but their population expanded rapidly from 26 to more than 1000 individuals by 2003 through effective reserve protection. As part of a wider relocation and population management strategy, 131 deer were removed from the reserve and reintroduced into a farmland-forest landscape in 2005. Habitat use under a context of human disturbance was surveyed by monitoring 19 radio-collared animals. The majority of deer locations (77%) were within 0.6–2 km of villages. Annual home ranges of these collared deer averaged 725 ha (SD 436), which was 55% of the size of the reserve from which they had originated. The annual home ranges contained 54% shrub-grassland, 26% forest and 15% farmland. The relocated deer population selected landscape comprising slash-and-burn agriculture and forest, and avoided both intensively farmed areas and areas containing only forest. Within the selected landscape, deer preferred swiddens and shrub-grasslands. Forests above 300 m in elevation were avoided, whereas forests below 300 m in elevation were overrepresented during the dry season and randomly used during the wet season. Our findings show that reintroduced deer can utilize disturbed habitats, and further demonstrate that subsistence agroforest ecosystems have the capacity to sustain endangered ungulates. PMID:24614039

  8. Habitat selection by Eld's deer following relocation to a patchy landscape.

    PubMed

    Pan, Duo; Song, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Zhi-Gao; Bravery, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    An emerging issue in wildlife conservation is the re-establishment of viable populations of endangered species in suitable habitats. Here, we studied habitat selection by a population of Hainan Eld's deer (Cervus eldi) relocated to a patchy landscape of farmland and forest. Hainan Eld's deer were pushed to the brink of extinction in the 1970s, but their population expanded rapidly from 26 to more than 1000 individuals by 2003 through effective reserve protection. As part of a wider relocation and population management strategy, 131 deer were removed from the reserve and reintroduced into a farmland-forest landscape in 2005. Habitat use under a context of human disturbance was surveyed by monitoring 19 radio-collared animals. The majority of deer locations (77%) were within 0.6-2 km of villages. Annual home ranges of these collared deer averaged 725 ha (SD 436), which was 55% of the size of the reserve from which they had originated. The annual home ranges contained 54% shrub-grassland, 26% forest and 15% farmland. The relocated deer population selected landscape comprising slash-and-burn agriculture and forest, and avoided both intensively farmed areas and areas containing only forest. Within the selected landscape, deer preferred swiddens and shrub-grasslands. Forests above 300 m in elevation were avoided, whereas forests below 300 m in elevation were overrepresented during the dry season and randomly used during the wet season. Our findings show that reintroduced deer can utilize disturbed habitats, and further demonstrate that subsistence agroforest ecosystems have the capacity to sustain endangered ungulates.

  9. Isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) confirms their role as natural reservoir hosts.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, J M; Davidson, W R; Stallknecht, D E; Dawson, J E; Howerth, E W

    1997-07-01

    Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular, cell culture, and xenodiagnostic methods. Twenty-seven deer (77%) had E. chaffeensis-reactive indirect fluorescent-antibody assay titers of > or = 1:64; and the blood, spleens, or lymph nodes of seven (20%) deer were positive in a nested PCR assay with E. chaffeensis-specific primers. E. chaffeensis was isolated in DH82 cell cultures from the blood of five (14%) deer, including two deer that were PCR negative. Combination of culture and PCR results indicated that six (17%) deer were probably rickettsemic and that nine (26%) were probably infected. Restriction digestion of PCR products amplified from deer tissues and cell culture isolates resulted in a banding pattern consistent with the E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA gene sequence. The sequences of all PCR products from deer tissues or cell culture isolates were identical to the sequence of the Arkansas type strain of E. chaffeensis. Xenodiagnosis with C3H mice inoculated intraperitoneally with deer blood, spleen, or lymph node suspensions was unsuccessful. When viewed in the context of previous studies, these findings provide strong evidence that E. chaffeensis is maintained in nature primarily by a tick vector-vertebrate reservoir system consisting of lone star ticks and white-tailed deer.

  10. White-tailed deer harvest from the chronic wasting disease eradication zone in south-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Sausen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin in 2002. The current control method for CWD in the state is the harvest of deer from affected areas to reduce population density and lower CWD transmission. We used spatial regression methods to identify factors associated with deer harvest across south-central Wisconsin. Harvest of deer by hunters was positively related to deer density (slope=0.003, 95% CI=0.0001-0.006), the number of landowners that requested harvest permits (slope=0.071, 95% CI=0.037-0.105), and proximity to the area of highest CWD infection (slope=-0.041, 95% CI=-0.056- -0.027). Concomitantly, harvest was not impacted in areas where landowners signed a petition protesting intensive deer reduction (slope=-0.00006, 95% CI=-0.0005-0.0003). Our results suggest that the success of programs designed to reduce deer populations for disease control or to reduce overabundance in Wisconsin are dependent on landowner and hunter participation. We recommend that programs or actions implemented to eradicate or mitigate the spread of CWD should monitor and assess deer population reduction and evaluate factors affecting program success to improve methods to meet management goals.

  11. Candidate adaptive genes associated with lineage divergence: identifying SNPs via next-generation targeted resequencing in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Powell, John H; Amish, Stephen J; Haynes, Gwilym D; Luikart, Gordon; Latch, Emily K

    2016-09-01

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an excellent nonmodel species for empirically testing hypotheses in landscape and population genomics due to their large population sizes (low genetic drift), relatively continuous distribution, diversity of occupied habitats and phenotypic variation. Because few genomic resources are currently available for this species, we used exon data from a cattle (Bos taurus) reference genome to direct targeted resequencing of 5935 genes in mule deer. We sequenced approximately 3.75 Mbp at minimum 20X coverage in each of the seven mule deer, identifying 23 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within, or adjacent to, 6886 exons in 3559 genes. We found 91 SNP loci (from 69 genes) with putatively fixed allele frequency differences between the two major lineages of mule deer (mule deer and black-tailed deer), and our estimate of mean genetic divergence (genome-wide FST  = 0.123) between these lineages was consistent with previous findings using microsatellite loci. We detected an over-representation of gamete generation and amino acid transport genes among the genes with SNPs exhibiting potentially fixed allele frequency differences between lineages. This targeted resequencing approach using exon capture techniques has identified a suite of loci that can be used in future research to investigate the genomic basis of adaptation and differentiation between black-tailed deer and mule deer. This study also highlights techniques (and an exon capture array) that will facilitate population genomic research in other cervids and nonmodel organisms.

  12. Effect of temperature and salt on thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a potentially fatal foodborne pathogen that can be found in ready-to-eat seafood products, such as fresh salmon roe. Once contaminated, salmon roe must be decontaminated prior to human consumption. This study was conducted to determine the thermal inactivation kinetics of...

  13. Midwifery on Trial: Balancing Privacy Rights and Health Concerns after "Roe v. Wade"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Mary M.

    2003-01-01

    Because "Roe v. Wade" left ill-defined or derivative just who could be a medical caregiver for pregnant women, courts struggled in the post-Roe medico-legal environment to decide just who could be a medical advisor in this newly recognized zone of privacy. The courts also were challenged to balance individual privacy rights, state…

  14. Response to the Publican Using the Perspective Provided by Anne Roe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Colleen; Bradley, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the interview with the Publican in the previous article, based on Roe's theory on the factors that influence personality and, therefore, career choice. Analyzes the interview data in terms of Roe's propositions regarding genetic inheritance, environmental factors, early childhood interactions with parents, patterns of psychic energies,…

  15. Tuberculosis, genetic diversity and fitness in the red deer, Cervus elaphus.

    PubMed

    Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Alves, Paulo C; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how genetic diversity, infections and fitness interact in wild populations is a major challenge in ecology and management. These interactions were addressed through heterozygosity-fitness correlation analyses, by assessing the genetic diversity, tuberculosis (TB) and body size in adult red deer. Heterozygosity-fitness correlation models provided a better understanding of the link between genetic diversity and TB at individual and population levels. A single local effect was found for Ceh45 locus at individual level, enhancing the importance of its close functional genes in determining TB presence. At population level, the ability of the red deer to control TB progression correlated positively with population genetic diversity, indicating that inbred populations might represent more risk of deer TB severity. Statistical models also gained insights into the dynamics of multi-host interaction in natural environments. TB prevalence in neighbouring wild boar populations was positively associated with deer TB at both individual and population levels. Additionally, TB presence correlated positively with red deer body size, for which "general and local effect" hypotheses were found. Although body size might be correlated with age, an indirect genetic effect on TB presence could be implied. This study provides new insights towards understanding host-pathogen interactions in wild populations and their relation to fitness traits.

  16. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively.

  17. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively. PMID:28231142

  18. Control of Ticks on White-tailed Deer and Other Ungulate Wildlife - Host-targeted Control of Field Populations of Blacklegged and Lone Star Ticks to Reduce the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the continuing progression of blacklegged ticks and the agents causing Lyme disease from infestations in Maryland southward into Virginia, many citizens living in northern Virginia have asked the Governor for ARS-Patented ‘4-Poster’ Deer Treatment Stations to be deployed as an aid in reducing t...

  19. Detection of relapsing fever spirochetes (Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia coriaceae) in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Nevada, United States.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Teglas, Mike B; Stewart, Kelley M; Wasley, Tony; Wolff, Peregrine L

    2012-02-01

    Surveillance of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Rafinesque, 1917) populations for tick-borne diseases has helped define the distribution of these pathogens and their subsequent risk of transmission to humans and domestic animals. We surveyed three mule deer herds across the state of Nevada for infection with relapsing fever Borrelia spp. spirochetes. Bacterial prevalence varied by the county where deer were sampled but Borrelia spirochetes were detected in 7.7% of all deer sampled. Infected deer were identified in every location from which mule deer samples were obtained. Sequencing of the Borrelia intergenic spacer gene (IGS) revealed that one individual was infected with Borrelia coriaceae and all others were infected with Borrelia hermsii. The vector of B. hermsii, Ornithodoros hermsi (Acari: Argasidae, Wheeler, Herms, and Meyer, 1935), feeds primarily on wild rodents and has not been identified infesting deer. Additionally, Ornithodoros coriaceus (Acari: Argasidae, Koch, 1844), which readily feeds on deer and is frequently infected with B. coriaceae, has not been shown to be a competent vector for B. hermsii. Our data represent the first sylvatic evidence of B. hermsii infection in mule deer. Additionally, our data provide evidence that infection with relapsing fever spirochetes in Nevada is wide ranging in the state's deer populations.

  20. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans.

  1. Effect of deer exclusion by fencing on abundance of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) on Fire Island, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Butler, M.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of deer exclusion on northern populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, were tested at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, USA, where densities of this species have increased recently. Game fencing was erected to exclude deer from two sites of roughly one ha each, and populations of nymphal and adult A. americanum within were compared with those at control sites outside the exclosures. Percent control of nymphs within vs. outside the exclosures averaged 48.4% in the four years post-treatment, compared to pretreatment values. Percent control varied markedly in different years, suggesting that factors in addition to deer densities had strong effects on population densities of A. americanum. Exclosures of this size did not control adult A. americanum. Effects of deer exclusion in this recently expanded northern population of A. americanum were similar to those that have been reported for southern populations of this species.

  2. Effect of deer exclusion by fencing on abundance of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) on Fire Island, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Howard S; Butler, Mari; Zhioua, Elyes

    2002-12-01

    The effects of deer exclusion on northern populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, were tested at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, USA, where densities of this species have increased recently. Game fencing was erected to exclude deer from two sites of roughly one ha each, and populations of nymphal and adult A. americanum within were compared with those at control sites outside the exclosures. Percent control of nymphs within vs. outside the exclosures averaged 48.4% in the four years post-treatment, compared to pretreatment values. Percent control varied markedly in different years, suggesting that factors in addition to deer densities had strong effects on population densities of A. americanum. Exclosures of this size did not control adult A. americanum. Effects of deer exclusion in this recently expanded northern population of A. americanum were similar to those that have been reported for southern populations of this species.

  3. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Elizabeth J; Chips, Michael J; Carson, Walter P; Rooney, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7-12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread.

  4. Deer herbivory reduces web-building spider abundance by simplifying forest vegetation structure

    PubMed Central

    Chips, Michael J.; Carson, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect ecological effects are a common feature of ecological systems, arising when one species affects interactions among two or more other species. We examined how browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) indirectly affected the abundance and composition of a web-building spider guild through their effects on the structure of the ground and shrub layers of northern hardwood forests. We examined paired plots consisting of deer-free and control plots in the Allegheny Plateau region Pennsylvania and Northern Highlands region of Wisconsin. We recorded the abundance of seven types of webs, each corresponding to a family of web-building spiders. We quantified vegetation structure and habitat suitability for the spiders by computing a web scaffold availability index (WSAI) at 0.5 m and 1.0 m above the ground. At Northern Highlands sites, we recorded prey availability. Spider webs were twice as abundant in deer-free plots compared to control plots, while WSAI was 7–12 times greater in deerfree plots. Prey availability was lower in deer-free plots. With the exception of funnel web-builders, all spider web types were significantly more abundant in deer-free plots. Both deer exclusion and the geographic region of plots were significant predictors of spider community structure. In closed canopy forests with high browsing pressure, the low density of tree saplings and shrubs provides few locations for web-building spiders to anchor webs. Recruitment of these spiders may become coupled with forest disturbance events that increase tree and shrub recruitment. By modifying habitat structure, deer appear to indirectly modify arthropod food web interactions. As deer populations have increased in eastern North America over the past several decades, the effects of deer on web-building spiders may be widespread. PMID:27703868

  5. Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) x red deer (C. elaphus) interspecies hybrids.

    PubMed

    Muir, P D; Semiadi, G; Asher, G W; Broad, T E; Tate, M L; Barry, T N

    1997-01-01

    The artificial insemination of 400 red deer hinds with sambar deer semen resulted in 31 pregnancies at day 40 (24 at day 100) and the birth of four calves. Only one female calf was born alive. The artificial insemination of 10 sambar deer hinds with red deer semen resulted in five pregnancies at day 40, of which none went to term. Gel electrophoresis of three blood proteins confirmed the live calf as the first documented sambar deer x red deer hydrid. G-banded karyotypes were consistent with the calf (2n = 62; six unpaired and one paired metacentric autosomes) being the offspring of a red deer dam (2n = 68; single pair of metacentric autosomes) and a sambar deer sire (2n = 56; seven pairs of metacentric autosomes).

  6. Capture-recapture of white-tailed deer using DNA from fecal pellet-groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Matthew J; Beaver, Jared T; Muller, Lisa I; Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Harper, Craig T; Basinger, P Seth

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods for estimating white-tailed deer population size and density are affected by behavioral biases, poor detection in densely forested areas, and invalid techniques for estimating effective trapping area. We evaluated a noninvasive method of capture—recapture for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density estimation using DNA extracted from fecal pellets as an individual marker and for gender determination, coupled with a spatial detection function to estimate density (spatially explicit capture—recapture, SECR). We collected pellet groups from 11 to 22 January 2010 at randomly selected sites within a 1-km2 area located on Arnold Air Force Base in Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee. We searched 703 10-m radius plots and collected 352 pellet-group samples from 197 plots over five two-day sampling intervals. Using only the freshest pellets we recorded 140 captures of 33 different animals (15M:18F). Male and female densities were 1.9 (SE = 0.8) and 3.8 (SE = 1.3) deer km-2, or a total density of 5.8 deer km-2 (14.9 deer mile-2). Population size was 20.8 (SE = 7.6) over a 360-ha area, and sex ratio was 1.0 M: 2.0 F (SE = 0.71). We found DNA sampling from pellet groups improved deer abundance, density and sex ratio estimates in contiguous landscapes which could be used to track responses to harvest or other management actions.

  7. The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 (Acari, Demodecidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Kozina, Paulina; Fryderyk, Sławomira

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 was examined and compared in red deer coming from different populations--25 red deer from northern Poland (Masurian Lake District) and 25 from southern Poland (Lower Silesia). The total prevalence of infestation in red deer by D. kutzeri was 52% with the mean intensity of 38 individuals and the intensity range of 1-135. Parameters of infestation for red deer from northern Poland were much higher (68%, 49), while for other red deer--lower (36%, 16). Demodectic mites D. kutzeri are associated with common hair follicles, therefore they can be found in different parts of the body, however most of the specimens were found in the head skin. Regardless of the location and the infestation rate (including density of mites in the skin), infestations were not accompanied by symptoms of demodecosis.

  8. Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) courtship and mating behavior

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758), is a South American grazing deer categorized as "near threatened". However, knowledge about pampas deer behavior including courtship and mating is scarce and incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize the courtship and mating behavior of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), an endangered species from South America. Methods We performed focal observations of 5 males allocated at the Estación de Cría de Fauna Autóctona Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Uruguay, 4 times a day from 5 to 20 minutes each time on a daily basis from February to May. During that period we recorded all courtship and mating behaviors, as well as quantified the frequency of the specific behaviors shown. As mating were rarely observed, we recorded that behavior when it was observed in the context of other studies performed in the same population during the following 2 years. Results During the observation period we recorded 928 courtships and 5 mating periods. In addition, we recorded 10 more matings performed during other studies, totaling 15. The duration of each mating calculated from the 15 recordings was 3.9 ± 0.4 s, and the total period of female receptivity (from first to last mating acceptance) was 8.2 ± 1.1 min. Main observed courtship behaviors in males were “chase” and “ostentation”, while the most observed close to mating were “chinning”, “raised head” and “anogenital sniffing”. The most observed behaviors in females during the mating period were “vulva exhibition” and “move away”. Conclusion This is the first detailed report in pampas deer mating behavior. Estrus lasted only 8 min accepting only 3 short copulations per estrus. However, female behavior during courtship can be characterized as highly proceptive. PMID:23062236

  9. Survival of Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Jackson, Dewaine H.; Wolfe, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus; CWTD) are an endangered subspecies on which little demographic information exists. We determined survival rates and causes of mortality for 64 radiocol- lared adults from 1996 to 1998, and for 63 radiocollared neonatal fawns during the summer and fall months of 1996-2001 in Douglas County, Oregon, USA. Annual adult survival rates averaged 0.74 over 3 years, and most mor- tality (73%) occurred between fall and winter. Seasonal survival was lowest (0.75) for the fall-winter 1997-1998, and was 20.90 during all spring-summer periods. Annual and seasonal survival rates did not differ by gender. Average annual survival was 0.77 for deer in wildland areas compared with 0.66 for deer in suburban areas, but these dif- ferences were not consistent between years and seasons. Survival over the entire 3-year study was low (0.38). Eight deer died from a combination of emaciation and disease, and almost all (92%) necropsied deer were in poor body condition. Fawn survival to 7 months was low (0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.26) and declined most rapidly during the first 1.5 months of life. Predation (n = 21) and abandonment (n = 6) were the most frequent known causes of death for fawns. Our results suggest that CWTD may have responded to density-dependent factors during this short-term study, although the effects of other environmental or intrinsic factors cannot be ignored. Fawn survival may be insufficient to produce enough recruits for population growth and eventual range expansion.

  10. Draft Anaplasma phagocytophilum Genome Sequences from Five Cows, Two Horses, and One Roe Deer Collected in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Dugat, Thibaud; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; Rué, Olivier; Loux, Valentin; Marthey, Sylvain; Moroldo, Marco; Silaghi, Cornelia; Höper, Dirk; Fröhlich, Julia; Pfeffer, Martin; Zweygarth, Erich; Lagrée, Anne-Claire; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic tick-borne intracellular bacterium responsible for granulocytic anaplasmosis. As it is difficult to isolate and cultivate, only 20 A. phagocytophilum genomes have been sequenced to date. Here, we present eight A. phagocytophilum genome sequences obtained using alternative approaches based on sequence capture technology. PMID:27908984

  11. Wolf reintroduction to Scotland: public attitudes and consequences for red deer management.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Milner-Gulland, E J; Schofield, Lee; Mysterud, Atle; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Coulson, Tim

    2007-04-07

    Reintroductions are important tools for the conservation of individual species, but recently more attention has been paid to the restoration of ecosystem function, and to the importance of carrying out a full risk assessment prior to any reintroduction programme. In much of the Highlands of Scotland, wolves (Canis lupus) were eradicated by 1769, but there are currently proposals for them to be reintroduced. Their main wild prey if reintroduced would be red deer (Cervus elaphus). Red deer are themselves a contentious component of the Scottish landscape. They support a trophy hunting industry but are thought to be close to carrying capacity, and are believed to have a considerable economic and ecological impact. High deer densities hamper attempts to reforest, reduce bird densities and compete with livestock for grazing. Here, we examine the probable consequences for the red deer population of reintroducing wolves into the Scottish Highlands using a structured Markov predator-prey model. Our simulations suggest that reintroducing wolves is likely to generate conservation benefits by lowering deer densities. It would also free deer estates from the financial burden of costly hind culls, which are required in order to achieve the Deer Commission for Scotland's target deer densities. However, a reintroduced wolf population would also carry costs, particularly through increased livestock mortality. We investigated perceptions of the costs and benefits of wolf reintroductions among rural and urban communities in Scotland and found that the public are generally positive to the idea. Farmers hold more negative attitudes, but far less negative than the organizations that represent them.

  12. Microsatellites indicate minimal barriers to mule deer Odocoileus hemionus dispersal across Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John H. Powell,; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Megan D. Higgs,; Michael R. Ebinger,; Vu, Ninh V.; Cross, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the future spread of chronic wasting disease, we conducted a genetic assessment of mule deer Odocoileus hemionus population structure across the state of Montana, USA. Individual based analyses were used to test for population structure in the absence of a priori designations of population membership across the sampling area. Samples from the states of Wyoming, Colorado and Utah were also included in the analysis to provide a geographic context to the levels of population structure observed within Montana. Results showed that mule deer across our entire study region were characterized by weak isolation by distance and a lack of spatial autocorrelation at distances > 10 km. We found evidence for contemporary male bias in dispersal, with female mule deer exhibiting higher mean individual pairwise genetic distance than males. We tested for potential homogenizing effects of past translocations within Montana, but were unable to detect a genetic signature of these events. Our results indicate high levels of connectivity among mule deer populations in Montana and suggest few, if any, detectable barriers to mule deer gene flow or chronic wasting disease transmission.

  13. Reproductive Rights Activism in the Post-Roe Era

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Since the US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion (Roe v Wade), there has been a constant and broad attack on all aspects of women’s reproductive and parenting rights. The consequences have been devastating, especially for women whose race, age, legal, or economic status makes them targets of discrimination. At the same time, these threats have galvanized activism. There has been tremendous growth in the number of organizations and coalitions working to protect abortion rights, as well as advocating a broader reproductive rights, health, and justice agenda. This article describes the major activist trends in this period, focusing primarily on those that have been less visible. Documenting activist history allows us to draw inspiration and important lessons for the future. PMID:23153156

  14. A simple extension of Roe's scheme for real gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabi, Sina; Trépanier, Jean-Yves; Camarero, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a highly accurate numerical algorithm to model real gas flows in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The Euler equations are solved using a finite volume method based on Roe's flux difference splitting scheme including real gas effects. A novel algorithm is proposed to calculate the Jacobian matrix which satisfies the flux difference splitting exactly in the average state for a general equation of state. This algorithm increases the robustness and accuracy of the method, especially around the contact discontinuities and shock waves where the gas properties jump appreciably. The results are compared with an exact solution of the Riemann problem for the shock tube which considers the real gas effects. In addition, the method is applied to a blunt cone to illustrate the capability of the proposed extension in solving two dimensional flows.

  15. Reproductive rights activism in the post-Roe era.

    PubMed

    Fried, Marlene Gerber

    2013-01-01

    Since the US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion (Roe v Wade), there has been a constant and broad attack on all aspects of women's reproductive and parenting rights. The consequences have been devastating, especially for women whose race, age, legal, or economic status makes them targets of discrimination. At the same time, these threats have galvanized activism. There has been tremendous growth in the number of organizations and coalitions working to protect abortion rights, as well as advocating a broader reproductive rights, health, and justice agenda. This article describes the major activist trends in this period, focusing primarily on those that have been less visible. Documenting activist history allows us to draw inspiration and important lessons for the future.

  16. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    http://geology.deq.state.ms.us/coastal/NOAA_DATA/ Publications/Presentations/ Harrison /MAS_DeerIslandGeology_Pres.pdf. Accessed 2 February 2013. U.S... Harrison County, Mississippi. USACE, Mobile District (USACE SAM). 2010. Post-Authorization Change Report - Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration, Deer Island... Harrison County, Mississippi. USACE, Mobile District (USACE SAM). 2013. Design Documentation Report – Deer Island Breach Repair and Planting, Harrison County, Mississippi.

  17. DEER Distance Measurements on Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Gunnar

    2012-05-01

    Distance distributions between paramagnetic centers in the range of 1.8 to 6 nm in membrane proteins and up to 10 nm in deuterated soluble proteins can be measured by the DEER technique. The number of paramagnetic centers and their relative orientation can be characterized. DEER does not require crystallization and is not limited with respect to the size of the protein or protein complex. Diamagnetic proteins are accessible by site-directed spin labeling. To characterize structure or structural changes, experimental protocols were optimized and techniques for artifact suppression were introduced. Data analysis programs were developed, and it was realized that interpretation of the distance distributions must take into account the conformational distribution of spin labels. First methods have appeared for deriving structural models from a small number of distance constraints. The present scope and limitations of the technique are illustrated.

  18. An assessment of zoonotic and production limiting pathogens in rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Jori, F; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Potts, A D; Jaumally, M R; Sauzier, J; Roger, M

    2014-08-01

    A population of approximately 70,000 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) represents the most important mammal species reared for food on the island of Mauritius, being the main source of red meat for the local population. However, very limited information is available on the circulation of pathogens affecting the productivity and health of this species. To produce baseline data on the circulation of infectious pathogens in rusa deer under production, a serological survey and/or direct pathogen detection for six selected infectious diseases was undertaken in 2007 in a sample of 53% of the herds reared in semi-free-ranging conditions in hunting estates. Seropositive results were recorded for Johne's disease with an indirect ELISA test (1.7%, n = 351), heartwater with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (95.5%, n = 178) and leptospirosis with a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) (25.9%, n = 363). Significant associations were found between seroprevalence to some of the leptospiral serogroups detected (Tarassovi, Pomona, Sejroe and Mini) and age of the animals, animal density or location of the estates (being more prevalent in hotter and more humid areas). In addition, Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were confirmed in two deer carcasses by culture and PCR, respectively. No antibodies against Brucella spp. nor Rift Valley Fever virus were detected with the use of respective indirect ELISA's. The results obtained suggest that the population of rusa deer from Mauritius is exposed to a wide range of pathogens which may affect their productivity. In addition, the results highlight the potential public health risks incurred by deer industry workers and consumers. This survey fills an important gap in knowledge regarding the health of tropical deer meat in Mauritius and justifies the need to implement more regular surveys of selected pathogens in the deer population.

  19. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer (Cervus nippon) and red deer (Cervus elaphus): deer specificity and zoonotic potential of ITS genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Rongjun; Liu, Weishi; Liu, Aiqin; Yang, Dong; Yang, Fengkun; Karim, Md Robiul; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-11-01

    As the most common cause of the human microsporidiosis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in a wide variety of animal hosts. Deers are the ruminant mammals living in a variety of biomes, and the distribution of deer species differ by geography. To understand the prevalence of natural infection of E. bieneusi in deer and to assess their epidemiological role in the transmission of microsporidiosis caused by E. bieneusi, 91 fecal specimens were collected from 86 sika deers and five red deers in the northeast of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an average infection rate of 31.9% (29/91) was observed in deer, with 32.6% (28/86) for sika deer, and 20% (1/5) for red deer. Six ITS genotypes were identified: one known genotype BEB6 (n = 20) and five novel genotypes HLJD-I to HLJD-IV (one each) and HLJD-V (n = 5). A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that genotypes HLJD-II and HLJD-III fell into group 1 of zoonotic potential, while the other genotypes (BEB6, HLJD-I, HLJD-IV, HLJD-V) were clustered into so-called bovine-specific group 2. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in deer in China. The observation of genotype BEB6 in humans previously and in deer here and also the findings of the two novel genotypes (HLJD-II to HLJ-III) belonging to potential zoonotic group 1 suggested the possibility of deer in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans.

  20. Positioning the red deer (Cervus elaphus) hunted by the Tyrolean Iceman into a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Cristina; Marota, Isolina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Ermini, Luca; Fusco, Letizia; Pietrelli, Alessandro; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco; Luciani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    In the last years several phylogeographic studies of both extant and extinct red deer populations have been conducted. Three distinct mitochondrial lineages (western, eastern and North-African/Sardinian) have been identified reflecting different glacial refugia and postglacial recolonisation processes. However, little is known about the genetics of the Alpine populations and no mitochondrial DNA sequences from Alpine archaeological specimens are available. Here we provide the first mitochondrial sequences of an Alpine Copper Age Cervus elaphus. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the remains of the clothes of the glacier mummy known as the Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350-5,100 years before present). A 2,297 base pairs long fragment was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplifications and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer's haplotype with haplotypes of modern and ancient European red deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotype of the Alpine Copper Age red deer falls within the western European mitochondrial lineage in contrast with the current populations from the Italian Alps belonging to the eastern lineage. We also discussed the phylogenetic relationships of the Alpine Copper Age red deer with the populations from Mesola Wood (northern Italy) and Sardinia.

  1. Applications of mathematical modeling in managing the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild deer under alternative harvesting scenarios.

    PubMed

    Al-Arydah, M; Croteau, M C; Oraby, T; Smith, R J; Krewski, D

    2016-01-01

    The application of a recently developed mathematical model for predicting the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild deer was assessed under different scenarios where harvesting is employed in disease management. A process-based mathematical model for CWD transmission in wild deer populations was recently developed and parameterized by Al-arydah et al. (2011) to provide a scientific basis for understanding the factors that affect spread of CWD and evaluate concomitant disease-control strategies. The impact of gender on CWD transmission was shown to have a significant influence on the spread of the disease in the wild. Our model demonstrates a range of harvesting rates in which CWD is controlled and deer populations survive. However, if harvesting rates are too low, the disease remains endemic for decades. Conversely, the Canadian deer population is eradicated if harvesting rates are excessive. Future investigation includes building the model to assess the spread of CWD under different disease-management scenarios.

  2. Brief for 885 law professors in support of maintaining adherence to the Roe decision.

    PubMed

    Michelman, F I; Redlich, N; Neuwirth, S R; Carty-Bennia, D

    1989-01-01

    This brief opposes the overturn of "Roe v. Wade" and resists weakening "Roe's central holding" that would allow states to overturn legal abortion. The brief was written for 885 law professors. "Roe" was not a "constitutional aberration," or "an exercise of raw, judicial power." Some members of the Supreme Court seem to think that the state has "an overriding interest" in protecting fetal life. Some Court members have questioned "Roe's" trimester framework. A person's decision to abort should be done privately. If women are not free to choose abortion, they will not have equality. There is an absence of "express rights of privacy and procreational freedom" in the Constitution. "Roe" was 1 instance of the Court's recognition of constitutional rights that are not named explicitly. Historical materials are drawn on to show the link between trends in society and the "judicial recognition of unenumerated rights." The most serious questions about "Roe" deal with its trimester framework. Justice Blackmun's majority opinion said that the 1st trimester of pregnancy was personal. "Roe" said that abortions created a medical risk at the beginning of the 2nd trimester. Therefore, the government was more interested in the health of the mother at that time. The state could then regulate abortion "in ways that are reasonable related to maternal health." The start of the 3rd trimester was when the fetus was viable. The right of a woman to end her pregnancy "offends powerful moral forces." Some of "Roe's" critics had their scientific facts wrong. Medical authorities think Justice O'Connor is mistaken when she says that "Roe" is "on a collision course with itself." The 23rd to 24th week of pregnancies where the fetal organs can "sustain life outside the womb." This has not changed since "Roe" was decided in 1973, nor is it likely to in the future. Some "amici" believe that the state can never have an interest in the fetus. The state can not have an interest in the fetus distinct from

  3. An epizootic of hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer in Missouri.

    PubMed

    Beringer, J; Hansen, L P; Stallknecht, D E

    2000-07-01

    As part of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) survival study in Missouri (USA) we were actively monitoring 97 radio-collared deer when 8 (8%) died. This mortality, which occurred from 20 August to 23 September 1996, consisted of five adult females, two yearling females and one yearling male. Based on the seasonality of this mortality and the isolation of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 2 from one of these animals, we believe that these losses resulted from an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease. The remains of five unmarked deer that may have died from HD also were found on the study area during this same period. During the fall following this mortality, we tested serum from 96 deer taken by hunters in the immediate area. Fifteen (16%) were positive for EHDV or bluetongue virus (BTV) antibodies as determined by agar gel immunodiffusion tests. Serum neutralization test results indicated that previous infections were caused by EHDV virus serotype 2. Based on these data, and assuming that there was no prior exposure to EHDV serotype 2 in this population, the exposure rate for this epizootic was 24% of which 8% died. We noted hoof interruptions in only two of the 96 deer sampled. During this mortality event, the Missouri Department of Conservation received no reports of dead deer, and without the radio-monitored animals the event would have been undetected.

  4. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serrano, E.; Cross, P.C.; Beneria, M.; Ficapal, A.; Curia, J.; Marco, X.; Lavin, S.; Marco, I.

    2011-01-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  5. Decreasing prevalence of brucellosis in red deer through efforts to control disease in livestock.

    PubMed

    Serrano, E; Cross, P C; Beneria, M; Ficapal, A; Curia, J; Marco, X; Lavín, S; Marco, I

    2011-10-01

    When a pathogen infects a number of different hosts, the process of determining the relative importance of each host species to the persistence of the pathogen is often complex. Removal of a host species is a potential but rarely possible way of discovering the importance of that species to the dynamics of the disease. This study presents the results of a 12-year programme aimed at controlling brucellosis in cattle, sheep and goats and the cascading impacts on brucellosis in a sympatric population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Boumort National Game Reserve (BNGR; NE Spain). From February 1998 to December 2009, local veterinary agencies tested over 36 180 individual blood samples from cattle, 296 482 from sheep and goats and 1047 from red deer in the study area. All seropositive livestock were removed annually. From 2006 to 2009 brucellosis was not detected in cattle and in 2009 only one of 97 red deer tested was found to be positive. The surveillance and removal of positive domestic animals coincided with a significant decrease in the prevalence of brucellosis in red deer. Our results suggest that red deer may not be able to maintain brucellosis in this region independently of cattle, sheep or goats, and that continued efforts to control disease in livestock may lead to the eventual eradication of brucellosis in red deer in the area.

  6. Serological evidence of California group and Cache Valley virus infection in Minnesota white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, D F; Grimstad, P R

    1991-04-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 138 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested at three sites surrounding the greater Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area (USA) and tested for neutralizing antibody to Cache Valley virus and three California serogroup (Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, trivittatus) viruses (Bunyaviridae). Deer at each site had neutralizing antibody to one or more California serogroup viruses and/or Cache Valley virus. The majority of adult deer (85%) had antibody to both a California serogroup virus and Cache Valley virus. Antibody prevalence varied significantly with age of the deer. Fawns had a significantly lower prevalence of antibody to either a California serogroup (17%) or Cache Valley virus (39%) than did older (greater than 1-yr-old) deer (89% for a California serogroup virus and 91% for Cache Valley virus). The geometric mean titers of antibody in fawns to California serogroup (1:6) and Cache Valley viruses (1:17) were also less than that seen in older animals (1:11 and 1:28 for California serogroup and Cache Valley viruses, respectively). Of 76 older deer with antibody to the California serogroup, 91% had antibody specific for Jamestown Canyon virus. Jamestown Canyon is the primary California serogroup virus circulating in the suburban/rural Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Transmission occurs in an enzootic pattern similar to that documented in Indiana and Michigan. Cache Valley virus also appears to be enzootically transmitted in this area. However, the impact on domestic or wild animal populations is unknown.

  7. Ecology and management of white-tailed deer in a changing world.

    PubMed

    McShea, William J

    2012-02-01

    Due to chronic high densities and preferential browsing, white-tailed deer have significant impacts on woody and herbaceous plants. These impacts have ramifications for animals that share resources and across trophic levels. High deer densities result from an absence of predators or high plant productivity, often due to human habitat modifications, and from the desires of stakeholders that set deer management goals based on cultural, rather than biological, carrying capacity. Success at maintaining forest ecosystems require regulating deer below biological carrying capacity, as measured by ecological impacts. Control methods limit reproduction through modifications in habitat productivity or increase mortality through increasing predators or hunting. Hunting is the primary deer management tool and relies on active participation of citizens. Hunters are capable of reducing deer densities but struggle with creating densities sufficiently low to ensure the persistence of rare species. Alternative management models may be necessary to achieve densities sufficiently below biological carrying capacity. Regardless of the population control adopted, success should be measured by ecological benchmarks and not solely by cultural acceptance.

  8. Abundance and impacts of fallow deer leks at Point Reyes National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, G.M.; Osbourn, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Fallow deer, Dama dama, were released at Point Reyes National Seashore in the 1940s. A population of about 860 of these non-native deer are now well-established within the park. Fallow deer have an unusual mating system. During the fall, males establish areas known as leks where they display to potential mates. A fallow deerlek is typically an area of 100-150 m2 and usually includes 2-5 males. Using their hooves and antlers, each male clears away most or all of the vegetation and digs a rutting pit that he defends throughout the breeding season. A total of 159 fallow deer leks was located within the 298.8 ha of our study areas. In the Olema Valley, where fallow deer densities are high, there were 116 leks, compared with 43 in the similar sized Estero trailhead study area, where deer density was moderate. A total of 705 rutting pits was found in the two study areas, with a mean of 5.1 pits per lek in the Olema Valley and 2.5 for Estero trailhead. The leks and associated pits have resulted in damage to both the ground and the associated vegetation, especially in riparian areas.

  9. Preliminary findings of a molecular survey for the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle fever ticks and white-tailed deer from south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White-tailed deer are an alternative host for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, collectively referred to as cattle fever ticks. Dense white-tailed deer populations in south Texas complicate efforts by the National Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program to keep the U.S. free o...

  10. Escherichia coli survival in, and release from, white-tailed deer feces.

    PubMed

    Guber, Andrey K; Fry, Jessica; Ives, Rebecca L; Rose, Joan B

    2015-02-01

    White-tailed deer are an important reservoir for pathogens that can contribute a large portion of microbial pollution in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. The scarcity of experimental data on survival of microorganisms in and release from deer feces makes prediction of their fate and transport less reliable and development of efficient strategies for environment protection more difficult. The goal of this study was to estimate parameters for modeling Escherichia coli survival in and release from deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feces. Our objectives were as follows: (i) to measure survival of E. coli in deer pellets at different temperatures, (ii) to measure kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets at different rainfall intensities, and (iii) to estimate parameters of models describing survival and release of microorganisms from deer feces. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study E. coli survival in deer pellets at three temperatures and to estimate parameters of Chick's exponential model with temperature correction based on the Arrhenius equation. Kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets were measured at two rainfall intensities and used to derive the parameters of Bradford-Schijven model of bacterial release. The results showed that parameters of the survival and release models obtained for E. coli in this study substantially differed from those obtained by using other source materials, e.g., feces of domestic animals and manures. This emphasizes the necessity of comprehensive studies of survival of naturally occurring populations of microorganisms in and release from wildlife animal feces in order to achieve better predictions of microbial fate and transport in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes.

  11. Experimental infection in lambs with a red deer (Cervus elaphus) isolate of Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Stuen, Snorre; Scharf, Wiebke; Schauer, Sonja; Freyburger, Felix; Bergström, Karin; von Loewenich, Friederike D

    2010-07-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks is the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) in domestic ruminants. TBF is widespread along the coast of southern Norway and may cause a severe problem for the sheep industry. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are important hosts for ticks and have been found to be infected naturally with A. phagocytophilum. However, it is unclear whether red deer could serve as reservoir hosts for A. phagocytophilum infections in sheep. We infected lambs experimentally with a red deer and a sheep isolate, respectively. The 497 base pairs of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of both isolates were 100% identical to GenBank accession number M73220; the 3.8 kilobases of the total ank gene sequences were 99% identical. Sixteen lambs were used, four lambs in each group. Two groups were inoculated with the red deer isolate on day 0, and then challenged on day 42 with the ovine or the red deer isolate, respectively. The third group was inoculated with the sheep isolate on day 0 and challenged with the red deer strain on day 42. Four lambs were used as uninfected controls. Blood samples for hematology, bacteriology, and serology were collected regularly for 12 wk. Presence of A. phagocytophilum in blood was determined using blood smears. Serologic response was measured by indirect immunofluorescence. Although animals inoculated with the ovine strain showed more severe clinical manifestations, lambs infected with the red deer isolate reacted with typical signs of TBF such as fever, bacteremia, and neutropenia. We conclude that A. phagocytophilum strains causing TBF in sheep might circulate in the red deer population in Norway.

  12. Escherichia coli Survival in, and Release from, White-Tailed Deer Feces

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jessica; Ives, Rebecca L.; Rose, Joan B.

    2014-01-01

    White-tailed deer are an important reservoir for pathogens that can contribute a large portion of microbial pollution in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. The scarcity of experimental data on survival of microorganisms in and release from deer feces makes prediction of their fate and transport less reliable and development of efficient strategies for environment protection more difficult. The goal of this study was to estimate parameters for modeling Escherichia coli survival in and release from deer (Odocoileus virginianus) feces. Our objectives were as follows: (i) to measure survival of E. coli in deer pellets at different temperatures, (ii) to measure kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets at different rainfall intensities, and (iii) to estimate parameters of models describing survival and release of microorganisms from deer feces. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study E. coli survival in deer pellets at three temperatures and to estimate parameters of Chick's exponential model with temperature correction based on the Arrhenius equation. Kinetics of E. coli release from deer pellets were measured at two rainfall intensities and used to derive the parameters of Bradford-Schijven model of bacterial release. The results showed that parameters of the survival and release models obtained for E. coli in this study substantially differed from those obtained by using other source materials, e.g., feces of domestic animals and manures. This emphasizes the necessity of comprehensive studies of survival of naturally occurring populations of microorganisms in and release from wildlife animal feces in order to achieve better predictions of microbial fate and transport in fragmented agricultural and forest landscapes. PMID:25480751

  13. Winter habitat selection of mule deer before and during development of a natural gas field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, H.; Nielson, R.M.; Lindzey, F.; McDonald, L.L.

    2006-01-01

    Increased levels of natural gas exploration, development, and production across the Intermountain West have created a variety of concerns for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations, including direct habitat loss to road and well-pad construction and indirect habitat losses that may occur if deer use declines near roads or well pads. We examined winter habitat selection patterns of adult female mule deer before and during the first 3 years of development in a natural gas field in western Wyoming. We used global positioning system (GPS) locations collected from a sample of adult female mule deer to model relative frequency or probability of use as a function of habitat variables. Model coefficients and predictive maps suggested mule deer were less likely to occupy areas in close proximity to well pads than those farther away. Changes in habitat selection appeared to be immediate (i.e., year 1 of development), and no evidence of well-pad acclimation occurred through the course of the study; rather, mule deer selected areas farther from well pads as development progressed. Lower predicted probabilities of use within 2.7 to 3.7 km of well pads suggested indirect habitat losses may be substantially larger than direct habitat losses. Additionally, some areas classified as high probability of use by mule deer before gas field development changed to areas of low use following development, and others originally classified as low probability of use were used more frequently as the field developed. If areas with high probability of use before development were those preferred by the deer, observed shifts in their distribution as development progressed were toward less-preferred and presumably less-suitable habitats.

  14. Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) poisoning in fallow deer (Dama dama).

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Pedro M O; Von Hohendorf, Raquel; de Oliveira, Luiz G S; Schmitz, Milene; da Cruz, Cláudio E F; Driemeier, David

    2009-09-01

    A captive fallow deer (Dama dama) in a zoo was spontaneously poisoned after consumption of Sida carpinifolia. The paddock where cervids were kept was severely infested by S. carpinifolia. The deer developed a neurological syndrome characterized by muscular weakness, intention tremors, visual and standing-up deficits, falls, and abnormal behavior and posture. Because a severe mandibular fracture and the consequent deteriorating condition, it was euthanized. Main microscopic findings were swelling and multifocal cytoplasmic vacuolation in the Purkinje cells. The cytoplasm of multiple cells of the cerebellum, especially the Purkinje cells, stained with the lectins Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris, and succinylated Triticum vulgaris. Diagnostic possibilities such as bovine diarrhea virus, rabies, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy were excluded. The report focuses on the risk of maintaining S. carpinifolia populations in zoo enclosures of wild herbivores.

  15. Tuberculosis in wild and captive deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deer are found on every continent, save for Antarctica and Australia. Of the over 50 species of deer worldwide, tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis has been documented in at least 14. The broad host range of M. bovis includes most mammals, including humans and livestock. Eradication programs hav...

  16. Parapoxvirus infections of red deer, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scagliarini, Alessandra; Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus.

  17. Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus. PMID:21470460

  18. "The Deer Hunter": Rhetoric of the Warrior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes "The Deer Hunter" in terms of a psychological/ritual model of criticism. Argues that the rhetorical force of the film is explained by men's participation in rituals, such as deer hunting, which affect the patterns of psychological change they experience during and after war. (JMF)

  19. Identity of rumen fluke in deer.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Ailis; Browne, John A; Hogan, Sean; Bassière, Thomas; DeWaal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Zintl, Annetta

    2014-11-01

    As evidence is growing that in many temperate areas paramphistome infections are becoming more common and widespread, this study was undertaken to determine the role of deer as reservoirs for rumen fluke infections in livestock. A total of 144 deer faecal samples (88 from fallow deer, 32 from red deer and 24 samples from sika, sika/red deer hybrids) were screened for the presence of fluke eggs. Based on the ITS-2 rDNA locus plus flanking 5.8S and 28S sequences (ITS-2+), fluke eggs were identified to species level. Our results indicate that, of the 3 deer species, fallow deer had the highest fluke infection rates. Two rumen fluke species, Calicophoron daubneyi and Paramphistomum leydeni, with morphologically distinct eggs, were identified. Concurrent infections of the two paramphistome species and liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, were common. Considering the comparatively low egg burdens observed in this study, it is unlikely that deer represent a significant source of infection for Irish livestock.

  20. Observations of captive Rocky Mountain mule deer behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Halford, D.K.; Arthur, W.J. III; Alldredge, A.W.

    1987-01-31

    Observations were made near Fort Collins, Colorado on the behavior of a captive herd of Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). Comparisons in general behavior patterns were made between captive and wild deer. Similar behavior was exhibited by captive and wild deer. Captive deer (as well as other species) may be useful for study of certain behavioral aspects of their wild counterparts.

  1. The Role of Topography in the Distribution and Intensity of Damage Caused by Deer in Polish Mountain Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielski, Mariusz; Stereńczak, Krzysztof; Borowski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the deer population observed in recent decades has strongly impacted forest regeneration and the forest itself. The reduction in the quality of raw wood material, as a consequence of deer-mediated damage, constitutes a significant burden on forest owners. The basis for the commencement of preventive actions in this setting is the understanding of the populations and behaviors of deer in their natural environment. Although multiple studies have been carried out regarding this subject, only a few suggested topography as an important factor that may influence the distribution and intensity of deer-mediated damage. The detailed terrain models based on LiDAR data as well as the data on damage caused by deer from the State Forests database enabled thorough analyses of the distribution and intensity of damage in relation to land form in this study. These analyses were performed on three mountain regions in Poland: the Western Sudety Mountains, the Eastern Sudety Mountains, and the Beskidy Mountains. Even though these three regions are located several dozen to several hundred kilometers apart from each other, not all evaluated factors appeared common among them, and therefore, these regions have been analyzed separately. The obtained results indicated that the forest damage caused by deer increased with increasing altitude above 1000 m ASL. However, much larger areas of damage by deer were observed at elevations ranging from 401 to 1000 m ASL than at elevations below 400 m ASL. Moreover, the locations of damage (forest thickets and old stands) indicated that red deer is the species that exerts the strongest pressure on forest ecosystems. Our results show the importance of deer foraging behavior to the structure of the environment. PMID:27851776

  2. The Role of Topography in the Distribution and Intensity of Damage Caused by Deer in Polish Mountain Forests.

    PubMed

    Bałazy, Radomir; Ciesielski, Mariusz; Stereńczak, Krzysztof; Borowski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the deer population observed in recent decades has strongly impacted forest regeneration and the forest itself. The reduction in the quality of raw wood material, as a consequence of deer-mediated damage, constitutes a significant burden on forest owners. The basis for the commencement of preventive actions in this setting is the understanding of the populations and behaviors of deer in their natural environment. Although multiple studies have been carried out regarding this subject, only a few suggested topography as an important factor that may influence the distribution and intensity of deer-mediated damage. The detailed terrain models based on LiDAR data as well as the data on damage caused by deer from the State Forests database enabled thorough analyses of the distribution and intensity of damage in relation to land form in this study. These analyses were performed on three mountain regions in Poland: the Western Sudety Mountains, the Eastern Sudety Mountains, and the Beskidy Mountains. Even though these three regions are located several dozen to several hundred kilometers apart from each other, not all evaluated factors appeared common among them, and therefore, these regions have been analyzed separately. The obtained results indicated that the forest damage caused by deer increased with increasing altitude above 1000 m ASL. However, much larger areas of damage by deer were observed at elevations ranging from 401 to 1000 m ASL than at elevations below 400 m ASL. Moreover, the locations of damage (forest thickets and old stands) indicated that red deer is the species that exerts the strongest pressure on forest ecosystems. Our results show the importance of deer foraging behavior to the structure of the environment.

  3. Effects of reduced deer density on the abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and Lyme disease incidence in a northern New Jersey endemic area.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Terry L; Jahn, Margaret B

    2007-09-01

    We monitored the abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) and the Lyme disease incidence rate after the incremental removal of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, within a suburban residential area to determine whether there was a measurable decrease in the abundance of ticks due to deer removal and whether the reduction in ticks resulted in a reduction in the incidence rate within the human population. After three seasons, the estimated deer population was reduced by 46.7%, from the 2002 postfawning estimate of 2,899 deer (45.6 deer per km2) to a 2005 estimate of 1,540 deer (24.3 deer per km2). There was no apparent effect of the deer culling program on numbers of questing I. scapularis subadults in the culling areas, and the overall numbers of host-seeking ticks in the culling areas seemed to increase in the second year of the program. The Lyme disease incidence rate generated by both passive and active surveillance systems showed no clear trend among years, and it did not seem to vary with declining deer density. Given the resources required to mount and maintain a community-based program of sufficient magnitude to effectively reduce vector tick density in ecologically open situations where there are few impediments to deer movement, it may be that deer reduction, although serving other community goals, is unlikely to be a primary means of tick control by itself. However, in concert with other tick control interventions, such programs may provide one aspect of a successful community effort to reduce the abundance of vector ticks.

  4. From the field: Efficacy of detecting Chronic Wasting Disease via sampling hunter-killed white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Boyd, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    Surveillance programs for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in free-ranging cervids often use a standard of being able to detect 1% prevalence when determining minimum sample sizes. However, 1% prevalence may represent >10,000 infected animals in a population of 1 million, and most wildlife managers would prefer to detect the presence of CWD when far fewer infected animals exist. We wanted to detect the presence of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Pennsylvania when the disease was present in only 1 of 21 wildlife management units (WMUs) statewide. We used computer simulation to estimate the probability of detecting CWD based on a sampling design to detect the presence of CWD at 0.1% and 1.0% prevalence (23-76 and 225-762 infected deer, respectively) using tissue samples collected from hunter-killed deer. The probability of detection at 0.1% prevalence was <30% with sample sizes of ???6,000 deer, and the probability of detection at 1.0% prevalence was 46-72% with statewide sample sizes of 2,000-6,000 deer. We believe that testing of hunter-killed deer is an essential part of any surveillance program for CWD, but our results demonstrated the importance of a multifaceted surveillance approach for CWD detection rather than sole reliance on testing hunter-killed deer.

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, John J; Kirchgessner, Megan S; Whipps, Christopher M; Mohammed, Hussni O; Bunting, Elizabeth M; Wade, Susan E

    2013-10-01

    Sera collected from 299 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested in New York State by hunters in November 2010 were assayed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. White-tailed deer are a useful sentinel for risk of human and domestic animal exposure to Toxoplasma oocysts and pose a potential risk for infection to humans and other animals by ingestion of the meat. White-tailed deer share grazing space with domestic animals raised for meat and are likely to be exposed by horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption, similar to other grazing species of economic concern. Overall, 42.2% of samples were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating a true prevalence of 38.5%, with a significantly higher proportion of adult than immature deer antibody positive. No significant difference in prevalence was found between male and female deer nor was there a significant effect of local human population density on deer antibody prevalence. These results provide insight into the risk of environmental Toxoplasma exposure in New York State and support horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption as the most common mechanism of white-tailed deer infection.

  6. Evaluating the effect of predators on white-tailed deer: Movement and diet of coyotes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, M.M.; Rockhill, A.P.; Deperno, C.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.; Jarding, A.R.; Grovenburg, T.W.; Pollock, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) may affect adult and neonate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) survival and have been implicated as a contributor to the decline of deer populations. Additionally, coyote diet composition is influenced by prey availability, season, and region. Because coyote movement and diet vary by region, local data are important to understand coyote population dynamics and their impact on prey species. In southeast Minnesota, we investigated the effect of coyotes on white-tailed deer populations by documenting movement rates, distances moved, and habitats searched by coyotes during fawning and non-fawning periods. Additionally, we determined survival, cause-specific mortality, and seasonal diet composition of coyotes. From 2001 to 2003, we captured and radiocollared 30 coyotes. Per-hour rate of movement averaged 0.87 km and was greater (P = 0.046) during the fawning (1.07 km) than the nonfawning period (0.80 km); areas searched were similar (P = 0.175) between seasons. Coyote habitat use differed during both seasons; habitats were not used in proportion to their availability (P < 0.001). Croplands were used more (P < 0.001) than their proportional availability during both seasons. Use of grasslands was greater during the fawning period (P = 0.030), whereas use of cropland was greater in the nonfawning period (P < 0.001). We collected 66 fecal samples during the nonfawning period; coyote diets were primarily composed of Microtus spp. (65.2%), and consumption of deer was 9.1%. During the study, 19 coyotes died; annual survival rate range was 0.33-0.41, which was low compared with other studies. Consumption of deer was low and coyotes searched open areas (i.e., cropland) more than fawning areas with dense cover. These factors in addition to high coyote mortality suggested that coyote predation was not likely limiting white-tailed deer populations in southeast Minnesota. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  7. Modeled Impacts of Chronic Wasting Disease on White-Tailed Deer in a Semi-Arid Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, David G.; DeYoung, Charles A.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Schnupp, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    White-tailed deer are a culturally and economically important game species in North America, especially in South Texas. The recent discovery of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in captive deer facilities in Texas has increased concern about the potential emergence of CWD in free-ranging deer. The concern is exacerbated because much of the South Texas region is a semi-arid environment with variable rainfall, where precipitation is strongly correlated with fawn recruitment. Further, the marginally productive rangelands, in combination with erratic fawn recruitment, results in populations that are frequently density-independent, and thus sensitive to additive mortality. It is unknown how a deer population in semi-arid regions would respond to the presence of CWD. We used long-term empirical datasets from a lightly harvested (2% annual harvest) population in conjunction with 3 prevalence growth rates from CWD afflicted areas (0.26%, 0.83%, and 2.3% increases per year) via a multi-stage partially deterministic model to simulate a deer population for 25 years under four scenarios: 1) without CWD and without harvest, 2) with CWD and without harvest, 3) with CWD and male harvest only, and 4) with CWD and harvest of both sexes. The modeled populations without CWD and without harvest averaged a 1.43% annual increase over 25 years; incorporation of 2% annual harvest of both sexes resulted in a stable population. The model with slowest CWD prevalence rate growth (0.26% annually) without harvest resulted in stable populations but the addition of 1% harvest resulted in population declines. Further, the male age structure in CWD models became skewed to younger age classes. We incorporated fawn:doe ratios from three CWD afflicted areas in Wisconsin and Wyoming into the model with 0.26% annual increase in prevalence and populations did not begin to decline until ~10%, ~16%, and ~26% of deer were harvested annually. Deer populations in variable environments rely on high adult

  8. Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Naugle, R E; Rutberg, A T; Underwood, H B; Turner, J W; Liu, I K M

    2002-01-01

    Application of contraception for the control of suburban populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been much debated, but few data are available on field applications and even fewer on population effects. Between 1993 and 1997, 74-164 individually known female deer living on Fire Island, New York, USA, were treated remotely with an initial shot of 65 microg porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in Freund's complete adjuvant followed by booster injections of 65 microg PZP in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Starting in 1996, progressively increasing numbers of deer were treated with vaccinating/marking darts. Estimates of population density and composition, using distance sampling methods, began in 1995 in selected portions of the study area. Between 1993 and 1997, fawning rates among individually known, treated adult females decreased by 78.9% from pretreatment rates. Population density in the most heavily treated area increased by 11% per year from 1995 to March 1998 and then decreased at 23% per year to October 2000. In 1999-2000 surveys, fawns comprised 13-14% of the total population in the most heavily treated area, versus 16-33% in nearby untreated areas. These results show that PZP can be delivered effectively to sufficient deer to affect population density and composition in some environments, but that technical and logistical improvements are needed before contraception can be used widely to manage suburban deer populations.

  9. Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, R.E.; Rutberg, A.T.; Underwood, H.B.; Turner, J.W.; Liu, I.K.; Kirkpatrick, J.F.; Lasley, B.L.; Allen, W.R.; Doberska, C.

    2002-01-01

    Application of contraception for the control of suburban populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been much debated, but few data are available on field applications and even fewer on population effects. Between 1993 and 1997, 74-164 individually known female deer living on Fire Island, New York, USA, were treated remotely with an initial shot of 65 microg porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in Freund's complete adjuvant followed by booster injections of 65 microg PZP in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Starting in 1996, progressively increasing numbers of deer were treated with vaccinating/marking darts. Estimates of population density and composition, using distance sampling methods, began in 1995 in selected portions of the study area. Between 1993 and 1997, fawning rates among individually known, treated adult females decreased by 78.9% from pretreatment rates. Population density in the most heavily treated area increased by 11% per year from 1995 to March 1998 and then decreased at 23% per year to October 2000. In 1999-2000 surveys, fawns comprised 13-14% of the total population in the most heavily treated area, versus 16-33% in nearby untreated areas. These results show that PZP can be delivered effectively to sufficient deer to affect population density and composition in some environments, but that technical and logistical improvements are needed before contraception can be used widely to manage suburban deer populations.

  10. Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle

  11. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    PubMed

    Walter, W David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd factors and cattle

  12. Long-term density-dependent changes in habitat selection in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Barbería, F J; Hooper, R J; Gordon, I J

    2013-11-01

    Understanding how habitat selection changes with population density is a key concept in population regulation, community composition and managing impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. At low density, it is expected that individuals select habitats in terms of their preference, but as population density increases, the availability of resources per individual declines on preferred habitats, leading to competition which forces some individuals to exploit less preferred habitats. Using spatial information of Scottish red deer (Cervus elaphus) winter counts, carried out in 110 areas across Scotland between 1961 and 2004 (a total of 1,206,495 deer observations), we showed how winter habitat niche breadth in red deer has widened with increasing population density. Heather moorland and montane habitats were most and least preferred for deer, respectively. Increasing density favoured the selection of grassland, to the detriment of the selection of heather moorland. The selection of heather and grassland decreased when temperature increased, while the selection of montane and peatland habitats increased. These findings are important for understanding how habitat use, density and population are likely to be affected by weather, and allow us to predict habitat impacts by large mammal herbivory and climate.

  13. Spatial analysis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Miller, RoseAnn; Kaneene, John B; Schmitt, Stephen M; Lusch, David P; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2007-11-15

    The wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population in Michigan, USA, has endemic Mycobacterium bovis. We determined whether there were spatial clusters of retrospective TB cases in white-tailed deer in northeastern Michigan and identified specific factors associated with the spatial clusters. Data from hunter-harvested deer (age, gender, TB status, and geographic section) were collected by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during TB surveillance from 1995 to 2002. Land cover (vegetation, land-use) and land type (soil types and drainage characteristics, landforms) described potential deer habitats. Specific locations of large-scale supplemental feeding sites were collected from the MDNR aerial surveillance program from 1997 to 2002. Analyses were conducted using principal components derived from environmental data (and other risk factors) on spatial clusters of disease (identified by the spatial scan statistic). Spatial effects were incorporated into the multivariable analyses by using a neighborhood approach. A total of 420 deer with M. bovis infection were identified from 1995 to 2002, out of 39,451 harvested deer from 3216 TRS units, and spatial clusters of cases were identified. A total of seven principal components of environmental data were generated. Clusters were associated with the presence of large expanses of deciduous forests on moraine ridges separated by low areas of forested wetlands, and the presence of many small lakes. Factors that promoted congregation of deer for extended periods of time (natural cover, access to water, and less human contact) appeared to be associated with increased odds of TB positivity. This suggests that there are specific areas where interventions can be implemented to reduce congregation of animals and disrupt the cycle of infection transmission.

  14. Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in Minnesota and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model {Sseason (winter = summer)} had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model {Sseason (summer = winter)} were 0.76 (95% ci  =  0.70–0.80), 0.97 (95% ci  =  0.96–0.98), 0.80 (95% ci  =  0.76–0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci  =  0.96–0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals.

  15. Experimental infection of European red deer (Cervus elaphus) with bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 8.

    PubMed

    López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Falconi, Caterina; Férnandez-Pacheco, Paloma; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Palma, Agustín; Herruzo, Irene; Vicente, Joaquín; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Arias, Marisa; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Gortázar, Christian

    2010-09-28

    Bluetongue (BT) is a climate change-related emerging infectious disease in Europe. Outbreaks of serotypes 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, and 16 are challenging Central and Western Europe since 1998. Measures to control or eradicate bluetongue virus (BTV) from Europe have been implemented, including movement restrictions and vaccination of domestic BTV-susceptible ruminants. However, these measures are difficult to apply in wild free-ranging hosts of the virus, like red deer (Cervus elaphus), which could play a role in the still unclear epidemiology of BT in Europe. We show for the first time that BTV RNA can be detected in European red deer blood for long periods, comparable to those of domestic ruminants, after experimental infection with BTV-1 and BTV-8. BTV RNA was detected in experimentally infected red deer blood up to the end of the study (98-112 dpi). BTV-specific antibodies were found in serum both by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization (VNT) from 8 to 12 dpi to the end of the study, peaking at 17-28 dpi. Our results indicate that red deer can be infected with BTV and maintain BTV RNA for long periods, remaining essentially asymptomatic. Thus, unvaccinated red deer populations have the potential to be a BT reservoir in Europe, and could threaten the success of the European BTV control strategy. Therefore, wild and farmed red deer should be taken into account for BTV surveillance, and movement restrictions and vaccination schemes applied to domestic animals should be adapted to include farmed or translocated red deer.

  16. Roe v. Wade, the next twenty-five years.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1998-01-01

    There is little left to be said about abortion in the US; most Americans are either bored with the issue or the issue has simply lost its immediacy. The world today is certainly different from the 1970s, when the US Supreme Court issued its Roe vs. Wade decision. That era was marked by societal and economic generosity manifest by greater acceptance of civil rights, liberal sexual mores, acceptance of divorce, ignorance of infertility, and a focus on alleviating the readily apparent suffering of women made desperate by an unwanted pregnancy. In the 25 intervening years, abortion has remained legal even as the US has become more conservative. It may be, therefore, that pro-choices forces are safe enough to attempt to regain the moral edge and lead the way out of the abortion wars. In order to do this, the values that informed early commitment to women's right to make the abortion decision must finally be clearly expressed, explained, and advocated. Also, pro-choice groups must initiate a more meaningful public dialogue about the morality of abortion and offer answers to the hard questions such as whether it is not better to encourage teenagers to talk to their parents about an unwanted pregnancy, what is the moral significance of developing life, is viability a significant threshold, are there better and worse reasons for abortion, and are some pro-abortion arguments morally dubious. While some may consider this course of action threatening, the visionary leadership that is desperately needed involves addressing both the underlying values and hard questions.

  17. Does landscape connectivity shape local and global social network structure in white-tailed deer?

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Erin L.; Tosa, Marie I.; Nielsen, Clayton K.; Schauber, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific social behavior can be influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. While much research has focused on how characteristics of individuals influence their roles in social networks, we were interested in the role that landscape structure plays in animal sociality at both individual (local) and population (global) levels. We used female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Illinois, USA, to investigate the potential effect of landscape on social network structure by weighting the edges of seasonal social networks with association rate (based on proximity inferred from GPS collar data). At the local level, we found that sociality among female deer in neighboring social groups (n = 36) was mainly explained by their home range overlap, with two exceptions: 1) during fawning in an area of mixed forest and grassland, deer whose home ranges had low forest connectivity were more social than expected; and 2) during the rut in an area of intensive agriculture, deer inhabiting home ranges with high amount and connectedness of agriculture were more social than expected. At the global scale, we found that deer populations (n = 7) in areas with highly connected forest-agriculture edge, a high proportion of agriculture, and a low proportion of forest tended to have higher weighted network closeness, although low sample size precluded statistical significance. This result implies that infectious disease could spread faster in deer populations inhabiting such landscapes. Our work advances the general understanding of animal social networks, demonstrating how landscape features can underlie differences in social behavior both within and among wildlife social networks. PMID:28306748

  18. Does landscape connectivity shape local and global social network structure in white-tailed deer?

    PubMed

    Koen, Erin L; Tosa, Marie I; Nielsen, Clayton K; Schauber, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific social behavior can be influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. While much research has focused on how characteristics of individuals influence their roles in social networks, we were interested in the role that landscape structure plays in animal sociality at both individual (local) and population (global) levels. We used female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Illinois, USA, to investigate the potential effect of landscape on social network structure by weighting the edges of seasonal social networks with association rate (based on proximity inferred from GPS collar data). At the local level, we found that sociality among female deer in neighboring social groups (n = 36) was mainly explained by their home range overlap, with two exceptions: 1) during fawning in an area of mixed forest and grassland, deer whose home ranges had low forest connectivity were more social than expected; and 2) during the rut in an area of intensive agriculture, deer inhabiting home ranges with high amount and connectedness of agriculture were more social than expected. At the global scale, we found that deer populations (n = 7) in areas with highly connected forest-agriculture edge, a high proportion of agriculture, and a low proportion of forest tended to have higher weighted network closeness, although low sample size precluded statistical significance. This result implies that infectious disease could spread faster in deer populations inhabiting such landscapes. Our work advances the general understanding of animal social networks, demonstrating how landscape features can underlie differences in social behavior both within and among wildlife social networks.

  19. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, K.G.; Robinson, S.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Grear, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtDNA lineages in chronic wasting disease (CWD) outbreak areas in southern Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kip G; Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Grear, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting North American cervids. Because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. Management programs to control CWD require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. Genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the CWD management zone of southern Wisconsin. A 576-base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA of 359 white-tailed deer from 12 sample populations was analyzed. Fifty-eight variable sites were detected within the sequence, defining 43 haplotypes. While most sample populations displayed similar levels of haplotype diversity, individual haplotypes were clustered on the landscape. Spatial clusters of different haplotypes were apparent in distinct ecoregions surrounding CWD outbreak areas. The spatial distribution of mtDNA haplotypes suggests that clustering of the deer matrilineal groups and population connectivity are associated with broad-scale geographic landscape features. These landscape characteristics may also influence the contact rates between groups and therefore the potential spread of CWD; this may be especially true of local disease spread between female social groups. Our results suggest that optimal CWD management needs to be tailored to fit gender-specific dispersal behaviors and regional differences in deer population connectivity. This information will help wildlife managers design surveillance and monitoring efforts based on population interactions and potential deer movement among CWD-affected and unaffected areas.

  1. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge reservation: 1981 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

    1982-11-01

    One hundred fifteen white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1981, an increase of seventeen over 1980. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. October and November were the months when the highest numbers of deer were killed. The sex ratio of road kills was 0.8:1 (males to females) from January through September but shifted to 3:1 during October, November, and December, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movement. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season spanning the September through February period. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that the animals were in good condition with only a few abnormalities observed. Abomasal parasite counts reflected an optimum density situation between the deer population and its habitat, although browse surveys made during the winter of 1981-1982 indicated a tendency toward an overpopulated condition.

  2. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation: 1982 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Story, J.D.; Kitchings, J.T.

    1985-06-01

    One hundred nine white-tailed deer were killed by vehicles on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation during 1982, a decrease of six from the vehicle kills in 1981. Spatial and temporal patterns of mortality were similar to those reported previously. The highest number of deer killed was recorded during November. The sex ratio of road-kills was 0.6:1 (males to females) from January through September, but it shifted to 3.6:1 for the October through December period, presumably reflecting the effects of rutting season on bucks' movements. Reproductive data collected indicated a breeding season from early October through late March. Postmortem examination of deer revealed that animals were in good condition (only a few abnormalities were observed), and endoparasite burdens continue to reflect no overcrowding in the deer population. 5 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Partners in Restoring Deer Lake AOC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Deer Lake Public Advisory Council has been critical in the restoration project. Other contributors are the City of Ishpeming, and Michigan Departments of Environment Quality (MDEQ) and of Community Health (MDCH).

  4. Roe v Wade and the new Jane Crow: reproductive rights in the age of mass incarceration.

    PubMed

    Paltrow, Lynn M

    2013-01-01

    All pregnant women, not just those who seek to end a pregnancy, have benefited from Roe v Wade. Today's system of mass incarceration makes it likely that if Roe is overturned women who have abortions will go to jail. Efforts to establish separate legal "personhood" for fertilized eggs, embryos, and fetuses, however, are already being used as the basis for the arrests and detentions of and forced interventions on pregnant women, including those who seek to go to term. Examination of these punitive actions makes clear that attacks on Roe threaten all pregnant women not only with the loss of their reproductive rights and physical liberty but also with the loss of their status as full constitutional persons.

  5. Wild sheep and deer in Hawai'i: a threat to fragile ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    The unique native flora of the Hawaiian Islands, which evolved in the absence of ungulates (grazing animals), is highly vulnerable to damage by trampling and browsing. Wild ungulates introduced into Hawai'i in the past 150 years, including mouflon, axis deer, and mule deer, have severely harmed the native flora. Control measures used against feral animals do not work as well against these wild animals. Trophy hunting tends to alter sex ratios and increase population growth. U.S. Geological Survey scientists are studying these wild ungulates in order to develop more effective control measures that help protect Hawai'i's endemic flora.

  6. Heterogeneity in Primary Productivity Influences Competitive Interactions between Red Deer and Alpine Chamois.

    PubMed

    Anderwald, Pia; Haller, Rudolf M; Filli, Flurin

    2016-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity can promote coexistence between herbivores of different body size limited to different extents by resource quantity and quality. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are known as superior competitors to smaller species with similar diets. We compared competitive interactions and habitat use between red deer and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in two adjacent valleys in a strictly protected area in the Central Alps. Red deer density was higher in the valley with higher primary productivity. Only here was horn growth in kid and yearling chamois (as a measure for body condition) negatively correlated with red deer population size, suggesting interspecific competition, and chamois selected meadows with steeper slopes and lower productivity than available on average. Conversely, red deer selected meadows of high productivity, particularly in the poorer area. As these were located mainly at lower elevations, this led to strong altitudinal segregation between the two species here. Local differences in interspecific competition thus coincided with differences in habitat preference and-segregation between areas. This suggests that spatial habitat and resource heterogeneity at the scale of adjacent valleys can provide competition refuges for competitively inferior mountain ungulates which differ from their superior competitor in their metabolic requirements.

  7. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.

    SciTech Connect

    Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D'Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

    2005-07-01

    Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

  8. Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

    1988-03-01

    Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (<20 cm), and spring when food resources in fields were readily available. In contrast, use of fields was lowest in summer when preferred woodland foods were available and in winter with snow cover when food in fields was not readily accessible. Patterns of food-type use by deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of sika deer in China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bo-Yin; Ba, Heng-Xing; Wang, Gui-Wu; Yang, Ying; Cui, Xue-Zhe; Peng, Ying-Hua; Zheng, Jun-Jun; Xing, Xiu-Mei; Yang, Fu-He

    2016-10-01

    Sika deer is of great commercial value because their antlers are used in tonics and alternative medicine and their meat is healthy and delicious. The goal of this study was to generate transcript sequences from sika deer for functional genomic analyses and to identify the transcripts that demonstrate tissue-specific, age-dependent differential expression patterns. These sequences could enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying sika deer growth and development. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and profiling analysis across ten tissue types and four developmental stages (juvenile, adolescent, adult, and aged) of sika deer, using Illumina paired-end tag (PET) sequencing technology. A total of 1,752,253 contigs with an average length of 799 bp were generated, from which 1,348,618 unigenes with an average length of 590 bp were defined. Approximately 33.2 % of these (447,931 unigenes) were then annotated in public protein databases. Many sika deer tissue-specific, age-dependent unigenes were identified. The testes have the largest number of tissue-enriched unigenes, and some of them were prone to develop new functions for other tissues. Additionally, our transcriptome revealed that the juvenile-adolescent transition was the most complex and important stage of the sika deer life cycle. The present work represents the first multiple tissue transcriptome analysis of sika deer across four developmental stages. The generated data not only provide a functional genomics resource for future biological research on sika deer but also guide the selection and manipulation of genes controlling growth and development.

  10. Structural, functional and in vitro digestion characteristics of spray dried fish roe powder stabilised with gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Binsi, P K; Natasha, Nayak; Sarkar, P C; Muhamed Ashraf, P; George, Ninan; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-04-15

    Fish roes are considered as nutritionally valuable for their high content of essential fatty acids and amino acids. However, roe lipids undergo considerable extent of oxidation during processing and storage, imparting objectionable bitter taste and rancid flavour to roe products. Hence, the objective of the study was to reconstitute the roe mass and microencapsulate lipid fraction, so that small oil droplets are entrapped within a dry matrix of roe proteins during spray drying. Prior to spray drying, the emulsion was stabilised with gum arabic as it also act as a co-wall polymer. The microscopic images indicated presence of larger aggregates in unstabilised powder (RC) compared to well-separated particles in stabilised powder (RG). Incorporation of gum arabic retarded rancidity development during storage. In vitro digestive pattern of roe powder indicated higher amount of oil release in RG. These observations highlight the potential of converting the soft textured carp roe mass into stable fish roe powder with superior storage stability and functionality.

  11. Ticks on Deer and Cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks were sampled from hosts in the cattle fever tick permanent quarantine zone along the Texas-Mexico border on five occasions in 2012. Three sample events involved white-tailed deer populations in Zapata and Starr Counties and two were from a cattle herd in Kinney County. Six species of ticks (n ...

  12. Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    individuals over the 9 years of study, indicating that red trillium is being negatively affected by deer throughout the East Unit of the park. Of the five deer management zones studied, only one showed pre-impact height-to-leaf and flowering percentages in control plots that then declined after 2005. The results of this study demonstrate that Trillium species growing in the lands of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore are being suppressed reproductively by deer browsing. Specifically, we demonstrate, for the first time, the utility of using red trillium (Trillium recurvatum) height-to-leaf and percentage of flowering as indicators of the impacts of deer browsing. Application of the recommended thresholds demonstrates their utility in adopting red trillium as a phytoindicator of deer impact. Responses of plants to protection from deer suggest that deer culling might be necessary for 6 or more years for red trillium populations and rare trillium species to recover.

  13. Inbreeding depression in red deer calves

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the fitness consequences of inbreeding is of major importance for evolutionary and conservation biology. However, there are few studies using pedigree-based estimates of inbreeding or investigating the influence of environment and age variation on inbreeding depression in natural populations. Here we investigated the consequences of variation in inbreeding coefficient for three juvenile traits, birth date, birth weight and first year survival, in a wild population of red deer, considering both calf and mother's inbreeding coefficient. We also tested whether inbreeding depression varied with environmental conditions and maternal age. Results We detected non-zero inbreeding coefficients for 22% of individuals with both parents and at least one grandparent known (increasing to 42% if the dataset was restricted to those with four known grandparents). Inbreeding depression was evident for birth weight and first year survival but not for birth date: the first year survival of offspring with an inbreeding coefficient of 0.25 was reduced by 77% compared to offspring with an inbreeding coefficient of zero. However, it was independent of measures of environmental variation and maternal age. The effect of inbreeding on birth weight appeared to be driven by highly inbred individuals (F = 0.25). On the other hand first year survival showed strong inbreeding depression that was not solely driven by individuals with the highest inbreeding coefficients, corresponding to an estimate of 4.35 lethal equivalents. Conclusions These results represent a rare demonstration of inbreeding depression using pedigree-based estimates in a wild mammal population and highlight the potential strength of effects on key components of fitness. PMID:22039837

  14. Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Chitwood, M Colter; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; DePerno, Christopher S

    2013-12-01

    Globally, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens that affect livestock, wildlife, companion animals, and humans, potentially causing serious and economically important disease problems. Little is known about hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. prevalence, host-specificity, or route of transmission in most species, including wildlife. DNA amplification by PCR targeting the 16SrRNA and the RNaseP genes was used to establish the presence and prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina. Sixty-five deer (89%) tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. where sequence analysis of the 16SsRNA and the RNaseP genes indicated the presence of at least three distinct species. This study represents the first detection of three distinct hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer and the first report of two novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species.

  15. An epizootic of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease in captive black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Boyce, W M; Woods, L W; Keel, M K; MacLachlan, N J; Porter, C O; Lehmkuhl, H D

    2000-09-01

    Ten fawns and four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a captive herd died as a result of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease. Acute, systemic infections were characterized by hemorrhagic enteropathy, pulmonary edema, and occasional ulceration of the upper alimentary tract. Localized infections were limited to the upper alimentary tract and included stomatitis, pharyngitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, and rumenitis. In deer with acute, systemic infections, a diagnosis was made by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The serum neutralization test was useful for confirming a diagnosis in animals with prolonged, localized infections. Deer originating from herds with a history of adenovirus infection should not be transferred to other captive herds or released into free-ranging populations because they may serve as carriers of adenovirus.

  16. Anatomy of an eradication effort: Removing Hawaii's illegally introduced axis deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Muise, Jake; Schipper, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the rancher's report, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service launched an investigation, which revealed that in December 2009, a helicopter pilot and rancher from Maui had covertly transported four deer in exchange for about a dozen European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon) (Tummons 2011a, b)--a species also valued for trophies and meat. Because neither species was established in the wild on either of the islands, in June 2012, state lawmakers responded by specifically banning "the international possession or interisland transportation or release of wild or feral deer" (Honolulu Star-Advertiser 2012). The two individuals were prosecuted under the Lacey Act for transporting wildlife between islands with the intent to guide hunting for out-of-state residents (Stephens Media 2012), while the individual who provided the mouflon was sentenced to community service. Further, the helicopter pilot agreed to provide 500 hours of flight time to locate and eradicate the Hawaii Island deer population in restitution.

  17. Movement behavior, dispersal, and the potential for localized management of deer in a suburban environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.; Woodard, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the potential for localized management of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to be successful by measuring movements, testing site fidelity, and modeling the effects of dispersal. Fifty-nine females were radiomarked and tracked during 1997 through 2000 in Irondequoit, New York, USA, a suburb of Rochester. We constructed home ranges for those deer with A greater than or equal to 18 reclocations/season. Fifty percent minimum convex polygons (MCP) averaged 3.9 (SE = 0.53) ha in the summer and 5.3 (SE = 0.80) ha in the winter. Deer showed strong fidelity to both summer and winter home ranges, and 30 of 31 females showed overlap of summer and winter home ranges. Annual survival was 64%; the major cause of mortality was deer-automobile collisions. Average annual dispersal rates were <15% for yearlings and adults. Using matrix population modeling, we explored the role of female dispersal in sustaining different management objectives in adjacent locales of approximately 1,000 ha. Modeling showed that if female dispersal was 8%, culling would have to reduce annual survival to 58% to maintain a population just under ecological carrying capacity and reduce survival to 42% to keel) the population at one-half carrying capacity. With the same dispersal, contraception Would need to be effective in 32% of females if the population is near carrying capacity and 68% if the population is at one-half of carrying capacity. Movement behavior data and modeling results lend support to the use of a localized approach to management of females that emphasizes neighborhood-scale manipulation of deer populations, but our research suggests that dispersal rates in females could be critical to long-term success.

  18. Landscape features affect gene flow of Scottish Highland red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Espona, S; Pérez-Barbería, F J; McLeod, J E; Jiggins, C D; Gordon, I J; Pemberton, J M

    2008-02-01

    Landscape features have been shown to strongly influence dispersal and, consequently, the genetic population structure of organisms. Studies quantifying the effect of landscape features on gene flow of large mammals with high dispersal capabilities are rare and have mainly been focused at large geographical scales. In this study, we assessed the influence of several natural and human-made landscape features on red deer gene flow in the Scottish Highlands by analysing 695 individuals for 21 microsatellite markers. Despite the relatively small scale of the study area (115 x 87 km), significant population structure was found using F-statistics (F(ST) = 0.019) and the program structure, with major differentiation found between populations sampled on either side of the main geographical barrier (the Great Glen). To assess the effect of landscape features on red deer population structure, the ArcMap GIS was used to create cost-distance matrices for moving between populations, using a range of cost values for each of the landscape features under consideration. Landscape features were shown to significantly affect red deer gene flow as they explained a greater proportion of the genetic variation than the geographical distance between populations. Sea lochs were found to be the most important red deer gene flow barriers in our study area, followed by mountain slopes, roads and forests. Inland lochs and rivers were identified as landscape features that might facilitate gene flow of red deer. Additionally, we explored the effect of choosing arbitrary cell cost values to construct least cost-distance matrices and described a method for improving the selection of cell cost values for a particular landscape feature.

  19. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R.; Baker, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  20. Balancing income and cost in red deer management.

    PubMed

    Skonhoft, Anders; Veiberg, Vebjørn; Gauteplass, Asle; Olaussen, Jon Olaf; Meisingset, Erling L; Mysterud, Atle

    2013-01-30

    This paper presents a bioeconomic analysis of a red deer population within a Norwegian institutional context. This population is managed by a well-defined manager, typically consisting of many landowners operating in a cooperative manner, with the goal of maximizing the present-value hunting related income while taking browsing and grazing damages into account. The red deer population is structured in five categories of animals (calves, female and male yearlings, adult females and adult males). It is shown that differences in the per-animal meat values and survival rates ('biological discounted' values) are instrumental in determining the optimal harvest composition. Fertility plays no direct role. It is argued that this is a general result working in stage-structured models with harvest values. In the numerical illustration it is shown that the optimal harvest pattern stays quite stable under various parameter changes. It is revealed which parameters and harvest restrictions that is most important. We also show that the current harvest pattern involves too much yearling harvest compared with the economically efficient level.

  1. Statistical analysis of deer and elk pellet-group data

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    Several authors have demonstrated empirically the fit of observed pellet-group data from mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk to the negative binomial distribution. This distribution is described by 2 parameters: the mean, m, and the positive exponent, k. The parameter k is a measure of contagion. As over-dispersion increases, k ..-->.. 0; conversely, as the pellet groups approach a random distribution, k ..-->.. infinity. Past application of the negative binomial distribution to pellet-group data required a common value for the parameter k in order to test for differences in mean number of pellet groups for different populations. We developed a method of testing for differences in the means of pellet-group data for 2 or more populations that does not require a common k value. Interval and point estimators of k and m were obtained by the method of maximum likelihood for a series of models where either m or k can be assumed constant for all populations. A set of FORTRAN subroutines is available to analyze negative binomial data.

  2. Conserving migratory mule deer through the umbrella of sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Copeland, H. E.; Sawyer, H.; Monteith, K. L.; Naugle, D.E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Graf, N.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving migratory ungulates in increasingly human-dominated landscapes presents a difficult challenge to land managers and conservation practitioners. Nevertheless, ungulates may receive ancillary benefits from conservation actions designed to protect species of greater conservation priority where their ranges are sympatric. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocerus urophasianus), for example, have been proposed as an umbrella species for other sagebrush (Artemesia spp.)-dependent fauna. We examined a landscape where conservation efforts for sage-grouse overlap spatially with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) to determine whether sage-grouse conservation measures also might protect important mule deer migration routes and seasonal ranges. We conducted a spatial analysis to determine what proportion of migration routes, stopover areas, and winter ranges used by mule deer were located in areas managed for sage-grouse conservation. Conservation measures overlapped with 66–70% of migration corridors, 74–75% of stopovers, and 52–91% of wintering areas for two mule deer populations in the upper Green River Basin of Wyoming. Of those proportions, conservation actions targeted towards sage-grouse accounted for approximately half of the overlap in corridors and stopover areas, and nearly all overlap on winter ranges, indicating that sage-grouse conservation efforts represent an important step in conserving migratory mule deer. Conservation of migratory species presents unique challenges because although overlap with conserved lands may be high, connectivity of the entire route must be maintained as barriers to movement anywhere within the migration corridor could render it unviable. Where mule deer habitats overlap with sage-grouse core areas, our results indicate that increased protection is afforded to winter ranges and migration routes within the umbrella of sage-grouse conservation, but this protection is contingent on concentrated developments within core areas not

  3. Host and Environmental Factors Modulate the Exposure of Free-Ranging and Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) to Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Velasco Ávila, Ana Luisa; Boadella, Mariana; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Barasona, José Ángel; Santos, João P. V.; Queirós, João; García-Pérez, Ana L.; Barral, Marta; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The control of multihost pathogens, such as Coxiella burnetii, should rely on accurate information about the roles played by the main hosts. We aimed to determine the involvement of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the ecology of C. burnetii. We predicted that red deer populations from broad geographic areas within a European context would be exposed to C. burnetii, and therefore, we hypothesized that a series of factors would modulate the exposure of red deer to C. burnetii. To test this hypothesis, we designed a retrospective survey of 47 Iberian red deer populations from which 1,751 serum samples and 489 spleen samples were collected. Sera were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in order to estimate exposure to C. burnetii, and spleen samples were analyzed by PCR in order to estimate the prevalence of systemic infections. Thereafter, we gathered 23 variables—within environmental, host, and management factors—potentially modulating the risk of exposure of deer to C. burnetii, and we performed multivariate statistical analyses to identify the main risk factors. Twenty-three populations were seropositive (48.9%), and C. burnetii DNA in the spleen was detected in 50% of the populations analyzed. The statistical analyses reflect the complexity of C. burnetii ecology and suggest that although red deer may maintain the circulation of C. burnetii without third species, the most frequent scenario probably includes other wild and domestic host species. These findings, taken together with previous evidence of C. burnetii shedding by naturally infected red deer, point at this wild ungulate as a true reservoir for C. burnetii and an important node in the life cycle of C. burnetii, at least in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:26150466

  4. Host and Environmental Factors Modulate the Exposure of Free-Ranging and Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) to Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, David; Velasco Ávila, Ana Luisa; Boadella, Mariana; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Barasona, José Ángel; Santos, João P V; Queirós, João; García-Pérez, Ana L; Barral, Marta; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    The control of multihost pathogens, such as Coxiella burnetii, should rely on accurate information about the roles played by the main hosts. We aimed to determine the involvement of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the ecology of C. burnetii. We predicted that red deer populations from broad geographic areas within a European context would be exposed to C. burnetii, and therefore, we hypothesized that a series of factors would modulate the exposure of red deer to C. burnetii. To test this hypothesis, we designed a retrospective survey of 47 Iberian red deer populations from which 1,751 serum samples and 489 spleen samples were collected. Sera were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in order to estimate exposure to C. burnetii, and spleen samples were analyzed by PCR in order to estimate the prevalence of systemic infections. Thereafter, we gathered 23 variables-within environmental, host, and management factors-potentially modulating the risk of exposure of deer to C. burnetii, and we performed multivariate statistical analyses to identify the main risk factors. Twenty-three populations were seropositive (48.9%), and C. burnetii DNA in the spleen was detected in 50% of the populations analyzed. The statistical analyses reflect the complexity of C. burnetii ecology and suggest that although red deer may maintain the circulation of C. burnetii without third species, the most frequent scenario probably includes other wild and domestic host species. These findings, taken together with previous evidence of C. burnetii shedding by naturally infected red deer, point at this wild ungulate as a true reservoir for C. burnetii and an important node in the life cycle of C. burnetii, at least in the Iberian Peninsula.

  5. Contact heterogeneity in deer mice: implications for Sin Nombre virus transmission

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Christine A.; Lehmer, Erin M.; Previtali, Andrea; St. Jeor, Stephen; Dearing, M. Denise

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneities within disease hosts suggest that not all individuals have the same probability of transmitting disease or becoming infected. This heterogeneity is thought to be due to dissimilarity in susceptibility and exposure among hosts. As such, it has been proposed that many host–pathogen systems follow the general pattern whereby a small fraction of the population accounts for a large fraction of the pathogen transmission. This disparity in transmission dynamics is often referred to as ‘20/80 Rule’, i.e. approximately 20 per cent of the hosts are responsible for 80 per cent of pathogen transmission. We investigated the role of heterogeneity in contact rates among potential hosts of a directly transmitted pathogen by examining Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Using foraging arenas and powder marking, we documented contacts between wild deer mice in Great Basin Desert, central Utah. Our findings demonstrated heterogeneity among deer mice, both in frequency and in duration of contacts with other deer mice. Contact dynamics appear to follow the general pattern that a minority of the population accounts for a majority of the contacts. We found that 20 per cent of individuals in the population were responsible for roughly 80 per cent of the contacts observed. Larger-bodied individuals appear to be the functional group with the greatest SNV transmission potential. Contrary to our predictions, transmission potential was not influenced by breeding condition or sex. PMID:19129136

  6. Forecasting the effects of fertility control on overabundant ungulates: White-tailed deer in the National Capital Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raiho, Ann M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Bates, Scott; Hobbs, N. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Overabundant populations of ungulates have caused environmental degradation and loss of biological diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. Culling or regulated harvest is often used to control overabundant species. These methods are difficult to implement in national parks, other types of conservation reserves, or in residential areas where public hunting may be forbidden by policy. As a result, fertility control has been recommended as a non-lethal alternative for regulating ungulate populations. We evaluate this alternative using white-tailed deer in national parks in the vicinity of Washington, D.C., USA as a model system. Managers seek to reduce densities of white-tailed deer from the current average (50 deer per km2) to decrease harm to native plant communities caused by deer. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model using 13 years of population estimates from 8 national parks in the National Capital Region Network. We offer a novel way to evaluate management actions relative to goals using short term forecasts. Our approach confirms past analyses that fertility control is incapable of rapidly reducing deer abundance. Fertility control can be combined with culling to maintain a population below carrying capacity with a high probability of success. This gives managers confronted with problematic overabundance a framework for implementing management actions with a realistic assessment of uncertainty.

  7. Forecasting the Effects of Fertility Control on Overabundant Ungulates: White-Tailed Deer in the National Capital Region.

    PubMed

    Raiho, Ann M; Hooten, Mevin B; Bates, Scott; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Overabundant populations of ungulates have caused environmental degradation and loss of biological diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. Culling or regulated harvest is often used to control overabundant species. These methods are difficult to implement in national parks, other types of conservation reserves, or in residential areas where public hunting may be forbidden by policy. As a result, fertility control has been recommended as a non-lethal alternative for regulating ungulate populations. We evaluate this alternative using white-tailed deer in national parks in the vicinity of Washington, D.C., USA as a model system. Managers seek to reduce densities of white-tailed deer from the current average (50 deer per km2) to decrease harm to native plant communities caused by deer. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model using 13 years of population estimates from 8 national parks in the National Capital Region Network. We offer a novel way to evaluate management actions relative to goals using short term forecasts. Our approach confirms past analyses that fertility control is incapable of rapidly reducing deer abundance. Fertility control can be combined with culling to maintain a population below carrying capacity with a high probability of success. This gives managers confronted with problematic overabundance a framework for implementing management actions with a realistic assessment of uncertainty.

  8. Forecasting the Effects of Fertility Control on Overabundant Ungulates: White-Tailed Deer in the National Capital Region

    PubMed Central

    Raiho, Ann M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Bates, Scott; Hobbs, N. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Overabundant populations of ungulates have caused environmental degradation and loss of biological diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. Culling or regulated harvest is often used to control overabundant species. These methods are difficult to implement in national parks, other types of conservation reserves, or in residential areas where public hunting may be forbidden by policy. As a result, fertility control has been recommended as a non-lethal alternative for regulating ungulate populations. We evaluate this alternative using white-tailed deer in national parks in the vicinity of Washington, D.C., USA as a model system. Managers seek to reduce densities of white-tailed deer from the current average (50 deer per km2) to decrease harm to native plant communities caused by deer. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model using 13 years of population estimates from 8 national parks in the National Capital Region Network. We offer a novel way to evaluate management actions relative to goals using short term forecasts. Our approach confirms past analyses that fertility control is incapable of rapidly reducing deer abundance. Fertility control can be combined with culling to maintain a population below carrying capacity with a high probability of success. This gives managers confronted with problematic overabundance a framework for implementing management actions with a realistic assessment of uncertainty. PMID:26650739

  9. Investigating the potential to reduce flood risk through catchment-based land management techniques and interventions in the River Roe catchment, Cumbria,UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Callum; Reaney, Sim; Bracken, Louise; Butler, Lucy

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the United Kingdom flood risk is a growing problem and a significant proportion of the population are at risk from flooding throughout the country. Across England and Wales over 5 million people are believed to be at risk from fluvial, pluvial or coastal flooding (DEFRA, 2013). Increasingly communities that have not dealt with flooding before have recently experienced significant flood events. The communities of Stockdalewath and Highbridge in the Roe catchment, a tributary of the River Eden in Cumbria, UK, are an excellent example. The River Roe has a normal flow of less than 5m3 sec-1 occurring 97 percent of the time however there have been two flash floods of 98.8m3 sec-1 in January 2005 and 86.9m3 sec-1 in May 2013. These two flash flood events resulted in the inundation of numerous properties within the catchment with the 2013 event prompting the creation of the Roe Catchment Community Water Management Group which aims are to deliver a sustainable approach to managing the flood risk. Due to the distributed rural population the community fails the cost-benefit analysis for a centrally funded flood risk mitigation scheme. Therefore the at-risk community within the Roe catchment have to look for cost-effective, sustainable techniques and interventions to reduce the potential negative impacts of future events; this has resulted in a focus on natural flood risk management. This research investigates the potential to reduce flood risk through natural catchment-based land management techniques and interventions within the Roe catchment; providing a scientific base from with further action can be enacted. These interventions include changes to land management and land use, such as soil aeration and targeted afforestation, the creation of runoff attenuation features and the construction of in channel features, such as debris dams. Natural flood management (NFM) application has been proven to be effective when reducing flood risk in smaller catchments and the

  10. 33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLAN AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JULY 1908. Aperture card 6417. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  12. 29. HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER EMBANKMENT, SHOWING IDAHO-SHAPED ROCKS FLANKING ENTRANCE TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  13. 16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT (NOTE TWO FILLED-IN PORTALS). VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  14. 36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, DECEMBER 1909. Aperture card 6611-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  16. Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P < 0.001) and home range (P < 0.001) levels. Deer selected for Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9% of locations in CRP were documented prior to 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Conversely, selection for corn occurred during late summer; 86.0 and 68.4% of locations in corn were documented after 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Additionally, deer selected for forested cover and rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

  17. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%).

  18. A Private Issue Becomes a Public Issue: A Rhetorical Analysis of "Roe v Wade."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martha

    Supreme Court decisions tend to take the form of either (1) an act of justification or argumentation that defends the verdict of the communicator, or (2) a construction of a new symbolic reality that influences the world view of its audience. The "Roe vs. Wade" decision is an example of the merger of these two rhetorical functions. The…

  19. Flux Jacobian matrices and generaled Roe average for an equilibrium real gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, Marcel

    1988-01-01

    Inviscid flux Jacobian matrices and their properties used in numerical solutions of conservation laws are extended to general, equilibrium gas laws. Exact and approximate generalizations of the Roe average are presented. Results are given for one-dimensional flow, and then extended to three-dimensional flow with time-varying grids.

  20. Relationship with People as the Underlying Dimension for Roe's Classification of Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Elchanan I.; Hadadi, Amalia

    1974-01-01

    One hundred eleven subjects were asked to indicate how much relationship with people is involved in 48 occupational titles. The results support Roe's classification of occupations: differences within occupational fields were found to be smaller than differences between occupational fields (F=8.53, p less than .01). (Author)

  1. Comparing protein and energy status of winter-fed white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, B.D.; Underwood, H.B.

    2006-01-01

    Although nutritional status in response to controlled feeding trials has been extensively studied in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), there remains a considerable gap in understanding the influence of variable supplemental feeding protocols on free-ranging deer. Consequently, across the northern portion of the white-tailed deer range, numerous property managers are investing substantial resources into winter supplemental-feeding programs without adequate tools to assess the nutritional status of their populations. We studied the influence of a supplemental winter feeding gradient on the protein and energy status of free-ranging white-tailed deer in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. We collected blood and fecal samples from 31 captured fawns across 3 sites that varied considerably in the frequency, quantity, and method of supplemental feed distribution. To facilitate population-wide comparisons, we collected fresh fecal samples off the snow at each of the 3 sites with supplemental feeding and 1 reference site where no feeding occurred. Results indicated that the method of feed distribution, in addition to quantity and frequency, can affect the nutritional status of deer. The least intensively fed population showed considerable overlap in diet quality with the unfed population in a principal components ordination, despite the substantial time and financial resources invested in the feeding program. Data from fecal samples generally denoted a gradient in diet quality and digestibility that corresponded with the availability of supplements. Our results further demonstrated that fecal nitrogen and fecal fiber, indices of dietary protein and digestibility, can be estimated using regressions of fecal pellet mass, enabling a rapid qualitative assessment of diet quality.

  2. Supplier Education--Deere & Company Partners with Black Hawk College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Describes the partnership between Deere & Company and Black Hawk College that provided a training program for John Deere suppliers, resulting in a cost-effective approach to upgrading supplier skills and improving Deere product quality. Lists benefits of supplier development and training. (YKH)

  3. 27. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, CA. 1895 Photocopy of photograph (Massachusetts State Archives, Environmental Affairs, MDC, Construction, 313 V 193 1-5 Box 8, Deer Island Pumping Station) - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. Habitat effects on condition of doe mule deer in arid mixed woodland-grassland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Lomas, L.A.; Kamienski, T.

    2007-01-01

    Productivity of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus Raf.) populations is closely linked to individual nutritional condition. We modeled body fat of individual does as a function of vegetation cover, composition, and water characteristics of their annual, summer, and winter home ranges in north-central New Mexico. We also modeled home range size as a function of the same characteristics. Levels of body fat were most closely and negatively related to the amount of pinyon-juniper in an individual deer's annual home range (F1,21 = 7.6; P = 0.012; r2 = 0.26). Pinyon-juniper types provided little (combined ground cover of preferred forbs and shrubs = 5.7%) mule deer forage but were included in home ranges in excess of their availability on the landscape, likely because of security cover attributes. Proportion of grasslands in home ranges was most strongly related to both annual (F1,23 = 4.9; P = 0.037; r2 = 0.18) and summer (F2,25 = 5.7; P = 0.009; r2 = 0.31) home range sizes, and home ranges increased as the grassland component increased, indicating that this habitat type was providing little value to mule deer. Grassland (0.2% combined cover of preferred forb and shrub) and montane conifer (3.2% ground cover of preferred forb and shrub) habitat types similarly lacked preferred mule deer food, and grasslands also lacked cover. Most immediate gains in mule deer habitat in north-central New Mexico may be attained by management of pinyon-juniper communities to increase forage quantity and quality while maintaining cover attributes. Gains can also be realized in grasslands, but here management must establish both cover and forage.

  5. Influence of deer abundance on the abundance of questing adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.

    1999-01-01

    Nymphal and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were sampled by flagging at 2 sites on a barrier island, Fire Island, NY, and at 2 sites on the nearby mainland. Nymphal densities did not differ consistently between island and mainland sites, but adult densities were consistently lower on the island. We tested whether lower adult densities on the island resulted from greater nymphal mortality on the island than the mainland, or whether adult ticks on the island were poorly sampled by flagging because they had attached abundantly to deer, which were common on Fire Island. Differential nymphal mortality on islands vs. mainland did not explain this difference in adult densities because survival of flat and engorged nymphs in enclosures was the same at island and mainland sites. Ticks were infected by parasitic wasps on the island and not the mainland, but the infection rate (4.3%) was too low to explain the difference in adult tick densities. In contrast, exclusion of deer by game fencing on Fire Island resulted in markedly increased numbers of adult ticks in flagging samples inside compared to samples taken outside the exclosures. Therefore, the scarcity of adult ticks in flagging samples on Fire Island resulted, at least in part, from the ticks being unavailable to flagging samples because they were on deer hosts. Differences in the densities of flagged ticks inside and outside the exclosures were used to estimate the percentage of questing adults on Fire Island that found deer hosts, excluding those that attached to other host species. Approximately 56% of these questing adult ticks found deer hosts in 1995 and 50% found deer hosts in 1996. Therefore, in areas where vertebrate hosts are highly abundant, large proportions of the questing tick population can find hosts. Moreover, comparisons of tick densities at different sites by flagging can potentially be biased by differences in host densities among sites.

  6. Textural improvement of salt-reduced Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) roe product by CaCl2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaoping; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2016-12-15

    Salt-reduced Alaska pollack roe benefits public health by decreasing NaCl intake; however, it has a poor texture with low breaking strength. This study addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in salted roe products, with focusing on the improvement of breaking strength using CaCl2. Salted roe products were prepared by immersing Alaska pollack roe in either NaCl solutions (3.5, 7.0, 15.0, 20.0, and 25.0%) or 7.0% NaCl solutions with added CaCl2 (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0%). Breaking strength, moisture and salt contents, eggshell protein composition of the salted roe products, as well as total endogenous transglutaminase (TGase) activity in various NaCl and CaCl2 concentrations were analyzed. CaCl2 addition enhanced eggshell protein crosslinking and breaking strength of the salt-reduced roe products. An acyl transfer reaction catalyzed by calcium-dependent TGase may be responsible for the eggshell protein crosslinking and improved texture. Thus, we successfully developed a salt-reduced Alaska roe product using CaCl2.

  7. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in endangered Florida Key deer and Key deer habitat.

    PubMed

    Murray, Heidi L; Yabsley, Michael J; Keel, M Kevin; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Wilmers, Thomas J; Corn, Joseph L

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was first reported in the endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) in 1996 on Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. By 2008, eight additional MAP-positive Key deer had been identified on Big Pine Key and the nearby Newfound Harbor Keys. This study was conducted to determine if MAP was still present in Key deer and whether natural or man-made freshwater sources were contaminated with MAP. Between November 2009 and September 2012, MAP was isolated from 36/369 (10%) fecal samples collected from the ground throughout the Key deer range on Big Pine Key and the Newfound Harbor Keys, but all 36 positive samples were from Little Palm Island (36/142 [25%]). Only 1/729 (0.1%) environmental samples was positive; this was from the garden fountain on Little Palm Island (1/81 [1%]). In addition, MAP was detected in 3/43 (7%) necropsied Key deer, all from Little Palm Island (3/3 [100%]). Of these three Key deer, pooled samples from the ileum, cecum, and ileocecal lymph node from two were MAP-culture positive and feces from one of these were culture-positive. The third deer was only PCR-positive. Evidence of MAP was only detected on Little Palm Island during this sampling period and environmental contamination was limited.

  8. Homogenization, sex, and differential motility predict spread of chronic wasting disease in mule deer in southern Utah.

    PubMed

    Garlick, Martha J; Powell, James A; Hooten, Mevin B; MacFarlane, Leslie R

    2014-08-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an infectious prion disease that affects mule deer, along with other Cervids. It is a slow-developing, fatal disease which is rare in the free-ranging deer population of Utah. We present a sex-structured, spatial model for the spread of CWD over heterogeneous landscapes, incorporating both horizontal and environmental transmission pathways. To connect the local movement of deer to the regional spread of CWD, we use ecological diffusion with motility coefficients estimated from mule deer movement data. Ecological diffusion allows for aggregation of populations in desirable habitats and therefore allows for an interaction between density dependent disease transmission and landscape structure. The major innovation presented is use of homogenization to accelerate simulations of disease spread in southeastern Utah, from the La Sal Mountains near Moab to the Abajo Mountains near Monticello. The homogenized model provides accuracy while maintaining fidelity to small-scale habitat effects on deer distribution, including differential aggregation in land cover types with high residence times, with errors comparable to the order parameter measuring separation of small and large scales ([Formula: see text] in this case). We use the averaged coefficients from the homogenized model to explore asymptotic invasion speed and the impact of current population size on disease spread in southeastern Utah.

  9. Spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Blanchong, Julie A.; Batha, C.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Keane, D.P.; Ribic, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. The potential for CWD to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming CWD-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive CWD control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. We characterized the spatial distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Wisconsin to facilitate CWD management. We found that CWD prevalence declined with distance from a central location, was locally correlated at a scale of 3.6 km, and was correlated with deer habitat abundance. The latter result is consistent with patterns expected for a positive relationship between density and prevalence of CWD. We recommend management activities focused on culling in geographic areas with high prevalence to have the greatest probability of removing infected individuals. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors in envolved in CWD spread and infection rates, especially the role of density-dependent transmission. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  10. Associating seasonal range characteristics with survival of female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Deperno, C.S.; Griffin, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Delineating populations is critical for understanding population dynamics and managing habitats. Our objective was to delineate subpopulations of migratory female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, on summer and winter ranges. We used fuzzy classification to assign radiocollared deer to subpopulations based on spatial location, characterized subpopulations by trapping sites, and explored relationships among survival of subpopulations and habitat variables. In winter, Kaplan-Meier estimates for subpopulations indicated 2 groups: high (S = 0.991 ?? 0.005 [x- ?? SE]) and low (S = 0.968 ?? 0.007) weekly survivorship. Survivorship increased with basal area per hectare of trees, average diameter at breast height of trees, percent cover of slash, and total point-center quarter distance of trees. Cover of grass and forbs were less for the high survivorship than the lower survivorship group. In summer, deer were spaced apart with mixed associations among subpopulations. Habitat manipulations that promote or maintain large trees (i.e., basal area = 14.8 m2/ha and average dbh of trees = 8.3 cm) would seem to improve adult survival of deer in winter.

  11. Effects of density, climate, and supplementary forage on body mass and pregnancy rates of female red deer in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hidalgo, P; Gortazar, C; Tortosa, F S; Rodriguez-Vigal, C; Fierro, Y; Vicente, J

    2010-10-01

    The influence of short- and long-term (cohort) effects of climate and density on the life-histories of ungulates in temperate regions may vary with latitude, habitat, and management practices, but the life-histories of ungulates in the Mediterranean region are less well known. This study examined the short- and long-term effects of rainfall and absolute density on hinds in two of the southernmost populations of red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) in Europe. One population received supplementary forage. Unlike more northerly latitudes, where red deer hinds lose body mass in winter as a result of adverse weather, in the Spanish populations, hinds did not lose body mass. Hinds in the population that received supplementary forage were heavier and more likely to become pregnant than were the hinds in the unsupplemented population. The likelihood of pregnancy occurring was strongly influenced by hind body mass; the proportion of yearlings that became pregnant was consequently lower in the unsupplemented population than in the population that received supplementary forage. Cohort effects on hind body mass (negative for density and positive for rainfall at birth) and on the probability of pregnancy (negative for density at birth) were apparent only in the unsupplemented population, which implies that supplemental feeding may partially compensate for negative density-dependent factors during early growth, and that supplemented deer hinds may experience reduced selection pressures. These results reflect the particular seasonal variation in the abundance and quality of food in Mediterranean habitats. The delayed effects of climate and density at birth on adult hind body mass and the prevalence of pregnancy probably affects population dynamics and constitutes a mechanism by which cohort effects affect the population dynamics in Iberian red deer. The management of Iberian red deer populations should take into account cohort effects and supplemental feeding practices, which can

  12. Determination of mitochondrial cytochrome B gene sequence for red deer (Cervus elaphus) and the differentiation of closely related deer meats.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, T; Chikuni, K; Tanabe, R; Muroya, S; Nakai, H; Shibata, K; Yamada, J; Shinmura, Y

    1998-08-01

    The cytochrome b gene sequence for red deer was determined using the Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing method and used for identification of deer meat in meat and meat products. Red deer showed a similarity of 94.1, 84.0, 81.1, 85.5 and 85.6% to sika deer (Cervus nippon), bovine, pigs, sheep and goats, respectively. To differentiate the deer meat, oligonucleotide primers RD-1(5'-TCATCGCAGCACTCGCTATAGTACACT-3'), RD-2(5'-ATCTCCAAGTAGGTCTGGTGCGAATAA-3') were designed for the region of the cytochrome b gene of red deer. The PCR amplified 194 bp fragments from red and sika deer, but no fragments from bovine, pig, chicken, sheep, goat, horse and rabbit DNA. Although cooking the meats reduced the PCR products, red deer could still be detected in meat heated at 120 °C. To discriminate between red and sika deer, these PCR products were digested by a restriction enzyme (EcoRI,BamHI,ScaI) and analyzed by 4% agorose gel electrophoresis. As a result, the red deer fragment was digested by EcoRI to 67/127 bp fragments but not by BamHI and ScaI. The sika deer fragment was digested to 48/146 bp and 49/145 bp fragments with the two other enzymes, and thus it is possible to differentiate between the two kinds of deer from the digestion pattern of restriction enzymes.

  13. Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  14. Discovery of genome-wideSNPs by RAD-seqand the genetic diversity of captive hog deer (Axis porcinus)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianqiu; Yi, Jun; Qu, Yu; Fu, Maozhong; Chen, Ang; Tang, Hui; Niu, Lili

    2017-01-01

    The hog deer (Axis porcinus) is a small deer whose natural habitat is the wet or moist tall grasslands in South and Southeast Asia. Wild populations have dramatically decreased in recent decades. While wild hog deer were recently acknowledged to be extinct in China, a few captive populations have been maintained. In the present study, we successfully employed the restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) technique to generate a genome-wide profile of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the captive population of hog deer from Chengdu Zoo, China (N = 11). Up to 4.7 million clean reads per sample were sequenced, and 11,155 SNPs and 8,247 haplotypes were simultaneously observed within more than 80% of sequenced individuals. In this population, the mean frequency of major alleles at each polymorphism site was 0.7903±0.0014, and the average nucleotide diversity (π) and inbreeding coefficient (FIS) were 0.3031±0.0015 and -0.0302±0.0062, respectively. Additionally, the Euclidean distance-based multidimensional scaling method revealed that the pairwise genetic relatedness was evenly distributed. However, the results of homologous searching by short reads did not provide any meaningful explanation of the phylogenetic relationship of hog deer, which should be further investigated. In conclusion, our results revealed current state of genetic diversity in this captive population of hog deer.Furthermore, these genome-wide SNPs would be useful for guiding the mating schedule to avoid sharp increase of inbreeding coefficient. PMID:28323863

  15. Purifying Selection, Density Blocking and Unnoticed Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Red Deer, Cervus elaphus.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Zbigniew; Świsłocka, Magdalena; Matosiuk, Maciej; Mirski, Paweł; Krysiuk, Kamil; Czajkowska, Magdalena; Borkowska, Anetta; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    The trajectories of postglacial range expansions, the occurrence of lineage patches and the formation and maintenance of secondary contact between lineages may mostly reflect neutral demographic processes, including density blocking, that may leave long-lasting genetic signatures. However, a few studies have recently shown that climate may also play a role. We used red deer, a large, mobile herbivore that is assumed to be sensitive to climate change, to test hypotheses of possible selection on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene (mtDNA cytb) and competitive and/or density-blocking (using mtDNA control region). We searched for a possible link between the phylogeographic structure and abiotic climatic variables. Finally, we tested for isolation by distance and isolation by environment and assessed the impact of human-mediated translocations on the genetic structure of red deer. Our analysis of 30 red deer populations in Poland using the mtDNA control region (N = 357) and cytochrome b (N = 50) markers not only confirmed the presence of the Western and South-Eastern lineages of the species but also indicated the presence of a previously unnoticed, rare relic haplotype that grouped together C. e. italicus from Italy (the Mesola deer). No significant signs of positive selection were detected for the mtDNA cytb gene in the studied red deer. However, a significant signal for purifying selection was found in our study that may explain the narrowness of the contact zone because gene flow between the Western and South-Eastern lineages should drive relatively strong mito-nuclear incompatibilities. MtDNA control region differentiation among red deer populations in Poland correlated with different abiotic climatic variables. Strikingly, the southernmost ice sheet limits during the Elsterian was the most important factor, and it explained the largest amount of variation. However, neither isolation by distance (IBD) nor isolation by environment (IBE) were recorded, and a very

  16. Purifying Selection, Density Blocking and Unnoticed Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Red Deer, Cervus elaphus

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, Zbigniew; Świsłocka, Magdalena; Matosiuk, Maciej; Mirski, Paweł; Krysiuk, Kamil; Czajkowska, Magdalena; Borkowska, Anetta; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    The trajectories of postglacial range expansions, the occurrence of lineage patches and the formation and maintenance of secondary contact between lineages may mostly reflect neutral demographic processes, including density blocking, that may leave long-lasting genetic signatures. However, a few studies have recently shown that climate may also play a role. We used red deer, a large, mobile herbivore that is assumed to be sensitive to climate change, to test hypotheses of possible selection on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene (mtDNA cytb) and competitive and/or density-blocking (using mtDNA control region). We searched for a possible link between the phylogeographic structure and abiotic climatic variables. Finally, we tested for isolation by distance and isolation by environment and assessed the impact of human-mediated translocations on the genetic structure of red deer. Our analysis of 30 red deer populations in Poland using the mtDNA control region (N = 357) and cytochrome b (N = 50) markers not only confirmed the presence of the Western and South-Eastern lineages of the species but also indicated the presence of a previously unnoticed, rare relic haplotype that grouped together C. e. italicus from Italy (the Mesola deer). No significant signs of positive selection were detected for the mtDNA cytb gene in the studied red deer. However, a significant signal for purifying selection was found in our study that may explain the narrowness of the contact zone because gene flow between the Western and South-Eastern lineages should drive relatively strong mito-nuclear incompatibilities. MtDNA control region differentiation among red deer populations in Poland correlated with different abiotic climatic variables. Strikingly, the southernmost ice sheet limits during the Elsterian was the most important factor, and it explained the largest amount of variation. However, neither isolation by distance (IBD) nor isolation by environment (IBE) were recorded, and a very

  17. Summer watering patterns of mule deer in the Great Basin Desert, USA: implications of differential use by individuals and the sexes for management of water resources.

    PubMed

    Shields, Andrew V; Larsen, Randy T; Whiting, Jericho C

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the abundance and distribution of free water can negatively influence wildlife in arid regions. Free water is considered a limiting factor for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Great Basin Desert. Consequently, a better understanding of differential use of water by individuals and the sexes could influence the conservation and management of mule deer and water resources in their habitats. We deployed remote cameras at all known water sources (13 wildlife water developments and 4 springs) on one mountain range in western Utah, USA, during summer from 2007 to 2011 to document frequency and timing of water use, number of water sources used by males and females, and to estimate population size from individually identified mule deer. Male and female mule deer used different water sources but visited that resource at similar frequencies. Individual mule deer used few water sources and exhibited high fidelity to that resource. Wildlife water developments were frequently used by both sexes. Our results highlight the differing use of water sources by sexes and individual mule deer. This information will help guide managers when siting and reprovisioning wildlife water developments meant to benefit mule deer and will contribute to the conservation and management of this species.

  18. Comparative landscape genetic analyses show a Belgian motorway to be a gene flow barrier for red deer (Cervus elaphus), but not wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Frantz, A C; Bertouille, S; Eloy, M C; Licoppe, A; Chaumont, F; Flamand, M C

    2012-07-01

    While motorways are often assumed to influence the movement behaviour of large mammals, there are surprisingly few studies that show an influence of these linear structures on the genetic make-up of wild ungulate populations. Here, we analyse the spatial genetic structure of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) along a stretch of motorway in the Walloon part of Belgium. Altogether, 876 red deer were genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci, and 325 wild boars at 14 loci. In the case of the red deer, different genetic clustering tools identified two genetic subpopulations whose borders matched the motorway well. Conversely, no genetic structure was identified in the case of the wild boar. Analysis of isolation-by-distance patterns of pairs of individuals on the same side and on different sides of the motorway also suggested that the road was a barrier to red deer, but not to wild boar movement. While telemetry studies seem to confirm that red deer are more affected by motorways than wild boar, the red deer sample size was also much larger than that of the wild boars. We therefore repeated the analysis of genetic structure in the red deer with randomly sub-sampled data sets of decreasing size. The power to detect the genetic structure using clustering methods decreased with decreasing sample size.

  19. Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer from Virginia and subsequent surveillance for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Rohm, John H; Sims, Jerry P; Sanchez, Susan; Gerhold, Richard W; Keel, M Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) was diagnosed in a 2-yr-old, male, free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Fauquier County, Virginia, USA, based on histopathology and culture for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Clinical and pathologic findings included emaciation; loss of body fat; chronic diarrhea; severe, chronic, diffuse granulomatous colitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; moderate, chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; as well as moderate chronic, multifocal, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis. These findings are consistent with previous reports of Johne's disease in cervids. Subsequent targeted surveillance of 10 emaciated deer with diarrhea, as well as sampling of 72 asymptomatic deer for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using culture of multiple tissue types, as well as serology using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) optimized for cervid antibody detection, did not reveal any additional cases of infection in this geographic region. To date, this appears to be an isolated case of Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer, and infection with the causative agent for Johne's disease appears to be an infrequent occurrence in deer from this region. The origin of infection was most likely domestic ruminants. This is the first report of clinical Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer outside of the Florida Keys, USA. Stressors, such as high deer population density and low selenium levels, may have contributed to the development of clinical disease in this case and warrant further investigation.

  20. Artificial insemination in deer and non-domestic bovids.

    PubMed

    Morrow, C J; Penfold, L M; Wolfe, B A

    2009-01-01

    Artificial insemination technology has revolutionized the domestic cattle breeding industry and allowed for the dissemination of valuable genetics worldwide. This technology has been adapted for use in many other taxa for the conservation of threatened and endangered species, but its use for the genetic management of small populations of deer, antelope and other non-domestic bovids has met numerous challenges and limited success. In practice, adaptation of domestic bovine AI protocols to other artiodactylids for genetic management has been limited by: (1) a lack of understanding of species-specific reproductive characteristics; (2) the inability to minimize handling stress; (3) pregnancy losses; and (4) regulatory challenges in semen importation. To date, AI protocols have been developed for seven species of cervid and 14 species of non-domestic bovids; recent developments in this technology has allowed greater use of AI for dissemination of genetics in farmed deer species. However, despite decades of research in the use of assisted reproduction for the conservation of antelope and other non-domestic bovids, even this simplest technique has not been used repeatedly for genetic management.

  1. Incorporating harvest rates into the sex-age-kill model for white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2013-01-01

    Although monitoring population trends is an essential component of game species management, wildlife managers rarely have complete counts of abundance. Often, they rely on population models to monitor population trends. As imperfect representations of real-world populations, models must be rigorously evaluated to be applied appropriately. Previous research has evaluated population models for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, the precision and reliability of these models when tested against empirical measures of variability and bias largely is untested. We were able to statistically evaluate the Pennsylvania sex-age-kill (PASAK) population model using realistic error measured using data from 1,131 radiocollared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. We used these data and harvest data (number killed, age-sex structure, etc.) to estimate precision of abundance estimates, identify the most efficient harvest data collection with respect to precision of parameter estimates, and evaluate PASAK model robustness to violation of assumptions. Median coefficient of variation (CV) estimates by Wildlife Management Unit, 13.2% in the most recent year, were slightly above benchmarks recommended for managing game species populations. Doubling reporting rates by hunters or doubling the number of deer checked by personnel in the field reduced median CVs to recommended levels. The PASAK model was robust to errors in estimates for adult male harvest rates but was sensitive to errors in subadult male harvest rates, especially in populations with lower harvest rates. In particular, an error in subadult (1.5-yr-old) male harvest rates resulted in the opposite error in subadult male, adult female, and juvenile population estimates. Also, evidence of a greater harvest probability for subadult female deer when compared with adult (≥2.5-yr-old) female deer resulted in a 9.5% underestimate of the population using the PASAK model. Because obtaining

  2. Prion protein gene sequence and chronic wasting disease susceptibility in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Adam L; Kelly, Amy C; Green, Michelle L; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sequence of the prion protein gene (PRNP) affects susceptibility to spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases in many species. In white-tailed deer, both coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in this gene that correlate to chronic wasting disease (CWD) susceptibility. Previous studies examined individual nucleotide or amino acid mutations; here we examine all nucleotide polymorphisms and their combined effects on CWD. A 626 bp region of PRNP was examined from 703 free-ranging white-tailed deer. Deer were sampled between 2002 and 2010 by hunter harvest or government culling in Illinois and Wisconsin. Fourteen variable nucleotide positions were identified (4 new and 10 previously reported). We identified 68 diplotypes comprised of 24 predicted haplotypes, with the most common diplotype occurring in 123 individuals. Diplotypes that were found exclusively among positive or negative animals were rare, each occurring in less than 1% of the deer studied. Only one haplotype (C, odds ratio 0.240) and 2 diplotypes (AC and BC, odds ratios of 0.161 and 0.108 respectively) has significant associations with CWD resistance. Each contains mutations (one synonymous nucleotide 555C/T and one nonsynonymous nucleotide 286G/A) at positions reported to be significantly associated with reduced CWD susceptibility. Results suggest that deer populations with higher frequencies of haplotype C or diplotypes AC and BC might have a reduced risk for CWD infection – while populations with lower frequencies may have higher risk for infection. Understanding the genetic basis of CWD has improved our ability to assess herd susceptibility and direct management efforts within CWD infected areas. PMID:26634768

  3. Prion protein gene sequence and chronic wasting disease susceptibility in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam L; Kelly, Amy C; Green, Michelle L; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E

    2015-01-01

    The sequence of the prion protein gene (PRNP) affects susceptibility to spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases in many species. In white-tailed deer, both coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in this gene that correlate to chronic wasting disease (CWD) susceptibility. Previous studies examined individual nucleotide or amino acid mutations; here we examine all nucleotide polymorphisms and their combined effects on CWD. A 626 bp region of PRNP was examined from 703 free-ranging white-tailed deer. Deer were sampled between 2002 and 2010 by hunter harvest or government culling in Illinois and Wisconsin. Fourteen variable nucleotide positions were identified (4 new and 10 previously reported). We identified 68 diplotypes comprised of 24 predicted haplotypes, with the most common diplotype occurring in 123 individuals. Diplotypes that were found exclusively among positive or negative animals were rare, each occurring in less than 1% of the deer studied. Only one haplotype (C, odds ratio 0.240) and 2 diplotypes (AC and BC, odds ratios of 0.161 and 0.108 respectively) has significant associations with CWD resistance. Each contains mutations (one synonymous nucleotide 555C/T and one nonsynonymous nucleotide 286G/A) at positions reported to be significantly associated with reduced CWD susceptibility. Results suggest that deer populations with higher frequencies of haplotype C or diplotypes AC and BC might have a reduced risk for CWD infection--while populations with lower frequencies may have higher risk for infection. Understanding the genetic basis of CWD has improved our ability to assess herd susceptibility and direct management efforts within CWD infected areas.

  4. Late Quaternary distribution dynamics and phylogeography of the red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, R. S.; Zachos, F. E.; Street, M.; Jöris, O.; Skog, A.; Benecke, N.

    2008-04-01

    Here we present spatial-temporal patterns for European late Quaternary red deer (Cervus elaphus), based on radiocarbon-supported evidence derived mainly from archaeological sites. This is followed by an overview of the recent phylogeography of this species using haplogroup studies of recent molecular data. The implications of the synthesis of palaeontological and genetic data are discussed and we propose that present day European red deer haplogroup distributions are best explained against the history of late Quaternary population contractions into and expansions from glacial refugia. Around 800 records of Cervus elaphus were assigned to the period covering the later part of the Last Glacial and the Early to Middle Holocene. Red deer becomes increasingly visible in faunal assemblages dated to late OIS-3 (<40.0 ka 14C BP). The species persisted throughout the LGM on the Iberian Peninsula, in adjacent regions of South-Western France (Gascony, Dordogne, Languedoc), on the Italian Peninsula, in the Balkans and Greece, and east of the Carpathians in Moldavia. We suggest that genetic exchange between the populations of the Balkans and the East of the Carpathians remained uninterrupted during the LGM. The expansion of red deer from its southern refugia into Central and Northern Europe begins rapidly at 12,500 14C BP. The expansion of red deer coincides with the sudden rise in temperature at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1e and the dispersion of open birch woodland into the northern half of Europe. Radiocarbon supported records show a more or less universal distribution of Cervus elaphus across Europe following the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic change at 10.0 ka 14C BP for the first time. Molecular data and fossil record combined provide a clearer temporal and spatial pattern for the Lateglacial recolonisation process of the northern part of Europe.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Alpine Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Its Spread and Effects on Fertility [corrected].

    PubMed

    Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Pedrotti, Luca; Gaffuri, Alessandra; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Ferrari, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the depth of knowledge on the pathological effects of parasitism in domestic animals, the impact of the vast majority of parasites on wildlife hosts is poorly understood and, besides, information from domestics is rarely usable to disclose the parasites' impact on free-ranging populations' dynamics. Here we use Toxoplasmosis as a study model since, until now, the infection process and the protozoan's effects in natural conditions has received little attention. We analysed 81 sera from red deer (Cervus elaphus) sampled in Italian Alps and through generalized linear models we evaluated (1) the epidemiological factors influencing T. gondii infection dynamics; (2) its impact on female fertility [corrected]. High seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was recorded in yearling (1 year-old; prevalence = 52.4%) and adult (>2 year-old; prevalence = 51.3%) red deer, while calves (<1 year-old) did not contract the infection suggesting horizontal transmission as the main route of infection. The stable prevalence between yearlings and adults and the higher serological titres of younger individuals lead to two alternative infection processes suggesting a difference between age classes or in acquiring the infection or in responding to the pathogen. No associations between T. gondii serological titres and pregnancy status was observed indicating no direct effect on the probability of being pregnant; nevertheless a relation between females' higher serological titres and lower foetal development emerged, suggesting potential effects of the parasite infection on deer reproduction. The results demonstrate high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in free-ranging red deer and, furthermore, the effect on foetal development suggests the potential impact of the parasite on red deer fertility and thus on its population dynamics.

  6. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasmataceae agents in free-ranging Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus).

    PubMed

    Sacchi, A B V; Duarte, J M B; André, M R; Machado, R Z

    2012-07-01

    Anaplasmataceae organisms comprise a group of obligate intracellular gram-negative, tick-borne bacteria that can infect both animals and humans. In the present work we investigate the presence of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia species in blood samples from Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), using both molecular and serologic techniques. Blood was collected from 143 deer captured along floodplains of the Paraná River, near the Porto Primavera hydroelectric power plant. Before and after flooding, marsh deer were captured for a wide range research program under the financial support of São Paulo State Energy Company (CESP), between 1998 and 2001. Samples were divided into four groups according to time and location of capture and named MS01 (n=99), MS02 (n=18) (Mato Grosso do Sul, before and after flooding, respectively), PX (n=9; Peixe River, after flooding), and AGUA (n=17; Aguapeí River, after flooding). The seroprevalences for Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 76.76% and 20.2% in MS01, 88.88% and 5.55% in MS02, 88.88% and 22.22% in PX, and 94.12% and 5.88% in AGUA, respectively. Sixty-one animals (42.65% of the total population) were PCR-positive for E. chaffeensis PCR (100.0% identity based on 16S rRNA, dsb, and groESL genes). Seventy deer (48.95% of the total population) were PCR-positive for Anaplasma spp. (99.0% of identity with A. platys, and in the same clade as A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis, and A. platys based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis). Our results demonstrate that Brazilian marsh deer are exposed to E. chaffeensis and Anaplasma spp. and may act as reservoirs for these rickettsial agents, playing a role in disease transmission to humans and other animals.

  7. A novel and rapid diagnostic method for discriminating between feces of sika deer and Japanese serow by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, T; Horino, S; Ichihara, Y

    2015-08-01

    Severe damages to natural vegetation, agriculture, and forestry caused by overpopulation of sika deer (Cervus nippon) have markedly increased in Japan in recent years. To devise a population management plan of sika deer, information on the distribution and population size of the animal in each region is indispensable. An easy and effective method to obtain this information is to count the fecal pellets in the field. However, the habitat of sika deer in Japan overlaps that of Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus). Additionally, it is difficult to discriminate between the feces of both animals. Here, we present a rapid and precise diagnostic method for discriminating between the feces of sika deer and Japanese serow using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting cytochrome b gene in the mitochondrial DNA. Our results showed that the LAMP can discriminate between the feces of sika deer and Japanese serow, and the method is simpler and more sensitive than the conventional molecular diagnostic method. Since LAMP method does not require special skills for molecular biology techniques, even the field researchers who have never done a molecular experiment can easily carry out the protocol. In addition, the entire protocol, from DNA extraction from fecal pellet to identification of species, takes only about 75 min and does not require expensive equipment. Hence, this diagnostic method is simple, fast, and accessible to anyone. As such, the method can be a useful tool to estimate distribution and population size of sika deer.

  8. 77 FR 41939 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Deer Lodge, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airspace at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate... procedures at Deer Lodge-City-County Airport, Deer Lodge, MT. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance...

  9. Serological study of a population of alpine chamois (Rupicapra r rupicapra) affected by an outbreak of respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Citterio, C V; Luzzago, C; Sala, M; Sironi, G; Gatti, P; Gaffuri, A; Lanfranchi, P

    2003-11-08

    A serological survey of respiratory virus infections was carried out from 1998 to 2001 in Lecco province, Italy, as part of a health monitoring programme in a population of alpine chamois, many of which died of pneumonia in autumn and winter 2000 to 2001; 194 carcases of all age classes were found over a short period and in a small area. Eighteen of them, which were examined postmortem, consistently showed signs of severe fibrinous lobar pneumonia or catarrhal bronchopneumonia. Samples of serum from 145 chamois collected from hunted animals and carcases were tested by a virus neutralisation test against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1 and parainfluenzavirus type 3. Positive results were detected only for BRSV. The area was divided into two subunits on the basis of the distribution of deaths; in the areas where fatalities were observed there was a significant increase of BRSV titres at the beginning of the outbreak. Furthermore, during the 2000 and 2001 hunting seasons antibody titres to BRSV were significantly higher in the areas where mortality occurred. The roe deer living in the same area were not affected by pneumonia and had a low prevalence of titres to BRSV which did not vary during the period of the study.

  10. Geographic distribution of white-tailed deer with ticks and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in Connecticut.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L. A.; Anderson, J. F.; Cartter, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    Ticks and blood specimens were collected from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Connecticut and analyzed to identify foci for Lyme borreliosis. Males and females of Ixodes scapularis, the chief vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, were collected from deer in five of eight counties during 1989-1991. Analysis by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) staining of midgut tissues showed that prevalence of infection was highest (9.5% of 367 ticks) in south central and southeastern Connecticut. Infected I. scapularis also were collected from southwestern regions of the state (12.1% of 99 ticks), but prevalence of infection in northern counties was considerably lower (0.8% of 124 ticks). Deer sera, obtained in 1980 and 1989-1991, were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or by IFA staining methods. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi were detect